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Sample records for pldkatsetes aastatel 2000-2002

  1. Analyses of 2000-2002 PM Data for the PM NAAQS Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These files document all analyses conducted in association with the EPA memorandum from Mark Schmidt, David Mintz, Tesh Rao, and Lance McCluney titled Analyses of 2000-2002 PM Data for the PM NAAQS Review, August 29, 2003.

  2. San Bernardino Valley College Strategic Enrollment Management Plan: Recruitment and Retention, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, David T., Ed.

    The San Bernardino Valley College (California) Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Plan was developed to specifically increase student enrollment and to improve retention over 2000-2002, and thereafter. Presents the SEM plan in two parts: recruitment and retention. The date, description, action, person responsible, date needed, date completed,…

  3. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  4. Long-term survival expectations of cancer patients in Europe in 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Francisci, Silvia; de Angelis, Roberta; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Verdecchia, Arduino; Gatta, Gemma; Allemani, Claudia; Ciccolallo, Laura; Coleman, Michel; Sant, Milena

    2009-04-01

    Period analysis has been shown to provide more up-to-date estimates of long-term cancer survival rates than traditional cohort-based analysis. Here, we provide detailed period estimates of 5- and 10-year relative survival by cancer site, country, sex and age for calendar years 2000-2002. In addition, pan-European estimates of 1-, 5- and 10-year relative survival are provided. Overall, survival estimates were mostly higher than previously available cohort estimates. For most cancer sites, survival in countries from Northern Europe, Central Europe and Southern Europe was substantially higher than in the United Kingdom and Ireland and in countries from Eastern Europe. Furthermore, relative survival was also better in female than in male patients and decreased with age for most cancer sites.

  5. Opportunistic infections and other AIDS-defining illnesses in Poland in 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Podlasin, R B; Wiercinska-Drapalo, A; Olczak, A; Beniowski, M; Smiatacz, T; Malolepsza, E; Juszczyk, J; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, M; Mach, T; Mian, M; Knysz, B; Horban, A

    2006-08-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) led to a decreased incidence of the most severe opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected patients. In Poland, HAART became widely used in 1998. This study was based on data from medical records data collected in the years 2000-2002 from medical centers for HIV-infected patients in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) and other AIDS defining illnesses (ADIs). The chi(2) test was used to determine any significant trends. The incidence of ADIs was 6.8, 6.5 and 4.8/100 persons/year in 2000-2002, respectively. The most common diagnosed OIs were: fungal infections, tuberculosis, recurrent pneumonia, PCP and toxoplasmosis. In patients receiving HAART (HAART+) the incidence of ADIs was significantly lower than in non-ARV-treated as well as in all HIV+ (p < 0.02, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). A significant decrease in the incidence of ADIs in HAART+ patients between 2000 and 2002 (p < 0.0001) was observed. From 25% to 30% of ADIs among HAART+ patients were diagnosed within the first 3 months of antiretroviral therapy. In HAART+ patients the most common ADIs were fungal infections and tuberculosis. The diagnosis of ADIs resulted in the recognition of HIV status in 8.7-8.9% of patients. Five years after the introduction of HAART the incidence of ADIs had declined. Fungal infections and tuberculosis were the most common OIs in HIV+ patients in Poland.

  6. 2000-2002 Sultandağı-Afyon Earthquake Activity in Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.

    2016-12-01

    Western Anatolia is one of the seismically active region in Turkey. The high seismic activity is a result of the complex tectonic deformation of the Anatolian plate which has been dominated by the N-S extensional tectonic regime in the western edge. This extensional tectonic regime is partially maintained by a relative movement of the African-Arabian plates to north, average 2.5 cm per year. In western Turkey, relatively 3 major earthquakes (Mw≥6.0) were identified on the Sultandağı Fault zone (Afyon-Akşehir Graben) between years of 2000-2002. First event occurred at the year of 2000 (Eber-Sultandagi Earthquake, Mw=6.0) , and both events were occurred at February 3, 2002 Sultandağı (Mw=6.5) and Cay-Sultandagi (Mw=6.0). In this study, mentioned local earthquake activity, have been investigated to understand their nature and relation of the regional seismic activity and tectonic deformation on the Sultandağı Fault Zone (Afyon-Akşehir Graben) in western Anatolia. At first, we analyzed the distribution of mainshock and aftershocks of the two earthquakes which occurred in February 3, 2002 in the region. Fault mechanism solutions of the selected earthquakes and detailed stress regime analyses performed for the mainshock and aftershock sequences of two earthquakes. In regard with mentioned earthquakes, the identified surface ruptures have been investigated by detailed geological field study in the region. Also source mechanism solutions of the selected 17 regional earthquakes between years of 2000 and 2009 years in the region provided to understand the relation of the Sultandagi earthquakes sequences and regional seismic activity. Regional and local seismic investigations shows that, consecutive seismic activity is a result of the disturbance of stress balance in the region which has been triggered by sequentially occuring of earthquakes and triggering in short interval in years of 2000-2002. Also all seismic source studies approved that extensional deformation

  7. Flows of financial resources for health research and development in Brazil, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Caetano, Rosângela; Ortega, José Antonio; Façanha, Luiz Otávio de Figueiredo; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez; Siqueira, Marien; Costa, Tiago Barros

    2007-02-01

    To map and measure the flows of financial resources for health research and development in Brazil for the years 2000-2002. After adapting the methodology developed for the Center for Economic Policy Research, data were collected on the sources and uses of resources for health research and development. The annual average value of resources apportioned to health research and development was approximately 573 million US dollars. The public sector as a whole invested 417.3 million US dollars and the health department 51.1 million US dollars. Expressed in percentages, the public sector invested 4.15% of the health department's budget although the Ministry of Health assigned only 0.3% of its budget to health research in the country. The universities and the research institutes are the main users of the resources allocated to health research and development, receiving 91.6% of the total public spending, while the private sector receives a small share of around 0.69% of the total. The private sector invested 135.6 million US dollars per year, and the international organizations 20.1 million US dollars per year. Besides measuring the financial resources made available for health research and development, the results allowed the filling of gaps in national information; the identification of the flows of applied financial resources; and the testing and adaptation of the proposed methodology, generating information suitable for international comparisons.

  8. Physical oceanographic conditions in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico in summer 2000-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochens, Ann E.; DiMarco, Steven F.

    2008-12-01

    The circulation and distribution of water properties in the water column of the Gulf of Mexico influence the flux of carbon to the benthic environment. The eddy field of the upper 1000 m creates environmental conditions that are favorable for biological productivity in an otherwise oligotrophic subtropical ocean. This eddy field results in the transport of nutrients and organic matter into the photic zone through cross-margin flow of shelf waters, upwelling in cyclones, and uplift from the interaction of anticyclones with bathymetry. These conditions then allow the productivity that becomes a possible source of carbon to the benthos. Data from four cruises during summers of 2000-2002 are used to describe the currents and water property distributions in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, which consists of water depths greater than 400 m. Comparisons are made to historical data sets to provide an understanding of the persistence of the characteristics of the Gulf and the processes that occur there. The currents in the Gulf are surface intensified, have minimum in 800-1000 m depths, and also exhibit bottom intensification, especially near sloping topography. Historical time series records show current speeds near-bottom reach 50-100 cm s -1. At basin scales, these currents tend to flow cyclonically (counter-clockwise) along the bathymetry. These near-bottom, episodic, high-speed currents provide a mechanism for the transport of organic material, in both large and small particle sizes, from one benthic area to another. The distributions of temperature, salinity, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen during the study appear to be unchanged from historical findings. The source waters for the deep Gulf are the water masses brought into the Gulf by the Loop Current system. The properties in the upper 100-200 m are the most variable of the water column, consistent with their proximity to wind mixing, river discharge mixing, and atmospheric influences. Below 1500 m, there are no major

  9. Cancer screening literature in the period 2000-2002: pointers to future research avenues.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A; Kunimoto, Takehiko; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine which areas of cancer screening are currently receiving greatest emphasis in different parts of the world a Medline search of the literature for the period 2000-2002 was performed, concentrating attention on research into all aspects of efforts for early detection of tumours, with especial attention to methodology, motivation (including awareness of utility in the general populace and in minority groups), and intervention (professional training and general education). Focus on the skin, lung, cervix, breast, ovary + endometrium, oral cavity-oesophagus, gastric, colorectal, kidney + urinary tract and prostate, demonstrated large numbers of journals to be publishing papers in the field, with 10, 33, 130, 53, 24, 21, 6, 81, 12 and 58, respectively, in the period investigated, the grand total being 259. The average numbers of papers/journal ranged from 1.0-2.4 with only 15-35% appearing in journals with wide coverage. With the exception of oral, oesophageal and gastric cancer screening, an approximately 50% contribution in all areas was made by scientists in the US, followed by Europe (31% overall,) Asia (11%) then Australasia, Central and South America and Africa (3%, 2% and 1%, respectively). Clear differences were evident with the organ regarding specific topics receiving attention, most publications concerning the lung, ovary and urological tract dealing with detection methods. With the cervix and colorectum this topic accounted for half of the papers with especial attention to the relative advantages of the PAP smear, HPV testing and direct visual acetic acid (DVA) in the one, and FOBT and endoscopy in the other. Another major focus was found to be minority attitudes to breast, prostate and cervical screening in the US, whereas only few papers were found dealing with practical intervention, targeting professionals or screenees to increase participation in screening programs. The present approach suggested a number of areas requiring more

  10. Lower fumonisin mycotoxin levels in the grain of Bt corn grown in the United States in 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Campbell, Keith W; Pilcher, Clinton D; Degooyer, Todd A; Robinson, Aaron E; McMillen, Brian L; Spangler, Steven M; Riordan, Susan G; Rice, Larry G; Richard, John L

    2004-03-10

    Fumonisins were monitored in corn grain collected from Bt hybrids grown in 107 locations across the United States in 2000-2002. Bt corn hybrids contain the Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis that controls European corn borers and other stalk-boring pests. Fumonisin levels were frequently lower in grain from Bt hybrids grown in field trials under conditions of natural (FACT trials) or manual insect infestation (university trials). Over three years of FACT trials, there were 126/210 comparisons when fumonisin levels in grain from control hybrids were >2 ppm, exceeding U.S. FDA guidance levels of 2 ppm for human food. Grain from Bt hybrids was at or below 2 ppm of fumonisins for 58 of the 126 comparisons. The use of Bt hybrids can increase the percentage of corn grain that would be suitable for use in food and feed.

  11. Waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water near Elkhart, Indiana, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, P.M.; Yeskis, D.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Four wells downgradient from a landfill near Elkhart, Indiana were sampled during 2000-2002 to evaluate the presence of waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water. Compounds detected in leachate-affected ground water included detergent metabolites (p-nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, nonylphenol diethoxylate, and octylphenol monoethoxylate), plasticizers (ethanol-2-butoxy-phosphate and diethylphthalate), a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), disinfectants (1,4-dichlorobenzene and triclosan), an antioxidant (5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three fire-retardant compounds (tributylphosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, and tri(dichlorisopropyl)phosphate), and several pharmaceuticals and metabolites (acetaminophen, caffeine, cotinine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, fluoxetine, and ibuprofen). Acetaminophen, caffeine, and cotinine detections confirm prior indications of pharmaceutical and nicotinate disposal in the landfill. ?? 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella flexneri serotypes in Israel during a period of three years: 2000-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, V.; Japheth, R.; Yishai, R.; Andorn, N.

