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Sample records for plays multiple roles

  1. Steroidogenic factor 1 plays multiple roles in endocrine development and function.

    PubMed

    Wong, M; Ikeda, Y; Luo, X; Caron, K M; Weber, T J; Swain, A; Schimmer, B P; Parker, K L

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor family comprises a group of structurally related transcriptional regulators that mediate the actions of diverse ligands, including steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, and retinoids. The nuclear receptor family also contains members for which activating ligands have not been identified-the orphan nuclear receptors. One of these orphan nuclear receptors, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), has emerged as an essential regulator of steroidogenic cell function within the adrenal cortex and gonads; SF-1 also plays important roles in reproduction at all three levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. First identified as a tissue-specific regulator of the transcription of the cytochrome P450 steroid hydroxylases, considerably broader roles for SF-1 were revealed by genetic studies in mice lacking SF-1 due to targeted gene disruption. These SF-1-knockout mice had agenesis of their adrenal glands and gonads, male-to-female sex reversal of their internal and external genitalia, impaired gonadotrope function, and agenesis of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. These studies delineated essential roles of SF-1 in regulating endocrine differentiation and function at multiple levels. Despite these insights into roles of SF-1, the precise mechanisms by which SF-1 exerts its multiple effects remain to be determined. This review highlights experiments that have established SF-1 as a pivotal determinant of endocrine differentiation and function and identifies areas in which additional studies are needed to expand our understanding of SF-1 action.

  2. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  3. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  4. ARGININE DEIMINASE PLAYS MULTIPLE REGULATORY ROLES IN THE BIOLOGY OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    PubMed Central

    Touz, Maria Carolina; Ropolo, Andrea Silvana; Rivero, Maria Romina; Vranych, Cecilia Veronica; Conrad, John Thomas; Svard, Staffan Gunnar; Nash, Theodore Elliot

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes arginine deiminase (gADI) to produce energy from free L-arginine under anaerobic conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that in addition to its known role as a metabolic enzyme, it also functions as a pepidtyl-arginine deiminase converting protein-bound arginine into citrulline. gADI specifically binds to and citrullinates the arginine in the conserved CRGKA tail of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) affecting both antigenic switching and antibody mediated cell death. During encystation gADI translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and appear to play a regulatory role in the expression of encystation specific genes. gADI is also sumoylated, which may modulate its activity. Our findings reveal a dual role played by gADI and define novel regulatory pathways used by Giardia for survival. PMID:18697833

  5. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study. PMID:27156380

  6. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  7. Exploring the Behavioral Patterns of Learners in an Educational Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular among students. Educational MMORPGs, however, are very rare, as are studies on gamers' behavioral patterns during such games. The current study is an empirical observation and analysis of the behavioral patterns of 100 gamers participating in an educational MMORPG called…

  8. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madlung, A.; Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.

  10. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  11. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-12-05

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP}) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP} could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.

  12. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Li, Zhaofei; Wu, Wenbi; Li, Lingling; Yuan, Meijin; Pan, Lijing; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2008-12-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc(ac53KO-PH-GFP)) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc(ac53KO-PH-GFP) could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.

  13. Sox9 plays multiple roles in the lung epithelium during branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rockich, Briana E.; Hrycaj, Steven M.; Shih, Hung Ping; Nagy, Melinda S.; Ferguson, Michael A. H.; Kopp, Janel L.; Sander, Maike; Wellik, Deneen M.; Spence, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process that gives rise to the complex network of gas-exchanging units in the adult lung. Intricate regulation of signaling pathways, transcription factors, and epithelial–mesenchymal cross-talk are critical to ensuring branching morphogenesis occurs properly. Here, we describe a role for the transcription factor Sox9 during lung branch-ing morphogenesis. Sox9 is expressed at the distal tips of the branching epithelium in a highly dynamic manner as branching occurs and is down-regulated starting at embryonic day 16.5, concurrent with the onset of terminal differentiation of type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells. Using epithelial-specific genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches, our results demonstrate that Sox9 controls multiple aspects of lung branching. Fine regulation of Sox9 levels is required to balance proliferation and differentiation of epithelial tip progenitor cells, and loss of Sox9 leads to direct and indirect cellular defects including extracellular matrix defects, cytoskeletal disorganization, and aberrant epithelial movement. Our evidence shows that unlike other endoderm-derived epithelial tissues, such as the intestine, Wnt/β-catenin signaling does not regulate Sox9 expression in the lung. We conclude that Sox9 collectively promotes proper branching morphogenesis by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation and regulating the extracellular matrix. PMID:24191021

  14. LAMMER Kinase LkhA Plays Multiple Roles in the Vegetative Growth and Asexual and Sexual Development of Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-ae; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Park, Hee-Moon

    2013-01-01

    LAMMER kinase plays pivotal roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotes; however, its function in filamentous fungi is not known. We performed molecular studies on the function of the Aspergillus nidulans LAMMER kinase, LkhA, and report its involvement in multiple developmental processes. The gene for LkhA was highly expressed during reproductive organ development, such as that of conidiophores and cleistothecia. During vegetative growth, the patterns of germ tube emergence and hyphal polarity were changed and septation was increased by lkhA deletion. Northern analyses showed that lkhA regulated the transcription of brlA, csnD, and ppoA, which supported the detrimental effect of lkhA-deletion on asexual and sexual differentiation. LkhA also affected expression of cyclin-dependent kinase NimXcdc2, a multiple cell cycle regulator, and StuA, an APSES family of fungal transcription factors that play pivotal roles in multiple differentiation processes. Here, for the first time, we present molecular evidence showing that LAMMER kinase is involved in A. nidulans development by modulating the expression of key regulators of developmental processes. PMID:23516554

  15. The Arabidopsis thaliana Homolog of the Helicase RTEL1 Plays Multiple Roles in Preserving Genome Stability[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Recker, Julia; Knoll, Alexander; Puchta, Holger

    2014-01-01

    In humans, mutations in the DNA helicase Regulator of Telomere Elongation Helicase1 (RTEL1) lead to Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, a severe, multisystem disorder. Here, we demonstrate that the RTEL1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana plays multiple roles in preserving genome stability. RTEL1 suppresses homologous recombination in a pathway parallel to that of the DNA translocase FANCM. Cytological analyses of root meristems indicate that RTEL1 is involved in processing DNA replication intermediates independently from FANCM and the nuclease MUS81. Moreover, RTEL1 is involved in interstrand and intrastrand DNA cross-link repair independently from FANCM and (in intrastrand cross-link repair) parallel to MUS81. RTEL1 contributes to telomere homeostasis; the concurrent loss of RTEL1 and the telomerase TERT leads to rapid, severe telomere shortening, which occurs much more rapidly than it does in the single-mutant line tert, resulting in developmental arrest after four generations. The double mutant rtel1-1 recq4A-4 exhibits massive growth defects, indicating that this RecQ family helicase, which is also involved in the suppression of homologous recombination and the repair of DNA lesions, can partially replace RTEL1 in the processing of DNA intermediates. The requirement for RTEL1 in multiple pathways to preserve genome stability in plants can be explained by its putative role in the destabilization of DNA loop structures, such as D-loops and T-loops. PMID:25516598

  16. The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

  17. The Drosophila pumilio gene encodes two functional protein isoforms that play multiple roles in germline development, gonadogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, M; Lin, H

    1999-01-01

    The pumilio (pum) gene plays an essential role in embryonic patterning and germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance during oogenesis in Drosophila. Here we report on a phenotypic analysis using pum(ovarette) mutations, which reveals multiple functions of pum in primordial germ cell proliferation, larval ovary formation, GSC division, and subsequent oogenic processes, as well as in oviposition. Specifically, by inducing pum(-) GSC clones at the onset of oogenesis, we show that pum is directly involved in GSC division, a function that is distinct from its requirement in primordial germ cells. Furthermore, we show that pum encodes 156- and 130-kD proteins, both of which are functional isoforms. Among pum(ovarette) mutations, pum(1688) specifically eliminates the 156-kD isoform but not the 130-kD isoform, while pum(2003) and pum(4277) specifically affect the 130-kD isoform but not the 156-kD isoform. Normal doses of both isoforms are required for the zygotic function of pum, yet either isoform alone at a normal dose is sufficient for the maternal effect function of pum. A pum cDNA transgene that contains the known open reading frame encodes only the 156-kD isoform and rescues the phenotype of both pum(1688) and pum(2003) mutants. These observations suggest that the 156- and 130-kD isoforms can compensate for each other's function in a dosage-dependent manner. Finally, we present molecular evidence suggesting that the two PUM isoforms share some of their primary structures. PMID:10471709

  18. RNA Silencing May Play a Role in but Is Not the Only Determinant of the Multiplicity of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Donaire, Livia; Burgyán, József

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The multiplicity of infection (MOI), i.e., the number of viral genomes that infect a cell, is an important parameter in virus evolution, which for each virus and environment may have an optimum value that maximizes virus fitness. Thus, the MOI might be controlled by virus functions, an underexplored hypothesis in eukaryote-infecting viruses. To analyze if the MOI is controlled by virus functions, we estimated the MOI in plants coinfected by two genetic variants of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV); by TBSV and a TBSV-derived defective interfering RNA (DI-RNA); or by TBSV and a second tombusvirus, Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV). The MOI was significantly larger in TBSV-CymRSV coinfections (∼4.0) than in TBSV-TBSV or TBSV–DI-RNA coinfections (∼1.7 to 2.2). Coinfections by CymRSV or TBSV with chimeras in which an open reading frame (ORF) of one virus species was replaced by that of the other identified a role of viral proteins in determining the MOI, which ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 depending on the coinfecting genotypes. However, no virus-encoded protein or genomic region was the sole MOI determinant. Coinfections by CymRSV and TBSV mutants in which the expression of the gene-silencing suppressor protein p19 was abolished also showed a possible role of gene silencing in MOI determination. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the MOI is a quantitative trait showing continuous variation and that as such it has a complex determination involving different virus-encoded functions. IMPORTANCE The number of viral genomes infecting a cell, or the multiplicity of infection (MOI), is an important parameter in virus evolution affecting recombination rates, selection intensity on viral genes, evolution of multipartite genomes, or hyperparasitism by satellites or defective interfering particles. For each virus and environment, the MOI may have an optimum value that maximizes virus fitness, but little is known about MOI control in eukaryote-infecting viruses

  19. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  20. Transparent testa16 plays multiple roles in plant development and is involved in lipid synthesis and embryo development in canola.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Chen, Guanqun; Peng, Fred; Truksa, Martin; Snyder, Crystal L; Weselake, Randall J

    2012-10-01

    Transparent Testa16 (TT16), a transcript regulator belonging to the B(sister) MADS box proteins, regulates proper endothelial differentiation and proanthocyanidin accumulation in the seed coat. Our understanding of its other physiological roles, however, is limited. In this study, the physiological and developmental roles of TT16 in an important oil crop, canola (Brassica napus), were dissected by a loss-of-function approach. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of tt16 in canola caused dwarf phenotypes with a decrease in the number of inflorescences, flowers, siliques, and seeds. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that tt16 deficiency affects pollen tube guidance, resulting in reduced fertility and negatively impacting embryo and seed development. Moreover, Bntt16 RNAi plants had reduced oil content and altered fatty acid composition. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the seeds of the RNAi plants had fewer oil bodies than the nontransgenic plants. In addition, tt16 RNAi transgenic lines were more sensitive to auxin. Further analysis by microarray showed that tt16 down-regulation alters the expression of genes involved in gynoecium and embryo development, lipid metabolism, auxin transport, and signal transduction. The broad regulatory function of TT16 at the transcriptional level may explain the altered phenotypes observed in the transgenic lines. Overall, the results uncovered important biological roles of TT16 in plant development, especially in fatty acid synthesis and embryo development. PMID:22846192

  1. HyPRP1 Gene Suppressed by Multiple Stresses Plays a Negative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Luo, Zhidan; Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Sima, Wei; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Many hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, but little is known about their roles other than as putative cell-wall structural proteins. A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous microarray experiments on drought-tolerant tomato. In this study, the expression of the HyPRP1 gene in tomato was suppressed under various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, cold, heat, and oxidative stress. Transgenic functional analysis showed no obvious changes in phenotypes, but enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses (e.g., oxidative stress, dehydration, and salinity) was observed in RNAi transgenic plants. Interestingly, several SO2 detoxification-related enzymes, including sulfite oxidase, ferredoxins (Fds), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid screening. More sulfates and transcripts of Msr A and Fds were accumulated in HyPRP1 knockdown lines when wild-type plants were exposed to SO2 gas. Our findings illustrate that the tomato HyPRP1 is a negative regulator of salt and oxidative stresses and is probably involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:27446190

  2. HyPRP1 Gene Suppressed by Multiple Stresses Plays a Negative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Luo, Zhidan; Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Sima, Wei; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Many hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, but little is known about their roles other than as putative cell-wall structural proteins. A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous microarray experiments on drought-tolerant tomato. In this study, the expression of the HyPRP1 gene in tomato was suppressed under various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, cold, heat, and oxidative stress. Transgenic functional analysis showed no obvious changes in phenotypes, but enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses (e.g., oxidative stress, dehydration, and salinity) was observed in RNAi transgenic plants. Interestingly, several SO2 detoxification-related enzymes, including sulfite oxidase, ferredoxins (Fds), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid screening. More sulfates and transcripts of Msr A and Fds were accumulated in HyPRP1 knockdown lines when wild-type plants were exposed to SO2 gas. Our findings illustrate that the tomato HyPRP1 is a negative regulator of salt and oxidative stresses and is probably involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:27446190

  3. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response

    PubMed Central

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects. PMID:23847483

  4. Examining the Role Played by Meteorological Ensemble Forecasts, Ensemble Kalman Filter Streamflow Assimilation, and Multiple Hydrological Models within a Prediction System Accounting for Three Sources of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, F.; Thiboult, A.; Boucher, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Building a hydrological ensemble prediction system (H-EPS) from an operational deterministic one may look like an easy task. Indeed, one has only to issue many forecasts at each time step instead of a single one. The problem gets much more complicated when that same person seeks the predictive distribution to be interpretable (reliable). This presentation examine the role played by meteorological ensemble forecasts (meteorological uncertainty), Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) streamflow assimilation (initial conditions uncertainty), and multiple hydrological models (structural uncertainty), combined in a nearly reliable H-EPS. The EnKF is shown to contribute largely to the ensemble accuracy and dispersion, indicating that the initial condition uncertainty is dominant. However, it fails to maintain the required dispersion throughout the entire forecast horizon and needs to be supported by a multimodel approach to take into account structural uncertainty. Moreover, the multimodel approach contributes to improve the general forecasting performance and prevents from falling into the model selection pitfall since models differ strongly in their ability. Finally, the use of probabilistic meteorological forcing was found to contribute mostly to long lead time reliability. The H-EPS was implemented on 38 catchments (Québec, Canada) characterized by a dominant spring freshet and tested for 9-day ahead forecasts over a 2-year period. Twenty lumped hydrological models, chosen for their structural and conceptual diversity, were available to the project as well as ECMWF probabilistic meteorological weather forecasts.

  5. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25589035

  6. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  7. Role Playing as a Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabral, Rebecca J.

    1987-01-01

    Supports role playing as an effective intervention technique that has been broadly adapted for academic research and applied settings. Presents a classification scheme for organizing these diverse role-playing uses, in terms of intraindividual and intact group change. Suggests that research and implementation of role playing would be best served…

  8. The Arabidopsis NMD Factor UPF3 Is Feedback-Regulated at Multiple Levels and Plays a Role in Plant Response to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vexler, Karina; Cymerman, Miryam A.; Berezin, Irina; Fridman, Adi; Golani, Linoy; Lasnoy, Michal; Saul, Helen; Shaul, Orit

    2016-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic RNA surveillance mechanism that degrades aberrant transcripts and controls the levels of many normal mRNAs. It was shown that balanced expression of the NMD factor UPF3 is essential for the maintenance of proper NMD homeostasis in Arabidopsis. UPF3 expression is controlled by a negative feedback loop that exposes UPF3 transcript to NMD. It was shown that the long 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of UPF3 exposes its transcript to NMD. Long 3′ UTRs that subject their transcripts to NMD were identified in several eukaryotic NMD factors. Interestingly, we show here that a construct that contains all the regulatory regions of the UPF3 gene except this long 3′ UTR is also feedback-regulated by NMD. This indicates that UPF3 expression is feedback-regulated at multiple levels. UPF3 is constitutively expressed in different plant tissues, and its expression is equal in leaves of plants of different ages. This finding is in agreement with the possibility that UPF3 is ubiquitously operative in the Arabidopsis NMD pathway. Expression mediated by the regulatory regions of UPF3 is significantly induced by salt stress. We found that both a deficiency and a strong excess of UPF3 expression are detrimental to plant resistance to salt stress. This indicates that UPF3 plays a role in plant response to salt stress, and that balanced expression of the UPF3 gene is essential for coping with this stress. PMID:27746786

  9. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  10. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  11. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  12. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  13. Role-Playing Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert

    This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…

  14. Role-Play in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Hana

    1985-01-01

    Describes practical conclusion of a study carried out in Israel which investigated the potential effects of role play on communicative competence, motivation and underachieving foreign language learners. The discussion focuses on a suggested procedure, prerequisites and limitations, the positive effects of role play, and its educational value and…

  15. Auxin Response Gene SlARF3 Plays Multiple Roles in Tomato Development and is Involved in the Formation of Epidermal Cells and Trichomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yan, Fang; Tang, Yuwei; Yuan, Yujin; Deng, Wei; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-11-01

    The auxin response factor (ARF) genes encode a large family of proteins involved in auxin signaling transduction. SlARF3, a member of the ARF gene family, encodes a protein containing two conserved domains, B3 and ARF, and lacking an Aux/IAA domain. Expression analysis showed that SlARF3 has a particularly high expression level in trichomes. In situ hybridization also detected the SlARF3 transcripts in epidermal pavement cells of leaves. The physiological function of SlARF3 was studied by using the RNA interference (RNAi) strategy. SlARF3-down-regulated plants exhibited decreased density of epidermal pavement cells and obviously reduced density of type I, V and VI trichomes of leaves, which indicates the important role of SlARF3 in the formation of trichomes and epidermal cells in tomato. The number of shoot xylem cells was also decreased in SlARF3-down-regulated lines. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis identified 51 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) belonging to 14 transcription factor (TF) families, such as MYB, bHLH, WD40 and C2H2 zinc finger. Twenty-seven DEGs were involved in the metabolism and signaling transduction of phytohormones, such as auxin, ethylene and gibberellin. These results indicated the important roles of the TFs and hormones in auxin-dependent transcriptional regulation of trichome formation in tomato. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SlARF3 plays an important role in the formation of epidermal cells and trichomes and reveal novel and specific functions for ARFs in tomato developmental processes. PMID:26412778

  16. What role does structural inheritance play in controlling the geometry of rifted basins during multiple phases of extension? A case study from the Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazli Khani, H.; Fossen, H.; Gawthorpe, R.; Faleide, J. I.; Bell, R. E.; Rotevatn, A.; Jackson, C. A. L.

    2015-12-01

    In multiphase rift systems pre-existing crustal structures, which typically lie within crystalline basement, may influence the nucleation, growth and linkage of overlying normal faults. However, our understanding of the physical and kinematic linkage between basement and cover structures is limited, since deep structures are commonly poorly imaged in seismic reflection data. The North Sea Rift is an ideal natural laboratory to study the role of structural inheritance on the geometry of rifts, having undergone multiple phases of contractional (Ordovician-Devonian) and extensional (Devonian, Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) deformation. In this study we constrain the influence of pre-existing crustal structures on the evolution of Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous normal fault systems. To achieve this we utilize 2D and 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the Northern North Sea, covering the eastern margin of North Viking Graben. We show that pre-existing basement structures control the first-order rift geometry, including the location and the strike of the main Permian-Triassic bounding faults and intrabasement highs. In detail, however, the link is more complex, with some Permian-Triassic rift-related normal faults seemingly unrelated in terms of location or strike to intrabasement structures. Similar complexity is observed between Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous rift related faults. We show that the importance of pre-existing structures on rift geometry decreases over time, with these structures having a major influence on the geometry of Permian-Triassic rift basin, but a more subdued influence on the Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous rift.

  17. Simulating Intercultural Communication through Role-Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Edward C.; And Others

    This report describes the design and development of training to increase cultural awareness. Significant aspects of intercultural interaction were simulated in a series of role playing exercises. Typical American values and assumptions were demonstrably elicited from a trainee as he interacted with a "foreign" auxiliary. The auxiliary was trained…

  18. Role Playing: Rehearsal for Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lee

    1970-01-01

    Argues that in teaching standard English to groups which, like Eskimos and speakers of Hawaiian Pidgin, are quite removed from mainstream American culture, role playing, as natural human behavior, can provide the bridge between classroom drill and real-life utilization of new language patterns. (FB)

  19. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through students'…

  20. A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricklin, Barry

    1975-01-01

    Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

  1. Role Play and Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Christina

    Classroom use of role-playing in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction in Japan is described. The purpose is to improve students' verbal and nonverbal communication skills and to link and use previously built schema, in both structured and improvised situations. Units designed around a short listening passage, a short reading passage, and…

  2. Using Online Role Play to Teach Internet Safety Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, J. M.; Oades, C. E.; Morris, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of Net-Detectives, a creative online role play activity aimed at 9-12 year olds. Net-Detectives forms part of Kidsmart, an Internet awareness programme aimed at school children. It was evaluated through a multiple method data collection using questionnaire surveys, follow up telephone interviews with teachers…

  3. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  4. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    PubMed

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  5. Dramatic Playing beyond the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guss, Faith Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    Related to aspects of drama and theatre education, I search beyond the findings about symbolic play set forth by Dr Howard Gardner in "Frames of mind. The theory of multiple intelligences". Despite the inspiration for and solidarity with arts educators that emanate from his theory, I sensed that it did not provide a full picture of the complex…

  6. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  7. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  8. Use of dyadic role-playing to increase student participation.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Glenda; Baldwin, Joan H

    2002-01-01

    Dyadic role-playing is a way to combine role-playing and dyad work in class to increase student participation. The instructor can use warm-up exercises to help students reduce their stress, and to recognize the value of role-playing in their journeys toward becoming professional nurses. The advantages, limitations, and practical considerations regarding dyadic role-playing are also highlighted.

  9. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  10. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  11. From Text to Context: Spontaneous Group Role Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinelli, Patti

    A familiar and effective way to provide classroom practice of foreign language skills in a meaningful context is role-playing. One variation, spontaneous group role-playing, offers a bridge between textbook dialogues and real-world dialogues. Especially appropriate for beginning and intermediate students, simultaneous group role-playing is a…

  12. Five Roles I Play in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Scot

    2005-01-01

    Scot Headley outlines five roles that online instructors can use to increase the sense of community and depth of learning in their courses; they are space planner, pacesetter, host, connector, and mirror. These roles underscore the importance of strong relationships between teacher and student, particularly in an online setting. Headley provides…

  13. Rethinking Role Play in the Reception Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sue; Evans, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: In 2000 the so-called "Reception" class was re-conceived (in curricular terms, at least) as the second and final year of the Foundation Stage, a distinctive educational phase for children aged 3 until entry to key stage 1 at 5 or 6 years old. The "Curriculum guidance for the Foundation Stage" endorses a play-based, informal curriculum…

  14. Reality and Second-Language Role-Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David; Piper, Terry

    1983-01-01

    Although role playing is a well-established and useful method of second language instruction, its success is often undermined by assignment of roles alien to the students' needs and experience. Redefinition of role playing to include the roles an individual assumes in everyday life will help the teacher plan more appropriate activities. (MSE)

  15. Role-playing for more realistic technical skills training.

    PubMed

    Nikendei, C; Zeuch, A; Dieckmann, P; Roth, C; Schäfer, S; Völkl, M; Schellberg, D; Herzog, W; Jünger, J

    2005-03-01

    Clinical skills are an important and necessary part of clinical competence. Simulation plays an important role in many fields of medical education. Although role-playing is common in communication training, there are no reports about the use of student role-plays in the training of technical clinical skills. This article describes an educational intervention with analysis of pre- and post-intervention self-selected student survey evaluations. After one term of skills training, a thorough evaluation showed that the skills-lab training did not seem very realistic nor was it very demanding for trainees. To create a more realistic training situation and to enhance students' involvement, case studies and role-plays with defined roles for students (i.e. intern, senior consultant) were introduced into half of the sessions. Results of the evaluation in the second term showed that sessions with role-playing were rated significantly higher than sessions without role-playing.

  16. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    PubMed

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible.

  17. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    PubMed

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible. PMID:25725575

  18. Online Role-Play Environments for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carol; Shepherd, John

    2010-01-01

    As online environments and tools have evolved over the last 15-20 years, their use for role-based learning has expanded. This analysis draws on work for an Australian project that has been sharing and developing knowledge about the use of online role-plays in higher education. We describe the learning needs that online role-play can meet, and give…

  19. A Role Play for Revising Style and Applying Management Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Role-playing is a well regarded learning activity. By participating in this activity, students can apply their knowledge through their assigned roles in a realistic but risk-free situation. The role play stimulates class discussion, dramatizes rhetorical principles about purpose, shows how to adapt a text to an audience of employees in a…

  20. The Multiple Roles of Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sabrina R.; Roegman, Rachel; Goodwin, A. Lin

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC) is an 18-month program that prepares teachers for high-needs schools in New York City in two areas: teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching students with disabilities. Student teachers, called residents, spend a year working with a mentor teacher. Mentors play three roles:…

  1. The role-playing: the art to catch the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Lanza, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    We present some interactive, immersive, authentic role-plays simulation designed to teach to different public: tertiary, secondary and primary students and an experience with a teachers group, after April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake. We will discuss about the basics of the role-play and its applications to the geosciences in outreach projects. Role-play is a powerful method to educate to risk mitigation with particular we will discuss our experience regarding seismic risk. Finally, we will present some data on the effectiveness of the role-play in different settings in which we used it.

  2. Heterosynaptic Plasticity: Multiple Mechanisms and Multiple Roles

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakova, Marina; Bannon, Nicholas M.; Bazhenov, Maxim; Volgushev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity is a universal property of synapses. It is expressed in a variety of forms mediated by a multitude of mechanisms. Here we consider two broad kinds of plasticity that differ in their requirement for presynaptic activity during the induction. Homosynaptic plasticity occurs at synapses that were active during the induction. It is also called input specific or associative, and it is governed by Hebbian-type learning rules. Heterosynaptic plasticity can be induced by episodes of strong postsynaptic activity also at synapses that were not active during the induction, thus making any synapse at a cell a target to heterosynaptic changes. Both forms can be induced by typical protocols used for plasticity induction and operate on the same time scales but have differential computational properties and play different roles in learning systems. Homosynaptic plasticity mediates associative modifications of synaptic weights. Heterosynaptic plasticity counteracts runaway dynamics introduced by Hebbian-type rules and balances synaptic changes. It provides learning systems with stability and enhances synaptic competition. We conclude that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic plasticity represent complementary properties of modifiable synapses, and both are necessary for normal operation of neural systems with plastic synapses. PMID:24727248

  3. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  4. The Role of Pretend Play in Children's Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris

    2002-01-01

    Noting that there is a growing body of evidence supporting the many connections between cognitive competence and high-quality pretend play, this article defines the cluster of concepts related to pretend play and cognition, and briefly synthesizes the latest research on the role of such play in children's cognitive, social, and academic…

  5. Role Voicing, Gender, and Age in Preschool Play Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, R. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes play discourse participation frameworks in groups of different gender and age compositions, focusing on different ways that children "voice" a pretend play role. Uses a preschool classroom for an observational study. Finds significant differences in voicing used by older and younger play groups. Discusses results with respect to the…

  6. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  7. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was analyzed and…

  8. The Use of Role Play To Teach Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Nancy; Shaver, Lisa

    Role play (a dramatic technique in which individuals improvise behaviors that illustrate acts expected of persons involved in defined situations) has several advantages for the classroom. Role play: (1) involves little or no additional instructional costs; (2) allows students to practice behaviors and skills; (3) closes the gap between training…

  9. Building Intelligent Concern for Others Through Role-Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaftel, Fannie R.; Shaftel, George

    This booklet on the educational techniques of role playing describes a method designed to help children become decision-makers by providing a life-related way to help them learn to solve problems between people. Part 1 describes the role-playing method in which children act out the ending of an unfinished "problem story" which stops with a dilemma…

  10. Role-Playing for Inhibited Students in Paternal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saadat, Abdullah I.; Afifi, Elhami A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights classroom role playing in Saudi Arabian classrooms as a psychological aid that fosters self-confidence in inhibited, timid, hesitant, and passive students and relieves them of their paternal communicative limitations. Proposes an overall strategy for role-playing as an effective communicative activity that teachers can exploit to help…

  11. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  12. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  13. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  14. Master's Students' Experiences in a Multicultural Counseling Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapisarda, Clarrice; Jencius, Marty; McGlothlin, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of master's students in regard to their participation in a multicultural role-play and review process (Jencius "et al." 2004). Whereas the literature has supported the use of role-plays as a multicultural training technique (Alvarez and Miville 2003; Vazquez and Garcia-Vazquez 2003), there is a distinct lack of…

  15. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a…

  16. Blended Learning Using Role-Plays, Wikis and Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruyters, Michele; Douglas, Kathy; Law, Siew Fang

    2011-01-01

    Student learning about legal skills in legal education is increasingly seen as important. These legal skills include advocacy and negotiation. These skills are often taught through role-play. This article discusses the combination of role-plays with online tools, including wikis and blogs, to assist students to master legal skills. The article…

  17. Role playing: applications in hostage and crisis negotiation skills training.

    PubMed

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B; Romano, Stephen J; Vecchi, Gregory M

    2008-03-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to resolve high-risk and often volatile situations in a peaceful, nonviolent manner when possible. The purpose of this paper is to (a) describe development and validation of a role-play test specifically geared toward law enforcement negotiators, (b) present different role-play formats that have been incorporated in law enforcement negotiation training, and (c) discuss limitations and considerations in use of these instruments. Suggestions for directions that future efforts in this area might take are offered. The heuristic value of role playing in crisis management, counterterrorism, and emergency and mass casualty disaster training exercises is also underscored.

  18. The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in Children's Play. Early Childhood Education Series. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    Responding to current debates on the place of play in schools, the authors have extensively revised their groundbreaking book. They explain how and why play is a critical part of children's development, as well as the central role adults have to promote it. This classic textbook and popular practitioner resource offers systematic descriptions and…

  19. Grammar J, as in Jazzing Around: The Roles "Play" Plays in Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Hans

    This paper asks what role "play" plays in writing and how it can help a writer, whatever dread, boredom, skill, or ethnicity he/she brings to writing. Some of the ideas in the paper come from Africa, courtesy of Robert Farris Thompson. In his "philosophy of discourse" discussed in the paper, Thompson speaks of the "big picture," a culture's deep…

  20. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  1. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    PubMed

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  2. Effects of Videotaped Role Playing on Nurses' Therapeutic Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kay F.; Kroth, Jerome A.

    1976-01-01

    Research determining the effectiveness of videotape recorded (VTR) role playing as a teaching technique was conducted on nurses attending continuing education classes in verbal and nonverbal therapeutic communication skills. VTR appears to be an effective technique. (LH)

  3. What Role Does Obstetrical Care Play in Childbirth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What role does obstetrical care play in childbirth? Skip sharing on ... has ruptured (the woman’s water breaks), but labor does not start within 24 to 48 hours When ...

  4. Factors influencing player preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Kao, Ching-Han; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2007-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate whether player personality or social cognition influence preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games (RPG). In Study 1, 149 teenager subjects were categorized into five groups according to the Guilford Personality Inventory. Heroes were clustered into three types based on their attributes. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that each personality group did not display distinctive preference for any particular heroic type. However, of the three heroic types teenagers most strongly preferred, Justice Warrior was followed, in order of preference, by Visionary Leader and Saint. In Study 2, the influence of three player social cognition factors (similarity, proximity, and familiarity) on player preference for heroic roles was studied. Multiple regression analysis results indicated that similarity and familiarity predicted player preferences for heroic roles.

  5. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  6. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  7. Diversity of Aspects on Play in Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Research on the meaning of play accelerated in the 1980s, but play in children with profound multiple disabilities is a topic, that is not discussed very often in research. In this article, play in children with profound multiple disabilities is in focus. The aim is to highlight studies on play as a tool for learning and early stimulation, and for…

  8. Play and Literacy in Early Childhood: Research from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Christie, James F., Ed.

    Noting that an examination of play from diverse perspectives deepens understanding and opens up new avenues for research and educational practice, this book brings together studies, research syntheses, and critical commentaries that examine play-literacy relationships from cognitive, ecological, and cultural perspectives. Each set of chapters is…

  9. The Role of Play in Children's Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-10-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child's right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increase proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child's psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play.

  10. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-01-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increases proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play. PMID:27417481

  11. Role Play in Nutrition Education for the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach, Ellen S.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    The Curry and Arnaud model for role playing is described and discussed as it relates to nutrition education for young children. The components of the model are: (1) developing the role, (2) using thematic content, (3) displaying feelings (in socially acceptable ways), (4) distinguishing between reality and fantasy, and (5) forming interpersonal…

  12. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  13. "Free Vote": Role-Playing Parliament in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lynn

    1977-01-01

    A Canadian political role-playing sequence helps secondary students understand the workings of Parliament and clarify their own values. The issue under debate is abolition or retention of capital punishment. Article describes rationale, teacher's instructions, roles, related legislature, rules of Parliamentary debate, public opinion polls, news…

  14. Role Playing: Uses and Abuses in Teaching Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Jerry

    Teaching sociology through role playing involves students in acting out roles learned in the socialization process. The content of the game is the simulation of an area of social reality, either simple or complex. Participation in this activity presents students with alternative world views, develops problem solving and behavioral skills, and…

  15. Empathic Features and Absorption in Fantasy Role-Playing.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).

  16. (Role) Playing Politics in an Environmental Chemistry Lecture Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, A. Meredith; Higgins, Daniel A.

