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Sample records for plays multiple roles

  1. DREF plays multiple roles during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Trong; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Mizoguchi, Megumi; Yoshida, Hideki; Zurita, Mario; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2017-06-01

    DREF was originally identified as a transcription factor that coordinately regulates the expression of DNA replication- and proliferation-related genes in Drosophila. Subsequent studies demonstrated that DREF is involved in tumor suppressor pathways including p53 and Hippo signaling. DREF also regulates the expression of genes encoding components of the JNK and EGFR pathways during Drosophila development. DREF itself is under the control of the TOR pathway during cell and tissue growth responding to nutrition. Recent studies revealed that DREF plays a role in chromatin organization including insulator function, chromatin remodeling, and telomere maintenance. DREF is also involved in the regulation of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis, linking it to cellular proliferation. Thus, DREF is now emerging as not only a transcription factor, but also a multi-functional protein. In this review, we summarize current advances in studies on the novel functions of Drosophila DREF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role-Playing in Science Education: An Effective Strategy for Developing Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Elaine V.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing can be an engaging and creative strategy to use in the college classroom. Using official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, event, or personality, the instructional strategy alternately referred to as role-playing, dramatic improvisation, or first-person characterization can be an…

  3. Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Jane; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.

  4. The CXCL12-3'A allele plays a favourable role in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Grzegorz; Gębura, Katarzyna; Gieryng, Anna; Butrym, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2013-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by bone marrow infiltration and the presence of a monoclonal protein in serum and/or urine. CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 are essential for neoplastic cell homing to bone marrow in haematological malignancies. The JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which is activated after CXCL12 binding to CXCR4, takes part in many signalling cascades which are linked to cell proliferation and cell survival. Constitutive activation of this pathway plays an important role in tumourigenesis and malignant transformation. The present study aimed to determine the association between the polymorphic features located within the CXCR4 (rs2228014) and CXCL12 (rs1801157) encoding genes and disease susceptibility and progression. For this purpose 172 individuals including 54 patients with MM and 118 healthy controls were typed for the CXCL12 (A/G) and CXCR4 (C/T) alleles using the PCR-RFLP technique. The CXCL12 alleles and genotypes segregated similarly among patients and controls while the CXCR4 T variant was less frequently represented among patients (OR=0.074, p<0.001). All patients with the CXCR4 T allele and 16 out of 48 with wild type genotype presented with grade III of MM according to the International Staging System (ISS) (p=0.047). The CXCL12-3'A variant was more frequently detected in patients with less advanced MM (9/17 vs. 7/38, p=0.012 for patients in stage IA or IIA vs. IIB, IIIA and IIIB, respectively). Moreover, patients lacking the CXCL12-3'A variant more frequently presented with ISS II-III (32/38 vs. 5/13, p=0.003 for patients lacking CXCL12-3'A with ISS>I vs. ISS=I). This favourable effect of the CXCL12-3'A allele was also seen in the analysis of patient survival (p<0.05). The impact of the CXCL12-3'A allele was confirmed by multivariate analyses. In conclusion, these results imply that the CXCL12-3'A allele plays a favourable role in patients with multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Young Children's Role-Playing for Enhancing Personal Intelligences in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…

  6. Facebook Role Play Addiction – A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive–Impulsive Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study. PMID:27156380

  7. Facebook Role Play Addiction - A Comorbidity with Multiple Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Deeepa; Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is an emerging entity with varied contents. Behavioral addictions have high comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Social networking site (SNS) addiction and role playing game (RPG) addiction are traditionally studied as separate entities. We present a case with excessive Internet use, with a particular focus on phenomenology and psychiatric comorbidities. Case presentation Fifteen-year-old girl with childhood onset attention deficit disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, adolescent onset trichotillomania, and disturbed family environment presented with excessive Facebook use. Main online activity was creating profiles in names of mainstream fictional characters and assuming their identity (background, linguistic attributes, etc.). This was a group activity with significant socialization in the virtual world. Craving, salience, withdrawal, mood modification, and conflict were clearly elucidated and significant social and occupational dysfunction was evident. Discussion This case highlights various vulnerability and sociofamilial factors contributing to behavioral addiction. It also highlights the presence of untreated comorbidities in such cases. The difference from contemporary RPGs and uniqueness of role playing on SNS is discussed. SNS role playing as a separate genre of PIU and its potential to reach epidemic proportions are discussed. Conclusions Individuals with temperamental vulnerability are likely to develop behavioral addictions. Identification and management of comorbid conditions are important. The content of PIU continues to evolve and needs further study.

  8. Exploring the Behavioral Patterns of Learners in an Educational Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular among students. Educational MMORPGs, however, are very rare, as are studies on gamers' behavioral patterns during such games. The current study is an empirical observation and analysis of the behavioral patterns of 100 gamers participating in an educational MMORPG called…

  9. Exploring the Behavioral Patterns of Learners in an Educational Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are very popular among students. Educational MMORPGs, however, are very rare, as are studies on gamers' behavioral patterns during such games. The current study is an empirical observation and analysis of the behavioral patterns of 100 gamers participating in an educational MMORPG called…

  10. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  11. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madlung, A.; Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.

  13. Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madlung, A.; Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.

  14. Characterization of barley serpin Z7 that plays multiple roles in malt and beer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Jin, Zhao; Gao, Fei; Lu, Jian; Cai, Guolin; Dong, Jianjun; Yu, Junhong; Yang, Mei

    2014-06-18

    Barley protein Z7 (BSZ7) is a well-known serine protease inhibitor that was regarded as a major effector of beer foam stability. Moreover, it has also been suggested to participate in haze formation and affect wort filterability. The present study purified BSZ7 from barley malt and characterized its secondary structure and modification, as well as its relationship with peroxidase, to elucidate the molecular base of BSZ7 that supports its multiple roles in malt and beer. It was found that after 30 min of heating, the secondary structure was not affected. BSZ7 has no inhibiting effect on nonspecific protease originated from malt, suggesting its negative role in wort filterability was accomplished by other means. Furthermore, the glycation of BSZ7 by the Maillard reaction may make some contribution to its survival during wort boiling. The interaction of BSZ7 with polysaccharides and polyphenols found by adding experiment may explain how it acts as a negative factor on wort filterability. Greater understanding of BSZ7 and other proteins of malts will lead to better improvements in brewing quality.

  15. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  16. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  17. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac53 plays a role in nucleocapsid assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chao; Li Zhaofei Wu Wenbi; Li Lingling; Yuan Meijin; Pan Lijing; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-12-05

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) orf53 (ac53) is a highly conserved gene existing in all sequenced Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera baculoviruses, but its function remains unknown. To investigate its role in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac53 deletion virus (vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP}) was generated through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Fluorescence and light microscopy and titration analysis revealed that vAc{sup ac53KO-PH-GFP} could not produce infectious budded virus in infected Sf9 cells. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the ac53 deletion did not affect the levels of viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that many lucent tubular shells devoid of the nucleoprotein core are present in the virogenic stroma and ring zone, indicating that the ac53 knockout affected nucleocapsid assembly. With a recombinant virus expressing an Ac53-GFP fusion protein, we observed that Ac53 was distributed within the cytoplasm and nucleus at 24 h post-infection, but afterwards accumulated predominantly near the nucleus-cytoplasm boundary. These data demonstrate that ac53 is involved in nucleocapsid assembly and is an essential gene for virus production.

  18. Sox9 plays multiple roles in the lung epithelium during branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rockich, Briana E; Hrycaj, Steven M; Shih, Hung Ping; Nagy, Melinda S; Ferguson, Michael A H; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Wellik, Deneen M; Spence, Jason R

    2013-11-19

    Lung branching morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process that gives rise to the complex network of gas-exchanging units in the adult lung. Intricate regulation of signaling pathways, transcription factors, and epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk are critical to ensuring branching morphogenesis occurs properly. Here, we describe a role for the transcription factor Sox9 during lung branching morphogenesis. Sox9 is expressed at the distal tips of the branching epithelium in a highly dynamic manner as branching occurs and is down-regulated starting at embryonic day 16.5, concurrent with the onset of terminal differentiation of type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells. Using epithelial-specific genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches, our results demonstrate that Sox9 controls multiple aspects of lung branching. Fine regulation of Sox9 levels is required to balance proliferation and differentiation of epithelial tip progenitor cells, and loss of Sox9 leads to direct and indirect cellular defects including extracellular matrix defects, cytoskeletal disorganization, and aberrant epithelial movement. Our evidence shows that unlike other endoderm-derived epithelial tissues, such as the intestine, Wnt/β-catenin signaling does not regulate Sox9 expression in the lung. We conclude that Sox9 collectively promotes proper branching morphogenesis by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation and regulating the extracellular matrix.

  19. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers’ overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas. PMID:28303097

  20. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-E; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas.

  1. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tonnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP. PMID:28316860

  2. The LIM-homeobox transcription factor Isl1 plays crucial roles in the development of multiple arcuate nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2016-10-15

    Neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus relay and translate important cues from the periphery into the central nervous system. However, the gene regulatory program directing their development remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 is expressed in several subpopulations of developing arcuate neurons and plays crucial roles in their fate specification. Mice with conditional deletion of the Isl1 gene in developing hypothalamus display severe deficits in both feeding and linear growth. Consistent with these results, their arcuate nucleus fails to express key fate markers of Isl1-expressing neurons that regulate feeding and growth. These include the orexigenic neuropeptides AgRP and NPY for specifying AgRP-neurons, the anorexigenic neuropeptide αMSH for POMC-neurons, and two growth-stimulatory peptides, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) for GHRH-neurons and somatostatin (Sst) for Sst-neurons. Finally, we show that Isl1 directly enhances the expression of AgRP by cooperating with the key orexigenic transcription factors glucocorticoid receptor and brain-specific homeobox factor. Our results identify Isl1 as a crucial transcription factor that plays essential roles in the gene regulatory program directing development of multiple arcuate neuronal subpopulations. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. oskar RNA plays multiple noncoding roles to support oogenesis and maintain integrity of the germline/soma distinction

    PubMed Central

    Kanke, Matt; Jambor, Helena; Reich, John; Marches, Brittany; Gstir, Ronald; Ryu, Young Hee; Ephrussi, Anne; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila oskar (osk) mRNA is unusual in that it has both coding and noncoding functions. As an mRNA, osk encodes a protein required for embryonic patterning and germ cell formation. Independent of that function, the absence of osk mRNA disrupts formation of the karyosome and blocks progression through oogenesis. Here we show that loss of osk mRNA also affects the distribution of regulatory proteins, relaxing their association with large RNPs within the germline, and allowing them to accumulate in the somatic follicle cells. This and other noncoding functions of the osk mRNA are mediated by multiple sequence elements with distinct roles. One role, provided by numerous binding sites in two distinct regions of the osk 3′ UTR, is to sequester the translational regulator Bruno (Bru), which itself controls translation of osk mRNA. This defines a novel regulatory circuit, with Bru restricting the activity of osk, and osk in turn restricting the activity of Bru. Other functional elements, which do not bind Bru and are positioned close to the 3′ end of the RNA, act in the oocyte and are essential. Despite the different roles played by the different types of elements contributing to RNA function, mutation of any leads to accumulation of the germline regulatory factors in the follicle cells. PMID:25862242

  4. oskar RNA plays multiple noncoding roles to support oogenesis and maintain integrity of the germline/soma distinction.

    PubMed

    Kanke, Matt; Jambor, Helena; Reich, John; Marches, Brittany; Gstir, Ronald; Ryu, Young Hee; Ephrussi, Anne; Macdonald, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    The Drosophila oskar (osk) mRNA is unusual in that it has both coding and noncoding functions. As an mRNA, osk encodes a protein required for embryonic patterning and germ cell formation. Independent of that function, the absence of osk mRNA disrupts formation of the karyosome and blocks progression through oogenesis. Here we show that loss of osk mRNA also affects the distribution of regulatory proteins, relaxing their association with large RNPs within the germline, and allowing them to accumulate in the somatic follicle cells. This and other noncoding functions of the osk mRNA are mediated by multiple sequence elements with distinct roles. One role, provided by numerous binding sites in two distinct regions of the osk 3' UTR, is to sequester the translational regulator Bruno (Bru), which itself controls translation of osk mRNA. This defines a novel regulatory circuit, with Bru restricting the activity of osk, and osk in turn restricting the activity of Bru. Other functional elements, which do not bind Bru and are positioned close to the 3' end of the RNA, act in the oocyte and are essential. Despite the different roles played by the different types of elements contributing to RNA function, mutation of any leads to accumulation of the germline regulatory factors in the follicle cells.

  5. The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

  6. LEAF TIP NECROSIS1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple phosphate starvation responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Zhu, Chenguang; Li, Feng; Tang, Jiuyou; Wang, Yiqin; Lin, Aihong; Liu, Linchuan; Che, Ronghui; Chu, Chengcai

    2011-07-01

    Although phosphate (Pi) starvation signaling is well studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), it is still largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). In this work, a rice leaf tip necrosis1 (ltn1) mutant was identified and characterized. Map-based cloning identified LTN1 as LOC_Os05g48390, the putative ortholog of Arabidopsis PHO2, which plays important roles in Pi starvation signaling. Analysis of transgenic plants harboring a LTN1 promoter::β-glucuronidase construct revealed that LTN1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. The ltn1 mutant exhibited increased Pi uptake and translocation, which led to Pi overaccumulation in shoots. In association with enhanced Pi uptake and transport, some Pi transporters were up-regulated in the ltn1 mutant in the presence of sufficient Pi. Furthermore, the elongation of primary and adventitious roots was enhanced in the ltn1 mutant under Pi starvation, suggesting that LTN1 is involved in Pi-dependent root architecture alteration. Under Pi-sufficient conditions, typical Pi starvation responses such as stimulation of phosphatase and RNase activities, lipid composition alteration, nitrogen assimilation repression, and increased metal uptake were also activated in ltn1. Moreover, analysis of OsmiR399-overexpressing plants showed that LTN1 was down-regulated by OsmiR399. Our results strongly indicate that LTN1 is a crucial Pi starvation signaling component downstream of miR399 involved in the regulation of multiple Pi starvation responses in rice.

  7. The heterotrimeric G-protein β subunit, AGB1, plays multiple roles in the Arabidopsis salinity response.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunqing; Assmann, Sarah M

    2015-10-01

    Salinity stress includes both osmotic and ionic toxicity. Sodium homeostasis is influenced by Na(+) uptake and extrusion, vacuolar Na(+) compartmentation and root to shoot Na(+) translocation via transpiration. The knockout mutant of the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein Gβ subunit, agb1, is hypersensitive to salt, exhibiting a leaf bleaching phenotype. We show that AGB1 is mainly involved in the ionic toxicity component of salinity stress and plays roles in multiple processes of Na(+) homeostasis. agb1 mutants accumulate more Na(+) and less K(+) in both shoots and roots of hydroponically grown plants, as measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. agb1 plants have higher root to shoot translocation rates of radiolabelled (24) Na(+) under transpiring conditions, as a result of larger stomatal apertures and increased stomatal conductance. (24) Na(+) tracer experiments also show that (24) Na(+) uptake rates by excised roots of agb1 and wild type are initially equal, but that agb1 has higher net Na(+) uptake at 90 min, implicating possible involvement of AGB1 in the regulation of Na(+) efflux. Calcium alleviates the salt hypersensitivity of agb1 by reducing Na(+) accumulation to below the toxicity threshold. Our results provide new insights into the regulatory pathways underlying plant responses to salinity stress, an important agricultural problem.

  8. Cx43 expressed on bone marrow stromal cells plays an essential role in multiple myeloma cell survival and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Connexin-43 (Cx43), a connexin constituent of gap junctions (GJs) is mainly expressed in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and played a important role on hematopoiesis. In this study, we explored the role of gap junctions (GJs) formed by Cx43 between BMSCs and multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Material and methods qPCR and western blot assays were employed to assay Cx43 expression in three MM cell lines (RPMI 8266, U266, and XG7), freshly isolated MM cells, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Cx43 mRNA and proteins were detected in all three MM cell lines and six out of seven freshly isolated MM cells. Resuths The BMSCs from MM patients expressed Cx43 at higher levels than of normal donor (ND-BMSCs). Dye transfer assays demonstrated that gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) occurring via Cx43 situated between MM and BMSCs is functional. Cytometry beads array (CBA) assays showed that cytokines production changed when the ND-BMSCs were co-cultured with MM cells, especially the levels of IL-6, SDF-1α and IL-10 were higher than those the cells cultured alone and decreased significantly in the presence of GJ inhibitor heptanol. Our results demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of BTZ to MM cells decreased significantly in the presence of BMSCs, an effect that was partially recovered in the presence of GJ inhibitor. Conclusions Our data suggest that GJIC between MM and BMSCs is a critical factor in tumor cell proliferation and drug sensitivity, and is implicated in MM pathogenesis. PMID:28144277

  9. The GlcN6P cofactor plays multiple catalytic roles in the glmS ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Bingaman, Jamie L; Zhang, Sixue; Stevens, David R; Yennawar, Neela H; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2017-04-01

    RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have remarkably diverse biological roles despite having limited chemical diversity. Protein enzymes enhance their reactivity through recruitment of cofactors; likewise, the naturally occurring glmS ribozyme uses the glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) organic cofactor for phosphodiester bond cleavage. Prior structural and biochemical studies have implicated GlcN6P as the general acid. Here we describe new catalytic roles of GlcN6P through experiments and calculations. Large stereospecific normal thio effects and a lack of metal-ion rescue in the holoribozyme indicate that nucleobases and the cofactor play direct chemical roles and align the active site for self-cleavage. Large stereospecific inverse thio effects in the aporibozyme suggest that the GlcN6P cofactor disrupts an inhibitory interaction of the nucleophile. Strong metal-ion rescue in the aporibozyme reveals that this cofactor also provides electrostatic stabilization. Ribozyme organic cofactors thus perform myriad catalytic roles, thereby allowing RNA to compensate for its limited functional diversity.

  10. RNA Silencing May Play a Role in but Is Not the Only Determinant of the Multiplicity of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Donaire, Livia; Burgyán, József

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The multiplicity of infection (MOI), i.e., the number of viral genomes that infect a cell, is an important parameter in virus evolution, which for each virus and environment may have an optimum value that maximizes virus fitness. Thus, the MOI might be controlled by virus functions, an underexplored hypothesis in eukaryote-infecting viruses. To analyze if the MOI is controlled by virus functions, we estimated the MOI in plants coinfected by two genetic variants of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV); by TBSV and a TBSV-derived defective interfering RNA (DI-RNA); or by TBSV and a second tombusvirus, Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV). The MOI was significantly larger in TBSV-CymRSV coinfections (∼4.0) than in TBSV-TBSV or TBSV–DI-RNA coinfections (∼1.7 to 2.2). Coinfections by CymRSV or TBSV with chimeras in which an open reading frame (ORF) of one virus species was replaced by that of the other identified a role of viral proteins in determining the MOI, which ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 depending on the coinfecting genotypes. However, no virus-encoded protein or genomic region was the sole MOI determinant. Coinfections by CymRSV and TBSV mutants in which the expression of the gene-silencing suppressor protein p19 was abolished also showed a possible role of gene silencing in MOI determination. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the MOI is a quantitative trait showing continuous variation and that as such it has a complex determination involving different virus-encoded functions. IMPORTANCE The number of viral genomes infecting a cell, or the multiplicity of infection (MOI), is an important parameter in virus evolution affecting recombination rates, selection intensity on viral genes, evolution of multipartite genomes, or hyperparasitism by satellites or defective interfering particles. For each virus and environment, the MOI may have an optimum value that maximizes virus fitness, but little is known about MOI control in eukaryote-infecting viruses

  11. Playing with the Multiple Intelligences: How Play Helps Them Grow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Howard Gardner first posited a list of "multiple intelligences" as a liberating alternative to the assumptions underlying traditional IQ testing in his widely read study "Frames of Mind" (1983). Play has appeared only in passing in Gardner's thinking about intelligence, however, even though play instructs and trains the verbal, interpersonal,…

  12. Transparent testa16 plays multiple roles in plant development and is involved in lipid synthesis and embryo development in canola.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Chen, Guanqun; Peng, Fred; Truksa, Martin; Snyder, Crystal L; Weselake, Randall J

    2012-10-01

    Transparent Testa16 (TT16), a transcript regulator belonging to the B(sister) MADS box proteins, regulates proper endothelial differentiation and proanthocyanidin accumulation in the seed coat. Our understanding of its other physiological roles, however, is limited. In this study, the physiological and developmental roles of TT16 in an important oil crop, canola (Brassica napus), were dissected by a loss-of-function approach. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of tt16 in canola caused dwarf phenotypes with a decrease in the number of inflorescences, flowers, siliques, and seeds. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that tt16 deficiency affects pollen tube guidance, resulting in reduced fertility and negatively impacting embryo and seed development. Moreover, Bntt16 RNAi plants had reduced oil content and altered fatty acid composition. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the seeds of the RNAi plants had fewer oil bodies than the nontransgenic plants. In addition, tt16 RNAi transgenic lines were more sensitive to auxin. Further analysis by microarray showed that tt16 down-regulation alters the expression of genes involved in gynoecium and embryo development, lipid metabolism, auxin transport, and signal transduction. The broad regulatory function of TT16 at the transcriptional level may explain the altered phenotypes observed in the transgenic lines. Overall, the results uncovered important biological roles of TT16 in plant development, especially in fatty acid synthesis and embryo development.

  13. HyPRP1 Gene Suppressed by Multiple Stresses Plays a Negative Role in Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Ouyang, Bo; Wang, Taotao; Luo, Zhidan; Yang, Changxian; Li, Hanxia; Sima, Wei; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2016-01-01

    Many hybrid proline-rich protein (HyPRP) genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, but little is known about their roles other than as putative cell-wall structural proteins. A HyPRP1 gene encodes a protein with proline-rich domain, and an eight-cysteine motif was identified from our previous microarray experiments on drought-tolerant tomato. In this study, the expression of the HyPRP1 gene in tomato was suppressed under various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, cold, heat, and oxidative stress. Transgenic functional analysis showed no obvious changes in phenotypes, but enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses (e.g., oxidative stress, dehydration, and salinity) was observed in RNAi transgenic plants. Interestingly, several SO2 detoxification-related enzymes, including sulfite oxidase, ferredoxins (Fds), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (Msr A), were revealed in HyPRP1-interacting proteins identified by Yeast Two-Hybrid screening. More sulfates and transcripts of Msr A and Fds were accumulated in HyPRP1 knockdown lines when wild-type plants were exposed to SO2 gas. Our findings illustrate that the tomato HyPRP1 is a negative regulator of salt and oxidative stresses and is probably involved in sulfite metabolism. PMID:27446190

  14. On the nature of the electronic effect of multiple hydroxyl groups in the 6-membered ring - the effects are additive but steric hindrance plays a role too.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Bols, Mikael

    2017-02-01

    Research during the last two decades has shown a remarkable directional component of the substituent effects of hydroxy groups, which has a profound effect on the properties of hydroxylated compounds such as carbohydrates. While the epimerisation of a single hydroxyl function is well studied the consequence of multiple epimerisations is more speculative. In this work the effect of three epimerisations was investigated. To this end epimeric 2-phenyl iminoxylitols that have a phenyl group as a conformational anchor and thus hydroxyl groups in the axial or equatorial position, respectively, were synthesized and their pKa and conformation were studied. The results show that the large difference in the electronic effect between the axial and equatorial hydroxyls is partially cancelled by counteracting steric hindrance from 1,3-diaxial interactions. Hydrogen bonding does not appear to play any role in the electronic influence of the hydroxyl groups.

  15. Effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social behaviors of adolescents with high-functioning autism: multiple-baseline single-subject design.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael-Greenfield, Emily I; Rao, Ashwini K

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined the effect of a motor-based role-play intervention on the social skills of adolescents with high-functioning autism. METHOD. An ABA multiple-baseline design with three 3-mo phases occurring over 12 mo was used with 7 participants. Frequency of targeted verbal and nonverbal behaviors was tallied in each phase. Frequency data were analyzed using repeated-measures analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons to examine differences in targeted behaviors over the three phases. RESULTS. Three participants completed all three study phases, 2 completed Phase 2, and 2 completed Phase 1. All participants (N = 7) demonstrated improved social skill use in Phase 1. Participants completing Phase 2 (n = 5) further improved social skill use. Additional improvements were observed among participants (n = 3) who completed Phase 3. CONCLUSION. The intervention helped participants improve targeted social skill use. Further testing with larger samples and intervention modifications is warranted.

  16. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response.

    PubMed

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects.

  17. The main component of an alarm pheromone of kissing bugs plays multiple roles in the cognitive modulation of the escape response

    PubMed Central

    Minoli, Sebastian; Palottini, Florencia; Manrique, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Innate responses in animals can be modulated by experience. Disturbed adults of the triatomine bug Triatoma infestans release an alarm pheromone (AP) that elicits an escape response in conspecific larvae. The main component of this AP, the isobutyric acid (IsoAc), alone has already shown to generate an escape response in this species. However, not much is known about the modulation of this behavior by non-associative and associative cognitive processes. We present here evidences of the cognitive capacities of T. infestans larvae in an escape context under different conditioning paradigms, including IsoAc in different roles. We show that: (1) the duration of a pre-exposure to IsoAc plays a main role in determining the type of non-associative learning expressed: short time pre-exposures elicit a sensitization while a longer pre-exposure time triggers a switch from repellence to attractiveness; (2) a simple pre-exposure event is enough to modulate the escape response of larvae to the AP and to its main component: IsoAc; (3) IsoAc and the AP are perceived as different chemical entities; (4) an association between IsoAc and an aversive stimulus can be created under a classical conditioning paradigm; (5) an association between IsoAc and a self-action can be generated under an operant conditioning. These results evince that IsoAc can attain multiple and different cognitive roles in the modulation of the escape response of triatomines and show how cognitive processes can modulate a key behavior for surviving, as it is the escaping response in presence of a potential danger in insects. PMID:23847483

  18. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  19. CD4⁺ T cells play a crucial role for lenalidomide in vivo anti-tumor activity in murine multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Bi, Enguang; Hong, Sungyoul; Qian, Jianfei; Zheng, Chengyun; Wang, Michael; Yi, Qing

    2015-11-03

    Lenalidomide modulates the host immune response against myeloma via multiple actions. Although these effects have been elucidated in vitro, the central action of lenalidomide-mediated anti-myeloma immune response in vivo is not clear. To investigate its immune action in vivo, we selected the murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which is resistant to direct tumoricidal effects of lenalidomide in vitro and in immunodeficient mice, but sensitive to lenalidomide treatment in 5TGM1-bearing immunocompetent mice. Depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not NK cells, B cells, or CD8+ T cells, deprived lenalidomide of its therapeutic effects on 5TGM1-bearing immunocompetent mice. Lenalidomide significantly increased the numbers of IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but had no effects on NK cells and B cells in this mouse model. Lenalidomide slightly decreased the number of CD25+Foxp3+ T cells but increased perforin expression in CD8+ T cells in vivo. Using this mouse model for investigation of anti-tumor immune action of lenalidomide, we demonstrated that lenalidomide facilitated a type-1 anti-tumor immune response in vivo. The CD4+ T cell subset may play a critical role in the lenalidomide-mediated anti-myeloma immune response in vivo.

  20. Overexpression of survivin via activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a central role in vincristine resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Ogawa, Naoki; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Fujita, Arisa; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of anti-cancer drug resistance is a major limitation of chemotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) and it is thus important to identify the mechanisms by which MM cells develop such drug resistance. In a previous study, we showed that multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the overexpression of MDR1 and survivin in vincristine-resistant RPMI8226/VCR cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MDR remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of MDR in RPMI8226/VCR cells, and found that RPMI8226/VCR cells exhibit increased levels of activated ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB, while the levels of activated mTOR, p38MAPK, and JNK do not differ between RPMI8226/VCR cells and their vincristine-susceptible counterparts. In addition, the inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or NF-κB by inhibitors reversed the drug-resistance of RPMI8226/VCR cells via the suppression of survivin expression, but did not affect MDR1 expression; RNA silencing of survivin expression completely reversed vincristine resistance, while MDR1 silencing only weakly suppressed vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. These results indicate that enhanced survivin expression via the activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB plays a critical role in vincristine resistance in RPMI8226/VCR cells. Our findings suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and NF-κB inhibitors are potentially useful as anti-MDR agents for the treatment of vincristine-resistant MM.

  1. The Arabidopsis NMD Factor UPF3 Is Feedback-Regulated at Multiple Levels and Plays a Role in Plant Response to Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vexler, Karina; Cymerman, Miryam A.; Berezin, Irina; Fridman, Adi; Golani, Linoy; Lasnoy, Michal; Saul, Helen; Shaul, Orit

    2016-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic RNA surveillance mechanism that degrades aberrant transcripts and controls the levels of many normal mRNAs. It was shown that balanced expression of the NMD factor UPF3 is essential for the maintenance of proper NMD homeostasis in Arabidopsis. UPF3 expression is controlled by a negative feedback loop that exposes UPF3 transcript to NMD. It was shown that the long 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of UPF3 exposes its transcript to NMD. Long 3′ UTRs that subject their transcripts to NMD were identified in several eukaryotic NMD factors. Interestingly, we show here that a construct that contains all the regulatory regions of the UPF3 gene except this long 3′ UTR is also feedback-regulated by NMD. This indicates that UPF3 expression is feedback-regulated at multiple levels. UPF3 is constitutively expressed in different plant tissues, and its expression is equal in leaves of plants of different ages. This finding is in agreement with the possibility that UPF3 is ubiquitously operative in the Arabidopsis NMD pathway. Expression mediated by the regulatory regions of UPF3 is significantly induced by salt stress. We found that both a deficiency and a strong excess of UPF3 expression are detrimental to plant resistance to salt stress. This indicates that UPF3 plays a role in plant response to salt stress, and that balanced expression of the UPF3 gene is essential for coping with this stress. PMID:27746786

  2. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  3. A Historical Journey in Science Education through Role Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Smita

    2013-01-01

    In order to avoid a routine classroom environment, teachers often employ the use of role-plays. This is an effective strategy because it is essential for teachers to engage their students with information through various methods. Role-playing provides the children with the opportunity to incorporate multiple senses into a knowledge-based, fun…

  4. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  5. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  6. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  7. Ordinal Position in Role Play Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sharon E.; Cabianca, William A.

    Although the effectiveness of role play and its vicarious learning experiences for counselor training is well documented, little research has focused on the impact of the order of playing the roles on skill development. To investigate the effect of ordinal position, 36 beginning counseling students, 24 female and 12 male, with a median age of 30,…

  8. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  9. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  10. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  11. Role-Playing Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert

    This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…

  12. Multiple muscle tear after fall on buttock-role of conservative management and exercise for early recovery and return to play.

    PubMed

    Adhau, Rajesh; Angrish, Piyush; Ahuja, Ashok; Sandhu, Avtar Singh

    2014-04-01

    to describe role of alternative management as an approach to management and rehabilitation of multiple hip muscles tears by the use of 1 RM (Repetition Maximum) testing and hip muscle strengthening program along with the use of sports specific drills for rehabilitation and recovery. There is very limited literature describing multiple hip muscle tears and the conservative management of the same. 1RM testing and strengthening of hip muscles is an approach that is able to help in the return to sports of an athlete without surgical intervention. the patient, is a 21-year-old male hockey player who presented with pain right buttock, right lower leg and a limp on the right side while walking. Physical examination revealed a positive Trendelenburg sign both in stance and gait phase. Hip rotational movements showed a normal range of motion, there was a severe pain in the right buttock on movements which he described at 8/10 on VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). Strength assessment revealed weakness of the right hip flexors and extensors and also of the abductor and external hip rotator muscles. Treatment protocol followed was based on 1 RM testing of muscles and hip strengthening exercises and sports specific drills. following the intervention, the patient reported pain at 0/10 VAS while doing all activities and also showed good muscle control with no limp. this highlights an alternative protocol for treating multiple hip muscle tears and illustrates the importance of 1 RM testing as a part of examination and sports medicine intervention.