    2004-01-01

    This is a surveillance study of the antimicrobial resistance of the S. flexneri group in the context of its serotype diversity. It includes 1422 isolates, which were sent to the National Shigella Reference Centre (NSRC) by hospitals and outpatient clinics in Israel during a 3-year period (2000-2002). The strains were identified and classified according to the prevalence and antigenic structure of their serotypes. All samples were checked for resistance to ampicillin (AMP), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), ceftriaxone (CRO), tetracycline (TE), nalidixic acid (NAL), and chloramphenicol (C) by the disk diffusion method of Bauer et al. There were significant differences in their resistance to the individual antimicrobials with resistance to AMP, TE and C being lower among the strains of serotype 6 than among those of serotypes 2a and 1b. The resistant phenotypes were also serotype-specific. The similarities both in individual and in phenotype resistance between the rare and the prevalent serotypes (but not serotype 6) may be attributed to their antigenic relatedness. The serospecificity of the antimicrobial resistance was not affected by external factors such as seasonality and source (hospital or outpatient laboratory) of the isolates, and the age and sex of the patients. The serotype-specific approach can assist in properly assessing the problem of the antimicrobial resistance of the Shigella flexneri group and may prove useful for the empirical therapy of shigellosis. The observed interdependency between resistance and the antigenic specificity and relatedness of the S. flexneri serotypes requires additional investigation. PMID:15635961

  13. Mortality among children and youth in high-percentage First Nations identity areas, 2000-2002 and 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Peters, Paul A; Oliver, Lisa N; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Many First Nations children live in communities that face diverse social and health challenges compared with their non-Aboriginal peers, including some of the most socio-economically challenging situations in Canada. These differences can be seen in broad indicators of the social determinants of health. Studies of mortality in Aboriginal populations across Canada are often restricted by the lack of Aboriginal identifiers on national death records. While some studies have utilised a record-linkage approach, this is often not possible for the entire country or for recent data. Some researchers have adopted a geographic approach and examined mortality and morbidity in areas that have a high percentage of Aboriginal identity residents, and have uniformly reported elevated rates of mortality and morbidity compared with other areas. The purpose of this article was to examine child and youth mortality (aged 1 to 19 years) in areas where a high percentage of the population identified as First Nations in comparison with areas where there is a low percentage of Aboriginal identity residents. Using a geographic threshold table approach, areas with a high percentage of Aboriginal identity peoples were classified as either First Nations, Métis, or Inuit communities based on the predominant identity group. The upper one-third of the total Aboriginal population distribution was used as a cut-off for high percentage First Nations areas, where 97.7% of the population aged 1-19 were of First Nations identity in 2006 (N=140 779). Mortality rates were then calculated for high-percentage First Nations identity areas and compared with low-percentage Aboriginal identity areas, excluding high-percentage Métis or Inuit identity areas. Deaths were aggregated for the 3 years surrounding the 2001 and 2006 census periods, and a total of 473 deaths were recorded for 2000-2002 and 493 deaths for 2005-2007. Analysis was facilitated via the correspondence of six-digit residential postal

  14. Analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City during 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Vega, Elizabeth; Reyes, Elizabeth; Ruiz, Hugo; García, José; Sánchez, Gabriela; Martínez-Villa, Gerardo; González, Uriel; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G

    2004-07-01

    During the last 10 years, high atmospheric concentrations of airborne particles recorded in the Mexico City metropolitan area have caused concern because of their potential harmful effects on human health. Four monitoring campaigns have been carried out in the Mexico City metropolitan area during 2000-2002 at three sites: (1) Xalostoc, located in an industrial region; (2) La Merced, located in a commercial area; and (3) Pedregal, located in a residential area. Results of gravimetric and chemical analyses of 330 samples of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) indicate that (1) PM2.5/PM10 average ratios were 0.42, 0.46, and 0.52 for Xalostoc, La Merced, and Pedregal, respectively; (2) the highest PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were found at the industrial site; (3) PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were lower at nighttime; (4) PM2.5 and PM10 spatial averages concentrations were 35 and 76 microg/m3, respectively; and (5) when the PM2.5 standard was exceeded, nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon, and elemental carbon concentrations were high. Twenty-four hour averaged PM2.5 concentrations in Mexico City and Sao Paulo were similar to those recorded in the 1980s in Los Angeles. PM10 concentrations were comparable in Sao Paulo and Mexico City but 3-fold lower than those found in Santiago.

  15. Survival of European patients diagnosed with lymphoid neoplasms in 2000-2002: results of the HAEMACARE project.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; De Angelis, Roberta; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Maynadie, Marc; Luminari, Stefano; Ferretti, Stefano; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Sankila, Risto; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Simonetti, Arianna; Martos, Maria Carmen; Raphaël, Martine; Giraldo, Pilar; Sant, Milena

    2011-05-01

    The European Cancer Registry-based project on hematologic malignancies (HAEMACARE), set up to improve the availability and standardization of data on hematologic malignancies in Europe, used the European Cancer Registry-based project on survival and care of cancer patients (EUROCARE-4) database to produce a new grouping of hematologic neoplasms (defined by the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition and the 2001/2008 World Health Organization classifications) for epidemiological and public health purposes. We analyzed survival for lymphoid neoplasms in Europe by disease group, comparing survival between different European regions by age and sex. Incident neoplasms recorded between 1995 to 2002 in 48 population-based cancer registries in 20 countries participating in EUROCARE-4 were analyzed. The period approach was used to estimate 5-year relative survival rates for patients diagnosed in 2000-2002, who did not have 5 years of follow up. The 5-year relative survival rate was 57% overall but varied markedly between the defined groups. Variation in survival within the groups was relatively limited across European regions and less than in previous years. Survival differences between men and women were small. The relative survival for patients with all lymphoid neoplasms decreased substantially after the age of 50. The proportion of 'not otherwise specified' diagnoses increased with advancing age. This is the first study to analyze survival of patients with lymphoid neoplasms, divided into groups characterized by similar epidemiological and clinical characteristics, providing a benchmark for more detailed analyses. This Europe-wide study suggests that previously noted differences in survival between regions have tended to decrease. The survival of patients with all neoplasms decreased markedly with age, while the proportion of 'not otherwise specified' diagnoses increased with advancing age. Thus the quality of diagnostic work-up and care

  16. Surface Deformation Caused by Shallow Magmatic Activity at Okmok Volcano Detected by GPS Campapigns 2000-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Freymueller, J.; Kimata, F.; Sato, T.; Mann, D.; Fujii, N.; Kasahara, M.

    2002-12-01

    Okmok volcano is located on Umnak Island in the eastern part of Aleutian Arc. This volcano consists of a large caldera, and there are cones within the caldera. Okmok volcano has erupted more than 10 times during the last century, with the latest eruption occurring in February 1997. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been detected by InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry). However, the area of coherent data has been limited to the northern half of the caldera. We have carried out GPS (Global Positioning System) measurement campaigns in 2000, 2001 and 2002, with financial support from IARC (International Arctic Research Center) and NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan), and logistical support from AVO (Alaska Volcano Observatory). We hoped to compare or combine the results from both InSAR and GPS, but regrettably, there have been no suitable since 2000. We have surveyed a total of 33 stations on and around Okmok volcano. As a result of the data from repeated GPS observations for the period 2000-2002, we detected significant deformation with several features. First, displacements at the sites located inside the caldera are larger in magnitude than the ones at the sites located outside the caldera. Second, the direction of horizontal displacements inside caldera shows a radial outward pattern from the center of the caldera; however, the magnitudes of some displacements are not consistent with a simple Mogi source. Third, the horizontal displacements for the period 2001-2002 show a more purely radial pattern and both horizontal and vertical displacements are much larger in magnitude than for the period 2000-2001. This indicates that magma has come closer to the surface over the last years. We observed steaming from the active vent in this summer, which had not been observed since at least 2000. We interpreted these deformations as an inflation of the caldera and assumed magma chamber beneath the approximate

  17. Changes in the regional prevalence of child obesity in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Pérez, Adriana; Day, R Sue; Benoit, Julia S; Frankowski, Ralph F; Walker, Joey L; Lee, Eun S

    2010-07-01

    Although national and state estimates of child obesity are available, data at these levels are insufficient to monitor effects of local obesity prevention initiatives. The purpose of this study was to examine regional changes in the prevalence of obesity due to statewide policies and programs among children in grades 4, 8, and 11 in Texas Health Services Regions (HSRs) between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005, and nine selected counties in 2004-2005. A cross-sectional, probability-based sample of 23,190 Texas students in grades 4, 8, and 11 were weighed and measured to obtain BMI. Obesity was >95th percentile for BMI by age/sex using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Child obesity prevalence significantly decreased between 2000-2002 and 2004-2005 for 4th grade students in the El Paso HSR (-7.0%, P = 0.005). A leveling off in the prevalence of obesity was noted for all other regions for grades 4, 8, and 11. County-level data supported the statistically significant decreases noted in the El Paso region. The reduction of child obesity levels observed in the El Paso area is one of the few examples of effective programs and policies based on a population-wide survey: in this region, a local foundation funded extensive regional implementation of community programs for obesity prevention, including an evidence-based elementary school-based health promotion program, adult nutrition and physical activity programs, and a radio and television advertising campaign. Results emphasize the need for sustained school, community, and policy efforts, and that these efforts can result in decreases in child obesity at the population level.

  18. Detection and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among bloodstream isolates of Enterobacter spp. in Hong Kong, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Ho, P L; Shek, Ricky H L; Chow, K H; Duan, R S; Mak, Gannon C; Lai, Eileen L; Yam, W C; Tsang, Kenneth W; Lai, W M

    2005-03-01

    A total of 139 consecutive and non-duplicate bloodstream isolates of Enterobacter spp. collected from inpatients in Hong Kong during 2000-2002 were studied for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). All isolates were evaluated by the modified double-disc synergy test (m-DDST), the combined disc method (CDM) and the three-dimensional (3D) test. The m-DDST and CDM were modified by the use of cefepime discs. beta-Lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing and PCR sequencing using specific primers. ESBLs were identified in nine isolates (overall 6.5%), including seven of 39 (17.9%) Enterobacter hormaechei, one of 27 (3.7%) Enterobacter aerogenes and the only Enterobacter intermedius strain. The E. intermedius strain was positive only in the 3D test but not in the other two tests. The other eight strains were positive in all three tests. No ESBL was detected in the other species, including non-hormaechei members of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=61), Enterobacter agglomerans (n=7), Enterobacter gergoviae (n=4) and Enterobacter sakazakii (n=1). The ESBL content included five different CTX-M enzymes (CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, CTX-M-14, CTX-M-24 and a novel CTX-M-2-like beta-lactamase), SHV-12 (n=2) and unidentifiable ESBLs with a pI of 7.7 or 7.9 in two strains. The seven ESBL-producing E. hormaechei were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and were found to be unrelated to each other. In three of the CTX-M-producing strains, ISEcp1-like elements, including promoters for the beta-lactamase gene, were found. Our data underscore the diversity of CTX-M enzymes among Enterobacter spp. in Hong Kong.

  19. [Clinical features and course of Kawasaki disease in central Tunisia: a study about 14 cases collected over a period of three years (2000-2002)].

    PubMed

    Chemli, Jalel; Kchaou, Habib; Amri, Fethi; Belkadhi, Adel; Essoussi, Ahmed Sahloul; Gueddiche, Neji; Harbi, Abdelaziz

    2005-08-01

    To analyze the clinical features and course of Kawasaki disease in central Tunisia. We studied retrospectively 14 cases of children with Kawasaki disease collected in tunisian center during three years (2000-2002). The study is about 11 boys and 3 girls (sex - ratio: 3.6/1) aged from 6 months to 8 years (mean age : 4 years). Twelve patients had at least 5 diagnostic criteria of the illness, the two others had an incomplete form. We noted cardiac complications in seven patients treated belatedly, beyond 10 days of progression, because of atypical clinical presentations. All patients had all a middle caliber coronary aneurysm that was complicated by a thrombus in three cases, associated with pericarditis and minimal mitral insufficiency in a case and with a cardiac rhythm disturbance (block of branch) in another case. Besides the cardiac complications, several other visceral manifestation could be noted: joint symptoms in five cases, GI tract symptomes in three cases, neuro-meningeal in two cases and urinary trad symptomes in two other cases. Specific treatment (aspirin with antiinflammatory dose and intravenous immune globulin (IVIG)) has been instituted in all patients. The course was favorable for 12 patients with fast regression of clinical manifestation and progressive normalisation of biologic values. Two patients did not respond to the initial IVIG treatment, and had to recense received an additional course of IGIV but without clinical nor biological improvement. These two patients were treated with corticosteroids. Cardiac lesions disappeared completely in all patients even for those with thrombosis and in patients with IVIG-resistant Kawasaki disease. Only one patient had kept neurologic sequellae: aphasia, bevavioral problemes and partial epilepsy. Kawasaki disease is not rare in our region. Incomplete or atypical presentations are frequent and are a source of diagnostic delay. Coronary aneurysm due to the delay of treatment often regresses even in patients

  20. [An analysis of the Ministry of Health of Brazil investments in research and development between 2000-2002: a base line towards future valuations beginning with the implementation of the National Health Research Priority Agenda].

    PubMed

    Caetano, Rosângela; Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Sampaio, Mariana Miranda Autran; da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Rodrigues, Rodolfo Rego Deusdará

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the Ministry of Health of Brazil investments in research and development in health (R&D/H) between the years of 2000-2002, trying to contrast them with the items of the National Health Research Priority Agenda, in order to attempt a base line that makes capable future evaluations on the inductor role. The data was collected by a research carried out with the main goal of measure resources invested in R&D/H in the country on the period, considering only the Ministry of Health investments. The researches were independently categorized by 2 researchers based on 24 subdivisions which compose the Agenda. The amount of the resources invested by the Ministry of Health on the period was of R$ 199.3 millions. Most of the expense was related to researches in transmittable diseases (31.5%), followed by systems and policies in health (16.3%) and communication and information in health (8.6%). Conditions that represent a substantial disease burden (non transmittable diseases, mental health, violence, accidents and traumas, elderly person health) received relative small amount of resource. The work establishes a starting point from which managers of scientific and technological policy may assess the progressive influence of the Agenda and the reduction of the identified imbalances.