    2007-02-01

    Mock congressional hearings are described as an active learning, role-playing activity for the environmental chemistry lecture course. Each student plays dual roles in this activity, alternately serving as a witness and committee member on hearing topics selected by the class. As witnesses, the students assume the roles of scientists, politicians, industrial representatives, and environmental group representatives and present both written and oral arguments for or against a particular issue. At other times, they play the role of congressional committee members and question the witnesses. Hearings are held on topics related to renewable and nonrenewable energy; hazardous waste; water, soil, and air pollution; water quality; and genetic engineering. This activity greatly enriches the educational experience for the students by allowing them to become actively engaged in learning and debating specific issues related to course materials.

  17. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Gordon L.; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi’s procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were “The Experience of Being Bullied”, “Implementation of the Program”, “Desired Outcome of the Program”, and “Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession”. Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential. PMID:26504502

  18. Role-Playing in Analytical Chemistry: The Alumni Speak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Paul T.; Walters, John P.

    2000-08-01

    Cooperative learning constructs take a variety of forms. Over the last 15 years, one such pedagogical structure, role-playing, has been used in the analytical chemistry curriculum at St. Olaf College. A long-term assessment of this teaching method was conducted through use of a survey distributed to alumni graduating between 1987 and 1997. The graduates overwhelmingly indicated that the use of role-playing had a positive impact on their careers as well as their lives. Furthermore, many non-achievement learning outcomes attributed to cooperative learning experiences were reinforced through the survey response. Role-playing created an effective environment in which to develop communication and collaborative skills in addition to the technical skills that are essential to analytical chemistry. These results support continued evolutionary development of this teaching method.

  19. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class.

  20. Patient care simulations: role playing to enhance clinical understanding.

    PubMed

    Comer, Shirley K

    2005-01-01

    Role-play techniques can serve as an effective substitute for, and supplement to, simulation technology when teaching clinical nursing skills. They provide risk-free opportunities to practice clinical skills and develop clinical judgment. A two-phase patient care simulation, performed in real time, is described. Students are presented with a scenario and work cooperatively in role-playing appropriate care, with one student using a prepared script to assume the role of patient. The class functions as a resource for four students who assume the nursing role. Students reported increased understanding of course material as a result of participation in the clinical simulation scenario. Faculty observed a decreased failure rate on the corresponding course examination.

  1. Tim Wirth: playing a leading role. Newsmaker interview.

    PubMed

    Pickett, S

    1995-01-01

    An interview with Timothy Wirth, who has been Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs, is presented. The US played a new role as a partner at several recent UN conferences that focused on a multiplicity of issues that harbinger the 21st century. The 4th World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995 underscored the importance of women as agents of change, confirmed the importance of nongovernmental organizations in affecting global change in governance, and revealed the strength of women's groups in developing countries. The US made some pledges at the 1994 UN Population and Development Conference in Cairo as laid down in the program of action. US financial commitment to population stabilization increased as did the commitment from Japan and other developed countries. Egypt, Indonesia, Tunisia, and Mexico with effective family planning programs are also sharing their experiences with other developing countries. The US has an interest in investing in foreign assistance in view of runaway population growth in countries like Haiti. Haiti's excess population would be heading for Florida. The President's Council on Sustainable Development's task force on population and consumption concluded that the US should commit itself to population stabilization because of the high consumption rate of the average American, the number of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, and the problem of teenage pregnancies. Consumption rather than investment should taxed, subsidies should be removed from the use of natural resources and agriculture, and environmental degradation should be priced properly. Poverty is at the root of economic deprivation and environmental destruction. Micro-enterprises have been successful in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, which experiences could be used by the US as well. The broader empowerment of women could also encourage political change, which, in turn could bring about full access to family planning and support to women and their families.

  2. Tim Wirth: playing a leading role. Newsmaker interview.

    PubMed

    Pickett, S

    1995-01-01

    An interview with Timothy Wirth, who has been Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs, is presented. The US played a new role as a partner at several recent UN conferences that focused on a multiplicity of issues that harbinger the 21st century. The 4th World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995 underscored the importance of women as agents of change, confirmed the importance of nongovernmental organizations in affecting global change in governance, and revealed the strength of women's groups in developing countries. The US made some pledges at the 1994 UN Population and Development Conference in Cairo as laid down in the program of action. US financial commitment to population stabilization increased as did the commitment from Japan and other developed countries. Egypt, Indonesia, Tunisia, and Mexico with effective family planning programs are also sharing their experiences with other developing countries. The US has an interest in investing in foreign assistance in view of runaway population growth in countries like Haiti. Haiti's excess population would be heading for Florida. The President's Council on Sustainable Development's task force on population and consumption concluded that the US should commit itself to population stabilization because of the high consumption rate of the average American, the number of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, and the problem of teenage pregnancies. Consumption rather than investment should taxed, subsidies should be removed from the use of natural resources and agriculture, and environmental degradation should be priced properly. Poverty is at the root of economic deprivation and environmental destruction. Micro-enterprises have been successful in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, which experiences could be used by the US as well. The broader empowerment of women could also encourage political change, which, in turn could bring about full access to family planning and support to women and their families

  3. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  4. The Role Play: More than Make-Believe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martin

    At the University of Akron's Community and Technical College, the major student project for "Principles of Advertising" is the development of ad campaigns for an assigned product. Two groups of students, playing the role of advertising agencies, compete with each other while the remaining students in the class act as the clients. Among the…

  5. A Role Play on Export Decisions and the Exchange Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Explains that the goal of this exercise is to encourage an understanding of the effects of exchange rate changes and the use of forward rates. Provides a role play that involves students working in groups to decide whether to export a consignment of golf trollies to Italy and shortbread to Canada. (BSR)

  6. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  7. Role Playing and Mind Mapping Issues on Nitrate Contamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents mind-mapping and role-playing exercises designed to guide students in the exploration, expression, and integration of varying viewpoints and opinions of a controversial topic (nitrate contamination of water supply); illustrate the importance of applying soil fertility principles to environmental and agronomic management; and encourage…

  8. Try This: Role-Play Party: Talking about Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a stand-alone language-learning activity emphasizing speaking. Specifically, students will participate in role plays to describe occupations and job-related duties. The level of the activity is upper beginner or low intermediate and the time required is 45-60 minutes. The goals are: (1) to ask and answer small-talk questions…

  9. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and recreate the…

  10. Script Recognition, Articulation and Expansion in Children's Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that children's use of social scripts for the production of sustained dialog in peer interaction depends on the nature of role play and that their attempts at script expansion are precursors to adults' recognition of the potential of conversation for self-expression. (FL)

  11. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  12. Confronting Prejudiced Comments: Effectiveness of a Role-Playing Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; McDonough, Tracy A.; Bodle, James H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether a role-playing exercise, similar to that developed by Plous (2000), increases students' ability to generate effective responses to prejudiced comments. We assessed social psychology students' (n = 23) ability to respond to prejudiced comments before and after the exercise, and compared their performance to that of 2 other…

  13. Reusable, Lifelike Virtual Humans for Mentoring and Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    Lifelike, interactive digital characters, serving as mentors and role-playing actors, have been shown to significantly improve learner motivation and retention. However, the cost of modeling such characters, authoring and editing their interactions, and delivering them over limited-bandwidth connections can be prohibitive. This paper describes a…

  14. Elicited Role-Play of Commands and Requests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strage, Amy; And Others

    Children's ability to understand the implied messages in indirect speech was investigated using a role play elicitation task. Subjects were asked to complete story endings using puppets for several scenerios involving a mother and her four children. In each of the stories the mother gives an indirect directive which is supposed to get the children…

  15. Black Blizzard: Designing Role-Play Simulations for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linser, Roni; Ree-Lindstad, Nina; Vold, Tone

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines and analyses some key design issues we encountered in the process of creating an online role-play simulation (RPS) for a course targeting personnel involved in crisis management. Titled "Black Blizzard" the RPS aims to enable an exploration of typical issues and problems that arise in cross and multi-cultural international…

  16. Role Play and Simulation: Returning to Teaching for Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapper, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how simulation and role play can be important learning strategies that will create long-lasting understanding. Simulation involves participating in a very real learning experience that closely resembles an actual setting. These actual settings may be replicated by either employing models or mannequins or in the case of role…

  17. Interdisciplinary Role Play between Social Work and Theater Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching BSW and MSW students beginning interviewing and relationship-building skills is essential in order to prepare them for practice with clients. In social work methods courses, role plays are commonly-used instructional strategies for helping foundation-level students acquire these initial practice skills. Despite the popularity of this…

  18. Exploring the Concept of Sustainable Development through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchs, Arnaud; Blanchard, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is used in everyday life by the general public, alongside researchers, institutions, and private companies. Nevertheless, its definition is far from being unequivocal. Clarifying the outline of the concept seems necessary. We have created a role-play for this purpose. Our article aims at depicting its main…

  19. The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Marjori M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean War is often given a cursory glance, if that, in U.S. foreign relations today. This article provides all the information necessary to conduct a role-play in one class period to help students understand the events of the war. Introductory and follow-up questions are also included to stimulate discussion and to connect the events of a war…

  20. Role-Playing as a Method of Teaching Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Diane H.

    This paper describes how role-playing was used in a French culture and civilization class at Eastern Washington State College. The class was conducted entirely in French, and each class member read the same material for each day. L. Wylie's "Les Francais" was used as the class text, and "Comment vivent les Francais" by Girod and Grand-Clement was…

  1. Role-playing in nursing theory: engaging online students.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Cheryle; Adelman, Deborah S

    2010-04-01

    The teaching and learning of nursing theory, at all program levels, is challenging due to the complexity and abstract nature of its content, the dry nature in which the study of theory often is approached, a perception of disconnect from practice, and faculty discomfort and avoidance of the subject matter. Adapting creative educational strategies to the online environment is an ongoing challenge for educators. Role-play relates well to the constructivist basis of creating personal meaning based on the individual's experiences. This article examines the use of role-play as an educational strategy for teaching nursing theory in an online baccalaureate program. In a core professional issues course, students adopt the persona of a specific nursing theorist, interacting with other "nursing theorists" played by their peers. Student engagement and active learning reflect excitement and interest, and course evaluations have been extremely positive for this content and method.

  2. The art of effectively teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: a primer.

    PubMed

    Barney, Christine; Shea, Shawn Christopher

    2007-06-01

    Time pressure on trainees and supervisors alike places a premium on efficiency in training students to master clinical skills. Through role-playing, a supervisor can create multiple iterations of the desired skill until competence is obtained. The skill training can be advanced in intensity and complexity until the trainer and trainee are confident that the interviewing skill is accessible on demand and that the trainee is comfortable with its use. This article focuses on practical methods of creating believable roles for role-playing and how to use them to teach specific interviewing skills strategically.

  3. May "mitochondrial eve" and mitochondrial haplogroups play a role in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; Simoncini, Costanza; Orsucci, Daniele; Petrucci, Loredana; Filosto, Massimiliano; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2011-02-22

    Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, play a critical role in several metabolic processes and apoptotic pathways. Multiple evidences suggest that mitochondria may be crucial in ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, mitochondrial haplogroups have been linked to multiple area of medicine, from normal ageing to diseases, including neurodegeneration. Polymorphisms within the mitochondrial genome might lead to impaired energy generation and to increased amount of reactive oxygen species, having either susceptibility or protective role in several diseases. Here, we highlight the role of the mitochondrial haplogroups in the pathogenetic cascade leading to diseases, with special attention to Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Language and Play in Students with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairments or Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzo, Lianna; Bruce, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between play and language development in students with multiple disabilities and visual impairments or deaf-blindness. The findings indicate that students with higher levels of communication demonstrate more advanced play skills and that the use of play-based assessment and exposure to symbolic play are…

  5. Modeling infectious diseases dissemination through online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Balicer, Ran D

    2007-03-01

    As mathematical modeling of infectious diseases becomes increasingly important for developing public health policies, a novel platform for such studies might be considered. Millions of people worldwide play interactive online role-playing games, forming complex and rich networks among their virtual characters. An unexpected outbreak of an infective communicable disease (unplanned by the game creators) recently occurred in this virtual world. This outbreak holds surprising similarities to real-world epidemics. It is possible that these virtual environments could serve as a platform for studying the dissemination of infectious diseases, and as a testing ground for novel interventions to control emerging communicable diseases.

  6. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  7. Current Perspectives on Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)

  8. Social interactions in massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers.

    PubMed

    Cole, Helena; Griffiths, Mark D

    2007-08-01

    To date, most research into massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has examined the demographics of play. This study explored the social interactions that occur both within and outside of MMORPGs. The sample consisted of 912 self-selected MMORPG players from 45 countries. MMORPGs were found to be highly socially interactive environments providing the opportunity to create strong friendships and emotional relationships. The study demonstrated that the social interactions in online gaming form a considerable element in the enjoyment of playing. The study showed MMORPGs can be extremely social games, with high percentages of gamers making life-long friends and partners. It was concluded that virtual gaming may allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. MMORPGs also offer a place where teamwork, encouragement, and fun can be experienced.

  9. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  10. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  11. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Paul

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a tendency for students to become overly political. An unexpected benefit of these games is the boost that they give to student self- confidence. Overall, they seem to work well with a wide range of students, ranging from ninth grade to graduate school, and students exposed to this game comment repeatedly on how the games changed their attitudes toward the scientific process.

  12. Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis: Role in Neurotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rohit; Minagar, Alireza; Jaisani, Zeenat; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an ever-expanding role in the evaluation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This includes its sensitivity for the diagnosis of the disease and its role in identifying patients at high risk for conversion to MS after a first presentation with selected clinically isolated syndromes. In addition, MRI is a key tool in providing primary therapeutic outcome measures for phase I/II trials and secondary outcome measures in phase III trials. The utility of MRI stems from its sensitivity to longitudinal changes including those in overt lesions and, with advanced MRI techniques, in areas affected by diffuse occult disease (the so-called normal-appearing brain tissue). However, all current MRI methodology suffers from limited specificity for the underlying histopathology. Conventional MRI techniques, including lesion detection and measurement of atrophy from T1- or T2-weighted images, have been the mainstay for monitoring disease activity in clinical trials, in which the use of gadolinium with T1-weighted images adds additional sensitivity and specificity for areas of acute inflammation. Advanced imaging methods including magnetization transfer, fluid attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional MRI, and nuclear imaging techniques have added to our understanding of the pathogenesis of MS and may provide methods to monitor therapies more sensitively in the future. However, these advanced methods are limited by their cost, availability, complexity, and lack of validation. In this article, we review the role of conventional and advanced imaging techniques with an emphasis on neurotherapeutics. PMID:15897951

  13. Rockin' Role Plays. A Collection of the Finest for Mediation Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara A.; Corley, Sarah V.

    This guide offers suggestions for implementing role plays to teach conflict resolution skills and provides a variety of role plays useful in different settings. It describes how to effectively prepare for role plays, how to implement role play strategies, and how to debrief and provide feedback to role play participants. Potential problems are…

  14. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  15. Roles and Relationships in Student Teaching: A Role-Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Jeewa R.

    This role-play activity is designed for use by teacher educators in a general or content area methods class to help education majors become knowledgeable of role expectations in the student teaching experience and build good interpersonal role relationships. Students conduct library research and interviews concerning role expectations, use the…

  16. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  17. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  18. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology. PMID:22974351

  19. [Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role in extragastric diseases?].

    PubMed

    de Korwin, Jean-Dominique

    2008-03-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), numerous studies have considered the possibility that it plays a role in different extragastric diseases. Most of these studies may be classified as epidemiological studies or investigations of H. pylori eradication, but there are also case reports and in vitro studies. This review reveals the limitations common to most of them. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is the disease for which the strongest association with H. pylori infection has been shown. Data are also accumulating about the role of H. pylori infection in idiopathic iron deficiency anemia and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Interesting results show that H. pylori infection affects atherosclerosis and is weakly associated with ischemic heart disease and stroke. Moreover, CagA-positive H. pylori strains may play a role in the natural history of atherosclerotic stroke. Recent studies suggest a link between H. pylori and Parkinson's disease. Preliminary data indicate that H. pylori infection impairs gastric ghrelin production and may influence nutritional status. The association between H. pylori infection and other extragastric diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection may cause extragastric manifestations directly or indirectly, by various mechanisms including atrophic gastritis, the release of inflammatory mediators, molecular mimicry, and systemic immune response. Evidence suggests that anti-H. pylori therapy improves idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (significant increase of platelet count in half of the cases), iron-deficiency anemia, and chronic urticaria (30% remission rate), but the data from randomized controlled trials are insufficient to confirm these positive effects.

  20. Mediators of Stress and Role Satisfaction in Multiple Role Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Laura A.

    Women involved in multiple life roles comprise a large segment of society, yet little is known about how stressful and satisfying they find this lifestyle, or about what characteristics are related to feeling stressed or satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine role and life satisfaction and stress in women involved in multiple life…

  1. Mitophagy plays a central role in mitochondrial ageing.

    PubMed

    Diot, Alan; Morten, Karl; Poulton, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying ageing have been discussed for decades, and advances in molecular and cell biology of the last three decades have accelerated research in this area. Over this period, it has become clear that mitochondrial function, which plays a major role in many cellular pathways from ATP production to nuclear gene expression and epigenetics alterations, declines with age. The emerging concepts suggest novel mechanisms, involving mtDNA quality, mitochondrial dynamics or mitochondrial quality control. In this review, we discuss the impact of mitochondria in the ageing process, the role of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species production, in nuclear gene expression, the accumulation of mtDNA damage and the importance of mitochondrial dynamics and recycling. Declining mitophagy (mitochondrial quality control) may be an important component of human ageing. PMID:27352213

  2. Cerebellar vermis plays a causal role in visual motion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Renzi, Chiara; Casali, Stefano; Silvanto, Juha; Vecchi, Tomaso; Papagno, Costanza; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-09-01

    Cerebellar patients have been found to show deficits in visual motion discrimination, suggesting that the cerebellum may play a role in visual sensory processing beyond mediating motor control. Here we show that triple-pulse online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over cerebellar vermis but not over the cerebellar hemispheres significantly impaired motion discrimination. Critically, the interference caused by vermis TMS on motion discrimination did not depend on an indirect effect of TMS over nearby visual areas, as demonstrated by a control experiment in which TMS over V1 but not over cerebellar vermis significantly impaired orientation discrimination. These findings demonstrate the causal role of the cerebellar vermis in visual motion processing in neurologically normal participants.

  3. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  4. Antibiotic production by myxobacteria plays a role in predation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Wei, Xueming; Ebright, Richard; Wall, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Myxobacteria are predatory and are prolific producers of secondary metabolites. Here, we tested a hypothesized role that secondary metabolite antibiotics function as weapons in predation. To test this, a Myxococcus xanthus Δta1 mutant, blocked in antibiotic TA (myxovirescin) production, was constructed. This TA(-) mutant was defective in producing a zone of inhibition (ZOI) against Escherichia coli. This shows that TA is the major M. xanthus-diffusible antibacterial agent against E. coli. Correspondingly, the TA(-) mutant was defective in E. coli killing. Separately, an engineered E. coli strain resistant to TA was shown to be resistant toward predation. Exogenous addition of spectinomycin, a bacteriostatic antibiotic, rescued the predation defect of the TA(-) mutant. In contrast, against Micrococcus luteus the TA(-) mutant exhibited no defect in ZOI or killing. Thus, TA plays a selective role on prey species. To extend these studies to other myxobacteria, the role of antibiotic corallopyronin production in predation was tested and also found to be required for Corallococcus coralloides killing on E. coli. Next, a role of TA production in myxobacterial fitness was assessed by measuring swarm expansion. Here, the TA(-) mutant had a specific swarm rate reduction on prey lawns, and thus reduced fitness, compared to an isogenic TA(+) strain. Based on these observations, we conclude that myxobacterial antibiotic production can function as a predatory weapon. To our knowledge, this is the first report to directly show a link between secondary metabolite production and predation.

  5. Mental Health Effects of Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Angela Barron

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the problems and benefits associated with women juggling the multiple roles demanded by work and family. Discusses the need for research that considers the physiological pathways involved in responses to stressful environmental and psychological conditions. (Author/JS)

  6. [The role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Kfoczyńska, Medea; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2015-04-08

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease which affects the central nervous system and is linked to autoimmune disorders. Although the precise causes of multiple sclerosis remain unknown, some evidence points towards hypovitaminosis D. Apart from the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, vitamin D also plays a major role in other aspects of human health. It is caused by the vitamin D receptor, which is present in many human organs and tissues. Vitamin D is an immunomodulating factor and accordingly has a potential to be effective in both preventing and treating autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The aim of this review was to present up-to-date knowledge about vitamin D, especially its impact on risk of multiple sclerosis onset, relapses, and potential to modify the immune response. A further objective was to describe the role of vitamin D supplementation and its provision in the everyday diet for both prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  7. The BiP molecular chaperone plays multiple roles during the biogenesis of torsinA, an AAA+ ATPase associated with the neurological disease early-onset torsion dystonia.

    PubMed

    Zacchi, Lucía F; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Bell, Samantha L; Millen, Linda; Paton, Adrienne W; Paton, James C; Thomas, Philip J; Zolkiewski, Michal; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2014-05-01

    Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and sustained muscle contractions that can lead to paralysis and abnormal posture. EOTD is associated with the deletion of a glutamate (ΔE) in torsinA, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident AAA(+) ATPase. To date, the effect of ΔE on torsinA and the reason that this mutation results in EOTD are unclear. Moreover, there are no specific therapeutic options to treat EOTD. To define the underlying biochemical defects associated with torsinAΔE and to uncover factors that might be targeted to offset defects associated with torsinAΔE, we developed a yeast torsinA expression system and tested the roles of ER chaperones in mediating the folding and stability of torsinA and torsinAΔE. We discovered that the ER lumenal Hsp70, BiP, an associated Hsp40, Scj1, and a nucleotide exchange factor, Lhs1, stabilize torsinA and torsinAΔE. BiP also maintained torsinA and torsinAΔE solubility. Mutations predicted to compromise specific torsinA functional motifs showed a synthetic interaction with the ΔE mutation and destabilized torsinAΔE, suggesting that the ΔE mutation predisposes torsinA to defects in the presence of secondary insults. In this case, BiP was required for torsinAΔE degradation, consistent with data that specific chaperones exhibit either pro-degradative or pro-folding activities. Finally, using two independent approaches, we established that BiP stabilizes torsinA and torsinAΔE in mammalian cells. Together, these data define BiP as the first identified torsinA chaperone, and treatments that modulate BiP might improve symptoms associated with EOTD. PMID:24627482

  8. Identifying the role that animals play in their social networks.

    PubMed Central

    Lusseau, David; Newman, M E J

    2004-01-01

    Techniques recently developed for the analysis of human social networks are applied to the social network of bottlenose dolphins living in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. We identify communities and subcommunities within the dolphin population and present evidence that sex- and age-related homophily play a role in the formation of clusters of preferred companionship. We also identify brokers who act as links between sub-communities and who appear to be crucial to the social cohesion of the population as a whole. The network is found to be similar to human social networks in some respects but different in some others, such as the level of assortative mixing by degree within the population. This difference elucidates some of the means by which the network forms and evolves. PMID:15801609

  9. Does genomic imprinting play a role in autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Camprubí, Cristina; Monk, David

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes. PMID:21627045

  10. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  11. Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongxia; Zhang, Qing-Song; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Reiser, Brendan; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Braun, Stephen E.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX) in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype. PMID:24758934

  12. TLR3 Plays Significant Roles against HBV-Associated HCC

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-lan; Xu, Yu-yin; Chen, Li; Wang, Gui-lan; Shen, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a pattern-recognizing receptor that is involved in immune signaling and plays a crucial role in survival by being able to recognize various viral components including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The role of TLR3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections is not well understood. To investigate the ability of TLR3 in regulating HBV replication in HCC, 80 cases of human HCC were collected and their tissue microarray was made. In HCC cells, the expression and location of TLR3, hepatitis-associated virus, and interstitial immunoreactive cells were assayed with immunohistochemical staining. The apoptosis of tumor cells was also detected by TUNEL stain. Correlations between TLR3 expression and HBV infection, interstitial immunoreactive cells, and cells apoptosis in HCC were investigated. In addition, we explored whether TLR3 agonist dsRNA can inhibit HepG2.2.15 cells secreting HBV. We found that the cytoplasmic expression of TLR3 in HCC is positively related to HBsAg infection and HCC with cirrhosis and promotes interstitial immunoreactive cells infiltration and cancer cells apoptosis. In HepG2.2.15 cells, dsRNA inhibited the secretion of HBV and induced apoptosis. These results indicate that TLR3 signaling activity may be involved in immune responses against HBV in HCC. PMID:25983748

  13. Active Learning in the Classroom: The Use of Group Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzerow, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Describes group role-playing activities that have been used to teach about education, criminology, and sex roles. Suggests that role play helps students to absorb and retain many of the insights about the issues involved. (DB)

  14. Multiple roles of the cytoskeleton in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Monastyrska, Iryna; Rieter, Ester; Klionsky, Daniel J; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2009-08-01

    Autophagy is involved in a wide range of physiological processes including cellular remodeling during development, immuno-protection against heterologous invaders and elimination of aberrant or obsolete cellular structures. This conserved degradation pathway also plays a key role in maintaining intracellular nutritional homeostasis and during starvation, for example, it is involved in the recycling of unnecessary cellular components to compensate for the limitation of nutrients. Autophagy is characterized by specific membrane rearrangements that culminate with the formation of large cytosolic double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. Autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material that is destined for degradation. Once completed, these vesicles dock and fuse with endosomes and/or lysosomes to deliver their contents into the hydrolytically active lumen of the latter organelle where, together with their cargoes, they are broken down into their basic components. Specific structures destined for degradation via autophagy are in many cases selectively targeted and sequestered into autophagosomes. A number of factors required for autophagy have been identified, but numerous questions about the molecular mechanism of this pathway remain unanswered. For instance, it is unclear how membranes are recruited and assembled into autophagosomes. In addition, once completed, these vesicles are transported to cellular locations where endosomes and lysosomes are concentrated. The mechanism employed for this directed movement is not well understood. The cellular cytoskeleton is a large, highly dynamic cellular scaffold that has a crucial role in multiple processes, several of which involve membrane rearrangements and vesicle-mediated events. Relatively little is known about the roles of the cytoskeleton network in autophagy. Nevertheless, some recent studies have revealed the importance of cytoskeletal elements such as actin microfilaments and microtubules in specific aspects of

  15. IFT46 plays crucial roles in craniofacial and cilia development.

    PubMed

    Park, Inji; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Chowon; Ismail, Tayaba; Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Jeen-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kang, Beom Sik; Lee, Dong-Seok; Park, Tae-Joo; Park, Mae-Ja; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Lee, Hyun-Shik

    2016-08-26

    The intraflagellar transport (IFT) system is essential for bidirectional movement of ciliary components from the basal body to the tip beneath the ciliary sheath and is conserved for cilia and flagella formation in most vertebrates. IFT complex A is involved in anterograde trafficking, whereas complex B is involved in retrograde trafficking. IFT46 is well known as a crucial component of IFT complex B, however, its developmental functions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the novel functions of IFT46 during vertebrate development, especially, ciliogenesis and neurogenesis, because IFT46 is strongly expressed in both multiciliated cells of epithelial and neural tissues. Knockdown of IFT46 using morpholino microinjections caused shortening of the body axis as well as the formation of fewer and shorter cilia. Furthermore, loss of IFT46 down-regulated the expression of the neural plate and neural tube markers, thus may influence Wnt/planar cell polarity and the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway during neurogenesis. In addition, loss of IFT46 caused craniofacial defects by interfering with cartilage formation. In conclusion, our results depict that IFT46 plays important roles in cilia as well as in neural and craniofacial development. PMID:27320864

  16. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment. PMID:21779108

  17. CGRP may play a causative role in migraine.

    PubMed

    Lassen, L H; Haderslev, P A; Jacobsen, V B; Iversen, H K; Sperling, B; Olesen, J

    2002-02-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP (2 microg/min) or placebo infused intravenously for 20 min was studied in 12 patients suffering from migraine without aura. Headache intensity was scored on a scale from 0 to 10. Two patients were excluded due to severe hypotension and one because she had an infection. In the first hour median peak headache score was 1.0 in the halphaCGRP group vs. 0 in the placebo group (P < 0.01). During the following 11 h all patients experienced headaches after halphaCGRP vs. one patient after placebo (P = 0.0004). The median maximal headache score was 4 after CGRP and 0 after placebo (P = 0.006). In three patients after halphaCGRP, but in no patients after placebo, the delayed headache fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine without aura. As intravenous administration of halphaCGRP causes headache and migraine in migraineurs, our study suggests that the increase in CGRP observed during spontaneous migraine attacks may play a causative role.

  18. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  19. The entorhinal cortex plays a role in extinction.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Lia R; Bonini, Juliana S; Rossato, Janine I; Izquierdo, Luciana A; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2006-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed the participation of the entorhinal cortex in extinction of a learned aversive response. Rats with infusion cannulae aimed to the entorhinal cortex were trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) and submitted to four consecutive daily test sessions without the footshock, a procedure that induced extinction of the conditioned response in control animals. When infused into the entorhinal cortex immediately after the first extinction session at doses able to block consolidation of IA memory, the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (25 nmol/side), the inhibitor of protein synthesis anisomycin (300 nmol/side) and the inhibitor of CaMKII, KN-93 (10 nmol/side), but not the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD-98059 (5 nmol/side) hindered extinction of the IA response. The same results were obtained when the interval between the first and second test session was 48 instead of 24h. The data indicate that normal functionality of the NMDA receptors, together with CaMKII activity and protein synthesis are necessary in the entorhinal cortex at the time of the first test session to generate extinction. Our results also suggest that the ERK1/2 pathway does not play a role in this process.

  20. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  1. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Yeong Ko, Je; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-04-15

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer׳s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer׳s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(-/-) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development.

  2. Exploring the Potential of Role Play in Higher Education: Development of a Typology and Teacher Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Deepa; Stupans, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Role-play, in which learners act out roles in case scenarios, appears to be used across a broad range of discipline areas to address learning across the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. This paper describes the development of a prospective typology of role-play learning opportunities derived from role-play scenarios used at one large…

  3. Playing with Fear: Children's Play and Its Role in Expressing Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heibeck, Tracy H.