  13. Online role-playing for faculty development.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Zahra; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Vyas, Rashmi; Iqbal, Mobeen; Tan, Christina; Diserens, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of online teaching in the past few years, yet the implementation of role-play for formal educational activities in an online setting is growing more slowly. The use of online role-playing for the development of health professions educators is virtually un-documented in the literature. In the project reported here we use role-playing as a method to motivate and increase active participation in an online web-based discussion on community-based medical education (CBME). The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education & Research (FAIMER(®) ) Institute hosts virtual group discussions for fellows as part of its fellowship programmes, in order to deepen their knowledge base in health professions education and research. In June 2008, a group of seven FAIMER(®) fellows and faculty members moderated an online discussion on CBME using an online role-play exercise with other fellows and faculty members. Out of a total of 102 fellows, 36 (35.3%) participated actively, which exceeded the typical percentage of list server participation. In addition, a rich discussion resulted in a comprehensive report on the goals, challenges, logistical components, role of Health Ministry policy and the possible ethical mandate of CBME in developing countries. Online role-play encouraged distributed participation among a highly diverse international group of participants, supporting the conclusion that role-playing can be used effectively with mid-career health professional faculty members in the online environment. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  14. Multiple muscle tear after fall on buttock-role of conservative management and exercise for early recovery and return to play

    PubMed Central

    Adhau, Rajesh; Angrish, Piyush; Ahuja, Ashok; Sandhu, Avtar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: to describe role of alternative management as an approach to management and rehabilitation of multiple hip muscles tears by the use of 1 RM (Repetition Maximum) testing and hip muscle strengthening program along with the use of sports specific drills for rehabilitation and recovery. There is very limited literature describing multiple hip muscle tears and the conservative management of the same. 1RM testing and strengthening of hip muscles is an approach that is able to help in the return to sports of an athlete without surgical intervention. Methods: the patient, is a 21-year-old male hockey player who presented with pain right buttock, right lower leg and a limp on the right side while walking. Physical examination revealed a positive Trendelenburg sign both in stance and gait phase. Hip rotational movements showed a normal range of motion, there was a severe pain in the right buttock on movements which he described at 8/10 on VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). Strength assessment revealed weakness of the right hip flexors and extensors and also of the abductor and external hip rotator muscles. Treatment protocol followed was based on 1 RM testing of muscles and hip strengthening exercises and sports specific drills. Results: following the intervention, the patient reported pain at 0/10 VAS while doing all activities and also showed good muscle control with no limp. Conclusions: this highlights an alternative protocol for treating multiple hip muscle tears and illustrates the importance of 1 RM testing as a part of examination and sports medicine intervention. PMID:25332927

  15. Solving the Plagiary Puzzle with Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises and role plays designed to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students enrolled in or bound for American universities understand plagiarism and the need to properly document essays and term papers. (five references) (MDM)

  16. Evidence that multiple genetic variants of MC4R play a functional role in the regulation of energy expenditure and appetite in Hispanic children1234

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Shelley A; Voruganti, V Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Haack, Karin; Kent, Jack W; Blangero, John; Comuzzie, Anthony G; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) haploinsufficiency is the most common form of monogenic obesity; however, the frequency of MC4R variants and their functional effects in general populations remain uncertain. Objective: The aim was to identify and characterize the effects of MC4R variants in Hispanic children. Design: MC4R was resequenced in 376 parents, and the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 613 parents and 1016 children from the Viva la Familia cohort. Measured genotype analysis (MGA) tested associations between SNPs and phenotypes. Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis was used to infer the most likely functional polymorphisms influencing obesity-related traits. Results: Seven rare SNPs in coding and 18 SNPs in flanking regions of MC4R were identified. MGA showed suggestive associations between MC4R variants and body size, adiposity, glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, energy expenditure, physical activity, and food intake. BQTN analysis identified SNP 1704 in a predicted micro-RNA target sequence in the downstream flanking region of MC4R as a strong, probable functional variant influencing total, sedentary, and moderate activities with posterior probabilities of 1.0. SNP 2132 was identified as a variant with a high probability (1.0) of exerting a functional effect on total energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. SNP rs34114122 was selected as having likely functional effects on the appetite hormone ghrelin, with a posterior probability of 0.81. Conclusion: This comprehensive investigation provides strong evidence that MC4R genetic variants are likely to play a functional role in the regulation of weight, not only through energy intake but through energy expenditure. PMID:19889825

  17. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through…

  18. Role Playing, Issue Importance, and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarup, Gian

    1981-01-01

    Contrasted three major theories on attitude change: cognitive dissonance, incentive, and social judgment. Results from student questionnaires provided little support for cognitive dissonance. Also provided credible, though overlapping, evidence for incentive and social judgment theories. Improvised role playing produced more change than did…

  19. Some Roles Children Play in Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Nancy; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A child patient may play one of several fixed roles in the family. As scapegoat, his shortcomings are emphasized; as baby, his dependence, weakness, and immaturity are rewarded; as pet, love and praise, some undeserved, are won; and, as peacemaker, he must promote peace at the cost of suppressing his own feelings. (ST)

  20. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through…

  1. Rhythmic Reading and Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombarbdo, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Children listen, act out and recite nursery rhymes and thus learn about rhyming words, absorb the rhythm of English language, and begin to develop speech sound awareness in an interactive and fun way, which can further enhance reading achievement. Encouraging children to dramatize the rhymes leads to role plays which uses basic vocabulary sight…

  2. Intestinal endotoxemia plays a central role in development of hepatopulmonary syndrome in a cirrhotic rat model induced by multiple pathogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ying; Han, De-Wu; Su, Ai-Rong; Zhang, Li-Tong; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Ji, Jing-Quan; Li, Bao-Hong; Ji, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    increase of iNOS (r = 0.7699, P < 0.0001) and eNOS (r = 0.5829, P < 0.002). mRNA expression of eNOS and iNOS was highly consistent with their protein expression. CONCLUSION: Progression and severity of HPS as indicated by both increased pulmonary capillaries and histological changes are closely associated with LPS levels and progression of hepatic dysfunction as indicated by increased levels of ALT and portal vein pressure. Intestinal endotoxemia plays a central role in the development of HPS in the cirrhotic rat model by inducing NO and/or CO. PMID:18081228

  3. Using Online Role Play to Teach Internet Safety Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, J. M.; Oades, C. E.; Morris, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of Net-Detectives, a creative online role play activity aimed at 9-12 year olds. Net-Detectives forms part of Kidsmart, an Internet awareness programme aimed at school children. It was evaluated through a multiple method data collection using questionnaire surveys, follow up telephone interviews with teachers…

  4. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  5. From MMORPG to a Classroom Multiplayer Presential Role Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susaeta, Heinz; Jimenez, Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Gajardo, Ignacio; Andreu, Juan Jose; Villalta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has grown enormously, with communities of players reaching into the millions. Their fantasy narratives present multiple challenges created by the virtual environment and/or other players. The games' potential for education stems from the fact that players are immersed in a…

  6. Using Online Role Play to Teach Internet Safety Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, J. M.; Oades, C. E.; Morris, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of Net-Detectives, a creative online role play activity aimed at 9-12 year olds. Net-Detectives forms part of Kidsmart, an Internet awareness programme aimed at school children. It was evaluated through a multiple method data collection using questionnaire surveys, follow up telephone interviews with teachers…

  7. A role-play Rorschach procedure.

    PubMed

    Bricklin, B

    1975-10-01

    Rorschach responses of three subjects were used to stimulate the type of role-playing popularized by Fritz Perls' Gestalt therapy. The standard Rorschachs were given first. Afterwards, each subject was presented with certain of his or her own images as a stimulus for the role-playing. The subjects consisted of a 19-year-old female with severe anxiety attacks, an 11-year-old lad diagnosed as having minimal cerebral dysfunction, and a 46-year-old man who had undergone two years of successful psychotherapy. It is proposed that the resulting data are valuable in expanding and clarifying the psychological meaning of the Rorschach images. Further, the procedure can be utilized, if desired, as a spur to therapeutic involvement.

  8. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    PubMed

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  9. Transparent Testa16 Plays Multiple Roles in Plant Development and Is Involved in Lipid Synthesis and Embryo Development in Canola1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Chen, Guanqun; Peng, Fred; Truksa, Martin; Snyder, Crystal L.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2012-01-01

    Transparent Testa16 (TT16), a transcript regulator belonging to the Bsister MADS box proteins, regulates proper endothelial differentiation and proanthocyanidin accumulation in the seed coat. Our understanding of its other physiological roles, however, is limited. In this study, the physiological and developmental roles of TT16 in an important oil crop, canola (Brassica napus), were dissected by a loss-of-function approach. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated down-regulation of tt16 in canola caused dwarf phenotypes with a decrease in the number of inflorescences, flowers, siliques, and seeds. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that tt16 deficiency affects pollen tube guidance, resulting in reduced fertility and negatively impacting embryo and seed development. Moreover, Bntt16 RNAi plants had reduced oil content and altered fatty acid composition. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the seeds of the RNAi plants had fewer oil bodies than the nontransgenic plants. In addition, tt16 RNAi transgenic lines were more sensitive to auxin. Further analysis by microarray showed that tt16 down-regulation alters the expression of genes involved in gynoecium and embryo development, lipid metabolism, auxin transport, and signal transduction. The broad regulatory function of TT16 at the transcriptional level may explain the altered phenotypes observed in the transgenic lines. Overall, the results uncovered important biological roles of TT16 in plant development, especially in fatty acid synthesis and embryo development. PMID:22846192

  10. YvqE and CovRS of Group A Streptococcus Play a Pivotal Role in Viability and Phenotypic Adaptations to Multiple Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Aikawa, Chihiro; Nozawa, Takashi; Maruyama, Fumito; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, or GAS) is a human pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases. For successful colonization within a variety of host niches, GAS utilizes TCSs to sense and respond to environmental changes and adapts its pathogenic traits accordingly; however, many GAS TCSs and their interactions remain uncharacterized. Here, we elucidated the roles of a poorly characterized TCS, YvqEC, and a well-studied TCS, CovRS, in 2 different GAS strain SSI-1 and JRS4, respectively. Deletion of yvqE and yvqC in JRS4 resulted in lower cell viability and abnormality of cell division when compared to the wild-type strain under standard culture conditions, demonstrating an important role for YvqEC. Furthermore, a double-deletion of yvqEC and covRS in SSI-1 and JRS4 resulted in a significantly impaired ability to survive under various stress conditions, as well as an increased sensitivity to cell wall-targeting antibiotics compared to that observed in either single mutant or wild-type strains suggesting synergistic interactions. Our findings provide new insights into the impact of poorly characterized TCS (YvqEC) and potential synergistic interactions between YvqEC and CovRS and reveal their potential role as novel therapeutic targets against GAS infection. PMID:28122066

  11. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases play major and differential roles in stromal cell–derived factor-1–induced cell adhesion and chemotaxis in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Abdel Kareem; Azab, Feda; Blotta, Simona; Pitsillides, Costas M.; Thompson, Brian; Runnels, Judith M.; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Ngo, Hai T.; Melhem, Molly R.; Sacco, Antonio; Jia, Xiaoying; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Lin, Charles P.; Rollins, Barrett J.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of multiple myeloma (MM) cells with the bone marrow (BM) milieu plays a crucial role in MM pathogenesis. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF1) regulates homing of MM cells to the BM. In this study, we examined the role of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases in SDF1-induced adhesion and chemotaxis of MM. We found that both RhoA and Rac1 play key roles in SDF1-induced adhesion of MM cells to BM stromal cells, whereas RhoA was involved in chemotaxis and motility. Furthermore, both ROCK and Rac1 inhibitors reduced SDF1-induced polymerization of actin and activation of LIMK, SRC, FAK, and cofilin. Moreover, RhoA and Rac1 reduced homing of MM cells to BM niches. In conclusion, we characterized the role of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases in SDF1-induced adhesion, chemotaxis, and homing of MM cells to the BM, providing the framework for targeting RhoA and Rac1 GTPases as novel MM therapy. PMID:19443661

  12. Do nutrients play a role in delirium?

    PubMed

    Sanford, Angela M; Flaherty, Joseph H

    2014-01-01

    This study will review the biologic roles of thiamine, niacin, folic acid, cobalamin, antioxidants, lipids, glucose, and water and their implications as contributors or causal agents in the development of delirium, particularly if deficiencies or excesses exist. Knowledge on how overall nutritional status and individual nutrients predispose or directly lead to the development of delirium is currently very limited. Most studies in the area of nutrition and cognition still describe mental status changes using the term dementia and do not specifically address nutrition and delirium. However, as the brain pathophysiology that accompanies delirium has been furthered elucidated, it has become clear that nutritional imbalances can lead to these same physiologic changes in neuronal tissue. Delirium, characterized by an acute change in mental status along with diminished awareness and attention and disturbances in memory, language, or perception, confers high rates of morbidity and mortality and can be difficult to both diagnose and treat. Although the cause of delirium is often multifactorial, nutritional status and nutrients may play a role in predisposing or directly causing this acute cognitive dysfunction. Many nutritional deficiencies or excesses (i.e., B vitamins, antioxidants, glucose, water, lipids) have been shown to alter the way one thinks and restoring the balance in many of these nutrients can lead to resolution of delirium.

  13. Dramatic Playing beyond the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guss, Faith Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    Related to aspects of drama and theatre education, I search beyond the findings about symbolic play set forth by Dr Howard Gardner in "Frames of mind. The theory of multiple intelligences". Despite the inspiration for and solidarity with arts educators that emanate from his theory, I sensed that it did not provide a full picture of the complex…

  14. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  15. Conceptual Understanding of Multiplicative Properties through Endogenous Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Andre

    2012-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of an endogenously designed instructional game on conceptual understanding of the associative and distributive properties of multiplication. Additional this study sought to investigate if performance on measures of conceptual understanding taken prior to and after game play could serve as predictors of…

  16. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  17. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  18. Virtual Playgrounds? Assessing the Playfulness of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kerrie Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Millions of children and adults devote much of their leisure time to playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Most observers commonly categorize computer games as a play activity, but this article asks whether MMORPGs contain activities that might not be play. The author examines the phenomenon of online gaming and…

  19. Designing and Evaluating an Online Role Play in Conflict Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrastinski, Stefan; Watson, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify, through a literature review, key issues regarding how online role plays can be designed and to apply them when designing a role play on conflict management. Design/methodology/approach: By drawing on the key issues identified in the literature review, a role play on conflict management was designed and…

  20. Data Generation through Role-Play: Assessing Oral Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halleck, Gene

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the use of role-play as an elicitation device for the evaluation of a nonnative speaker's oral language. In this analysis of role-play as a methodology to generate data for assessment purposes, the study examines the role that interlocutors play in two types of interactions. It raises questions about the validity and…

  1. Reality and Second-Language Role-Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David; Piper, Terry

    1983-01-01

    Although role playing is a well-established and useful method of second language instruction, its success is often undermined by assignment of roles alien to the students' needs and experience. Redefinition of role playing to include the roles an individual assumes in everyday life will help the teacher plan more appropriate activities. (MSE)

  2. Endangered Play, Endangered Development: A Constructivist View of the Role of Play in Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Piagetian and Vygotskian theories may be used as starting points to examine the role of play in development and learning from a constructivist perspective, including how children use play to deepen their understanding and skills, encounter new problems, and incorporate newly mastered skills into their play. Contemporary factors such as an emphasis…

  3. Endangered Play, Endangered Development: A Constructivist View of the Role of Play in Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Diane E.

    Piagetian and Vygotskian theories may be used as starting points to examine the role of play in development and learning from a constructivist perspective, including how children use play to deepen their understanding and skills, encounter new problems, and incorporate newly mastered skills into their play. Contemporary factors such as an emphasis…

  4. Actors in Academia--Roles Professors Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    In order to set the stage for the "actors in academia," the author suggests that the following roles and responsibilities are the most significant ones for the college/university professor, including some for students: (1) Actor; (2) Communicator; (3) Facilitator; (4) Trainer/Coach; (5) Craftsman (craft of teaching); and (6) Manager. After 40…

  5. Role-Playing for Different Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, Sydney; Heikkinen, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a teaching technique in which the instructor alternately dons hats that represent opposing viewpoints. Discusses the educational value of the hat technique in teaching politics and government. Explains the role of students in the exercise and provides a students' evaluation of the technique. Maintains the technique makes abstract concepts…

  6. Online Role-Play Environments for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carol; Shepherd, John

    2010-01-01

    As online environments and tools have evolved over the last 15-20 years, their use for role-based learning has expanded. This analysis draws on work for an Australian project that has been sharing and developing knowledge about the use of online role-plays in higher education. We describe the learning needs that online role-play can meet, and give…

  7. A Role Play for Revising Style and Applying Management Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Role-playing is a well regarded learning activity. By participating in this activity, students can apply their knowledge through their assigned roles in a realistic but risk-free situation. The role play stimulates class discussion, dramatizes rhetorical principles about purpose, shows how to adapt a text to an audience of employees in a…

  8. A Role Play for Revising Style and Applying Management Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Role-playing is a well regarded learning activity. By participating in this activity, students can apply their knowledge through their assigned roles in a realistic but risk-free situation. The role play stimulates class discussion, dramatizes rhetorical principles about purpose, shows how to adapt a text to an audience of employees in a…

  9. Vitalizing Your Social Studies Class with Role-Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianna, Michael A.

    Elementary school teachers are introduced to role playing as a device for encouraging students to understand and empathize with other people's attitudes, values, and feelings. Two approaches to classroom role playing are discussed. The first, set forth by Schaftel, includes the following steps: warming up, selecting role players, setting the…

  10. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  11. The Multiple Roles of Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sabrina R.; Roegman, Rachel; Goodwin, A. Lin

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC) is an 18-month program that prepares teachers for high-needs schools in New York City in two areas: teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching students with disabilities. Student teachers, called residents, spend a year working with a mentor teacher. Mentors play three roles:…

  12. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was…

  13. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  14. Foreign Ludicity in Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Mei-Ya

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an explorative case study which, in the first place, aimed to ascertain different types of foreign language play in online role-playing in "Second Life," and which, secondly aimed to describe how various sources of contextual support can explain this foreign language play. Students' written conversation was…

  15. Museum Superheroes: The Role of Play in Young Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowski, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…

  16. Master's Students' Experiences in a Multicultural Counseling Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapisarda, Clarrice; Jencius, Marty; McGlothlin, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of master's students in regard to their participation in a multicultural role-play and review process (Jencius "et al." 2004). Whereas the literature has supported the use of role-plays as a multicultural training technique (Alvarez and Miville 2003; Vazquez and Garcia-Vazquez 2003), there is a distinct lack of…

  17. Role-Playing in an English Conversation Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menne, Saxon

    1977-01-01

    Describes a role-play exercise in which several groups, of varying ability and of six members each, acted out a crime story, with the help of written information. Preparation included vocabulary and pronunciation exercises. After performance, errors were corrected and the play performed again, with roles re-distributed. (IFS/WGA)

  18. Is Role Playing an Effective EFL Teaching Technique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances L.

    The literature on role-playing as a classroom instructional technique for English as a second language has addressed its benefits in improved acquisition of language or linguistic skills, communicative skills, cross-cultural skills, and interpersonal skills. However, promoters of role-playing may have set their goals too high and may be wasting…

  19. Understanding Public Land Management through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Alex P.

    2004-01-01

    Role-playing activities are an example of active learning that introduces students to "real-world" situations. This paper discusses the development and assessment of a role-play that involves an undergraduate geography class in a local public land management process. This particular case study is useful because it reflects broader themes and…

  20. Blended Learning Using Role-Plays, Wikis and Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruyters, Michele; Douglas, Kathy; Law, Siew Fang

    2011-01-01

    Student learning about legal skills in legal education is increasingly seen as important. These legal skills include advocacy and negotiation. These skills are often taught through role-play. This article discusses the combination of role-plays with online tools, including wikis and blogs, to assist students to master legal skills. The article…

  1. "Playing The Role": Classroom Performance Approaches to Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Dynamic classroom role-playing is an essential ingredient in interpretation and performance if the student actor is to learn the technical skills of believable characterization. One of the first classroom performance principles in playing the role is for the student actor to read the playscript with a critical eye to grasp the creative suggestions…

  2. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  3. Role Playing: Applications in Hostage and Crisis Negotiation Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Romano, Stephen J.; Vecchi, Gregory M.

    2008-01-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to…

  4. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  5. Is Role Playing an Effective EFL Teaching Technique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frances L.

    The literature on role-playing as a classroom instructional technique for English as a second language has addressed its benefits in improved acquisition of language or linguistic skills, communicative skills, cross-cultural skills, and interpersonal skills. However, promoters of role-playing may have set their goals too high and may be wasting…

  6. Role Play in Nutrition Education for the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach, Ellen S.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    1980-01-01

    Role-playing in nutrition has many advantages as an educational technique, including building thoughts, facilitating flexible thinking, promoting awareness, and providing opportunities for practicing food-related behavior. The Curry and Arnaud model for role play is presented in terms of its components and how each component relates to nutrition…

  7. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  8. Role-Playing and Religion: Using Games to Educate Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Adam L.

    2008-01-01

    I have been experimenting with using role-playing and games in my religion classes for several years and have found that students respond well to these pedagogical tools and methods. After reviewing my experiences, I explore the reasons for students' positive response. I argue that role-playing games capitalize on our students' educational…

  9. Table-Top Role Playing Game and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Tsui-shan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to observe whether individuals who engaged in table-top role playing game (TRPG) were more creative. Participants total 170 (52 TRPG players, 54 electronic role playing game (ERPG) players and 64 Non-players) aged from 19 to 63. In the current study, an online questionnaire is used, adopting the verbal subtests of…

  10. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a…

  11. The Use of Role Play To Teach Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Nancy; Shaver, Lisa

    Role play (a dramatic technique in which individuals improvise behaviors that illustrate acts expected of persons involved in defined situations) has several advantages for the classroom. Role play: (1) involves little or no additional instructional costs; (2) allows students to practice behaviors and skills; (3) closes the gap between training…

  12. The Use of Role Play in the Training of Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    A model has been developed for using role play in the supervision and training of hypnotherapy. Specific techniques can be role played by trainee and supervisor which can enable the trainee to develop skill and confidence in the use of hypnotic techniques. Hypnotic induction, listening, observing and providing feedback, relaxation,…

  13. Teaching Language Realistically: Role Play Is the Thing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao

    Role-playing is proposed as an ideal technique to teach language because it prepares learners for the unpredictable nature of real-life communication, teaches appropriate language use, and boosts self-confidence. Theories that have paved the way for the current communicative approach to language teaching are reviewed, role-playing is defined, and…

  14. Role-Playing for Inhibited Students in Paternal Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saadat, Abdullah I.; Afifi, Elhami A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights classroom role playing in Saudi Arabian classrooms as a psychological aid that fosters self-confidence in inhibited, timid, hesitant, and passive students and relieves them of their paternal communicative limitations. Proposes an overall strategy for role-playing as an effective communicative activity that teachers can exploit to help…

  15. Using Replacement Performance Role-Plays in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarski, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Replacement performance role plays are a different type of role play. Rather than memorizing or writing a dialogue, this activity asks learners to listen and consider other possible responses. Students decide which character will be replaced and what they will do differently. Even shy learners or ones with lower proficiency levels can be involved…

  16. The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in Children's Play. Early Childhood Education Series. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    Responding to current debates on the place of play in schools, the authors have extensively revised their groundbreaking book. They explain how and why play is a critical part of children's development, as well as the central role adults have to promote it. This classic textbook and popular practitioner resource offers systematic descriptions and…

  17. The Play's the Thing: Teachers' Roles in Children's Play. Early Childhood Education Series. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    Responding to current debates on the place of play in schools, the authors have extensively revised their groundbreaking book. They explain how and why play is a critical part of children's development, as well as the central role adults have to promote it. This classic textbook and popular practitioner resource offers systematic descriptions and…

  18. Grammar J, as in Jazzing Around: The Roles "Play" Plays in Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrom, Hans

    This paper asks what role "play" plays in writing and how it can help a writer, whatever dread, boredom, skill, or ethnicity he/she brings to writing. Some of the ideas in the paper come from Africa, courtesy of Robert Farris Thompson. In his "philosophy of discourse" discussed in the paper, Thompson speaks of the "big…

  19. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Gordon L; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were "The Experience of Being Bullied", "Implementation of the Program", "Desired Outcome of the Program", and "Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession". Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential.

  20. Reflective Responses Following a Role Play Simulation of Nurse Bullying

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Deborah L.; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Boesch, Maura C.; Bateman, Kyle M.; Grubb, Paula L.

    2017-01-01

    The affective domain of learning can be used with role play simulation to develop professional values in nursing students. A qualitative exploratory design was used for this study to evaluate role play simulation as an active learning strategy. The context for the role play was bullying in nursing practice. Three hundred thirty-three senior nursing students from five college campuses participated. Following the role play simulation students completed a reflection worksheet. The worksheet data were qualitatively coded into themes. Thematic findings were personal responses during the simulation, nonverbal communications exhibited during the simulation, actions taken by participants during the simulation, and the perceived impact of bullying. Role play simulation was a highly effective pedagogy requiring no technology, was free, and elicited learning at both the cognitive and affective domains of learning. PMID:28628071

  1. Role playing: applications in hostage and crisis negotiation skills training.

    PubMed

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B; Romano, Stephen J; Vecchi, Gregory M

    2008-03-01

    Role playing has been a mainstay of behavioral assessment for decades. In recent years, however, this analogue strategy has also enjoyed widespread application in the field of law enforcement. Most notably, role-play procedures have become an integral component of assessment and training efforts in hostage and crisis negotiation, which attempts to resolve high-risk and often volatile situations in a peaceful, nonviolent manner when possible. The purpose of this paper is to (a) describe development and validation of a role-play test specifically geared toward law enforcement negotiators, (b) present different role-play formats that have been incorporated in law enforcement negotiation training, and (c) discuss limitations and considerations in use of these instruments. Suggestions for directions that future efforts in this area might take are offered. The heuristic value of role playing in crisis management, counterterrorism, and emergency and mass casualty disaster training exercises is also underscored.

  2. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    PubMed

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  3. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  4. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  5. Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Fred; Sharapan, Hedda

    1993-01-01

    Contends that, in childhood, work and play seem to come together. Says that for young children their play is their work, and the more adults encourage children to play, the more they emphasize important lifelong resource. Examines some uses of children's play, making and building, artwork, dramatic play, monsters and superheroes, gun play, and…

  6. DOES DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON PLAY A ROLE IN ARSENIC MOBILIZATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent experimental results provide evidence that dissolved inorganic carbon plays a direct role in mobilizing arsenic in anoxic aquatic environments. This hypothesis is partially supported by observed correlations between elevated levels of arsenic and alkalinity in a ground wa...

  7. Race May Play Role in Obese Teens' Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Race May Play Role in Obese Teens' Blood Pressure Extra pounds appear more problematic for whites and ... teenagers are at increased risk of high blood pressure, but the effects of those extra pounds may ...

  8. Role Playing Using a Simulated Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, H. Patrick; Popvich, Nicholas G.

    1977-01-01

    Within a simulated Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee format, role play is used at Purdue University to illustrate to students the concepts of drug product evaluation and selection as these apply to a hospital formulary system. (Author/LBH)

  9. Representation of Cultural Role-Play for Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santarelli, Thomas; Pepe, Aaron; Rosenzweiz, Larry; Paulus, John; Yi, Ahn Na

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Defense (000) has successfully applied a number of methods for cultural familiarization training ranging from stand-up classroom training, to face-to-face live role-play, to so-called smart-cards. Recent interest has turned to the use of single and mUlti-player gaming technologies to augment these traditional methods of cultural familiarization. One such system, termed CulturePad, has been designed as a game-based role-play environment suitable for use in training and experimentation involving cultural roleplay scenarios. This paper describes the initial CulturePad effort focused on a literature review regarding the use of role-play for cultural training and a feasibility assessment of using a game-mediated environment for role-play. A small-scale pilot involving cultural experts was conducted to collect qualitative behavioral data comparing live role-play to game-mediated role-play in a multiplayer gaming engine.

  10. Play and Literacy in Early Childhood: Research from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Christie, James F., Ed.

    Noting that an examination of play from diverse perspectives deepens understanding and opens up new avenues for research and educational practice, this book brings together studies, research syntheses, and critical commentaries that examine play-literacy relationships from cognitive, ecological, and cultural perspectives. Each set of chapters is…

  11. Play and Literacy in Early Childhood: Research from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Christie, James F., Ed.

    Noting that an examination of play from diverse perspectives deepens understanding and opens up new avenues for research and educational practice, this book brings together studies, research syntheses, and critical commentaries that examine play-literacy relationships from cognitive, ecological, and cultural perspectives. Each set of chapters is…

  12. Diversity of Aspects on Play in Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Research on the meaning of play accelerated in the 1980s, but play in children with profound multiple disabilities is a topic, that is not discussed very often in research. In this article, play in children with profound multiple disabilities is in focus. The aim is to highlight studies on play as a tool for learning and early stimulation, and for…

  13. Diversity of Aspects on Play in Children with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Research on the meaning of play accelerated in the 1980s, but play in children with profound multiple disabilities is a topic, that is not discussed very often in research. In this article, play in children with profound multiple disabilities is in focus. The aim is to highlight studies on play as a tool for learning and early stimulation, and for…

  14. The Role of Play in Children’s Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Sue; Downing, Julia; Shemilt, Rise

    2014-01-01

    Play is the universal language of childhood and the time and opportunity to play is every child’s right. The role of play as a vehicle for communication, a tool for distraction and its value in the holistic development of a normal child is without dispute. The role and value of play increases proportionately when a child is made more vulnerable through illness or disability. Despite this, providing time and opportunities to play can be overlooked or considered to be of little importance or relevance when the focus of the adult carers is the amelioration of clinical symptoms of the illness and on lessening the psychological impact the illness may have on the child. This paper outlines the role and the value of play as an integral component in the provision of palliative care for children with chronic, life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. It will show how providing appropriate equipment, sufficient time and relevant play opportunities not only improves the very sick child’s psychological wellbeing, but also allows the child to cast aside the confines and restrictions imposed upon them by their illness and for a few golden moments to be nothing more than a child at play. PMID:27417481

  15. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  16. "Free Vote": Role-Playing Parliament in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lynn

    1977-01-01

    A Canadian political role-playing sequence helps secondary students understand the workings of Parliament and clarify their own values. The issue under debate is abolition or retention of capital punishment. Article describes rationale, teacher's instructions, roles, related legislature, rules of Parliamentary debate, public opinion polls, news…

  17. "Free Vote": Role-Playing Parliament in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Lynn

    1977-01-01

    A Canadian political role-playing sequence helps secondary students understand the workings of Parliament and clarify their own values. The issue under debate is abolition or retention of capital punishment. Article describes rationale, teacher's instructions, roles, related legislature, rules of Parliamentary debate, public opinion polls, news…

  18. Role Playing: Uses and Abuses in Teaching Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Jerry

    Teaching sociology through role playing involves students in acting out roles learned in the socialization process. The content of the game is the simulation of an area of social reality, either simple or complex. Participation in this activity presents students with alternative world views, develops problem solving and behavioral skills, and…

  19. Straw Castles: A Role-Play in Group Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Jennie

    1993-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that allows participants to role play both dysfunctional and constructive roles during a group task, illustrating how group success depends on the attitudes and actions of its members. Includes instructions for the learning activity, questions for debriefing, and follow-up activities. (LP)

  20. Adapting a Face-to-Face Role-Playing Simulation for Online Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Nathan; Shami, N. Sadat

    2006-01-01

    The rapid acceleration of online course offerings presents a design challenge for instructors who want to take materials developed for face-to-face settings and adapt them for asynchronous online usage. Broadcast lectures are relatively easy to transfer, but adapting content is harder when classes use small-group discussions, as in role-playing or…

  1. Playing by the Rules: Instruction and Acculturation in Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Bryn

    2008-01-01

    The open-ended, informal, and socially negotiated nature of role-playing games creates a distinct learning challenge for newcomers to the hobby. The explicit rules of the game provide only an incomplete framework for structuring the actions of players, and the expectations and mores of a given group will add other, unspoken rules that discourage…

  2. Playing by the Rules: Instruction and Acculturation in Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Bryn

    2008-01-01

    The open-ended, informal, and socially negotiated nature of role-playing games creates a distinct learning challenge for newcomers to the hobby. The explicit rules of the game provide only an incomplete framework for structuring the actions of players, and the expectations and mores of a given group will add other, unspoken rules that discourage…

  3. Adapting a Face-to-Face Role-Playing Simulation for Online Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Nathan; Shami, N. Sadat

    2006-01-01

    The rapid acceleration of online course offerings presents a design challenge for instructors who want to take materials developed for face-to-face settings and adapt them for asynchronous online usage. Broadcast lectures are relatively easy to transfer, but adapting content is harder when classes use small-group discussions, as in role-playing or…

  4. Power Plays: Children's Constructions of Gender and Power in Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky

    1997-01-01

    Investigates whether primary school girls took up powerful positions in role-play groups and how these children were positioned through gender discourses during their interaction. Analysis suggests that children's constructions of gender appear potentially to empower boys and disempower girls in interaction. It suggests that discourse analysis can…

  5. Empathic Features and Absorption in Fantasy Role-Playing.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Anissa; Wickramasekera, Ian E; Pekala, Ronald J; Rivers, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the levels of empathy and absorption of individuals who regularly play fantasy and science fiction role-playing games. A hypothesis was developed that higher levels of empathy would be found in individuals who fantasy role-play based upon previous research in hypnosis such as J. R. Hilgard's (1970) imaginative involvement hypothesis, research into the "fantasy prone" personality type (Wilson & Barber, 1981), and the empathic involvement hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003). The participants in the current study were 127 fantasy role-players who volunteered and completed the Davis Interpersonal Reactivity Index (empathy) and the Tellegen Absorption Scale (absorption). The results demonstrated that those who play fantasy role-playing games scored significantly higher than the comparison group on the IRI scale of empathy, confirming the hypothesis that fantasy role-players report experiencing higher levels of empathic involvement with others. Correlational analysis between the measures demonstrated a significant positive correlation between empathy and absorption (r = .43, p < .001). These results collectively suggest that fantasy role-players have a uniquely empathically-imaginative style. The results also confirm and extend previous findings on the relationship between empathy and absorption as predicted by the Empathic Involvement Hypothesis (Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003).