  1. TECH-NJ, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Amy G., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three issues of "TECH-NJ" from 2000 to 2002 focus on technology and children with disabilities in New Jersey. The issues address how technology can support language development and people with learning disabilities, and technology tools that support reading. Featured articles include: (1) "Adaptive Technology Center for New…

  2. Information Technology Vision: 2000, 2002. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    This document represents a major component of Nevada's Truckee Meadows Community College (TMCC) strategic planning activities and elaborates on the technology functions found in the college strategic plan. Information resources at TMCC are grouped into five areas: (1) administrative computing, the area of information processing that supports the…

  3. A survey of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from food during 2000-2002 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ogaki, Sumiko

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs), collectively referred as dioxins, were conducted using the total diet study (TDS) method with food purchased in Osaka City, Japan during 2000-2002. The daily intake of dioxin-TEQ (toxic equivalent) from food per adult person was estimated respectively as 104.24 pg TEQ/person/day in 2000, 72.73 pg TEQ/person/day in 2001, and 87.28 pg TEQ/person/day in 2002, corresponding to 2.08, 1.45, and 1.74 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/day for an adult weighing 50 kg. The highest contribution ratio to the total intake of dioxin-TEQ was from fish and shellfish (group 10) in each year, accounting for 77-92%. The next highest contributor was meat and eggs (groups 11-A and 11-B). An annual decrease of the intake of dioxin-TEQ was not observed clearly. Otherwise, the dietary intake of non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs were estimated together. The intake of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD came mostly from intake of fish and shellfish (group 10), green vegetable (group 7), and the other vegetables, including mushrooms and seaweed (group 8). In addition, the intake of 1,3,6,8-TeCDF, which reportedly antagonizes 2,3,7,8-TeCDD-mediated aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction activities, was an insufficient amount to suppress 2,3,7,8-TeCDD-mediated activities. Furthermore, we discussed different TEQ compositions of PCDDs/PCDFs to dioxin-like PCBs from food intake and in human samples and inferred that the difference was caused by low bioaccumulation properties of 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (PCB 126). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  4. QuickStats: Percentage* of Adults(†) Aged ≥65 Years Meeting 2008 Federal Guidelines for Leisure-Time Aerobic(§) and Muscle-Strengthening(¶) Activities, by Age and Type of Activity - United States, 2000-2002 and 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    2016-09-23

    From 2000-2002 to 2013-2015, the percentage of older adults who met the 2008 federal guidelines for aerobic activity increased from 35.7% to 42.5% among persons aged 65-74 years, from 24.5% to 30.9% among persons aged 75-84 years, and from 11.9% to 19.4% among persons aged ≥85 years. The percentage who met the guidelines for muscle strengthening activities increased from 11.7% to 19.3% among those aged 65-74 years, from 9.6% to 14.6% among those aged 75-84 years, and from 6.5% to 10.4% among those aged ≥85 years. In both periods, within each age group participation declined with age and was lower for muscle strengthening activities compared with aerobic activities.

  5. IAQ Tools for Schools Awards, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides descriptions of the 2000, 2001, and 2002 winners of the Environmental Protection Agency's Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Excellence Awards. The winners are considered to be national leaders in improving indoor air quality in schools. Also included are case studies for selected 2000 winners and a press release for the…

  6. Utah Career Guide for Adults, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaine, Connie, Ed.

    This career guide provides Utah job seekers with information leading to job success. Section 1, Getting Started, provides suggestions for committing to a job search. Section 2, Utah Job Trends, identifies the fastest growing occupations or most openings; top 50 occupations; and new Utah jobs. Section 3, Self-Assessment, covers knowing oneself;…

  7. Quality of sediment discharging from the Barton Springs system, Austin, Texas, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    Four spring outlets of the Barton Springs system provide the only known habitat for the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sosorum), a federally listed endangered species. After heavy rainfall, sediment is flushed through the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and springflow often becomes turbid (cloudy). Sediment in urban areas often has high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, such as DDT, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and lead. In response to concerns that sediment discharging from the Barton Springs outlets could contain contaminants at levels that pose a threat to the health of the salamander or its prey, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, collected samples of suspended sediment discharging from each of the four spring outlets after two rainstorms and analyzed them for a suite of hydrophobic contaminants.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Nunnallee, Edmund P.

    2009-04-03

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which are covered separately in this report. The efforts by personnel associated with this project have produced and will continue to produce products that aid resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. These products and their uses include: (1) Survival and migration timing information on stocks to evaluate water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities; (2) Data needed for the management and restoration of salmonids and other fish stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (3) Information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats; and (4) Tools that enable fisheries researchers and managers to address previously unanswerable questions and critical uncertainties These products are also used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and captive broodstock research on endangered species. The continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in both of NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)(NMFS 1995a, 2000) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (NMFS 1995b; tasks 2.1.d, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    Land managers are often challenged with the mandate to control exotic and invasive plant species. Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) are 2 such species that are currently threatening natural areas in western United States. Reed canarygrass may be native to the inland northwest (Antieau 2000), but it has invaded many wetland areas as dense, monoculture stands. Spread of this plant species is largely attributed to human disturbances, e.g., draining, farming (Antieau 2000). Reed canarygrass often dominates other emergent vegetation such as cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus spp.) (Whitson et al. 1996, Apfelbaum and Sams 1987), and the resulting habitat is largely unsuitable for wetland birds. Himalayan blackberry was introduced to the United States as a garden shrub and was planted at wildlife-management areas for food and cover. It easily colonizes disturbed places, such as roadsides, ditches, and flood plains (Hoshovsky 2000). Once established, it forms a thick, impenetrable stand, which excludes native shrub species. Although Himalayan blackberry does provide food and cover for wildlife, particularly during fall and winter, it decreases habitat diversity, and therefore, may decrease wildlife diversity. Furthermore, patterns of avian nest predation may be altered in some exotic-shrub communities (Schmidt and Whelan 1999). For land managers to make sound decisions regarding invasive-plant control, it is useful to obtain information on current plant distributions in relation to targeted wildlife species, and then use models to predict how those species may respond to changes in vegetation. The Habitat Evaluations Program was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate current and future habitat conditions for fish and wildlife (Stiehl 1994). The program is based on Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for specific wildlife species. Each model contains several variables that represent life requisites (e.g., food and nesting cover) for that species. These variables are evaluated with vegetation sampling, and/or through the interpretation of aerial photographs and the like. Variable values are assigned a numerical score. The score may be based on a categorical rating (e.g . , different vegetation types receive different scores based on their importance for that species) or may be the result of a linear relationship (e.g., the score increases with the variable value; Figure 1). Variable scores are then input into a mathematical formula, which results in an HSI score. The HSI score ranges from 0-1, with 0 representing poor-quality habitat and 1 optimal habitat. HSI models assume a positive, linear relationship between wildlife-species density and the HSI score. For example, with an HSI score of 1, we assume that a species will be present at its highest density. Models can be projected into the future by changing variable values and observing the corresponding changes in HSI scores. Most models are relatively simple, but some are complex. These models have come under considerable scrutiny in the last several years, particularly concerning the validity of model assumptions (Van Horne 1983, Laymon and Barrett 1986, Hobbs and Hanley 1990, Kellner et al. 1992). Regardless of criticisms, these models may be used with success when there is an understanding and acceptance of model limitations. Each model should be evaluated as to its applicability in a given situation. Model validation, where results have on-the-ground verification, is highly recommended. Specific objectives of this project were to (1) conduct avian surveys and measure the present vegetation at the Sandy River Delta, (2) input the vegetation data into HSI models for 5 avian species, (3) evaluate the current habitat suitability for these species, and (4) predict species responses to potential changes in vegetation, resulting from the removal of reed canarygrass and/or Himalayan blackberry.

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation, 2000-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Wenick, Jess

    2002-02-06

    The development of hydropower systems within the Columbia and Snake River basins has affected a tremendous amount of fish and wildlife species. The dams have played a major role in the rapid extinction of anadromous runs of salmon and steelhead as well as other native salmonids. Inundation of these dams and the construction of reservoirs for irrigation have also severely impacted wildlife species. In some cases, fluctuating water levels caused by dam and reservoir operations have created barren vegetation zones that expose wildlife to predation and a reduction in recruitment. In association with hydropower activities, secondary impacts have also challenged and highly impacted a majority of wildlife species. The construction of roads, facilities, urban development, channelization, and diversions of streams and rivers often have negative long-term effects on fish, wildlife, and vegetation. In response to these concerns, the United States Congress passed the Pacific Electric Power Planning Conservation Act (Act) in 1980. The Act authorized four states (Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington) and 13 Indian Tribes (including the Burns Paiute Tribe) to create the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The role of the Council is to prepare a program in conjunction with several participants that protects, mitigates and enhances affected species within the Columbia River Basin and its tributaries. The Council's program, known as the Columbia River Basin's Fish and Wildlife Program (Program), has evolved over the years into a basin-wide approach that incorporates management plans for 52 subbasins. The Program includes a public involvement component that requires Program participants to provide the public with meaningful opportunities to comment on specific management proposals. Participants in this Program include the region's fish and wildlife agencies, Indian tribes, the public and an 11-member panel of scientists referred to as the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). Program participants are responsible for creating management plans for each of the 52 subbasins. Upon approval by the Council, the management plan is then incorporated into the Program. In 1998, the Tribe submitted two land acquisition proposals for funding through Bonneville's Wildlife Mitigation Program, the Logan Valley and Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Projects. After several months of rigorous scrutiny and defense of its project presentations, the Tribe was awarded both acquisitions. In February of 2000, the Tribe and BPA entered into a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) to fund the acquisition and management of Logan Valley and the Malheur River Projects. In April and November of 2000, the Tribe acquired the Logan Valley property (Project) and the Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project, respectively. The MOA requires the Tribe to dedicate the Project to wildlife habitat protection. Project management must be consistent with the term and conditions of the MOA and a site-specific management plan (Plan) that is to be prepared by the Tribe. The Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation Project (Denny Jones Ranch) allows the Tribe to manage 6,385 acres of meadow, wetland, and sagebrush steppe habitats along the Malheur River. The deeded property includes seven miles of the Malheur River, the largest private landholding along this waterway between Riverside and Harper. The property came with approximately 938 acres of senior water rights and 38,377 acres of federal and state grazing allotments. The project will benefit a diverse population of fish, wildlife, and plant species. Objectives include reviving and improving critical habitat for fish and wildlife populations, controlling/ eradicating weed populations, improving water quality, maintaining Bureau of Land Management (BLM) allotments, and preserving cultural resources. Before the Tribe acquired the project site, a combination of high levels of cattle stocking rates, management strategy, and a disruption of natural disturbance regimes compromised the property's ability to provide quality habitat to wildlife species found in the area. As a result, rangeland condition was depleted, exotic annual grasses and other noxious weeds began to invade native plant communities and many riparian areas were generally degraded. Native meadow communities were also leveled and planted with introduced species shortly after settlement and wildlife use and historic home ranges for migratory species have been severely altered. Current management is actively seeking to enhance the ability of the site's plant communities to support resident fauna that are known to have thrived in the area prior to settlement. The Tribe is utilizing a baseline approach to its overall land management by recognizing the importance of plant succession in achieving wildlife goal.

  11. Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Davis, J. B.; Esser, A.

    2005-07-01

    This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with small grain cereals and has fewer limitations compared to other traditional alternative crops.

  12. Rotavirus in El Salvador: an outbreak, surveillance and estimates of disease burden, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Guardado, Julio A Armero; Clará W, A Wilfrido; Turcios, Reina M; Fuentes, Rafael A Chacón; Valencia, Dilcia; Sandoval, Ricardo; Barahona de Figueroa, Jeannette; Bresee, Joseph S; Glass, Roger I

    2004-10-01

    In December 2000, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in El Salvador that was associated with hospitalizations and deaths among children nationwide. Public concern was raised because the etiology was initially unknown and enteric control measures seemed ineffective. The outbreak was eventually linked to rotavirus, control measures were redirected to improving treatment with oral rehydration and surveillance was initiated to characterize the etiologic agents of gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data and fecal specimens were collected from a systematic sample of children younger than 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. Stools were tested for rotavirus, bacteria and parasites. Surveillance results were extrapolated to national data to estimate the national burden of rotavirus disease. Surveillance between May 2001 and April 2002 demonstrated that rotavirus has winter seasonality, was associated with vomiting and dehydration and accounted for an estimated 27% of 12,083 consultations for diarrhea. Children with rotavirus gastroenteritis were younger (median, 9 months) than those with gastroenteritis caused by other agents (median, 13 months for bacteria, 16 months for parasites). Extrapolating to national data, we estimated the risk of a child experiencing a rotavirus-related medical visit, hospitalization and death by the age of 5 years as 1:7, 1:56 and 1:531, respectively. The outbreak of gastroenteritis among children younger than 5 years of age between December 2000 and February 2001 represented an exaggerated rotavirus season. The surveillance activity after the outbreak suggests that rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal disease in El Salvador. Further surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemics of gastroenteritis and could provide data needed to decide whether rotavirus vaccination should be included in the national program for childhood immunizations.

  13. Molecular typing of enteroviruses associated with viral meningitis in Cyprus, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jan; Koptides, Dana; Tryfonos, Christina; Christodoulou, Christina

    2006-08-01

    Human enteroviruses are responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases affecting many different organ systems. Although infection is usually asymptomatic, infections of the central nervous system manifested as meningitis or encephalitis can pose a serious public health problem, especially during outbreaks. In this study, samples from 218 patients diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis between January 2000 and December 2002 were analysed in order to assess the epidemiology of human enteroviruses as a cause of viral meningitis in Cyprus. A new typing strategy, based on partial sequencing of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR), prediction of type, and selection of type-specific primers for sensitive VP1 PCR amplification, was developed. As clustering in the 5'NCR was concordant with clustering in the VP1 region, quick and reliable typing by VP1 sequencing was achieved without virus isolation in cell culture. The most frequent enterovirus serotypes identified were Human echovirus 30 (55.5%), Human echovirus 13 (15.1%), Human echovirus 6 (13.8%) and Human echovirus 9 (8.3%). Human coxsackieviruses B2, B1 and B5, Human echovirus 4, Human enterovirus 71 and Human coxsackievirus A6 represented rather rare serotypes. This is the first molecular epidemiological study of enterovirus meningitis in Cyprus. Serotype distribution corresponded basically with observations in other European countries, suggesting the spread of enteroviruses by tourism.