    Preschool children's fears of animals and the dark were investigated in an effort to examine how preschoolers use play as a medium for expressing fearful emotions. A total of 48 children participated in the study. Interviews with parents were used to identify 12 preschoolers who were anxious about the dark and 12 who were anxious about dogs; 24…

  4. Hevin Plays a Pivotal Role in Corneal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Perera, Promoda R.; Poh, Rebekah; Lim, Rayne R.; Wong, Tina T.; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2013-01-01

    administration of rhHevin. Thus, hevin plays a pivotal role in the corneal wound healing. PMID:24303054

  5. Water Tectonics: Evidence That Hydration Plays a Role in Tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, A. R.; Schutt, D.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Buehler, J. S.; Berry, M. A.; Ma, X.; Ravat, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several new observations provide evidence that water may play a more important role in tectonism than previously realized. Among these, • Thermodynamical modeling suggests that hydration promotes crustal mineral assemblages with lowered vP/vS and decreased density. This sheds new light on the significance of low crustal vP/vS measured in the western U.S. Cordillera from joint inversion of EarthScope USArray receiver functions and gravity. vP/vS, previously interpreted in terms of quartz abundance, is strikingly low throughout the highest-elevation regions of the western Cordillera. • Rheological modeling of flexural rigidity measurements also can be used to map water variations, primarily in the uppermost mantle. Mantle hydration estimated from flexural rigidity exhibits very similar spatial distribution to crustal hydration inferred from vP/vS, with the notable exception that the Wyoming craton has dry mantle lithosphere but a hydrous crust. • In hydrated lithosphere of the high-elevation western U.S. Cordillera, Moho temperatures estimated from Pn velocities are systematically colder than predictions by simple geothermal models of surface heat flow. These differences can only be reconciled by invoking a previously unrecognized advective term in the deep thermal transfer. • New and improved estimates of magnetic bottom are much deeper than the depth of the magnetite Curie temperature in some apparently hydrous lithosphere (notably, east of the Siletzia accreted terrane). This may indicate exotic magnetic mineralogies thought to occur only under hydrous conditions. Lithospheric hydration may be driven either by dehydration of subducted slab or by entrainment of water into upwellings passing through the mantle transition zone. Conceptualizing hydration as a large-scale process accompanied by increased buoyancy and decreased ductile strength, coupled with widespread changes in mineralogy, mass and energy transfer may help to illuminate many otherwise

  6. Predicting procedural pain after ureteroscopy: does hydrodistention play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep; Alazem, Kareem; Li, Ina; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify perioperative predictors of immediate pain after ureteroscopy, specifically evaluating the impact of hydrodistention from irrigation on pain. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent ureteroscopy for the treatment of calculi. Data recorded for these patients included their maximum pain score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), average flow rate of irrigant used during the procedure, patient and stone characteristics, operative procedure, and details of patients' immediate, post-operative course. Spearman's rho was used to determine the relationship between non-parametric, continuous variables. Then, a linear regression was performed to assess which variables could predict the peak pain score. Results: A total of 131 patients were included in the study. A non-parametric correlation analysis revealed that maximum pain score was negatively correlated with being male (r = −0.18, p=0.04), age (r = −0.34, p<0.001), and post-op foley placement (r = −0.20, p=0.02) but positively correlated with the preoperative pain score (r = 0.41, p<0.001), time in the PACU (r = 0.19, p = 0.03), and the morphine equivalent dose (MED) of narcotics administered in the PACU (r = 0.67, p<0.001). On linear regression, the significant variables were age, preoperative pain score, and stent placement. For every ten-year increase in age post-operative pain score decreased by 4/10 of a point (p = 0.03). For every 1 point increase in preoperative pain score there was a 3/10 of a point increase in the maximum pain score (p = 0.01), and leaving a stent in place post-operatively was associated with a 1.6 point increase in the maximum pain score. Conclusions: Hydrodistention does not play a role in post-ureteroscopy pain. Patients who are younger, have higher preoperative pain scores, or who are stented will experience more post-operative pain after ureteroscopy. PMID:27564284

  7. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  8. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  9. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  10. Oh, Garbage! Decisions about Waste Disposal. Creative Role-Playing Exercises in Science and Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Pearson, Janice

    This document is one of a series of role plays that focus on science-related social issues of concern in contemporary public policy formation. The role plays are designed to help students develop information-processing and decision making skills needed to deal effectively with such issues. The role plays guide students in analyzing science related…

  11. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    PubMed

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school. PMID:24683056

  12. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    PubMed

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  13. Could borate have played a role in the RNA World?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grew, E. S.; Bada, J. L.; Hazen, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Two scenarios have been proposed for boron to play a critical role in the stabilization of ribose and other sugars in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) World, >3.8 Ga ago. One scenario envisages oligomeric RNA being synthesized in subaerial intermountane desert valleys in which groundwater was enriched in borate from breakdown of tourmaline (Benner et al. 2012 doi: 10.1021/ar200332w). In the alternative scenario, borates are enriched in hydrothermal environments (<150°C) in oceanic crust where ferromagnesian minerals are altered to brucite, serpentine and other minerals that can extract borate from the circulating seawater (Holm et al. 2006 doi:10.1186/1467-4866-7-7). Both scenarios presume that (1) B concentrations in non-marine water or sea water were about the same at >3.8 Ma as they are today and (2) plate tectonics was the prevailing regime. The postulated non-marine borate deposits would have been associated with continental collision and subduction with volcanism releasing B, whereas in the second scenario, ocean floor caught up in an early phase of subduction is considered a favorable site for borate formation. Because borate deposits are typically ephemeral and poorly preserved, the lack of evidence in the geologic record for these scenarios does not invalidate them. For example, the oldest reported non-marine borate deposits analogous to the type postulated in first scenario are only 20 Ma, but metamorphosed borates of Precambrian age have been interpreted to have non-marine evaporite precursors, the oldest being 2.4-2.1 Ga in the Liaoning-Jilin area, China. The first B minerals so far reported in the geologic record are metamorphic dravite-schorl tourmalines in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua supracrustal belt (southern West Greenland), where there is good evidence for seafloor spreading and subduction. The precursors to the Isua tourmalines are reported to include B-bearing marine clay minerals and detrital tourmaline. The relatively high Li contents in zircon from Jack

  14. Broca's Area Plays a Causal Role in Morphosyntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Meseguer, Enrique; Barber, Horacio; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that Broca's area is important for syntax, this may simply be a by-product of greater working memory and/or cognitive control demands for more complex syntactic structures. Here we report an experiment with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether Broca's area plays a causal…

  15. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  16. Te Tremble: An Unnatural Disaster--A Trial Role Play Probes the Roots of Devastation in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Adam

    2011-01-01

    When the author first heard that the earthquake that hit Haiti destroyed entire Haitian cities and killed more than a quarter million people, he was shocked. For him, it was apparent that this was more than a natural disaster. As he learned about the role the U.S. government had played in Haitian affairs--the multiple occupations, the support for…

  17. Multiple sclerosis and the role of immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Høglund, Rune A; Maghazachi, Azzam A

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with many different immune cells involved in its pathogenesis, and in particular T cells as the most recognized cell type. Recently, the innate immune system has also been researched for its effect on the disease. Hence, cells of the immune system play vital roles in either ameliorating or exacerbating the disease. The genetic and environmental factors, as well as the etiology and pathogenesis are of utmost importance for the development of MS. An insight into the roles play by T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells in MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, will be presented. Understanding the mechanisms of action for current therapeutic modalities should help developing new therapeutic tools to treat this disease and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25254187

  18. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  19. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  20. The ran decathlon: multiple roles of Ran.

    PubMed

    Sazer, S; Dasso, M

    2000-04-01

    The Ran GTPase system affects many cellular processes, including the regulation of cell cycle progression, nuclear envelope structure and function, and nucleocytoplasmic transport. The biochemical basis for the involvement of Ran in nuclear import and export has been well documented, but the direct targets of Ran in other cellular processes have not yet been identified. There is, however, mounting evidence that Ran directly affects at least some of these other cellular processes by mechanisms independent of its role in transport. In this Commentary we discuss evidence linking Ran to different aspects of cell function, and how these multiple facets of Ran's activity may relate to each other. PMID:10704362

  1. Multiple Roles of Peroxiredoxins in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Knoops, Bernard; Argyropoulou, Vasiliki; Becker, Sarah; Ferté, Laura; Kuznetsova, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathophysiological response to infection or tissue damage during which high levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced by phagocytes to kill microorganisms. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species serve also in the complex regulation of inflammatory processes. Recently, it has been proposed that peroxiredoxins may play key roles in innate immunity and inflammation. Indeed, peroxiredoxins are evolutionarily conserved peroxidases able to reduce, with high rate constants, hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite which are generated during inflammation. In this minireview, we point out different possible roles of peroxiredoxins during inflammatory processes such as cytoprotective enzymes against oxidative stress, modulators of redox signaling, and extracellular pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns. A better understanding of peroxiredoxin functions in inflammation could lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26813661

  2. p21 induction plays a dual role in anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis by ursolic acid is associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) protein p21 in multiple types of cancer cells. However, the functional role of p21 induction in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of p21 induction by ursolic acid have not been critically addressed. In the current study, we demonstrated that p21 played a mediator role in G1 cell cycle arrest by ursolic acid, whereas p21-mediated up-regulation of Mcl-1 compromised apoptotic effect of ursolic acid. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a dual role in the anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid in terms of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. p21 induction by ursolic acid was attributed to p53 transcriptional activation. Moreover, we found that ursolic acid was able to inhibit murine double minute-2 protein (MDM2) and T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), the two negative regulator of p53, which in turn contributed to ursolic acid-induced p53 activation. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in response to ursolic acid exposure. PMID:26582056

  3. Simulating Social and Political Influences on Hazard Analysis through a Classroom Role Playing Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, T. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    Geological hazard mitigation is a complicated process that involves both detailed scientific research and negotiations between community members with competing interests in the solution. Geological hazards classes based around traditional lecture methods have difficulty conveying the decision-making processes that go into these negotiations. To address this deficiency, we have spent five years developing and testing a role- playing exercise based on mitigation of a dam outburst hazard on Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. In our exercise, students are asked to undertake one of five different roles and decide the best way to mitigate the hazard. Over the course of their discussion students are challenged to reach a consensus decision despite the presence of strongly opposed positions. Key to the success of the exercise are (1) the presence of a facilitator and recorder for each meeting, (2) the provision of unique information for each interested party, and (3) the division of the class into multiple meeting groups, such that everyone is required to participate and individual groups can evolve to different conclusions. The exercise can be completed in a single hour and twenty minute classroom session that is divided into four parts: an introduction, a meeting between members of the same interested party to discuss strategy, a meeting between different interested parties, and a debriefing session. This framework can be readily translated to any classroom hazard problem. In our experience, students have responded positively to the use of role-playing to supplement lectures.

  4. Student feedback about the use of role plays in Sparshanam, a medical humanities module

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Background: At KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal, a Medical Humanities module for first year medical students has been conducted. Role plays are used to explore social, medical and sexual issues in the Nepalese context. The present study obtained student feedback about the role plays used in the module, the difficulties faced, and obtained suggestions for further improvement. Method: The module was conducted from January to August 2011 using a total of 15 role plays. Student feedback was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Informal discussions were held and a questionnaire was circulated among the first year students who had participated in the module. Results: Ninety-eight of the 100 students in the module participated in the study. The overall opinion regarding the role plays was positive. Students stated role plays helped to make module objectives concrete and interesting, made students identify with the problem being investigated and improved communication skills. Role plays were designed to address important health issues in Nepal and prepare students for addressing these issues in future practice. A lack of sufficient time for preparing the role plays and initial problems with group dynamics were mentioned by the respondents during the study. Conclusions: Student feedback about the use of role plays during the module was positive. Role plays helped in making module objectives more concrete and interesting, improved communication skills and addressed important health issues in Nepal. Role plays are not resource intensive and can be considered for use in medical schools in developing nations. PMID:24358816

  5. Multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao

    2015-05-21

    Scientific interest in graphene as a catalyst and as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalytic reactions has grown dramatically over the past several years. The present critical review summarizes the multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis and highlights the influence of defects, heteroatom-containing functionalities, and graphene's two-dimensional structure on catalytic performance. We first discuss the role and advantages of graphene as a catalyst support, with emphasis on its interactions with the catalytic phases and the influence of mass transfer processes. We then clarify the origin of the intrinsic catalytic activity of graphene in heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Finally we suggest challenges and potential practical applications for graphene in industrial processes. PMID:25777748

  6. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  7. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    PubMed

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey.

  8. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    PubMed

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey. PMID:24101438

  9. What Roles Can Scientists Play in Public Discourse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    What is a useful and proper role for scientists in the public arena? How can we best discriminate where the boundary lies between expert knowledge and values or political opinion, and how can we properly honor that line? What can we expect in the way of reception for our interventions, and how can we increase their efficacy? Involvement in public policy debates is a common and accepted role for scientists in many disciplines. In the sciences related to public health, it is taken for granted that experts will talk about the implications of their research for public policy, whether in regard to smoking, diet, or disease spread. There is also a remarkable track record of geoscientists taking a lead role in the public arena and actually affecting public policy—F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina collaborated on ozone depletion research at the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Irvine and then went on to make outstanding public contributions, as have James Hansen (at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies); Robert Watson (first at NASA, then at the University of East Anglia); and, of course, the late Stephen Schneider (first at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, then Stanford) on climate. Some “public” geoscientists have restricted their activities to interpreting science for the wider public, while others have endorsed specific policy initiatives (see Figure 1). I firmly believe that the quality of public discourse and the information reaching policy makers were better for their interventions.

  10. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  11. ASXL1 plays an important role in erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Yamamoto, Shohei; Sheng, Mengyao; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Runze; Chen, Shi; Shi, Lihong; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2016-01-01

    ASXL1 mutations are found in a spectrum of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that Asxl1+/− mice develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) overlapping diseases (MDS/MPN). Although defective erythroid maturation and anemia are associated with the prognosis of patients with MDS or MDS/MPN, the role of ASXL1 in erythropoiesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients with ASXL1 mutations exhibited more severe anemia with a significantly increased proportion of bone marrow (BM) early stage erythroblasts and reduced enucleated erythrocytes compared to CMML patients with WT ASXL1. Knockdown of ASXL1 in cord blood CD34+ cells reduced erythropoiesis and impaired erythrocyte enucleation. Consistently, the BM and spleens of VavCre+;Asxl1f/f (Asxl1∆/∆) mice had less numbers of erythroid progenitors than Asxl1f/f controls. Asxl1∆/∆ mice also had an increased percentage of erythroblasts and a reduced erythrocyte enucleation in their BM compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, Asxl1∆/∆ erythroblasts revealed altered expression of genes involved in erythroid development and homeostasis, which was associated with lower levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3. Our study unveils a key role for ASXL1 in erythropoiesis and indicates that ASXL1 loss hinders erythroid development/maturation, which could be of prognostic value for MDS/MPN patients. PMID:27352931

  12. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  13. Skeletal tissue regeneration: where can hydrogels play a role?

    PubMed

    Moreira Teixeira, Liliana S; Patterson, Jennifer; Luyten, Frank P

    2014-09-01

    The emerging field of tissue engineering reveals promising approaches for the repair and regeneration of skeletal tissues including the articular cartilage, bone, and the entire joint. Amongst the myriad of biomaterials available to support this strategy, hydrogels are highly tissue mimicking substitutes and thus of great potential for the regeneration of functional tissues. This review comprises an overview of the novel and most promising hydrogels for articular cartilage, osteochondral and bone defect repair. Chondro- and osteo-conductive and -instructive hydrogels are presented, highlighting successful combinations with inductive signals and cell sources. Moreover, advantages, drawbacks, and future perspectives of the role of hydrogels in skeletal regeneration are addressed, pointing out the current state of this rising approach. PMID:24968789

  14. NADPH oxidase 2 plays a role in experimental corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elsa C; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Chan, Elsie; Ngo, Darleen; Wang, Jiang-Hui; Peshavariya, Hitesh M; Dusting, Gregory J; Liu, Guei-Sheung

    2016-05-01

    Corneal neovascularization, the growth of new blood vessels in the cornea, is a leading cause of vision impairment after corneal injury. Neovascularization typically occurs in response to corneal injury such as that caused by infection, physical trauma, chemical burns or in the setting of corneal transplant rejection. The NADPH oxidase enzyme complex is involved in cell signalling for wound-healing angiogenesis, but its role in corneal neovascularization has not been studied. We have now analysed the role of the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase in corneal neovascularization in mice following chemical injury. C57BL/6 mice aged 8-14 weeks were cauterized with an applicator coated with 75% silver nitrate and 25% potassium nitrate for 8 s. Neovascularization extending radially from limbal vessels was observed in corneal whole-mounts from cauterized wild type mice and CD31+ vessels were identified in cauterized corneal sections at day 7. In contrast, in Nox2 knockout (Nox2 KO) mice vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), Flt1 mRNA expression, and the extent of corneal neovascularization were all markedly reduced compared with their wild type controls. The accumulation of Iba-1+ microglia and macrophages in the cornea was significantly less in Nox2 KO than in wild type mice. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that Nox2 is implicated in the inflammatory and neovascular response to corneal chemical injury in mice and clearly VEGF is a mediator of this effect. This work raises the possibility that therapies targeting Nox2 may have potential for suppressing corneal neovascularization and inflammation in humans. PMID:26814205

  15. [Role playing as an essential element of simulation procedures in medicine].

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, Peter; Rall, Marcus; Eich, Christoph; Schnabel, Kai; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Role playing is an important element of virtually all simulation-based procedures. An improved understanding for methodological aspects facilitates its goal-oriented use in education and training, research and examinations. In the present paper we describe how different forms of role play are used in different simulation-based procedures. We describe a plausibility study from skills labs demonstrating that the introduction of role-playing can increase perceived realism. Finally we derive practical suggestions for the conduction of role plays in medical simulation.

  16. Role-playing as a tool for hiring, training, and supervising peer providers.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hans; Solomon, Phyllis

    2014-04-01

    This article presents role-playing as an activity that can help managers in hiring, evaluating, and supervising peer providers. With the increasing employment of peers in mental health care systems, supervisors have had to face dilemmas related to peer employment more frequently and with little guidance and direction. In response, this article presents role-playing as a practical tool to hire, train, and supervise peer providers. The effectiveness of role-playing depends largely on context and execution, and so this article also offers direction on how to maximize the utility and benefits of role-playing to enhance the performance of peer providers.

  17. Ponticulin plays a role in the positional stabilization of pseudopods

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Ponticulin is a 17-kD glycoprotein that represents a major high affinity link between the plasma membrane and the cortical actin network of Dictyostelium. To assess the role of ponticulin in pseudopod extension and retraction, the motile behavior of two independently generated mutants lacking ponticulin was analyzed using computer- assisted two- and three-dimensional motion analysis systems. More than half of the lateral pseudopods formed off the substratum by ponticulin- minus cells slipped relative to the substratum during extension and retraction. In contrast, all pseudopods formed off the substratum by wild-type cells were positionally fixed in relation to the substratum. Ponticulin-minus cells also formed a greater proportion of both anterior and lateral pseudopods off the substratum and absorbed a greater proportion of lateral pseudopods into the uropod than wild-type cells. In a spatial gradient of cAMP, ponticulin-minus cells were less efficient in tracking the source of chemoattractant. Since ponticulin- minus cells extend and retract pseudopods with the same time course as wild-type cells, these behavioral defects in ponticulin-minus cells appear to be the consequence of pseudopod slippage. These results demonstrate that pseudopods formed off the substratum by wild-type cells are positionally fixed in relation to the substratum, that ponticulin is required for positional stabilization, and that the loss of ponticulin and the concomitant loss of positional stability of pseudopods correlate with a decrease in the efficiency of chemotaxis. PMID:8522606

  18. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and Histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrated that Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS. PMID:25757804

  19. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Goodman, Steven D

    2015-06-01

    Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrate that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS.

  20. Cysteine homeostasis plays an essential role in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Consolación; Bermúdez, M Ángeles; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia; García, Irene

    2012-01-01

    • Cysteine is the metabolic precursor of essential biomolecules such as vitamins, cofactors, antioxidants and many defense compounds. The last step of cysteine metabolism is catalysed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), which incorporates reduced sulfur into O-acetylserine to produce cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main OASTL isoform OAS-A1 and the cytosolic desulfhydrase DES1, which degrades cysteine, contribute to the cytosolic cysteine homeostasis. • Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of knockout plants for OAS-A1 and for DES1 show a high correlation with the biotic stress series in both cases. • The study of the response of knockout mutants to plant pathogens shows that des1 mutants behave as constitutive systemic acquired resistance mutants, with high resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, salicylic acid accumulation and WRKY54 and PR1 induction, while oas-a1 knockout mutants are more sensitive to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. However, oas-a1 knockout mutants lack the hypersensitive response associated with the effector-triggered immunity elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpm1. • Our results highlight the role of cysteine as a crucial metabolite in the plant immune response.

  1. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

    2003-01-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Correll, Melanie J; Coveney, Katrina M; Raines, Steven V; Mullen, Jack L; Hangarter, Roger P; Kiss, John Z

    2003-01-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  3. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

    2003-05-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  4. The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved.

  5. A three-dimensional model to predict future oil discoveries in spatially connected multiple plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Drew, L.J.; Bawiec, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    A discovery-process model that had been devised previously to estimate the size distribution of oil and gas fields remaining to be discovered in a single producing horizon was adapted to a basin containing spatially connected multiple plays and producing horizons. This model used the concept of the area of influence of wells to estimate search effort. Other variables estimated from the historical drilling and discovery data are the effective basin size and the exploration-drilling efficiency. Data from the Midland Basin are used to illustrate how the model works. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  6. What role do periodontal pathogens play in osteoarthritis and periprosthetic joint infections of the knee?

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Garth D; Hu, Fen Z; Sotereanos, Nicholas; Sewicke, Jeffrey; Parvizi, Javad; Nara, Peter L; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2014-01-01

    Through the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-electron spray ionization (ESI)-time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS), we identified multiple periodontal pathogens within joint tissues of individuals undergoing replacement arthroplasties of the knee. The most prevalent of the periodontal pathogens were Treponema denticola and Enterococcus faecalis, the latter of which is commonly associated with apical periodontitis. These findings were unique to periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) of the knee and were never observed for PJIs of other lower extremity joints (hip and ankle) or upper extremity joints (shoulder and elbow). These data were confirmed by multiple independent methodologies including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) which showed the bacteria deeply penetrated inside the diseased tissues, and 454-based deep 16S rDNA sequencing. The site-specificity, the tissue investment, and the identical findings by multiple nucleic-acid-based techniques strongly suggests the presence of infecting bacteria within these diseased anatomic sites. Subsequently, as part of a control program using PCR-ESI-TOF-MS, we again detected these same periodontal pathogens in aspirates from patients with osteoarthritis who were undergoing primary arthroplasty of the knee and thus who had no history of orthopedic implants. This latter finding raises the question of whether hematogenic spread of periodontal pathogens to the knee play a primary or secondary-exacerbatory role in osteoarthritis. PMID:24921460

  7. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit. PMID:12289910

  8. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

  9. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  10. Online-offline activities and game-playing behaviors of avatars in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Tan, Qun-Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular in China, which provides a potential platform for scientific research. We study the online-offline activities of avatars in an MMORPG to understand their game-playing behavior. The statistical analysis unveils that the active avatars can be classified into three types. The avatars of the first type are owned by game cheaters who go online and offline in preset time intervals with the online duration distributions dominated by pulses. The second type of avatars is characterized by a Weibull distribution in the online durations, which is confirmed by statistical tests. The distributions of online durations of the remaining individual avatars differ from the above two types and cannot be described by a simple form. These findings have potential applications in the game industry.

  11. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  12. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  13. Breathing Life into History: Using Role-Playing to Engage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Murthy, Shalini A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternately referred to as historical role-playing, dramatic improvisation, sociodrama, or first-person characterization, role playing is a teaching strategy that often uses official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, specific event, or breathe life into a character from history. Historical…

  14. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  15. Using Role-Play and Case Studies to Improve Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Classroom management is a concern for preservice teachers (Charles, 2008). Teacher educators struggle to find the most effective ways to teach preservice teachers classroom management. Role-playing, combined with classroom management content, may offer a productive approach. As such, this study focused on the use of role-play with case studies to…

  16. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  17. Online Role-Plays: Combining Situational and Interactional Authenticity in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Martins, Maria de Lurdes; Moreira, Gillian; Moreira, António

    2013-01-01

    Role-plays have been almost ubiquitous in foreign language classes and their potential has been widely recognised. In the last decade, the dissemination of Web 2.0 has created a wide range of possibilities for this type of activity, including conducting online role-plays between institutions, the opportunity to combine synchronous and asynchronous…

  18. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  19. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  20. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  1. Receiving and Discovering Information: Two Role-Playing Simulations of the World War I Conscription Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, John

    1999-01-01

    Proposes two approaches to using role-playing in the history classroom: (1) providing factual information to the students; and (2) allowing them to discover the experiences of historical actors. Expounds that the recommended role-playing simulations help students discover why Canadians were divided over the conscription issue in World War I. (CMK)

  2. Teacher's Guide to Canal. The Middlesex Canal: A Role Playing Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cary W.; Tedesco, Paul H.

    The document consists of a role-playing game and related teacher's guide designed to illustrate decision-making processes leading to the building of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts in 1793. The primary educational objective is to involve students in the decision-making process through role play. The game is designed to facilitate…

  3. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients provide similar opportunities for skill demonstration. This study examined the correspondence of treatment adherence and competence ratings obtained in real client and role-played sessions for 91 clinicians trained in Motivational Interviewing (MI), using data from a multi-site trial examining three methods of clinician training (Martino et al., 2011). Results indicated overall poor integrity rating correspondence across the two session types, as indicated by weak correlations (r = .05–.27). Clinicians were rated significantly more MI adherent overall and specifically used more advanced MI strategies in role-played than real client sessions at several assessment time points (d = 0.36, 0.42). Real clients, in comparison to the role-play actor, demonstrated greater motivation at the beginning of the session (d = 1.09), discussion of unrelated topics (d = 0.70), and alliance with the clinician (d = 0.72). These findings suggest that MI integrity rating data obtained from real client and role-played sessions may not be interchangeable. More research is needed to improve the procedures and psychometric strength of treatment integrity assessment based on role-played sessions. PMID:23205626

  4. A Role-Playing Exercise for Development and International Economics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Yana van der Meulen

    1996-01-01

    Describes an exercise where students play the roles of various ministers advising the president in the resolution of macroeconomic problems that arise with a natural resource boon. Provides a framework for role playing that has applications beyond this issue. Includes results of students' evaluation of the exercise. (MJP)

  5. What Students Need: Exploring Teachers' Views via Imagined Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Nejad, Masomeh Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Role-playing is an unscripted dramatic technique that encourages participants to improvise behaviors that illustrate expected actions of persons involved in defined situations. However, among various uses in developing professionals, the use of role-playing in teacher education is rather rare. To give all students the opportunity to participate in…

  6. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  7. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  8. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  9. Rules out of Roles: Differences in Play Language and Their Developmental Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongho; Kellogg, David

    2007-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic approach from the work of Hoey (1991) and a dual processing model from Wray (2000), this paper compares the language produced by the same classes of children when they are engaged in role-play and when they are playing rule-based games. We find that role-play tends to be richer in "frozen" pair parts, where the responses…

  10. Using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Neelke; Kroesen, J Otto

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of role plays in ethics education for engineering students. After presenting a rough taxonomy of different objectives, we illustrate how role plays can be used to broaden students' perspectives. We do this on the basis of our experiences with a newly developed role play about a Dutch political controversy concerning pig transport. The role play is special in that the discussion is about setting up an institutional framework for responsible action that goes beyond individual action. In that sense, the role play serves a double purpose. It not only aims at teaching students to become aware of the different dimensions in decision making, it also encourages students to think about what such an institutional framework for responsible action might possibly look like.

  11. Role-play for medical students learning about communication: Guidelines for maximising benefits

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, Debra; Tierney, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Background Role-play is widely used as an educational method for learning about communication in medical education. Although educational theory provides a sound rationale for using this form of simulation, there is little published evidence for its effectiveness. Students' prior experiences of role-play may influence the way in which they engage in this method. This paper explores students' experiences with the aim of producing guidelines for maximising the benefits of role-play within this learning context. Methods First-year undergraduate medical students participated in a role-play session as part of their communication programme. Before and after the session, students completed questionnaires. In the pre-session questionnaire, students were asked about their experiences of role-play and asked to identify helpful and unhelpful elements. Immediately after the session, students answered similar questions in relation to the role-play activity they had just completed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Results 284 students completed evaluation forms. Although 63 (22.2%) had prior unhelpful experiences, most students (n = 274; 96.5%) found this experience helpful. Summary findings were that students reported the key aspects of helpful role-play were opportunities for observation, rehearsal and discussion, realistic roles and alignment of roles with other aspects of the curriculum. Unhelpful aspects were those that evoked strong negative emotional responses and factors that contributed to a lack of realism. Conclusion Role-play was valued by students in the acquisition of communication skills even though some had prior unhelpful experiences. Guidelines for effective role-play include adequate preparation, alignment of roles and tasks with level of practice, structured feedback guidelines and acknowledgment of the importance of social interactions for learning. PMID:17335561

  12. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  13. γδ T cell subsets play opposing roles in regulating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Blink, Sarah E; Caldis, Matthew W; Goings, Gwendolyn E; Harp, Christopher T; Malissen, Bernard; Prinz, Immo; Xu, Dan; Miller, Stephen D

    2014-07-01

    γδ T cells are resident in cerebrospinal fluid and central nervous system (CNS) lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but as multifaceted cells exhibiting innate and adaptive characteristics, their function remains unknown. Previous studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are contradictory and identified these cells as either promoting or suppressing disease pathogenesis. This study examines distinct γδ T cell subsets during EAE and indicates they mediate differential functions in CNS inflammation and demyelination resulting in pathogenesis or protection. We identified two γδ subsets in the CNS, Vγ1(+) and Vγ4(+), with distinct cytokine profiles and tissue specificity. Anti-γδ T cell receptor (TCR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) administration results in activation and downregulation of surface TCR, rendering the cells undetectable, but with opposing effects: anti-Vγ4 treatment exacerbates disease whereas anti-Vγ1 treatment is protective. The Vγ4(+) subset produces multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines including high levels of IL-17, and accounts for 15-20% of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing cells in the CNS, but utilize a variant transcriptional program than CD4(+) Th17 cells. In contrast, the Vγ1 subset produces CCR5 ligands, which may promote regulatory T cell differentiation. γδ T cell subsets thus play distinct and opposing roles during EAE, providing an explanation for previous reports and suggesting selective targeting to optimize regulation as a potential therapy for MS.

  14. Role of multiple cusps in tooth fracture.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    The role of multiple cusps in the biomechanics of human molar tooth fracture is analysed. A model with four cusps at the bite surface replaces the single dome structure used in previous simulations. Extended finite element modelling, with provision to embed longitudinal cracks into the enamel walls, enables full analysis of crack propagation from initial extension to final failure. The cracks propagate longitudinally around the enamel side walls from starter cracks placed either at the top surface (radial cracks) or from the tooth base (margin cracks). A feature of the crack evolution is its stability, meaning that extension occurs steadily with increasing applied force. Predictions from the model are validated by comparison with experimental data from earlier publications, in which crack development was followed in situ during occlusal loading of extracted human molars. The results show substantial increase in critical forces to produce longitudinal fractures with number of cuspal contacts, indicating a capacity for an individual tooth to spread the load during mastication. It is argued that explicit critical force equations derived in previous studies remain valid, at the least as a means for comparing the capacity for teeth of different dimensions to sustain high bite forces.

  15. Complement activation plays a key role in the side-effects of rituximab treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, L E; Grillo-López, A J; Baars, J W; Hack, C E; van Oers, M H

    2001-12-01

    Treatment with rituximab, a chimaeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can be associated with moderate to severe first-dose side-effects, notably in patients with high numbers of circulating tumour cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of these side-effects. At multiple early time points during the first infusion of rituximab, complement activation products (C3b/c and C4b/c) and cytokines [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8] were measured in five relapsed low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. Infusion of rituximab induced rapid complement activation, preceding the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-8. Although the study group was small, the level of complement activation appeared to be correlated both with the number of circulating B cells prior to the infusion (r = 0.85; P = 0.07) and with the severity of the side-effects. We conclude that complement plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of side-effects of rituximab treatment. As complement activation can not be prevented by corticosteroids, it might be relevant to study the possible role of complement inhibitors during the first administration of rituximab.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays critical role in brain damage after chronic intermittent hypoxia in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xiu-Cui; Jin, Sheng-Wei; Liang, Dong-Shi; Wen, Zheng-Wang; Cao, Hong-Chao; Mei, Hong-Fang; Wu, Ying; Lin, Zhong-Dong; Wang, Liang-Xing

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children is associated with multiple system morbidities. Cognitive dysfunction as a result of central nervous system complication has been reported in children with OSAHS. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related apoptosis plays an important role in various diseases of the central nervous system, but very little is known about the role of ERS in mediating pathophysiological reactions to cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) exposures, modeling OSAHS, across 2 and 4weeks in growing rats made more reference memory errors, working memory errors and total memory errors in the 8-Arm radial maze task, increased significantly TUNEL positive cells, upregulated the unfolded protein response in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme l and some downstream products. A selective inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor-2a dephosphorylation, salubrinal, prevented C/EBP-homologous protein activation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex throughout hypoxia/reoxygenation exposure. Our findings suggest that ERS mediated cell apoptosis may be one of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS children. Further, a specific ERS inhibitor Salubrinal should be tested for neuroprotection against CIH-induced injury. PMID:24810321

  17. A comparative test of the developmental, role-playing, and defensive explanations of offspring identification.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J L; Minns, D R

    1978-01-01

    Following Mussen and Distler (1959) and Bandura, Ross and Ross (1963), the developmental, defensive, and role-playing theories of identification are tested on high school seniors. Previous tests have supported the developmental and role-playing hypotheses about equally, while the defensive hypothesis lacks consistent empirical support. Questions are raised, however, about the merit of these tests. Data are presented on seniors in an Eastern suburban school and a Midwestern small town school which support the developmental (warmth) hypothesis but which are inconsistent with the defensive and role-playing hypotheses. Parental behavior is measured by the Bronfenbrenner Parent Behavior Questionnaire and identification is measured by the semantic differential.

  18. The Many Roles We Play: Perceptions of the Role of Psychology Lecturers According to Staff and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Lecturers in psychology have many different roles that they must play. It is often very difficult to know what roles are the most important and which to focus on. This study assessed the perceived importance of seven different roles lecturers undertake according to psychology lecturers and students. Results indicated that assessor, course planner,…

  19. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan; Cui, Jiangkuan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Kong, Lingan; Liu, Shiming; He, Wenting; Hu, Xianqi; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases). In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7). A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7) were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2) and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi). Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi, which suggests

  20. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan; Cui, Jiangkuan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Kong, Lingan; Liu, Shiming; He, Wenting; Hu, Xianqi; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases). In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7). A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7) were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2) and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi). Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi, which suggests

  1. Exercise and Drinking May Play a Role in Vision Impairment Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise and Drinking May Play a Role in Vision Impairment Risk Mar. 20, 2014 In 2020, the ... 477–85. Related Stories Age-Related Macular Degeneration Vision Simulator Mar 01, 2016 What Is Optical Coherence ...

  2. Charting the Experiential Territory: Clarifying Definitions and Uses of Computer Simulation, Games, and Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Andrew Hale; Mann, Stuart; Corsun, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a classification scheme for computer simulation, role playing, and educational games. Discusses outcomes of each when applied in business and management education and training. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

  3. Parents Can Play Key Role in Setting Healthy Habits for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Play Key Role in Setting Healthy Habits for Kids Shut down the iPads and lead by example, ... FRIDAY, Sept. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Encouraging your kids to eat right, exercise and limit screen time ...

  4. Bringing the U.S. Senate to Your Classroom: A Role Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Advocates role playing for teaching a unit on the legislative branch of government. Students were divided into political parties, sat on committees, and produced legislation. Concludes that experiencing the governmental process enhances citizen participation. (GG)

  5. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  6. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  7. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  8. FtsH11 Proteases play a critical role in high temperature stress tolerance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FtsHs (Filamentous temperature sensitive H), ATP-dependent zinc metalloproteases of the AAA-superfamily, play essential roles in the turn over of thylakoid proteins damaged by high light stress during photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH11, one of the 12 FtsH members in Arabidopsis, plays critic...