  6. Teachers' roles in supporting children's literacy development through play.

    PubMed

    Saracho, Olivia N

    2002-04-01

    This study focused on the roles five kindergarten teachers assumed to promote literacy. Data were collected through systematic videotaped observations during the children's play periods. Saracho's analysis of the transcriptions in identifying the roles of the teachers suggested teachers' roles in the children's literacy-play include director of instructions (instructing students to follow directions and learn concepts), transition director (directing students to make smooth transitions), supporter of learning (acknowledging and praising students' work to promote learning), storyteller (reading or telling a story and encouraging children to respond), and instructional guide (providing instructional guidance for learning).

  7. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Gordon L.; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi’s procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were “The Experience of Being Bullied”, “Implementation of the Program”, “Desired Outcome of the Program”, and “Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession”. Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential. PMID:26504502

  8. Role-Playing in Analytical Chemistry: The Alumni Speak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Paul T.; Walters, John P.

    2000-08-01

    Cooperative learning constructs take a variety of forms. Over the last 15 years, one such pedagogical structure, role-playing, has been used in the analytical chemistry curriculum at St. Olaf College. A long-term assessment of this teaching method was conducted through use of a survey distributed to alumni graduating between 1987 and 1997. The graduates overwhelmingly indicated that the use of role-playing had a positive impact on their careers as well as their lives. Furthermore, many non-achievement learning outcomes attributed to cooperative learning experiences were reinforced through the survey response. Role-playing created an effective environment in which to develop communication and collaborative skills in addition to the technical skills that are essential to analytical chemistry. These results support continued evolutionary development of this teaching method.

  9. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class.

  10. Patient care simulations: role playing to enhance clinical understanding.

    PubMed

    Comer, Shirley K

    2005-01-01

    Role-play techniques can serve as an effective substitute for, and supplement to, simulation technology when teaching clinical nursing skills. They provide risk-free opportunities to practice clinical skills and develop clinical judgment. A two-phase patient care simulation, performed in real time, is described. Students are presented with a scenario and work cooperatively in role-playing appropriate care, with one student using a prepared script to assume the role of patient. The class functions as a resource for four students who assume the nursing role. Students reported increased understanding of course material as a result of participation in the clinical simulation scenario. Faculty observed a decreased failure rate on the corresponding course examination.

  11. Tim Wirth: playing a leading role. Newsmaker interview.

    PubMed

    Pickett, S

    1995-01-01

    An interview with Timothy Wirth, who has been Under Secretary of State for Global Affairs, is presented. The US played a new role as a partner at several recent UN conferences that focused on a multiplicity of issues that harbinger the 21st century. The 4th World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995 underscored the importance of women as agents of change, confirmed the importance of nongovernmental organizations in affecting global change in governance, and revealed the strength of women's groups in developing countries. The US made some pledges at the 1994 UN Population and Development Conference in Cairo as laid down in the program of action. US financial commitment to population stabilization increased as did the commitment from Japan and other developed countries. Egypt, Indonesia, Tunisia, and Mexico with effective family planning programs are also sharing their experiences with other developing countries. The US has an interest in investing in foreign assistance in view of runaway population growth in countries like Haiti. Haiti's excess population would be heading for Florida. The President's Council on Sustainable Development's task force on population and consumption concluded that the US should commit itself to population stabilization because of the high consumption rate of the average American, the number of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies, and the problem of teenage pregnancies. Consumption rather than investment should taxed, subsidies should be removed from the use of natural resources and agriculture, and environmental degradation should be priced properly. Poverty is at the root of economic deprivation and environmental destruction. Micro-enterprises have been successful in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, which experiences could be used by the US as well. The broader empowerment of women could also encourage political change, which, in turn could bring about full access to family planning and support to women and their families.

  12. Do dental impression materials play a role in cross contamination?

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shlomo; Eini, Amir; Gorfil, Colin; Ben-Amar, Ariel; Slutzky, Hagay

    2011-01-01

    Dentists are required to institute infectious control procedures. Dental impression materials possessing antimicrobial properties may aid in reducing the risk of cross contamination since impression materials might play a role as carriers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of four impression materials. Four impression materials--Orthoprint, Impregum Penta, Aquasil Ultra Monophase, and Permlastic--were evaluated by the direct contact test. The materials were tested in contact with Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. The materials were mixed; allowed to set; and examined immediately and after aging for 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week. Two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison procedures were applied to the results. Impregum Penta presented the broadest antibacterial spectrum of all the materials tested. There was a complete growth inhibition of S aureus and S epidermidis, and it sustained this ability for at least 7 days. It also showed an antifungal effect by partially inhibiting the growth of C albicans, a quality that was seen only immediately after setting. Aquasil Ultra showed an antifungal effect only immediately after setting. Permlastic showed a complete growth inhibition when in contact with C albicans and sustained this ability for at least 7 days. No significant antimicrobial properties were recorded for Orthoprint. When in contact with E faecalis, no significant antibacterial properties were recorded for any of the materials. None of the tested materials exhibited a long-lasting or complete antibacterial and antifungal property. Therefore, disinfection of impressions is essential.

  13. Role-playing in nursing theory: engaging online students.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Cheryle; Adelman, Deborah S

    2010-04-01

    The teaching and learning of nursing theory, at all program levels, is challenging due to the complexity and abstract nature of its content, the dry nature in which the study of theory often is approached, a perception of disconnect from practice, and faculty discomfort and avoidance of the subject matter. Adapting creative educational strategies to the online environment is an ongoing challenge for educators. Role-play relates well to the constructivist basis of creating personal meaning based on the individual's experiences. This article examines the use of role-play as an educational strategy for teaching nursing theory in an online baccalaureate program. In a core professional issues course, students adopt the persona of a specific nursing theorist, interacting with other "nursing theorists" played by their peers. Student engagement and active learning reflect excitement and interest, and course evaluations have been extremely positive for this content and method.

  14. Reusable, Lifelike Virtual Humans for Mentoring and Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    Lifelike, interactive digital characters, serving as mentors and role-playing actors, have been shown to significantly improve learner motivation and retention. However, the cost of modeling such characters, authoring and editing their interactions, and delivering them over limited-bandwidth connections can be prohibitive. This paper describes a…

  15. The Role Play: More than Make-Believe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Martin

    At the University of Akron's Community and Technical College, the major student project for "Principles of Advertising" is the development of ad campaigns for an assigned product. Two groups of students, playing the role of advertising agencies, compete with each other while the remaining students in the class act as the clients. Among the…

  16. Traditional Gender Role Behaviors in Kindergartners' Choice of Play Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligh, Gwendolyn T.

    This study examined whether kindergarten-age children showed traditional gender role behaviors in their choice of play activities. Participating in the study were 9 boys and 11 girls, all 5 or 6 years old and attending the same kindergarten class in a middle size, suburban elementary school. Data on student choice behavior were gathered during the…

  17. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  18. Role Playing and Mind Mapping Issues on Nitrate Contamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents mind-mapping and role-playing exercises designed to guide students in the exploration, expression, and integration of varying viewpoints and opinions of a controversial topic (nitrate contamination of water supply); illustrate the importance of applying soil fertility principles to environmental and agronomic management; and encourage…

  19. Classroom "Role-Playing": A Basic Blueprint for Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Dynamic classroom role-playing for junior and senior high school classes in literature and acting is an essential ingredient in cultivating characterization and interpretation if a student is to learn the technical skills of performance. Although no simple classroom performance blueprint exists for predicting the degree of success a student…

  20. Try This: Role-Play Party: Talking about Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a stand-alone language-learning activity emphasizing speaking. Specifically, students will participate in role plays to describe occupations and job-related duties. The level of the activity is upper beginner or low intermediate and the time required is 45-60 minutes. The goals are: (1) to ask and answer small-talk questions…

  1. A Role Play on Export Decisions and the Exchange Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Explains that the goal of this exercise is to encourage an understanding of the effects of exchange rate changes and the use of forward rates. Provides a role play that involves students working in groups to decide whether to export a consignment of golf trollies to Italy and shortbread to Canada. (BSR)

  2. Role Playing and Mind Mapping Issues on Nitrate Contamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents mind-mapping and role-playing exercises designed to guide students in the exploration, expression, and integration of varying viewpoints and opinions of a controversial topic (nitrate contamination of water supply); illustrate the importance of applying soil fertility principles to environmental and agronomic management; and encourage…

  3. The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Marjori M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean War is often given a cursory glance, if that, in U.S. foreign relations today. This article provides all the information necessary to conduct a role-play in one class period to help students understand the events of the war. Introductory and follow-up questions are also included to stimulate discussion and to connect the events of a war…

  4. The Case of the Stinking River: A Role Playing Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahler, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    This is an in-depth description of a role-playing exercise designed to help students explore the problems of community decision making in the face of an environmental crisis. Within simulated city council meetings students consider alternative models of economic and political trade-offs and their social, political and environmental consequences.…

  5. Using Role-Playing Games to Broaden Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, Jennifer R.; Rauch, Sebastien; Helgegren, Ida; Kain, Jaan-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In today's complex society, there is an increasing demand to include a wider set of skills in engineering curricula, especially skills related to policy, society and sustainable development. Role-playing and gaming are active learning tools, which are useful for learning relationships between technology and society, problem solving in…

  6. Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria that instructors should be sensitive to when evaluating simulations or role-plays for use in international/comparative politics courses. The potential benefits and drawbacks to these interactive exercises are addressed as well as the special circumstances that must be taken into consideration to reap the full promise…

  7. Negotiate Your Future: Web-Based Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    An original concept for a Web-based role play "SurfingGlobalChange" is proposed on the basis of multi-year interdisciplinary teaching experience and constructivist pedagogy. Underlying didactic orientation is towards self-guided learning, acquiring socially compatible "competence to act" in a globalised world, self-optimising social procedures…

  8. Script Recognition, Articulation and Expansion in Children's Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that children's use of social scripts for the production of sustained dialog in peer interaction depends on the nature of role play and that their attempts at script expansion are precursors to adults' recognition of the potential of conversation for self-expression. (FL)

  9. Black Blizzard: Designing Role-Play Simulations for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linser, Roni; Ree-Lindstad, Nina; Vold, Tone

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines and analyses some key design issues we encountered in the process of creating an online role-play simulation (RPS) for a course targeting personnel involved in crisis management. Titled "Black Blizzard" the RPS aims to enable an exploration of typical issues and problems that arise in cross and multi-cultural international…

  10. Interdisciplinary Role Play between Social Work and Theater Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching BSW and MSW students beginning interviewing and relationship-building skills is essential in order to prepare them for practice with clients. In social work methods courses, role plays are commonly-used instructional strategies for helping foundation-level students acquire these initial practice skills. Despite the popularity of this…

  11. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  12. Development of Confidence in Child Behavior Management through Role Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Gerard C., Jr.; Ehrlichs, Melvin A.

    1990-01-01

    In a preclinical course in pediatric dentistry, 76 students were taught child behavior management through role playing of 7-10 common management situations. Pre- and postcourse measures of student confidence found that, although older students were more confident, all gained significantly from the training. Other student characteristics were also…

  13. The Ecology of Role Play: Intentionality and Cultural Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolutionary function of children's pretence. The everyday, cultural environment that children engage with is of a highly complex structure. Human adaptation, thus, becomes, by analogy, an equally complex process that requires the development of life skills. Whilst in role play children engage in "mimesis" and…

  14. Exploring the Concept of Sustainable Development through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchs, Arnaud; Blanchard, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is used in everyday life by the general public, alongside researchers, institutions, and private companies. Nevertheless, its definition is far from being unequivocal. Clarifying the outline of the concept seems necessary. We have created a role-play for this purpose. Our article aims at depicting its main…

  15. Role-Playing a Legend in Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xun; Lee, Jack; Yamashiro, Kelly A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports a case study of thirteen college students engaging in a role-play activity of a Maui legend in a virtual reality environment. Immersed in the authentic cultural environment, the students not only interacted with the environment and each other, but recreated the legend based on their interpretation of the culture. (CAK)

  16. Reusable, Lifelike Virtual Humans for Mentoring and Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    Lifelike, interactive digital characters, serving as mentors and role-playing actors, have been shown to significantly improve learner motivation and retention. However, the cost of modeling such characters, authoring and editing their interactions, and delivering them over limited-bandwidth connections can be prohibitive. This paper describes a…

  17. Biography and Role Playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Paula B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a means for increasing undergraduate and graduate students' level of empathy. Assigned students to write about and role play a character that they create who suffers from a psychological disorder. Explains that after quantitative and qualitative analyses it was demonstrated that students' empathy increased. (CMK)

  18. Exploring the Concept of Sustainable Development through Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchs, Arnaud; Blanchard, Odile

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development is used in everyday life by the general public, alongside researchers, institutions, and private companies. Nevertheless, its definition is far from being unequivocal. Clarifying the outline of the concept seems necessary. We have created a role-play for this purpose. Our article aims at depicting its main…

  19. The Korean War: A Role-Play to Remember

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Marjori M.

    2009-01-01

    The Korean War is often given a cursory glance, if that, in U.S. foreign relations today. This article provides all the information necessary to conduct a role-play in one class period to help students understand the events of the war. Introductory and follow-up questions are also included to stimulate discussion and to connect the events of a war…

  20. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  1. Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes criteria that instructors should be sensitive to when evaluating simulations or role-plays for use in international/comparative politics courses. The potential benefits and drawbacks to these interactive exercises are addressed as well as the special circumstances that must be taken into consideration to reap the full promise…

  2. Interdisciplinary Role Play between Social Work and Theater Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching BSW and MSW students beginning interviewing and relationship-building skills is essential in order to prepare them for practice with clients. In social work methods courses, role plays are commonly-used instructional strategies for helping foundation-level students acquire these initial practice skills. Despite the popularity of this…

  3. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  4. A Recruiting and Hiring Role-Play: An Experiential Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Robert; Collins, Marianne K.

    2012-01-01

    Creating experiential learning opportunities that engage students, meet marketing curricula objectives, and fit the application in a traditional semester course is extremely challenging. This paper describes a role-playing simulation offered concurrently to the professional selling and sales management classes in which the selling students act as…

  5. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  6. Language and Play in Students with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairments or Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzo, Lianna; Bruce, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between play and language development in students with multiple disabilities and visual impairments or deaf-blindness. The findings indicate that students with higher levels of communication demonstrate more advanced play skills and that the use of play-based assessment and exposure to symbolic play are…

  7. Language and Play in Students with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairments or Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzo, Lianna; Bruce, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relationships between play and language development in students with multiple disabilities and visual impairments or deaf-blindness. The findings indicate that students with higher levels of communication demonstrate more advanced play skills and that the use of play-based assessment and exposure to symbolic play are…

  8. Solutions-Focused Role Play: Its Use in Training Peer Helpers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Andrew V.; Hall, Kimberly R.

    2005-01-01

    Solutions-focused role play provides students with structured opportunities to transfer what they have learned to authentic situations they are likely to encounter as peer helpers. Rather than coming up with a single way to solve a problem, students are encouraged to explore multiple possible solutions. Peer training programs have traditionally…

  9. Shedding the Ego: Drama-Based Role-Play and Identity in Distance Language Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brash, Barbel; Warnecke, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors attempt to answer the following questions: How do we understand role-play? How are role-play and identity linked? What are the purposes, benefits and challenges of role-play as a teaching tool? What are the roles of students and teachers in role-play? What does role-play add to telephone tutorials and online…

  10. Shedding the Ego: Drama-Based Role-Play and Identity in Distance Language Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brash, Barbel; Warnecke, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors attempt to answer the following questions: How do we understand role-play? How are role-play and identity linked? What are the purposes, benefits and challenges of role-play as a teaching tool? What are the roles of students and teachers in role-play? What does role-play add to telephone tutorials and online…

  11. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  12. Play a Starring Role in Your Textbook: A Digital Web Platform with an Embedded Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielvogel, Laura; Spielvogel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we introduce our digital e-textbook web platform with an integrated role-playing game, which has been created for "introduction to anthropology" courses. We believe that textbooks have the potential to do more to motivate students' pursuit of learning if their material (topically organised chapters supported by…

  13. Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    Designing a game with a serious purpose involves considering the worlds of Reality and Meaning yet it is undeniably impossible to create a game without a third world, one that is specifically concerned with what makes a game a game: the play elements. This third world, the world of people like designers and artists, and disciplines as computer science and game design, I call the world of Play and this level is devoted to it. The level starts off with some of the misperceptions people have of play. Unlike some may think, we play all the time, even when we grow old—this was also very noticeable in designing the game Levee Patroller as the team exhibited very playful behavior at many occasions. From there, I go into the aspects that characterize this world. The first concerns the goal of the game. This relates to the objectives people have to achieve within the game. This is constituted by the second aspect: the gameplay. Taking actions and facing challenges is subsequently constituted by a gameworld, which concerns the third aspect. And all of it is not possible without the fourth and final aspect, the type of technology that creates and facilitates the game. The four aspects together make up a “game concept” and from this world such a concept can be judged on the basis of three closely interrelated criteria: engagement, immersion, and fun.

  14. GeoQuest an Interactive Role Playing game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraffi, Sabina; Sacerdoti, Francesco; Scamardella, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The acquisition of knowledge and enhancing skills at actual time requires different approaches, involving students as much as possible, taking advantage of informal learning strengths and opportunities of formal learning. In this perspective, the game seems to be a perfect vehicle, not a single student's playing but a cooperative one. The GeoQuest project consists of an interactive role-playing game which involves all students using a patented system: the "teaching projector". This system allows the interaction of the class group through the use of smartphones and tablets, and it shows in real-time the game progress to the whole class. Our role-playing game is based on three routes at different degrees. The students, divided into several categories (physicist, chemists, disseminators, technicians, historians) have to follow a geological trail in order to discover the present and the past of the Earth. During the path, students have to pass some doors in teamwork; they allow assessment and represent the main sharing/disclosure moment. The doors allow to modulate the activities according to single lesson, teaching unit, module. Main Objectives: Working on PC by themselves, students could be even more alone: it needs a best fitting between ICT and cooperative learning. Role-playing helps students to reach their goals easily through cooperation; this in order to avoid the risk of loneliness of Inquiry Based Science Education, preserving entirely the educational value. Science Research now is based on field expert interaction: the role-playing game categories reflect the necessary team to get their goal. The several roles allow everyone to enhance their own skills. the "teaching projector" allows students to comment and to evaluate the groups activities and route them, providing real-time corrections to everybody. The playing categories represent all the aspects of the research areas: from scientists (physicists, chemists), to technicians, to disseminators and

  15. Character selecting advisor for a role-playing game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redfield, Carol L.; Berlanga, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    Role-playing games have been a source of much pleasure and merriment for people of all ages. The process of developing a character for a role-playing game is usually very, very time consuming, delaying what many players consider the most entertaining part of the game. An expert system has been written to assist a player in creating a character by guiding the player through a series of questions. This paper discusses the selection of this topic, the knowledge engineering, the software development, and the resulting program that cuts the time of character development from about 4 hours to 30 minutes. The program was written on a PC and an Apollo in CLIPS 4.3 and currently runs on the Apollo.

  16. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Paul

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a tendency for students to become overly political. An unexpected benefit of these games is the boost that they give to student self- confidence. Overall, they seem to work well with a wide range of students, ranging from ninth grade to graduate school, and students exposed to this game comment repeatedly on how the games changed their attitudes toward the scientific process.

  17. Etiology of Sarcoidosis: Does Infection Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias S.; Eckstein, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disorder of unclear etiology, which is known to affect multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, skin, central nervous system, and eyes, among others. For this reason, sarcoidosis represents a systemic medical disorder that is clinically relevant to multiple medical sub-specialties. Despite extensive research, the etiology of sarcoidosis has yet to be elucidated, although most evidence supports that the pathogenetic mechanism of sarcoidosis is an aberrant immune response, driven by an unidentified antigen (or antigens) in genetically susceptible individuals. Multiple candidate etiologic agents, including microbial organisms and environmental agents, have been investigated, but study results are inconclusive. In this review, we describe the known histologic and immunologic features of sarcoidosis and discuss the evidence supporting a role for infectious processes in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. PMID:22461752

  18. Rockin' Role Plays. A Collection of the Finest for Mediation Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Barbara A.; Corley, Sarah V.

    This guide offers suggestions for implementing role plays to teach conflict resolution skills and provides a variety of role plays useful in different settings. It describes how to effectively prepare for role plays, how to implement role play strategies, and how to debrief and provide feedback to role play participants. Potential problems are…

  19. Hemoglobin S-nitrosylation plays an essential role in cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongli; Hess, Douglas T.; Reynolds, James D.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Homeostatic control of tissue oxygenation is achieved largely through changes in blood flow that are regulated by the classic physiological response of hypoxic vasodilation. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the control of blood flow is a central tenet of cardiovascular biology. However, extensive evidence now indicates that hypoxic vasodilation entails S-nitrosothiol–based (SNO-based) vasoactivity (rather than NO per se) and that this activity is conveyed substantially by the βCys93 residue in hemoglobin. Thus, tissue oxygenation in the respiratory cycle is dependent on S-nitrosohemoglobin. This perspective predicts that red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important but previously undescribed role in cardioprotection. Here, we have found that cardiac injury and mortality in models of myocardial infarction and heart failure were greatly enhanced in mice lacking βCys93 S-nitrosylation. In addition, βCys93 mutant mice exhibited adaptive collateralization of cardiac vasculature that mitigated ischemic injury and predicted outcomes after myocardial infarction. Enhanced myopathic injury and mortality across different etiologies in the absence of βCys93 confirm the central cardiovascular role of RBC-derived SNO-based vasoactivity and point to a potential locus of therapeutic intervention. Our findings also suggest the possibility that RBCs may play a previously unappreciated role in heart disease. PMID:27841756

  20. Current Perspectives on Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)

  1. Current Perspectives on Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)

  2. Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-09-01

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.

  3. NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hua; Li, Jing; Chen, Huacong; Wang, Chunhui

    2013-01-01

    Sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 8 is an apically expressed membrane protein in the intestinal epithelial cells. It plays important roles in sodium absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine. Although NHE8 mRNA has been detected in the stomach, the precise location and physiological role of NHE8 in the gastric glands remain unclear. In the current study, we successfully detected the expression of NHE8 in the glandular region of the stomach by Western blotting and located NHE8 protein at the apical membrane in the surface mucous cells by a confocal microscopic method. We also identified the expression of downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA) in the surface mucous cells in the stomach. Using NHE8−/− mice, we found that NHE8 plays little or no role in basal gastric acid production, yet NHE8−/− mice have reduced gastric mucosal surface pH and higher incidence of developing gastric ulcer. DRA expression was reduced significantly in the stomach in NHE8−/− mice. The propensity for gastric ulcer, reduced mucosal surface pH, and low DRA expression suggest that NHE8 is indirectly involved in gastric bicarbonate secretion and gastric mucosal protection. PMID:23220221

  4. Basophil-derived IL-4 plays versatile roles in immunity.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that basophils play crucial and non-redundant roles in the immune system, in spite of the fact that they are the rarest granulocytes and represent less than 1 % of peripheral blood leukocytes. In response to various stimuli, basophils release effector molecules stored in their cytoplasmic granules, including chemical mediators and proteases, and also secrete cytokines and chemokines. In this review, we will focus on the physiological and pathological roles of basophil-derived IL-4. Basophils can readily produce large quantities of IL-4 and are therefore the important source of IL-4. Basophil-derived IL-4 has been shown to regulate other immune cells, including T cells, B cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells, monocytes, and macrophages. It also acts on non-hematopoietic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Those cells stimulated with basophil-derived IL-4 contribute to the positive or negative regulation of a variety of immune responses in health and disease, including protection against parasitic and bacterial infections, allergy, and autoimmune diseases. Thus, basophil-derived IL-4 plays versatile roles in immunity.

  5. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  6. Role Salience and Multiple Roles: A Gender Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1994-01-01

    Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…

  7. Role Salience and Multiple Roles: A Gender Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1994-01-01

    Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…

  8. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-05-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation [Wos87] in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  9. Benchmark problems in which equality plays the major role

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.; Wos, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have recently heard rumors that researchers are again studying paramodulation (Wos87) in the context of strategy for its control. In part to facilitate such research, and in part to provide test problems for evaluating other approaches to equality-oriented reasoning, we offer in this article a set of benchmark problems in which equality plays the dominant role. The test problems are taken from group theory, Robbins algebra, combinatory logic, and other areas. For each problem, we include appropriate clauses and comment as to its status with regard to provability by an unaided automated reasoning program.

  10. Does epigenetics play a role in human asthma?

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Donata

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and other allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases of childhood. According to the World Health Organization, asthma affects >7.0 million children under 18 in the United States, with an economic burden that is estimated to exceed that of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS combined. Despite much research, the natural history of asthma and its pathogenesis are still in many ways elusive. This review discusses our current understanding of the role epigenetic processes play in asthma pathogenesis, focusing on genome-wide, population-based studies. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Cusick, Matthew F; Fujinami, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Infectious pathogens are the likely environmental factors involved in the development of MS. Pathogens associated with the development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, the Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, viruses of the herpes virus (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families and the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii. Evidence, from studies with humans and animal models, supporting the association of these various pathogens with the development and/or exacerbation of MS will be discussed along with the potential mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading and bystander activation. In contrast, infection with certain parasites such as helminthes (Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis) appears to protect against the development or exacerbation of MS. Evidence supporting the ability of parasitic infections to protect against disease will be discussed along with a brief summary of a recent Phase I clinical trial testing the ability of Trichuris suis ova treatment to improve the clinical course of MS. A complex interaction between the CNS (including the blood-brain barrier), multiple infections with various infectious agents (occurring in the periphery or within the CNS), and the immune response to those various infections may have to be deciphered before the etiology of MS can be fully understood.

  12. Cerebellar vermis plays a causal role in visual motion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Renzi, Chiara; Casali, Stefano; Silvanto, Juha; Vecchi, Tomaso; Papagno, Costanza; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-09-01

    Cerebellar patients have been found to show deficits in visual motion discrimination, suggesting that the cerebellum may play a role in visual sensory processing beyond mediating motor control. Here we show that triple-pulse online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over cerebellar vermis but not over the cerebellar hemispheres significantly impaired motion discrimination. Critically, the interference caused by vermis TMS on motion discrimination did not depend on an indirect effect of TMS over nearby visual areas, as demonstrated by a control experiment in which TMS over V1 but not over cerebellar vermis significantly impaired orientation discrimination. These findings demonstrate the causal role of the cerebellar vermis in visual motion processing in neurologically normal participants.

  13. FGF plays a subtle role in oligodendrocyte maintenance in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harari, D; Finkelstein, D; Bernard, O

    1997-08-15

    Numerous in vitro studies indicate that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a role in both the development and maintenance of oligodendrocytes. Addition of FGF to mature oligodendrocytes in culture was reported to downregulate the expression of genes encoding proteins of the myelin sheath and to induce a loss of myelin compaction. In this study, a model was developed to functionally block FGF signaling in oligodendrocytes in vivo, by generating transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative FGF receptor (FGFR1), under the control of the myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this model, truncated FGFR1 was first overexpressed in an FGF-responsive cell line in vitro. It was confirmed that FGF-signalling was blocked in these cells. Subsequently, five independent transgenic lines ("MBP-FRD") were generated. Three lines expressing the highest level of the transgene were further studied. Initial investigation by Western blot and light microscopic analyses revealed no apparent alterations in myelination of the MBP-FRD mouse brains. However, ultrastructural analysis of myelinated optic nerve fibres from two independent MBP-FRD lines revealed a significant increase in myelin thickness as a function of fibre diameter for both transgenic lines (13% and 16% increase). This increase in myelin thickness was not accompanied by alterations in myelin compaction. These results support the idea that FGF signaling in oligodendrocytes plays a role in the modulation of axon myelination in vivo.

  14. GPR56 Plays Varying Roles in Endogenous Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Begum, Shahinoor; Barry, Marc; Crowley, Denise; Yang, Liquan; Bronson, Roderick T.; Hynes, Richard O.

    2011-01-01

    GPR56, a non-classical adhesion receptor, was previously reported to suppress tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models using human melanoma cell lines. To understand whether GPR56 plays similar roles in the development of endogenous tumors, we analyzed cancer progression in Gpr56−/− mice using a variety of transgenic cancer models. Our results showed that GPR56 suppressed prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model on a mixed genetic background, similar to its roles in progression of melanoma xenografts. However, its roles in other cancer types appeared to be complex. It had marginal effects on tumor onset of mammary tumors in the MMTV-PyMT model, but had no effects on subsequent tumor progression in either the MMTV-PyMT mice or the melanoma model, Ink4a/Arf−/− tyr-Hras. These results indicate diverse roles of GPR56 in cancer progression and provide the first genetic evidence for the involvement of an adhesion GPCR in endogenous cancer development. PMID:20333450

  15. PDGFRα plays a crucial role in connective tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Shinjiro; Ishii, Yoko; Hamashima, Takeru; Yamamoto, Seiji; Mori, Hisashi; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Shen, Jie; Inoue, Ran; Nishizono, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Majima, Masataka; Abraham, David; Miyawaki, Toshio; Sasahara, Masakiyo

    2015-12-07

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) plays a pivotal role in the remodeling of connective tissues. Emerging data indicate the distinctive role of PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα) in this process. In the present study, the Pdgfra gene was systemically inactivated in adult mouse (α-KO mouse), and the role of PDGFRα was examined in the subcutaneously implanted sponge matrices. PDGFRα expressed in the fibroblasts of Pdgfra-preserving control mice (Flox mice), was significantly reduced in the sponges in α-KO mice. Neovascularized areas were largely suppressed in the α-KO mice than in the Flox mice, whereas the other parameters related to the blood vessels and endothelial cells were similar. The deposition of collagen and fibronectin and the expression of collagen 1a1 and 3a1 genes were significantly reduced in α-KO mice. There was a significantly decrease in the number and dividing fibroblasts in the α-KO mice, and those of macrophages were similar between the two genotypes. Hepatocyte growth factor (Hgf) gene expression was suppressed in Pdgfra-inactivated fibroblasts and connective tissue. The findings implicate the role of PDGFRα-dependent ECM and HGF production in fibroblasts that promotes the remodeling of connective tissue and suggest that PDGFRα may be a relevant target to regulate connective tissue remodeling.

  16. Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Valentina; Vermi, William; Gianello, Veronica; Lonardi, Silvia; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Naldini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node expansion during inflammation is essential to establish immune responses and relies on the development of blood and lymph vessels. Previous work in mice has shown that this process depends on the presence of VEGF-A produced by B cells, macrophages and stromal cells. In humans, however, the cell types and the mechanisms regulating the intranodal production of VEGF-A remain elusive. Here we show that CD11c+ cells represent the main VEGF-A-producing cell population in human reactive secondary lymphoid organs. In addition we find that three transcription factors, namely CREB, HIF-1α and STAT3, regulate the expression of VEGF-A in inflamed DCs. Both HIF-1α and STAT3 are activated by inflammatory agonists. Conversely, CREB phosphorylation represents the critical contribution of endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Taken together, these results propose a crucial role for DCs in lymph node inflammatory angiogenesis and identify novel potential cellular and molecular targets to limit inflammation in chronic diseases and tumors. PMID:27256980

  17. Dendritic cell-derived VEGF-A plays a role in inflammatory angiogenesis of human secondary lymphoid organs and is driven by the coordinated activation of multiple transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Valentina; Vermi, William; Gianello, Veronica; Lonardi, Silvia; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Naldini, Antonella; Sozzani, Silvano; Bosisio, Daniela

    2016-06-28

    Lymph node expansion during inflammation is essential to establish immune responses and relies on the development of blood and lymph vessels. Previous work in mice has shown that this process depends on the presence of VEGF-A produced by B cells, macrophages and stromal cells. In humans, however, the cell types and the mechanisms regulating the intranodal production of VEGF-A remain elusive. Here we show that CD11c+ cells represent the main VEGF-A-producing cell population in human reactive secondary lymphoid organs. In addition we find that three transcription factors, namely CREB, HIF-1α and STAT3, regulate the expression of VEGF-A in inflamed DCs. Both HIF-1α and STAT3 are activated by inflammatory agonists. Conversely, CREB phosphorylation represents the critical contribution of endogenous or exogenous PGE2. Taken together, these results propose a crucial role for DCs in lymph node inflammatory angiogenesis and identify novel potential cellular and molecular targets to limit inflammation in chronic diseases and tumors.

  18. Mediators of Stress and Role Satisfaction in Multiple Role Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Laura A.

    Women involved in multiple life roles comprise a large segment of society, yet little is known about how stressful and satisfying they find this lifestyle, or about what characteristics are related to feeling stressed or satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine role and life satisfaction and stress in women involved in multiple life…

  19. [Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?].