  14. A numerical study of the interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea (2000-2002).

    PubMed

    Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Zavatarelli, Marco

    2005-12-15

    A free-surface, three-dimensional finite-difference numerical model based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been implemented in order to simulate the interannual variability of the Adriatic Sea circulation. The implementation makes use of an interactive surface momentum and heat flux computation that utilizes the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 6-h analyses and the model predicted sea surface temperatures. The model is also nested at its open boundary with a coarse-resolution Mediterranean general circulation model, utilizing the same surface forcing functions. The simulation and analysis period spans 3 years (1 Jan 2000 to 31 Dec 2002) coinciding with the "Mucilage in the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian" (MAT) Project monitoring activities. Model results for the simulated years show a strong interannual variability of the basin averaged proprieties and circulation patterns, linked to the atmospheric forcing variability and the Po river runoff. In particular, the years 2000 and 2002 are characterized by a weak surface cooling (with respect to the climatological value) and well-marked spring and autumn river runoff maxima. Conversely, 2001 is characterized by stronger wind and heat (autumn cooling) forcings but no river runoff autumn peak, even though the total amount of water inflow during winter and spring is sustained. The circulation is characterized by similar patterns in 2000 and 2002 but very different structures in 2001. During the latter, deep water is not formed in the northern Adriatic. A comparison with the observed data shows that the major model deficiencies are connected to the low salinity of the waters, probably connected to the missed inflow of salty Ionian waters of Aegean origin and to the numerical overestimation of the vertical mixing processes.

  15. Survival in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (2000-2002).

    PubMed

    Boyd, L M; Langston, C; Thompson, K; Zivin, K; Imanishi, M

    2008-01-01

    Duration of survival of cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly characterized. Stage of kidney disease based on serum creatinine concentration (SCr) at the time of diagnosis and after correction of prerenal azotemia is strongly associated with duration of survival in cats. Two hundred and eleven client-owned cats with naturally occurring CKD evaluated between April 2000 and January 2002. Retrospective case review of 733 cats with SCr > 2.3 mg/dL. Examination of the medical records identified 211 cats that met all other inclusion and exclusion criteria for this study. Clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and survival times were extracted from the medical record. Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted by phone to obtain follow-up if it was not documented in the record. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed to determine survival times for International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage both at diagnosis and at baseline (ie, after correction of prerenal azotemia). Median survival for cats in IRIS stage IIb at the time of diagnosis was 1,151 days (range 2-3,107), and was longer than survival in stage III (median 778, range 22-2,100) or stage IV (median 103, range 1-1,920) (P-value< .0001). P-value for effect of stage at diagnosis was < .0001. IRIS stage of CKD based on serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis is strongly predictive of survival in cats with naturally occurring CKD.

  16. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  17. Glucosinolate-Containing Seed Meal as a Soil Amendment to Control Plant Pests: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Plants may produce compounds that directly or indirectly affect their biological environment. These compounds fall within a broad category of compounds called allelochemicals, and are exclusive of food that influences growth, health, or behavior of other organisms (Whittaker and Feeney 1971). One reason for interest in allelochemicals is their potential for use in alternative pest management systems. Using plant-produced allelochemicals in agricultural and horticultural practices could minimize synthetic pesticide use, reduce the associated potential for environmental contamination, and contribute to a more sustainable agricultural system.

  18. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  19. Avoid Protect Recover Joint Service Chemical and Biological Defense Program FY 2000 - 2002 Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Developed in vivo transgenic animal models for rise as test beds for evaluating scavengers. Expanded the evaluation of human protein catalytic... transgenic or knockout species. "* Demonstrate the efficacy of aTSP candidate formulations using two animal species. Complete aTSP fonnulation studies...Flquipment ECP Engineering Change Proposal JFTJoint Field Trial CROP CI remical Biological Defense Prograrn ECU Environmnental Control Unit JILSP Joint

  20. Suicide in the major Western countries 2000-2002: the violent deaths of September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Colin; Wallace, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Following the September 11th 2001 atrocity, Western Government policies focused more on 'defense,' which undermines Government's commitment to reducing suicide. Annual US and major Western countries suicides were compared with '9/11' deaths to highlight the extent of mortality associated with mental disorder, homicide and road deaths are reviewed for contrast. The 3,074 fatalities of 9/11 are set against the US three year annual average 29,691 suicides, 17,077 homicides and 47,775 road deaths, thus every two weeks more US citizens died violently than on 9/11. In the majority of countries, there were more suicides than 9/11 victims, with suicides exceeding the 9/11 atrocity 18 times in Russia, nine in Japan and the US and three times in France and Germany. Annual suicides compared with terrorist violence should inform policy.

  1. Ground-water resources in the lower Milliken--Sarco--Tulucay Creeks area, southeastern Napa County, California, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water obtained from individual private wells is the sole source of water for about 4,800 residents living in the lower Milliken-Sarco-Tulucay Creeks area of southeastern Napa County. Increases in population and in irrigated vineyards during the past few decades have increased water demand. Estimated ground-water pumpage in 2000 was 5,350 acre-feet per year, an increase of about 80 percent since 1975. Water for agricultural irrigation is the dominant use, accounting for about 45 percent of the total. This increase in ground-water extraction has resulted in the general decline of ground-water levels. The purpose of this report is to present selected hydrologic data collected from 1975 to 2002 and to quantify changes in the ground-water system during the past 25 years. The study area lies in one of several prominent northwest-trending structural valleys in the North Coast Ranges. The area is underlain by alluvial deposits and volcanic rocks that exceed 1,000 feet in thickness in some places. Alluvial deposits and tuff beds in the volcanic sequence are the principal source of water to wells. The ground-water system is recharged by precipitation that infiltrates, in minor amounts, directly on the valley floor but mostly by infiltration in the Howell Mountains. Ground water moves laterally from the Howell Mountains into the study area. Although the area receives abundant winter precipitation in most years, nearly half of the precipitation is lost as surface runoff to the Napa River. Evapotranspiration also is high, accounting for nearly one-half of the total precipitation received. Because of the uncertainties in the estimates of precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration, a precise estimate of potential ground-water recharge cannot be made. Large changes in ground-water levels occurred between 1975 and 2001. In much of the western part of the area, water levels increased; but in the central and eastern parts, water levels declined by 25 to 125 feet. Ground-water extraction produced three large pumping depressions in the northern and east-central parts of the area. The general decline in ground-water levels is a result of increases in ground-water pumpage and possibly changes in infiltration capacity caused by changes in land use. Ground-water-level declines during 1960-2002 are evident in the records for 9 of 10 key monitoring wells. In five of these wells, water levels dropped by greater than 20 feet since the 1980s. The largest water-level declines have occurred since the mid 1970s, corresponding with a period of accelerated well construction and ground-water extraction. Analysis of samples from 15 wells indicates that the chemical quality of ground water in the study generally is acceptable. However, arsenic concentrations in samples from five wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard of 10 micrograms per liter, and iron concentrations in samples from five wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Department of Health Services secondary drinking-water standard of 300 micrograms per liter. Water from 12 of 15 wells sampled contained concentrations of manganese that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Department of Health Services secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Two wells produced water that had boron in excess of the California Department of Health Services action level of 1 milligram per liter. Stable isotope, chlorofluorocarbon, and tritium data indicate that ground water in the area is a mixture of waters that recharged the aquifer system at different times. The presence of chlorofluorocarbons and tritium in water from the study area is evidence that modern recharge (post 1950) does take place. Water-temperature logs indicate that ground-water temperatures throughout the study area exceed 30?C at depths in excess of 600 feet. Further, water at

  2. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303,769 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2002 survived to the lower trap. Post release survival estimates for hatchery chinook salmon were within the range of past estimates; 88.4% in 1998 to 100.9% in 1994. An estimated 7,646 to 23,249 (95% C.I.) natural chinook salmon smolts migrated past the lower Imnaha River trap from April 4 to April 22. An additional 6,767 to 14,706 (95% C.I.) natural chinook salmon smolts migrated past the lower Imnaha River trap from April 23 to May 14, 2002. Natural chinook salmon captured and tagged at the upper rkm 74 trap survived to Lower Granite Dam (LGR) at a rate of 28.8% during migration year 2001 and 21.9% during migration year 2002. The survival estimate for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap to LGR was 41.9% in 2001 and 33.3% in 2002. Differences between survival from release to LGR for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap have been 5.9% to 16.9% higher than for fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the upper trap from 1994 to 2002. Spring PIT tag release groups of natural chinook salmon, hatchery chinook salmon, and hatchery steelhead produced estimates of survival from the trap to LGR within the range of past estimates since 1993. Estimated survival from release to LGR for 2001 and 2002 were as follows: 83.7% and 86.9% for natural chinook salmon, 80.3% and 77.3% for hatchery chinook salmon, 82.7% and 81.8% for natural steelhead, and 82.0% and 83.0% for hatchery steelhead. Estimates of survival for spring tagged fish from the trap to Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) during the drought of 2001 were the lowest estimates of survival from 1998 to 2002 for natural chinook salmon, and from1997 to 2002 for natural and hatchery steelhead. Estimates of migration year 2001 survival from the trap to LMO were as follows: 65.6% - natural chinook salmon, 68.9% - hatchery chinook salmon, 49.7% natural steelhead, and 42.9% - hatchery steelhead. Estimates of migration year 2002 survival from the trap to LMO were as follows: 76.8% - natural chinook salmon, 68.1% - hatchery chinook salmon, 69.9% natural steelhead, and 78.0% - hatchery steelhead. A smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) index from LGR to LGR was calculated for migrating pre-smolt and smolt natural chinook salmon, that were PIT tagged in the fall and spring at the lower trap, for brood years 1996 to 1998 (migration years 1998 to 2000). The SARs are representative of in-river Imnaha natural chinook salmon. The LGR to LGR SAR index for presmolt chinook salmon is as follows: 3.08% (BY 1996), 2.41% (BY 1997), and 2.98% (BY 1998). Smolt-to-adult return rate index for spring tagged smolts was lower: 1.75% (BY 1996), 2.24% (BY 1997) and 2.94% (BY 1998). Fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the upper and lower trap and spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap all had significantly different (p < 0.05) median and cumulative arrival timing at LGR during migration year 2001.

  3. Active deformation in the Zagros-Makran transition zone inferred from GPS measurements in the interval 2000-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, R.; Shabanian, E.; Regard, V.; Doerflinger, E.; Abbassi, M.; Chery, J.; Nilforoushan, F.; Tatar, M.; Vernant, Ph.; Bellier, O.

    2003-04-01

    The actual N-S convergence between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates is partly accommodated in Iran along the Zagros fold and thrust belt with a shortening of 8 mm/yr in the central part (Vernant et al., 2003). To the east of the Musandam peninsula and the strait of Hormuz, the convergence is associated with the subduction of the Oman oceanic lithosphere beneath the Makran with a rate of 18 mm/yr (Vernant et al., 2003). The Bandar Abbas-Strait of Hormuz zone is considered as a transition between the Zagros continental collision and the Makran oceanic subduction. The strain is mainly accommodated along the NNW-SSE trending reverse right lateral Minab-Zendan-Palami faults and along the N-S trending faults of Sarduiyeh, Jiroft and Sabzevaran, south-west of the Lut block (Regard et al ; ? 200). In this study, we used GPS network monitoring to better understand how the current strain regime is distributed from the Zagros continental collision to the Makran oceanic subduction. A regional GPS network was set up and measured in 2000 and 2002 in order to quantify the velocity and the strain-rate field. The data were processed using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Velocities obtained from other GPS measurements (Iran Global Network (Vernant et al., 2003) were added to densify the the velocity field. We conclude that the deformation in the collision/subduction transition zone is accommodated within a transpressional regime along the Minab-Zendan-Palami faults system. The rate of convergence in the Eastern Zagros belt is <8mm/yr. With respect to the stable Musandam peninsula, the horizontal residual velocities of the coastal sites in Zagros are less than 3 mm/yr, evidencing for a weak convergence component below the Persian Gulf. West of the Minab-Zendan-Palami faults, from the coast to the Main Zagros thrust, the N-S shortening within the Zagros belt is associated with rates <5 mm/yr. The GPS results evidence for a N-S global reverse right lateral motion at rate of 10 mm/yr along the NNW trending Minab-Zendan-Palami faults system. West of the Lut block at the latitude of Kanujht, the N-S trending Sarduiyeh-Jiroft-Sabzevaran fault system is characterized by a right lateral strike-slip motion <5 mm/yr.

  4. LBA-ECO TG-07 Trace Gas Fluxes, Undisturbed and Logged Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2002

    Treesearch

    M.M. Keller; R.K. Varner; J.D. Dias; H.S. Silva; P.M. Crill; Jr. de Oliveira; G.P. Asner

    2009-01-01

    Trace gas fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide were measured manually at undisturbed and logged forest sites in the Tapajos National Forest, near Santarem, Para, Brazil. Manual measurements were made approximately weekly at both the undisturbed and logged sites. Fluxes from clay and sand soils were completed at the undisturbed sites....