  9. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  10. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  11. The Aquilegia FRUITFULL-like genes play key roles in leaf morphogenesis and inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Sharma, Bharti; Holappa, Lynn D; Kramer, Elena M; Litt, Amy

    2013-04-01

    The APETALA1/FRUITFULL (AP1/FUL) MADS box transcription factors are best known for the role of AP1 in Arabidopsis sepal and petal identity, the canonical A function of the ABC model of flower development. However, this gene lineage underwent multiple duplication events during angiosperm evolution, providing different taxa with unique gene complements. One such duplication correlates with the origin of the core eudicots, and produced the euAP1 and euFUL clades. Together, euAP1 and euFUL genes function in proper floral meristem identity and repression of axillary meristem growth. Independently, euAP1 genes function in floral meristem and sepal identity, whereas euFUL genes control phase transition, cauline leaf growth and fruit development. To investigate the impact of the core eudicot duplication on the functional diversification of this gene lineage, we studied the role of pre-duplication FUL-like genes in columbine (Aquilegia coerulea). Our results show that AqcFL1 genes are broadly expressed in vegetative and reproductive meristems, leaves and flowers. Virus-induced gene silencing of the loci results in plants with increased branching, shorter inflorescences with fewer flowers, and dramatic changes in leaf shape and complexity. However, aqcfl1 plants have normal flowers and fruits. Our results show that, in contrast to characterized AP1/FUL genes, the AqcFL1 loci are either genetically redundant or have been decoupled from the floral genetic program, and play a major role in leaf morphogenesis. We analyze the results in the context of the core eudicot duplication, and discuss the implications of our findings in terms of the genetic regulation of leaf morphogenesis in Aquilegia and other flowering plants.

  12. MMP-2 plays an essential role in producing epithelial-mesenchymal transformations in the avian embryo.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tuan D; Erickson, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the roles that matrix-degrading proteases may have in development of the chicken embryo, we documented the expression pattern of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2, 72-kDa type IV collagenase or gelatinase A) and perturbed its function in vitro and in vivo. MMP-2 is expressed as neural crest cells detach from the neural epithelium during an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) but is rapidly extinguished as they disperse. It is also expressed in the sclerotome and in the dermis at the time that the EMT is initiated, and also as these cells migrate, and is down-regulated once motility has ceased. These patterns suggest that MMP-2 plays a role in cell motility during the EMT and during later morphogenesis. Inhibitors of MMPs, including BB-94 and TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2), prevent the EMT that generates neural crest cells, both in tissue culture and in vivo, but do not affect migration of the cells that have already detached from the neural tube. Similarly, knockdown of MMP-2 expression in the dorsal neural tube using antisense morpholino oligos perturbs the EMT, but also does not affect migration of neural crest cells after they have detached from the neural tube. On the other hand, when somites in culture are treated with TIMP-2, some mesenchymal cells are produced, suggesting that they undergo the EMT, but show greatly reduced migration through the collagen gel. MMP-2 is also expressed in mesenchyme where tissue remodeling is in progress, such as in the developing feather germs, in the head mesenchyme, in the lateral plate mesoderm, and in the limb dermis, especially in the regions where tendons are developing. Comparisons of these expression patterns in multiple embryonic tissues suggest a probable role for MMP-2 in the migration phase of the EMT, in addition to mesenchyme dispersion and tissue remodeling. Developmental Dynamics 229:42-53, 2004. PMID:14699576

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases and their multiple roles in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Xiang; Tan, Meng-Shan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia. Pathological changes in the AD brain include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as neuronal death and synaptic loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role as inflammatory components in the pathogenesis of AD. MMP-2 might be assumed to have a protective role in AD and is the major MMP which is directly linked to Aβ in the brain. Synthesis of MMP-9 can be induced by Aβ, and the enzymes appear to exert multiple effects in AD in senile plaque homoeostasis. The proaggregatory influence on tau oligomer formation in strategic brain regions may be a potential neurotoxic side effect of MMP-9. MMP-3 levels are correlated to the duration of AD and correlate with the CSF T-tau and P-tau levels in the elderly controls. Elevated brain levels of MMP-3 might result in increased MMP-9 activity and indirectly facilitate tau aggregation. At present, the clinical utility of these proteins, particularly in plasma or serum, as potential early diagnostic biomarkers for AD remains to be established. More research is needed to understand the diverse roles of these proteases to design specific drugs and devise therapeutic strategies for AD.

  14. The Role of Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Jorge; Farez, Mauricio F.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder causing central nervous system (CNS) demyelination and axonal injury. Although its etiology remains elusive, several lines of evidence support the concept that autoimmunity plays a major role in disease pathogenesis. The course of MS is highly variable; nevertheless, the majority of patients initially present a relapsing–remitting clinical course. After 10–15 years of disease, this pattern becomes progressive in up to 50% of untreated patients, during which time clinical symptoms slowly cause constant deterioration over a period of many years. In about 15% of MS patients, however, disease progression is relentless from disease onset. Published evidence supports the concept that progressive MS reflects a poorly understood mechanism of insidious axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Recently, the type of microglial cell and of astrocyte activation and proliferation observed has suggested contribution of resident CNS cells may play a critical role in disease progression. Astrocytes could contribute to this process through several mechanisms: (a) as part of the innate immune system, (b) as a source of cytotoxic factors, (c) inhibiting remyelination and axonal regeneration by forming a glial scar, and (d) contributing to axonal mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, regulatory mechanisms mediated by astrocytes can be affected by aging. Notably, astrocytes might also limit the detrimental effects of pro-inflammatory factors, while providing support and protection for oligodendrocytes and neurons. Because of the dichotomy observed in astrocytic effects, the design of therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes becomes a challenging endeavor. Better knowledge of molecular and functional properties of astrocytes, therefore, should promote understanding of their specific role in MS pathophysiology, and consequently lead to development of novel and more successful therapeutic approaches. PMID:26347709

  15. Following instructions in a virtual school: Does working memory play a role?

    PubMed

    Jaroslawska, Agnieszka J; Gathercole, Susan E; Logie, Matthew R; Holmes, Joni

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence that working memory supports the ability to follow instructions has so far been restricted to experimental paradigms that have greatly simplified the practical demands of performing actions to instructions in everyday tasks. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether working memory is involved in maintaining information over the longer periods of time that are more typical of everyday situations that require performing instructions to command. Forty-two children 7-11 years of age completed assessments of working memory, a real-world following-instructions task employing 3-D objects, and two new computerized instruction-following tasks involving navigation around a virtual school to complete a sequence of practical spoken commands. One task involved performing actions in a single classroom, and the other, performing actions in multiple locations in a virtual school building. Verbal working memory was closely linked with all three following-instructions paradigms, but with greater association to the virtual than to the real-world tasks. These results indicate that verbal working memory plays a key role in following instructions over extended periods of activity.

  16. A serine proteinase homologue, SPH-3, plays a central role in insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Felföldi, Gabriella; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Venekei, István

    2011-04-15

    Numerous vertebrate and invertebrate genes encode serine proteinase homologues (SPHs) similar to members of the serine proteinase family, but lacking one or more residues of the catalytic triad. These SPH proteins are thought to play a role in immunity, but their precise functions are poorly understood. In this study, we show that SPH-3 (an insect non-clip domain-containing SPH) is of central importance in the immune response of a model lepidopteran, Manduca sexta. We examine M. sexta infection with a virulent, insect-specific, Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. RNA interference suppression of bacteria-induced SPH-3 synthesis severely compromises the insect's ability to defend itself against infection by preventing the transcription of multiple antimicrobial effector genes, but, surprisingly, not the transcription of immune recognition genes. Upregulation of the gene encoding prophenoloxidase and the activity of the phenoloxidase enzyme are among the antimicrobial responses that are severely attenuated on SPH-3 knockdown. These findings suggest the existence of two largely independent signaling pathways controlling immune recognition by the fat body, one governing effector gene transcription, and the other regulating genes encoding pattern recognition proteins.

  17. NEUTROPHILS PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LPS-INDUCED AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-045 (GAVETT) GPRA # 10108

    Neutrophils Play a Critical Role in the Development of LPS-Induced Airway Disease.
    Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, and David A. Schwartz

    ABSTRACT
    We investigated the role of neutrophils...

  18. The ULT trxG Fatcors play a role in Arabidopsis Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic modifiers that play key roles in eukaryotic development by promoting active or repressive gene expression states, respectively. Although PcG proteins have well-defined roles in controlling developmental transitions, cell fate de...

  19. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  20. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official...

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of Role-Play Assessments of Social Skill in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellack, Alan S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Thomas-Lohrman, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature documenting that people with schizophrenia have marked impairments in social role functioning and social skill. One of the most widely employed strategies for assessing social skill has been role-play tests: simulated social interactions that are videotaped for subsequent behavioral coding. There has been…

  2. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  3. Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the possible relationships among children's extracurricular toy-playing habits, sex-role orientations, spatial abilities, and science achievement. Data were gathered from 282 midwestern, suburban, fifth-grade students. It was found that boys had significantly higher spatial skills than girls. No significant differences in spatial ability were found among students with different sex-role orientations. No significant differences in science achievement were found between girls and boys, or among students with the four different sex-role orientations. Students who had high spatial ability also had significantly higher science achievement scores than students with low spatial ability. Femininely oriented boys who reported low playing in the two-dimensional, gross-body-movement, and proportional-arrangement toy categories scored significantly higher on the test of science achievement than girls with the same sex-role and toy-playing behavior.

  4. Multiple Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3) "The Social Origins…

  5. Role-Play Experience Facilitates Reading the Mind of Individuals with Different Perception

    PubMed Central

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red). Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read), according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own. PMID:24023966

  6. Multiple roles for Piwi in silencing Drosophila transposons.

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J

    2013-02-15

    Silencing of transposons in the Drosophila ovary relies on three Piwi family proteins--Piwi, Aubergine (Aub), and Ago3--acting in concert with their small RNA guides, the Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Aub and Ago3 are found in the germ cell cytoplasm, where they function in the ping-pong cycle to consume transposon mRNAs. The nuclear Piwi protein is required for transposon silencing in both germ and somatic follicle cells, yet the precise mechanisms by which Piwi acts remain largely unclear. We investigated the role of Piwi by combining cell type-specific knockdowns with measurements of steady-state transposon mRNA levels, nascent RNA synthesis, chromatin state, and small RNA abundance. In somatic cells, Piwi loss led to concerted effects on nascent transcripts and transposon mRNAs, indicating that Piwi acts through transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). In germ cells, Piwi loss showed disproportionate impacts on steady-state RNA levels, indicating that it also exerts an effect on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Piwi knockdown affected levels of germ cell piRNAs presumably bound to Aub and Ago3, perhaps explaining its post-transcriptional impacts. Overall, our results indicate that Piwi plays multiple roles in the piRNA pathway, in part enforcing transposon repression through effects on local chromatin states and transcription but also participating in germ cell piRNA biogenesis.

  7. Multiple roles for Piwi in silencing Drosophila transposons

    PubMed Central

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Silencing of transposons in the Drosophila ovary relies on three Piwi family proteins—Piwi, Aubergine (Aub), and Ago3—acting in concert with their small RNA guides, the Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Aub and Ago3 are found in the germ cell cytoplasm, where they function in the ping-pong cycle to consume transposon mRNAs. The nuclear Piwi protein is required for transposon silencing in both germ and somatic follicle cells, yet the precise mechanisms by which Piwi acts remain largely unclear. We investigated the role of Piwi by combining cell type-specific knockdowns with measurements of steady-state transposon mRNA levels, nascent RNA synthesis, chromatin state, and small RNA abundance. In somatic cells, Piwi loss led to concerted effects on nascent transcripts and transposon mRNAs, indicating that Piwi acts through transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). In germ cells, Piwi loss showed disproportionate impacts on steady-state RNA levels, indicating that it also exerts an effect on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Piwi knockdown affected levels of germ cell piRNAs presumably bound to Aub and Ago3, perhaps explaining its post-transcriptional impacts. Overall, our results indicate that Piwi plays multiple roles in the piRNA pathway, in part enforcing transposon repression through effects on local chromatin states and transcription but also participating in germ cell piRNA biogenesis. PMID:23392609

  8. Analyzing Members' Motivations to Participate in Role-Playing and Self-Expression Based Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya

    With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.

  9. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  10. Virtual firm as a role-playing tool for biomedical education.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Soto-Romero, Georges; Guyon, Florent; Courjal, Nadège; Euphrasie, Sebatien; Yahiaoui, Reda; Butterlin, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes design of a role-playing tool based on the experience of the practice firm which allows participants to obtain relevant and practical on-the-job experience. The students played the roles of the employees and the applicants for vacant positions at the virtual firm - a small business specialized in biomedical sector - founded to design the demonstration vehicle for a biomedical device. We found that this innovative concept may be used to improve the young engineers performance and to facilitate their post-graduate integration.

  11. Third Year Medical School Students’ Experiences of Revealing Patients’ Stories through Role Playing

    PubMed Central

    Cansever, Zeliha; Avsar, Zeynep; Tastan, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studying medicine is hard and it takes longer time compared to other majors. In addition, medical students find medical education boring. It is now necessary to turn medical education into an enjoyable and interesting way. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational program related to how to learn taking medical history and how an effective patient-doctor interview should be. The program is structured in various scenarios, on the students learning skills, by the “role playing” method. Materials and Methods: A scenario prepared by the lecturer was employed in this study. While one of the students acted in a doctor role, the other one played in the role of patient’s relative. The lecturer always played in the role of patient. After performing the role playing, students’ written and oral feedbacks were gathered. Data were analysed by using SPSS 20.0 program. Results: A total of 470 feedbacks (51.3% were given by the female students) were taken from the students. Thirty-three volunteer students, nineteen of them were male, took part in the role playing. In the patient-doctor interview, the field that students were best were greeting the patients and dealing only with patients during the examination. The mean scores were 3.81±0.95 and 3.79±0.94 respectively. The ability to “summarize” and to “address the patient with his/her name” had the lowest scores; the mean scores of the students in these areas were 2.94±1.11 and 2.70±1.31, respectively. Conclusion: Medical education is a long and tough process. Therefore, it should be interesting, attention getting and cheerful. Role playing can be effective in meeting that need. PMID:25745342

  12. Skills Development Using Role-Play in a First-Year Pharmacy Practice Course

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the usefulness of a role-play model in developing students’ patient-care skills in a first-year undergraduate pharmacy practice course. Design. A role-play model was developed and implemented in workshops across 2 semesters of a year-long course. Students performed different roles, including that of a pharmacist and a patient, and documented case notes in a single interaction. Assessment. Student perceptions of the usefulness of the approach in acquiring skills were measured by surveying students during both semesters. All student assessments (N=130 in semester1; N=129 in semester 2) also were analyzed for skills in verbal communication, information gathering, counselling and making recommendations, and accurately documenting information. A majority of students found the approach useful in developing skills. An analysis of student assessments revealed that role-playing was not as effective in building skills related to accurate documentation as it was in other areas of patient care. Conclusions. Role play is useful for developing patient-care skills in communication and information gathering but not for documentation of case notes. PMID:21829258

  13. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  14. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated…

  15. The Role of Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kocoglu, Mehmet; Badros, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. The treatment of this disease has changed considerably over the last two decades with the introduction to the clinical practice of novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Basic research efforts towards better understanding of normal and missing immune surveillence in myeloma have led to development of new strategies and therapies that require the engagement of the immune system. Many of these treatments are under clinical development and have already started providing encouraging results. We, for the second time in the last two decades, are about to witness another shift of the paradigm in the management of this ailment. This review will summarize the major approaches in myeloma immunotherapies. PMID:26784207

  16. Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzymes Play Differential Roles in Thermal Homeostasis in Response to Environmental or Immune Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nass, Sara R; Long, Jonathan Z; Schlosburg, Joel E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H; Kinsey, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-THC, the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, have anti-pyrogenic effects in a variety of assays. Recently, attention has turned to the endogenous cannabinoid system and how endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including thermoregulation. Inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), elevates levels of 2-AG or anandamide in vivo, respectively. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes function to maintain thermal homeostasis in response to hypothermic challenge. In separate experiments, male C57BL/6J mice were administered a MAGL or FAAH inhibitor, and then challenged with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 mg/kg ip) or a cold (4 °C) ambient environment. Systemic LPS administration caused a significant decrease in core body temperature after 6 h, and this hypothermia persisted for at least 12 h. Similarly, cold environment induced mild hypothermia that resolved within 30 min. JZL184 exacerbated hypothermia induced by either LPS or cold challenge, both of which effects were blocked by rimonabant, but not SR144528, indicating a CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor, PF-3845, had no effect on either LPS-induced or cold-induced hypothermia. These data indicate that unlike direct acting cannabinoid receptor agonists, which elicit profound hypothermic responses on their own, neither MAGL nor FAAH inhibitors affect normal body temperature. However, these endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes play distinct roles in thermoregulation following hypothermic challenges.

  17. Annexin5 Plays a Vital Role in Arabidopsis Pollen Development via Ca2+-Dependent Membrane Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingen; Wu, Xiaorong; Yuan, Shunjie; Qian, Dong; Nan, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of pollen development and pollen tube growth is a complicated biological process that is crucial for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Annexins are widely distributed from protists to higher eukaryotes and play multiple roles in numerous cellular events by acting as a putative “linker” between Ca2+ signaling, the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane, which are required for pollen development and pollen tube growth. Our recent report suggested that downregulation of the function of Arabidopsis annexin 5 (Ann5) in transgenic Ann5-RNAi lines caused severely sterile pollen grains. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the function of Ann5 in pollen. This study demonstrated that Ann5 associates with phospholipid membrane and this association is stimulated by Ca2+ in vitro. Brefeldin A (BFA) interferes with endomembrane trafficking and inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Both pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Ann5-overexpressing plants showed increased resistance to BFA treatment, and this effect was regulated by calcium. Overexpression of Ann5 promoted Ca2+-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in pollen tubes in vivo in response to BFA. Lactrunculin (LatB) significantly prohibited pollen germination and tube growth by binding with high affinity to monomeric actin and preferentially targeting dynamic actin filament arrays and preventing actin polymerization. Overexpression of Ann5 did not affect pollen germination or pollen tube growth in response to LatB compared with wild-type, although Ann5 interacts with actin filaments in a manner similar to some animal annexins. In addition, the sterile pollen phenotype could be only partially rescued by Ann5 mutants at Ca2+-binding sites when compared to the complete recovery by wild-type Ann5. These data demonstrated that Ann5 is involved in pollen development, germination and pollen tube growth through the promotion of endomembrane trafficking modulated by

  18. What Role Should Environmental and Conservation Nongovernmental Organizations Play in Science Communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    Communication of a scientific topic as complex and multifaceted as climate change requires multiple strategies that are effective for reaching different audiences. The scientific community plays a pivotal role in advancing public understanding of climate change, generally via statements issued by professional societies, synthesis assessments, and media coverage of research publications. These efforts can be especially influential in the national public policy arena, but are not always the best means for educating the general public. Indeed, polls of the American public's views on climate change present a contradictory picture: a large majority of Americans agree that climate change is taking place, but many have a fundamental lack of understanding as to what causes it or how it might impact them. This results in confusion about what are the best solutions for addressing climate change. In addition, large science organizations may be ill equipped to communicate about regional and local climate impacts and responses. Environmental and conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can help bridge these gaps in understanding by translating scientific information and making it relevant to targeted audiences. NGOs can be effective messengers because they often have extensive grassroots networks, staff focused on regional and local issues, and high credibility with their respective constituencies. Furthermore, NGOs typically devote considerable resources to communication, from developing print, web, and video materials for their outreach efforts to cultivating relationships with the media. However, NGOs that are involved in advocacy run the risk of being considered biased in their presentation of scientific information. For this reason, partnerships with scientists can be an effective way for NGOs to avoid the perception of bias and use their resources to greatly expand the understanding and relevancy of research results. Examples will be presented of the National

  19. Annexin5 plays a vital role in Arabidopsis pollen development via Ca2+-dependent membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingen; Wu, Xiaorong; Yuan, Shunjie; Qian, Dong; Nan, Qiong; An, Lizhe; Xiang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of pollen development and pollen tube growth is a complicated biological process that is crucial for sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Annexins are widely distributed from protists to higher eukaryotes and play multiple roles in numerous cellular events by acting as a putative "linker" between Ca2+ signaling, the actin cytoskeleton and the membrane, which are required for pollen development and pollen tube growth. Our recent report suggested that downregulation of the function of Arabidopsis annexin 5 (Ann5) in transgenic Ann5-RNAi lines caused severely sterile pollen grains. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of the function of Ann5 in pollen. This study demonstrated that Ann5 associates with phospholipid membrane and this association is stimulated by Ca2+ in vitro. Brefeldin A (BFA) interferes with endomembrane trafficking and inhibits pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Both pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Ann5-overexpressing plants showed increased resistance to BFA treatment, and this effect was regulated by calcium. Overexpression of Ann5 promoted Ca2+-dependent cytoplasmic streaming in pollen tubes in vivo in response to BFA. Lactrunculin (LatB) significantly prohibited pollen germination and tube growth by binding with high affinity to monomeric actin and preferentially targeting dynamic actin filament arrays and preventing actin polymerization. Overexpression of Ann5 did not affect pollen germination or pollen tube growth in response to LatB compared with wild-type, although Ann5 interacts with actin filaments in a manner similar to some animal annexins. In addition, the sterile pollen phenotype could be only partially rescued by Ann5 mutants at Ca2+-binding sites when compared to the complete recovery by wild-type Ann5. These data demonstrated that Ann5 is involved in pollen development, germination and pollen tube growth through the promotion of endomembrane trafficking modulated by calcium

  20. From board to bedside – training the communication competences of medical students with role plays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. Methods We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called “difficult interactions”. Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Results Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor’s role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient’s role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students’ most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor’s role at least once. The students’ answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of

  1. Student Voices about the Role Feedback Plays in the Enhancement of Their Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Christine; Dixon, Helen; Ward, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    If feedback is to be framed as purposeful dialogue then both students and teachers have significant roles to play. Students must be willing and able to provide feedback to teachers not only about their learning needs but also about the teaching they experience. In turn, teachers must create the conditions that support active student learning and…

  2. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  3. A Role-Play to Illustrate the Energy Changes Occurring in an Exothermic Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyas, Toby; Cabot, John

    1999-01-01

    Describes a role-play activity designed to help students understand the energy changes involved in an exothermic reaction by modeling the concepts of bond-breaking takes in energy, activation energy, temperature rise, and bond breaking gives out energy. (WRM)

  4. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  5. Teacher's Skill Improvement by Role-Play and Simulations on Collaborative Educational Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo, Carlos-Miguel

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at teachers' role-play and simulations in order to increase teachers' skills in psycho-pedagogical support on educational virtual worlds. We put forward a proposal to encourage the use of 3D scenarios where teachers can improve their skills for situations of cultural and ethical concerns that require a high level…

  6. Describing Roles that Gay-Straight Alliances Play in Schools: From Individual Support to School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Pat; Lee, Camille; Waugh, Jeffrey; Beyer, Chad

    2004-01-01

    Based on a broader qualitative study of organizational level changes in schools participating in Massachusetts' Safe Schools Program, the authors describe four roles that GSAs played in the twenty-two schools: counseling and support; "safe" space; primary vehicle for raising awareness, increasing visibility, and educating about LGBT issues in…

  7. Personality Correlates of Self-Report, Role-Playing, and In Vivo Measures of Assertiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Undergraduates completed self-report inventories of assertiveness, participated in behavior role-playing tasks and in vivo measures of assertiveness, and completed the Personality Research Form E (PRF-E). Of 22 PRF-E scales, 11 had at least one significant correlation with assertiveness measures. Some composites of PRF-E scales were related to…

  8. Experiential Learning through Interactive Drama: An Alternative to Student Role Plays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, James G.; Mickel, Amy E.; Holtom, Brooks C.

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces interactive drama as an alternative to student role-plays. Interactive drama increases student engagement and explores complex issues in management. It features scenes from organizational life being performed live by trained actors before a student audience, stopping at pivotal points so the audience can interact with the…

  9. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  10. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  11. Teaching Conflict Resolution Skills to Middle and High School Students through Interactive Drama and Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Frabutt, James M.; Vigliano, Debra

    2007-01-01

    In response to the rising levels of school conflict, the present study investigated a new approach to conflict resolution for middle and high school students using interactive drama and role play called the Win-Win Resolutions program. The standardized curriculum delivered within the school setting includes strategies for self-control and anger…

  12. Does Gender Play a Role in the Assessment of Oral Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motallebzadeh, Khalil; Nematizadeh, Shaahin

    2011-01-01

    Gender has been a controversial issue which affects the language learning process. McNamara (1996) has proposed that there are some variables affecting second language performance one of which is sex. In much the same way, it has been reported that gender plays a role in the area of language testing (Brown, 2003; Lumley & O'Sullivan, 2005;…

  13. Role-Play Game-Enhanced English for a Specific-Purpose Vocabulary-Acquisition Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Fang-Chen; Chang, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With the advantages of an engaged and authentic role-play game (RPG), this study aims to develop an RPG-enhanced English for specific purposes (ESP) vocabulary-acquisition framework, providing teachers and students a systematic way to incorporate RPG into ESP learning. The framework is composed of five parts: goal, three-level vocabulary sets, RPG…

  14. Mother and Peer Influences on Children's Sex-Role Play Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris; Langlois, Judith H.

    One of a series of studies originating in Austin, Texas examining the relative contribution of the primary socializing agents on the child's sex-role development, their study was designed to determine whether mother and peers of nursery school children differentially reward or punish play with sex-appropriate or sex-inappropriate toys. The study…

  15. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  16. Trading Spaces: An Educator's Ethnographic Exploration of Adolescents' Digital Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes-Moore, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the author examines a digital role-play in which participants composed an alternate version of "The Hunger Games" (Collins, 2008). Participants imagined characters and posted more than 400 scenes in the online collaboration. The author draws upon ethnographic methods (Merriam, 2009) to describe her participant-observer…

  17. A Role-Play Game to Facilitate the Development of Students' Reflective Internet Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…

  18. Sustainability and Science Learning: Perceptions from 8th Grade Students Involved with a Role Playing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…

  19. Simulation Games and Role Playing. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Earl G.; Pierfy, David A.

    Designed as part of a series to develop teaching strategies for the elementary curriculum, this module focuses on simulation games and role playing as two important teaching devices. The first part describes games and simulation; and factors that should be considered in selecting, using, and debriefing games in the classroom. Exercises to test…

  20. E-Drama: Facilitating Online Role-Play Using an AI Actor and Emotionally Expressive Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li; Gillies, Marco; Dhaliwal, Kulwant; Gower, Amanda; Robertson, Dale; Crabtree, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-user role-playing environment, referred to as "e-drama", which enables groups of people to converse online, in scenario driven virtual environments. The starting point of this research, is an existing application known as "edrama", a 2D graphical environment in which users are represented by static cartoon figures.…

  1. Female Superintendents in California and the Role That Mentoring and Networking Have Played in Their Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudek, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role that mentoring, formal networking, and informal networking have played in the lives of women who have obtained the position of superintendent in the state of California. The researcher explored the access that female administrators had to mentors and networks, followed by the perceived benefits they received when they…

  2. Teaching Constitutional Law and Related Courses Through Problem-Solving and Role-Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Robert P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem-solving and role-playing can be used successfully even in the second semester of law school, serving as a bridge between traditional analytical and doctrinal education and the more realistic simulation and clinical experiences of the third year. Students can gain sufficient experience to perform proficiently in more advanced courses. (MSE)

  3. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  4. Unsavory Problems at Tasty's: A Role-Play about Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Debra R.; Vega, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a role-play exercise to make the topic of whistle-blowing personally salient to undergraduates. Students identify with the prospective whistle-blower, whose decision affects several stakeholders. The protagonist merely suspects her manager of stealing, until she hears concrete evidence of his thefts from her assistant…

  5. General Federation of Women's Clubs: A Role Playing Exercise for Studying the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sherman

    1986-01-01

    Provides an example of a role-playing exercise which takes place as a result of an imaginary caucus of women's groups meeting in the fall of 1912. The purpose of the caucus is to determine which of four presidential candidates--Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Eugene Debs--will receive the endorsement of the women's…

  6. Computer-Based Simulation Systems and Role-Playing: An Effective Combination for Fostering Conditional Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlechter, Theodore M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of SIMNET (Simulation Networking), a virtual reality training simulation system, combined with a program of role-playing activities for helping Army classes to master the conditional knowledge needed for successful field performance. The value of active forms of learning for promoting higher order cognitive thinking is…

  7. Informal Workplace Communication--What Roles Can Microblogging Play in It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dejin

    2012-01-01

    Informal communication, e.g., unplanned "water-cooler" conversations, has been suggested to play important roles in collaborative work and organizational innovation. It provides opportunities among employees for exchanging work-relevant information, initiating potential collaboration, maintaining awareness of workplace context; and…

  8. Playing the Role of an Outsider Within: Teaching Intercultural Communication through an Ethnographic Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsin-I Sydney

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used to enhance students' ability not only to identify different cultures but also to describe their own cultures with proper analytical vocabulary is to teach students how to play the role of an outsider of their culture and de-familiarize their everyday practice so that they can distinguish cultural patterns and…

  9. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus,…

  10. Role-Playing Simulation as a Communication Tool in Community Dialogue: Karkonosze Mountains Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krolikowska, Karolina; Kronenberg, Jakub; Maliszewska, Karolina; Sendzimir, Jan; Magnuszewski, Piotr; Dunajski, Andrzej; Slodka, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a process of role-playing simulation (RPS) as it was used during an educational exercise in community dialogue in the Karkonosze Mountains region of southwest Poland. Over the past decade Karkonosze National Park, a regional tourist magnet, has provided an excellent example of environmental conflict emerging from the…

  11. Choices and Chances: The Sociology Role-Playing Game--The Sociological Imagination in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Joseph M.; Elias, Vicky L.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a sociology role-playing game (RPG) used to demonstrate the broad range of social forces, institutions, and structures in a semester-long series of in-class and homework assignments. RPGs and other simulation games have been frequently suggested as a useful teaching methodology because of their unique ability to allow…

  12. How to Develop Creative Imagination? Assumptions, Aims and Effectiveness of Role Play Training in Creativity (RPTC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwowski, Maciej; Soszynski, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    There are hundreds of ways to develop creativity among children, youths and adults. Developing new ideas and ways of teaching creativity should also incorporate youth's interests and hobbies. The article presents the main information about the new way of developing creative abilities, especially creative imagination, the Role Play Training in…

  13. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  14. Fathers' Role in Play: Enhancing Early Language and Literacy of Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Fathers and paternal role models make a unique contribution to children's development. There is some research to suggest that the types of play males engage in with children is typically more active and thus offers unique possibilities for embedding activities for language and literacy development. In this article, we offer suggestions for how…

  15. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  16. Student Perceptions of a Role-Playing Simulation in an Introductory International Relations Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovanello, Sean P.; Kirk, Jason A.; Kromer, Mileah K.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging assumption in undergraduate political science education is that role-playing simulations are an effective teaching tool. While previous studies have addressed the pedagogical advantages of simulations as compared to more traditional teaching techniques, less attention has been paid to student perceptions of these simulations. This…

  17. Designing After-School Learning Using the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular for engaging students in a range of learning goals, both in the classroom and the after-school space. In this article, I discuss a specific genre of video game, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO), which has been identified as a dynamic environment for encountering 21st-century workplace…

  18. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  19. 'Club Dread': Applying and Refining an Issues-Based Role Play on Environment, Economy, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Cecile; Hay, Iain

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the purpose, design, implementation, and value of an issues-based role play exercise in a first year Australian university undergraduate topic. Explains that the exercise requires students to consider implications for environment, economy, and culture of a large-scale tourist development on Rarotonga (Cook Islands). (CMK)

  20. Using Role-Play to Foster Transformational and Social Action Multiculturalism in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of role-play as an effective strategy for enhancing the quality of multicultural curricula in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom. The author critiques the use of the simplistic additive approach to multicultural instruction and furthers the work of those theorists who advocate the use of the more…

  1. The Role of Imaging in Determining Return to Play.

    PubMed

    Casagranda, Bethany U; Thurlow, Peter C

    2016-09-01

    Return-to-play (RTP) predictions focus on how long it takes an athlete to return to their full athletic activity after sustaining an injury. This article focuses on the role of imaging and the radiologist in RTP predictions for the most common and controversial injuries affecting athletes. PMID:27545432

  2. Use of an Empathy Algorithm with a Role-Played Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Warren F.; Hasegawa, Carol S.

    1984-01-01

    Presented an empathy algorithm, a procedure for deciding whether to use an interchangeable or an additive empathy response and instructions for the construction of each response, to a randomly chosen group of novice counselors (N=23). The experimental group performed significantly better in counseling a role-played client than did controls.…

  3. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation.

  4. Use of Role-playing Exercises in Teaching Undergraduate Astronomy and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Paul J.; Byrne, Aidan P.

    1999-08-01

    The use of role-playing exercises in the teaching of university astronomy and physics can enliven lectures, deepen student understanding and dramatically increase the level of classroom interaction. A series of case studies is presented, illustrating the nature of this technique, its advantages and some of its pitfalls. Several ready-to-run exercises are included.