    PubMed

    Viscogliosi, Giovanni; Andreozzi, Paola; Chiriac, Iulia Maria; Ettorre, Evaristo; Vulcano, Achiropita; Servello, Adriana; Marigliano, Benedetta; Marigliano, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    Vascular depression in the elderly. Does inflammation play a role?Depression is the most common comorbidity in the elderly, and it is a major determinant of disability. The late-onset depression in highly associated to cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptoms may follow vascular brain damage, especially when mood regulating areas are affected. However depression is strongly associated to vascular disease even when there is no manifest brain damage. Recently great attention has been given to chronic inflammation, both related to depression and vascular disease. Both experimental and clinical evidence shows that a rise in the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in depressed patients is associated with defect in serotonergic function. Chronic inflammation may underlie many forms of depression associated with vascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The importance of the inflammation hypothesis of depression lies is that psychotropic drugs may have central anti-inflammatory action, and that new generation of central anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in depression treatment.

  20. Significant roles played by interleukin-10 in outcome of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Mobini, Masoud; Mortazavi, Maryam; Nadi, Somayeh; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Pourtalebi, Somayeh; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Imbalanced immune responses against fetus alloantigens can lead to abnormality in pregnancy. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays key roles in regulation of immune responses against self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance to these antigens. Therefore, alteration in expression of IL-10 during pregnancy may result in several pathologic conditions such as preterm labor. IL-10 leads to a normal pregnancy via several molecular mechanisms including development of tolerogenic dendritic cells, T regulatory lymphocytes and activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway in the target cells. This review has collected recent data regarding the status of IL-10 expression during term and preterm deliveries and also its molecular mechanisms that lead to a normal pregnancy. PMID:27081455

  1. Significant roles played by interleukin-10 in outcome of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Masoud; Mortazavi, Maryam; Nadi, Somayeh; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Pourtalebi, Somayeh; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2016-02-01

    Imbalanced immune responses against fetus alloantigens can lead to abnormality in pregnancy. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays key roles in regulation of immune responses against self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance to these antigens. Therefore, alteration in expression of IL-10 during pregnancy may result in several pathologic conditions such as preterm labor. IL-10 leads to a normal pregnancy via several molecular mechanisms including development of tolerogenic dendritic cells, T regulatory lymphocytes and activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway in the target cells. This review has collected recent data regarding the status of IL-10 expression during term and preterm deliveries and also its molecular mechanisms that lead to a normal pregnancy.

  2. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression—a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold—is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms. PMID:27293666

  3. The role thermal physiology plays in species invasion.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of physiological phenotypes that may play a part in the establishment of non-native species can broaden our understanding about the ecology of species invasion. Here, an assessment was carried out by comparing the responses of invasive and native species to thermal stress. The goal was to identify physiological patterns that facilitate invasion success and to investigate whether these traits are widespread among invasive ectotherms. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using a review of the literature to determine whether they could be supported across taxonomically diverse invasive organisms. The four hypotheses are as follows: (i) broad geographical temperature tolerances (thermal width) confer a higher upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive rather than native species; (ii) the upper thermal extreme experienced in nature is more highly correlated with upper thermal tolerance threshold for invasive vs. native animals; (iii) protein chaperone expression-a cellular mechanism that underlies an organism's thermal tolerance threshold-is greater in invasive organisms than in native ones; and (iv) acclimation to higher temperatures can promote a greater range of thermal tolerance for invasive compared with native species. Each hypothesis was supported by a meta-analysis of the invasive/thermal physiology literature, providing further evidence that physiology plays a substantial role in the establishment of invasive ectotherms.

  4. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E; Cho, Jaehyung

    2017-01-12

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca(2+) mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca(2+) mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca(2+) binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. The use of videotaped role playing in training and evaluating gerontological counseling and outreach skills.

    PubMed

    Burdick, D C; Hubbard, R W

    1985-01-01

    -- approached significance. In a followup survey of the trainees' reactions to the entire training program, 82% of whose who had participated in the role playing exercises indicated they were extremely or moderately useful. To assess the role playing technique as a training evaluation procedure, scores from the 13 role play dimensions were analyzed using a multiple analysis of variance procedure. Trainees failed to show significantly greater improvement than controls from pretest to posttest role playing sessions, but trainees showed more overall improvement than comparison subjects.

  6. Can lenalidomide play a role in the management of scleritis?

    PubMed

    Al-Jafar, Hassan A; Abul, Nadia; Kumar, Niranjan; Al-Awadhi, Adel

    2013-06-18

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that was approved for the treatment of a monoclonal bone marrow disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome del(5q)(MDS del(5q)), in 2005; the drug was subsequently also approved for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma, a bone marrow malignancy of the B-lymphocyte lineage. The purpose of this study is to report a case of MDS del(5q) in a female patient, which was most likely secondary to the immunosuppressive drugs that the patient was taking for scleritis. After lenalidomide treatment, the patient's haematological symptoms rapidly resolved and she became transfusion independent, with normal haemoglobin levels. This medication also helped control her dependence on high doses of oral prednisolone. The patient continued to receive treatment with low-dose lenalidomide, and her scleritis has been in long-term remission for 3 years. A larger prospective study can further define the role of lenalidomide in the management of scleritis.

  7. Can lenalidomide play a role in the management of scleritis?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jafar, Hassan A; Abul, Nadia; Kumar, Niranjan; Al-Awadhi, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent that was approved for the treatment of a monoclonal bone marrow disorders, myelodysplastic syndrome del(5q)(MDS del(5q)), in 2005; the drug was subsequently also approved for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma, a bone marrow malignancy of the B-lymphocyte lineage. The purpose of this study is to report a case of MDS del(5q) in a female patient, which was most likely secondary to the immunosuppressive drugs that the patient was taking for scleritis. After lenalidomide treatment, the patient's haematological symptoms rapidly resolved and she became transfusion independent, with normal haemoglobin levels. This medication also helped control her dependence on high doses of oral prednisolone. The patient continued to receive treatment with low-dose lenalidomide, and her scleritis has been in long-term remission for 3 years. A larger prospective study can further define the role of lenalidomide in the management of scleritis. PMID:23780766

  8. Adam12 plays a role during uterine decidualization in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Weixiang; Chen, Qi; Fan, Xiujun; Zhang, Ying; Duan, Enkui

    2009-12-01

    In mouse, decidualization is characterized by the proliferation of stromal cells and their differentiation into specialized type of cells (decidual cells) with polyploidy, surrounding the implanting blastocyst. However, the mechanisms involved in these processes remain poorly understood. Using multiple approaches, we have examined the role of Adam12 in decidualization during early pregnancy in mice. Adam12 is spatiotemporally expressed in decidualizing stromal cells in intact pregnant females and in pseudopregnant mice undergoing artificially induced decidualization. In the ovariectomized mouse uterus, the expression of Adam12 is upregulated after progesterone treatment, which is primarily mediated by nuclear progesterone receptor. In a stromal cell culture model, the expression of Adam12 gradually rises with the progression of stromal decidualization, whereas the attenuated expression of Adam12 after siRNA knockdown significantly blocks the progression of decidualization. Our study suggests that Adam12 is involved in promoting uterine decidualization during pregnancy.

  9. Different roles played by periostin splice variants in retinal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Takahito; Yoshida, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Takaya; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Katsuragi, Naruto; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Morishita, Ryuichi; Taniyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-12-01

    Retinal neovascularization (NV) due to retinal ischemia is one of the major causes of vision reduction in patients with different types of retinal diseases although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy can partially reduce the size of the retinal NV. We recently reported that periostin plays an important role in the development of NV and the formation of preretinal fibrovascular membranes, but the role of the splice variants of periostin on retinal NV has not been determined. We examined the expressions of periostin splice variants in the ischemic retinas of a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinal NV. We also studied the function of periostin splice variants on retinal NV using periostin knock out mice, and the effects of anti-periostin antibodies on retinal NV. Our results showed that the expressions of the periostin splice variants were increased in ischemic retinas. The degree of increase of periostin lacking exon 17 was the highest among the periostin splice variants examined. Both genetic ablation of periostin exons 17 and 21 and antibodies for periostin exons 17 and 21 affected preretinal pathological NV. Inhibition of exon 17 of periostin had the greatest effect in reducing preretinal pathological NV. These findings suggest a causal link between periostin splice variants and retinal NV, and an intravitreal injection of antibody for exon 17 and exon 21 of periostin should be considered to inhibit preretinal pathological NV.

  10. Iron plays a certain role in patterned hair loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Youn; Na, Se Young; Kim, Jun Hwan; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Jong Hee

    2013-06-01

    Role of iron in hair loss is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron and hair loss. Retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and male pattern hair loss (MPHL). All patients underwent screening including serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), CBC, ESR and thyroid function test. For normal healthy controls, age-sex matched subjects who had visited the hospital for a check-up with no serious disease were selected. A total 210 patients with FPHL (n = 113) and MPHL (n = 97) with 210 healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ferritin concentration (FC) was lower in patients with FPHL (49.27 ± 55.8 µg/L), compared with normal healthy women (77.89 ± 48.32 µg/L) (P < 0.001). Premenopausal FPHL patients turned out to show much lower serum ferritin than age/sex-matched controls (P < 0.001). Among MPHL patients, 22.7% of them showed serum FC lower than 70 µg/L, while no one had serum FC lower 70 µg/L in healthy age matched males. These results suggest that iron may play a certain role especially in premenopausal FPHL. The initial screening of iron status could be of help for hair loss patients.

  11. Children's Engagement in Play at Home: A Parent's Role in Supporting Play Opportunities during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForett, Doré R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' developmentally appropriate beliefs about young children's play and parents' views on their child's play skills. This exploratory secondary data analysis was drawn from data on low-income African-American and Latino parents and their children (n = 109) participating in Head Start programmes in the USA. Compared with…

  12. Role of Pathogens in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Libbey, Jane E.; Cusick, Matthew F.; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Infectious pathogens are the likely environmental factors involved in the development of MS. Pathogens associated with the development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, the Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, viruses of the herpes virus (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families and the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii. Evidence, from studies with humans and animal models, supporting the association of these various pathogens with the development and/or exacerbation of MS will be discussed along with the potential mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading and bystander activation. In contrast, infection with certain parasites such as helminthes (Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis) appears to protect against the development or exacerbation of MS. Evidence supporting the ability of parasitic infections to protect against disease will be discussed along with a brief summary of a recent Phase I clinical trial testing the ability of Trichuris suis ova treatment to improve the clinical course of MS. A complex interaction between the CNS (including the blood-brain barrier), multiple infections with various infectious agents (occurring in the periphery or within the CNS), and the immune response to those various infections may have to be deciphered before the etiology of MS can be fully understood. PMID:24266364

  13. Active Learning in the Classroom: The Use of Group Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzerow, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Describes group role-playing activities that have been used to teach about education, criminology, and sex roles. Suggests that role play helps students to absorb and retain many of the insights about the issues involved. (DB)

  14. Hevin plays a pivotal role in corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Shyam S; Perera, Promoda R; Poh, Rebekah; Lim, Rayne R; Wong, Tina T; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2013-01-01

    Hevin is a matricellular protein involved in tissue repair and remodeling via interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we examined the functional role of hevin using a corneal stromal wound healing model achieved by an excimer laser-induced irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (IrrPTK) in hevin-null (hevin(-/-)) mice. We also investigated the effects of exogenous supplementation of recombinant human hevin (rhHevin) to rescue the stromal cellular components damaged by the excimer laser. Wild type (WT) and hevin (-/-) mice were divided into three groups at 4 time points- 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Group I served as naïve without any treatment. Group II received epithelial debridement and underwent IrrPTK using excimer laser. Group III received topical application of rhHevin after IrrPTK surgery for 3 days. Eyes were analyzed for corneal haze and matrix remodeling components using slit lamp biomicroscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting (WB). IHC showed upregulation of hevin in IrrPTK-injured WT mice. Hevin (-/-) mice developed corneal haze as early as 1-2 weeks post IrrPTK-treatment compared to the WT group, which peaked at 3-4 weeks. They also exhibited accumulation of inflammatory cells, fibrotic components of ECM proteins and vascularized corneas as seen by IHC and WB. LM and TEM showed activated keratocytes (myofibroblasts), inflammatory debris and vascular tissues in the stroma. Exogenous application of rhHevin for 3 days reinstated inflammatory index of the corneal stroma similar to WT mice. Hevin is transiently expressed in the IrrPTK-injured corneas and loss of hevin predisposes them to aberrant wound healing. Hevin (-/-) mice develop early corneal haze characterized by severe chronic inflammation and stromal fibrosis that can be rescued with exogenous administration of rhHevin. Thus, hevin plays a pivotal role

  15. Copy number variation plays an important role in clinical epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Heather; Shen, Yiping; Avallone, Jennifer; Sheidley, Beth R.; Pinsky, Rebecca; Bergin, Ann M.; Berry, Gerard T.; Duffy, Frank H.; Eksioglu, Yaman; Harris, David J.; Hisama, Fuki M.; Ho, Eugenia; Irons, Mira; Jacobsen, Christina M.; James, Philip; Kothare, Sanjeev; Khwaja, Omar; Lipton, Jonathan; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Markowitz, Jennifer; Maski, Kiran; Megerian, J. Thomas; Neilan, Edward; Raffalli, Peter C.; Robbins, Michael; Roberts, Amy; Roe, Eugene; Rollins, Caitlin; Sahin, Mustafa; Sarco, Dean; Schonwald, Alison; Smith, Sharon E.; Soul, Janet; Stoler, Joan M.; Takeoka, Masanori; Tan, Wen-Han; Torres, Alcy R.; Tsai, Peter; Urion, David K.; Weissman, Laura; Wolff, Robert; Wu, Bai-Lin; Miller, David T.; Poduri, Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of copy number abnormalities detectable by chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing in patients with epilepsy at a tertiary care center. Methods We identified patients with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures and clinical CMA testing performed between October 2006 and February 2011 at Boston Children’s Hospital. We reviewed medical records and included patients meeting criteria for epilepsy. We phenotypically characterized patients with epilepsy-associated abnormalities on CMA. Results Of 973 patients who had CMA and ICD-9 codes for epilepsy or seizures, 805 patients satisfied criteria for epilepsy. We observed 437 copy number variants (CNVs) in 323 patients (1–4 per patient), including 185 (42%) deletions and 252 (58%) duplications. Forty (9%) were confirmed de novo, 186 (43%) were inherited, and parental data were unavailable for 211 (48%). Excluding full chromosome trisomies, CNV size ranged from 18 kb to 142 Mb, and 34% were over 500 kb. In at least 40 cases (5%), the epilepsy phenotype was explained by a CNV, including 29 patients with epilepsy-associated syndromes and 11 with likely disease-associated CNVs involving epilepsy genes or “hotspots.” We observed numerous recurrent CNVs including 10 involving loss or gain of Xp22.31, a region described in patients with and without epilepsy. Interpretation Copy number abnormalities play an important role in patients with epilepsy. Given that the diagnostic yield of CMA for epilepsy patients is similar to the yield in autism spectrum disorders and in prenatal diagnosis, for which published guidelines recommend testing with CMA, we recommend the implementation of CMA in the evaluation of unexplained epilepsy. PMID:24811917

  16. Do Demodex mites play a role in pterygium development?

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Witold; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Młocicki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Numerous reports point to Demodex mites as the aetiology of certain eye and skin conditions, hence it is highly probable that infestation with these mites may also play a role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of pterygium. Therefore here we present a hypothesis: whether the presence of Demodex mites in eyelash hair follicles significantly correlates with the presence of pterygia, which could point to a potential role of these mites in the development of such lesions. We present preliminary data for supporting this hypothesis. These results were collected from a group of 69 subjects, including 39 with pterygium. Subjects were studied for the presence of Demodex folliculorum and/or D. brevis within eyelash follicles. The sample was defined as positive if at least one parasite, larva or egg were present. Preliminary statistical analyses were performed, and indicated a significant relationship between Demodex mite infestation and the presence of pterygium (p<0.05). This suggests that demodicosis could be one of the factors causing pterygium and significantly contribute to its development. Subjects who had both pterygium and Demodex infestation formed a dominant group. The proportion of subjects with both pterygia and Demodex presence is high at 93.33%, while the proportion of subjects without pterygia who have mites is low at 20.51%. Aforementioned results support our working hypothesis that infestation with Demodex mites may result in pterygium development and therefore patients diagnosed with pterygium should be assessed for the presence of Demodex to verify our preliminary results. In the present paper, we discuss potential influence of Demodex on conjunctiva and propose a hypothetical pathological mechanism linking the development of pterygia with demodicosis.

  17. Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?

    PubMed

    Knutson, Kristen L

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, which is cause for concern because obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, reduces life expectancy, and impairs quality of life. A better understanding of the risk factors for obesity is therefore a critical global health concern, and human biologists can play an important role in identifying these risk factors in various populations. The objective of this review is to present the evidence that inadequate sleep may be a novel risk factor associated with increased vulnerability to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Experimental studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, dysregulation of appetite, and increased blood pressure. Observational studies have observed cross-sectional associations between short sleep duration (generally <6 h per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes, and prevalent hypertension. Some studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 h per night) and cardiometabolic disease. A few prospective studies have found a significant increased risk of weight gain, incident diabetes, and incident hypertension associated with inadequate sleep. Given the potential link between inadequate sleep and obesity, a critical next step is to identify the social, cultural, and environmental determinants of sleep, which would help to identify vulnerable populations. Future human biology research should consider variation in sleep characteristics among different populations and determine whether the associations between sleep and obesity observed in Western populations persist elsewhere.

  18. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  19. Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide, which is cause for concern because obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, reduces life expectancy and impairs quality of life. A better understanding of the risk factors for obesity is therefore a critical global health concern and human biologists can play an important role in identifying these risk factors in various populations. The objective of this review is to present the evidence that inadequate sleep may be a novel risk factor associated with increased vulnerability to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Experimental studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impaired glucose metabolism, dysregulation of appetite and increased blood pressure. Observational studies have observed cross-sectional associations between short sleep duration (generally <6 hours per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes and prevalent hypertension. Some studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 hours per night) and cardiometabolic disease. A few prospective studies have found a significant increased risk of weight gain, incident diabetes and incident hypertension associated with inadequate sleep. Given the potential link between inadequate sleep and obesity, a critical next step is to identify the social, cultural and environmental determinants of sleep, which would help to identify vulnerable populations. Future human biology research should consider variation in sleep characteristics among different populations and determine whether the associations between sleep and obesity observed in Western populations persist elsewhere. PMID:22275135

  20. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  1. Using Online Role-Play to Promote Collaborative Argument and Collective Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance; Beach, Richard; Boeser, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how students use online role-play to collaborate and change real school policy. Playing different characters in an online role-play, students explore controversial aspects of Internet filtering and adopt a plan to change their school's policy. Through engaging in collaborative argumentation during their role-play, students…

  2. Do microglia play a role in sex differences in TBI?

    PubMed

    Caplan, Henry W; Cox, Charles S; Bedi, Supinder S

    2017-01-02

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for both males and females and is, thus, a major focus of current study. Although the overall death rate of TBI for males is roughly three times higher than that for females, males have been disproportionately represented in clinical and preclinical studies. Gender differences are known to exist in many neurologic disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and stroke, and differences appear to exist in TBI. Furthermore, it is known that microglia have sexually dimorphic roles in CNS development and other neurologic conditions; however, most animal studies of microglia and TBI have focused on male subjects. Microglia are a current target of many preclinical and clinical therapeutic trials for TBI. Understanding the relationship among sex, sex hormones, and microglia is critical to truly understanding the pathophysiology of TBI. However, the evidence for sex differences in TBI centers mainly on sex hormones, and evidenced-based conclusions are often contradictory. In an attempt to review the current literature, it is apparent that sex differences likely exist, but the contradictory nature and magnitude of such differences in the existing literature does not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, except that more investigation of this issue is necessary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. IFT46 plays an essential role in cilia development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Ji-Ae, Kim; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Ko, Je Yeong; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jeong, Yun-Mi; You, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Joon; Park, Doo-Sang; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Aizawa, Shinichi; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Park, Jong-Hoon; Zhou, Weibin; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based structures that project into the extracellular space. Ciliary defects are associated with several human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, primary ciliary dyskinesia, left-right axis patterning, hydrocephalus and retinal degeneration. However, the genetic and cellular biological control of ciliogenesis remains poorly understood. The IFT46 is one of the highly conserved intraflagellar transport complex B proteins. In zebrafish, ift46 is expressed in various ciliated tissues such as Kupffer’s vesicle, pronephric ducts, ears and spinal cord. We show that ift46 is localized to the basal body. Knockdown of ift46 gene results in multiple phenotypes associated with various ciliopathies including kidney cysts, pericardial edema and ventral axis curvature. In ift46 morphants, cilia in kidney and spinal canal are shortened and abnormal. Similar ciliary defects are observed in otic vesicles, lateral line hair cells, olfactory pits, but not in Kupffer’s vesicle. To explore the functions of Ift46 during mouse development, we have generated Ift46 knock-out mice. The Ift46 mutants have developmental defects in brain, neural tube and heart. In particular Ift46(−/−) homozygotes displays randomization of the embryo heart looping, which is a hallmark of defective left-right (L/R) axis patterning. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IFT46 has an essential role in vertebrate ciliary development. PMID:25722189

  4. Playing with Fear: Children's Play and Its Role in Expressing Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heibeck, Tracy H.

    Preschool children's fears of animals and the dark were investigated in an effort to examine how preschoolers use play as a medium for expressing fearful emotions. A total of 48 children participated in the study. Interviews with parents were used to identify 12 preschoolers who were anxious about the dark and 12 who were anxious about dogs; 24…

  5. Playing with Fear: Children's Play and Its Role in Expressing Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heibeck, Tracy H.

    Preschool children's fears of animals and the dark were investigated in an effort to examine how preschoolers use play as a medium for expressing fearful emotions. A total of 48 children participated in the study. Interviews with parents were used to identify 12 preschoolers who were anxious about the dark and 12 who were anxious about dogs; 24…

  6. Decentralized scenario-based plug and play MPC for linear systems with multiplicative uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehring, Anna; Zhang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to decentralized control with Plug and Play capabilities. Plug and Play allows a flexible addition and removal of subsystems to an existing plant. The proposed approach guarantees stability and robustness to a certain degree for systems with additive disturbances and multiplicative uncertainties. For the controller design, the plant is decomposed into subsystems. The algorithms for adding and removing subsystems are given. By applying the basic idea of scenario-based methods, the proposed approach is less conservative and can handle complex multiplicative uncertainties.

  7. Exploring the Potential of Role Play in Higher Education: Development of a Typology and Teacher Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Deepa; Stupans, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Role-play, in which learners act out roles in case scenarios, appears to be used across a broad range of discipline areas to address learning across the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. This paper describes the development of a prospective typology of role-play learning opportunities derived from role-play scenarios used at one large…

  8. Ivermectin: does P-glycoprotein play a role in neurotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    The macrocyclic lactone ivermectin (Mectizan®) is widely used for the control of human filarial infections, particularly as a donated product for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. In the case of control of lymphatic filariasis in Africa, it is used in combination with donated albendazole. In areas co-endemic for Onchocerciasis and Loa loa, serious adverse reactions have been observed in patients with apparently high microfilaria counts of Loa loa. Recent findings suggest that the severe central nervous system side effects seen in various vertebrates following ivermectin treatment may be due to an absence of, or functional deficiency in P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein is expressed in the apical membrane of brain capillary epithelial cells and is responsible for limiting the brain penetration of a range of compounds. Toxicity of ivermectin in some collie dogs may be explained by a 4-bp deletion mutation of the mdr1 gene resulting in a frame shift, generating stop codons that prematurely terminate synthesis of P-glycoprotein. Additionally, sub-populations of CF-1 identified as expressing reduced levels of P-glycoprotein exhibit increased toxicity to substrates of this transporter. Furthermore, while the traditional view of drug-drug interactions is alteration in drug clearance mediated through a change in hepatic drug metabolism, some of these changes may arise through competition for binding sites on P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier, resulting in reduced extracellular efflux and enhanced CNS toxicity. In conclusion, P-glycoprotein is an integral component of the human blood brain barrier and plays a central role in limiting drug uptake into the brain. Altered expression or function of p-glycoprotein could conceivably allow elevation of brain concentrations of ivermectin and produce severe neurotoxicity. This might arise through a genetic polymorphism in p-glycoprotein or co-administration of ivermectin with a drug or foodstuff that might inhibit this

  9. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors: what role should they play?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S A

    2001-12-01

    The development of finasteride (PROSCAR, Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has had variable results. Numerous short-term and long-term studies comparing finasteride with placebo have been reported. The results suggest that, physiologically, treatment with finasteride significantly decreases levels of both serum and intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone about 70% to 80% from baseline. In addition, total gland size decreases significantly-about 15% to 25% from baseline-particularly in the area of the periurethral zone of the prostate after finasteride treatment. Baseline prostate size has been found to have a relation to efficacy of finasteride treatment. The larger the prostate at baseline, the greater the urinary flow rate increase and symptom score decrease compared with placebo. Health-related quality-of-life parameters improved in those taking finasteride. In studies evaluating combination therapy, no significant differences were noted between those treated with an alpha blocker, such as terazosin or doxazosin in combination with finasteride, and those receiving an alpha blocker alone. Long-term finasteride versus placebo studies, such as the PROSCAR Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Study (PLESS), suggest that long-term medical therapy with finasteride affects the natural history of the disease as manifested by the decrease in rates of acute urinary retention and surgery. In patients who are "therapeutic responders," the degree of symptomatic improvement in those treated with finasteride appears to be equal to that seen in patients receiving alpha blockers. Prostate cancer detection rates did not differ between those treated with finasteride and those receiving a placebo. The results of these studies suggest that physicians must evaluate what role finasteride plays in the spectrum of available options for the treatment of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms. Baseline parameters, such as prostate volume

  10. Water Tectonics: Evidence That Hydration Plays a Role in Tectonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, A. R.; Schutt, D.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Buehler, J. S.; Berry, M. A.; Ma, X.; Ravat, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several new observations provide evidence that water may play a more important role in tectonism than previously realized. Among these, • Thermodynamical modeling suggests that hydration promotes crustal mineral assemblages with lowered vP/vS and decreased density. This sheds new light on the significance of low crustal vP/vS measured in the western U.S. Cordillera from joint inversion of EarthScope USArray receiver functions and gravity. vP/vS, previously interpreted in terms of quartz abundance, is strikingly low throughout the highest-elevation regions of the western Cordillera. • Rheological modeling of flexural rigidity measurements also can be used to map water variations, primarily in the uppermost mantle. Mantle hydration estimated from flexural rigidity exhibits very similar spatial distribution to crustal hydration inferred from vP/vS, with the notable exception that the Wyoming craton has dry mantle lithosphere but a hydrous crust. • In hydrated lithosphere of the high-elevation western U.S. Cordillera, Moho temperatures estimated from Pn velocities are systematically colder than predictions by simple geothermal models of surface heat flow. These differences can only be reconciled by invoking a previously unrecognized advective term in the deep thermal transfer. • New and improved estimates of magnetic bottom are much deeper than the depth of the magnetite Curie temperature in some apparently hydrous lithosphere (notably, east of the Siletzia accreted terrane). This may indicate exotic magnetic mineralogies thought to occur only under hydrous conditions. Lithospheric hydration may be driven either by dehydration of subducted slab or by entrainment of water into upwellings passing through the mantle transition zone. Conceptualizing hydration as a large-scale process accompanied by increased buoyancy and decreased ductile strength, coupled with widespread changes in mineralogy, mass and energy transfer may help to illuminate many otherwise

  11. May bacterial or pancreatic proteases play a critical role in inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaofa

    2014-09-21

    In a recent review paper, Carroll and Maharshak discussed a critical role of enteric bacterial proteases in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). I take a great interest in this paper as I also suspected proteases, not from the bacteria, but those originated from the pancreas that failed to be inactivated in the lower gut due to a reduction in gut bacteria, may have played a critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD, which was first published more than a decade ago and discussed again in more detail in a recent paper published in this journal. Antibiotics may result in a big reduction in gut bacteria and bacterial proteases, but multiple studies demonstrated dramatic increased of pancreatic proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin in the feces of animals or patients treated with antibiotics. Multiple large-scale studies also demonstrated use of antibiotics caused an increase but not decrease in the risk of developing IBD, suggesting impaired inactivation and degradation of pancreatic proteases may have played a more critical role in the pathogenesis of IBD.

  12. Expressions of Critical Thinking in Role-Playing Simulations: Comparisons across Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Strobel, Johannes; Cheng, Xi; Chen, Xiaojun; Kim, Hannah; Olesova, Larissa; Sadaf, Ayesha; Tomory, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The development of critical thinking is crucial in professional education to augment the capabilities of pre-professional students. One method for enhancing critical thinking is participation in role-playing simulation-based scenarios where students work together to resolve a potentially real situation. In this study, undergraduate nursing…

  13. Oh, Garbage! Decisions about Waste Disposal. Creative Role-Playing Exercises in Science and Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Pearson, Janice

    This document is one of a series of role plays that focus on science-related social issues of concern in contemporary public policy formation. The role plays are designed to help students develop information-processing and decision making skills needed to deal effectively with such issues. The role plays guide students in analyzing science related…

  14. Role-Playing Rhetoric of Science Pedagogy and the Study of Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon

    This essay blends practical reflection on current efforts to develop a role-playing curriculum at the University of Pittsburgh with a theoretical investigation of role-playing as a pedagogic technique. This paper examines educational literature on role-playing pedagogy as the topic is treated in a variety of academic fields including medicine,…

  15. Correspondence of Motivational Interviewing Adherence and Competence Ratings in Real and Role-Played Client Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Suzanne E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Treatment integrity ratings (adherence and competence) are frequently used as outcome measures in clinician training studies, drawn from recorded real client or role-played client sessions. However, it is unknown whether clinician adherence and competence are similar in real client and role-played sessions or whether real and role-play clients…

  16. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  17. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  18. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  19. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  20. Oh, Garbage! Decisions about Waste Disposal. Creative Role-Playing Exercises in Science and Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; Pearson, Janice

    This document is one of a series of role plays that focus on science-related social issues of concern in contemporary public policy formation. The role plays are designed to help students develop information-processing and decision making skills needed to deal effectively with such issues. The role plays guide students in analyzing science related…

  1. Assessing Women's Responses to Sexual Threat: Validity of a Virtual Role-Play Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment…

  2. Use of interactive theater and role play to develop medical students' skills in breaking bad news.

    PubMed

    Skye, Eric P; Wagenschutz, Heather; Steiger, Jeffrey A; Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-12-01

    Creative arts have been increasingly implemented in medical education. This study investigated the use of interactive theater and role play with professional actors in teaching breaking bad news to medical students. The objectives were to explore the contexts, approaches, experiences, and reactions in giving and receiving bad news. Second-year medical students participated in a required educational session that utilized interactive theater which helps students learn about the issues of breaking bad news to a patient with cancer. Following the interactive theater piece, professional actors provided students role play experiences in small groups with breaking bad news. Anonymous evaluation surveys were given out to all second-year medical students at the conclusion of the breaking bad news session. Surveys contained quantitative and qualitative responses. Three years of evaluations were analyzed. A total of 451 (88 %) students completed the evaluations. Comments were thematically analyzed. Ninety-four percent agreed that the theater piece prompted reflection on patient-provider communications, and 89 % agreed that it stimulated discussion on complex issues with breaking bad news. The two most common themes in student comments concerned the importance of realism in the theater piece, and the value of experiencing multiple perspectives. Use of professional actors during the role play exercises enhances the realism and pushed the students out of their own "comfort zones" in ways that may more closely approximate real life clinical situations. Interactive theater can be a potentially powerful tool to teach breaking bad news during medical school.

  3. The role of Capon in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yaodong; Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Siyu; Wei, Ziwei; Liu, Hong

    2017-07-01

    Capon is a ligand protein of nitric oxide synthase 1. Recently, studies have shown that Capon is involved in the development of tumors. It is independent of the regulation of nitric oxide synthase 1 in this process. At the same time, studies have found that nitric oxide synthase 1 is expressed in multiple myeloma, but its role in the development and progression of myeloma remains unclear. In this study, we found that there was a different expression of Capon between the normal multiple myeloma cells and the adherent multiple myeloma cells. In the process of myeloma cell proliferation, the reduced expression of Capon reduces the arrest of the cell cycle in the G1 phase and promotes the proliferation of myeloma cells. Cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance is one of the most important factors, which affect the chemotherapy effect of multiple myeloma. If the expression of Capon is decreased, myeloma cells are adhered to fibronectin or bone marrow stromal cells (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells). In addition, the sensitivity of the cell line to chemotherapeutic agents was reduced after silencing Capon in the myeloma cell line which was adhered to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We also found that reduced expression of Capon resulted in the activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results may be helpful in studying the role of Capon in multiple myeloma.