  5. Patch test reactions to cosmetic allergens in 1995-1997 and 2000-2002 in Finland--a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Hasan, T; Rantanen, T; Alanko, K; Harvima, R J; Jolanki, R; Kalimo, K; Lahti, A; Lammintausta, K; Lauerma, A I; Laukkanen, A; Luukkaala, T; Riekki, R; Turjanmaa, K; Varjonen, E; Vuorela, A-M

    2005-07-01

    Contact sensitivity to cosmetics is common, but the sensitizing chemicals vary between countries and study periods. The present survey aimed at revealing the recent trends in patch test sensitivity with cosmetic chemicals in Finland. We report a retrospective multicentre survey of patch test reactions focusing on cosmetic-related substances and comparing the test results in 1995-97 with those in 2000-02. The most striking increases in the frequency of the patch test sensitivity were found with balsam of Peru and propolis from 4.0% to 6.2% (P < 0.001) and from 0.5% to 1.4% (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas the most prominent decreases were found with methylchloro/methylisothiazolinone and chlorhexidine diglugonate from 2.4% to 1.3% (P < 0.001) and from 1.2% to 0.5% (P < 0.001), respectively. The level of patch test sensitivity to methyldibromo glutaronitrile increased, although not significantly, from 1.0% to 1.5%. An increasing tendency was also found with hair dye chemicals 4-aminophenol and toluene-2,5-diamine or toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate from 1.3% to 3.8% and from 1.4% to 5.2%, respectively, while such a tendency was not found among permanent wave chemicals. The sensitivity level of fragrance mix remained the same (6% - 7%). We conclude that surveys revealing the state of sensitivity to cosmetic chemicals should be performed periodically in different countries.

  6. [Granted, undecided, withdrawn and refused requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands; 2000-2002].

    PubMed

    Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Jansen-Van der Weide, M C; Van der Wal, G

    2006-02-04

    To determine the characteristics of patients who request euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and whether these characteristics differ among those whose request is granted, those who die before the procedure, those who die before completion of the approval process, those who withdraw their request, and lastly, those whose request is refused by the physician. Questionnaire study. All general practitioners in 18 of the 23 Dutch general practitioner districts received a written questionnaire in which they were asked to describe the most recent request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide that they had received (response 60%, n=3614). Of all explicit requests, 44% resulted in euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. Thirteen percent of patients died before the procedure, 13% died before completion of the approval process, 13% withdrew their request and 12% were refused by the physician. The most prominent symptoms were 'feeling bad', 'tiredness', and 'lack of appetite'. The most frequently mentioned reasons for requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide were 'pointless suffering', 'loss of dignity', and 'general weakness'. The patients' situation met the official requirements for accepted practice best in the group of requests that resulted in euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and least in the group of refused requests. A lesser degree of competence and less unbearable and hopeless suffering had the strongest associations with the refusal of a request. The complexity of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide decision-making is reflected in the fact that, besides granting and refusing a request, 3 other situations could be distinguished. The decisions physicians made, the reasons for their decisions and the way they arrived at their decisions appeared to be based on patient evaluations and on the official requirements for accepted practice.

  7. Organic halogenated contaminants in mother-fetus pairs of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) from Alaska, 2000-2002

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental stressors may interfere with foraging, survival and reproduction of marine mammals resulting in marine mammal population decline. In this study, organic halogenated pollutants [OHs, including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN...

  8. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Biological Data for Three Water Bodies, Texas Gulf Coast Plain, 2000-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    appreciable urban development near Dickinson has occurred since 1990, so it is likely that the percent- age of the basin that is urban is greater...Suckers Catostomidae Smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus 0 3 1 2 1 0 7 River carpsucker Carpiodes carpio 0 13 0 0 0 0 13 Bullhead catfish Ictaluridae

  9. Riparian Planting Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed : 2000-2002 Asotin Creek Riparian Final Report of Accomplishments.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for threatened and endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for threatened salmonids since 1994. The Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00 teamed BPA and the Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding to plant approximately 84,191 trees and shrubs in the Asotin Creek Watershed. In addition BPA and private cost-share dollars were utilized to drill 3 wells, provide 15 off-site alternative water developments (troughs), 5 spring developments, and 9,100 feet of riparian fencing. The trees will provide shade and long-term LWD recruitment to the stream. The wells, alternative water developments, springs and fencing will reduce direct animal impacts on the stream. In one area alone, a well, 3,000 ft of riparian fence with 5 alternative water developments will exclude 300 head of cattle from using the stream as a source of drinking water during the winter months.

  10. Preliminary results of the Social Impact Research Group of MEDEX: the request database (2000-2002) of two Meteorological Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J.; Gayà, M.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    One of the aims of the MEDEX project is to improve the knowledge of high-impact weather events in the Mediterranean. According to the guidelines of this project, a pilot study was carried out in two regions of Spain (the Balearic Islands and Catalonia) by the Social Impact Research group of MEDEX. The main goal is to suggest some general and suitable criteria about how to analyse requests received in Meteorological Services arising out of the damage caused by weather events. Thus, all the requests received between 2000 and 2002 at the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya as well as at the Division of AEMET in the Balearic Islands were analysed. Firstly, the proposed criteria in order to build the database are defined and discussed. Secondly, the temporal distribution of the requests for damage claims is analysed. On average, almost half of them were received during the first month after the event happened. During the first six months, the percentage increases by 90%. Thirdly, various factors are taken into account to determine the impact of specific events on society. It is remarkable that the greatest number of requests is for those episodes with simultaneous heavy rain and strong wind, and finally, those that are linked to high population density.

  11. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data for three water bodies, Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.; Hogan, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000–September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. Segments of the three water bodies are on the State 303(d) list. Continuous monitoring showed that seasonal variations in water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen in all three water bodies were similar to those observed at U.S. Geological Survey stations along the Texas Gulf Coast. In particular, water temperature and dissolved oxygen are inversely related. Periods of smallest dissolved oxygen concentrations generally occurred in the summer months when water temperatures were highest. Water-quality monitors were deployed at three depths in Dickinson Bayou. For periodically collected nutrients, the median concentration of ammonia nitrogen was largest in Dickinson Bayou and smallest in the San Bernard River. Median concentrations of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and orthophosphorus were largest in Armand Bayou. The median concentration of each of the four nutrients was larger for high-flow samples than for low-flow samples. The largest individual nutrient concentrations occurred during spring and summer. Both median and individual concentrations of chlorophyll-a were largest for Armand Bayou; median concentrations of pheophyton were similar for all three water bodies, and individual concentrations were largest for Armand Bayou. Median densities of fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli bacteria were similar for all three water bodies. Flow conditions had minimal effect on concentrations of chlorophyll-a and pheophytin, but the largest bacteria densities were in samples collected during high flow. Yields of most nutrients tended to increase with distance downstream. Yields in the San Bernard River and tributaries were less than yields in Dickinson and Armand Bayous. For Dickinson and Armand Bayous, the most individuals and species of fish were collected at the most downstream main stem site; for the San Bernard River, the fewest individuals and species of fish were collected at the most downstream main stem site.

  12. Renormalization group analysis of the 2000-2002 anti-bubble in the US S&P500 index: explanation of the hierarchy of five crashes and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2003-12-01

    We propose a straightforward extension of our previously proposed log-periodic power-law model of the “anti-bubble” regime of the USA stock market since the summer of 2000, in terms of the renormalization group framework to model critical points. Using a previous work by Gluzman and Sornette (Phys. Rev. E 65 (2003) 036142) on the classification of the class of Weierstrass-like functions, we show that the five crashes that occurred since August 2000 can be accurately modeled by this approach, in a fully consistent way with no additional parameters. Our theory suggests an overall consistent organization of the investors forming a collective network which interact to form the pessimistic bearish “anti-bubble” regime with intermittent acceleration of the positive feedbacks of pessimistic sentiment leading to these crashes. We develop retrospective predictions, that confirm the existence of significant arbitrage opportunities for a trader using our model. Finally, we offer a prediction for the unknown future of the US S&P500 index extending over 2003 and 2004, that refines the previous prediction of Sornette and Zhou (Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468).

  13. Water Use, Ground-Water Recharge and Availability, and Quality of Water in the Greenwich Area, Fairfield County, Connecticut and Westchester County, New York, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water budgets were developed for 32 small basin-based zones in the Greenwich area of southwestern Connecticut, where crystalline-bedrock aquifers supply private wells, to determine the status of residential ground-water consumption relative to rates of ground-water recharge and discharge. Estimated residential ground-water withdrawals for small basins (averaging 1.7 square miles (mi2) ranged from 0 to 0.16 million gallons per day per square mile (Mgal/d/mi2). To develop these budgets, residential ground-water withdrawals were estimated using multiple-linear regression models that relate water use from public water supply to data on residential property characteristics. Average daily water use of households with public water supply ranged from 219 to 1,082 gallons per day (gal/d). A steady-state finite-difference ground-water-flow model was developed to track water budgets, and to estimate optimal values for hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock (0.05 feet per day) and recharge to the overlying till deposits (6.9 inches) using nonlinear regression. Estimated recharge rates to the small basins ranged from 3.6 to 7.5 inches per year (in/yr) and relate to the percentage of the basin underlain by coarse-grained glacial stratified deposits. Recharge was not applied to impervious areas to account for the effects of urbanization. Net residential ground-water consumption was estimated as ground-water withdrawals increased during the growing season, and ranged from 0 to 0.9 in/yr. Long-term average stream base flows simulated by the ground-water-flow model were compared to calculated values of average base flow and low flow to determine if base flow was substantially reduced in any of the basins studied. Three of the 32 basins studied had simulated base flows less than 3 in/yr, as a result of either ground-water withdrawals or reduced recharge due to urbanization. A water-availability criteria of the difference between the 30-day 2-year low flow and the recharge rate for each basin was explored as a method to rate the status of water consumption in each basin. Water consumption ranged from 0 to 14.3 percent of available water based on this criteria for the 32 basins studied. Base-flow water quality was related to the amount of urbanized area in each basin sampled. Concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chloride, indicator bacteria, and the number of pesticide detections increased with basin urbanization, which ranged from 18 to 63 percent of basin area.

  14. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

  15. Water use, ground-water recharge and availability, and quality of water in the Greenwich area, Fairfield County, Connecticut and Westchester County, New York, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water budgets were developed for 32 small basin-based zones in the Greenwich area of southwestern Connecticut, where crystalline-bedrock aquifers supply private wells, to determine the status of residential ground-water consumption relative to rates of ground-water recharge and discharge. Estimated residential ground-water withdrawals for small basins (averaging 1.7 square miles (mi2)) ranged from 0 to 0.16 million gallons per day per square mile (Mgal/d/mi2). To develop these budgets, residential ground-water withdrawals were estimated using multiple-linear regression models that relate water use from public water supply to data on residential property characteristics. Average daily water use of households with public water supply ranged from 219 to 1,082 gallons per day (gal/d). A steady-state finite-difference ground-water- flow model was developed to track water budgets, and to estimate optimal values for hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock (0.05 feet per day) and recharge to the overlying till deposits (6.9 inches) using nonlinear regression. Estimated recharge rates to the small basins ranged from 3.6 to 7.5 inches per year (in/yr) and relate to the percentage of the basin underlain by coarse- grained glacial stratified deposits. Recharge was not applied to impervious areas to account for the effects of urbanization. Net residential ground-water consumption was estimated as ground-water withdrawals increased during the growing season, and ranged from 0 to 0.9 in/yr. Long-term average stream base flows simulated by the ground-water-flow model were compared to calculated values of average base flow and low flow to determine if base flow was substantially reduced in any of the basins studied. Three of the 32 basins studied had simulated base flows less than 3 in/yr, as a result of either ground-water withdrawals or reduced recharge due to urbanization. A water-availability criteria of the difference between the 30-day 2-year low flow and the recharge rate for each basin was explored as a method to rate the status of water consumption in each basin. Water consumption ranged from 0 to 14.3 percent of available water based on this criteria for the 32 basins studied. Base-flow water quality was related to the amount of urbanized area in each basin sampled. Concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus, chloride, indicator bacteria, and the number of pesticide detections increased with basin urbanization, which ranged from 18 to 63 percent of basin area.

  16. Winona State University: Compilation of K-12 Action Research Papers in Science Education. 2000-2002 Learning Community Masters in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Margaret; Sherman, Thomas F.