  5. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

  6. Excessive Use of Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Zaheer; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are one of the most interesting innovations in the area of online computer gaming. This pilot study set out to examine the psychological and social effects of online gaming using an online questionnaire with particular reference to excessive and "dependent" online gaming. A self-selecting…

  7. The Roles That Librarians and Libraries Play in Distance Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Amanda; Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the literature that focuses on the various roles librarians and libraries play in distance education settings. Learners visit libraries either in person or via networked computing technology to ask for help with their online courses. Questions range from how to upload a document with a learning management system, to how to…

  8. Enhancing Information Systems Auditing Knowledge with Role-Playing Game: An Experimental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongpinunwatana, Nitaya

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use and effect of a role-playing game on learners' ability in information systems audit. The study is based on experimental research. Information systems control and audit case study and video had been developed. A total of 75 graduate students undertaking a Master's degree in accounting participated in the experiment. The…

  9. Role-Playing Games for Capacity Building in Water and Land Management: Some Brazilian Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Maria Eugenia; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Ducrot, Raphaele

    2007-01-01

    Role-playing games in natural resource management are currently being tested as research, training, and intervention tools all over the world. Various studies point out their potential to deal with complex issues and to contribute to training processes. The objective of this contribution is to analyze the limits and potentialities of this tool for…

  10. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  11. Enhance Learning on Software Project Management through a Role-Play Game in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…

  12. What Do Students Learn from a Role-Play Simulation of an International Negotiation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Matthew A.; De Santo, Elizabeth M.; Green, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    This article uses pre- and post-surveys to assess learning outcomes associated with a role-play simulation set within a fictionalized extension of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Quantitative and qualitative data suggest that the simulation increased student appreciation of the complexity of international negotiation, but decreased student…

  13. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  14. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  15. Understanding Our Environment: Challenge. Clear Water Challenge: A Role Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieblich, Suzanne, Ed.

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activity and direct experience, this unit contains a role-play activity in the form of a public inquiry into the cause of a fish kill on a river that runs through the fictional town of Oakwood. A…

  16. Teachers' Roles in Infants' Play and Its Changing Nature in a Dynamic Group Care Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    Using a qualitative research approach, this article explores teachers' roles in infants' play and its changing nature in an infant group care setting. Three infant teachers in a child care center were followed over three months. Observations, interviews, ongoing conversations, emails, and reflective notes were used as data sources. Findings…

  17. Using a Role-Play Video to Convey Expectations about Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Lisa G.; Melvin, Adam T.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an instructional video that uses role-play to illustrate the differences between acceptable behavior and cheating on assignments. Since we began showing it in an introductory chemical engineering course, the average number of confirmed instances of cheating decreased slightly, but the average percentage of students who were…

  18. Achieving the Essential Goals of Technical Writing--Role Playing Won't Do It!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebeaux, Elizabeth

    1978-01-01

    Although role-playing is an effective way to create the atmosphere of "real" business situations, technical writing teachers should continue to concentrate primarily on student writing problems and the development of such composition skills as brevity and audience awareness. (RL)

  19. Sixth Graders' Conflict Resolution in Role Plays with a Peer, Parent, and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borbely, Christina J.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used conflict resolution role play vignettes and self-report surveys of 450 New York City 6th graders to examine associations between adolescents' conflict resolution efficacy and social skills. Vignettes covered 3 social contexts, conflict with a peer (disagreement over activities), with a parent (raise in allowance), and with a…

  20. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games. PMID:23866239

  1. Interaction with the game and motivation among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Héctor; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés; Oberst, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about users interacting with Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPG) is fundamental in order to prevent their potential negative effects on behavior. For this reason, the present study analyzed the relationship between styles of play and motivations. An online questionnaire asking for socio-demographic details, playing style, characteristics of the game played and motivations for playing, was answered by 430 Spanish-speaking MMORPG players (45.1% males). The identified profile for players, far away from the stereotype of an adolescent, consisted in a person who mainly plays on PvP (Player versus Player) servers, choosing the type of game according to his experience. Regarding motivations, they were interested in relating with other players through the game (Socialization), in discovering the game's possibilities and development of its adventures (Exploration), to a lesser extent in leadership and prestige (Achievement) and, lastly, identification with an avatar and escape from reality (Dissociation). Although part of the reason for playing was escapism and/or stress relief, the main motivation had a social nature. We conclude that MMORPG offer an attractive environment for a broad spectrum of people, and we have not been able to confirm the stereotype of a loner avoiding reality, taking refuge in games.

  2. Role of multiple representations in physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and planning of the problem solution. Findings suggest that students who draw productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram of the physical situation presented in a problem sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest that this deteriorated performance is in part due to reduced conceptual planning time which caused students to jump to the implementation stage without fully understanding the problem and planning problem solution. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory students' representational consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect. The detrimental effect was partly due to increased cognitive load brought on by the additional steps and instructions. Moreover, students who exhibited representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. The final investigation is centered on a problem solving task designed to provide information about the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). In particular, the TAs identified what they considered to be the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of kinematics concepts as they occur in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). As an extension, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK related to knowledge of

  3. Competence of medical students in communicating drug therapy: Value of role-play demonstrations

    PubMed Central

    Tayem, Yasin I.; Altabtabaei, Abdulaziz S.; Mohamed, Mohamed W.; Arrfedi, Mansour M.; Aljawder, Hasan S.; Aldebous, Fahad A.; James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study used role-play demonstrations to train medical students to communicate drug therapy and evaluated the perceptions on this instructional approach. Materials and Methods: The second-year medical students who attended a prescription writing session (n = 133), participated in this study. Prescription communication was introduced by using role-play demonstrations. Participant's perceptions were explored by a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. The academic achievement of attendees and nonattendees was compared with an objective structured performance evaluation (OSPE) station that tested students’ competence in this skill. Results: Most attendees responded to the questionnaire (81.2%). Almost all respondents expressed their desire to have similar demonstrations in other units. A large proportion of participants reported that role-play demonstrations helped them develop their communication skills, in general, confidence to communicate drug-related information in a prescription, and the ability to explain the aim of drug therapy to patients. Most trainees thought also that they developed skills to communicate instructions on drug use including drug dose, frequency of administration, duration of therapy, adverse drug reactions, and warnings. During the focus group interviews, students thought that role-play was useful but would be more beneficial if conducted frequently in small group as part of the curriculum implementation. The majority of students also reported improved competence in writing a complete prescription. Analysis of attendees and nonattendees grades in the OSPE showed that the former scored higher than the latter group (P = 0.016). Conclusions: Role-play demonstrations were well accepted by medical students and led to the development of their competence in communicating drug therapy to patients. PMID:26997720

  4. Developing Children's Views of the Nature of Science Through Role Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Bayir, Eylem

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using role play (portraying a scientist's life story) on the children's views of the nature of science (NOS). The study was carried out at the Children's University of Trakya in Turkey during the summer of 2010. The participants consisted of 18 children, aged 10-11. They met for 10 days for approximately 3 h per day. All children completed the pre- and post-tests including 16 open-ended questions in order to reveal changes in their views of the NOS prior to and at the completion of the role-play activities. The results revealed that the children had more informed views of the target NOS aspects in comparison with their views prior to the role-play activities. A large majority of the children (around 80-85%) started out with naive conceptions of the target NOS aspects. Following the role-play activities portraying scientists' lives, there was a 40-45% positive change in children's views of the tentative, empirical and creative/imaginative aspect of the NOS, and a 50-60% positive change in their views regarding the subjective/theory-laden and social-cultural embeddedness of science. The most substantial change occurred in their views concerning scientific method, with a shift of 72%. The percentage of informed views on images of scientists showed diversity. Overall results indicate that role-play/drama-oriented activities portraying scientist's life stories could be used as one of the exciting, informative and constructive ways of developing understanding of the NOS among children.

  5. Social Roles, Role-Playing, and Education: On the High School as Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Craig; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1973-01-01

    A description and discussion of an experiment which placed normal college males into a prison-like environment related the term "prison" to any environment restricting human freedom, and explored the control of behavior by situations and roles with reference to educational settings, specifically the high school. (Author/KM)

  6. Effectiveness of Instruction Performed through Computer-Assisted Activity Schedules on On-Schedule and Role-Play Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulke-Kurkcuoglu, Burcu; Bozkurt, Funda; Cuhadar, Selmin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction process provided through computer-assisted activity schedules in the instruction of on-schedule and role-play skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. Herein, a multiple probe design with probe conditions across participants among single subject designs was used. Four…

  7. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2012-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimum and the difficulty to come to good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that plays inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  8. Computer-supported games and role plays in teaching water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for an interdisciplinary approach in teaching water management. Computer-supported games and role plays offer the potential of creating an environment in which different disciplines come together and in which students are challenged to develop integrated understanding. Two examples are discussed. The River Basin Game is a common-pool resource game in which participants experience the risk of over-abstractions of water in a river basin and learn how this risk relates to the complexity of the system, the conflict between individual and group optimums and the difficulty in achieving good cooperation. The Globalization of Water Role Play makes participants familiar with the global dimension of water management by letting them experience how national governments can integrate considerations of water scarcity and domestic water productivities into decisions on international trade in commodities like food, cotton and bio-energy. The two examples illustrate that play sessions inspire participants to think about the functioning of systems as a whole and to develop good cooperative courses of action, whereby both uncertainties about the system and the presence of different values and perspectives among participants play a role.

  9. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Leveled Vocabulary Embedded within Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This content analysis examined levels of vocabulary within massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). A total of six MMORPGs were studied; three were pay-to-play (P2P), and three were free-to-play (F2P). Sixty hours of game play (10 hours per game) provided the researcher with 50,240 embedded vocabulary words. Each MMORPG was…

  10. Neutrophils play an important role in protective immunity against Coxiella burnetii infection.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Alexandra; Schoenlaub, Laura; Freches, Danielle; Mitchell, William; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-08-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease Q fever. Although Q fever is mainly transmitted by aerosol infection, study of the immune responses in the lung following pulmonary C. burnetii infection is lacking. Neutrophils are considered the first immune cell to migrate into the lung and play an important role in host defense against aerosol infection with microbial pathogens. However, the role of neutrophils in the host defense against C. burnetii infection remains unclear. To determine the role of neutrophils in protective immunity against C. burnetii infection, the RB6-8C5 antibody was used to deplete neutrophils in mice before intranasal infection with C. burnetii. The results indicated that neutrophil-depleted mice developed more severe disease than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting that neutrophils play an important role in host defense against C. burnetii pulmonary infection. We also found that neither CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) nor interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor (IL-17R) deficiency changed the severity of disease following intranasal C. burnetii challenge, suggesting that keratinocyte-derived chemokine and IL-17 may not play essential roles in the response to C. burnetii infection. However, significantly higher C. burnetii genome copy numbers were detected in the lungs of IL-1R(-/-) mice at 14 days postinfection. This indicates that IL-1 may be important for the clearance of C. burnetii from the lungs following intranasal infection. Our results also suggest that neutrophils are involved in protecting vaccinated mice from C. burnetii challenge-induced disease. This is the first study to demonstrate an important role for neutrophils in protective immunity against C. burnetii infection.

  11. NCP1/AtMOB1A Plays Key Roles in Auxin-Mediated Arabidopsis Development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lizhen; Wang, Yanli; Cheng, Youfa

    2016-01-01

    MOB1 protein is a core component of the Hippo signaling pathway in animals where it is involved in controlling tissue growth and tumor suppression. Plant MOB1 proteins display high sequence homology to animal MOB1 proteins, but little is known regarding their role in plant growth and development. Herein we report the critical roles of Arabidopsis MOB1 (AtMOB1A) in auxin-mediated development in Arabidopsis. We found that loss-of-function mutations in AtMOB1A completely eliminated the formation of cotyledons when combined with mutations in PINOID (PID), which encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that participates in auxin signaling and transport. We showed that atmob1a was fully rescued by its Drosophila counterpart, suggesting functional conservation. The atmob1a pid double mutants phenocopied several well-characterized mutant combinations that are defective in auxin biosynthesis or transport. Moreover, we demonstrated that atmob1a greatly enhanced several other known auxin mutants, suggesting that AtMOB1A plays a key role in auxin-mediated plant development. The atmob1a single mutant displayed defects in early embryogenesis and had shorter root and smaller flowers than wild type plants. AtMOB1A is uniformly expressed in embryos and suspensor cells during embryogenesis, consistent with its role in embryo development. AtMOB1A protein is localized to nucleus, cytoplasm, and associated to plasma membrane, suggesting that it plays roles in these subcellular localizations. Furthermore, we showed that disruption of AtMOB1A led to a reduced sensitivity to exogenous auxin. Our results demonstrated that AtMOB1A plays an important role in Arabidopsis development by promoting auxin signaling. PMID:26942722

  12. NCP1/AtMOB1A Plays Key Roles in Auxin-Mediated Arabidopsis Development.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaona; Guo, Zhiai; Song, Lizhen; Wang, Yanli; Cheng, Youfa

    2016-03-01

    MOB1 protein is a core component of the Hippo signaling pathway in animals where it is involved in controlling tissue growth and tumor suppression. Plant MOB1 proteins display high sequence homology to animal MOB1 proteins, but little is known regarding their role in plant growth and development. Herein we report the critical roles of Arabidopsis MOB1 (AtMOB1A) in auxin-mediated development in Arabidopsis. We found that loss-of-function mutations in AtMOB1A completely eliminated the formation of cotyledons when combined with mutations in PINOID (PID), which encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that participates in auxin signaling and transport. We showed that atmob1a was fully rescued by its Drosophila counterpart, suggesting functional conservation. The atmob1a pid double mutants phenocopied several well-characterized mutant combinations that are defective in auxin biosynthesis or transport. Moreover, we demonstrated that atmob1a greatly enhanced several other known auxin mutants, suggesting that AtMOB1A plays a key role in auxin-mediated plant development. The atmob1a single mutant displayed defects in early embryogenesis and had shorter root and smaller flowers than wild type plants. AtMOB1A is uniformly expressed in embryos and suspensor cells during embryogenesis, consistent with its role in embryo development. AtMOB1A protein is localized to nucleus, cytoplasm, and associated to plasma membrane, suggesting that it plays roles in these subcellular localizations. Furthermore, we showed that disruption of AtMOB1A led to a reduced sensitivity to exogenous auxin. Our results demonstrated that AtMOB1A plays an important role in Arabidopsis development by promoting auxin signaling.

  13. On whether mirror neurons play a significant role in processing affective prosody.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2009-02-01

    Several behavioral and neuroimaging studies have indicated that both right and left cortical structures and a few subcortical ones are involved in processing affective prosody. Recent investigations have shown that the mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in several higher-level functions such as empathy, theory of mind, language, etc., but no studies so far link the mirror neuron system with affective prosody. In this paper is a speculation that the mirror neuron system, which serves as a common neural substrate for different higher-level functions, may play a significant role in processing affective prosody via its connections with the limbic lobe. Actual research must apply electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to assess whether the mirror neuron systems underly affective prosody in humans.

  14. Peer review role-playing as a method of teaching senior undergraduate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    We present a case study of the use of role-playing as a method of enhancing course delivery in senior undergraduate science courses. Specifically we examine the use of simulating peer review of scientific proposals for time on major international telescopes in a third year astrophysics course at the University of Tasmania. We find that 90% of participating students found the experience to be both enjoyable and a good method for learning and that 100% of students felt that the exercise had aided their understanding of the course material. Furthermore 80% of students felt that the role-playing had enhanced their understanding of scientific decision making while 70% believed that they had learnt to apply principles from the course in new situations.

  15. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  16. The relief of a caregiver's burden through guided imagery, role-playing, humor, and paradoxical intervention.

    PubMed

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-01-01

    Caregiving by relatives to a person with mental illness is demanding and overwhelming. This paper describes how to use guided imagery, role-playing, humor, and paradoxical intervention to help the wife of a man with mental illness in easing her worry, anxiety, and frustration engendered by caregiving. The intervention made the wife feel normal and relaxed in facing the "symptoms" of her husband's mental illness. It also revived the wife's patience, hope, and strength in the process of rehabilitation.

  17. Role-play simulations for climate change adaptation education and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumore, Danya; Schenk, Todd; Susskind, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    In order to effectively adapt to climate change, public officials and other stakeholders need to rapidly enhance their understanding of local risks and their ability to collaboratively and adaptively respond to them. We argue that science-based role-play simulation exercises -- a type of 'serious game' involving face-to-face mock decision-making -- have considerable potential as education and engagement tools for enhancing readiness to adapt. Prior research suggests role-play simulations and other serious games can foster public learning and encourage collective action in public policy-making contexts. However, the effectiveness of such exercises in the context of climate change adaptation education and engagement has heretofore been underexplored. We share results from two research projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of role-play simulations in cultivating climate change adaptation literacy, enhancing collaborative capacity and facilitating social learning. Based on our findings, we suggest such exercises should be more widely embraced as part of adaptation professionals' education and engagement toolkits.

  18. Teaching communication skills using role-play: an experience-based guide for educators.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Vicki A; Back, Anthony L

    2011-06-01

    Teaching advanced communication skills requires educators who are not only excellent communicators themselves but have the ability to deconstruct the components of the interaction and develop a cognitive approach that can be used across a variety of learners, diverse content, and under different time constraints while helping the learner develop the skill of self-reflection in a 'safe' and effective learning environment. The use of role-play in small groups is an important method to help learners cultivate the skills required to engage in nuanced, often difficult conversations with seriously ill patients. To be effective, educators utilizing role-play must help learners set realistic goals and know when and how to provide feedback to the learners in a way that allows a deepening of skills and a promotion of self-awareness. The challenge is to do this in a manner that does not cause too much anxiety for the learner. In this article we outline an approach to teaching communication skills to advanced learners through the use of different types of role-play, feedback, and debriefing.

  19. Developing Pharmacy Student Communication Skills through Role-Playing and Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Design. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger’s Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Assessment. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Conclusion. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers. PMID:25995519

  20. Teaching Communication Skills Using Role-Play: An Experience-Based Guide for Educators

    PubMed Central

    Back, Anthony L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Teaching advanced communication skills requires educators who are not only excellent communicators themselves but have the ability to deconstruct the components of the interaction and develop a cognitive approach that can be used across a variety of learners, diverse content, and under different time constraints while helping the learner develop the skill of self-reflection in a ‘safe’ and effective learning environment. The use of role-play in small groups is an important method to help learners cultivate the skills required to engage in nuanced, often difficult conversations with seriously ill patients. To be effective, educators utilizing role-play must help learners set realistic goals and know when and how to provide feedback to the learners in a way that allows a deepening of skills and a promotion of self-awareness. The challenge is to do this in a manner that does not cause too much anxiety for the learner. In this article we outline an approach to teaching communication skills to advanced learners through the use of different types of role-play, feedback, and debriefing. PMID:21651366

  1. Smyd5 plays pivotal roles in both primitive and definitive hematopoiesis during zebrafish embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tomoaki; Tsunesumi, Shin-ichiro; Sagara, Hiroshi; Munakata, Miyo; Hisaki, Yoshihiro; Sekiya, Takao; Furukawa, Yoichi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of histone tails plays a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes. SET and MYND domain-containing protein (SMYD) is a methyltransferase, five family members of which have been identified in humans. SMYD1, SMYD2, SMYD3, and SMYD4 have been found to play critical roles in carcinogenesis and/or the development of heart and skeletal muscle. However, the physiological functions of SMYD5 remain unknown. To investigate the function of Smyd5 in vivo, zebrafish were utilised as a model system. We first examined smyd5 expression patterns in developing zebrafish embryos. Smyd5 transcripts were abundantly expressed at early developmental stages and then gradually decreased. Smyd5 was expressed in all adult tissues examined. Loss-of-function analysis of Smyd5 was then performed in zebrafish embryos using smyd5 morpholino oligonucleotide (MO). Embryos injected with smyd5-MO showed normal gross morphological development, including of heart and skeletal muscle. However, increased expression of both primitive and definitive hematopoietic markers, including pu.1, mpx, l-plastin, and cmyb, were observed. These phenotypes of smyd5-MO zebrafish embryos were also observed when we introduced mutations in smyd5 gene with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. As the expression of myeloid markers was elevated in smyd5 loss-of-function zebrafish, we propose that Smyd5 plays critical roles in hematopoiesis. PMID:27377701

  2. Microbiota Plays a Role in Oral Immune Priming in Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Futo, Momir; Armitage, Sophie A. O.; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Animals are inhabited by a diverse community of microorganisms. The relevance of such microbiota is increasingly being recognized across a broad spectrum of species, ranging from sponges to primates, revealing various beneficial roles that microbes can play. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a well-established experimental model organism for studying questions in ecology and evolution, however, the relevance of its microbial community is still largely unknown. T. castaneum larvae orally exposed to bacterial components of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis showed increased survival upon a subsequent challenge with spores of this bacterium. To investigate whether T. castaneum microbiota plays a role in this phenomenon, we established a protocol for raising microbe-free larvae and subsequently tested whether they differ in their ability to mount such a priming response. Here we demonstrate that larvae with significantly lowered microbial loads, show decreased survival upon secondary challenge with B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis spores, compared to animals that were allowed to regain their microbiota before priming. Although the exact mechanism of oral immune priming is unclear, we here suggest that microbiota plays a crucial role in oral immune priming in this species. PMID:26779124

  3. Microbiota Plays a Role in Oral Immune Priming in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Futo, Momir; Armitage, Sophie A O; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Animals are inhabited by a diverse community of microorganisms. The relevance of such microbiota is increasingly being recognized across a broad spectrum of species, ranging from sponges to primates, revealing various beneficial roles that microbes can play. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a well-established experimental model organism for studying questions in ecology and evolution, however, the relevance of its microbial community is still largely unknown. T. castaneum larvae orally exposed to bacterial components of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis showed increased survival upon a subsequent challenge with spores of this bacterium. To investigate whether T. castaneum microbiota plays a role in this phenomenon, we established a protocol for raising microbe-free larvae and subsequently tested whether they differ in their ability to mount such a priming response. Here we demonstrate that larvae with significantly lowered microbial loads, show decreased survival upon secondary challenge with B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis spores, compared to animals that were allowed to regain their microbiota before priming. Although the exact mechanism of oral immune priming is unclear, we here suggest that microbiota plays a crucial role in oral immune priming in this species. PMID:26779124

  4. Designing Online Role Plays with a Focus on Story Development to Support Engagement and Critical Learning for Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dracup, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Online role plays, as they are designed for use in higher education in Australia and internationally, are active and authentic learning activities (Wills, Leigh & Ip, 2011). In online role plays, students take a character role in developing a story that serves as a metaphor for real-life experience in order to develop a potentially wide range of…

  5. The metallochaperone Atox1 plays a critical role in perinatal copper homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamza, I; Faisst, A; Prohaska, J; Chen, J; Gruss, P; Gitlin, J D

    2001-06-01

    Copper plays a fundamental role in the biochemistry of all aerobic organisms. The delivery of this metal to specific intracellular targets is mediated by metallochaperones. To elucidate the role of the metallochaperone Atox1, we analyzed mice with a disruption of the Atox1 locus. Atox1(-/-) mice failed to thrive immediately after birth, with 45% of pups dying before weaning. Surviving animals exhibited growth failure, skin laxity, hypopigmentation, and seizures because of perinatal copper deficiency. Maternal Atox1 deficiency markedly increased the severity of Atox1(-/-) phenotype, resulting in increased perinatal mortality as well as severe growth retardation and congenital malformations among surviving Atox1(-/-) progeny. Furthermore, Atox1-deficient cells accumulated high levels of intracellular copper, and metabolic studies indicated that this defect was because of impaired cellular copper efflux. Taken together, these data reveal a direct role for Atox1 in trafficking of intracellular copper to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells and demonstrate that this metallochaperone plays a critical role in perinatal copper homeostasis. PMID:11391006

  6. Rho-associated kinases play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Rivkees, Scott A

    2003-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCKs), initially identified as effectors for Rho GTPases, play a role in cardiac cell physiology and are also expressed in the developing heart. However, their role in cardiac development is not known. To investigate the role of these kinases in cardiac development, we examined cardiac development in cultured murine embryos treated with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632. After inhibition of ROCK activity, we found disturbed cardiac chamber formation and trabeculation. To further examine the mechanisms by which ROCK blockade causes cardiac hypoplasia, we assessed programmed cell death and cell proliferation in the hearts. We found decreased cell proliferation in the Y27632-treated hearts, but no changes in programmed cell death. We further observed that ROCK inhibition decreased cardiac myocyte proliferation, suggesting that ROCK kinases regulate cardiomyocyte division. To identify factors involved in ROCK action in regulation of cardiac cell division, we examined expression of cell cycle proteins by using Western blot analysis. We found that ROCK blockade decreased expression of cell cycle proteins, cyclin D3, CDK6, and p27(KIP1) in the hearts and cardiomyocytes, which are required for initiation of cell cycle and G1/S phase transition. These observations show that ROCK kinases play a role in cardiac development and that ROCK kinases regulate cardiac cell proliferation and cell cycle protein expression.

  7. Does IGF-1 play a role in the biology of endometrial cancer?

    PubMed

    Majchrzak-Baczmańska, Dominika; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a mitogen which plays a key role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It belongs to the family of proteins also composed of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), two types of membrane receptors (IGF-1R and IGF-2R), 6 binding proteins (IGFBP 1-6), hydrolyzing proteases, and reactive molecules binding proteins, which regulate the activity of growth factors. Disturbances in the functioning of IGFBP/IGF/1GF1R can lead to induction of carcinogenesis, which has been demonstrated in breast, prostate or colon cancers. Findings evaluating the role of IGF-1 in endometrial cancer biology are ambiguous and contradictory. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the role of IGF-1 in the process of carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer, based on the available literature. PMID:27629137

  8. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change, its mitigation, and adaption to its impacts are among the greatest challenges of our times. Despite the importance of societal decisions in determining climate change outcomes, flawed mental models about climate change remain widespread, are often deeply entrenched, and present significant barriers to understanding and decision-making around climate change. Here, we describe two simulation role-playing games that combine active, affective, and analytical learning to enable shifts of deeply held conceptions about climate change. The games, World Climate and Future Climate, use a state-of-the-art decision support simulation, C-ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support) to provide users with immediate feedback on the outcomes of their mitigation strategies at the national level, including global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and concentrations, mean temperature changes, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. C-ROADS outcomes are consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMS), such as those used by the IPCC, but runs in less than one second on ordinary laptops, providing immediate feedback to participants on the consequences of their proposed policies. Both World Climate and Future Climate role-playing games provide immersive, situated learning experiences that motivate active engagement with climate science and policy. In World Climate, participants play the role of United Nations climate treaty negotiators. Participant emissions reductions proposals are continually assessed through interactive exploration of the best available science through C-ROADS. Future Climate focuses on time delays in the climate and energy systems. Participants play the roles of three generations: today's policymakers, today's youth, and 'just born.' The game unfolds in three rounds 25 simulated years apart. In the first round, only today's policymakers make decisions; In the next round, the young become the policymakers and inherit the

  9. Prototyping Tool for Web-Based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shusuke; Kamada, Masaru; Yonekura, Tatsuhiro

    This letter proposes a prototyping tool for Web-based Multiuser Online Role-Playing Game (MORPG). The design goal is to make this tool simple and powerful. The tool is comprised of a GUI editor, a translator and a runtime environment. The GUI editor is used to edit state-transition diagrams, each of which defines the behavior of the fictional characters. The state-transition diagrams are translated into C program codes, which plays the role of a game engine in RPG system. The runtime environment includes PHP, JavaScript with Ajax and HTML. So the prototype system can be played on the usual Web browser, such as Fire-fox, Safari and IE. On a click or key press by a player, the Web browser sends it to the Web server to reflect its consequence on the screens which other players are looking at. Prospected users of this tool include programming novices and schoolchildren. The knowledge or skill of any specific programming languages is not required to create state-transition diagrams. Its structure is not only suitable for the definition of a character behavior but also intuitive to help novices understand. Therefore, the users can easily create Web-based MORPG system with the tool.

  10. OSCAR-collagen signaling in monocytes plays a proinflammatory role and may contribute to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Heidi S; Guo, Li; Keller, Pernille; Fleetwood, Andrew J; Sun, Mingyi; Guo, Wei; Ma, Chunyan; Hamilton, John A; Bjørkdahl, Olle; Berchtold, Martin W; Panina, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is an activating receptor expressed by human myeloid cells. Collagen type I (ColI) and collagen type II (ColII) serve as ligands for OSCAR. OSCAR-collagen interaction stimulates RANK-dependent osteoclastogenesis. We have recently reported that OSCAR promotes functional maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells. OSCAR is upregulated on monocytes from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with active disease, and these monocytes show an increased proosteoclastogenic potential. In the current study, we have addressed a functional role for an OSCAR-collagen interaction on monocytes. We show that OSCAR-ColII signaling promoted the survival of monocytes. Moreover, ColII stimulated the release of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes from healthy donors, which could be completely blocked by an anti-OSCAR monoclonal antibody. Mononuclear cells from the synovial fluid of RA patients plated on ColII secreted TNF-α and IL-8 in an OSCAR-dependent manner. Global RNA profiling showed that components of multiple signaling pathways relevant to RA pathogenesis are regulated at the transcriptional level by OSCAR in monocytes. Thus, OSCAR can play a proinflammatory role in monocyte-derived cells and may contribute crucially on multiple levels to RA pathogenesis. PMID:26786702

  11. Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaji, Godai; Miyazaki, Kenzo

    2013-08-12

    Using a pump and probe technique, we observed time-dependent change in reflectivity of crystalline silicon surface to study the dynamic process of periodic surface nanostructure formation in femtosecond (fs) laser ablation. The results have shown that multiple shots of low-fluence fs laser pulses play the crucial role in the non-thermal process for nanostructuring through the increasing bonding structure change to amorphous silicon and resulting decrease in the ablation threshold.

  12. New families of adhesion molecules play a vital role in platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, S; Kaplan, C; Catimel, B; McGregor, J L

    1990-07-01

    Adhesion molecules play a crucial part in cell-matrix and in cell-cell interactions. These interactions, which are essential to the body's defense processes, involve adhesion molecules belonging to different families: integrins, immunoglobulins and selectins. Integrins are expressed by a large number of tissues, whereas other adhesion molecule families are restricted to a small number of cell types. A recent symposium dealt with the recruitment of circulating platelets at specific sites, their adhesion to extracellular matrix components and their activation by agonists leading to aggregation or attachment to other cells. These events, supporting hemostasis and thrombosis, involve integrins, selectins and other adhesion molecules. This report focuses on newly reported integrins (GPIa, GPIc, GPIIa), selectins (GMP-140) and GPIIIb, previously known as 'minor' surface oriented platelet glycoproteins. Major membrane glycoproteins such as GPIIb-IIIa (an integrin) and GPIb, which also play a vital role in platelet functions, have been extensively reviewed elsewhere.

  13. Cyclophilin A Associates with Enterovirus-71 Virus Capsid and Plays an Essential Role in Viral Infection as an Uncoating Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Yan, Wenzhong; Wang, Jinglan; Su, Dan; Ni, Cheng; Li, Jian; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Lei; Lou, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Viruses utilize host factors for their efficient proliferation. By evaluating the inhibitory effects of compounds in our library, we identified inhibitors of cyclophilin A (CypA), a known immunosuppressor with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, can significantly attenuate EV71 proliferation. We demonstrated that CypA played an essential role in EV71 entry and that the RNA interference-mediated reduction of endogenous CypA expression led to decreased EV71 multiplication. We further revealed that CypA directly interacted with and modified the conformation of H-I loop of the VP1 protein in EV71 capsid, and thus regulated the uncoating process of EV71 entry step in a pH-dependent manner. Our results aid in the understanding of how host factors influence EV71 life cycle and provide new potential targets for developing antiviral agents against EV71 infection. PMID:25275585

  14. Effective Management of Multiple Roles: Family and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    A facilitator's manual and participant materials (adult and student) are provided for a program designed to help students, teachers, and people in business and industry to learn effective skills for managing multiple roles and how to apply those skills in balancing work and family issues. The facilitator's manual contains information on project…

  15. Homesickness in University Students: The Role of Multiple Place Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Tiberio, Lorenza

    2010-01-01

    The transition to college or university can lead to the challenge of adapting to a new setting. Homesickness has been frequently investigated as a potential negative consequence of relocation. This study analyzed the role of multiple place attachment in the development of homesickness among university students. The study used a multicausal…

  16. Zinc can play chaperone-like and inhibitor roles during import of mitochondrial small Tim proteins.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce; Ang, Swee Kim; Yan, Guanhua; Lu, Hui

    2009-03-13

    Zinc is an essential cofactor required for the function of approximately 8% of the yeast and 10% of the human proteome. All of the "small Tim" proteins of the mitochondrial intermembrane space contain a strictly conserved "twin CX(3)C" zinc finger motif, which can bind zinc ions in the Cys-reduced form. We have shown previously that although disulfide bond formation is essential for the function of these proteins in mitochondria, only reduced proteins can be imported into mitochondria (Lu, H., Allen, S., Wardleworth, L., Savory, P., and Tokatlidis, K. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 18952-18958 and Morgan, B., and Lu, H. (2008) Biochem. J. 411, 115-122). However, the role of zinc during the import of these proteins is unclear. This study shows that the function of zinc is complex. It can play a thiol stabilizer role preventing oxidative folding of the small Tim proteins and maintaining the proteins in an import-competent form. On the other hand, zinc-bound forms cannot be imported into mitochondria efficiently. Furthermore, our results show that zinc is a powerful inhibitor of Erv1, an essential component of the import pathway used by the small Tim proteins. We propose that zinc plays a chaperone-like role in the cytosol during biogenesis of the small Tim proteins and that the proteins are imported into mitochondria through the apo-forms.