  4. Dewey on Seriousness, Playfulness and the Role of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilbeck, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The chapter that John Dewey dedicates to consideration of play and work in the curriculum in "Democracy and Education" echoes his thoughts on the same subject in "How We Think," which preceded "Democracy and Education" by six years. Dewey closes "How We Think" with a more expansive treatment of the topic and…

  5. Broca's Area Plays a Causal Role in Morphosyntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Meseguer, Enrique; Barber, Horacio; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that Broca's area is important for syntax, this may simply be a by-product of greater working memory and/or cognitive control demands for more complex syntactic structures. Here we report an experiment with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether Broca's area plays a causal…

  6. Broca's Area Plays a Causal Role in Morphosyntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreiras, Manuel; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Meseguer, Enrique; Barber, Horacio; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence that Broca's area is important for syntax, this may simply be a by-product of greater working memory and/or cognitive control demands for more complex syntactic structures. Here we report an experiment with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether Broca's area plays a causal…

  7. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  8. Playing in "Trelis Weyr": Investigating Collaborative Practices in a "Dragons of Pern" Role-Play-Game Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined adolescents' and emerging adults' literate and social practices within the context of a role-play-game (RPG) forum, investigating the ways participants read and collaboratively composed within this space. As a researcher, I was interested in how this space functioned and how the interactions between…

  9. Emotional Role Playing, Attitude Change, and Attraction Toward a Disabled Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Jeffery, Katherine McMillan

    The effects of emotional role playing on interpersonal attitudes toward the disabled are explored. Three treatment groups (role players, vicarious role players, and controls) were involved. Role playing consisted of traveling about the campus in a wheel chair for an hour. Results indicated that, compared to the control experience, both direct and…

  10. Te Tremble: An Unnatural Disaster--A Trial Role Play Probes the Roots of Devastation in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Adam

    2011-01-01

    When the author first heard that the earthquake that hit Haiti destroyed entire Haitian cities and killed more than a quarter million people, he was shocked. For him, it was apparent that this was more than a natural disaster. As he learned about the role the U.S. government had played in Haitian affairs--the multiple occupations, the support for…

  11. Te Tremble: An Unnatural Disaster--A Trial Role Play Probes the Roots of Devastation in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Adam

    2011-01-01

    When the author first heard that the earthquake that hit Haiti destroyed entire Haitian cities and killed more than a quarter million people, he was shocked. For him, it was apparent that this was more than a natural disaster. As he learned about the role the U.S. government had played in Haitian affairs--the multiple occupations, the support for…

  12. "RePlay Health": An Experiential Role-Playing Sport for Modeling Healthcare Decisions, Policies, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Geoff; Flanagan, Mary; Seidman, Max; Wien, Simone

    2015-08-01

    This article presents the design and empirical investigation of the "RePlay Health" game ( www.replayhealth.com/ ), a novel "role-playing sport" derived from a complex, data-driven, computational simulation of healthcare dynamics. By immersing players in a fictional world in which they take on the role of characters facing specific behavioral and environmental risk factors, the "RePlay Health" game models the impact of health and healthcare policy on individual-level livelihood and community-level productivity. A randomized experiment tested the efficacy of the game for inspiring shifts in thinking about public health and healthcare policy. This study compared the impact of actively playing the game versus passively spectating: 31 young adults were assigned to one of these two roles. Participants completed pretest and posttest measures of their subjective ranking of healthcare policies and attributions for health outcomes. Active players (compared with spectators) reported significantly higher prioritizations (from pretest to posttest) in their subjective ranking of several health policies modeled by the game, such as "improving postdischarge care" and "increasing access to healthy foods." Furthermore, players, but not spectators, were significantly more likely following gameplay to identify environmental or systemic factors as potential causes of health problems. The fact that significant results emerged with a 1-week gap between gameplay and measurement demonstrates that the game could exert a lasting impact on attitudes and perceptions. More broadly, this work illustrates the value of incorporating experiential components, such as narrative, embodiment, and role-playing, in designing efficacious games for health.

  13. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  14. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  15. The Role of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Play: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel L.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The research literature suggests that the structural characteristics of video games may play a considerable role in the initiation, development and maintenance of problematic video game playing. The present study investigated the role of structural characteristics in video game playing behaviour within a sample of 421 video game players aged…

  16. Role Playing in the History of Economic Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Describes a one-semester economics course in which students assume the role of key figures in the development of economic thought, ranging from the mercantilists through the early neoclassicists. Structures class discussion thematically rather than chronologically, so characters are conversationally engaged in each class. (DSK)

  17. Role Playing in the History of Economic Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Describes a one-semester economics course in which students assume the role of key figures in the development of economic thought, ranging from the mercantilists through the early neoclassicists. Structures class discussion thematically rather than chronologically, so characters are conversationally engaged in each class. (DSK)

  18. Can Role-Play with Virtual Humans Teach Interpersonal Skills?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    2007, with concentrations in cinema -television and technology commercialization. He has led several mixed-reality- and game-based training efforts at...The Virtual Human Role-Player Students then receive a homework assignment in which they review real- world case studies. For each, the students

  19. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  20. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  1. Do genetic factors play a role in Berger's disease?

    PubMed

    Levy, M

    1987-07-01

    The epidemiology of Berger's disease is poorly defined. We know that the disease occurs worldwide and that there may be an increased occurrence in certain ethnic groups. Whether secondary mesangial IgA deposits should be considered part of the same disease process is unknown. The association of certain HLA antigens with the occurrence of Berger's disease has been demonstrated by several groups. The multiple occurrence of Berger's disease or of Berger's disease and Henoch-Schönlein purpura in the same family has been reported. The preliminary results of a French collaborative study show 43 such families. However, these facts do not demonstrate a familial clustering since the multiple occurrence of cases in a family may occur by chance. The study of affected siblings (sib pair method) from different families may be used nevertheless, in order to understand the possible inheritance of the disease. Previously reported data on HLA haplotypes of affected siblings are combined with unpublished cases. There is an excess of HLA-identical siblings but it is possible that there might have been some bias towards publishing HLA-identical pairs. Further systematic studies on a large number of HLA-typed affected sibling pairs are needed before concluding a linkage between HLA and the disease.

  2. Student feedback about the use of role plays in Sparshanam, a medical humanities module

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Background: At KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, Nepal, a Medical Humanities module for first year medical students has been conducted. Role plays are used to explore social, medical and sexual issues in the Nepalese context. The present study obtained student feedback about the role plays used in the module, the difficulties faced, and obtained suggestions for further improvement. Method: The module was conducted from January to August 2011 using a total of 15 role plays. Student feedback was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Informal discussions were held and a questionnaire was circulated among the first year students who had participated in the module. Results: Ninety-eight of the 100 students in the module participated in the study. The overall opinion regarding the role plays was positive. Students stated role plays helped to make module objectives concrete and interesting, made students identify with the problem being investigated and improved communication skills. Role plays were designed to address important health issues in Nepal and prepare students for addressing these issues in future practice. A lack of sufficient time for preparing the role plays and initial problems with group dynamics were mentioned by the respondents during the study. Conclusions: Student feedback about the use of role plays during the module was positive. Role plays helped in making module objectives more concrete and interesting, improved communication skills and addressed important health issues in Nepal. Role plays are not resource intensive and can be considered for use in medical schools in developing nations. PMID:24358816

  3. Simulating Social and Political Influences on Hazard Analysis through a Classroom Role Playing Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, T. C.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    Geological hazard mitigation is a complicated process that involves both detailed scientific research and negotiations between community members with competing interests in the solution. Geological hazards classes based around traditional lecture methods have difficulty conveying the decision-making processes that go into these negotiations. To address this deficiency, we have spent five years developing and testing a role- playing exercise based on mitigation of a dam outburst hazard on Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. In our exercise, students are asked to undertake one of five different roles and decide the best way to mitigate the hazard. Over the course of their discussion students are challenged to reach a consensus decision despite the presence of strongly opposed positions. Key to the success of the exercise are (1) the presence of a facilitator and recorder for each meeting, (2) the provision of unique information for each interested party, and (3) the division of the class into multiple meeting groups, such that everyone is required to participate and individual groups can evolve to different conclusions. The exercise can be completed in a single hour and twenty minute classroom session that is divided into four parts: an introduction, a meeting between members of the same interested party to discuss strategy, a meeting between different interested parties, and a debriefing session. This framework can be readily translated to any classroom hazard problem. In our experience, students have responded positively to the use of role-playing to supplement lectures.

  4. Sebox plays an important role during the early mouse oogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Dafne Linda; Salazar, Zayil; Betancourt, Miguel; Casas, Eduardo; Ducolomb, Yvonne; González, Cristina; Bonilla, Edmundo

    2014-02-01

    Oogenesis is a highly complex process that requires the exquisite temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression at multiple levels. Skin-embryo-brain-oocyte homeobox (Sebox) gene encodes a transcription factor that is highly expressed in germinal vesicle stage oocytes and that plays an essential role in early embryogenesis at the 2-cell stage in the mouse. As Sebox is also expressed in mouse fetal ovaries, the aim of the present study was to study its role during the early oogenesis in vitro. Expression of Sebox was low in 15.5 to 17.5 days post coitum (dpc) ovaries, showed a peak at 18.5 dpc and then its expression decreased dramatically in newborn ovaries. Sebox expression was efficiently knocked down (>80%) in fetal mouse ovary explants in culture using RNAi technology. When fetal ovary explants were transfected with Sebox-specific RNAi, the number of oocytes at germinal vesicle stage and showing a diameter of 40-70 μm was decreased significantly to 75% after 7 days of culture relative to the negative control, and to 22.4% after 10 days of culture, thus indicating that Sebox plays an important role in the early oogenesis in mice.

  5. p21 induction plays a dual role in anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xudong; Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhao, Chong; Fan, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis by ursolic acid is associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) protein p21 in multiple types of cancer cells. However, the functional role of p21 induction in G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of p21 induction by ursolic acid have not been critically addressed. In the current study, we demonstrated that p21 played a mediator role in G1 cell cycle arrest by ursolic acid, whereas p21-mediated up-regulation of Mcl-1 compromised apoptotic effect of ursolic acid. These results suggest that p21 induction plays a dual role in the anti-cancer activity of ursolic acid in terms of cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. p21 induction by ursolic acid was attributed to p53 transcriptional activation. Moreover, we found that ursolic acid was able to inhibit murine double minute-2 protein (MDM2) and T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), the two negative regulator of p53, which in turn contributed to ursolic acid-induced p53 activation. Our findings provided novel insights into understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in response to ursolic acid exposure. PMID:26582056

  6. Some personal notes on role plays as an excellent teaching tool : commentary on "using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility".

    PubMed

    Hunger, Iris

    2013-12-01

    Role plays are extremely valuable tools to address different aspects of teaching social responsibility, because they allow students to "live through" complex ethical decision making dilemmas. While role plays are getting high marks from students because their entertainment value is high, their educational value depends on their closeness to students' work experience and the skills of the teacher in helping students comprehend the lessons they are meant to convey.

  7. Parkin Plays a Role in Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurologic disorder, which affects approximately one million men and women in the U.S. alone. PD represents a heterogeneous disorder with common clinical manifestations and for the most part common neuropathological findings. Objective This short article reviews the role of the ubiquitin E3 ligase in sporadic PD. Methods The role of parkin in sporadic PD was reviewed by querying PubMed Results Parkin is inactivated in sporadic PD via S-nitrosylation, oxidative and dopaminergic stress, and phosphorylation by the stress activated kinase, c-Abl leading to the accumulation of AIMP2 and PARIS (ZNF746). Conclusion Strategies aimed at maintaining parkin in a catalytically active state or interfering with toxicity of AIMP2 and PARIS (ZNF746) offer new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24029689

  8. Does inflammation play a role in kava hepatotoxicity?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lillian Yuan; Rowe, Anthony; Ramzan, Iqbal

    2011-04-01

    The pathophysiology of kava hepatotoxicity remains inconclusive. There is circumstantial evidence for the roles of toxic metabolites, inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and depletion of liver glutathione. Pharmacogenomic effects are likely, particularly for Cytochrome P450 genes. Experimental and clinical cases of hepatotoxicity show evidence of hepatitis. The question remains whether this inflammation is caused by components of kava directly, or indirectly due to the downstream effects.

  9. What Roles Can Scientists Play in Public Discourse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    What is a useful and proper role for scientists in the public arena? How can we best discriminate where the boundary lies between expert knowledge and values or political opinion, and how can we properly honor that line? What can we expect in the way of reception for our interventions, and how can we increase their efficacy? Involvement in public policy debates is a common and accepted role for scientists in many disciplines. In the sciences related to public health, it is taken for granted that experts will talk about the implications of their research for public policy, whether in regard to smoking, diet, or disease spread. There is also a remarkable track record of geoscientists taking a lead role in the public arena and actually affecting public policy—F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina collaborated on ozone depletion research at the Department of Chemistry at University of California, Irvine and then went on to make outstanding public contributions, as have James Hansen (at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies); Robert Watson (first at NASA, then at the University of East Anglia); and, of course, the late Stephen Schneider (first at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, then Stanford) on climate. Some “public” geoscientists have restricted their activities to interpreting science for the wider public, while others have endorsed specific policy initiatives (see Figure 1). I firmly believe that the quality of public discourse and the information reaching policy makers were better for their interventions.

  10. Motivation within Role-Playing as a Means to Intensify College Students' Educational Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burenkova, Olga Mikhailovna; Arkhipova, Irina Vladimirovna; Semenov, Sergei Aleksandrovich; Samarenkina, Saniya Zakirzyanovna

    2015-01-01

    This article covers college students' educational activity issues while studying a foreign language; analyzes special aspects of motivation introduction, their specific features. It also defines role and structure of role-playing. The authors come to the conclusion that introduction of role-playing in an educational process will bring it closer to…

  11. Early influences and childhood development. Does helicobacter play a role?

    PubMed

    Lee, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    In the late 1960s, Rene Dubos showed that a variety of nutritional stress in utero or in early infancy could have dramatic impact on childhood development that was irreversible. This included detectable changes in the brain. Since that time, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has been identified as one of the major nutritional stresses that leads to permanent behavioral changes in both experimental animals and humans resulting in poorer cognitive, motor, and social-emotional function. It has been proposed that these changes play an important part in the inter-generational transmission of poverty. More recently, it is becoming clear that Helicobacter pylori causes IDA in populations on an iron-limiting diet. The main thesis of this article is that H. pylori infection may indeed have an impact on childhood development and that much more research is needed in this area as intervention via immunization or antimicrobial therapy in populations in the developing world may have major positive benefits via cure of IDA and prevention of brain damage in the young.

  12. Dachshund homologues play a conserved role in islet cell development

    PubMed Central

    Kalousova, Anna; Mavropoulos, Anastasia; Adams, Bruce A.; Nekrep, Nada; Li, Zhongmei; Krauss, Stephan; Stainier, Didier Y.; German, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    All metazoans use insulin to control energy metabolism, but they secrete it from different cells: neurons in the central nervous system in invertebrates and endocrine cells in the gut or pancreas in vertebrates. Despite their origins in different germ layers, all of these insulin-producing cells share common functional features and gene expression patterns. In this study, we tested the role in insulin-producing cells of the vertebrate homologues of Dachshund, a transcriptional regulator that marks the earliest committed progenitors of the neural insulin-producing cells in Drosophila. Both zebrafish and mice expressed a single dominant Dachshund homologue in the pancreatic endocrine lineage, and in both species loss of this homologue reduced the numbers of all islet cell types including the insulin-producing β-cells. In mice, Dach1 gene deletion left pancreatic progenitor cells unaltered, but blocked the perinatal burst of proliferation of differentiated β-cells that normally generates most of the β-cell mass. In β-cells, Dach1 bound to the promoter of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, which constrains β-cell proliferation. Taken together, these data demonstrate a conserved role for Dachshund homologues in the production of insulin-producing cells. PMID:20869363

  13. Collagen VII plays a dual role in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Alexander; Velati, Daniela; Mittapalli, Venugopal R; Fritsch, Anja; Kern, Johannes S; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-08-01

    Although a host of intracellular signals is known to contribute to wound healing, the role of the cell microenvironment in tissue repair remains elusive. Here we employed 2 different mouse models of genetic skin fragility to assess the role of the basement membrane protein collagen VII (COL7A1) in wound healing. COL7A1 secures the attachment of the epidermis to the dermis, and its mutations cause a human skin fragility disorder coined recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) that is associated with a constant wound burden. We show that COL7A1 is instrumental for skin wound closure by 2 interconnected mechanisms. First, COL7A1 was required for re-epithelialization through organization of laminin-332 at the dermal-epidermal junction. Its loss perturbs laminin-332 organization during wound healing, which in turn abrogates strictly polarized expression of integrin α6β4 in basal keratinocytes and negatively impacts the laminin-332/integrin α6β4 signaling axis guiding keratinocyte migration. Second, COL7A1 supported dermal fibroblast migration and regulates their cytokine production in the granulation tissue. These findings, which were validated in human wounds, identify COL7A1 as a critical player in physiological wound healing in humans and mice and may facilitate development of therapeutic strategies not only for RDEB, but also for other chronic wounds.

  14. Lysophosphatidylcholine plays critical role in allergic airway disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Preeti; Gaur, Shailendera Nath; Arora, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), pivotal for allergic and inflammatory response, hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC) to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In present study, the role of LPC in allergic airway disease manifestation was studied using mouse model. Balb/c mice were immunized using cockroach extract (CE) and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2 inhibitor. Airway hyperresponse (AHR), lung-histology, total and differential leukocyte count (TLC&DLC), Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Exogenous LPC was given to the mice with or without CE sensitization, to demonstrate its role in allergic airway disease manifestation. Anti-CD1d antibody was given to study the involvement of natural killer T (NKT) cells in LPC induced response. AHR, lung-inflammation, TLC, DLC, Th2 type cytokines, sPLA2 activity and LPC levels were increased on CE challenge. sPLA2 activity and LPC release was blocked by sPLA2-inhibitor, which decreased AHR, and inflammatory parameters. Exogenous LPC with or without CE sensitization increased above parameters. CE challenge or LPC exposure increased LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells in BALF and spleen, which was reduced by anti-CD1d antibody, accompanied with reduction in AHR and allergic airway inflammation parameters. Conclusively, LPC induces allergic airway disease manifestation and it does so probably via CD1d-restricted LY49C+TCRβ+ NKT cells. PMID:27282246

  15. CGRP and Migraine: Could PACAP Play a Role Too?

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Eric A.; Russo, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects about 12% of the population. In the past decade, the role of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine has been firmly established by clinical studies. CGRP administration can trigger migraines, and CGRP receptor antagonists ameliorate migraine. In this review, we will describe multifunctional activities of CGRP that could potentially contribute to migraine. These include roles in light aversion, neurogenic inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization of nociceptive pathways, cortical spreading depression, and regulation of nitric oxide production. Yet clearly there will be many other contributing genes that could act in concert with CGRP. One candidate is pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), which shares some of the same actions as CGRP, including the ability to induce migraine in migraineurs and light aversive behavior in rodents. Interestingly, both CGRP and PACAP act on receptors that share an accessory subunit called receptor activity modifying protein-1 (RAMP1). Thus, comparisons between the actions of these two migraine-inducing neuropeptides, CGRP and PACAP, may provide new insights into migraine pathophysiology. PMID:24210136

  16. ASXL1 plays an important role in erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Yamamoto, Shohei; Sheng, Mengyao; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Runze; Chen, Shi; Shi, Lihong; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2016-01-01

    ASXL1 mutations are found in a spectrum of myeloid malignancies with poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that Asxl1+/− mice develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) overlapping diseases (MDS/MPN). Although defective erythroid maturation and anemia are associated with the prognosis of patients with MDS or MDS/MPN, the role of ASXL1 in erythropoiesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patients with ASXL1 mutations exhibited more severe anemia with a significantly increased proportion of bone marrow (BM) early stage erythroblasts and reduced enucleated erythrocytes compared to CMML patients with WT ASXL1. Knockdown of ASXL1 in cord blood CD34+ cells reduced erythropoiesis and impaired erythrocyte enucleation. Consistently, the BM and spleens of VavCre+;Asxl1f/f (Asxl1∆/∆) mice had less numbers of erythroid progenitors than Asxl1f/f controls. Asxl1∆/∆ mice also had an increased percentage of erythroblasts and a reduced erythrocyte enucleation in their BM compared to littermate controls. Furthermore, Asxl1∆/∆ erythroblasts revealed altered expression of genes involved in erythroid development and homeostasis, which was associated with lower levels of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3. Our study unveils a key role for ASXL1 in erythropoiesis and indicates that ASXL1 loss hinders erythroid development/maturation, which could be of prognostic value for MDS/MPN patients. PMID:27352931

  17. Efficacy of role play in concert with lecture to enhance student learning of immunology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Samantha L

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.

  18. Knuckle pads: does knuckle cracking play an etiologic role?

    PubMed

    Peterson, C M; Barnes, C J; Davis, L S

    2000-01-01

    Very little has been published on knuckle pads and the cosmetic and psychological effects they can have. In children, most knuckle pads are considered to be idiopathic; however, familial cases as well as those caused by trauma have been described. We report a 14-year-old African American girl with a 3-year history of slowly enlarging hyperkeratotic nodules over multiple finger joints and on the lateral aspects of several fingers. These lesions were initially confined to the patient's left hand but subsequently involved the right hand. The patient and her mother denied any unusual hobbies or sports in which the patient's fingers might be traumatized. The patient, however, was noted to crack her knuckles during her clinic visit. To the mother's surprise, the patient admitted to doing this quite frequently on a daily basis. A diagnosis of knuckle pads was made and confirmed histologically. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of knuckle pads with cracking of the knuckles as the possible etiology.

  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome: do endocrine disrupting chemicals play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Emily S.; Sobolewski, Marissa

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by multiple endocrine disturbances and its underlying causes, although uncertain, are likely to be both genetic and environmental. Recently, there has been interest in whether endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA), may contribute to the disorder. In animal models, exposure to BPA during the perinatal period, dramatically disrupts ovarian and reproductive function in females, often at doses similar to typical levels of human exposure. BPA also appears to have obesogenic properties, disrupting normal metabolic activity and making the body prone to overweight. In humans, cross-sectional data suggests that BPA concentrations are higher in women with PCOS than in reproductively healthy women, but the direction of causality has not been established. As this research is in its infancy, additional work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which EDCs may contribute to PCOS as well as the critical periods of exposure, which may even be transgenerational. Future research should also focus on translating the promising work in animal models into longitudinal human studies and determining whether additional EDCs, beyond BPA, may be important to consider. PMID:24715511

  20. Last moments of life: can telemedicine play a role?

    PubMed

    Low, James A; Beins, Gillian; Lee, Kok Keng; Koh, Ethel

    2013-08-01

    We describe the experience of managing the dying moments of a nursing home patient via telemedicine. Ms. C was a 92-year-old frail woman with multiple medical problems, living in a nursing home. She spent her final days in the nursing home, choosing not to be transferred to an acute hospital should she turn ill. On the last day of her life, she complained of acute-onset breathlessness and agreed to a teleconsultation with the hospital physicians involved in acute care. During the telemedicine consultations (tele-consultation) process, Ms. C's condition deteriorated rapidly as she entered the dying phase of life. She died peacefully soon after, in the presence of the nurse, the pastoral care worker, and the physician who was conducting the tele-consultation session 30 km away. The family was not present at the patient's bedside when she died. They were, however, relieved to know and were appreciative of the fact that a physician had been "present" during the patient's death. Telemedicine could act as an effective communication tool in end-of-life care, between the patient and carers, up to the last moment of life.

  1. [Anticholinergics for overactive bladder: does subtype selectivity play a role?].

    PubMed

    Michel, M C; Barendrecht, M M; Oelke, M

    2006-07-01

    Anticholinergics act in the treatment of overactive bladder by blocking muscarinic receptors of which five subtypes exist. Their desired effects occur via M(3) receptors, but a role for M(2) receptors is being discussed. Adverse effects such as dry mouth and constipation occur also via M(3) receptors, but M(2) and M(1) receptors can mediate side effects in the heart or on cognitive function, respectively. Therefore, an M(3)-selective drug such as darifenacin could theoretically be less effective but also have fewer cardiac or central nervous side effects. However, the limited available clinical data do not support a smaller efficacy or better general tolerability. The lack of adverse effects on cognitive function is well documented for darifenacin, but it cannot yet be determined definitively whether this discriminates it from other modern anticholinergics.

  2. What role do nightmares play in suicide? A brief exploration.

    PubMed

    Titus, Caitlin E; Speed, Katrina J; Cartwright, Patricia M; Drapeau, Christopher W; Heo, Yeseul; Nadorff, Michael R

    2017-08-12

    The suicide rate in the United States has climbed each year for more than a decade, highlighting the need for greater understanding of, and prevention strategies for suicidal behavior. Nightmares have been shown to be associated with suicidal behavior independent of several psychiatric risk factors for suicide, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The specific role of nightmares in contributing to suicide remains unclear due to the difficulty in delineating causal factors. However, the reporting, screening and treatment of nightmares continues to remain rare making progress difficult. Research is beginning to make some progress in uncovering the mechanisms by which nightmares increase suicide risk providing opportunities for intervention and prediction of suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Piezo1 plays a role in erythrocyte volume homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Faucherre, Adèle; Kissa, Karima; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Jopling, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitivity is an inherent property of virtually all cell types, allowing them to sense and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Stretch-activated ion channels represent a class of mechanosensitive proteins which allow cells to respond rapidly to changes in membrane tension; however their identity has remained elusive. The piezo genes have recently been identified as a family of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels. We set out to determine the role of piezo1 during zebrafish development. Here we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of piezo1 impairs erythrocyte survival without affecting hematopoiesis or differentiation. Our results demonstrate that piezo1 is involved in erythrocyte volume homeostasis, disruption of which results in swelling/lysis of red blood cells and consequent anemia. PMID:23872304

  4. Aspartate oxidase plays an important role in Arabidopsis stomatal immunity.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Boutrot, Freddy; Rathjen, John P; Zipfel, Cyril

    2012-08-01

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as bacterial flagellin (or the peptide flg22), by surface-localized receptors activates defense responses and subsequent immunity. In a previous forward-genetic screen aimed at the identification of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) flagellin-insensitive (fin) mutants, we isolated fin4, which is severely affected in flg22-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) bursts. Here, we report that FIN4 encodes the chloroplastic enzyme ASPARTATE OXIDASE (AO), which catalyzes the first irreversible step in the de novo biosynthesis of NAD. Genetic studies on the role of NAD have been hindered so far by the lethality of null mutants in NAD biosynthetic enzymes. Using newly identified knockdown fin alleles, we found that AO is required for the ROS burst mediated by the NADPH oxidase RBOHD triggered by the perception of several unrelated PAMPs. AO is also required for RBOHD-dependent stomatal closure. However, full AO activity is not required for flg22-induced responses that are RBOHD independent. Interestingly, although the fin4 mutation dramatically affects RBOHD function, it does not affect functions carried out by other members of the RBOH family, such as RBOHC and RBOHF. Finally, we determined that AO is required for stomatal immunity against the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. Altogether, our work reveals a novel specific requirement for AO activity in PAMP-triggered RBOHD-dependent ROS burst and stomatal immunity. In addition, the availability of viable mutants for the chloroplastic enzyme AO will enable future detailed studies on the role of NAD metabolism in different cellular processes, including immunity, in Arabidopsis.

  5. Multiple roles of Equarin during lens development.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaohong; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2014-04-01

    Since the days of Hans Spemann, the ocular lens has served as one of the most important developmental systems for elucidating the fundamental processes of induction and differentiation. Lens is an important source of signals that influence the eye development and a variety of genes expressed by the lens have been identified. The identification of additional molecule(s), especially secreted ones that might mediate signals, will extend our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of eye and lens development. Here, we will introduce a soluble molecule, Equarin, and discuss its vital role in multiple aspects of lens development. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  6. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  7. Multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao

    2015-05-21

    Scientific interest in graphene as a catalyst and as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalytic reactions has grown dramatically over the past several years. The present critical review summarizes the multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis and highlights the influence of defects, heteroatom-containing functionalities, and graphene's two-dimensional structure on catalytic performance. We first discuss the role and advantages of graphene as a catalyst support, with emphasis on its interactions with the catalytic phases and the influence of mass transfer processes. We then clarify the origin of the intrinsic catalytic activity of graphene in heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Finally we suggest challenges and potential practical applications for graphene in industrial processes.

  8. Radiology Education of Physician Extenders: What Role Should Radiologists Play?

    PubMed

    RiChard, Jamie L; Liu, Benjamin P; Casalino, David D; Russell, Eric J; Horowitz, Jeanne M

    2017-02-08

    As physician extenders (PEs) enter the medical community in large numbers, they have an increasing impact on imaging utilization and imaging-based procedures. Physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) have an advanced level of education and some practice autonomously. However, PA and NP programs are not required to provide any basic radiology education. For PEs who did receive basic radiology education during their graduate program, the curriculum is nonstandard and there is a wide variation. PEs working in primary care and nonradiology specialties place imaging orders, review report findings, and answer patient questions. Other PEs working within radiology practices operate as liaisons with patients in diagnostic radiology or perform an increasing number of interventional procedures. Basic radiology education in formal PE certificate programs as well as on-the-job education about radiology may benefit patients, radiologists, and the health-care system. What role, if any, should the radiologist assume for educating PE students and practicing PAs and NPs? This review analyzes the benefits and drawbacks of radiologists educating PEs.

  9. Cysteine homeostasis plays an essential role in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Consolación; Bermúdez, M Ángeles; Romero, Luis C; Gotor, Cecilia; García, Irene

    2012-01-01

    • Cysteine is the metabolic precursor of essential biomolecules such as vitamins, cofactors, antioxidants and many defense compounds. The last step of cysteine metabolism is catalysed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), which incorporates reduced sulfur into O-acetylserine to produce cysteine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the main OASTL isoform OAS-A1 and the cytosolic desulfhydrase DES1, which degrades cysteine, contribute to the cytosolic cysteine homeostasis. • Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of knockout plants for OAS-A1 and for DES1 show a high correlation with the biotic stress series in both cases. • The study of the response of knockout mutants to plant pathogens shows that des1 mutants behave as constitutive systemic acquired resistance mutants, with high resistance to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, salicylic acid accumulation and WRKY54 and PR1 induction, while oas-a1 knockout mutants are more sensitive to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. However, oas-a1 knockout mutants lack the hypersensitive response associated with the effector-triggered immunity elicited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpm1. • Our results highlight the role of cysteine as a crucial metabolite in the plant immune response. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Maintenance of polymorphic females: do parasites play a role?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Martínez-Zamilpa, S M J; Jiménez-Cortés, J G; Forbes, M R L; Córdoba-Aguilar, A

    2013-01-01

    The role of parasites in explaining maintenance of polymorphism is an unexplored research avenue. In odonates, female-limited color polymorphism (one female morph mimicking the conspecific male and one or more gynochromatic morphs) is widespread. Here we investigated whether parasitism contributes to color polymorphism maintenance by studying six species of female dimorphic damselflies using large databases of field-collected animals. We predicted that androchrome females (male mimics) would be more intensively parasitized than gynochrome females which is, according to previous studies, counterbalanced by the advantages of the former when evading male harassment compared to gynochrome females. Here we show that in Ischnura denticollis and Enallagma novahispaniae, androchrome females suffer from a higher degree of parasitism than gynochromatic females, and contrary to prediction, than males. Thus, our study has detected a correlation between color polymorphism and parasitic burden in odonates. This leads us to hypothesize that natural selection, via parasite pressure, can explain in part how androchrome and gynochrome female color morphs can be maintained. Both morphs may cope with parasites in a different way: given that androchrome females are more heavily parasitized, they may pay a higher fecundity costs, in comparison to gynochrome females.

  11. Metabolism plays the key roles in Th cells differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, A; Soukhtehzari, S; Ghaedi, M; Mansouri, R

    2016-12-31

    The increasing rate of autoimmunity in recent decades cannot be related to only genetic instabilities and disorders. Diet can directly influence our health. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between nutritional elements and alteration in the immune system. Among immune cells, the function of T lymphocyte is important in directing immune response. T CD4+ cells lead other immune cells to respond to pathogens by secreting cytokines. HIV+ patients, who have largely lost their T CD4+ cells, are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which do not normally affect healthy people. It seems that the metabolism of T cells is critical for their differentiation and their consequent functions. After activation, T cells need to undergo clonal expansion, which is a high energy- consuming process. Studies have shown that specific metabolites deprivation or their excess supply affects T CD4+cells subsets differentiation. Abnormal induction of subsets of T CD4+ cells causes some autoimmunity reactions and hyper-sensitivity as well, which may result from imbalance of diet uptake. In this mini-review, we describe the findings about fatty acids, glucose, amino acids, and vitamins, which are effective in determining the fates of T CD4+ cells. These findings may help us uncover the role of diet in autoimmune diseases.

  12. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    PubMed

    Portes, M

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.