    This report contains five action research papers in science education. Papers include: (1) "Does Classroom Size in an Industrial Technology Laboratory Affect Grades and Success in Class?" (Chad Bruns); (2) "The Effects of Project Based Learning on Students' Engagement, Independence, and Interest in Physical Geology Class" (Jill Dahl); (3) "Will an…

  17. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  18. Public Policy Failure and Fiasco in Education: Perspectives on the British Examinations Crises of 2000-2002 and Other Episodes since 1975

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, William

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a re-appraisal within political science of the characteristics of various kinds of public policy failure. At the same time, the political significance of education has grown in most liberal democracies. The present paper examines public policy in British education since the mid-1970s and asks: What goes wrong in…

  19. Posttraumatic rehabilitation and one year outcome following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): data from the well defined population based German Prospective Study 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    von Wild, K R H

    2008-01-01

    Follow-up examination to review the one-year outcome of patients after craniocerebral trauma with respect to health related quality of life (QoL) and social reintegration. The data are derived from the prospective controlled, well defined population based, multiple centre study that was performed in Germany for the first time in the years 2000-2001 with emphasis on quality management (structural, process, outcome) and regarding the patient's age, physical troubles, and impaired mental-cognitive, neurobehavioral functioning. TBI severity assessment is according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Early outcome after rehabilitation is assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of patients following rehabilitation and of 63% of all TBI with the aid of follow-up examination (simplified questionnaire) after one year. Catchment areas are Hanover (industrial) and Münster (more rural) with 2,114 million inhabitants. TBI is diagnosed according to ICD 10 S-02, S-04, S-06, S-07, S-09 with at least two of the following symptoms: dizziness or vomiting; retrograde or anterograde amnesia, impaired consciousness, skull fracture, and/or focal neurological impairment. Within one year 6.783 patients (58% male) were examined in the regional hospitals after acute TBI. The regional TBI incidence regarding hospital admission was 321/100.000 TBI. 28% of patients were < 1 to 15 years, 18% > 65 years of age. GCS was only assessed in 55% of patients. They were 90.9% mild, 3.9% moderate, and 5.2% severe TBI. A total of 5.221 TBI (= 77%) was hospitalised; 1.4% of them died. Only 258 patients (= 4.9%) of the hospitalized TBI received in-hospital neurorehabilitation (73% male), 68% within one month after injury. They were 10.9% severe, 23.4% moderate, and 65.7 mild TBI. 5% were < 16 years, 25% > 65 years. One-year follow-up examinations of 4307 individuals (= 63.5% of all TBI) are discussed. A total of 883 patients (= 20.6%) reported posttraumatic troubles, one half were > 64 years. One hundred and sixty patients (= 3.8%) could manage their daily life only partly; 75 TBI (= 87.2%) following mild, 5.8% moderate, and 7% severe TBI. One hundred and sixteen patients could not at all manage their activities in training, at school, or in their jobs (N = 33 MTBI respectively 54%), 6 (= 10%) moderate, and 22 (= 36%) severe TBI. 2.8% of individuals failed when compared with their pre-traumatic situation. TBI severity, patient's age, concomitant organ lesions, and complications influence health related QoL and early social reintegration.

  20. Preliminary results of the Social Impact Research group of MEDEX: requests related to Strong Wind events (2000-2002) of two Meteorological Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J.; Gayà, M.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    In 2008 a pilot study was carried out by the Social Impact Research group (SIR) in two regions of Spain, the Balearic Islands and Catalonia. The SIR group, as a part of the MEDEX project, suggested some general criteria about how to analyse requested reports received in Meteorological Services, as a way to improve the knowledge of high impact weather events on population. Furthermore, an analysis of the requests related to damages caused by heavy rain (HR) events during the period 2000 and 2002 was presented. Results showed that a good indicator was obtained using the maximum of precipitation and the number of population affected by rainfall above 60 mm. As a second part of this pilot project, this study is focused on the analysis of the requests received in the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya as well as in the Delegación of AEMET in the Balearic Islands related to damages caused by the strong wind events (SW) included in the MEDEX database, during the period 2000 and 2002. A wind event is defined as SW when a gust wind above 25 m/s is recorded (33 m/s for elevated stations). Applying the same methodology, the temporal distribution of the requested reports has been analysed. The results obtained are in agreement with the ones presented for HR events: half of the requests were received during the first month after the event happened and during the first six month the number increase by 90%. Also, an analysis of the SW events with higher impact on population has been done. Factors like duration of the event, maximum wind gust, simultaneity with a HR event, population density, exposure, resilience and adaptation measures, have been considered. From the results, the length of the event stands out as a relevant factor. Furthermore, the synergy with a HR event increases the magnitude of the phenomena and risk perception is higher. On the other hand, it is known that areas usually exposed to SW events are more adapted to these situations, and the number of requests reported is minor. The number of requests might give us indirect information about the vulnerability of the elements involved. So as a future work, it would be necessary to obtain and analyse this information from the received requests.

  1. The Changing Profile of Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance in Singapore: A 15-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ang, Daphne; Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Teo, Eng Kiong; Dhamodaran, Subbiah

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an important cause of H. pylori treatment failure. This study aimed to examine the change in H. pylori antibiotic resistance profile in Singapore over the course of 15 years. The study period was from 2000 to 2014. Gastric mucosal biopsies obtained from H. pylori-positive patients were cultured. Antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin was tested. The change in resistance rates over time was analyzed. A total of 708 H. pylori isolates were cultured. There was a significant increase in resistance rates for metronidazole (2000-2002: 24.8%; 2012-2014: 48.2%; p < .001), clarithromycin (2000-2002: 7.9%; 2012-2014: 17.1%; p = .022), and levofloxacin (2000-2002: 5%; 2012-2014: 14.7%; p = .007). The resistance rates for tetracycline (2000-2002: 5%; 2012-2014: 7.6%) and amoxicillin (2000-2002: 3%; 2012-2014: 4.4%) remained stable. Increase in dual (2000-2002: 6.9%; 2012-2014: 9.4%; p = .479) and triple antibiotic resistance rates (2000-2002: 0; 2012-2014: 7.6%; p < .001) were observed. Overall, the most common dual and triple resistance patterns were metronidazole/clarithromycin (4.4%) and metronidazole/clarithromycin/levofloxacin (1.8%), respectively. Over 15 years, H. pylori resistance rates to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin had increased. There was increased resistance to multiple antibiotics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-03-23

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria.

  3. Elemental Representations of Stimuli in Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Justin A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews evidence and theories concerning the nature of stimulus representations in Pavlovian conditioning. It focuses on the elemental approach developed in stimulus sampling theory (R. C. Atkinson & W. K. Estes, 1963; R. R. Bush & F. Mosteller, 1951b) and extended by I. P. L. McLaren and N. J. Mackintosh (2000, 2002) and contrasts…

  4. Virtual Reality Robotic Programming Software in the Technology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissler, Jason; Knott, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Matthew R.; Wright, John R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Robots make a wonderful context for teaching students about many concepts important to technological literacy. They can provide an authentic context and produce high levels of motivation. According to Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000, 2002), there are six core concepts that should be…

  5. State of the States in Developmental Disabilities: 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Public spending for MR/DD services grew rapidly during FYs 2000-2002. This rapid growth was followed by reductions in spending for MR/DD services as the nation's economy declined during 2002-2004. However, convergent factors stimulating future expansion of funding and services for persons with MR/DD include rapidly expanding cohorts of aging…

  6. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  7. Designing economic impact assessments for USFS wildfire programs

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Abt; Robert J. Jr. Huggett; Thomas P. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    As often happens in the wake of a series of extreme fire seasons, such as those in 2000, 2002 and 2003, federal wildfire policy is being scrutinized and recommendations regarding changes both large and small are prevalent (Stephens and Ruth 2005, Busenberg 2004, Dellasalla et al. 2004, Dombeck et al. 2004). It is common practice for increases in acres burned and in...

  8. The Caring Child: An Evaluative Case Study of the Cornwall Young Carers Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Allister H.; Astbury, Gaynor

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the Cornwall Young Carers project (jointly funded by social services and the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Health Action Zone), conducted during the period 2000-2002. A diverse range of methodological approaches were adopted (comparative national statistics, local pilot study, monthly and quarterly data…

  9. Atomic force microscopy of the intervessel pit membrane in the stem of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiacea)

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Pesacreta; Leslie H. Groom; Timothy G. Rials

    2005-01-01

    Sapwood and juvenile wood of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiacea) was collected during 2000-2002. In air-dried vessel elements, the surface of pit membranes (PMs) in the outermost growth ring was coated with plaque-like or interstitial material that was 2-5 nm thick. This coating was phase dark and overlaid a phase bright layer of globules and...

  10. Understanding Great Salt Lake Bird Festival Visitors: Applying the Recreational Specialization Framework

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Burr; David Scott

    2004-01-01

    The growth of birdwatching over the last two decades has been staggering. According to the recent National Survey of Recreation and the Environment (NSRE) (2000-2002), one-third (33%) of American adults said they went birdwatching at least once during the previous 12 months. According to NSRE data, the number of people who regarded themselves as birdwatchers increased...

  11. Seasonal Avifauna Reponses to Fuel Reduction Treatments in the Upper Piedmont of South Carolina: Results From Phase 1 of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study

    Treesearch

    Laura A. Zebehazy; J. Drew Lanham; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    We examined avian species and assemblage responses to prescribed burns and thinning in a southeastern Piedmont pine and mixed pine-hardwood forest as part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study (NFFS) examining the effects of fuel reduction on forest health. Point counts conducted during the non-breeding and breeding seasons of 2000-2002 showed that winter bird...

  12. Types and quality of physical therapy research publications: has there been a change in the past decade?

    PubMed

    Snell, Kaitlyn; Hassan, Ali; Sutherland, Lauren; Chau, Leo; Senior, Tristan; Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania; Brooks, Dina

    2014-01-01

    To describe and compare the type and quality of evidence published in physical therapy (PT) journals during two time periods (2000-2002 vs. 2010-2012) and to explore scientific editors' opinions on changes in the types and quality of articles. A quantitative, longitudinal, retrospective journal review was used to categorize and assess the methodological rigour of items published in four PT journals using the Hedges Project. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional survey explored the opinions of scientific editors. Percentages and frequencies of article types (as defined by the Hedges Project criteria), items passing rigour, and editor responses were calculated. Statistical significance of differences in article type and rigour between the two time periods was determined using Fisher's Exact Test. There was a significant increase in original studies and review articles from 2000-2002 to 2010-2012 (p<0.001, p=0.002, respectively). The overall pass rate for rigour was 33.3% in 2000-2002 and 42.5% in 2010-2012, showing a significant increase (p=0.019). The majority of editors reported an increase in systematic reviews, qualitative designs, and randomized controlled trials and believed that quality had improved by 2010-2012. From 2000-2002 to 2010-2012, the quality of articles published in PT journals improved and the proportion of original studies and review articles increased.

  13. COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Current evidence suggests that drinking water, soil, and produce are potential sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person.

    Methods: We sampled water during 2000 - 2002 from a large municipal drinking wate...

  14. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  15. Do Financial Incentives Draw Promising Teachers to Low-Performing Schools? Assessing the Impact of the California Governor's Teaching Fellowship. Policy Brief 10-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2010-01-01

    During a two-year period from 2000-2002, California awarded a $20,000 Governor's Teaching Fellowship (GTF) to 1,169 people enrolled in traditional, post-baccalaureate teacher licensure programs who agreed to teach in low-performing public schools for four years after earning their licenses. The GTF was a policy response to longstanding evidence…

  16. Building Bridges between Primary and Secondary Science for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra; Davies, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the Improving Science Together (IST) project (2000-2002), funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. The project was a partnership between 20 primary and 4 secondary schools in Bristol and South Gloucestershire, LEA advisory staff, BAE Systems, and the primary science team at Bath Spa University…

  17. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  18. The Making of South Africa's National Curriculum Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the social construction of the "Revised National Curriculum Statement (Grades R-9)" in South Africa between 2000-2002. The author, a participant in the process, uses the experience of the insider to tell the story. The paper discusses the relationship of different lobbies, voices, and interests to the curriculum, and…

  19. A RANDMONIZED, CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER INTERVENTION FOR THE REDUCTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trials have provided conflicting estimates of the risk of gastrointestinal illness attributable to tap water. To estimate this risk in an Iowa community with a well-run water utility with microbiologically challenged source water, the authors of this 2000-2002 study randomly assi...

  20. Impact of a Play-Based Curriculum in the First Two Years of Primary School: Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes over Seven Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Carol; Sproule, Liz; Bojke, Chris; Trew, Karen; Walsh, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    In 2000-2002 an innovative early years curriculum, the Enriched Curriculum (EC), was introduced into 120 volunteer schools across Northern Ireland, replacing a traditional curriculum similar to others across the UK at that time. It was intended by the designers to be developmentally appropriate and play-based with the primary goal of preventing…

  1. Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

  2. The Presentation of EIL in Kuwait: Students' Expectations and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Akbar, Rahima S.

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of native-like accents has been the aim of many EFL educationists long ago; however, this concept is heading towards a major change. Hence, the idea of this paper is based on Jenkins' (2000 & 2002) theory of English as an International Language (EIL). Jenkins' theory analyses the use of English by non-natives speakers (NNS) where…

  3. Monitoring Changes in Soil Quality from Post-fire Logging in the Inland Northwest

    Treesearch

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Martin Jurgensen; Ann Abbott; Tom Rice; Joanne Tirocke; Sue Farley; Sharon DeHart

    2006-01-01

    The wildland fires of 2000, 2002, and 2003 created many opportunities to conduct post-fire logging operations in the Inland Northwest. Relatively little information is available on the impact of post-fire logging on long-term soil productivity or on the best method for monitoring these changes. We present a USDA Forest Service Northern Region study of post-fire logged...

  4. Physical Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Applying Knowledge and Skills about Emotional Understanding Studied in PETE in a One-Year Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…

  5. COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATES FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Current evidence suggests that drinking water, soil, and produce are potential sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person.