  17. Mitochondrial genetic background plays a role in increasing risk to asthma.

    PubMed

    Zifa, Emily; Daniil, Zoe; Skoumi, Eleutheria; Stavrou, Maria; Papadimitriou, Kostantinos; Terzenidou, Marini; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Bagiatis, Vasileios; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Mamuris, Zissis

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. To shed light for the first time on the role of the mitochondrial genome in the etiology of asthma we analyzed the mitochondrial tRNA genes and part of their flanking regions in patients with asthma compared with a set of healthy controls. We found a total of 10 mutations in 56 out of 76 asthmatic patients. Four of these mutations were not found in the control group, five were observed at a significantly lower frequency in controls, but none of the combinations of mutations detected in asthma patients was observed in the controls. Furthermore, we observed that 27.6% of the asthma patients (vs. 4% of the controls) belonged to the haplogroup U (Fisher test P = 0.00) and a positive significant correlation was found between the occurrence of the haplogroup U and the severity of the disease (Fisher test P = 0.02). Whereas further studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm these observations we suggest that the mitochondrial genetic background plays a key role in asthma development.

  18. Drosophila Patj plays a supporting role in apical-basal polarity but is essential for viability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenke; Hong, Yang

    2012-08-01

    Patj has been characterized as one of the so-called polarity proteins that play essential and conserved roles in regulating cell polarity in many different cell types. Studies of Drosophila and mammalian cells suggest that Patj is required for the apical polarity protein complex Crumbs-Stardust (Pals1 or Mpp5 in mammalian cells) to establish apical-basal polarity. However, owing to the lack of suitable genetic mutants, the exact in vivo function of Patj in regulating apical-basal polarity and development remains to be elucidated. Here, we generated molecularly defined null mutants of Drosophila Patj (dPatj). Our data show conclusively that dPatj only plays supporting and non-essential roles in regulating apical-basal polarity, although such a supporting role may become crucial in cells such as photoreceptors that undergo complex cellular morphogenesis. In addition, our results confirm that dPatj possesses an as yet unidentified function that is essential for pupal development.

  19. Leu1 plays a role in iron metabolism and is required for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Do, Eunsoo; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Oliveira, Debora; Kronstad, James W.; Jung, Won Hee

    2015-01-01

    Amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are absent in mammals are considered an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Leucine biosynthesis is one such target pathway, consisting of a five-step conversion process starting from the valine precursor 2-keto-isovalerate. Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (Leu1) is an Fe-S cluster protein that is required for leucine biosynthesis in the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans possesses an ortholog of S. cerevisiae Leu1, and our previous transcriptome data showed that the expression of LEU1 is regulated by iron availability. In this study, we characterized the role of Leu1 in iron homeostasis and the virulence of C. neoformans. We found that deletion of LEU1 caused leucine auxotrophy and that Leu1 may play a role in the mitochondrial-cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster balance. Whereas cytoplasmic Fe-S protein levels were not affected, mitochondrial Fe-S proteins were up- regulated in the leu1 mutant, suggesting that Leu1 mainly influences mitochondrial iron metabolism. The leu1 mutant also displayed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and cell wall/membrane disrupting agents, which may have been caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the leu1 mutant was deficient in capsule formation and showed attenuated virulence in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis. Overall, our results indicate that Leu1 plays a role in iron metabolism and is required for virulence in C. neoformans. PMID:25554701

  20. SATB1 Plays a Critical Role in Establishment of Immune Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Motonari; Tanaka, Yuriko; Kuwabara, Taku; Naito, Taku; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi; Watanabe, Akiko

    2016-01-15

    Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a genome organizer that is expressed by T cells. T cell development is severely impaired in SATB1 null mice; however, because SATB1 null mice die by 3 wk of age, the roles of SATB1 in T cell development have not been well clarified. In this study, we generated and analyzed SATB1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice, in which the SATB1 gene was deleted from all hematopoietic cells. T cell numbers were reduced in these mice, mainly because of a deficiency in positive selection at the CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive stage during T cell development in the thymus. We also found that SATB1 cKO mice developed autoimmune diseases within 16 wk after birth. In SATB1 cKO mice, the numbers of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells were significantly reduced at 2 wk of age compared with wild-type littermates. Although the numbers gradually increased upon aging, Treg cells in SATB1 cKO mice were still less than those in wild-type littermates at adulthood. Suppressive functions of Treg cells, which play a major role in establishment of peripheral tolerance, were also affected in the absence of SATB1. In addition, negative selection during T cell development in the thymus was severely impaired in SATB1 deficient mice. These results suggest that SATB1 plays an essential role in establishment of immune tolerance. PMID:26667169

  1. Canonical Notch signaling plays an instructive role in auditory supporting cell development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Dean P.; Chrysostomou, Elena; Doetzlhofer, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The auditory sensory epithelium, composed of mechano-sensory hair cells (HCs) and highly specialized glial-like supporting cells (SCs), is critical for our ability to detect sound. SCs provide structural and functional support to HCs and play an essential role in cochlear development, homeostasis and repair. Despite their importance, however, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding SC differentiation. Here, we provide evidence that in addition to its well-characterized inhibitory function, canonical Notch signaling plays a positive, instructive role in the differentiation of SCs. Using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to acutely block canonical Notch signaling, we identified a cohort of Notch-regulated SC-specific genes, with diverse functions in cell signaling, cell differentiation, neuronal innervation and synaptogenesis. We validated the newly identified Notch-regulated genes in vivo using genetic gain (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26N1ICD/+) and loss-of-function approaches (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26DnMAML1/+). Furthermore, we demonstrate that Notch over-activation in the differentiating murine cochlea (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26N1ICD/+) actively promotes a SC-specific gene expression program. Finally, we show that outer SCs –so called Deiters’ cells are selectively lost by prolonged reduction (Emx2Cre/+; Rosa26DnMAML1/+/+) or abolishment of canonical Notch signaling (Fgfr3-iCreER; Rbpj−/Δ), indicating a critical role for Notch signaling in Deiters’ cell development. PMID:26786414

  2. Neuronal gap junctions play a role in the secondary neuronal death following controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Andrei B; Wang, Yongfu; Song, Ji-Hoon; Denisova, Janna V; Berman, Nancy E; Fontes, Joseph D

    2012-08-22

    In the mammalian CNS, excessive release of glutamate and overactivation of glutamate receptors are responsible for the secondary (delayed) neuronal death following neuronal injury, including ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and epilepsy. Recent studies in mice showed a critical role for neuronal gap junctions in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemia-mediated neuronal death. Here, using controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult mice, as a model of TBI, and Fluoro-Jade B staining for analysis of neuronal death, we set to determine whether neuronal gap junctions play a role in the CCI-mediated secondary neuronal death. We report that 24h post-CCI, substantial neuronal death is detected in a number of brain regions outside the injury core, including the striatum. The striatal neuronal death is reduced both in wild-type mice by systemic administration of mefloquine (a relatively selective blocker of neuronal gap junctions) and in knockout mice lacking connexin 36 (neuronal gap junction protein). It is also reduced by inactivation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (with LY341495) which, as reported previously, control the rapid increase in neuronal gap junction coupling following different types of neuronal injury. The results suggest that neuronal gap junctions play a critical role in the CCI-induced secondary neuronal death. PMID:22781494

  3. ENaC plays a role in regulated antibody secretion by hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-Hong; Bubien, James K

    2002-11-01

    Hybridomas are fused immortal lymphocytes that typically secrete monoclonal antibodies to a known antigen. Hybridomas express two ionic conductances that have properties consistent with epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and CFTR. Both ion channels are expressed by lymphocytes. Both of these channels are known to play a role in epithelial cell physiology. However, the physiological role of these channels in lymphocytes is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ENaC plays a role in the process of regulated antibody secretion. We have been able to demonstrate that hybridomas can be provoked to acutely secrete monoclonal antibodies by a variety of agonists. Concurrently, we were able to show that these same agonists activate amiloride-sensitive sodium currents in whole cell clamped hybridomas. Inhibition of ENaC by amiloride inhibited the acute provoked antibody secretion, thereby linking ENaC to the process of acute antibody secretion. Interestingly, the concentration of amiloride necessary to completely inhibit the provoked secretion was approximately an order of magnitude higher than the concentration necessary to inhibit all of the transmembrane current. However, because amiloride is a weak base, the equilibrium concentration necessary to produce partial inhibition was precisely in accord with the K(i) for amiloride and ENaC, indicating that the inhibition was intracellular. PMID:12372809

  4. Cadherin2 (N-cadherin) plays an essential role in zebrafish cardiovascular development

    PubMed Central

    Bagatto, Brian; Francl, Jessie; Liu, Bei; Liu, Qin

    2006-01-01

    Background Cadherins are cell surface adhesion molecules that play important roles in development of vertebrate tissues and organs. We studied cadherin2 expression in developing zebrafish heart using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods, and we found that cadherin2 was strongly expressed by the myocardium of the embryonic zebrafish. To gain insight into cadherin2 role in the formation and function of the heart, we analyzed cardiac differentiation and performance in a cadherin2 mutant, glass onion (glo). Results We found that the cadherin2 mutant had enlarged pericardial cavity, disorganized atrium and ventricle, and reduced expression of a ventricular specific marker vmhc. Individual myocardiocytes in the glo mutant embryos became round shaped and loosely aggregated. In vivo measurements of cardiac performance revealed that the mutant heart had significantly reduced heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output compared to control embryos. Formation of the embryonic vascular system in the glo mutants was also affected. Conclusion Our results suggest that cadherin2 plays an essential role in zebrafish cardiovascular development. Although the exact mechanisms remain unknown as to the formation of the enlarged pericardium and reduced peripheral blood flow, it is clear that myocardiocyte differentiation and physiological cardiovascular performance is impaired when cadherin2 function is disrupted. PMID:16719917

  5. NHE8 plays an important role in mucosal protection via its effect on bacterial adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Bo; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Li, Jing; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE8 is expressed on the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and is particularly abundant in the colon. Our previous study showed that Muc2 expression was significantly reduced in NHE8-knockout (NHE8−/−) mice, suggesting that NHE8 plays a role in mucosal protection in the colon. The current study confirms and extends our studies on the role of NHE8 in mucosal protection. The number of bacteria attached on the distal colon was significantly increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with their wild-type littermates. As expected, IL-4 expression was markedly increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry showed disorganization in the mucin layer of NHE8−/− mice, suggesting a possible direct bacteria-epithelia interaction. Furthermore, NHE8−/− mice were susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced mucosal injury. In wild-type mice, dextran sodium sulfate treatment inhibited colonic NHE8 expression. In Caco-2 cells, the absence of NHE8 expression resulted in higher adhesion rates of Salmonella typhimurium but not Lactobacillus plantarum. Similarly, in vivo, S. typhimurium adhesion rate was increased in NHE8−/− mice compared with wild-type mice. Our study suggests that NHE8 plays important roles in protecting intestinal epithelia from infectious bacterial adherence. PMID:23657568

  6. The PICALM protein plays a key role in iron homeostasis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Scotland, Paula B; Heath, Jessica L; Conway, Amanda E; Porter, Natasha B; Armstrong, Michael B; Walker, Jennifer A; Klebig, Mitchell L; Lavau, Catherine P; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly (PICALM) protein associates with the plasma membrane, binds clathrin, and plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies have recently linked the PICALM locus to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Inactivating and hypomorphic Picalm mutations in mice cause different degrees of severity of anemia, abnormal iron metabolism, growth retardation and shortened lifespan. To understand PICALM's function, we studied the consequences of PICALM overexpression and characterized PICALM-deficient cells derived from mutant fit1 mice. Our results identify a role for PICALM in transferrin receptor (TfR) internalization and demonstrate that the C-terminal PICALM residues are critical for its association with clathrin and for the inhibitory effect of PICALM overexpression on TfR internalization. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that are deficient in PICALM display several characteristics of iron deficiency (increased surface TfR expression, decreased intracellular iron levels, and reduced cellular proliferation), all of which are rescued by retroviral PICALM expression. The proliferation defect of cells that lack PICALM results, at least in part, from insufficient iron uptake, since it can be corrected by iron supplementation. Moreover, PICALM-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to iron chelation. Taken together, these data reveal that PICALM plays a critical role in iron homeostasis, and offer new perspectives into the pathogenesis of PICALM-associated diseases.

  7. RABEX-5 plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer by activating MMP-9 pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RABEX-5, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-5, plays an important role in cell mobility and altered expression associated with tumor metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the role of RABEX-5 in proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer in vitro and ex vivo. Methods RABEX-5 expression was examined in breast cancer, benign tumor and normal breast tissues by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Two stable cell lines were established, the MCF-7/NC negative control cell line and the MCF-7/KD cell line, which stably expressed an RNA interference (RNAi) construct that induced downregulation of RABEX-5 expression. These cell lines were utilized to evaluate the role of RABEX-5 in cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. The possible role of RABEX-5 in the regulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) was evaluated using western blot and real-time PCR. Results RABEX-5 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer tissues compared with benign tumor and normal breast tissues. High levels of RABEX-5 expression were associated with axillary lymph node metastasis. In addition, RABEX-5 silencing significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and migration ability in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. RABEX −5 knockdown also attenuated the migration of breast cancer cells via modulation of MMP-9 transcriptional activity. Conclusions Our results indicate that RABEX-5 plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer by modulating the proliferation and metastasis potential of breast cancer cells. Thus, RABEX-5 is a promising prognostic indicator for patients with breast cancer. PMID:23941575

  8. MEK1 plays contrary stage-specific roles in skeletal myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chulman; Jang, Bong Geom; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2009-12-01

    The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in skeletal myogenesis has been reported to be both stimulatory and inhibitory. We propose that this discrepancy may arise from the stage-specific, different roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1). We found that the phosphorylated MEK1 level of differentiating C2C12 cells was low on day 1 (early-stage) and reached a maximum on days 2-3 (mid-stage). Cells treated at early stage with the MEK-specific inhibitors, PD184352 and U0126, reduced both the MHC protein level and MCK promoter activity, demonstrating that high MEK1 activity at the mid-stage is required for myogenic differentiation. In contrast, treatment with the ERK-specific inhibitors, FR180204 and ERK inhibitor I, had no effect. However, because the sustained overexpression of constitutively active MEK1 inhibits myogenic differentiation, we further analyzed the stage-specific role of MEK1 using the Tet-Off expression system. The results demonstrated that myogenic differentiation was inhibited if active MEK1 expression was induced earlier than day 1 in differentiation condition, but stimulated if induced after that, demonstrating that activated MEK1 plays differential roles depending on activation time. In addition, the induction of active MEK1 at 12h enhanced the Id2 protein level, while the induction at 36h resulted in reduction. Thus, MEK1 plays stage-specific and contrary roles in myogenesis, and MEK1 activated at the mid-stage promotes muscle differentiation independent of ERK.

  9. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks. PMID:23826182

  10. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  11. The MAT Locus Genes Play Different Roles in Sexual Reproduction and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks. PMID:23826182

  12. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks.

  13. A history of the concept of the stimulus and the role it played in the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Cassedy, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The term stimulus, as it was used in science from its earliest appearance in the sixteenth century up to the beginning of the nineteenth century, shows a gradual progress in denotation from the physical object designed to produce nervous and muscular excitation to the generically conceived event or object that initiates sensory or motor activity. To this shift corresponds a shift in the understanding of sensory experience. Johannes Muller's law of specific energy of sensory nerves played a major role in the shift, and Hermann von Helmholtz gave the shift its most thorough philosophical explanation.

  14. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS through a specific cascade of proteins, as reported in a recent article in Molecular and Cellular Biology by Jacqueline Salotti, Ph.D., and colleagues in the Eukaryotic Transcriptional Regulation Section of the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  15. The synergistic role TQM and reengineering could play in standardizing the European vaccination policy.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Hans F W

    2002-01-01

    For the implementation of the proposed European standardized vaccination, total quality management (TQM) and reengineering could be powerful tools with a potentially synergistic effect. In the case examined, nonexplicit TQM prepared the organization in several ways for reengineering: providing the human capital, making people think beyond their daily tasks, and pulling the inertial professional organization in the direction of an "adhocracy." The quiet role management played, the incentive supplied by a high authority, the quick creation of solutions, and the existence of a realistic crisis represent other success factors.

  16. Role playing to train elementary teachers to use a classroom management "skill package".

    PubMed

    Jones, F H; Eimers, R C

    1975-01-01

    Two teachers who led regular third-grade classrooms in a suburban elementary school were trained via role-playing to use a broad range of social skills in dealing with group behavioral management in the classroom. Teacher training reduced disruptive student behavior during both seat work and group discussions in both classrooms. A measure of student productivity during arithmetic period in one classroom showed significant gains in arithmetic problems correct per day for the middle and bottom thirds of the class, with the bottom third increasing by 76%.

  17. Chromosome Sites Play Dual Roles to Establish Homologous Synapsis during Meiosis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, Amy J.; Phillips, Carolyn M.; Bhalla, Needhi; Weiser, Pinky; Villeneuve, Anne M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We have investigated the role of pairing centers (PCs), cis-acting sites required for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in C. elegans. We find that these sites play two distinct roles that contribute to proper segregation. Chromosomes lacking PCs usually fail to synapse and also lack a synapsis-independent stabilization activity. The presence of a PC on just one copy of a chromosome pair promotes synapsis but does not support synapsis-independent pairing stabilization, indicating that these functions are separable. Once initiated, synapsis is highly processive, even between nonhomologous chromosomes of disparate lengths, elucidating how translocations suppress meiotic recombination in C. elegans. These findings suggest a multistep pathway for chromosome synapsis in which PCs impart selectivity and efficiency through a “kinetic proofreading” mechanism. We speculate that concentration of these activities at one region per chromosome may have coevolved with the loss of a point centromere to safeguard karyotype stability. PMID:16360034

  18. Long Noncoding RNA Plays a Key Role in Metastasis and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangbing; Zhang, Haohai; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Chengpei; Wang, Anqiang; He, Lian; Miao, Ruoyu; Chen, Shuguang; Zhao, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been attracting immense research interests. However, only a handful of lncRNAs had been thoroughly characterized. They were involved in fundamental cellular processes including regulation of gene expression at epigenetics as well as tumorogenesis. In this paper, we give a systematic and comprehensive review of existing literature about lncRNA involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma. This review exhibited that lncRNAs played important roles in tumorigenesis and subsequent prognosis and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma and elucidated the role of some specific lncRNAs such as MALAT1 and HOTAIR in the pathophysiology of hepatocellular carcinoma and their potential of being therapeutic targets. PMID:24757675

  19. Do nonlinearities play a significant role in short term, beat-to-beat variability?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, H. G.; Mukkamala, R.; Moody, G. B.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies of short-term beat-to-beat variability in cardiovascular signals have not resolved the debate about the completeness of linear analysis techniques. This aim of this paper is to evaluate further the role of nonlinearities in short-term, beat-to-beat variability. We compared linear autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and nonlinear neural network (NN) models for predicting instantaneous heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) from past HR and BP. To evaluate these models, we used HR and BP time series from the MIMIC database. Experimental results indicate that NN-based nonlinearities do not play a significant role and suggest that ARMA linear analysis techniques provide adequate characterization of the system dynamics responsible for generating short-term, beat-to-beat variability.

  20. Membrane associated protein flotillin-2 in Litopenaeus vannamei plays a role in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Guo, Guangran; Liu, Rongdiao; Wang, Chuanqi; Xu, Xun; Ruan, Lingwei

    2016-07-01

    Flotillin-2, an important protein of vesicular endocytosis, plays an essential role in a large number of cellular processes, including viruses and pathogen infection. In the present study, a flotillin-2 homolog in Litopenaeus vannamei, designed as Lvflotillin-2, was cloned and characterized. To analyze the putative role of Lvflotillin-2 during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, real-time quantitative PCR was performed. The result showed that the transcriptional level of Lvflotillin-2 was up-regulated significantly after virus challenge. Furthermore, upon WSSV stimulation, Lvflotillin-2 in shrimp cells could translocate from the plasma membrane to intracellular compartments, and unexpectedly, also into nucleus. Additionally, depletion of Lvflotillin-2 inhibited WSSV gene ie1 transcription. It suggested that Lvflotillin-2 could be hijacked by WSSV. These observations indicated that Lvflotillin-2 was involved in WSSV infection, and presented here should be useful for gaining insight into shrimp immunity and WSSV pathogenesis.

  1. Staff Training for Business Process Improvement: The Benefit of Role-Plays in the Case of KreditSim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borner, Rene; Moormann, Jurgen; Wang, Minhong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore staff's experience with role-plays using the example of training bank employees in Six Sigma as a major methodology for business process improvement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a case study. A role-play, KreditSim, is used to simulate a loan approval process that has to be improved by…

  2. The Assessment of Elaborated Role-Play in Young Children: Invisible Friends, Personified Objects, and Pretend Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie; Sachet, Alison B.; Maring, Bayta L.; Mannering, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    Role-play (i.e., pretending in which children imagine and act out the part of another individual) was assessed with child interviews and parent questionnaires about invisible friends, personified objects, and pretend identities in a sample of 208 young children. Children who engaged in role-play did not differ from other children in age or…

  3. 41 CFR 102-194.30 - What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? Your agency head... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What role does my agency play in the Standard and Optional Forms Management Program? 102-194.30 Section 102-194.30...

  4. Teaching Social Communication Skills Using a Cool versus Not Cool Procedure plus Role-Playing and a Social Skills Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…

  5. 42 CFR 137.401 - What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What role does Tribal consultation play in the IHS annual budget request process? 137.401 Section 137.401 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Secretarial Responsibilities Budget Request § 137.401 What role does Tribal consultation play...

  6. World of Wordcraft: Foreign Language Grammar and Composition Taught as a Term-Long Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellar-Goad, T. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an innovative approach to the instruction of foreign languages: a term-long role-playing game in the style of tabletop role-playing games such as "Dungeons & Dragons." Students adopt personas, avatars, or "player characters" and take them through adventures, exploration, puzzles, and fights with…

  7. Headspace Theater: An Innovative Method for Experiential Learning of Psychiatric Symptomatology Using Modified Role-Playing and Improvisational Theater Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballon, Bruce C.; Silver, Ivan; Fidler, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Headspace Theater has been developed to allow small group learning of psychiatric conditions by creating role-play situations in which participants are placed in a scenario that simulates the experience of the condition. Method: The authors conducted a literature review of role-playing techniques, interactive teaching, and experiential…

  8. Abscisic acid uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferases play a crucial role in abscisic acid homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Xu, Zheng-Yi; Park, Youngmin; Kim, Dae Heon; Lee, Yongjik; Hwang, Inhwan

    2014-05-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is crucial for plant growth and adaptive responses to various stress conditions. Plants continuously adjust the ABA level to meet physiological needs, but how ABA homeostasis occurs is not fully understood. This study provides evidence that UGT71B6, an ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (UGT), and its two closely related homologs, UGT71B7 and UGT71B8, play crucial roles in ABA homeostasis and in adaptation to dehydration, osmotic stress, and high-salinity stresses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). UGT RNA interference plants that had low levels of these three UGT transcripts displayed hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA and high-salt conditions during germination and exhibited a defect in plant growth. However, the ectopic expression of UGT71B6 in the atbg1 (for β-glucosidase) mutant background aggravated the ABA-deficient phenotype of atbg1 mutant plants. In addition, modulation of the expression of the three UGTs affects the expression of CYP707A1 to CYP707A4, which encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases; four CYP707As were expressed at higher levels in the UGT RNA interference plants but at lower levels in the UGT71B6:GFP-overexpressing plants. Based on these data, this study proposes that UGT71B6 and its two homologs play a critical role in ABA homeostasis by converting active ABA to an inactive form (abscisic acid-glucose ester) depending on intrinsic cellular and environmental conditions in plants. PMID:24676855

  9. Does pancreatic ductal anatomy play a role in determining outcomes of pancreatic anastomoses?

    PubMed

    Shukla, P J; Sakpal, S V; Maharaj, R

    2011-02-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is the surgical procedure performed for cancers of the head of the pancreas. Despite a substantial reduction in mortality rates following PD, morbidity remains high secondary to major post-operative complications. Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF), the commonest major complication following PD, results from the failure of the pancreato-enteric anastomosis. There appears to be a correlation between intrinsic pancreatic features like the texture of the gland and duct size and the outcome of the pancreatic anastomosis. Based on current clinical research data, we propose a new hypothesis called the "pancreatic ductal anatomy" concept. We hypothesize that morphological variations, anomalies or aberrations of the main pancreatic duct play a role in the outcome of the pancreatic anastomosis, irrespective of its type. The consequence of aberrant ductal anatomy is that certain areas of the remnant pancreas remain either undrained or partially drained, or have blocked ductules/ducts. This results in localized obstructive pancreatitis causing an inflammatory reaction which jeopardizes the anastomosis. We also propose two maneuvers which could possibly play a role in predicting potential problems and also planning the surgical resection and reconstruction in order to reduce the incidence of POPF. The first modality is the use of pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pancreatic duct, and the second maneuver is the gentle cannulation test of the pancreatic duct with a soft, narrow tube following transection of the pancreatic neck. These factors would alert the surgeon about potential ductal variations and could facilitate the surgical approach.

  10. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the “feature letter” level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic. PMID:27597838

  11. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 plays an important role in normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-06-10

    Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide prolongs postharvest shelf life of strawberry and plays an antioxidative role in fruits.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lan-Ying; Hu, Shu-Li; Wu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Hui-Li; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) plays various physiological roles in plants, such as seed germination, root organogenesis, abiotic stress tolerance, and senescence of cut flowers. However, whether H(2)S participates in the regulation of ripening and senescence in postharvest fruits remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of H(2)S on postharvest shelf life and antioxidant metabolism in strawberry fruits was investigated. Fumigation with H(2)S gas released from the H(2)S donor NaHS prolonged postharvest shelf life of strawberry fruits in a dose-dependent manner. Strawberry fruits fumigated with various concentrations of H(2)S sustained significantly lower rot index, higher fruit firmness, and kept lower respiration intensity and polygalacturonase activities than controls. Further investigation showed that H(2)S treatment maintained higher activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase and lower activities of lipoxygenase relative to untreated controls. H(2)S also reduced malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide anion to levels below control fruits during storage. Moreover, H(2)S treatment maintained higher contents of reducing sugars, soluble proteins, free amino acid, and endogenous H(2)S in fruits. We interpret these data as indicating that H(2)S plays an antioxidative role in prolonging postharvest shelf life of strawberry fruits.

  13. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the “feature letter” level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic.

  14. The right temporoparietal junction plays a causal role in maintaining the internal representation of verticality.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Francesca; Candidi, Matteo; Acciarino, Adriano; David, Nicole; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Perception of the visual vertical is strongly based on our ability to match visual inflow with vestibular, proprioceptive, tactile, and even visceral information that contributes to maintaining an internal representation of the vertical. An important cortical region implicated in multisensory integration is the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), which also is involved in higher order forms of body- and space-related cognition. To test whether this region integrates body-related multisensory information necessary for establishing the subjective visual vertical, we combined a psychophysical task (the rod-and-frame test) with transient inhibition of the rTPJ via continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). A Gabor patch visual detection task was used as a control visual task. cTBS of early visual cortex (V1-V3) was used to test whether early visual cortices played any role in verticality estimation. We show that inhibition of rTPJ activity selectively impairs the ability to evaluate the rod's verticality when no contextual visual information, such as a frame surrounding the rod, is provided. Conversely, transient inhibition of V1-V3 selectively disrupts the ability to visually detect Gabor patch orientation. This anatomofunctional dissociation supports the idea that the rTPJ plays a causal role in integrating egocentric sensory information encoded in different reference systems (i.e., vestibular and somatic) to maintain an internal representation of verticality. PMID:26400254

  15. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  16. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  17. Using role playing to increase residents' awareness of medical student mistreatment.

    PubMed

    Heru, Alison M

    2003-01-01

    The teacher-learner relationship is subject to both internal and external influences that may lead to mistreatment and harassment of the student. The student who is mistreated may mistreat students when he or she becomes a teacher. The author describes an experiential program for residents at Brown Medical School from 1999 to 2002 in which residents, through role playing, helped produce teaching videotapes on medical student mistreatment. Fourteen residents had participated in the program to date. They reported that they had benefited from an increased awareness of the effects of student mistreatment and had learned how to handle mistreatment more effectively. They also reported increased sensitivity to others and improved self-awareness, qualities that they planned to incorporate into their professional identities and that should help them avoid mistreatment of students and residents later in their careers. Because preventing mistreatment from being transmitted to the next generation is an important way to increase medical professionalism, the author recommends that role-playing exercises dealing with mistreatment be a part of all residency education.

  18. Effects of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement and measure the effectiveness of a single-session assertiveness music therapy role playing protocol for psychiatric inpatients. Participants (N=133) were randomly assigned by group to one of three conditions: (a) Assertiveness Music Therapy, (b) No Music Assertiveness, or (c) Music No Assertiveness. Participants in both assertiveness conditions role played a number of different commonly occurring scenarios at an inpatient psychiatric facility and in the community. There were no significant between-group differences in posttest quality of life, locus of control, or other subscales. However, participants in both assertiveness conditions tended to have slightly higher internal locus of control and overall quality of life scores than participants in the music no assertiveness condition. Additionally, the assertiveness music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the other conditions. A higher percentage of participants from both the assertiveness music therapy and music no assertiveness conditions indicated they thought their session was the most helpful/therapeutic group therapy session in which they had participated; this was not the case for the assertiveness no music condition. Future research is warranted to measure the effects of protocols that can help psychiatric patients generalize skills learned in treatment.

  19. The GRIM-19 plays a vital role in shrimps' responses to Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Gu, Mei-Mei; Zhao, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Wei-Na; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Cha, Gui-Hong; Liu, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    GRIM-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19), a novel cell death regulatory gene, plays important roles in cell apoptosis, mitochondrial respiratory chain and immune response. It has been reported to interact physically with STAT3 and inhibit STAT3-dependent signal transduction. In this study, a new GRIM-19 gene, which is a 789-bp gene encoding a 149 amino acids protein, is identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The tissue distribution patterns showed that LvGRIM-19 was widely expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression in muscle. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that LvGRIM-19 was down-regulated in hepatopancreas after infection with the Vibrio alginolyticus. Knockdown of LvGRIM-19 by RNA interference resulted in a lower mortality of L. vannamei under V. alginolyticus infection, as well as an enhancement in the protein expression of STAT gene and JAK gene. V. alginolyticus infection caused an increase apoptotic cell ratio and ROS production of L. vannamei, while LvGRIM-19 silenced shrimps showed significantly lower than GFP group. Our results suggest that the GRIM-19 plays a vital role in shrimps' responses to V. alginolyticus. Interferenced LvGRIM-19 treatment during V. alginolyticus infection could increase 12 h survival rate, which might indicated that LvGRIM-19 is closely related to death of shrimps. PMID:26702559

  20. Does black hole spin play a key role in the FSRQ/BL Lac dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Tomar, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic spectrum It is believed that jets emerging from them are almost aligned with the line-of-sight. The majority of identified extragalactic sources in γ-ray catalogs of EGRET and Fermi are blazars. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower γ-ray luminosity and harder power law spectra at γ-ray energies than FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi γ-ray space telescope observations. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large mismatch in observed luminosity in γ-ray. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this difference in γ-ray luminosity between the two classes is significantly reduced. In order to explain this difference in intrinsic luminosities, we propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs. As the outflow power of a blazar increases with increasing spin of a central black hole, we suggest that the spin plays a crucial role in making BL Lac sources low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQ sources.

  1. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the "feature letter" level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic. PMID:27597838

  2. The Importance of Being Playful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research provides evidence of the strong connections between quality of play in preschool years and children's readiness for school instruction. Mature play, characterized by imaginary situations, multiple roles, clearly defined rules, flexible themes, language development, length of play, helps students' cognitive development. (Contains 12…

  3. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  4. Two inwardly rectifying potassium channels, Irk1 and Irk2, play redundant roles in Drosophila renal tubule function

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yipin; Baum, Michel; Huang, Chou-Long

    2015-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying potassium channels play essential roles in renal physiology across phyla. Barium-sensitive K+ conductances are found on the basolateral membrane of a variety of insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, including Drosophila melanogaster. We found that barium decreases the lumen-positive transepithelial potential difference in isolated perfused Drosophila tubules and decreases fluid secretion and transepithelial K+ flux. In those insect species in which it has been studied, transcripts from multiple genes encoding inwardly rectifying K+ channels are expressed in the renal (Malpighian) tubule. In Drosophila melanogaster, this includes transcripts of the Irk1, Irk2, and Irk3 genes. The role of each of these gene products in renal tubule function is unknown. We found that simultaneous knockdown of Irk1 and Irk2 in the principal cell of the fly tubule decreases transepithelial K+ flux, with no additive effect of Irk3 knockdown, and decreases barium sensitivity of transepithelial K+ flux by ∼50%. Knockdown of any of the three inwardly rectifying K+ channels individually has no effect, nor does knocking down Irk3 simultaneously with Irk1 or Irk2. Irk1/Irk2 principal cell double-knockdown tubules remain sensitive to the kaliuretic effect of cAMP. Inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase with ouabain and Irk1/Irk2 double knockdown have additive effects on K+ flux, and 75% of transepithelial K+ transport is due to Irk1/Irk2 or ouabain-sensitive pathways. In conclusion, Irk1 and Irk2 play redundant roles in transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila melanogaster renal tubule and are additive to Na+/K+-ATPase-dependent pathways. PMID:26224687

  5. Smurf1 plays a role in EGF inhibition of BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hye-Lim; Park, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Arang; Baek, Kyunghwa; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2014-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a role in supporting the proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells in bone but inhibits their osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism underlying EGF inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unclear. Smurf1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets Smad1/5 and Runx2, which are critical transcription factors for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGF on the expression of Smurf1, and the role of Smurf1 in EGF inhibition of osteogenic differentiation using C2C12 cells, a murine myoblast cell line. EGF increased Smurf1 expression, which was blocked by inhibiting the activity of either JNK or ERK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and Smurf1 promoter assays demonstrated that c-Jun and Runx2 play roles in the EGF induction of Smurf1 transcription. EGF suppressed BMP2-induced expression of osteogenic marker genes, which were rescued by Smurf1 knockdown. EGF downregulated the protein levels of Runx2 and Smad1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. EGF decreased the transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smurf1, which was partially rescued by Smurf1 silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that EGF increases Smurf1 expression via the activation of JNK and ERK and the subsequent binding of c-Jun and Runx2 to the Smurf1 promoter and that Smurf1 mediates the inhibitory effect of EGF on BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. - Highlights: • EGF increases the expression level of Smurf1 in mesenchymal precursor cells. • EGF reduces the protein levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Smad1. • EGF suppresses BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation, which is rescued by Smurf1 knockdown.