  13. DNABII proteins play a central role in UPEC biofilm structure

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Aishwarya; Justice, Sheryl S.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most chronic and recurrent bacterial infections involve a biofilm component, the foundation of which is the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a conserved and key component of the EPS of pathogenic biofilms. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and Histone-like protein (HU); both are present in the extracellular milieu. We have shown previously that the DNABII proteins are often found in association with eDNA and are critical for the structural integrity of bacterial communities that utilize eDNA as a matrix component. Here, we demonstrated that Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain UTI89 incorporates eDNA within its biofilm matrix and that the DNABII proteins are not only important for biofilm growth, but are limiting; exogenous addition of these proteins promotes biofilm formation that is dependent on eDNA. In addition, we show that both subunits of IHF, yet only one subunit of HU (HupB), are critical for UPEC biofilm development. We discuss the roles of these proteins in context of the UPEC EPS. PMID:25757804

  14. [Activities and authors. Role playing in health education].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, E G; Nunes, M M

    1996-01-01

    One the forms that the capitalism met for perpetuate his ideology was through of scholastic institution and do this, your set doctrinaire. This space orderly frequently oppose teachers and students, where the practice is enforce through of foregoing scheme. At sphere of health, this scheme repeatedly, because the conception of health /disease nap works of health teach the subordinate population and the culture is transmit for health, basically on advice and norm for the people with process of culpability for theirs diseases. We would like at this work report our experience with the Pedagogic Psychodrama of ROMANA (1987), at raising your demands referring informations about Firsts Aids with teenagers matriculation on course for patrol at slum of Rocinha(R.J.), where the datas were analysis quality of discourse. The utilization of a methodology don't exclude the station context if subject of apprenticeship, contribute for understand your role and commitment with the transformation personal and collective, we hope contribute with Nursing, teach possibilities, pedagogic and creatives for humanization the Education at Health.

  15. Does environmental robustness play a role in fluctuating environments?

    PubMed

    Ketola, Tarmo; Kellermann, Vanessa M; Loeschcke, Volker; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Kristensen, Torsten N

    2014-02-01

    Fluctuating environments are expected to select for individuals that have highest geometric fitness over the experienced environments. This leads to the prediction that genetically determined environmental robustness in fitness, and average fitness across environments should be positively genetically correlated to fitness in fluctuating environments. Because quantitative genetic experiments resolving these predictions are missing, we used a full-sib, half-sib breeding design to estimate genetic variance for egg-to-adult viability in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to two constant or fluctuating temperatures that were above the species' optimum temperature, during development. Viability in two constant environments (25°C or 30°C) was used to estimate breeding values for environmental robustness of viability (i.e., reaction norm slope) and overall viability (reaction norm elevation). These breeding values were regressed against breeding values of viability at two different fluctuating temperatures (with a mean of 25°C or 30°C). Our results based on genetic correlations show that average egg-to-adult viability across different constant thermal environments, and not the environmental robustness, was the most important factor for explaining the fitness in fluctuating thermal environments. Our results suggest that the role of environmental robustness in adapting to fluctuating environments might be smaller than anticipated.

  16. Women and multiple roles: myths and reality.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait

    2004-01-01

    Strong beliefs persist about the negative effects of maternal employment on women, their marriages, and their children, in spite of considerable systematic research indicating that, on average, employment has positive effects. The underlying assumption is that the roles of wife and mother are "natural" roles and are therefore performed without undue stress. In contrast, the role of employee is seen as "unnatural" and therefore highly demanding. These beliefs affect clinical practice, fostering a concern among mental health professionals about whether women can handle the demands of multiple roles without serious negative health consequences. It is therefore important to evaluate these beliefs in light of the empirical literature. Such an evaluation is especially critical at this particular time, when demographic trends suggest that the number of employed women with children is increasing, that paid employment will be a central component in most women's life experiences, and that as a society we are highly unlikely to return to the days of the "traditional" family. The need for careful scrutiny is underscored by the current political climate, in which there is much rhetoric implying that maternal employment "causes" many of our social ills--school dropouts, drug abuse, juvenile violence, and divorce.

  17. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

    2003-01-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Correll, Melanie J; Coveney, Katrina M; Raines, Steven V; Mullen, Jack L; Hangarter, Roger P; Kiss, John Z

    2003-01-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

    2003-05-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli.

  20. Phytochromes play a role in phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Coveney, Katrina M.; Raines, Steven V.; Mullen, Jack L.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Kiss, John Z.

    2003-01-01

    Phototropism as well as gravitropism plays a role in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. Phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB mediate the positive red-light-based photoresponse in roots since single mutants (and the double phyAB mutant) were severely impaired in this response. In blue-light-based negative phototropism, phyA and phyAB (but not phyB) were inhibited in the response relative to the WT. In root gravitropism, phyB and phyAB (but not phyA) were inhibited in the response compared to the WT. The differences observed in tropistic responses were not due to growth limitations since the growth rates among all the mutants tested were not significantly different from that of the WT. Thus, our study shows that the blue-light and red-light systems interact in roots and that phytochrome plays a key role in plant development by integrating multiple environmental stimuli. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contrasting Roles of Dopamine and Noradrenaline in the Motivational Properties of Social Play Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Servadio, Michela; van Swieten, Maaike M H; Houwing, Danielle J; Aalderink, Mandy; Driel, Nina V; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2016-01-01

    Social play behavior, abundant in the young of most mammalian species, is thought to be important for social and cognitive development. Social play is highly rewarding, and as such, the expression of social play depends on its pleasurable and motivational properties. Since the motivational properties of social play have only sporadically been investigated, we developed a setup in which rats responded for social play under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in incentive motivational processes, and both dopamine and noradrenaline have been implicated in the modulation of social play behavior. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine and noradrenaline in the motivation for social play. Treatment with the psychostimulant drugs methylphenidate and cocaine increased responding for social play, but suppressed its expression during reinforced play periods. The dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR-12909 increased responding for social play, but did not affect its expression, whereas the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine decreased responding for social play as well as its expression. The effects of methylphenidate and cocaine on responding for social play, but not their play-suppressant effects, were blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist α-flupenthixol. In contrast, pretreatment with the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 prevented the play-suppressant effect of methylphenidate, but left its effect on responding for social play unaltered. In sum, the present study introduces a novel method to study the incentive motivational properties of social play behavior in rats. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate dissociable roles for dopamine and noradrenaline in social play behavior: dopamine stimulates the motivation for social play, whereas noradrenaline negatively modulates the motivation for social play behavior and its expression. PMID:26174597

  2. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs: role-play and students' interest in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise Kofoed, Mikkel

    2006-11-01

    Role-play as a way of teaching is seldom used in physics. One reason is that role-play is usually constructed so as to contain some sort of conflict and conflicts do not often appear in the course of normal physics teaching. When it comes to the role of physics in war, role-play is an ideal way of presenting content to students. By taking part in role-play students become actively engaged in the teaching situation, developing their interest in physics. They also get a chance to understand the ethical issues involved. This article presents an example of a role-play based educational programme concerning the development of, the decisions behind, and the use of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs during World War II. Some early research results are presented from evaluating the educational programme in lower and upper secondary schools in Denmark.

  3. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  4. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  5. The multiple roles of pendrin in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Manoocher

    2015-08-01

    The [Formula: see text] exchanger pendrin (SLC26A4, PDS) is located on the apical membrane of B-intercalated cells in the kidney cortical collecting duct and the connecting tubules and mediates the secretion of bicarbonate and the reabsorption of chloride. Given its dual function of bicarbonate secretion and chloride reabsorption in the distal tubules, it was thought that pendrin plays important roles in systemic acid-base balance and electrolyte and vascular volume homeostasis under basal conditions. Mice with the genetic deletion of pendrin or humans with inactivating mutations in PDS gene, however, do not display excessive salt and fluid wasting or altered blood pressure under baseline conditions. Very recent reports have unmasked the basis of incongruity between the mild phenotype in mutant mice and the role of pendrin as an important player in salt reabsorption in the distal tubule. These studies demonstrate that pendrin and the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC; SLC12A3) cross compensate for the loss of each other, therefore masking the role that each transporter plays in salt reabsorption under baseline conditions. In addition, pendrin regulates calcium reabsorption in the distal tubules. Furthermore, combined deletion of pendrin and NCC not only causes severe volume depletion but also results in profound calcium wasting and luminal calcification in medullary collecting ducts. Based on studies in pathophysiological states and the examination of genetically engineered mouse models, the evolving picture points to important roles for pendrin (SLC26A4) in kidney physiology and in disease states. This review summarizes recent advances in the characterization of pendrin and the multiple roles it plays in the kidney, with emphasis on its essential roles in several diverse physiological processes, including chloride homeostasis, vascular volume and blood pressure regulation, calcium excretion and kidney stone formation.

  6. Intraparietal regions play a material general role in working memory: evidence supporting an internal attentional role

    PubMed Central

    Killebrew, Kyle; Mruczek, Ryan; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the role of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) regions in working memory (WM) remains a topic of considerable interest and lack of clarity. One group of hypotheses, the internal attention view, proposes that the IPS plays a material general role in maintaining information in WM. An alternative viewpoint, the pure storage account, proposes that the IPS in each hemisphere maintains material specific (e.g., left – phonological; right – visuospatial) information. Yet, adjudication between competing theoretical perspectives is complicated by divergent findings from different methodologies and their use of different paradigms, perhaps most notably between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). For example, fMRI studies typically use full field stimulus presentations and report bilateral IPS activation, whereas EEG studies direct attention to a single hemifield and report a contralateral bias in both hemispheres. Here, we addressed this question by applying a regions-of-interest fMRI approach to elucidate IPS contributions to WM. Importantly, we manipulated stimulus type (verbal, visuospatial) and the cued hemifield to assess the degree to which IPS activations reflect stimulus specific or stimulus general processing consistent with the pure storage or internal attention hypotheses. These data revealed significant contralateral bias along regions IPS0-5 regardless of stimulus type. Also present was a weaker stimulus-based bias apparent in stronger left lateralized activations for verbal stimuli and stronger right lateralized activations for visuospatial stimuli. However, there was no consistent stimulus-based lateralization of activity. Thus, despite the observation of stimulus-based modulation of spatial lateralization this pattern was bilateral. As such, although it is quantitatively underspecified, our results are overall more consistent with an internal attention view that the IPS plays a material general role in

  7. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  8. E-learning Constructive Role Plays for EFL Learners in China's Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Lin; Suwanthep, Jitpanat

    2011-01-01

    Recently, speaking has played an increasingly important role in second/foreign language settings. However, in many Chinese universities, EFL students rarely communicate in English with other people effectively. The existing behavioristic role plays on New Horizon College English (NHCE) e-learning do not function successfully in supplementing EFL…

  9. Breaking Frame in a Role-Play Simulation: A Language Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This article uses key concepts developed in frame analysis and language socialization theories to reconceptualize role-play simulation as socialization practice. The reconceptualization includes (a) an effort to explain an unexpected response to a role-play simulation on the topic of bullying and (b) a discussion regarding how this explanation…

  10. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  11. Using Virtual Role-Play to Enhance Teacher Candidates' Skills in Responding to Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schussler, Deborah; Frank, Jennifer; Lee, Tsan-Kuang; Mahfouz, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Nearly one in three students in the United States today is negatively impacted by bullying. Teachers can play a critical role in stopping bullying-related violence, but many struggle with how to engage students in difficult conversations. Traditional classroom-based pedagogy used to teach communication skills (e.g., modeling & role-play) is…

  12. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  13. Online Role-Plays: Combining Situational and Interactional Authenticity in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Martins, Maria de Lurdes; Moreira, Gillian; Moreira, António

    2013-01-01

    Role-plays have been almost ubiquitous in foreign language classes and their potential has been widely recognised. In the last decade, the dissemination of Web 2.0 has created a wide range of possibilities for this type of activity, including conducting online role-plays between institutions, the opportunity to combine synchronous and asynchronous…

  14. Preparing an L2 Role-Play: How Students Manage L2 Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edstrom, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the implementation of role-play activities in second language (L2)/foreign language (FL) classroom settings, and little information is available about how students actually manage them, particularly with regards to overcoming their L2 deficits. This study examines the preparation of role-plays by university…

  15. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  16. Breathing Life into History: Using Role-Playing to Engage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Murthy, Shalini A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternately referred to as historical role-playing, dramatic improvisation, sociodrama, or first-person characterization, role playing is a teaching strategy that often uses official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, specific event, or breathe life into a character from history. Historical…

  17. Role Playing in Physical Education to Teach in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Using role playing during physical education provides limitless opportunities for intervention and for the demonstration of personal and social qualities. The purpose of this article is to provide easy steps for implementing role playing as a strategy to teach social skills to students in the physical education setting.

  18. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  19. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  20. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What role will the awarding official play during an appeal? 900.229 Section 900.229 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official play...

  1. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  2. Learning by Doing in Leadership Education: Experiencing Followership and Effective Leadership Communication through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Filiz; Lebron, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a role-play exercise to illustrate the influence of followership styles and effective communication on leader-follower relationship formation and development. We provide the pedagogical theory and evidence behind using role-plays in classroom settings, followed by a literature review pertaining to…

  3. Using a Corporate Partnership to Enhance Learning in a Sourcing Negotiation Role-play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Janet L.; Eboch, Karen; Gilberg, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Although role-plays can be effective teaching tools for buyer-supplier negotiation, learning can be somewhat limited because typically novices are negotiating with each other. We describe how we collaborated with a corporate partner, CACI International, to develop and implement a repeatable sourcing and negotiation role-play that helps to address…

  4. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  5. The Strategic Micro-Firm: A Role Play In Management Training for Dynamic Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabe, Federico; Busco, Cristiano; Davidsen, Pal I.; Lambri, Maurizio; Zatta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to reproduce the fundamental features of a complex supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: A specific role-playing game is presented, in which a Balanced Scorecard is used as the reporting device and is…

  6. Investigating L2 Spoken English through the Role Play Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava, Andrea; Pedrazzini, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    We describe an exploratory study carried out within the University of Milan, Department of English the aim of which was to analyse features of the spoken English of first-year Modern Languages undergraduates. We compiled a learner corpus, the "Role Play" corpus, which consisted of 69 role-play interactions in English carried out by…

  7. Simulation, Role-Playing, and Sociodrama in the Social Studies. With an Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Dale M.; Garvey, Sancha K.

    1967-01-01

    Classroom experience for social studies students in simulation, role-playing, and sociodrama provides not only an interesting way of learning, but also an appreciation for the complexity and interdependence of social systems in the modern world. Role-playing requires a student to assume an identity other than his own to increase his understanding…

  8. Breathing Life into History: Using Role-Playing to Engage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Murthy, Shalini A.

    2006-01-01

    Alternately referred to as historical role-playing, dramatic improvisation, sociodrama, or first-person characterization, role playing is a teaching strategy that often uses official accounts, personal narratives, and diaries to recreate a particular time period, specific event, or breathe life into a character from history. Historical…

  9. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  10. The Effects of Children's Stories on Behavior and Attitudes: Modeling and Vicarious Role Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clore, Gerald L.; Bray, Robert M.

    Stories were read to 62 male third grade children from two elementary schools in Urbana, Illinois. They were randomly assigned to one of four story conditions: vicarious role playing, symbolic modeling, a combination of the two, and a control condition. The basis of the present experiment is the assumption that vicarious role playing is similar to…

  11. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  12. Breaking Frame in a Role-Play Simulation: A Language Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    This article uses key concepts developed in frame analysis and language socialization theories to reconceptualize role-play simulation as socialization practice. The reconceptualization includes (a) an effort to explain an unexpected response to a role-play simulation on the topic of bullying and (b) a discussion regarding how this explanation…

  13. Teacher's Guide to Canal. The Middlesex Canal: A Role Playing Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cary W.; Tedesco, Paul H.

    The document consists of a role-playing game and related teacher's guide designed to illustrate decision-making processes leading to the building of the Middlesex Canal in Massachusetts in 1793. The primary educational objective is to involve students in the decision-making process through role play. The game is designed to facilitate…

  14. Fostering Argumentative Knowledge Construction through Enactive Role Play in "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Azilawati; Chee, Yam San; Ho, Caroline Mei Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how pre-university students shared and constructed knowledge in the context of GP (general paper) by interacting through individual virtual characters across five cycles of enactive role play sessions. Contextualized scenarios on the topic of euthanasia were developed in "Second Life". Role-playing the virtual characters…

  15. Adolescents Developing Civic Identities: Sociocultural Perspectives on Simulations and Role-Play in a Civic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Jane C.

    2017-01-01

    While simulations and role-play have been staples in the civic classroom, little is known about how they work as best practices. This study explores the ways simulations and role-play may influence students' civic identities. Drawing from sociocultural theories, the article seeks to understand how students' practice-linked identities may be shaped…

  16. The Great Evolution Trial: Use of Role-Play in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duveen, Jonathan; Solomon, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Provides both the pedagogic and scientific thinking that guided the construction of a classroom role play called "The Great Evolution Debate," which is about the publication of Darwin's "The Origin of Species." Provides tentative findings regarding learning from role playing. (ZWH)

  17. You Must Participate: Violating Research Ethical Principles through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the use of role-play to teach research ethics in three semesters of a research methods class. Small groups of students were assigned one of nine ethical norms discussed in the course textbook and the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Each group role-played the violation of their assigned ethic to the class. The…

  18. Tutor Scaffolding Styles of Dilemma Solving in Network-Based Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pata, Kai; Sarapuu, Tago; Lehtinen, Erno

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated tutoring during collaborative role-play dealing with environmental dilemmas in a synchronous network environment. The relationships of different tutor scaffolding styles with students' discourse acts and their decision-making variables were studied. A role-play with a jigsaw design was developed using the model of real-life…

  19. Enhancing Role-Play Activities with Pocket Camcorder Technology: Strategies for Counselor-Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Sara Meghan; Thanasiu, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Counselor-educators can benefit from specific guidelines and creative suggestions when implementing role-play and technology-related teaching strategies in counseling training programs. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to: (a) discuss the use of role-play and video recording in counselor education; (b) introduce counselor-educators to…

  20. The Evaluation of Role-Playing in the Context of Teaching Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belova, Nadja; Eilks, Ingo; Feierabend, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Role-plays are a common pedagogical tool in the Social Sciences. As an imitation of societal practices, role-plays are thought to support the development of argumentation and decision-making skills among learners. However, argumentation and decision making are also goals in science education in general and in socioscientific issues-oriented…

  1. Mars Colony: Using Role-Play as a Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Soldan, Katie; Tai, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss role-play as a pedagogical strategy to engage kindergarten and first-grade students in science and engineering. They present a five-part Mars colony lesson that they developed for a blended class, during which students role-play a space-exploration story that enables them to gain a firsthand perspective of what…

  2. What Happens When Students Do Simulation-role-play in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubusson, Peter; Fogwill, Stephen; Perkovic, Linda; Barr, Rajender

    1997-01-01

    Results of this study suggest that simulation-role-play allows students to demonstrate their understanding, explore their views, and develop deeper understanding of phenomena. The technique was especially beneficial to students who prefer learning kinesthetically. Suggests a strategy for using analogical analysis in simulation-role-play. Contains…

  3. Rules out of Roles: Differences in Play Language and Their Developmental Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yongho; Kellogg, David

    2007-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic approach from the work of Hoey (1991) and a dual processing model from Wray (2000), this paper compares the language produced by the same classes of children when they are engaged in role-play and when they are playing rule-based games. We find that role-play tends to be richer in "frozen" pair parts, where the responses…

  4. Assessing women's responses to sexual threat: validity of a virtual role-play procedure.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Simpson Rowe, Lorelei; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G; Gomez, Gabriella S

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated the validity of a role-play procedure that uses virtual reality technology to assess women's responses to sexual threat. Forty-eight female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a standard, face-to-face role-play (RP) or a virtual role-play (VRP) of a sexually coercive situation. A multimethod assessment strategy was used to evaluate the efficacy of the role-play procedure in creating a realistic and immersive situation. Consistent with our hypotheses, women in the VRP condition exhibited greater negative affect and immersion than women in the RP condition. In addition, the level of assertive refusal in the VRP, but not the RP, condition differentiated between women with and without a prior history of sexual victimization. These findings provide evidence of the validity of a virtual role-play procedure for assessing women's responses in sexually threatening situations. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Neelke; Kroesen, J Otto

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of role plays in ethics education for engineering students. After presenting a rough taxonomy of different objectives, we illustrate how role plays can be used to broaden students' perspectives. We do this on the basis of our experiences with a newly developed role play about a Dutch political controversy concerning pig transport. The role play is special in that the discussion is about setting up an institutional framework for responsible action that goes beyond individual action. In that sense, the role play serves a double purpose. It not only aims at teaching students to become aware of the different dimensions in decision making, it also encourages students to think about what such an institutional framework for responsible action might possibly look like.

  6. Role-play for medical students learning about communication: Guidelines for maximising benefits

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, Debra; Tierney, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Background Role-play is widely used as an educational method for learning about communication in medical education. Although educational theory provides a sound rationale for using this form of simulation, there is little published evidence for its effectiveness. Students' prior experiences of role-play may influence the way in which they engage in this method. This paper explores students' experiences with the aim of producing guidelines for maximising the benefits of role-play within this learning context. Methods First-year undergraduate medical students participated in a role-play session as part of their communication programme. Before and after the session, students completed questionnaires. In the pre-session questionnaire, students were asked about their experiences of role-play and asked to identify helpful and unhelpful elements. Immediately after the session, students answered similar questions in relation to the role-play activity they had just completed. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Results 284 students completed evaluation forms. Although 63 (22.2%) had prior unhelpful experiences, most students (n = 274; 96.5%) found this experience helpful. Summary findings were that students reported the key aspects of helpful role-play were opportunities for observation, rehearsal and discussion, realistic roles and alignment of roles with other aspects of the curriculum. Unhelpful aspects were those that evoked strong negative emotional responses and factors that contributed to a lack of realism. Conclusion Role-play was valued by students in the acquisition of communication skills even though some had prior unhelpful experiences. Guidelines for effective role-play include adequate preparation, alignment of roles and tasks with level of practice, structured feedback guidelines and acknowledgment of the importance of social interactions for learning. PMID:17335561

  7. c-kit plays a critical role in induction of intravenous tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Farinaz; Li, Hongmei; Gonnella, Patricia; Mari, Elisabeth Rose; Rasouli, Javad; Zhang, Guang Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2015-03-01

    c-kit (CD117) is a tyrosine kinase receptor found in various types of immune cells. It has been shown that c-kit plays a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Recent data have suggested an immunoregulatory effect of c-kit. We therefore examined the role of c-kit in autoantigen-induced i.v. tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Our results show that induction of intravenous tolerance against EAE in B6 mice is characterized by increased numbers of CD117(+) cells and altered mast cell-associated molecules in the periphery and in the CNS. W(-sh) (c-kit-deficient) mice were resistant to i.v autoantigen-induced tolerance, with increased proinflammatory cytokine production in the periphery. I.v. autoantigen in WT mice suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 and up-regulated the expression of FoxP3, a transcription factor of Tregs; however, in W(-sh) mice, IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased with a failure of FoxP3 induction upon i.v. autoantigen injection and is thus a mechanism for resistance to i.v. tolerance induction in these mice. We conclude that c-kit signaling has a regulatory role in i.v. tolerance and could be a target for potential immunotherapy in autoimmune disorders.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Shevalye, Hanna; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from abnormal folding of newly synthesized proteins impairs metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and gene expression, and it is a key mechanism of cell injury. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. We evaluated the role for this phenomenon in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress manifest in upregulation of multiple components of unfolded protein response was identified in neural tissues (sciatic nerve, spinal cord) of streptozotocin diabetic rats and mice. A chemical chaperone, trimethylamine oxide, administered for 12 weeks after induction of diabetes (110 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1, a prevention paradigm) attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress, peripheral nerve dysfunction, intraepidermal nerve fiber loss, and sciatic nerve and spinal cord oxidative-nitrative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Similar effects on diabetes-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and peripheral nerve dysfunction were observed with a structurally unrelated chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (100 mg⋅kg−1⋅d−1, intraperitoneal). CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)−/− mice made diabetic with streptozotocin displayed less severe sciatic nerve oxidative-nitrative stress and peripheral neuropathy than the wild-type (C57Bl6/J) mice. Neither chemical chaperones nor CHOP gene deficiency reduced diabetic hyperglycemia. Our findings reveal an important role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and identify a potential new therapeutic target. PMID:23364451

  9. Role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peizhou; Le, Weidong

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in maintaining the cellular homeostasis. One of its functions is to degrade unnecessary organelles and proteins for energy recycling or amino-acids for cell survival. Ablation of autophagy leads to neurodegeneration. Multiple sclerosis (MS), a permanent neurological impairment typical of chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder, is an auto-immune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autophagy is tightly linked to the innate and adaptive immune systems during the autoimmune process, and several studies have shown that autophagy directly participates in the progress of MS or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of MS). Dysfunction of mitochondria that intensively influences the autophagy pathway is one of the important factors in the pathogenesis of MS. Autophagy-related gene (ATG) 5 and immune-related GTPase M (IRGM) 1 are increased, while ATG16L2 is decreased, in T-cells in EAE and active relapsing-remitting MS brains. Administration of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin ( mTOR), ameliorates relapsing-remitting EAE. Inflammation and oxidative stress are increased in MS lesions and EAE, but Lamp2 and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio are decreased. Furthermore, autophagy in various glial cells plays important roles in regulating neuro-inflammation in the CNS, implying potential roles in MS. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy in the peripheral immune system and the CNS in neuroinflammation associated with the pathogenesis of MS.

  10. Aspergillus nidulans ArfB Plays a Role in Endocytosis and Polarized Growth ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Chan; Schmidtke, Sabrina N.; Dangott, Lawrence J.; Shaw, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo polarized growth throughout most of their life cycles. The Spitzenkörper is an apical organelle composed primarily of vesicles that is unique to filamentous fungi and is likely to act as a vesicle supply center for tip growth. Vesicle assembly and trafficking are therefore important for hyphal growth. ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs), a group of small GTPase proteins, play an important role in nucleating vesicle assembly. Little is known about the role of Arfs in filamentous hyphal growth. We found that Aspergillus nidulans is predicted to encode six Arf family proteins. Analysis of protein sequence alignments suggests that A. nidulans ArfB shares similarity with ARF6 of Homo sapiens and Arf3p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An arfB null allele (arfB disrupted by a transposon [arfB::Tn]) was characterized by extended isotropic growth of germinating conidia followed by cell lysis or multiple, random germ tube emergence, consistent with a failure to establish polarity. The mutant germ tubes and hyphae that do form initially meander abnormally off of the axis of polarity and frequently exhibit dichotomous branching at cell apices, consistent with a defect in polarity maintenance. FM4-64 staining of the arfB::Tn strain revealed that another phenotypic characteristic seen for arfB::Tn is a reduction and delay in endocytosis. ArfB is myristoylated at its N terminus. Green fluorescent protein-tagged ArfB (ArfB::GFP) localizes to the plasma membrane and endomembranes and mutation (ArfBG2A::GFP) of the N-terminal myristoylation motif disperses the protein to the cytoplasm rather than to the membranes. These results demonstrate that ArfB functions in endocytosis to play important roles in polarity establishment during isotropic growth and polarity maintenance during hyphal extension. PMID:18539885

  11. Cathepsin B: Multiple roles in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neha; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2014-01-01

    Proteases, including intracellular proteases, play roles at many different stages of malignant progression. Our focus here is cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine cathepsin. High levels of cathepsin B are found in a wide variety of human cancers, levels that often induce secretion and association of cathepsin B with the tumor cell membrane. In experimental models, such as transgenic models of murine pancreatic and mammary carcinomas, causal roles for cathepsin B have been demonstrated in initiation, growth/tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor growth in transgenic models is promoted by cathepsin B in tumor-associated cells, for example, tumor-associated macrophages, as well as in tumor cells. In transgenic models, the absence of cathepsin B has been associated with enhanced apoptosis, yet cathepsin B also has been shown to contribute to apoptosis. Cathepsin B is part of a proteolytic pathway identified in xenograft models of human glioma; targeting only cathepsin B in these tumors is less effective than targeting cathepsin B in combination with other proteases or protease receptors. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for increased expression of cathepsin B in tumors and association of cathepsin B with tumor cell membranes is needed to determine whether targeting cathepsin B could be of therapeutic benefit. PMID:24677670

  12. Wind Energy's New Role in Supplying the World's Energy: What Role Will Structural Health Monitoring Play?

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, S.; Sheng, S.; Oyague, F.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy installations are leading all other forms of new energy installations in the United States and Europe. In Europe, large wind plants are supplying as much as 25% of Denmark's energy needs and 8% of the electric needs for Germany and Spain, who have more ambitious goals on the horizon. Although wind energy only produces about 2% of the current electricity demand in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with wind industry experts, has drafted a plan that would bring the U.S. installed wind capacity up to 20% of the nation's total electrical supply. To meet these expectations, wind energy must be extremely reliable. Structural health monitoring will play a critical role in making this goal successful.

  13. Non-redundant roles for Th17 and Th22 cells in multiple myeloma clinical correlates

    PubMed Central

    Di Lullo, Giulia; Marcatti, Magda; Protti, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently reported that in multiple myeloma increased Th22 cell frequencies correlate with poor prognosis. Here we show that within the same patients' cohort Th17 cells associate with bone disease and not with prognosis. Thus, we propose that Th22 and Th17 cells play non-redundant roles in multiple myeloma and constitute independent therapeutic targets. PMID:27141378

  14. Non-redundant roles for Th17 and Th22 cells in multiple myeloma clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Giulia; Marcatti, Magda; Protti, Maria Pia

    2016-04-01

    We recently reported that in multiple myeloma increased Th22 cell frequencies correlate with poor prognosis. Here we show that within the same patients' cohort Th17 cells associate with bone disease and not with prognosis. Thus, we propose that Th22 and Th17 cells play non-redundant roles in multiple myeloma and constitute independent therapeutic targets.

  15. The Red Hat Society: Exploring the role of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives.

    PubMed

    Mackay Yarnal, Careen

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature on play. Yet, the role of play in older adults' lives has received limited attention. Strikingly absent is research on play and older women. Missing from the literature is how older women use play as a liminal context for social interaction and communitas. This is odd because by 2030 one in four American women will be over the age of sixty-five. The primary purpose of this study is to explore the roles of play, liminality, and communitas in older women's lives. The focus is the Red Hat Society, a social group for women over age 50 that fosters play and fun. Using qualitative interviews with focus groups and participant observation of a regional Red Hat Society event, the study highlights some of the strengths and weaknesses of current conceptualizations of play, liminality, and communitas.

  16. Role of intestinal microbiota in the development of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Álvarez, F; Marzo-Sola, M E

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease that affects young adults; in that age group, it represents the second leading cause of disability in our setting. Its precise aetiology has not been elucidated, but it is widely accepted to occur in genetically predisposed patients who are exposed to certain environmental factors. The discovery of the regulatory role played by intestinal microbiota in various autoimmune diseases has opened a new line of research in this field, which is discussed in this review. We reviewed published studies on the role of the microbiota in the development of both MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In mice, it has been shown that intestinal microorganisms regulate the polarisation of T helper cells from Th1-Th17 up to Th2, the function of regulatory T cells, and the activity of B cells; they participate in the pathogenesis of EAE and contribute to its prevention and treatment. In contrast, evidence in humans is still scarce and mainly based on case-control studies that point to the presence of differences in certain bacterial communities. Multiple evidence points to the role of microbiota in EAE. Extrapolation of these results to MS is still in the early stages of research, and studies are needed to define which bacterial populations are associated with MS, the role they play in pathogenesis, and the therapeutic possibilities this knowledge offers us. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Contract care in dentistry: sense-making of the concept and in practice when multiple institutional logics are at play.

    PubMed

    Ulfsdotter Eriksson, Ylva; Berg, Karin; Boman, Ulla Wide; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2017-03-23

    In 2009 contract dental care was introduced into Sweden's Public Dental Service under a programme called Dental Care for Health (DCH). Previous research has revealed a possible dilemma whereby dental care professionals had the role of insurance agent foisted upon them, as they were assigned the task of 'selling contracts'. Using qualitative interviews, this study explores how these professionals make sense of contract dental care today. Drawing on the concepts of occupational and organisational professionalism, in combination with the institutional logics perspective, we discern that dental care professionals are entangled in multiple rationalities when reasoning about and dealing with DCH. A professional logic comes into play over health issues and preventive care, while market and corporate logics are present in relation to selling contracts and taking responsibility for the financial aspects of DCH, all of which creates tensions in these professionals. Overall, dental care professionals in the welfare sector respond both to an organisational and an occupational professionalism.

  18. The role of astrocytes in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-García, J J

    2017-09-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which astrocytes play an important role as CNS immune cells. However, the activity of astrocytes as antigen-presenting cells (APC) continues to be subject to debate. This review analyses the existing evidence on the participation of astrocytes in CNS inflammation in MS and on several mechanisms that modify astrocyte activity in the disease. Astrocytes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS because they express toll-like receptors (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classI andII. In addition, astrocytes participate in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and in modulating T cell activity through the production of cytokines. Future studies should focus on the role of astrocytes in order to find new therapeutic targets for the treatment of MS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflective Responses Following a Role-play Simulation of Nurse Bullying.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Deborah L; Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Boesch, Maura C; Bateman, Kyle M; Grubb, Paula L

    A qualitative exploratory design was used for this study to evaluate role-play simulation as an active learning strategy. The context for the role-play was bullying in nursing practice. Following a simulation, 333 students from five college campuses of three universities completed a reflection worksheet. Qualitative thematic findings were personal responses, nonverbal communications exhibited, actions taken by participants, and the perceived impact of bullying during the simulation. Role-play simulation was a highly effective pedagogy, eliciting learning at both the cognitive and affective domains.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays critical role in brain damage after chronic intermittent hypoxia in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xiu-Cui; Jin, Sheng-Wei; Liang, Dong-Shi; Wen, Zheng-Wang; Cao, Hong-Chao; Mei, Hong-Fang; Wu, Ying; Lin, Zhong-Dong; Wang, Liang-Xing

    2014-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children is associated with multiple system morbidities. Cognitive dysfunction as a result of central nervous system complication has been reported in children with OSAHS. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related apoptosis plays an important role in various diseases of the central nervous system, but very little is known about the role of ERS in mediating pathophysiological reactions to cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) exposures, modeling OSAHS, across 2 and 4weeks in growing rats made more reference memory errors, working memory errors and total memory errors in the 8-Arm radial maze task, increased significantly TUNEL positive cells, upregulated the unfolded protein response in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme l and some downstream products. A selective inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor-2a dephosphorylation, salubrinal, prevented C/EBP-homologous protein activation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex throughout hypoxia/reoxygenation exposure. Our findings suggest that ERS mediated cell apoptosis may be one of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS children. Further, a specific ERS inhibitor Salubrinal should be tested for neuroprotection against CIH-induced injury.