    Methods: We sampled water during 2000-2002 from a large municipal drinking water ...

  6. COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATES FROM DRINKING WATER AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Current evidence suggests that drinking water, soil, and produce are potential sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person.

    Methods: We sampled water during 2000 - 2002 from a large municipal drinking wate...

  7. Virtual Reality Robotic Programming Software in the Technology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geissler, Jason; Knott, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Matthew R.; Wright, John R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Robots make a wonderful context for teaching students about many concepts important to technological literacy. They can provide an authentic context and produce high levels of motivation. According to Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000, 2002), there are six core concepts that should be…

  8. The Caring Child: An Evaluative Case Study of the Cornwall Young Carers Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Allister H.; Astbury, Gaynor

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the Cornwall Young Carers project (jointly funded by social services and the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Health Action Zone), conducted during the period 2000-2002. A diverse range of methodological approaches were adopted (comparative national statistics, local pilot study, monthly and quarterly data…

  9. Stress, Social Support, and Outcomes in Two Probability Samples of Homeless Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.; Tulloch, Elizabeth; Ouellette, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects of social support measures and their stress-buffering effects in two samples of homeless adults (Ns =249 and 219) obtained in the same large county (surrounding Detroit) at different points in time over an 8-year period (1992-1994 and 2000-2002). The findings suggest that the construct of social support,…

  10. Predicting avian population responses to fuel removal in river woodlands of the southwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    2003-01-01

    As part of a study to determine effects of removing fire fuels on riparian bird species, over 400 nests of 10 species were found and monitored during the pre-treatment period, 2000-2002. In this presentation, we report on the relationships between species-specific relative abundance, nesting success, and habitat measures such as stem density, canopy cover, and fuel...

  11. Physical Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Applying Knowledge and Skills about Emotional Understanding Studied in PETE in a One-Year Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…

  12. Transportation Into Narrative Worlds: The Role of Prior Knowledge and Perceived Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Melanie C.

    2004-01-01

    "Transportation into a narrative world" (Green & Brock, 2000, 2002) has been identified as a mechanism of narrative impact. A transported individual is cognitively and emotionally involved in the story and may experience vivid mental images. In the study reported here, undergraduate participants (N = 152) read a narrative about a homosexual man…

  13. State of the States in Developmental Disabilities: 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Public spending for MR/DD services grew rapidly during FYs 2000-2002. This rapid growth was followed by reductions in spending for MR/DD services as the nation's economy declined during 2002-2004. However, convergent factors stimulating future expansion of funding and services for persons with MR/DD include rapidly expanding cohorts of aging…

  14. Transportation Into Narrative Worlds: The Role of Prior Knowledge and Perceived Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Melanie C.

    2004-01-01

    "Transportation into a narrative world" (Green & Brock, 2000, 2002) has been identified as a mechanism of narrative impact. A transported individual is cognitively and emotionally involved in the story and may experience vivid mental images. In the study reported here, undergraduate participants (N = 152) read a narrative about a homosexual man…

  15. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  16. Standards-Based Curriculum Development for Pre-Service and In-Service: A "Partnering" Approach Using Modified Backwards Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Steve; Berrett, Jared

    2004-01-01

    Technology teacher educators across the nation are considering what changes will be made to their pre-service teacher education programs to implement the standards in Standards for Technological Literacy (STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002) and to help future teachers learn to develop and teach curriculum that is based on those standards (Custer & Wright,…

  17. Why (Urban) Mathematics Teachers Need Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    Rochelle Gutiérrez has spent 15 years researching effective, urban high school mathematics departments that served Black, Latin@ and low-income adolescents (see, e.g., Gutiérrez, 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2000, 2002). These were schools where students took more mathematics than was required by their district; where English learners, recent immigrants,…

  18. The Trend toward Multiple Authorship in Business Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Donald E.; Manton, Edgar J.

    2007-01-01

    Universities and colleges of business have experienced evolving missions and accreditation pressures that have increased the emphasis on the scholarly endeavors of the faculty. In this article, the authors reviewed 6 major representative business journals for the periods 1970-1972, 1980-1982, 1990-1992, and 2000-2002. During this period, all…

  19. The Structure of Primary and Secondary Teachers' Attributions for Pupils' Misbehaviour: A Preliminary Cross-Phase and Cross-Cultural Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Simon; Gardiner, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if systematic contrasts in educational culture and curricular emphases might affect the underlying structure of teachers' attributions for children's behaviour. Thus, responses to a questionnaire developed from earlier work by Miller and colleagues (2000, 2002) were gathered from primary and secondary school…

  20. COMPARISON OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM ISOLATES FROM A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AND FROM THE POPULATION SERVED BY THE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Current evidence suggests that drinking water, soil, and produce are potential sources of Mycobacterium avium infections, a pathogen not known to be transmitted person-to-person.

    Methods: We sampled water during 2000-2002 from a large municipal drinking water ...

  1. A RANDMONIZED, CONTROLLED TRIAL OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER INTERVENTION FOR THE REDUCTION OF GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trials have provided conflicting estimates of the risk of gastrointestinal illness attributable to tap water. To estimate this risk in an Iowa community with a well-run water utility with microbiologically challenged source water, the authors of this 2000-2002 study randomly assi...

  2. Experiential Learning E-Portfolios: Promoting Connections between Academic and Workplace Learning Utilizing Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiential learning e-portfolio's potential to promote connections between academic and workplace learning (Brown, 2000, 2002). Sometimes referred to as the Digital Notebook, the e-portfolio allows learners to trace the development of their thinking and learning over time and to show their competencies…

  3. Measuring Up: Examining the Connections among State Structural Characteristics, Regulatory Practices, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; Tandberg, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Using "Measuring Up" data from 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006, this study examines the extent to which the state performance grades, and changes in grades, are associated with the characteristics of each state and its arrangements for higher education governance and control. To what extent is each state's higher education performance a product of…

  4. North Dakota Standards and Benchmarks--Content Standards: Library/Technology Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Library/Technology Literacy Standards for the State of North Dakota were developed during 2000-2002 by a team of library and technology specialists, assisted by representatives from the Department of Public Instruction. The initial task was to decide whether technology and library curricula overlapped enough to create a shared set of…

  5. Elemental Representations of Stimuli in Associative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Justin A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews evidence and theories concerning the nature of stimulus representations in Pavlovian conditioning. It focuses on the elemental approach developed in stimulus sampling theory (R. C. Atkinson & W. K. Estes, 1963; R. R. Bush & F. Mosteller, 1951b) and extended by I. P. L. McLaren and N. J. Mackintosh (2000, 2002) and contrasts…

  6. Building Bridges between Primary and Secondary Science for Children and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra; Davies, Dan

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce the Improving Science Together (IST) project (2000-2002), funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust. The project was a partnership between 20 primary and 4 secondary schools in Bristol and South Gloucestershire, LEA advisory staff, BAE Systems, and the primary science team at Bath Spa University…

  7. 76 FR 23427 - General Provisions; Revised List of Migratory Birds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... the changes to the list include adding species based on new taxonomy and new evidence of occurrence in... (AOU 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010), on matters of taxonomy... section. Taxonomy and nomenclature generally follow the 7th edition of the American Ornithologists' Union...

  8. The Power of Peer Reviewing to Enhance Writing in Horticulture: Greenhouse Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil O.; Flash, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is not included in undergraduate horticultural curricula. Our research objectives in an 8- year study, which ranged from 2000 to 2007 in two sections (2000-2002 non-peer reviewed and 2003-2007 peer-reviewed) of Greenhouse Management students at the University of Minnesota were to determine whether iterative peer reviews would result in…

  9. Teaching Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Marc J.; Hacker, Michael; Burghardt, David

    2010-01-01

    The publication of "Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology" (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007) represented a major step forward in identifying the educational components necessary for life in a technological world. But this list of standards, though substantial, does not clearly identify the components that are most…

  10. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  11. The Evaluation of an Offshore Professional-Development Programme as Part of a University's Strategic Plan: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Kathryn; Scott, Shelleyann

    2003-01-01

    In response to the need for the tertiary sector to ensure the ongoing quality of teaching and learning, a Western Australian university has implemented a divisional strategic plan in order to gain quality student feedback and support staff professional development. In 2000-2002 the Business Division within the university established a systematic…

  12. Mason Bee Habitations: Teaching Proper "Making" Skill through Authentic Engineering Design Contests. Resources in Technology and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cool, Nate; Strimel, Greg J.; Croly, Michael; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    To be technologically and engineering literate, people should be able to "make" or produce quality solutions to engineering design challenges while recognizing and understanding how to avoid hazards in a broad array of situations when properly using tools, machines, and materials (Haynie, 2009; Gunter, 2007; ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007).…

  13. Spectral Studies of Shallow Earthquakes and Explosions: Implications for P/S Energy Partitioning, Stress Drop, and Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-16

    radiation patterns from a Texas quarry, Geophys. J . Int., 156, 79–93. 24 Musil , M. and A. Plesinger (1996). Discrimination between local...Hedlin, 1998; Arrowsmith et al., 2006), and other methods (e.g., Musil and Plesinger, 1996; Parolai et al., 2002; Leidig et al., 2004; Tibuleac et al...Warren and Shearer (2000, 2002) and Prieto et al. (2004). Each observed displacement spectrum dij(f) from source i and receiver j is a product of a

  14. Characterization of a Plasmid-Encoded Type IV Secretion System in Campylobacter jejuni 81-176

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    association with intestinal epithelial cell invasion (Bacon et al., 2000, 2002). In A. tumefaciens, VirB11 is an ATPase. VirB11 enzyme activity...found to have severely decreased levels of Cjp29. Expression of cjp29 was studied using a combination of arylsulfatase gene fusions and immunoblotting...bacterial assays. One arylsulphatase unit is defined as the amount of enzyme catalyzing the release of 1 µmol of nitrophenol per hour per OD600nm of

  15. Prophylaxis and Therapy Against Chemical Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    first order reaction for at least 2.5 x 103 sec. ANNEX B – NERVE AGENT BIOSCAVENGERS: PROGRESS IN DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW MODE OF PROTECTION AGAINST...group and held in 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2005. The report also includes a summary report on bioscavengers as a new pre-treatment for nerve...representation and the Research and Technology Agency (RTA), a dedicated staff with its headquarters in Neuilly, near Paris, France. In order to

  16. On the Onset of HF-Induced Airglow at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    revised 2 December 2003; accepted 19 December 2003; published 13 February 2004. [i] Observations of airglow at 630 nm (red line) and 557.7 nm ( green ...during injections toward magnetic zenith (MZ) the green and red lines gain -5 R within ,-1 s and -20 R within ,-,10 s, respectively. We term this period...observations show that the airglow maximizes Gustavsson et al., 2001, 2002; Kosch et al., 2000, 2002]. during HF injections toward magnetic zenith

  17. Graduate Course Contract Law Deskbook (54th). Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Dungaree Realty , Inc. v. United States, 30 F. 3d 122 (Fed. Cir. 1994); Wright v. United States, 728 F.2d 1459 (Fed. Cir. 1984). D. Supreme Court Review...Carolina, 2000-2002; Brigade Judge Advocate, 3d Recruiting Brigade, Fort Knox, Kentucky, 1998-2000; Defense Counsel, Fort Polk, Louisiana 1998; Defense...Communications, Inc. v. Wiltel, Inc., 1 F. 3d 1201, 1205 (Fed. Cir. 1993) (holding a modification falls within the scope of the original procurement if

  18. Serial correlation in the Italian futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Reno, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    We study the serial correlation of high-frequency intraday returns on the Italian stock index futures (FIB30) in the period 2000-2002. We adopt three different methods of analysis: the spectral density via Fast Fourier Transform, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the Variance Ratio test. We find that intraday autocorrelation is mostly negative for time scales lower than 20 minutes, but we support the efficiency of the Italian futures market.

  19. Financing Wars on Terrorism and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Macroeconomic Effects of War Finance in the United States: World War II and the Korean War" American Economic Review (March 1997). Rodrik , Dani , "How...Far Will International Economic Integration Go?" Journal of Economic Perspectives (Winter 2000) Rodrik , Dani , "Feasible Globalizations" John F... Rodrik , 2000, 2002). The trilemma problem states that the international monetary order is influenced by the pursuit of three goals, of which only two

  20. Road to a National Political Strategy for Missile Defense of Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    the 2000-2002 timeframe address the missile defense issue before the U.S. withdrawal from the ABM treaty. These source set the groundwork for later...arrangements (Park 2002). This study appeared prior to the U.S. withdrawal from the ABM treaty and the subsequent debate that action generated. The...well as possible European reaction to possible unilateral/bilateral U.S. actions were presented . The most significant limitation of these pre- ABM

  1. Exploiting Early Intent Recognition for Competitive Advantage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    basketball [Bhan- dari et al., 1997; Jug et al., 2003], and Robocup soccer sim- ulations [Riley and Veloso, 2000; 2002; Kuhlmann et al., 2006] and non...actions (e.g. before, after, around). Jug et al. [2003] used a similar framework for offline basketball game analysis. More recently, Hess et al...and K. Ramanujam. Advanced Scout: Data mining and knowledge discovery in NBA data. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 1(1):121–125, 1997. [Chang

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from healthy dogs and dogs affected with pyoderma in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Kenta; Tanabe, Taishi; Sato, Hisaaki

    2012-02-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains were isolated from healthy dogs and dogs with pyoderma in 2000-2002 and 2009. All the isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 1999-2000 and from healthy dogs in 2000-2002 and 2009 were susceptible to cefalexin and/or other cephalosporins and oxacillin. However, 7.1-12.5 and 11.4% of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 2009 were resistant to cephalosporins and oxacillin, respectively. All S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs with pyoderma in 1999-2000 and those from healthy dogs in 2000-2002 were susceptible to fluoroquinolones; however, 50% of the S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from dogs with pyoderma in 2009 and 30% of the S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from healthy dogs in 2009 were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Of the 21 oxacillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates, 11 carried SCCmec type V and 10 carried hybrid SCCmec types II-III. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains that were resistant to only one of three fluoroquinolones had a mutation in the quinolone resistance determination region of grlA, whereas S. pseudintermedius strains that were resistant to two or more fluoroquinolones had mutations in the quinolone resistance determination regions of both grlA and gyrA.