  6. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Martin; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Twetman, Svante; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower than that of the wild-type. The minimum bactericidal concentration for planktonic cells (MBC-P) was only slightly reduced, indicating that the mechanism involved in the observed antimicrobial tolerance has a predominant role specifically in biofilms. Experiments with a knockout dltA mutant and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely is an important factor in the reduced tolerance of the dltA mutant biofilms towards the positively charged gentamicin. PMID:27502751

  7. Orexin Plays a Role in Growth Impediment Induced by Obstructive Sleep Breathing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarasiuk, Ariel; Levi, Avishag; Assadi, Mohammad H.; Troib, Ariel; Segev, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The mechanisms linking sleep disordered breathing with impairment of sleep and bone metabolism/architecture are poorly understood. Here, we explored the role of the neuropeptide orexin, a respiratory homeostasis modulator, in growth retardation induced in an upper airway obstructed (AO) rat model. Methods: The tracheae of 22-day-old rats were narrowed; AO and sham-control animals were monitored for 5 to 7 w. Growth parameters, food intake, sleep/wake activity, and serum hormones were measured. After euthanasia, growth plate (GP) histology, morphometry, orexin receptors (OXR), and related mediators were analyzed. The effect of dual orexin receptor antagonist (almorexant 300 mg/kg) on sleep and GP histology were also investigated. Results: The AO group slept 32% less; the time spent in slow wave and paradoxical sleep during light period and slow wave activity was reduced. The AO group gained 46% less body weight compared to the control group, despite elevated food intake; plasma ghrelin increased by 275% and leptin level decreased by 44%. The impediment of bone elongation and bone mass was followed by a 200% increase in OX1R and 38% reduction of local GP ghrelin proteins and growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. Sry-related transcription factor nine (Sox9), a molecule mediating cartilage ossification, was downregulated and the level of transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was upregulated, explaining the bone architecture abnormalities. Administration of almorexant restored sleep and improved GP width in AO animals. Conclusions: In AO animals, enhanced expression of orexin and OX1R plays a role in respiratory induced sleep and growth abnormalities. Citation: Tarasiuk A, Levi A, Assadi MH, Troib A, Segev Y. Orexin plays a role in growth impediment induced by obstructive sleep breathing in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(4):887–897. PMID:26943473

  8. A Pivotal Role of DELLAs in Regulating Multiple Hormone Signals.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotypic plasticity is controlled by diverse hormone pathways, which integrate and convey information from multiple developmental and environmental signals. Moreover, in plants many processes such as growth, development, and defense are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones. Among them, gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones with pleiotropic actions, regulating various growth processes throughout the plant life cycle. Previous work has revealed extensive interplay between GAs and other hormones, but the molecular mechanism became apparent only recently. Molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that DELLA proteins, considered as master negative regulators of GA signaling, integrate multiple hormone signaling pathways through physical interactions with transcription factors or regulatory proteins from different families. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in GA signaling and its direct crosstalk with the main phytohormone signaling, emphasizing the multifaceted role of DELLA proteins with key components of major hormone signaling pathways.

  9. Role of oral teriflunomide in the management of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanasescu, Radu; Evangelou, Nikos; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is changing fast. Several oral treatments have shown benefit and generate much interest because of the convenience of their administration. Two oral compounds, fingolimod and teriflunomide, have been approved in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, while others have completed Phase III trials and are awaiting review for registration. Teriflunomide is a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor with selective immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties that have shown consistent efficacy in clinical trials, and a good safety profile. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms of action and efficacy and safety results from clinical trials with this drug. The role of teriflunomide in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is discussed. PMID:23637535

  10. Multiple Regulatory and Effector Roles of Autophagy in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Deretic, Vojo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Autophagy is a cytoplasmic homeostasis pathway, enabling cells to digest their own cytosol, remove toxic protein aggregates, and eliminate deffective or surplus organelles. A plenitude of studies have now expanded roles of autophagy to both effector and regulatory functions in innate and adaptive immunity. In its role of an immunological effector, autophagy plays many parts: (i) In its most primeval manifestation, autophagy captures and digests intracellular microbes; (ii) it is an anti-microbial output of Toll-like receptor (TLR) response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP); and (iii) autophagy is an effector of Th1-Th2 polarization in resistance or susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. As a regulator of immunity, autophagy plays a multitude of functions: (i) It acts as a topological inversion device servicing both innate and adaptive immunity by delivering cytosolic antigens to the lumen of MHC II compartments and cytosolic PAMPs to endosomal TLRs; (ii) autophagy is critical in T cell repertoire selection in the thymus and control of central tolerance; (iii) it plays a role in T and B cell homeostasis; and (iv) autophagy is of significance for inflammatory pathology. A properly functioning autophagy helps prevent autoimmunity and assists in clearing pathogens. When aberrant, it contributes to human inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease. PMID:19269148

  11. Increasing Toy Play among Toddlers with Multiple Disabilities in an Inclusive Classroom: A More-to-Less, Child-Directed Intervention Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Reid, Dennis H.; Stricklin, Sarintha B.

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a more-to-less, child-directed continuum of intervention to increase toy play among six toddlers with multiple disabilities. Toddlers were provided with repeated choices of preferred toys in a child-directed manner. Nonprompted toy play for two toddlers increased. Toy play also increased for another child after staff prompts and…

  12. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  13. Agrin plays an organizing role in the formation of sympathetic synapses.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Jacinthe; Rassadi, Siamak; Cooper, Ellis; Ferns, Michael

    2002-09-16

    Agrin is a nerve-derived factor that directs neuromuscular synapse formation, however its role in regulating interneuronal synaptogenesis is less clear. Here, we examine agrin's role in synapse formation between cholinergic preganglionic axons and sympathetic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) using agrin-deficient mice. In dissociated cultures of SCG neurons, we found a significant decrease in the number of synapses with aggregates of presynaptic synaptophysin and postsynaptic neuronal acetylcholine receptor among agrin-deficient neurons as compared to wild-type neurons. Moreover, the levels of pre- and postsynaptic markers at the residual synapses in agrin-deficient SCG cultures were also reduced, and these defects were rescued by adding recombinant neural agrin to the cultures. Similarly, we observed a decreased matching of pre- and postsynaptic markers in SCG of agrin-deficient embryos, reflecting a decrease in the number of differentiated synapses in vivo. Finally, in electrophysiological experiments, we found that paired-pulse depression was more pronounced and posttetanic potentiation was significantly greater in agrin-deficient ganglia, indicating that synaptic transmission is also defective. Together, these findings indicate that neural agrin plays an organizing role in the formation and/or differentiation of interneuronal, cholinergic synapses.

  14. NFAT isoforms play distinct roles in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Colin A; Savage, Sara R; Capozzi, Megan E; Suarez, Sandra; Penn, John S

    2015-11-03

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of individual NFAT isoforms in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis. To this end, human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) transfected with siRNA targeting individual NFAT isoforms were treated with TNFα, and qRT-PCR was used to examine the contribution of each isoform to the TNFα-induced upregulation of leukocyte adhesion proteins. This showed that NFATc1 siRNA increased ICAM1 expression, NFATc2 siRNA reduced CX3CL1, VCAM1, SELE, and ICAM1 expression, NFATc3 siRNA increased CX3CL1 and SELE expression, and NFATc4 siRNA reduced SELE expression. Transfected HRMEC monolayers were also treated with TNFα and assayed using a parallel plate flow chamber, and both NFATc2 and NFATc4 knockdown reduced TNFα-induced cell adhesion. The effect of isoform-specific knockdown on TNFα-induced cytokine production was also measured using protein ELISAs and conditioned cell culture medium, and showed that NFATc4 siRNA reduced CXCL10, CXCL11, and MCP-1 protein levels. Lastly, the CN/NFAT-signaling inhibitor INCA-6 was shown to reduce TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis in vivo. Together, these studies show a clear role for NFAT-signaling in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis, and identify NFATc2 and NFATc4 as potentially valuable therapeutic targets for treating retinopathies in which TNFα plays a pathogenic role.

  15. NFAT isoforms play distinct roles in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bretz, Colin A.; Savage, Sara R.; Capozzi, Megan E.; Suarez, Sandra; Penn, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of individual NFAT isoforms in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis. To this end, human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) transfected with siRNA targeting individual NFAT isoforms were treated with TNFα, and qRT-PCR was used to examine the contribution of each isoform to the TNFα-induced upregulation of leukocyte adhesion proteins. This showed that NFATc1 siRNA increased ICAM1 expression, NFATc2 siRNA reduced CX3CL1, VCAM1, SELE, and ICAM1 expression, NFATc3 siRNA increased CX3CL1 and SELE expression, and NFATc4 siRNA reduced SELE expression. Transfected HRMEC monolayers were also treated with TNFα and assayed using a parallel plate flow chamber, and both NFATc2 and NFATc4 knockdown reduced TNFα-induced cell adhesion. The effect of isoform-specific knockdown on TNFα-induced cytokine production was also measured using protein ELISAs and conditioned cell culture medium, and showed that NFATc4 siRNA reduced CXCL10, CXCL11, and MCP-1 protein levels. Lastly, the CN/NFAT-signaling inhibitor INCA-6 was shown to reduce TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis in vivo. Together, these studies show a clear role for NFAT-signaling in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis, and identify NFATc2 and NFATc4 as potentially valuable therapeutic targets for treating retinopathies in which TNFα plays a pathogenic role. PMID:26527057

  16. Adseverin plays a role in osteoclast differentiation and periodontal disease-mediated bone loss.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Viniegra, Ana; Sima, Corneliu; McCulloch, Christopher A; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Osteoclast differentiation and function are highly dependent on the assembly and turnover of actin filaments, but little is known about the roles of actin binding proteins in these processes. Adseverin (Ads), a member of the gelsolin superfamily of actin capping and severing proteins, regulates actin filament turnover and can regulate the turnover of cortical actin filaments of chromaffin cells during exocytosis. Using a conditional Ads knockout mouse model, we confirmed our previous finding in cultured cells that Ads plays a role in osteoclastogenesis (OCG) and actin cytoskeletal organization in osteoclasts. Here we show that Ads is required for osteoclast formation and that when alveolar bone resorption is experimentally induced in mice, genetic deletion of Ads prevents osteoclast-mediated bone loss. Further, when Ads-null osteoclasts are cultured, they exhibit defective OCG, disorganized podosome-based actin filament superstructures, and decreased bone resorption. Reintroduction of Ads into Ads-null osteoclast precursor cells restored these osteoclast defects. Collectively, these data demonstrate a unique and osteoclast-specific role for Ads in OCG and osteoclast function.

  17. GPR55, a G-Protein Coupled Receptor for Lysophosphatidylinositol, Plays a Role in Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P.; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior. PMID:23565223

  18. Cilia-Associated Genes Play Differing Roles in Aminoglycoside-Induced Hair Cell Death in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Tamara M.; Hernandez, Liana; Esterberg, Robert; Linbo, Tor; Owens, Kelly N.; Shah, Arish N.; Thapa, Nihal; Roberts, Brock; Moens, Cecilia B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells possess a single primary cilium, called the kinocilium, early in development. While the kinocilium is lost in auditory hair cells of most species it is maintained in vestibular hair cells. It has generally been believed that the primary role of the kinocilium and cilia-associated genes in hair cells is in the establishment of the polarity of actin-based stereocilia, the hair cell mechanotransduction apparatus. Through genetic screening and testing of candidate genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) we have found that mutations in multiple cilia genes implicated in intraflagellar transport (dync2h1, wdr35, ift88, and traf3ip), and the ciliary transition zone (cc2d2a, mks1, and cep290) lead to resistance to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. These genes appear to have differing roles in hair cells, as mutations in intraflagellar transport genes, but not transition zone genes, lead to defects in kinocilia formation and processes dependent upon hair cell mechanotransduction activity. These mutants highlight a novel role of cilia-associated genes in hair cells, and provide powerful tools for further study. PMID:27207957

  19. Cilia-Associated Genes Play Differing Roles in Aminoglycoside-Induced Hair Cell Death in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Tamara M; Hernandez, Liana; Esterberg, Robert; Linbo, Tor; Owens, Kelly N; Shah, Arish N; Thapa, Nihal; Roberts, Brock; Moens, Cecilia B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells possess a single primary cilium, called the kinocilium, early in development. While the kinocilium is lost in auditory hair cells of most species it is maintained in vestibular hair cells. It has generally been believed that the primary role of the kinocilium and cilia-associated genes in hair cells is in the establishment of the polarity of actin-based stereocilia, the hair cell mechanotransduction apparatus. Through genetic screening and testing of candidate genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) we have found that mutations in multiple cilia genes implicated in intraflagellar transport (dync2h1, wdr35, ift88, and traf3ip), and the ciliary transition zone (cc2d2a, mks1, and cep290) lead to resistance to aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. These genes appear to have differing roles in hair cells, as mutations in intraflagellar transport genes, but not transition zone genes, lead to defects in kinocilia formation and processes dependent upon hair cell mechanotransduction activity. These mutants highlight a novel role of cilia-associated genes in hair cells, and provide powerful tools for further study.

  20. Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Quan; Liu, Quan; Divito, Sherrie J.; Zeng, Qiang; Yatim, Karim M.; Hughes, Andrew D.; Rojas-Canales, Darling M.; Nakao, A.; Shufesky, William J.; Williams, Amanda L.; Humar, Rishab; Hoffman, Rosemary A.; Shlomchik, Warren D.; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.; Morelli, Adrian E.

    2016-01-01

    Successful engraftment of organ transplants has traditionally relied on preventing the activation of recipient (host) T cells. Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. Therefore, host DCs that infiltrate transplanted organs sustain the alloimmune response after T-cell activation has already occurred. Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. PMID:27554168

  1. Does Islam play a role in anti-immigrant sentiment? An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Mathew J; Jamal, Amaney

    2015-09-01

    Are Muslim immigrants subjected to targeted opposition (i.e., Islamophobia) on their pathway to US citizenship? Using a list experiment and a representative sample of the US population, we compare explicit and implicit opposition to Muslim and Christian immigrants. We find that Muslim immigrants, relative to Christian immigrants, experience greater explicit resistance. However, when social desirability bias is taken into account via the list experiment, we find that opposition to Christian and Muslim immigrants is the same. The explanation is that respondents conceal a significant amount of opposition to Christian immigrants. Muslim immigrants, on the other hand, are afforded no such protection. We find that religiosity or denomination do not play a significant role in determining implicit or explicit opposition. We conclude that Islamophobia, which is only explicitly expressed, is best understood as reflective of social desirability bias from which Muslim immigrants do not benefit. PMID:26188440

  2. Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Quan; Liu, Quan; Divito, Sherrie J; Zeng, Qiang; Yatim, Karim M; Hughes, Andrew D; Rojas-Canales, Darling M; Nakao, A; Shufesky, William J; Williams, Amanda L; Humar, Rishab; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Shlomchik, Warren D; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H; Lakkis, Fadi G; Morelli, Adrian E

    2016-01-01

    Successful engraftment of organ transplants has traditionally relied on preventing the activation of recipient (host) T cells. Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. Therefore, host DCs that infiltrate transplanted organs sustain the alloimmune response after T-cell activation has already occurred. Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection.

  3. "It feels good to be measured": clinical role-play, Walker Percy, and the tingles.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitin K

    2013-01-01

    A large online community has recently formed around autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR), a pleasant and poorly understood somatic reaction to specific interpersonal triggers. Its web-based manifestations include a variety of amateur videos designed to elicit the reaction, many of which feature protracted imitations of a clinician's physical exam. This analysis considers through a literary lens the proximity of this phenomenon to clinical diagnostics, focusing in particular on characterizations of spiritual isolation elaborated in Love in the Ruins (1971), the third novel by physician-writer Walker Percy (1916-1990). Within this speculative framework, the tendency to derive pleasure from clinical milieus, real or constructed, may be interpreted as a quality particular to the postmodern psyche. Viewing web-based clinical role-play in light of Percy's writing also underscores the possibility that routine diagnostic assessments may have independent therapeutic implications. PMID:24375123

  4. From records to self-description: the role played by RNA in early evolutive systems.

    PubMed

    Moreno Bergareche, A; Fernández Ostolaza, J

    1992-03-01

    We study the appearance of genetic information starting from a system where self-reproductive and enzymatic functions are supported by the same sort of molecules. In a first phase, the information must have arisen in the form of rate independent sequences as records of enzymatic functions. Although this stage must have played an important role in evolution, it will be shown how its evolutive capacities were blocked by the impossibility of appearance of geno/phenotype duality. Finally, a logical scheme is proposed for a transition process toward a system with a code offering a simplification of the conditions required from the assumption of a maximum use of the double RNA capacity, both reproductive and enzymatic.

  5. Specialisation changes in European regions: the role played by externalities across regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Toni; Moreno, Rosina

    2010-09-01

    This paper seeks to determine the factors underpinning changes in regional specialisation patterns in the European Union between 1991 and 2002. First, we consider a set of determinants previously identified in the regional literature, including agglomeration effects and other specific regional factors (business cycle, amount of investment, etc.). However, we then also take into account the fact that the evolution in a region’s specialisation pattern may be affected by the specialisation behaviour of other regions. Thus, not only do we consider the pattern of evolution in a region’s most proximate neighbours but we also examine that of their regional peers, i.e., regions with a similar specialisation pattern independent of their location. Notwithstanding, our empirical evidence indicates that physical distance still plays a very significant, and even more influential, role than similarity in specialisation.

  6. Rac GTPases play critical roles in early T-cell development

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Celine; Corsoni-Tadrzak, Agnieszka; Ruf, Sandra; de Boer, Jasper; Williams, Adam; Turner, Martin; Kioussis, Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    The Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases play important roles in many processes including cytoskeletal reorganization, proliferation, and survival, and are required for B-cell development. Previous studies had shown that deficiency in Rac2 did not affect T-cell development, whereas the function of Rac1 in this process has not been investigated. We now show that simultaneous absence of both GTPases resulted in a very strong developmental block at the pre-TCR checkpoint and in defective positive selection. Unexpectedly, deficiency of Rac1 and Rac2 also resulted in the aberrant survival of thymocytes lacking expression of TCRβ, showing hallmarks of hyperactive Notch signaling. Furthermore, we found a similar novel phenotype in the absence of Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3, which function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac1 and Rac2. These results show that a pathway containing Vav and Rac proteins may negatively regulate Notch signaling during early thymic development. PMID:19088377

  7. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  8. p21-Activated Kinase 1 Plays a Critical Role in Cellular Activation by Nef

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, Oliver T.; Lu, Xiaobin; Frost, Jeffrey A.; Geyer, Matthias; Jiang, Bing; Luo, Wen; Abo, Arie; Alberts, Arthur S.; Peterlin, B. Matija

    2000-01-01

    The activation of Nef-associated kinase (NAK) by Nef from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses is critical for efficient viral replication and pathogenesis. This induction occurs via the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav and the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. In this study, we identified NAK as p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). PAK1 bound to Nef in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the induction of cytoskeletal rearrangements such as the formation of trichopodia, the activation of Jun N-terminal kinase, and the increase of viral production were blocked by an inhibitory peptide that targets the kinase activity of PAK1 (PAK1 83-149). These results identify NAK as PAK1 and emphasize the central role its kinase activity plays in cytoskeletal rearrangements and cellular signaling by Nef. PMID:10713183

  9. Roles played by acidic lipids in HIV-1 Gag membrane binding.

    PubMed

    Olety, Balaji; Ono, Akira

    2014-11-26

    The MA domain mediates plasma membrane (PM) targeting of HIV-1 Gag, leading to particle assembly at the PM. The interaction between MA and acidic phospholipids, in addition to N-terminal myristoyl moiety, promotes Gag binding to lipid membranes. Among acidic phospholipids, PI(4,5)P2, a PM-specific phosphoinositide, is essential for proper HIV-1 Gag localization to the PM and efficient virus particle production. Recent studies further revealed that MA-bound RNA negatively regulates HIV-1 Gag membrane binding and that PI(4,5)P2 is necessary to overcome this RNA-imposed block. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of Gag-membrane interactions and discuss potential roles played by acidic phospholipids.

  10. Prostaglandins may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Prusch, R D; Goette, S M; Haberman, P

    1989-03-01

    Phagocytosis in Amoeba proteus can be induced with prostaglandins (PG). In addition, arachidonic acid (the fatty acid precursor to the PG-2 series) also induces phagocytosis. The induction of phagocytosis with arachidonic acid can be partially inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Phagocytosis in the amoeba can also be induced with the chemotactic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine (NFMLP). The peptide presumably induces phagocytosis by interacting with receptors on the amoeba surface, which may initiate the release of arachidonic acid from membrane lipids. NFMLP-induced phagocytosis can also be partially inhibited by indomethacin. It is suggested that PG's or biochemically related substances may play a signal-coupling role during phagocytosis in the amoeba.

  11. Scientific presentation of project results: Role playing in a course for nonscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, John W.

    1981-06-01

    One of the goals of a science course for nonscientists is to introduce the student to the thought processes and experiences of being a scientist. This article discusses a role-playing technique used in a physics of music course that addresses this goal. The students choose a research project to work on, and present their results as a journal article or an oral presentation at a scientific ''meeting.'' The journal articles are refereed and those accepted, along with a program of the meeting, are formed into a journal which is distributed to all the students. Student response has been positive, both in terms of enjoyment of the project and of improvement in writing skills.

  12. Statistical properties of online avatar numbers in a massive multiplayer online role-playing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Fei; Gu, Gao-Feng; Tan, Qun-Zhao; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-02-01

    Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been very popular in the past few years. The profit of an MMORPG company is proportional to how many users registered, and the instant number of online avatars is a key factor to assess how popular an MMORPG is. We use the online-offline logs on an MMORPG server to reconstruct the instant number of online avatars per second and investigate its statistical properties. We find that the online avatar number exhibits one-day periodic behavior and clear intraday pattern, the fluctuation distribution of the online avatar numbers has a leptokurtic non-Gaussian shape with power-law tails, and the increments of online avatar numbers after removing the intraday pattern are uncorrelated and the associated absolute values have long-term correlation. In addition, both time series exhibit multifractal nature.

  13. [The Role Playing with recording for the undoing of the relational abilities].

    PubMed

    De Camillis, Nadia; Ottaviani, Floriana; Renzi, Eufemia

    2005-01-01

    The elective didactic activities, (the student choice) in the regulation nursing degree corse represent an inviting formative moment for the students, since they can choose on the didactic fan proposed, the offer that most like and capture one own learning process. The proposal of the Role Playing session, active didactic methodology for excellence, since it favours the learning taking advantage of ludic analogy power, has consented, in the elective activities a ambit, with a lot of favour by nurse students that have lived in the simulation some emblematic situations of the clinical daily. The students group has focused theme attention on some ordinary situations in the hospital context performed by actorsstudents and they are analysed psychological mechanism, particularly as far as concerned the communication and the approach nurse-patient-patient relative: the behaviour mistakes perceived by oneself and somebody else, are become elements for discussions and new information for to acquire relationship competences.

  14. The power of online role-play simulations: technology in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Denise L; Blenkin, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The use and evaluation of an innovative Web-based technology and its suitability for promoting realism when interacting in clinical nursing situations are described. Also discussed are the development, implementation and evaluation of online role-play simulation. Student and faculty-centered insights are shared about the simulation and the technology supporting it. This Web-based learning experience validated literature review findings and offered new understanding about extended learning, projected realism, diversity, seriousness, non-verbal prompting, and evaluation. This simulation used the Fablusi platform in which students experienced the outcomes of their decisions and actions. This Web-based technology can be adapted for different student groups to enhance learning.

  15. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  16. Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Quan; Liu, Quan; Divito, Sherrie J; Zeng, Qiang; Yatim, Karim M; Hughes, Andrew D; Rojas-Canales, Darling M; Nakao, A; Shufesky, William J; Williams, Amanda L; Humar, Rishab; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Shlomchik, Warren D; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H; Lakkis, Fadi G; Morelli, Adrian E

    2016-01-01

    Successful engraftment of organ transplants has traditionally relied on preventing the activation of recipient (host) T cells. Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. Therefore, host DCs that infiltrate transplanted organs sustain the alloimmune response after T-cell activation has already occurred. Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. PMID:27554168

  17. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide.

  18. Lectins in fish skin: do they play a role in host-monogenean interactions?

    PubMed

    Buchmann, K

    2001-09-01

    Mucus samples from rainbow trout skin with or without infections by Gyrodactylus derjavini were tested for the presence of lectins reacting with mannose, galactose and lactose. The samples inhibited the binding of biotinylated lectins (from Canavalia ensiformis, Artocarpus integrifolia and Erythrina corallodendron, respectively) to microtitre plates with covalently bound carbohydrates (mannopyranoside, galactopyranoside and lactose, respectively). However, the inhibition of C. ensiformis and A. integrifolia lectins was slightly greater when mucus from infected (but recovering) fish was used, suggesting an increase of mannose and galactose binding lectins in fish skin exposed to parasites. As mannose, galactose and lactose are present on the glycocalyx of Gyrodactylus derjavini, it is suggested that lectins could play a dual role in interactions between fish hosts and their monogenean parasites. Thus, recognition between parasite and host and also host responses towards parasite infections could both, at least partly, involve carbohydrate-lectin binding.

  19. Posterior Ankle Impingement in Two Athletic Twin Brothers, Could Genetics Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Bech, Niels H; de Leeuw, Peter A J; Haverkamp, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Pain posteriorly in the ankle can be caused by bony impingement of the posterolateral process of the talus. This process impinges between the tibia and calcaneus during deep forced plantar flexion. If this occurs it is called posterior ankle impingement syndrome. We report the case of 2 athletic monozygotic twin brothers with bony impingement posteriorly in the left ankle. Treatment consisted of ankle arthroscopy in both patients during which the symptomatic process was easily removed. At 3 months after surgery, both patients were completely free of pain, and 1 of the brothers had already returned to sports. The posterior ankle impingement syndrome is not a rare syndrome, but it has not been described in siblings thus far. That these 2 patients are monozygotic twin brothers suggests that genetics could play a role in the development of skeletal deformities that can result in posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

  20. Does the pituitary somatotrope play a primary role in regulating GH output in metabolic extremes?

    PubMed

    Luque, Raul M; Gahete, Manuel D; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Childs, Gwen V; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2011-03-01

    Circulating growth hormone (GH) levels rise in response to nutrient deprivation and fall in states of nutrient excess. Because GH regulates carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, defining the mechanisms by which changes in metabolism alter GH secretion will aid in our understanding of the cause, progression, and treatment of metabolic diseases. This review will summarize what is currently known regarding the impact of systemic metabolic signals on GH-axis function. In addition, ongoing studies using the Cre/loxP system to generate mouse models with selective somatotrope resistance to metabolic signals will be discussed, where these models will serve to enhance our understanding of the specific role the somatotrope plays in sensing the metabolic environment and adjusting GH output in metabolic extremes. PMID:21388406

  1. "It feels good to be measured": clinical role-play, Walker Percy, and the tingles.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitin K

    2013-01-01

    A large online community has recently formed around autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR), a pleasant and poorly understood somatic reaction to specific interpersonal triggers. Its web-based manifestations include a variety of amateur videos designed to elicit the reaction, many of which feature protracted imitations of a clinician's physical exam. This analysis considers through a literary lens the proximity of this phenomenon to clinical diagnostics, focusing in particular on characterizations of spiritual isolation elaborated in Love in the Ruins (1971), the third novel by physician-writer Walker Percy (1916-1990). Within this speculative framework, the tendency to derive pleasure from clinical milieus, real or constructed, may be interpreted as a quality particular to the postmodern psyche. Viewing web-based clinical role-play in light of Percy's writing also underscores the possibility that routine diagnostic assessments may have independent therapeutic implications.

  2. XHAPLN3 plays a key role in cardiogenesis by maintaining the hyaluronan matrix around heart anlage.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuzuru; Seno, Satsuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Fukui, Akimasa; Asashima, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Hyaluronan matrix plays an important role during vertebrate cardiogenesis. Transcripts for the hyaluronan synthase Has2 gene are expressed in heart anlage, and disruption of either Has2 or versican, a hyaluronan matrix component, abrogates normal cardiac morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which hyaluronan matrix contributes to early heart development are largely unknown. Here we show that Xenopus hyaluronan and proteoglycan-binding link protein 3 (XHAPLN3) helps to maintain hyaluronan matrix around the cardiac anlage, and thereby contribute to cardiogenesis. XHAPLN3 mRNA transcript localization overlapped with the mRNA expression of both Xhas2 and Xversican at the heart anlage of early tailbud (stage 23) embryos. Furthermore, knockdown of XHAPLN3 or Xhas2 with morpholino antisense oligos caused a heart deficiency in developing tadpoles. Our results show when and how components of the hyaluronan matrix function in cardiogenesis, improving our understanding of how extracellular matrix participates in embryogenesis.

  3. Multiple roles for orexin/hypocretin in addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Stephen V.; Smith, Rachel J.; Moorman, David E.; Sartor, Gregory C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Orexins/hypocretins are hypothalamic peptides involved in arousal and wakefulness, but also play a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. Here, we review the roles played by orexins in a variety of animal models of drug addiction, emphasizing both commonalities and differences for orexin’s involvement in seeking of the major classes of abused drugs, as well as food. One common theme that emerges is an involvement of orexins in drug seeking triggered by external stimuli (e.g., cues, contexts or stressors). We also discuss the functional neuronal circuits in which orexins are embedded, and how these circuits mediate addiction-related behaviors, with particular focus on the role of orexin and glutamate interactions within the ventral tegmental area. Finally, we attempt to contextualize the role of orexins in reward by discussing ways in which these peptides, expressed in only a few thousand neurons in the brain, can have such wide-ranging effects on behavior. PMID:22813971

  4. Role of auditory feedback in the control of successive keystrokes during piano playing.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of auditory feedback derived from one keystroke in the control of the rhythmicity and velocity of successive keystrokes during piano playing. We examined the effects of transient auditory perturbations with respect to the pitch, loudness, and timing of one tone on subsequent keystrokes while six pianists played short excerpts from three simple musical pieces having different tempi ("event rates"). Immediately after a delay in tone production, the inter-keystroke interval became shorter. This compensatory action depended on the tempo, being most prominent at the medium tempo. This indicates that temporal information provided by auditory feedback is utilized to regulate the timing of movement elements produced in a sequence. We also found that the keystroke velocity changed after the timing, pitch, or loudness of a tone was altered, although the response differed depending on the type of perturbation. While delaying the timing or altering the pitch led to an increase in the velocity, altering the loudness changed the velocity in an inconsistent manner. Furthermore, perturbing a tone elicited by the right hand also affected the rhythmicity and velocity of keystrokes with the left hand, indicating that bimanual coordination of tone production was maintained. Finally, altering the pitch sometimes resulted in striking an incorrect key, mostly in the slow piece, emphasizing the importance of pitch information for accurate planning and execution of sequential piano keystrokes. PMID:20521031

  5. Role of auditory feedback in the control of successive keystrokes during piano playing

    PubMed Central

    Soechting, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of auditory feedback derived from one keystroke in the control of the rhythmicity and velocity of successive keystrokes during piano playing. We examined the effects of transient auditory perturbations with respect to the pitch, loudness, and timing of one tone on subsequent keystrokes while six pianists played short excerpts from three simple musical pieces having different tempi (“event rates”). Immediately after a delay in tone production, the inter-keystroke interval became shorter. This compensatory action depended on the tempo, being most prominent at the medium tempo. This indicates that temporal information provided by auditory feedback is utilized to regulate the timing of movement elements produced in a sequence. We also found that the keystroke velocity changed after the timing, pitch, or loudness of a tone was altered, although the response differed depending on the type of perturbation. While delaying the timing or altering the pitch led to an increase in the velocity, altering the loudness changed the velocity in an inconsistent manner. Furthermore, perturbing a tone elicited by the right hand also affected the rhythmicity and velocity of keystrokes with the left hand, indicating that bimanual coordination of tone production was maintained. Finally, altering the pitch sometimes resulted in striking an incorrect key, mostly in the slow piece, emphasizing the importance of pitch information for accurate planning and execution of sequential piano keystrokes. PMID:20521031

  6. PTBP1-dependent regulation of USP5 alternative RNA splicing plays a role in glioblastoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Izaguirre, Daisy I; Zhu, Wen; Hai, Tao; Cheung, Hannah C; Krahe, Ralf; Cote, Gilbert J

    2012-11-01

    Aberrant RNA splicing is thought to play a key role in tumorigenesis. The assessment of its specific contributions is limited by the complexity of information derived from genome-wide array-based approaches. We describe how performing splicing factor-specific comparisons using both tumor and cell line data sets may more readily identify physiologically relevant tumor-specific splicing events. Affymetrix exon array data derived from glioblastoma (GBM) tumor samples with defined polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) levels were compared with data from U251 GBM cells with and without PTBP1 knockdown. This comparison yielded overlapping gene sets that comprised only a minor fraction of each data set. The identification of a novel GBM-specific splicing event involving the USP5 gene led us to further examine its role in tumorigenesis. In GBM, USP5 generates a shorter isoform 2 through recognition of a 5' splice site within exon 15. Production of the USP5 isoform 2 was strongly correlated with PTBP1 expression in GBM tumor samples and cell lines. Splicing regulation was consistent with the presence of an intronic PTBP1 binding site and could be modulated through antisense targeting of the isoform 2 splice site to force expression of isoform 1 in GBM cells. The forced expression of USP5 isoform 1 in two GBM cell lines inhibited cell growth and migration, implying an important role for USP5 splicing in gliomagenesis. These results support a role for aberrant RNA splicing in tumorigenesis and suggest that changes in relatively few genes may be sufficient to drive the process.