  1. Ceramide synthase 6 plays a critical role in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Susanne; Ferreiros, Nerea; Birod, Kerstin; Eberle, Max; Schreiber, Yannick; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Ziemann, Ulf; Pierre, Sandra; Scholich, Klaus; Grösch, Sabine; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2012-06-01

    Ceramides are mediators of apoptosis and inflammatory processes. In an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, we observed a significant elevation of C(16:0)-Cer in the lumbar spinal cord of EAE mice. This was caused by a transiently increased expression of ceramide synthase (CerS) 6 in monocytes/macrophages and astroglia. Notably, this corresponds to the clinical finding that C(16:0)-Cer levels were increased 1.9-fold in cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. NO and TNF-α secreted by IFN-γ-activated macrophages play an essential role in the development of MS. In murine peritoneal and mouse-derived RAW 264.7 macrophages, IFN-γ-mediated expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)/TNF-α and NO/TNF-α release depends on upregulation of CerS6/C(16:0)-Cer. Downregulation of CerS6 by RNA interference or endogenous upregulation of C(16:0)-Cer mediated by palmitic acid in RAW 264.7 macrophages led to a significant reduction or increase in NO/TNF-α release, respectively. EAE/IFN-γ knockout mice showed a significant delay in disease onset accompanied by a significantly less pronounced increase in CerS6/C(16:0)-Cer, iNOS, and TNF-α compared with EAE/wild-type mice. Treatment of EAE mice with l-cycloserine prevented the increase in C(16:0)-Cer and iNOS/TNF-α expression and caused a remission of the disease. In conclusion, CerS6 plays a critical role in the onset of MS, most likely by regulating NO and TNF-α synthesis. CerS6 may represent a new target for the inhibition of inflammatory processes promoting MS development.

  2. Mini Surgical Simulation, Role Play, and Group and Behavioral Interviews in Resident Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ogunyemi, Dotun; Alexander, Carolyn; Tangchitnob, Edward; Kim, David Seil

    2016-01-01

    Background A robust selection process is critical to residents' “cultural fit” and success in their program. Traditional selection methods have shortcomings. Objective We describe a novel residency interview process for obstetrics-gynecology residents that incorporates behavioral, group, and surgical simulation multiple mini interviews (MMIs). Methods In 2010, the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center obstetrics-gynecology residency program developed surgical simulation, role play, ethics group interview, and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competency-based behavioral interview stations. Results From 2010 to 2012, a total of 199 applicants were interviewed, 62 ranked in the top 20, and 18 matched into the program. The MMI scores for interview stations were used in compiling our rank list and were found to adequately differentiate candidates. The MMI mean scores for role play, ethics interview, surgical simulation, and the behavioral interview for the top 20 ranked candidates were statistically significantly higher than those for other applicants. Standardized tests minimally correlated with various interview modalities. Applicants found the interview process acceptable. Implementing these MMI stations increased the total applicant interview time for the day by 15% (from 5.5 to 6.5 hours) and increased the face-to-face interview time from 2 to 4 hours. Approximately 42 hours of coordinator time was required for the yearly interview cycle. Conclusions A multifaceted interview process utilizing MMI, group interview, and surgical simulation MMI is feasible and acceptable. The approach may decrease subjectivity and reliance on traditional interview methods and facilitate the selection of “compatible” residents into the program. PMID:27413446

  3. CSPG4 in cancer: multiple roles.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, Y; Yu, L; Sakakura, K; Visus, C; Schwab, J H; Ferrone, C R; Favoino, E; Koya, Y; Campoli, M R; McCarthy, J B; DeLeo, A B; Ferrone, S

    2010-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), also known as High Molecular Weight-Melanoma Associated Antigen, is a cell surface proteoglycan which has been recently shown to be expressed not only by melanoma cells, but also by various types of human carcinoma and sarcoma. Furthermore, at least in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck and in basal breast carcinoma, CSPG4 is expressed by cancer stem cells. CSPG4 plays an important role in tumor cell growth and survival. These CSPG4-associated functional properties of tumor cells are inhibited by CSPG4-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in vitro. Moreover, CSPG4-specific mAb can also inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The anti-tumor effects of CSPG4-specific mAb are likely to reflect the blocking of important migratory, mitogenic and survival signaling pathways in tumor cells. These results indicate that CSPG4 is a promising new target to implement mAb-based immunotherapy of various types of cancer.

  4. Adult play fighting and potential role of tail signals in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Adult strepsirrhines have been completely neglected in the study of animal play. I focused on adult play fighting and the role of tail-play as a signal in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Tail-play is performed during play fighting, when lemurs anoint or, more rarely, wave their tails toward the playmate. During the prereproductive period, male and female lemurs engaged in play fighting with comparable frequencies, as was expected to occur in monomorphic species such as L. catta. The dyads showing low aggression rates engaged most frequently in play fighting, and polyadic play was frequently performed. Signals seem to be important in avoiding escalation to real aggression, especially when the playfulness of performers can be misunderstood by recipients. Tail-play was most frequent (a) in the dyads with low grooming rates (low familiarity degree) and (b) during the most risky play sessions (polyadic ones). Thus, tail-play can be considered as a useful tool for play communication in ringtailed lemurs. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The Many Roles We Play: Perceptions of the Role of Psychology Lecturers According to Staff and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Lecturers in psychology have many different roles that they must play. It is often very difficult to know what roles are the most important and which to focus on. This study assessed the perceived importance of seven different roles lecturers undertake according to psychology lecturers and students. Results indicated that assessor, course planner,…

  6. Problematic usage among highly-engaged players of massively multiplayer online role playing games.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher S; Malesky, L Alvin

    2008-08-01

    One popular facet of Internet gaming is the massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Some individuals spend so much time playing these games that it creates problems in their lives. This study focused on players of World of Warcraft. Factor analysis revealed one factor related to problematic usage, which was correlated with amount of time played, and personality characteristics of agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion.

  7. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official play... learning that an appeal has been filed, the awarding official shall assemble a file which contains all the...

  8. 25 CFR 900.229 - What role will the awarding official play during an appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Post-Award Contract Disputes § 900.229 What role will the awarding official play... learning that an appeal has been filed, the awarding official shall assemble a file which contains all the...

  9. Charting the Experiential Territory: Clarifying Definitions and Uses of Computer Simulation, Games, and Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Andrew Hale; Mann, Stuart; Corsun, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a classification scheme for computer simulation, role playing, and educational games. Discusses outcomes of each when applied in business and management education and training. (Contains 52 references.) (SK)

  10. Bringing the U.S. Senate to Your Classroom: A Role Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Advocates role playing for teaching a unit on the legislative branch of government. Students were divided into political parties, sat on committees, and produced legislation. Concludes that experiencing the governmental process enhances citizen participation. (GG)

  11. For Kids with Kidney Disease, Race May Play Role in Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162794.html For Kids With Kidney Disease, Race May Play Role in Outcomes Risk of ... chronic kidney failure. All had been treated for kidney disease with either dialysis or transplants between 1995 and ...

  12. Bringing the U.S. Senate to Your Classroom: A Role Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Ken

    1989-01-01

    Advocates role playing for teaching a unit on the legislative branch of government. Students were divided into political parties, sat on committees, and produced legislation. Concludes that experiencing the governmental process enhances citizen participation. (GG)

  13. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  14. What Can Students Learn in an Extended Role-Play Simulation on Technology and Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In a small course on technology and society, students participated in an extended role-play simulation for two weeks. Each student played a different adult character in a fictional community, which faces technological decisions in three scenarios set in the near future. The three scenarios involved stem cell research, nanotechnology, and privacy.…

  15. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  16. A Taxonomy of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bytheway, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Initiated in response to informal reports of vocabulary gains from gamers at universities in New Zealand and the Netherlands, this qualitative study explored how English language learners autonomously learn vocabulary while playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Using research processes inherent in Grounded Theory, data…

  17. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  18. Learner Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG): A Sociocultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the linguistic and social interaction of four intermediate EFL learners during game play in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG). Twelve illustrative episodes drawn from the participants' text chat, collected in four 70-minute sessions held over a one-month period, are analyzed from a…

  19. FtsH11 Proteases play a critical role in high temperature stress tolerance in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    FtsHs (Filamentous temperature sensitive H), ATP-dependent zinc metalloproteases of the AAA-superfamily, play essential roles in the turn over of thylakoid proteins damaged by high light stress during photosynthesis. Here, we show that FtsH11, one of the 12 FtsH members in Arabidopsis, plays critic...

  20. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  1. Exploring the Use of Role Play in a School-Based Programme to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Diamini, Nthabiseng; Khanyile, Zama; Mpanza, Lloyd; Sathiparsad, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive…

  2. Using Analogy Role-Play Activity in an Undergraduate Biology Classroom to Show Central Dogma Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego®…

  3. Links between dissociation and role play in a nonclinical sample of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Tahiroglu, Deniz; Taylor, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    Children's role play activities are included in symptom checklists of dissociative disorders, yet little is known about the potential relation between individual differences in role play and dissociative behaviors in normative development. This issue was examined in a study of 147 children aged 3 and 4 from a nonclinical population. Parents completed the Child Dissociative Checklist (CDC; F. W. Putnam, K. Helmers, & P. K. Trickett, 1993) and a questionnaire about their child's role play, fears, behavior problems, and dreams. Children were also interviewed about these same items. Dissociation was significantly related to parent report of fears, problem behaviors, and nightmares. These results are consistent with the view that CDC scores reflect some degree of difficulty in children's lives. Children who engaged in role play, particularly children with imaginary companions, scored higher on the CDC than other children. However, role play was not related to the measures of fears or problem behaviors. The results suggest that a distinction between pathological and nonpathological dissociation is warranted, with role play activities being more closely linked to the latter. Measurement of dissociation in preschoolers is discussed.

  4. Enhancing interest in statistics among computer science students using computer tool entrepreneur role play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judi, Hairulliza Mohamad; Sahari @ Ashari, Noraidah; Eksan, Zanaton Hj

    2017-04-01

    Previous research in Malaysia indicates that there is a problem regarding attitude towards statistics among students. They didn't show positive attitude in affective, cognitive, capability, value, interest and effort aspects although did well in difficulty. This issue should be given substantial attention because students' attitude towards statistics may give impacts on the teaching and learning process of the subject. Teaching statistics using role play is an appropriate attempt to improve attitudes to statistics, to enhance the learning of statistical techniques and statistical thinking, and to increase generic skills. The objectives of the paper are to give an overview on role play in statistics learning and to access the effect of these activities on students' attitude and learning in action research framework. The computer tool entrepreneur role play is conducted in a two-hour tutorial class session of first year students in Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology (FTSM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, enrolled in Probability and Statistics course. The results show that most students feel that they have enjoyable and great time in the role play. Furthermore, benefits and disadvantages from role play activities were highlighted to complete the review. Role play is expected to serve as an important activities that take into account students' experience, emotions and responses to provide useful information on how to modify student's thinking or behavior to improve learning.

  5. Role-play facilitates children's mindreading of those with atypical color perception.

    PubMed

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role-play experience on children's mindreading ability. Forty-one primary school children (20 boys, 21 girls, mean age: 9.37 years, range: 8-11 years) were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an order issued by a "manager" who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two managers: one was a monkey manager with normal color vision, and the other was a dog manager with restricted color vision. The monkey manager could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog manager saw some objects in different colors. Participants were required to respond according to the manager's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog manager saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey manager. Before the test phase, participants in the role-play group were provided a role-play experience in which they assumed the role of the dog manager with restricted color vision. The experimental data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA (role-play condition × communication partner condition) to examine differences in the error rate. Both main effects and its interaction were significant. According to the post-hoc analyses, participants in the no-role-play condition made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas no such difference was found among participants in the role-play condition. These results suggest that role-play experience could facilitate mindreading of characters with restricted color vision.

  6. On play and playing.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Dusko

    2013-12-01

    The paper offers a review of the development of the concept of play and playing. The true beginnings of the development of the theories of play are set as late as in the 19th century. It is difficult to define play as such; it may much more easily be defined through its antipode--work. In the beginning, play used to be connected with education; it was not before Freud's theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget's developmental psychology that the importance of play in a child's development began to be explained in more detail. The paper further tackles the role of play in the adult age. Detailed attention is paid to psychodynamic and psychoanalytic authors, in particular D. W. Winnicott and his understanding of playing in the intermediary (transitional) empirical or experiential space. In other words, playing occupies a space and time of its own. The neuroscientific concept of playing is also tackled, in the connection with development as well.

  7. The ULT trxG Fatcors play a role in Arabidopsis Fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic modifiers that play key roles in eukaryotic development by promoting active or repressive gene expression states, respectively. Although PcG proteins have well-defined roles in controlling developmental transitions, cell fate de...

  8. On-Line Role-Play as a Teaching Method in Engineering Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga Ma.; Quintela, Ma. Ángeles; Mirapéix, Jesús Ma.; López-Higuera, José Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose adapting role-play teaching methodology to engineering studies. The role of a maintenance technician, a relevant job profile for engineering graduates is has chosen. The interaction is based on email exchange, with the instructor included in the simulation to help guide the activity and achieve learning objectives. In this…

  9. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  10. Psychometric Characteristics of Role-Play Assessments of Social Skill in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellack, Alan S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Thomas-Lohrman, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature documenting that people with schizophrenia have marked impairments in social role functioning and social skill. One of the most widely employed strategies for assessing social skill has been role-play tests: simulated social interactions that are videotaped for subsequent behavioral coding. There has been…

  11. NEUTROPHILS PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LPS-INDUCED AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-045 (GAVETT) GPRA # 10108

    Neutrophils Play a Critical Role in the Development of LPS-Induced Airway Disease.
    Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, and David A. Schwartz

    ABSTRACT
    We investigated the role of neutrophils...

  12. Psychometric Characteristics of Role-Play Assessments of Social Skill in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellack, Alan S.; Brown, Clayton H.; Thomas-Lohrman, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    There is an extensive literature documenting that people with schizophrenia have marked impairments in social role functioning and social skill. One of the most widely employed strategies for assessing social skill has been role-play tests: simulated social interactions that are videotaped for subsequent behavioral coding. There has been…

  13. Reflecting on Role Play in Geographic Education: The Case of the Banana War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.

    2004-01-01

    Debates over the nature and extent of globalization raise many issues to be addressed in a geographic education. In this paper, I briefly review case method instruction and role-play as teaching strategies suitable for material on globalization and other geographic subject matter, and then sketch an overview of an undergraduate geography role-play…

  14. NEUTROPHILS PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LPS-INDUCED AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-045 (GAVETT) GPRA # 10108

    Neutrophils Play a Critical Role in the Development of LPS-Induced Airway Disease.
    Jordan D. Savov, Stephen H. Gavett*, David M. Brass, Daniel L. Costa*, and David A. Schwartz

    ABSTRACT
    We investigated the role of neutrophils...

  15. Whipping Them in: Role-Playing Party Cohesion with a Chief Whip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Philip; Stuart, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We have used a role-play exercise to help students understand the role of the whips in British parliamentary politics, a subject with which students often struggle. In itself, this proved a valuable learning and teaching tool, but we found it became even more useful when we incorporated a practitioner into the exercise. This overcame some of the…

  16. Onstage or behind the Scenes? Relative Learning Benefits of Simulation Role-Play and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druckman, Daniel; Ebner, Noam

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors report the results of two experiments that explored hypotheses about the relative learning advantages of role-play and scenario design. The experiments were conducted with similar student populations in Australia and Israel. Using a matched-pairs design, participants were randomly assigned to design and role-play…

  17. Using Social Networking for Online Role-Plays to Develop Students' Argumentative Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard; Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    Social networking sites may include argumentative writing about particular issues in which participants adopt competing perspective and discourses on those issues. This study examined roles and discourses adopted by high school students participating in an online role-play conducted on a Ning platform regarding their school's Internet policies on…

  18. Hedgehog signaling plays a cell-autonomous role in maximizing cardiac developmental potential

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Natalie A.; Koudijs, Marco; van Eeden, Fredericus J. M.; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Yelon, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the complete roster of signals required for myocardial specification is crucial to the future of cardiac regenerative medicine. Prior studies have implicated the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in the regulation of multiple aspects of heart development. However, our understanding of the contribution of Hh signaling to the initial specification of myocardial progenitor cells remains incomplete. Here, we show that Hh signaling promotes cardiomyocyte formation in zebrafish. Reduced Hh signaling creates a cardiomyocyte deficit, and increased Hh signaling creates a surplus. Through fate-mapping, we find that Hh signaling is required at early stages to ensure specification of the proper number of myocardial progenitors. Genetic inducible fate mapping in mouse indicates that myocardial progenitors respond directly to Hh signals, and transplantation experiments in zebrafish demonstrate that Hh signaling acts cell autonomously to promote the contribution of cells to the myocardium. Thus, Hh signaling plays an essential early role in defining the optimal number of cardiomyocytes, making it an attractive target for manipulation of multipotent progenitor cells. PMID:18842815

  19. Does human papilloma virus play a role in sinonasal inverted papilloma?

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Satish; Wang, Hailun

    2014-02-01

    Inverted papillomas are a benign sinonasal tumor with a propensity for recurrence and malignant transformation. Although many investigations have been made into the nature of this disease, its etiology and causes for malignant transformation have yet to be fully elucidated. It is the authors' objective to present a review on management of the disease and evaluate the present relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and inverted papilloma. A causal relationship between HPV and the pathogenesis and progression of inverted papilloma has been posited since the 1980s. Although widely varied HPV detection rates have been reported, recent studies have noted a substantial increase in both recurrence and malignant transformation in HPV-infected inverted papillomas. However, exact cellular mechanisms by which infection leads to subsequent recurrence and development of carcinoma have yet to be elucidated. Evidence exists suggesting that HPV infection plays a role in the progression of inverted papilloma and confers an increased risk for recurrence and malignant transformation. PCR is the preferred detection method, and fresh or frozen specimens are the ideal source of tissue for evaluation. Although multiple studies have detected an association between HPV and inverted papilloma (both recurrent and malignant transformation), further studies are necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways before an association can be changed to causation.

  20. PP2C family members play key roles in regulation of cell survival and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Shinri; Toriumi, Shinnosuke; Saito, Jun-Ichi; Awano, Kenjiro; Kudo, Tada-Aki; Kobayashi, Takayasu

    2006-07-01

    Although unlimited proliferation of cancer cells is supported by multiple signaling pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation, survival, and apoptosis, the molecular mechanisms coordinating these different pathways to promote the proliferation and survival of cancer cells have remained unclear. SAPK and integrin-ILK signaling pathways play key roles in the promotion of apoptosis and cell proliferation/survival, respectively. Studies of TNFalpha- and H2O2-induced apoptosis revealed that ASK1, a component of the SAPK system, mediates the TNFalpha and H2O2 signaling of apoptosis. ASK1 is activated by autophosphorylation of a specific threonine residue (T845) following TNFalpha stimulation. Our recent studies indicate that PP2Cepsilon, a member of the PP2C family, associates with and inactivates ASK1 by dephosphorylating T845. In contrast, PP2Cdelta/ILKAP, a second PP2C family member, activates ASK1 by enhancing cellular phosphorylation of T845. PP2Cdelta/ILKAP also forms a complex with ILK1 to inhibit the GSK3beta-mediated integrin-ILK1 signaling in vivo, inhibiting cell cycle progression. These observations raise the possibility that PP2Cdelta/ILKAP acts to control the cross-talk between integrin-induced and TNFalpha-induced signaling pathways, inhibiting the former and stimulating the latter, thereby inhibiting proliferation and survival and promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells.

  1. Following instructions in a virtual school: Does working memory play a role?

    PubMed

    Jaroslawska, Agnieszka J; Gathercole, Susan E; Logie, Matthew R; Holmes, Joni

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence that working memory supports the ability to follow instructions has so far been restricted to experimental paradigms that have greatly simplified the practical demands of performing actions to instructions in everyday tasks. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether working memory is involved in maintaining information over the longer periods of time that are more typical of everyday situations that require performing instructions to command. Forty-two children 7-11 years of age completed assessments of working memory, a real-world following-instructions task employing 3-D objects, and two new computerized instruction-following tasks involving navigation around a virtual school to complete a sequence of practical spoken commands. One task involved performing actions in a single classroom, and the other, performing actions in multiple locations in a virtual school building. Verbal working memory was closely linked with all three following-instructions paradigms, but with greater association to the virtual than to the real-world tasks. These results indicate that verbal working memory plays a key role in following instructions over extended periods of activity.

  2. Epigenetic modifications may play a role in the developmental consequences of early life events.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Frank H

    2011-12-01

    Many aspects of postnatal development are influenced by events before birth, including cognitive and language development. An adverse intrauterine environment, for example secondary to poor maternal nutritional status, multiple pregnancy, or late preterm birth, is associated with increased risks of delayed or impaired childhood development and altered physiology in adulthood that may predispose to increased risk of adult disease. Maternal periconceptional undernutrition and twin conception can both result in late preterm birth, but it is less clear whether cases of late preterm birth not following a recognized early pregnancy event may still have their origin in the periconceptional period. Thus, the very earliest periods of pregnancy, and perhaps even the pre-pregnancy period, may be an important period determining the developmental trajectory of the fetus, and thus both pregnancy and later health outcomes. Profound epigenetic modifications to the genome occur in the early embryo as a normal part of development. Recent evidence suggests that environmental signals acting during early development may also result in epigenetic changes which may play a role in mediating the association between early life exposures and later phenotype.

  3. Nonlinear viscoelasticty plays an essential role in the functional behavior of spinal ligaments.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2012-02-23

    Despite the significant role ligament viscoelasticity plays in functional spinal biomechanics, relatively few studies have been performed to develop constitutive models that explicitly characterize this complex behavior. Unfortunately, the application and interpretation of these previous models are limited due to the use of simplified (quasi-linear) viscoelastic formulations or characterization techniques that have been shown to affect the predictive accuracy of the fitted coefficients. In order to surmount these previous limitations, the current study presents the application of a novel fitting technique (applied to stress relaxation experiments) and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive formulation to human cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL), posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and ligamentum flavum (LF). The fitted coefficients were validated by quantifying the ability of the constitutive equation to predict an independent cyclic data set across multiple physiologic strain amplitudes and frequencies. The resulting validated constitutive formulation indicated that the strain-dependent viscoelastic behavior of the longitudinal ligaments (ALL and PLL) was dominated by both the short-term (t=0.1s) and the steady-state (as t→∞) behavior. Conversely, the LF exhibited consistent relaxation behavior across the investigated temporal spectrum. From these data, it can be hypothesized that the unique strain-dependent temporal behavior of these spinal ligaments may be a functional adaptation that minimizes muscular expenditure during quasi-static postures while maximizing structural stability of the spine during transient loading events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, S H; Kalpana, L; Veena, R M; Bharath Kumar, V D

    2016-10-01

    Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students' perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. This questionnaire-based study was done in 2(nd) professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2(nd) professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching-learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula.

  5. Role-play as an educational tool in medication communication skills: Students’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lavanya, S. H.; Kalpana, L.; Veena, R. M.; Bharath Kumar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Medication communication skills are vital aspects of patient care that may influence treatment outcomes. However, traditional pharmacology curriculum deals with imparting factual information, with little emphasis on patient communication. The current study aims to explore students’ perceptions of role-play as an educational tool in acquiring communication skills and to ascertain the need of role-play for their future clinical practice. Materials and Methods: This questionnaire-based study was done in 2nd professional MBBS students. A consolidated concept of six training cases, focusing on major communication issues related to medication prescription in pharmacology, were developed for peer-role-play sessions for 2nd professional MBBS (n = 122) students. Structured scripts with specific emphasis on prescription medication communication and checklists for feedback were developed. Prevalidated questionnaires measured the quantitative aspects of role-plays in relation to their relevance as teaching–learning tool, perceived benefits of sessions, and their importance for future use. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: The role-play concept was well appreciated and considered an effective means for acquiring medication communication skills. The structured feedback by peers and faculty was well received by many. Over 90% of the students reported immense confidence in communicating therapy details, namely, drug name, purpose, mechanism, dosing details, and precautions. Majority reported a better retention of pharmacology concepts and preferred more such sessions. Conclusions: Most students consider peer-role-play as an indispensable tool to acquire effective communication skills regarding drug therapy. By virtue of providing experiential learning opportunities and its feasibility of implementation, role-play sessions justify inclusion in undergraduate medical curricula. PMID:28031605

  6. Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Dyanne M.

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the possible relationships among children's extracurricular toy-playing habits, sex-role orientations, spatial abilities, and science achievement. Data were gathered from 282 midwestern, suburban, fifth-grade students. It was found that boys had significantly higher spatial skills than girls. No significant differences in spatial ability were found among students with different sex-role orientations. No significant differences in science achievement were found between girls and boys, or among students with the four different sex-role orientations. Students who had high spatial ability also had significantly higher science achievement scores than students with low spatial ability. Femininely oriented boys who reported low playing in the two-dimensional, gross-body-movement, and proportional-arrangement toy categories scored significantly higher on the test of science achievement than girls with the same sex-role and toy-playing behavior.

  7. Psychological Consequences of Multiple Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored consequences of having mulitiple roles. Questioned 500 employed women about self-esteem; satisfaction with careers, partners, and children; perceptions of life stress and pleasure; and number of roles held. Higher self-esteem and greater job satisfaction were associated with holding more roles. Marital and parental satisfaction were not…

  8. Multiple Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3)…

  9. Multiple Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3)…

  10. Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability.

    PubMed

    Abdoola, Fareeaa; Flack, Penelope S; Karrim, Saira B

    2017-07-26

    Role-based learning involves the process whereby learners acquire skills, knowledge and understanding through the assumption of roles within real-life settings. Role-play holds potential as an effective learning strategy for children; however, there is limited research on the use of role-play as a therapy method within the field of speech-language pathology. Children with language learning disability (LLD) typically present with difficulties in social communication, which can negatively affect their social and academic achievement. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of role-play as a therapy approach targeting the pragmatic skills of stylistic variation and requesting for clarification in learners with LLD. The use of combined positivist and interpretivist paradigms allowed for the implementation of an embedded mixed methods design. An experimental pretest-posttest design was implemented. Eight participants, who were learners with a diagnosis of LLD, were purposefully selected. Data collection was conducted over five phases, utilising the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Ed.) Pragmatics Profile, discourse completion tasks, session plans and session records. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and were supplemented by qualitative data from session records. Results revealed improvements in stylistic variation and requesting for clarification post role-play intervention, with minimal changes in the control group. Limitations of the study have been reported for consideration when interpreting results. Role-play as a therapy approach targeting two pragmatic skills, stylistic variation and requesting for clarification, was found to be beneficial for learners with LLD. Recommendations for the implementation of role-play as a therapy approach were made.

  11. The VPS4 component of the ESCRT machinery plays an essential role in HPV infectious entry and capsid disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Broniarczyk, Justyna; Pim, David; Massimi, Paola; Bergant, Martina; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna; Crump, Colin; Banks, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves multiple steps, from cell attachment, through endocytic trafficking towards the trans-Golgi network, and, ultimately, the entry into the nucleus during mitosis. An essential viral protein in infectious entry is the minor capsid protein L2, which engages different components of the endocytic sorting machinery during this process. The ESCRT machinery is one such component that seems to play an important role in the early stages of infection. Here we have analysed the role of specific ESCRT components in HPV infection, and we find an essential role for VPS4. Loss of VPS4 blocks infection with multiple PV types, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved critical step in infectious entry. Intriguingly, both L1 and L2 can interact with VPS4, and appear to be in complex with VPS4 during the early stages of virus infection. By using cell lines stably expressing a dominant-negative mutant form of VPS4, we also show that loss of VPS4 ATPase activity results in a marked delay in capsid uncoating, resulting in a defect in the endocytic transport of incoming PsVs. These results demonstrate that the ESCRT machinery, and in particular VPS4, plays a critical role in the early stages of PV infection. PMID:28349933

  12. Diabetes on the Navajo nation: what role can gardening and agriculture extension play to reduce it?

    PubMed

    Lombard, Kevin A; Forster-Cox, Susan; Smeal, Dan; O'Neill, Mick K

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a serious health problem in the Navajo nation, the largest Indigenous tribe in the US. Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for developing other diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Navajos with diabetes almost certainly face a diminished quality of life if their diabetes is not managed properly. Aside from genetics, the incidence of diabetes is highly correlated with income, poor diet, and limited physical exercise. A review of the literature also implicates dietary shifts initiated by historical events and contemporary trends. Numerous studies have shown that moderate consumption of fruits and vegetables, combined with exercise, reduces the risk of or delays the onset of many diseases including diabetes. As part of a larger holistic approach, home and community garden projects have successfully addressed nutrition and food security issues on a grassroots scale. The Navajos have a tradition of farming and therefore expanding Navajo diabetes interventions to include the promotion of community and home gardens provides multiple opportunities. The benefits of these actions include: (i) a variety of nutritious food grown locally; (ii) physical activity attained through the act of daily gardening tasks; (iii) positive income garnered in terms of savings in food otherwise purchased at stores and excess produce canned, or if desired, sold at a farmer's market or trading post; and (iv) positive mental outlook through a combined sense of accomplishment at harvest time, bonding with the earth, and spiritual growth. The objectives of this article were to review the development of diabetes on the Navajo nation though historical and contemporary literature, to provide insight into the role of diet and exercise in the progression of the disease, and to offer cases and suggestions in the role that home and community gardening can play in diabetes reduction. A concluding discussion proposes a multidisciplinary approach to tackling diabetes on the

  13. The CARD plays a critical role in ASC foci formation and inflammasome signaling

    PubMed Central

    Proell, Martina; Gerlic, Motti; Mace, Peter D.; Reed, John C.; Riedl, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) is a key component of multimeric protein complexes that mediate inflammation and host defense. Composed of a Pyrin (PYD) domain and a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), ASC functions downstream of nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) through the formation of supramolecular structures termed inflammasomes. However, the mechanism underlying ASC signaling and its dependency on oligomeric arrangements in inflammasome formation remain poorly understood. When expressed in cells, ASC forms discrete foci (called “specks”) typically with one speck per cell. We employed a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) system to investigate and visualize ASC foci formation in living cells. We demonstrate that the CARD of ASC plays a central role in ASC inflammasome assembly, representing the minimal unit capable of forming foci in conjunction with Caspase-1 CARD. Mutational studies point to multiple surfaces on the ASC CARD and two predominant areas on the Caspase-1 CARD mediating the formation of ASC/Caspase-1 foci. The lack of foci formation for ASC CARD mutants correlates with a loss of IL-1β processing in response to NLRP3 or AIM2 agonists in RAW264.7 cell reconstitution assays. Analogously, we show that productive formation of the Salmonella typhimurium-induced NLRC4 inflammasome is dependent on ASC-CARD-mediated platform formation. Thus, our results depict a central role of CARDs in the formation of ASC signaling platforms and provide an important tool for investigation of CARD-dependent networks. PMID:23110696

  14. Role Modeling and Role Playing in Employability Development Agencies. A Manual for Vocational Development and Employment Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jesse E.; And Others

    This manual is the result of an effort designed to solve the problems of the unemployed poor. A total of six agencies participated in this project and designed this manual which focuses on role modeling and role playing. The manual is directed toward the unsophisticated client who has had too little experience to be able to understand the fairly…

  15. Turkish Foreign Language Learners' Roles and Outputs: Introducing an Innovation and Role-Playing in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbek, Cigdem; Comoglu, Irem; Baran, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to design of the two activities "introducing an innovation" and "role playing" in Second Life (SL) and to evaluate qualitatively Turkish foreign language learner's roles and outputs before, while, and after the implementation of the activities. The study used community of inquiry model consisting of cognitive…

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Multiple Roles in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Xiang; Tan, Meng-Shan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia. Pathological changes in the AD brain include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as neuronal death and synaptic loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role as inflammatory components in the pathogenesis of AD. MMP-2 might be assumed to have a protective role in AD and is the major MMP which is directly linked to Aβ in the brain. Synthesis of MMP-9 can be induced by Aβ, and the enzymes appear to exert multiple effects in AD in senile plaque homoeostasis. The proaggregatory influence on tau oligomer formation in strategic brain regions may be a potential neurotoxic side effect of MMP-9. MMP-3 levels are correlated to the duration of AD and correlate with the CSF T-tau and P-tau levels in the elderly controls. Elevated brain levels of MMP-3 might result in increased MMP-9 activity and indirectly facilitate tau aggregation. At present, the clinical utility of these proteins, particularly in plasma or serum, as potential early diagnostic biomarkers for AD remains to be established. More research is needed to understand the diverse roles of these proteases to design specific drugs and devise therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:25050378

  17. The Role of Astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Correale, Jorge; Farez, Mauricio F.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder causing central nervous system (CNS) demyelination and axonal injury. Although its etiology remains elusive, several lines of evidence support the concept that autoimmunity plays a major role in disease pathogenesis. The course of MS is highly variable; nevertheless, the majority of patients initially present a relapsing–remitting clinical course. After 10–15 years of disease, this pattern becomes progressive in up to 50% of untreated patients, during which time clinical symptoms slowly cause constant deterioration over a period of many years. In about 15% of MS patients, however, disease progression is relentless from disease onset. Published evidence supports the concept that progressive MS reflects a poorly understood mechanism of insidious axonal degeneration and neuronal loss. Recently, the type of microglial cell and of astrocyte activation and proliferation observed has suggested contribution of resident CNS cells may play a critical role in disease progression. Astrocytes could contribute to this process through several mechanisms: (a) as part of the innate immune system, (b) as a source of cytotoxic factors, (c) inhibiting remyelination and axonal regeneration by forming a glial scar, and (d) contributing to axonal mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, regulatory mechanisms mediated by astrocytes can be affected by aging. Notably, astrocytes might also limit the detrimental effects of pro-inflammatory factors, while providing support and protection for oligodendrocytes and neurons. Because of the dichotomy observed in astrocytic effects, the design of therapeutic strategies targeting astrocytes becomes a challenging endeavor. Better knowledge of molecular and functional properties of astrocytes, therefore, should promote understanding of their specific role in MS pathophysiology, and consequently lead to development of novel and more successful therapeutic approaches. PMID:26347709

  18. Role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of individuals with different perception.

    PubMed

    Furumi, Fumikazu; Koyasu, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red). Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read), according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own.