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Arabidopsis Leaves Plays a Crucial Role in Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianghua; Yi, Keke; Liu, Yu; Xie, Li; Zhou, Zhongjing; Chen, Yue; Hu, Zhanghua; Zheng, Tao; Liu, Renhu; Chen, Yunlong; Chen, Jinqing

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes an irreversible primary metabolic reaction in plants. Previous studies have used transgenic plants expressing ectopic PEPC forms with diminished feedback inhibition to examine the role of PEPC in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. To date, the in vivo role of PEPC in carbon and nitrogen metabolism has not been analyzed in plants. In this study, we examined the role of PEPC in plants, demonstrating that PPC1 and PPC2 were highly expressed genes encoding PEPC in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves and that PPC1 and PPC2 accounted for approximately 93% of total PEPC activity in the leaves. A double mutant, ppc1/ppc2, was constructed that exhibited a severe growth-arrest phenotype. The ppc1/ppc2 mutant accumulated more starch and sucrose than wild-type plants when seedlings were grown under normal conditions. Physiological and metabolic analysis revealed that decreased PEPC activity in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant greatly reduced the synthesis of malate and citrate and severely suppressed ammonium assimilation. Furthermore, nitrate levels in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant were significantly lower than those in wild-type plants due to the suppression of ammonium assimilation. Interestingly, starch and sucrose accumulation could be prevented and nitrate levels could be maintained by supplying the ppc1/ppc2 mutant with exogenous malate and glutamate, suggesting that low nitrogen status resulted in the alteration of carbon metabolism and prompted the accumulation of starch and sucrose in the ppc1/ppc2 mutant. Our results demonstrate that PEPC in leaves plays a crucial role in modulating the balance of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Arabidopsis. PMID:25588735

  8. Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Protein Plays Important Roles in Regulating Cell Adhesion, Morphology, Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mei Kuen; Liang, Yong Jia; Chan, John Yeuk Hon; Wong, Sing Wan; Chen, Elve; Yao, Yao; Gan, Jingyi; Xiao, Lihai; Leung, Hin Cheung; Kung, Hsiang Fu; Wang, Hua; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    PML protein plays important roles in regulating cellular homeostasis. It forms PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act like nuclear relay stations and participate in many cellular functions. In this study, we have examined the proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from normal (PML+/+) and PML knockout (PML−/−) mice. The aim was to identify proteins that were differentially expressed when MEFs were incapable of producing PML. Using comparative proteomics, total protein were extracted from PML−/− and PML+/+ MEFs, resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels and the differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Nine proteins (PML, NDRG1, CACYBP, CFL1, RSU1, TRIO, CTRO, ANXA4 and UBE2M) were determined to be down-regulated in PML−/− MEFs. In contrast, ten proteins (CIAPIN1, FAM50A, SUMO2 HSPB1 NSFL1C, PCBP2, YWHAG, STMN1, TPD52L2 and PDAP1) were found up-regulated. Many of these differentially expressed proteins play crucial roles in cell adhesion, migration, morphology and cytokinesis. The protein profiles explain why PML−/− and PML+/+ MEFs were morphologically different. In addition, we demonstrated PML−/− MEFs were less adhesive, proliferated more extensively and migrated significantly slower than PML+/+ MEFs. NDRG1, a protein that was down-regulated in PML−/− MEFs, was selected for further investigation. We determined that silencing NDRG1expression in PML+/+ MEFs increased cell proliferation and inhibited PML expression. Since NDRG expression was suppressed in PML−/− MEFs, this may explain why these cells proliferate more extensively than PML+/+ MEFs. Furthermore, silencing NDRG1expression also impaired TGF-β1 signaling by inhibiting SMAD3 phosphorylation. PMID:23555679

  9. A step-wise role playing approach for teaching patient counseling skills to medical students.

    PubMed

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2002-02-01

    We describe a step-wise role playing approach to bedside teaching during the clinical training of medical students. The objective of this approach is to teach them the skills which are required to practice patient-centered medicine. "Patient-centered medicine" refers to a style of practice which relates to patients' needs rather than to the doctor's own plan, and which moves from professional control to patient empowerment. Our approach is based on: (a) interviews with real patients, and (b) re-play of doctor--patient encounters in small group teaching sessions using the instructor (a physician) as a simulated patient, while a student assumes the role of the physician. The objective of the simulation is to assess the student's ability to provide health-related information, involve patients in making clinical decisions and plan their management in a manner which suits their preferences and lifestyle. The medical background of the instructor who simulates the patient eliminates barriers in communication and allows these objectives to be easily accomplished. The discussion which follows, attempts to: (a) identify discrepancies between the optimal counseling which was offered to the simulated patient and that offered to the real patient; and (b) show that although inevitable, these discrepancies are not irreducible. We have no formal evaluation of our approach in terms of whether it achieved its objective, produced changes in students' attitudes and bedside manners, or in terms of students' ratings of the teaching approach. However, student participation and occasional verbal feedback have indicated that the teaching intervention may be a valid contribution to the clinical training of medical students and that it may be of use for other clinical instructors.

  10. AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiao‐Ying; Yang, Ke‐Zhen; Ma, Zhao‐Xia; Chen, Li‐Qun; Zhang, Xue‐Qin; Bai, Jin‐Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In flowering plants, pollen tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pollen tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pollen tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal callose deposition in the pollen grains and had a significant impact on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pollen grains, pollen tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pollen‐rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18‐GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cells of pollen grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18‐homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:26699939

  11. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-03-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of approx. =72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO/sub 4//PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation.

  12. Ustilago maydis phosphodiesterases play a role in the dimorphic switch and in pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Aulakh, Kavita B; Edelen, Kaly; Cooper, Michael; Wallen, R Margaret; Adams, Seth; Schultz, David J; Perlin, Michael H

    2013-05-01

    Components of the cAMP (cyclic AMP) signalling cascades are conserved from fungi to humans, and are particularly important for fungal dimorphism and pathogenicity. Previous work has described two phosphodiesterases, UmPde1 and UmPde2, in Ustilago maydis which show strong phosphodiesterase activity. We further characterized the biological function(s) of these phosphodiesterases in U. maydis. Specifically, we examined their possible role(s) in regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and their roles in filamentous growth and pathogenicity. We found that UmPde1, which shares 35 % similarity with Cryptococcus neoformans Pde1, also displays functional homology with this enzyme. UmPde1 complements the capsule-formation defect of C. neoformans strains deleted for Pde1. In U. maydis, the cell morphology of the umpde1 deletion mutant resembled the multiple budding phenotypes seen with the ubc1 mutant, which lacks the regulatory subunit of PKA. Interestingly, on low-ammonium medium, umpde2 deletion strains showed a reduction in filamentation that was comparable to that of ubc1 deletion strains; however, umpde1 deletion strains showed normal filamentation on low-ammonium medium. Furthermore, both the ubc1 deletion strain in which the PKA pathway was constitutively active and the umpde1 deletion strains were significantly reduced in pathogenicity, while the umpde2 deletion strains showed a trend for reduced pathogenicity compared with wild-type strains. These data support a role for the phosphodiesterases UmPde1 and UmPde2 in regulating the U. maydis cAMP-dependent PKA pathway through modulation of cAMP levels, thus affecting dimorphic growth and pathogenicity.

  13. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S.; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  14. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  15. Do glutathione and related enzymes play a role in drug resistance in small cell lung cancer cell lines?

    PubMed Central

    Campling, B. G.; Baer, K.; Baker, H. M.; Lam, Y. M.; Cole, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is treated primarily with combination chemotherapy. Despite high initial response rates, most patients eventually die with drug resistant disease. In some tumours, resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents is attributed to overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, this does not appear to be a frequent occurrence in drug resistant SCLC. Increased levels of glutathione (GSH) and related enzymes may play a role in resistance to alkylating agents as well as natural product drugs. We measured levels of GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSH Red), glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) in a panel of 20 SCLC cell lines. Most of these lines were established from patients treated at this centre. Each cell line had a characteristic and reproducible profile of GSH and related enzyme levels. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the predominant GST in the cell lines was the anionic pi isoenzyme. The relative sensitivity of each of these cell lines to 16 different chemotherapeutic agents was measured using a modified MTT assay. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the relationships between the relative chemosensitivity of these cell lines and the levels of GSH and related enzymes. The number of positive correlations was no greater than expected by chance alone. Furthermore, there was no correlation with the treatment history of the patients from whom the cell lines were derived. These data suggest that alterations in glutathione metabolism do not play a major role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in these human SCLC cell lines. Images Figure 1 PMID:8102244

  16. The mathematical review system: does reviewer status play a role in the citation process?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits an aspect of citation theory (i.e., citer motivation) with respect to the Mathematical Review system and the reviewer’s role in mathematics. We focus on a set of journal articles (369) published in Singularity Theory (1974–2003), the mathematicians who wrote editorial reviews for these articles, and the number of citations each reviewed article received within a 5 year period. Our research hypothesis is that the cognitive authority of a high status reviewer plays a positive role in how well a new article is received and cited by others. Bibliometric evidence points to the contrary: Singularity Theorists of lower status (junior researchers) have reviewed slightly more well-cited articles (2–5 citations, excluding author self-citations) than their higher status counterparts (senior researchers). One explanation for this result is that lower status researchers may have been asked to review ‘trendy’ or more accessible parts of mathematics, which are easier to use and cite. We offer further explanations and discuss a number of implications for a theory of citation in mathematics. This research opens the door for comparisons to other editorial review systems, such as book reviews written in the social sciences or humanities. PMID:20543874

  17. CBX7 deficiency plays a positive role in dentin and alveolar bone development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixuan; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Niu, Yuming; Wan, Shujian; Chen, Ning; Shen, Ming

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the role of CBX7 deficiency in dentin and alveolar bone development, the dental and mandibular phenotypes of homozygous CBX7-knockout (CBX7(-/-)) mice were compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts at 3 weeks age. In contrast to WT littermates, dental volume and dentin sialoprotein-positive area were significantly increased, whereas the area ratio of predentin to dentin was decreased markedly in CBX7(-/-) mice. Mineral density, cortical thickness, alveolar bone volume, type I collagen and osterix-immunopositive area, osteoblast number and activity, protein expression and mRNA level of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were all remarkably increased, while osteoclast number and activity, and mRNA expression ratio of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (opg) were all decreased significantly in the alveolar bone of CBX7(-/-) mice compared with their WT counterparts. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were found more in Hertwig' s epithelial root sheath of CBX7(-/-) mice, and their protein level of cyclin E1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were correspondingly increased in contrast to WT mice. Taken together, these results of this study suggest that CBX7 deficiency plays a positive role in dentin and alveolar bone formation. PMID:27271093

  18. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  19. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification

    PubMed Central

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca2+ chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure. PMID:26895630

  20. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs. PMID:25266856

  1. Progesterone plays a critical role in canine oocyte maturation and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Karine; Saint-Dizier, Marie; Tahir, Muhammad Zahid; Havard, Tiphaine; Harichaux, Grégoire; Labas, Valérie; Thoumire, Sandra; Fontbonne, Alain; Grimard, Bénédicte; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Canine oocyte maturation and fertilization take place within the oviducts under increasing plasma levels of progesterone (P4). In order to investigate the role of P4 in these processes, 51 beagle bitches were treated with the P4 receptor antagonist aglepristone at the end of proestrus and 32 females were kept untreated. Fifteen treated and 13 control bitches were inseminated at Days +1 and +2 after ovulation (Day 0). Stages of oocyte maturation and embryo development were determined after ovariectomy at different time points after ovulation. Aglepristone did not prevent ovulation but delayed the resumption of oocyte meiosis and inhibited its progression: first metaphase I (MI) stage was observed at 173 h postovulation and 39% of oocytes reached MII as late as 335 h postovulation in treated females whereas first MI occurred at 76 h and 100% of oocytes were in MII at 109 h postovulation in controls. Aglepristone extended the stay of morphologically normal oocytes within the oviducts: first signs of oocyte degeneration were observed at 335 h in treated versus 100- to 110-h postovulation in control bitches. In inseminated females, aglepristone prevented sperm progression toward the oviducts and fertilization, although motile spermatozoa were observed in the uterine tip flush and within the cranial uterine glands. A proteomic analysis of the tubal fluid from treated and control noninseminated bitches at Day +4 found evidence of 79 differential proteins potentially involved in the oocyte phenotype. In conclusion, P4 plays key roles in postovulatory canine oocyte maturation, aging, and in fertilization.

  2. PME58 plays a role in pectin distribution during seed coat mucilage extrusion through homogalacturonan modification.

    PubMed

    Turbant, Amélie; Fournet, Françoise; Lequart, Michelle; Zabijak, Luciane; Pageau, Karine; Bouton, Sophie; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Pectins are major components of plant primary cell walls. They include homogalacturonans (HGs), which are the most abundant pectin and can be the target of apoplastic enzymes like pectin methylesterases (PMEs) that control their methylesterification level. Several PMEs are expressed in the seed coat of Arabidopsis thaliana, particularly in mucilage secretory cells (MSCs). On the basis of public transcriptomic data, seven PME genes were selected and checked for their seed-specific expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Of these, PME58 presented the highest level of expression and was specifically expressed in MSCs at the early stages of seed development. pme58 mutants presented two discrete phenotypes: (i) their adherent mucilage was less stained by ruthenium red when compared to wild-type seeds, but only in the presence of EDTA, a Ca(2+)chelator; and (ii) the MSC surface area was decreased. These phenotypes are the consequence of an increase in the degree of HG methylesterification connected to a decrease in PME activity. Analysis of the sugar composition of soluble and adherent mucilage showed that, in the presence of EDTA, sugars of adherent mucilage were more readily extracted in pme58 mutants. Immunolabelling with LM19, an antibody that preferentially recognizes unesterified HGs, also showed that molecular interactions with HGs were modified in the adherent mucilage of pme58 mutants, suggesting a role of PME58 in mucilage structure and organization. In conclusion, PME58 is the first PME identified to play a direct role in seed mucilage structure.

  3. Chondrocyte BMP2 signaling plays an essential role in bone fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Meng; Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Yukata, Kiminori; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Ke, Qiao Han; Tong, Peijian; Im, Hee-Jeong; Xiao, Guozhi; Chen, Di

    2012-01-01

    The specific role of endogenous Bmp2 gene in chondrocytes and in osteoblasts in fracture healing was investigated by generation and analysis of chondrocyte- and osteoblast-specific Bmp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in these Bmp2 cKO mice. Bone fracture callus samples were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT, histology analyses, biomechanical testing and gene expression assays. The results demonstrated that the lack of Bmp2 expression in chondrocytes leads to a prolonged cartilage callus formation and a delayed osteogenesis initiation and progression into mineralization phase with lower biomechanical properties. In contrast, when the Bmp2 gene was deleted in osteoblasts, the mice showed no significant difference in the fracture healing process compared to control mice. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP2 expression in chondrocytes may play an essential role in cartilage callus maturation at an early stage of fracture healing. Our studies may provide important information for clinical application of BMP2. PMID:23107765

  4. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae. PMID:26350402

  5. [Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant.

  6. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  7. Dysregulation of angiopoietin-1 plays a mechanistic role in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Sarah J; Purcell, Lisa A; Silver, Karlee L; Tran, Vanessa; Crowley, Valerie; Hawkes, Michael; Conroy, Andrea L; Opoka, Robert O; Hay, John G; Quaggin, Susan E; Thurston, Gavin; Liles, W Conrad; Kain, Kevin C

    2016-09-28

    Cerebral malaria is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Interventions targeting the underlying pathophysiology of cerebral malaria may improve outcomes compared to treatment with antimalarials alone. Microvascular leak plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie-2 system is a critical regulator of vascular function. We show that Ang-1 expression and soluble Tie-2 expression were associated with disease severity and outcome in a prospective study of Ugandan children with severe malaria and in a preclinical murine model of experimental cerebral malaria. Ang-1 was necessary for maintenance of vascular integrity and survival in a mouse model of cerebral malaria. Therapeutic administration of Ang-1 preserved blood-brain barrier integrity and, in combination with artesunate treatment, improved survival beyond that with artesunate alone. These data define a role for dysregulation of the Ang-Tie-2 axis in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria and support the evaluation of Ang-Tie-2-based interventions as potential adjunctive therapies for treating severe malaria. PMID:27683553

  8. Cardiolipin metabolism and the role it plays in heart failure and mitochondrial supercomplex formation.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Edgard M; Cole, Laura K; Hatch, Grant M

    2014-01-01

    Cardiolipin is a major membrane phospholipid in the mitochondria and is essential for cellular energy metabolism mediated through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Recent studies indicate that it plays a diverse role in cellular metabolism. Eukaryotic cardiolipin is synthesized de novo from phosphatidic acid via the cytidine-5'-diphosphate-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol pathway and is deacylated to monolysocardiolipin in order for it to be remodelled into the form that is observed in mitochondrial membranes. This resynthesis of deacylated cardiolipin from monolysocardiolipin occurs via the Barth Syndrome gene product tafazzin and acyllysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1, monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1 and the alpha subunit of trifunctional protein. Heart failure is a disease condition in which the amount and type of cardiolipin is altered. Several animal models have been generated to study the role of altered cardiolipin in heart failure. In many of these models loss of the tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin species is observed during the development of the heart failure. In the doxycycline inducible short hairpin RNA tafazzin knock down mouse, loss of tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin is associated with a mitochondrial bioenergetic disruption. Reduction in mitochondrial supercomplex formation and NADH dehydrogenase activity within these supercomplexes is observed. Modulation of CL fatty acyl composition may serve as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several pathologies including cardiac dysfunction.We propose that increasing cardiolipin may improve mitochondrial function and potentially serve as a therapy for diseases which exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction involving reduced cardiolipin. PMID:24801725

  9. Entamoeba mitosomes play an important role in encystation by association with cholesteryl sulfate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mi-ichi, Fumika; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Takao, Shouko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiromitsu; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes are mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) that have highly reduced and divergent functions in anaerobic/microaerophilic eukaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica, a microaerophilic, parasitic amoebozoan species, which causes intestinal and extraintestinal amoebiasis in humans, possesses mitosomes, the existence and biological functions of which have been a longstanding enigma in the evolution of mitochondria. We previously demonstrated that sulfate activation, which is not generally compartmentalized to mitochondria, is a major function of E. histolytica mitosomes. However, because the final metabolites of sulfate activation remain unknown, the overall scheme of this metabolism and the role of mitosomes in Entamoeba have not been elucidated. In this study we purified and identified cholesteryl sulfate (CS) as a final metabolite of sulfate activation. We then identified the gene encoding the cholesteryl sulfotransferase responsible for synthesizing CS. Addition of CS to culture media increased the number of cysts, the dormant form that differentiates from proliferative trophozoites. Conversely, chlorate, a selective inhibitor of the first enzyme in the sulfate-activation pathway, inhibited cyst formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that CS plays an important role in differentiation, an essential process for the transmission of Entamoeba between hosts. Furthermore, we show that Mastigamoeba balamuthi, an anaerobic, free-living amoebozoan species, which is a close relative of E. histolytica, also has the sulfate-activation pathway in MROs but does not possess the capacity for CS production. Hence, we propose that a unique function of MROs in Entamoeba contributes to its adaptation to its parasitic life cycle.

  10. Target of rapamycin (TOR) plays a critical role in triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Sone, Toshiyuki; Era, Atsuko; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2015-10-01

    Most microalgae produce triacylglycerol (TAG) under stress conditions such as nitrogen depletion, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the role of target of rapamycin (TOR) in TAG accumulation. TOR is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly conserved and plays pivotal roles in nitrogen and other signaling pathways in eukaryotes. We previously constructed a rapamycin-susceptible Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a unicellular red alga, by expressing yeast FKBP12 protein to evaluate the results of TOR inhibition (Imamura et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439:264-269, 2013). By using this strain, we here report that rapamycin-induced TOR inhibition results in accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets containing TAG. Transcripts for TAG synthesis-related genes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), were increased by rapamycin treatment. We also found that fatty acid synthase-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis was required for the accumulation of lipid droplets. Induction of TAG and up-regulation of DGAT gene expression by rapamycin were similarly observed in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. These results suggest the general involvement of TOR signaling in TAG accumulation in divergent microalgae.

  11. FACT plays a major role in histone dynamics affecting VSG expression site control in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Denninger, Viola; Rudenko, Gloria

    2014-11-01

    Chromatin remodelling is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the RNA polymerase I transcribed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) of Trypanosoma brucei. We show that the T. brucei FACT complex contains the Pob3 and Spt16 subunits, and plays a key role in ES silencing. We see an inverse correlation between transcription and condensed chromatin, whereby FACT knockdown results in ES derepression and more open chromatin around silent ES promoters. Derepressed ESs show increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion, and a decrease in histones at silent ES promoters but not telomeres. In contrast, FACT knockdown results in more histones at the active ES, correlated with transcription shut-down. ES promoters are derepressed in cells stalled at the G2/M cell cycle stage after knockdown of FACT, but not in G2/M cells stalled after knockdown of cyclin 6. This argues that the observed ES derepression is a direct consequence of histone chaperone activity by FACT at the G2/M cell cycle stage which could affect transcription elongation, rather than an indirect consequence of a cell cycle checkpoint. These experiments highlight the role of the FACT complex in cell cycle-specific chromatin remodelling within VSG ESs. PMID:25266856

  12. Exopolysaccharides Play a Role in the Swarming of the Benthic Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ang; Mi, Zi-Hao; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Yang; Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Qin, Qi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Most marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharide (EPS), which is important for bacterial survival in the marine environment. However, it is still unclear whether the self-secreted EPS is involved in marine bacterial motility. Here we studied the role of EPS in the lateral flagella-driven swarming motility of benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 (SM9913) by a comparison of wild SM9913 and ΔepsT, an EPS synthesis defective mutant. Reduction of EPS production in ΔepsT did not affect the growth rate or the swimming motility, but significantly decreased the swarming motility on a swarming plate, suggesting that the EPS may play a role in SM9913 swarming. However, the expression and assembly of lateral flagella in ΔepsT were not affected. Instead, ΔepsT had a different swarming behavior from wild SM9913. The swarming of ΔepsT did not have an obvious rapid swarming period, and its rate became much lower than that of wild SM9913 after 35 h incubation. An addition of surfactin or SM9913 EPS on the surface of the swarming plate could rescue the swarming level. These results indicate that the self-secreted EPS is required for the swarming of SM9913. This study widens our understanding of the function of the EPS of benthic bacteria. PMID:27092127

  13. Nitric oxide plays a role in stem cell niche homeostasis through its interaction with auxin.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Luis; Fernández-Marcos, María; Modrego, Abelardo; Lewis, Daniel R; Muday, Gloria K; Pollmann, Stephan; Dueñas, Montserrat; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique reactive nitrogen molecule with an array of signaling functions that modulates plant developmental processes and stress responses. To explore the mechanisms by which NO modulates root development, we used a pharmacological approach and NO-deficient mutants to unravel the role of NO in establishing auxin distribution patterns necessary for stem cell niche homeostasis. Using the NO synthase inhibitor and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NO biosynthesis mutants (nitric oxide-associated1 [noa1], nitrate reductase1 [nia1] and nia2, and nia1 nia2 noa1), we show that depletion of NO in noa1 reduces primary root elongation and increases flavonol accumulation consistent with elevated reactive oxygen species levels. The elevated flavonols are required for the growth effect, because the transparent testa4 mutation reverses the noa1 mutant root elongation phenotype. In addition, noa1 and nia1 nia2 noa1 NO-deficient mutant roots display small root meristems with abnormal divisions. Concomitantly, auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling are perturbed. We further show that NO accumulates in cortex/endodermis stem cells and their precursor cells. In endodermal and cortical cells, the noa1 mutant acts synergistically to the effect of the wuschel-related homeobox5 mutation on the proximal meristem, suggesting that NO could play an important role in regulating stem cell decisions, which has been reported in animals.

  14. The pivotal role played by lipocalin-2 in chronic inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Jeon, Sangmin; Jin, Myungwon; Ock, Jiyeon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-04-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an acute phase protein induced in response to injury, infection or other inflammatory stimuli. Based on the previously reported involvement of LCN2 in chemokine induction and in the recruitment of neutrophils at the sites of infection or tissue injury, we investigated the role of LCN2 in the pathogenesis of chronic/persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. In the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammatory pain model, LCN2 expression was strongly induced in the ipsilateral hindpaws, peaking at 12h after CFA injection and then gradually subsiding. In CFA-injected hindpaw tissues, LCN2 and its receptor 24p3R were mainly expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages. CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were significantly diminished in Lcn2-deficient mice compared to wild-type animals. Furthermore, neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and MIP-2 in CFA-injected hindpaws, and spinal glial activation were markedly reduced by Lcn2 deficiency. An intraplantar injection of recombinant LCN2 protein induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivities in naïve mice, and this was accompanied by neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into the hindpaws and glial activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Taken together, our results show that inflammatory cell-derived LCN2 at the sites of inflammation plays important roles in central sensitization and the subsequent nociceptive behavior in the rodent model of chronic inflammatory pain.

  15. Making meaningful worlds: role-playing subcultures and the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Fein, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Every summer, a group of role-playing gamers gathers in an American town. Dressed up as moon goddesses, mad scientists, and other fantastical characters, they act out elaborate, improvised narratives of transformation, destruction, and redemption. For several summers, this group, who I call the Journeyfolk, ran a camp for teenagers on the autism spectrum, engaging campers in therapeutic reconfigurations of self and social role. Through this folk healing practice, the meaning of autism was itself transformed; what had been a source of isolation became a source of commonality and community. This paper takes the camp as a case study for examining the co-productive relationship between culture and neurodiversity. Cognitive tendencies often found in autism are often thought to preclude socio-cultural participation. However, such tendencies can also facilitate the co-creation of innovative cultural spaces, through processes of affinity and affiliation. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at the camp, I identify three sites of congruity between the culture of the camp and the cognitive and phenomenological experiences associated with autism, at which this "work of culture" (Obeysekere in The Work of Culture: Symbolic Transformation in Psychoanalysis and Anthropology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1990) took place: the structure of social interactions within roleplaying games, the narratives enacted within these games, and the interpersonal relationships within which the games were embedded.

  16. Multilayered Regulation of Ethylene Induction Plays a Positive Role in Arabidopsis Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rongxia; Su, Jianbin; Meng, Xiangzong; Li, Sen; Liu, Yidong; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene, a key phytohormone involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plays a positive role in plant resistance against fungal pathogens. However, its function in plant bacterial resistance remains unclear. Here, we report a detailed analysis of ethylene induction in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst). Ethylene biosynthesis is highly induced in both pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the induction is potentiated by salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment. In addition, Pst actively suppresses PAMP-triggered ethylene induction in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. SA potentiation of ethylene induction is dependent mostly on MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE6 (MPK6) and MPK3 and their downstream ACS2 and ACS6, two type I isoforms of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthases (ACSs). ACS7, a type III ACS whose expression is enhanced by SA pretreatment, is also involved. Pst expressing the avrRpt2 effector gene (Pst-avrRpt2), which is capable of triggering ETI, induces a higher level of ethylene production, and the elevated portion is dependent on SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, two key players in SA biosynthesis and signaling. High-order ACS mutants with reduced ethylene induction are more susceptible to both Pst and Pst-avrRpt2, demonstrating a positive role of ethylene in plant bacterial resistance mediated by both PAMP-triggered immunity and ETI.

  17. Ethylene plays an essential role in the recovery of Arabidopsis during post-anaerobiosis reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Jin; Chou, Shu-Jen; Shih, Ming-Che

    2014-10-01

    Ethylene is known to play an essential role in mediating hypoxic responses in plants. Here, we show that in addition to regulating hypoxic responses, ethylene also regulates cellular responses in the reoxygenation stage after anoxic treatment in Arabidopsis. We found that expression of several ethylene biosynthetic genes and ethylene-responsive factors, including ERF1 and ERF2, was induced during reoxygenation. Compared with the wild type, two ethylene-insensitive mutants (ein2-5 and ein3eil1) were more sensitive to reoxygenation and displayed damaged phenotypes during reoxygenation. To characterize the role of ethylene, we applied microarray analysis to Col-0, ein2-5 and ein3eil1 under reoxygenation conditions. Our results showed that gene transcripts involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, dehydration response and metabolic processes were regulated during reoxygenation. Moreover, ethylene signalling may participate in regulating these responses and maintaining the homeostasis of different phytohormones. Our work presents evidence that ethylene has distinct functions in recovery after anoxia and provides insight into the reoxygenation signalling network.

  18. Making meaningful worlds: role-playing subcultures and the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Fein, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Every summer, a group of role-playing gamers gathers in an American town. Dressed up as moon goddesses, mad scientists, and other fantastical characters, they act out elaborate, improvised narratives of transformation, destruction, and redemption. For several summers, this group, who I call the Journeyfolk, ran a camp for teenagers on the autism spectrum, engaging campers in therapeutic reconfigurations of self and social role. Through this folk healing practice, the meaning of autism was itself transformed; what had been a source of isolation became a source of commonality and community. This paper takes the camp as a case study for examining the co-productive relationship between culture and neurodiversity. Cognitive tendencies often found in autism are often thought to preclude socio-cultural participation. However, such tendencies can also facilitate the co-creation of innovative cultural spaces, through processes of affinity and affiliation. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork at the camp, I identify three sites of congruity between the culture of the camp and the cognitive and phenomenological experiences associated with autism, at which this "work of culture" (Obeysekere in The Work of Culture: Symbolic Transformation in Psychoanalysis and Anthropology, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1990) took place: the structure of social interactions within roleplaying games, the narratives enacted within these games, and the interpersonal relationships within which the games were embedded. PMID:25812848

  19. Core Binding Factor β Plays a Critical Role During Chondrocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Na-Rae; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Han, Min-Su; Che, Xiangguo; Park, Clara Yongjoo; Kim, Jung-Eun; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Bae, Suk-Chul; Choi, Je-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Core binding factor β (Cbfβ) is a partner protein of Runx family transcription factors with minimally characterized function in cartilage. Here we address the role of Cbfβ in cartilage by generating chondrocyte-specific Cbfβ-deficient mice (Cbfb(Δch/Δch) ) from Cbfb-floxed mice crossed with mice expressing Cre from the Col2a1 promoter. Cbfb(Δch/Δch) mice died soon after birth and exhibited delayed endochondral bone formation, shorter appendicular skeleton length with increased proliferative chondrocytes, and nearly absent hypertrophic chondrocyte zones. Immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that the number and size of proliferative chondrocytes increased and the expression of chondrocyte maturation markers at the growth plates, including Runx2, osterix, and osteopontin, significantly diminished in Cbfb(Δch/Δch) mice compared to wild type mice. With regard to signaling pathways, both PTHrP-Ihh and BMP signaling were compromised in Cbfb(Δch/Δch) mice. Mechanistically, Cbfβ deficiency in chondrocytes caused a decrease of protein levels of Runx transcription factors by accelerating polyubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation in vitro. Indeed, Runx2 and Runx3, but not Runx1, decreased in Cbfb(Δch/Δch) mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cbfβ plays a critical role for chondrocyte differentiation through stabilizing Runx2 and Runx3 proteins in cartilage. PMID:26058470

  20. Or47b plays a role in Drosophila males' preference for younger mates

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Luming; Sun, Ying; Hu, Mi; Wu, Chenxi; La, Xiaojin; Chen, Xinhong; Feng, Yu; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviour is important for animals to keep their species existing on Earth. A key question is how to generate more and healthier progenies by choosing optimal mates. In Drosophila melanogaster, males use multiple sensory cues, including vision, olfaction and gustation, to achieve reproductive success. These sensory inputs are important, yet not all these different modalities are simultaneously required for courtship behaviour to occur. Moreover, the roles of these sensory inputs for male courtship choice remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that males court younger females with greater preference and that olfactory inputs are indispensable for this male courtship choice. Specifically, the olfactory receptor Or47b is required for males to discriminate younger female mates from older ones. In combination with our previous work indicating that gustatory perception is necessary for this preference behaviour, our current study demonstrates the requirement of both olfaction and gustation in Drosophila males' courtship preference, thus providing new insights into the role of sensory cues in reproductive behaviour and success. PMID:27278650