  19. Counselor Education Doctoral Students' Experiences with Multiple Roles and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Kristen N.; Ebrahim, Christine H.; Herlihy, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 counselor education doctoral students' lived experiences with multiple roles and relationships. Four superordinate themes were found: power differential, need for education, transformation, and learning from experiences. Findings revealed that multiple roles and relationships offer…

  20. Counselor Education Doctoral Students' Experiences with Multiple Roles and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Kristen N.; Ebrahim, Christine H.; Herlihy, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore 10 counselor education doctoral students' lived experiences with multiple roles and relationships. Four superordinate themes were found: power differential, need for education, transformation, and learning from experiences. Findings revealed that multiple roles and relationships offer…

  1. Can gut microbes play a role in mental disorders and their treatment?

    PubMed

    Latalova, Klara; Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features. Furthermore, the role of microbiota in neurodevelopment and in the modulation of social behavior suggests the possibility of its role in autism spectrum disorder and in schizophrenia. If altered, microbiota play a role in psychiatric disorders, then efforts to normalize the gut microbial population by the ingestion of probiotics (live bacteria) could have antidepresssant or antipsychotic effects. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research.

  2. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  3. A Continuum of Play-Based Learning: The Role of the Teacher in Play-Based Pedagogy and the Fear of Hijacking Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela; Danniels, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Research has demonstrated the developmental and educational benefits of play. Despite these benefits, teacher-directed academic instruction is prominent in kindergarten. There is increasing acknowledgment in curricula and policies of the challenges presented by a lack of play in classrooms and the need to support academic…

  4. Developing pharmacy student communication skills through role-playing and active learning.

    PubMed

    Luiz Adrian, Julie Ann; Zeszotarski, Paula; Ma, Carolyn

    2015-04-25

    To evaluate the impact on pharmacy students of a communication course, which used role-playing to develop active-learning skills. Students role-playing pharmacists in patient care scenarios were critiqued by students and pharmacist faculty members. Grading was performed using the rubric inspired by Bruce Berger's Communication Skills for Pharmacists. Written skills were evaluated using student written critique questionnaires. Students completed precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys. Preceptor evaluations were analyzed for course impact. Students demonstrated improvement in oral skills based on role-play scores (45.87/50) after practice sessions. The average score based on the student questionnaire was 9.31/10. Gain was demonstrated in all defined course objectives. Impact on introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) communication objectives was insignificant. Student evaluations for course and teaching strategy reflected a high average. Study results demonstrated improvement in oral and written communication skills that may help improve interprofessional teamwork between pharmacists and other health care providers.

  5. Use of role play in undergraduate teaching of ethics - an experience.

    PubMed

    Noone, Padmini Hannah; Raj Sharma, Sudhamshu; Khan, Fairoz; Raviraj, K G; Shobhana, S S

    2013-04-01

    Lecture is the traditional way of teaching adopted in our routine. Learning about medical ethics used to be done by lecture. All of us felt that learning some aspects of ethics requires a deeper understanding of the topics especially those areas involving feelings and emotions. So the role play method was chosen. We taught the topics consent and euthanasia by both the didactic method and by role play to the students of second year MBBS during the period June-July 2012 and then we compared the results. We have tried to evaluate role play vis-a vis lecture by analyzing the feedback from the students. The affective component analysis requires a different method of teaching and assessment as shown by our experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Analyzing Members' Motivations to Participate in Role-Playing and Self-Expression Based Virtual Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Eun; Saharia, Aditya

    With the rapid growth of computer mediated communication technologies in the last two decades, various types of virtual communities have emerged. Some communities provide a role playing arena, enabled by avatars, while others provide an arena for expressing and promoting detailed personal profiles to enhance their offline social networks. Due to different focus of these virtual communities, different factors motivate members to participate in these communities. In this study, we examine differences in members’ motivations to participate in role-playing versus self-expression based virtual communities. To achieve this goal, we apply the Wang and Fesenmaier (2004) framework, which explains members’ participation in terms of their functional, social, psychological, and hedonic needs. The primary contributions of this study are two folds: First, it demonstrates differences between role-playing and self-expression based communities. Second, it provides a comprehensive framework describing members’ motivation to participate in virtual communities.

  7. Roles of temperamental arousal and gender-segregated play in young children's social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Fabes, R A; Shepard, S A; Guthrie, I K; Martin, C L

    1997-07-01

    The hypothesis that gender differences in children's adjustment is partially influenced by differences in temperament and interactions with same-sex peers was examined. Fifty-seven predominantly White, middle-class preschoolers (29 boys and 28 girls, M age = 54.5 months) participated. Measures were taken of children's arousability, problem behaviors, and tendencies to play with same-sex peers. A semester later, children's peer status was assessed. Analyses revealed that arousability and same-sex peer play interacted to predict problem behaviors. For boys high in arousability, play with same-sex peers increased problem behaviors. In contrast, arousable girls who played with other girls were relatively unlikely to show problem behaviors. Moreover, the interaction of arousability and same-sex peer play predicted boys' (but not girls') peer status, and this relation was partially mediated by problem behaviors. The role of gender-related processes is discussed.

  8. Using virtual worlds for role play simulation in child and adolescent psychiatry: an evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Aaron K.; Hemani, Ashish; Fernandez, Victoria; Livingstone, Daniel; McCusker, Kerri; Toro-Troconis, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To develop and evaluate a novel teaching session on clinical assessment using role play simulation. Teaching and research sessions occurred sequentially in computer laboratories. Ten medical students were divided into two online small-group teaching sessions. Students role-played as clinician avatars and the teacher played a suicidal adolescent avatar. Questionnaire and focus-group methodology evaluated participants’ attitudes to the learning experience. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, qualitative data through nominal-group and thematic analyses. Results Participants reported improvements in psychiatric skills/knowledge, expressing less anxiety and more enjoyment than role-playing face to face. Data demonstrated a positive relationship between simulator fidelity and perceived utility. Some participants expressed concern about added value over other learning methods and non-verbal communication. Clinical implications The study shows that virtual worlds can successfully host role play simulation, valued by students as a useful learning method. The potential for distance learning would allow delivery irrespective of geographical distance and boundaries. PMID:25285217

  9. Senior veterinary students' perceptions of using role play to learn communication skills.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jennifer C; Bateman, Shane W

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies of veterinary practice have suggested a correlation between well-developed communication skills and job satisfaction, career retention, customer satisfaction, decreased lawsuits, and financial remuneration for veterinarians. Veterinary educators are under growing pressure to teach functional communication skills to veterinary students; however, the methods employed have not been well evaluated. In this study we have evaluated veterinary student's attitudes to learning communication skills by participating in role play. The study indicates that experiential learning modalities such as role play are perceived as effective by students, despite reluctance to participate and some discomfort surrounding participation.

  10. Skills Development Using Role-Play in a First-Year Pharmacy Practice Course

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the usefulness of a role-play model in developing students’ patient-care skills in a first-year undergraduate pharmacy practice course. Design. A role-play model was developed and implemented in workshops across 2 semesters of a year-long course. Students performed different roles, including that of a pharmacist and a patient, and documented case notes in a single interaction. Assessment. Student perceptions of the usefulness of the approach in acquiring skills were measured by surveying students during both semesters. All student assessments (N=130 in semester1; N=129 in semester 2) also were analyzed for skills in verbal communication, information gathering, counselling and making recommendations, and accurately documenting information. A majority of students found the approach useful in developing skills. An analysis of student assessments revealed that role-playing was not as effective in building skills related to accurate documentation as it was in other areas of patient care. Conclusions. Role play is useful for developing patient-care skills in communication and information gathering but not for documentation of case notes. PMID:21829258

  11. Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Mabilia, Diana; Lis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the outcomes and process of psychodynamic psychotherapies with children. Among the limited number of studies, some only paid attention to play and verbal production, as they are fundamental aspects in assessing the psychotherapy process. This paper focuses on an empirical investigation of a 3-year, once-a-week psychodynamic psychotherapy carried out with a 3-year-old girl. A process-outcome design was implemented to evaluate play and verbal discourse in in the initial, middle, and final parts of 30 psychotherapy sessions. Repeated measurements of standardized play categories (the Play Category System and the Affect in Play Scale—Preschool version) and verbal discourse (Verbal Production) were analyzed. To increase the clinical validity of the study, data from the assessment phase and vignettes from the sessions were reported to deepen the patient’s picture during the unfolding therapy process. Parent reports before and after the therapy were also included. Empirically measured changes in play and verbal production were fundamental in evaluating the young patient’s psychotherapy process. Verbal production and discourse ability progressively increased and took the place of play, which instead became more symbolic. Developmental issues as well as psychotherapy’s influence on the patient’s change, were discussed in relation to the role of play in enhancing the development of verbal dialog and the expression of the child’s emotions, needs, and desires. PMID:28101070

  12. Exploring the Impact of Role-Playing on Peer Feedback in an Online Case-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Yu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the impact of role-playing on the quality of peer feedback and learners' perception of this strategy in a case-based learning activity with VoiceThread in an online course. The findings revealed potential positive impact of role-playing on learners' generation of constructive feedback as role-playing was associated with higher…

  13. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  14. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  15. Strategy Instruction and Maintenance of Basic Multiplication Facts through Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, André R.

    2013-01-01

    Formative instruction on multiplication primarily focuses on rote memorization. This leads to factual fluency, but also develops a narrow view of multiplication and hinders the development of conceptual understanding. Theory and research recommend the concurrent development of conceptual understanding and factual fluency during the initial stages…

  16. Strategy Instruction and Maintenance of Basic Multiplication Facts through Digital Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, André R.

    2013-01-01

    Formative instruction on multiplication primarily focuses on rote memorization. This leads to factual fluency, but also develops a narrow view of multiplication and hinders the development of conceptual understanding. Theory and research recommend the concurrent development of conceptual understanding and factual fluency during the initial stages…

  17. To What Extent Might Role Play Be a Useful Tool for Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Helen

    2012-01-01

    To most children in primary school role-play is just something you do, and something you enjoy. It is part-and-parcel of being at school, part of the normal classroom activity. So, why can it not just be a normal part of learning mathematics? Can we study learners "in role", and make judgments about what they learn, and how they learn? This is the…

  18. Endocannabinoid Catabolic Enzymes Play Differential Roles in Thermal Homeostasis in Response to Environmental or Immune Challenge.

    PubMed

    Nass, Sara R; Long, Jonathan Z; Schlosburg, Joel E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H; Kinsey, Steven G

    2015-06-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-THC, the primary active constituent of Cannabis sativa, have anti-pyrogenic effects in a variety of assays. Recently, attention has turned to the endogenous cannabinoid system and how endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, regulate multiple homeostatic processes, including thermoregulation. Inhibiting endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), elevates levels of 2-AG or anandamide in vivo, respectively. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes function to maintain thermal homeostasis in response to hypothermic challenge. In separate experiments, male C57BL/6J mice were administered a MAGL or FAAH inhibitor, and then challenged with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2 mg/kg ip) or a cold (4 °C) ambient environment. Systemic LPS administration caused a significant decrease in core body temperature after 6 h, and this hypothermia persisted for at least 12 h. Similarly, cold environment induced mild hypothermia that resolved within 30 min. JZL184 exacerbated hypothermia induced by either LPS or cold challenge, both of which effects were blocked by rimonabant, but not SR144528, indicating a CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism of action. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor, PF-3845, had no effect on either LPS-induced or cold-induced hypothermia. These data indicate that unlike direct acting cannabinoid receptor agonists, which elicit profound hypothermic responses on their own, neither MAGL nor FAAH inhibitors affect normal body temperature. However, these endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes play distinct roles in thermoregulation following hypothermic challenges.

  19. What Role Should Environmental and Conservation Nongovernmental Organizations Play in Science Communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    Communication of a scientific topic as complex and multifaceted as climate change requires multiple strategies that are effective for reaching different audiences. The scientific community plays a pivotal role in advancing public understanding of climate change, generally via statements issued by professional societies, synthesis assessments, and media coverage of research publications. These efforts can be especially influential in the national public policy arena, but are not always the best means for educating the general public. Indeed, polls of the American public's views on climate change present a contradictory picture: a large majority of Americans agree that climate change is taking place, but many have a fundamental lack of understanding as to what causes it or how it might impact them. This results in confusion about what are the best solutions for addressing climate change. In addition, large science organizations may be ill equipped to communicate about regional and local climate impacts and responses. Environmental and conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can help bridge these gaps in understanding by translating scientific information and making it relevant to targeted audiences. NGOs can be effective messengers because they often have extensive grassroots networks, staff focused on regional and local issues, and high credibility with their respective constituencies. Furthermore, NGOs typically devote considerable resources to communication, from developing print, web, and video materials for their outreach efforts to cultivating relationships with the media. However, NGOs that are involved in advocacy run the risk of being considered biased in their presentation of scientific information. For this reason, partnerships with scientists can be an effective way for NGOs to avoid the perception of bias and use their resources to greatly expand the understanding and relevancy of research results. Examples will be presented of the National

  20. A hydrogen-bonding network plays a catalytic role in photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Polander, Brandon C; Barry, Bridgette A

    2012-04-17

    In photosystem II, oxygen evolution occurs by the accumulation of photo-induced oxidizing equivalents at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). The sequentially oxidized states are called the S(0)-S(4) states, and the dark stable state is S(1). Hydrogen bonds to water form a network around the OEC; this network is predicted to involve multiple peptide carbonyl groups. In this work, we tested the idea that a network of hydrogen bonded water molecules plays a catalytic role in water oxidation. As probes, we used OEC peptide carbonyl frequencies, the substrate-based inhibitor, ammonia, and the sugar, trehalose. Reaction-induced FT-IR spectroscopy was used to describe the protein dynamics associated with the S(1) to S(2) transition. A shift in an amide CO vibrational frequency (1664 (S(1)) to 1653 (S(2)) cm(-1)) was observed, consistent with an increase in hydrogen bond strength when the OEC is oxidized. Treatment with ammonia/ammonium altered these CO vibrational frequencies. The ammonia-induced spectral changes are attributed to alterations in hydrogen bonding, when ammonia/ammonium is incorporated into the OEC hydrogen bond network. The ammonia-induced changes in CO frequency were reversed or blocked when trehalose was substituted for sucrose. This trehalose effect is attributed to a displacement of ammonia molecules from the hydrogen bond network. These results imply that ammonia, and by extension water, participate in a catalytically essential hydrogen bond network, which involves OEC peptide CO groups. Comparison to the ammonia transporter, AmtB, reveals structural similarities with the bound water network in the OEC.

  1. Microchimeric fetal cells play a role in maternal wound healing after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Uzma; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cells persist in mothers for decades after delivery: in a phenomenon called fetal microchimerism. While persistent fetal cells were first implicated in autoimmune disease, parallel studies in animal and human pregnancy now suggest that microchimeric fetal cells play a role in the response to tissue injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fetal microchimeric cells in the adult wound, using caesarean section (CS) as a model of wound healing in pregnancy. XY-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and immunostaining was used in multiple tissue sections from CS skin biopsies from 70 women, to locate, quantitate and characterize microchimeric male presumed-fetal cells. Y-FISH and Nested PCR was used to confirm XY-FISH results. XY-FISH demonstrated the presence of isolated 0-9 male fetal cells per section in the epidermis of the healed CS scars from only those women who had their first male child by CS. Both Y-FISH and Y-PCR confirmed the presence of fetal cells in CS scars. Combined FISH and immunostaining showed all male fetal cells present were keratinocytes, as they expressed cytokeratin, and were almost exclusively located in epidermis. Microchimeric fetal cells also expressed Collagen I, III, and TGF-β3 in healed maternal scars. Identification of male-presumed fetal cells in healed maternal CS scars after pregnancy suggests that, possibly in response to signals produced by maternal skin injury at CS, fetal cells migrate to the site of damage to become involved in maternal tissue repair, or proliferate locally.

  2. A hydrogen-bonding network plays a catalytic role in photosynthetic oxygen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Polander, Brandon C.; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2012-01-01

    In photosystem II, oxygen evolution occurs by the accumulation of photo-induced oxidizing equivalents at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). The sequentially oxidized states are called the S0-S4 states, and the dark stable state is S1. Hydrogen bonds to water form a network around the OEC; this network is predicted to involve multiple peptide carbonyl groups. In this work, we tested the idea that a network of hydrogen bonded water molecules plays a catalytic role in water oxidation. As probes, we used OEC peptide carbonyl frequencies, the substrate-based inhibitor, ammonia, and the sugar, trehalose. Reaction-induced FT-IR spectroscopy was used to describe the protein dynamics associated with the S1 to S2 transition. A shift in an amide CO vibrational frequency (1664 (S1) to 1653 (S2) cm-1) was observed, consistent with an increase in hydrogen bond strength when the OEC is oxidized. Treatment with ammonia/ammonium altered these CO vibrational frequencies. The ammonia-induced spectral changes are attributed to alterations in hydrogen bonding, when ammonia/ammonium is incorporated into the OEC hydrogen bond network. The ammonia-induced changes in CO frequency were reversed or blocked when trehalose was substituted for sucrose. This trehalose effect is attributed to a displacement of ammonia molecules from the hydrogen bond network. These results imply that ammonia, and by extension water, participate in a catalytically essential hydrogen bond network, which involves OEC peptide CO groups. Comparison to the ammonia transporter, AmtB, reveals structural similarities with the bound water network in the OEC. PMID:22474345

  3. From board to bedside – training the communication competences of medical students with role plays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. Methods We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called “difficult interactions”. Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Results Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor’s role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient’s role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students’ most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor’s role at least once. The students’ answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of

  4. From board to bedside - training the communication competences of medical students with role plays.

    PubMed

    Luttenberger, Katharina; Graessel, Elmar; Simon, Cosima; Donath, Carolin

    2014-07-05

    Role plays and standardized patients are often used in medical education and have proven to be effective tools for enhancing the communication skills of medical students. Most course concepts need additional time and teaching staff, and there are only a few studies about role plays in the preclinical segment. We developed a highly consolidated concept for the curricular course of 2nd-year medical students, including ten role plays about five subjects: anamnesis, shared decision making, prevention, breaking bad news, and so-called "difficult interactions". Before the course, all students were asked about their expectations and attitudes toward the course. After the course, all students rated the course, their individual learning progress, whether their expectations had been fulfilled, and re-evaluated their attitudes. Questionnaires were self-report measures and had a quantitative and a short qualitative section and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Group differences (sex, age, role played) were evaluated with t tests at a Bonferonni-corrected significance level of p = .03 and the non-parametric U-tests. Implementing this practical course concept is possible without incurring additional costs. This paper not only shows how that can be done but also provides 5 examples of role scripts for different training subjects. The course concept was highly appreciated by the students. More than 75% felt that they had learned important communication techniques and would be better able to handle difficult situations. Playing the doctor's role was felt to be more useful than playing the patient's role. Women admitted a higher degree of shyness in the beginning and gave higher ratings to their learning progress than men. Students' most frequent wish in the qualitative analysis was to be able to play the doctor's role at least once. The students' answers showed a differentiated pattern, thus suggesting that the influence of social desirability was minimal. Practical skills

  5. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    WEIDLE, H. ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWEN; RÜGER, RÜDIGER

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell−cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes. PMID:28031234

  6. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwen; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2017-01-02

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes.

  7. A host small GTP-binding protein ARL8 plays crucial roles in tobamovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Masaki; Mori, Masashi; Dohi, Koji; Okamura, Hideyasu; Katoh, Etsuko; Naito, Satoshi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), like other eukaryotic positive-strand RNA viruses, replicates its genomic RNA in replication complexes formed on intracellular membranes. Previous studies showed that a host seven-pass transmembrane protein TOM1 is necessary for efficient ToMV multiplication. Here, we show that a small GTP-binding protein ARL8, along with TOM1, is co-purified with a FLAG epitope-tagged ToMV 180K replication protein from solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells. When solubilized membranes of ToMV-infected tobacco cells that expressed FLAG-tagged ARL8 were subjected to immunopurification with anti-FLAG antibody, ToMV 130K and 180K replication proteins and TOM1 were co-purified and the purified fraction showed RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity that transcribed ToMV RNA. From uninfected cells, TOM1 co-purified with FLAG-tagged ARL8 less efficiently, suggesting that a complex containing ToMV replication proteins, TOM1, and ARL8 are formed on membranes in infected cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARL8 consists of four family members. Simultaneous mutations in two specific ARL8 genes completely inhibited tobamovirus multiplication. In an in vitro ToMV RNA translation-replication system, the lack of either TOM1 or ARL8 proteins inhibited the production of replicative-form RNA, indicating that TOM1 and ARL8 are required for efficient negative-strand RNA synthesis. When ToMV 130K protein was co-expressed with TOM1 and ARL8 in yeast, RNA 5'-capping activity was detected in the membrane fraction. This activity was undetectable or very weak when the 130K protein was expressed alone or with either TOM1 or ARL8. Taken together, these results suggest that TOM1 and ARL8 are components of ToMV RNA replication complexes and play crucial roles in a process toward activation of the replication proteins' RNA synthesizing and capping functions.

  8. Role Play in Blended Learning: A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Story and Other Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dracup, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Role play is an increasingly popular technique in tertiary education, being student centred, constructivist and suitable for a range of subject areas. The choice of formats is wide open, with options ranging from the traditional face to face performance through to multi-user online computer games. Some teachers prefer to take advantage of features…

  9. Informal Workplace Communication--What Roles Can Microblogging Play in It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dejin

    2012-01-01

    Informal communication, e.g., unplanned "water-cooler" conversations, has been suggested to play important roles in collaborative work and organizational innovation. It provides opportunities among employees for exchanging work-relevant information, initiating potential collaboration, maintaining awareness of workplace context; and…

  10. What Do Students Learn from a Role-Play Simulation of an International Negotiation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Matthew A.; De Santo, Elizabeth M.; Green, Amanda D.

    2014-01-01

    This article uses pre- and post-surveys to assess learning outcomes associated with a role-play simulation set within a fictionalized extension of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Quantitative and qualitative data suggest that the simulation increased student appreciation of the complexity of international negotiation, but decreased student…

  11. The Ethanol Project: Exploring Alternative Energy with Role-Play and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project that includes a two-week series of researching, essay writing, and speaking lessons exploring the broader implications of using ethanol as a fuel. The author, a chemistry teacher, describes how she uses a senate hearing discussion of ethanol fuel subsidies as the forum for a role-play. The four components of the…

  12. Principals' Perceptions and Experiences of the Role Parents Play in School Governing Bodies in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartell, Cycil; Dippenaar, Hanlie; Moen, Melanie; Dladla, Themba

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions and experiences of rural school principals in South Africa of the role that parents in the school governing bodies (SGBs) play in improving school management and governance. The study reports on a literature review as well as on the empirical investigation, which was based on a qualitative research paradigm.…

  13. Understanding Collectivism and Female Genital Cutting through a Family Role-Playing Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study is a test of the effectiveness of a classroom role-playing exercise used to increase the understanding of cultural practices with which many Midwestern college students are uncomfortable. I employed a pre-test/post-test comparison group design. Students enrolled in two sections of a general education global issues course (N = 56) were…

  14. General Federation of Women's Clubs: A Role Playing Exercise for Studying the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sherman

    1986-01-01

    Provides an example of a role-playing exercise which takes place as a result of an imaginary caucus of women's groups meeting in the fall of 1912. The purpose of the caucus is to determine which of four presidential candidates--Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Eugene Debs--will receive the endorsement of the women's…

  15. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  16. Effect of the medication management module evaluated using the role play test.

    PubMed

    Ikebuchi, E; Anzai, N

    1995-06-01

    Training in social skills has been shown to have a strong, positive impact, according to behavioral measures, on social skills, self-rated assertiveness, and the hospital discharge rate. It is important to establish a system of assessing social skills because it is necessary for the effects of social skills training to be assessed in Japan. In Project 1, we devised a Japanese version of the role play test to quantify social skills using a standard method. We tested 30 patients attending the day hospital who were considered to need intensive rehabilitation. We found the role play test had high inter-rater and test-retest reliability, and had construct validity and criterion related validity. Thus, the role play test was thought to be a useful tool for assessing social skills. For Project 2, eight inpatients who were ready for discharge but who needed to improve their skills in self-managed medication participated in this study. The social skills of self-managed medication assessed using the role play test were significantly improved after the subjects participated in the Medication Management Module of the UCLA social and independent living skills program. Knowledge of self-managed medication also tended to improve after training. This study is preliminary and it should be confirmed that improved skills influenced by the medication management module decreases the relapse rates.

  17. A Role-Play Game to Facilitate the Development of Students' Reflective Internet Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…

  18. Enhance Learning on Software Project Management through a Role-Play Game in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratou, Vicky; Chatzidaki, Eleni; Xenos, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a role-play game for software project management (SPM) in a three-dimensional online multiuser virtual world. The Opensimulator platform is used for the creation of an immersive virtual environment that facilitates students' collaboration and realistic interaction, in order to manage unexpected events occurring during the…

  19. Female Superintendents in California and the Role That Mentoring and Networking Have Played in Their Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudek, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role that mentoring, formal networking, and informal networking have played in the lives of women who have obtained the position of superintendent in the state of California. The researcher explored the access that female administrators had to mentors and networks, followed by the perceived benefits they received when they…

  20. Developing Adolescents' Resistance to Sexual Coercion through Role-Playing Activities in a Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Marion; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the use of a three dimensional virtual world (3-DVW) to delivery assertiveness training to young adolescents. The case study aims to understand how a sense of presence in VWs facilitates and affect the performance of students role-playing activities to enhance their ability to resist sexual coercion. The results indicate that a…

  1. Sixth Graders' Conflict Resolution in Role Plays with a Peer, Parent, and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borbely, Christina J.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used conflict resolution role play vignettes and self-report surveys of 450 New York City 6th graders to examine associations between adolescents' conflict resolution efficacy and social skills. Vignettes covered 3 social contexts, conflict with a peer (disagreement over activities), with a parent (raise in allowance), and with a…

  2. Sustainability and Science Learning: Perceptions from 8th Grade Students Involved with a Role Playing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Sofia; Baptista, Mónica; Freire, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Raising awareness about sustainability is an urgent need and as such education for sustainability has gained relevancy for the last decades. It is acknowledged that science education can work as an important context for educating for sustainability. The goal of the present paper is to describe a role-playing activity about the construction of a…

  3. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  4. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  5. Role-Playing Games for Capacity Building in Water and Land Management: Some Brazilian Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Maria Eugenia; Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Ducrot, Raphaele

    2007-01-01

    Role-playing games in natural resource management are currently being tested as research, training, and intervention tools all over the world. Various studies point out their potential to deal with complex issues and to contribute to training processes. The objective of this contribution is to analyze the limits and potentialities of this tool for…

  6. Parenting Talent: A Qualitative Investigation of the Roles Parents Play in Talent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Amanda L.; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kasson, Sarah C.; Perry, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has linked talent development to four factors--early experience, coaching, practice, and motivation. In addition to these factors, contemporary talent experts suggest that parents play a critical role in talent development. The purpose of the present study was to uncover parents' in-time perspectives on the talent development…

  7. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus, with…

  8. "Try Walking in Our Shoes": Teaching Acculturation and Related Cultural Adjustment Processes through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Tomaso, Cara C.; Audley, Shannon; Pole, Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe several role-playing exercises on acculturation and relevant cultural adjustment processes that we incorporated into Tomcho and Foel's classroom activity on acculturation, and we report data that examine subsequent changes in students' responses on pretest and posttest measures shortly after the activity and present…

  9. Unsavory Problems at Tasty's: A Role-Play about Whistle-Blowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Debra R.; Vega, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a role-play exercise to make the topic of whistle-blowing personally salient to undergraduates. Students identify with the prospective whistle-blower, whose decision affects several stakeholders. The protagonist merely suspects her manager of stealing, until she hears concrete evidence of his thefts from her assistant…

  10. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  11. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus, with…

  12. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  13. Role Play Simulations: The Assessment of an Active Learning Technique and Comparisons with Traditional Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNeve, Kristina; Heppner, Mary J.

    1997-01-01

    Use of active learning techniques of role-playing and simulation in an industrial psychology course (n=29 students) is described and assessed. Subjective reports and objective assessments of knowledge retention indicate the approach was effective. The differential importance of active learning and passive learning (lecture) in the college…

  14. Learning Strategies and Learner Attitudes in the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Cube World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Shu Li

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…

  15. Developmental Play: A New Approach to the Role of Mass Media in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith P.; Hagahmed, Gamaleldin O.

    Most of the "talk" about the role of mass media in the Third World is generated by politicians rather than by professional communicators. The "Developmental Play Model" treats media experience as an encounter with the "self" and considers the "self" as an integral part of the mass communication process. The…

  16. What Are the Roles that Children's Drawings Play in Inquiry of Science Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ni

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the roles that drawing played in the process of children's acquisition of science concepts. Seventy pre-service teachers through four semesters from a Midwest University in the USA developed lesson plans on science concepts and then taught them to 70 young children ages 4-7, respectively. This experience was…

  17. Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu; Kurabayashi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    For the study of biology in an undergraduate classroom, a classroom exercise was developed: an analogy role-play to learn mechanisms of gene transcription and protein translation (central dogma). To develop the central dogma role-play exercise, we made DNA and mRNA using paper sheets, tRNA using a wire dress hanger, and amino acids using Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark). Students were studying in the course of mathematics, physics, or chemistry, so biology was not among their usual studies. In this exercise, students perform the central dogma role-play and respectively act out nuclear matrix proteins, a transcription factor, an RNA polymerase II, an mRNA transport protein, nuclear pore proteins, a large ribosomal subunit, a small ribosomal subunit, and several amino-acyl tRNA synthetases. Questionnaire results obtained after the activity show that this central dogma role-play analogy holds student interest in the practical molecular biological processes of transcription and translation.

  18. Students as "Humans Chromosomes" in Role-Playing Mitosis and Meiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnici, Joseph P.; Yue, Joyce W.; Torres, Kieron M.

    2004-01-01

    Students often find it challenging to understand mitosis and meiosis and determine their processes. To develop an easier way to understand these terms, students are asked to role-play mitosis and meiosis and students themselves act as human chromosomes, which help students to learn differences between mitosis and meiosis.

  19. Role-Playing Game Based Assessment to Fractional Concept in Second Grade Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Fu-Yuan; Hsieh, Mei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a set of Role-playing game (RPG), which was used to explore whether significant differences exist in academic performance and learning attitudes between RPG-based assessment and traditional lectures. This study also investigated the satisfaction of students toward the RPG scenario. Research participants included 100 second…

  20. How to Develop Creative Imagination? Assumptions, Aims and Effectiveness of Role Play Training in Creativity (RPTC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwowski, Maciej; Soszynski, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    There are hundreds of ways to develop creativity among children, youths and adults. Developing new ideas and ways of teaching creativity should also incorporate youth's interests and hobbies. The article presents the main information about the new way of developing creative abilities, especially creative imagination, the Role Play Training in…