  3. Prevalence of loneliness over ten years among the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Cattan, Mima; Conradsson, Mia; Näsman, Marina; Gustafsson, Yngve

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of loneliness among the oldest old within a 10-year period and studied the influence of various sociodemographic, social and health characteristics on loneliness. The study used population-based data from the Umeå85+/GErontological Regional DAtabase-study (GERDA) for the years 2000-2002, 2005-2007 and 2010-2012 including 85-year-old, 90-year-old and ⩾95-year-old participants. A final sample of 304 participants in 2000-2002, 329 participants in 2005-2007 and 401 participants in 2010-2012 was included in the analyses. Although the level of loneliness was already high in 2000-2002 (49.3% reported frequent loneliness), the results showed limited changes in loneliness during the 10-year study period. Loneliness was closely related to living alone, depressive symptoms and living in institutional settings. Although societal changes such as solitary living and growing urbanization suggest a changing trend in loneliness, we found that the prevalence of loneliness was relatively stable in this study. Nevertheless, loneliness is common among the oldest old and a focus on social issues related to living arrangements and on depressive symptoms is important in understanding loneliness.

  4. Women's receipt of Social Security retirement benefits: expectations compared to elections.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes knowledge regarding the options of early, normal, or delayed receipt of Social Security retirement benefits and research-based findings regarding women's expected and actual timing of election of Social Security retirement benefits. First, descriptive analyses of alternative retirement options, based on Social Security retirement benefit rules, are provided. Second, the 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data are used to analyze women's anticipated and actual election of Social Security retirement benefits. Third, based on these considerations, recommendations are made regarding Social Security retirement benefit receipt alternatives.

  5. How direct-to-consumer television advertising for osteoarthritis drugs affects physicians' prescribing behavior.

    PubMed

    Bradford, W David; Kleit, Andrew N; Nietert, Paul J; Steyer, Terrence; McIlwain, Thomas; Ornstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Concern about the potential pernicious effect of direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising on physicians' prescribing patterns was heightened with the 2004 withdrawal of Vioxx, a heavily advertised treatment for osteoarthritis. We examine how DTC advertising has affected physicians' prescribing behavior for osteoarthritis patients. We analyzed monthly clinical information on fifty-seven primary care practices during 2000-2002, matched to monthly brand-specific advertising data for local and network television. DTC advertising of Vioxx and Celebrex increased the number of osteoarthritis patients seen by physicians each month. DTC advertising of Vioxx increased the likelihood that patients received both Vioxx and Celebrex, but Celebrex ads only affected Vioxx use.

  6. Fusarium incarnatum isolated from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, with black gill disease cultured in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khoa, L V; Hatai, K; Aoki, T

    2004-09-01

    Fusarium incarnatum was isolated from gill lesions of cultured black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in every crop during 2000-2002 in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Infected shrimps showed typical signs of black gill disease and mortalities about a month prior to harvest. Detailed morphological examinations, as well as molecular phylogenic analyses based on partial nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA, were made on the isolates. An artificial infection of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, using two selected isolates was also conducted and their pathogenicity determined.

  7. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  8. Optimization Based Trajectory Planning of Human Upper Body

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    such as the minimum torque change model. Considerable research has been done to obtain optimal robot path. Saramago et al. (1998; 2000; 2002) have...Robotics and Automation, Vol. 2, pp. 802-807. 25. Saramago , S.F.P. and Steffen Jr, V., 2000, “Optimal Trajectory Planning of Robot Manipulators in...the Presence of Moving Obstacles, ” Mechanism and Machine Theory 35(8), 1079–1094. 26. Saramago , S.F.P. and Steffen Jr, V., 1998, “Optimization of the

  9. Recent Results on Vub, Vcb and Mixing from BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    del Re, Daniele

    2003-06-11

    We present the measurements of the CKM matrix parameters V{sub ub}, V{sub cb} and of the B mixing oscillation frequency with the BaBar experiment at the asymmetric B-factory PEPII. Data were collected in the years 2000-2002 and the total available statistics corresponds to 91 fb{sup -1}. The V{sub ub}, V{sub cb} measurements utilize both inclusive and exclusive semileptonic decays of the B meson. The {Delta}m{sub d} parameter is measured by using the time evolution of the B, determined from the flight length difference between the two B mesons.

  10. Absence of 12q21.2q22 deletions and subtelomeric rearrangements in cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Kavamura, M I; Zollino, M; Lecce, R; Murdolo, M; Brunoni, D; Alchorne, M M A; Opitz, J M; Neri, G

    2003-06-01

    Recent publications described two patients with a CFC-like phenotype and the same deletion of chromosome region 12q21.2q22 [Rauen et al., 2000, 2002]. The patients did not have the classical CFC phenotype and presented other signs not usually seen in CFC patients: the first patient had hydrocephalus, and the second, a history of olygohydramnios, normal stature, pyloric stenosis, cutaneous syndactyly of toes and bilateral transverse palmar creases. In order to verify if classic CFC patients with normal chromosomes in conventional preparations have microdeletions within the 12q21.2q22 chromosome region, we performed FISH analysis using 12 BAC probes to screen this area. The average interval between the probes was of approximately 1 Mb. No deletions were found in any of the 17 classical CFC patients we examined. We conclude that the region 12q21.2q22 is not a candidate region for CFC syndrome and that the patients described by Rauen et al. [2000, 2002] probably have a different condition, i.e., an aneuploidy syndrome, with some phenotypic resemblance to the CFC syndrome. To further evaluate the possibility of other chromosome imbalances, we performed a subtelomeric analysis, by FISH technique, of all chromosomes, and did not find any subtelomeric rearrangements. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Eddy response to variable atmospheric forcing in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, M. L.; McC. Hogg, A.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite altimeter data of the Southern Ocean (SO) reveal an anomalous peak in eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in 2000-2002. This peak has been attributed to a delayed response to an earlier peak in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and its associated circumpolar eastward winds that occurred around 1998, where the delay is due to the formation and adjustment of the eddy field associated with the increased winds (Meredith & Hogg, 2006). A more recent analysis reveals that the EKE response varies regionally, with the strongest response in the Pacific, and it has been suggested that this variability is due to the additional influence of ENSO. The 2000-2002 peak in EKE is therefore attributed to the coincident peak in SAM and ENSO 2-3 years earlier, and that the EKE response was weaker in past years when modes were out of phase (Morrow & Pasquet, 2008). We investigate this issue by applying SAM-like and ENSO-like wind forcings to Q-GCM, the eddy-resolving model used in Meredith & Hogg and configured for the Southern Ocean. We analyze the EKE response to each individual forcing as well as a simultaneous forcing of the two, both in and out of phase. From these results, we are able to quantify both the global and regional response to each forcing, and the degree to which each mode is responsible for the EKE strength and distribution across the ACC.

  12. Two-stage study (1990-2002) of North African immigrants in Italy.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Galletti, L; Pazzaglia, S; Gualdi-Russo, E

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the psycho-social health and weight status of two samples of North African immigrants measured in 1990 (166 males) and in 2000-2002 (173 males and females), respectively. In addition to the cross-sectional study, we conducted a repeated study on a sub-sample of 21 males measured both in 1990 and in 2000-2002. The study was carried out in Italian health and care dedicated centres spread all over the Bologna administrative areas, that belong to the AUSL (Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale, Administrative Local Health Unit). To evaluate the health and weight status, we calculated the body mass index (BMI) and measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Questionnaires were used to assess the psycho-social status. The mean BMI increased significantly (p<0.05) after immigration, as the prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) was higher after a decade. There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in stress-related factors and in the desire to return home. We also recorded an increase in weight disorders, as the length of time since immigration was an important risk factor for overweight. Therefore, immigrants may have a high risk of obesity-related co-morbidities. However, the factors related to malnutrition and stress had only weak effects on blood pressure.

  13. Childhood cancer survival in France, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Brigitte; Goujon, Stéphanie; Guissou, Sandra; Guyot-Goubin, Aurélie; Desmée, Solène; Désandes, Emmanuel; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the latest survival data for French childhood cancer patients at the national level. Data from the two French National Registries of Childhood Cancer (Haematopoietic Malignancies and Solid Tumours) were used to describe survival outcomes for 15,479 children diagnosed with cancer between 2000 and 2008 in mainland France. The overall survival was 91.7% at 1 year, 86.9% at 2 years and 81.6% at 5 years. Relative survival did not differ from overall survival even for infants. Survival was lower among infants for lymphoblastic leukaemia and astrocytoma, but higher for neuroblastoma. For all cancers considered together, 5-year survival increased from 79.5% in the first (2000-2002) diagnostic period to 83.2% in the last (2006-2008) period. The improvement was significant for leukaemia, both myeloid and lymphoid, central nervous system tumours (ependymoma) and neuroblastoma. The results remained valid in the multivariate analysis, and, for all cancers combined, the risk of death decreased by 20% between 2000-2002 and 2006-2008. The figures are consistent with various international estimates and are the result of progress in treatment regimens and collaborative clinical trials. The challenge for the French registries is now to study the long-term follow-up of survivors to estimate the incidence of long-term morbidities and adverse effects of treatments.

  14. The increase of firearm mortality and its relationship with the stagnation of life expectancy in Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Flores-Villavicencio, María Elena

    2017-09-01

    This study analyzes firearms mortality (FA) and their impact on life expectancy in Mexico -compared to other causes of deaths- during the three-year periods 2000-2002 and 2010-2012 and the weight of the different age groups in years of life expectancy lost (YLEL) due to this cause. Based on official death and population data, abridged life tables in Mexico were constructed for the three-year periods studied. Temporary life expectancy and YLEL for aged 15 to 75 by selected causes and age groups were calculated in each three-year period. Among men, FA mortality went from being the cause less YLEL caused in 2000-2002 to be the main cause of YLEL between 15 and 75 years in 2010-2012. Among women, YLEL for FA mortality had a higher relative growth. In both sexes, the greatest increase in YLEL by FA mortality was between 20 and 34 years. Findings indicate that the increase in FA mortality, especially among young people, has substantially contributed to the stagnation of life expectancy in recent years, and even his decline in the case of men. This reflects that violence linked to the FA is not only a security problem but also a collective health problem that must be copied in an interdisciplinary and intersectoral form if it is to increase the life expectancy of the country.

  15. Is transition to disability pension in young people associated with changes in risk of attempted suicide?

    PubMed

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Alexanderson, K; Westerlund, H; Lange, T

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate trajectories of suicide attempt risks before and after granting of disability pension in young people. The analytic sample consisted of all persons 16-30 years old and living in Sweden who were granted a disability pension in the years 1995-1997; 2000-2002 as well as 2005-2006 (n = 26,624). Crude risks and adjusted odds ratios for suicide attempt were computed for the 9-year window around the year of disability pension receipt by repeated-measures logistic regressions. The risk of suicide attempt was found to increase continuously up to the year preceding the granting of disability pension in young people, after which the risk declined. These trajectories were similar for women and men and for disability pension due to mental and somatic diagnoses. Still, the multivariate odds ratios for suicide attempts for women and for disability pension due to mental disorders were 2.5- and 3.8-fold increased compared with the odds ratios for men and disability pension due to somatic disorders, respectively. Trajectories of suicide attempts differed for young individuals granted a disability pension during 2005-2006 compared with those granted during 1995-1997 and 2000-2002. We found an increasing risk of suicide attempt up until the granting of a disability pension in young individuals, after which the risk decreased. It is of clinical importance to monitor suicide attempt risk among young people waiting for the granting of a disability pension.

  16. Participation and risk of high grade cytological lesions among immigrants and Italian-born women in an organized cervical cancer screening program in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Carmen Beatriz; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Bulgaresi, Paolo; Alfieri, Antonia; Amunni, Gianni

    2015-06-01

    Few studies analyzed the risk for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) among immigrants and natives attending organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs (SP). We evaluated participation and diagnosis of HSIL+ by country of birth with logistic models. Overall 540,779 invitation letters were delivered to target women of Florence SP in three screening rounds (years 2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008). The probability of attending screening was lower for immigrants than natives, but the difference decreased from 35% (1st round) to 20% (2nd-3rd round) for women born in high migration pressure (HMP) countries. The risk of HSIL+ was double than natives for HMP-born women from countries with high prevalence of human papillomavirus, even adjusting for age and previous history of Pap test. This is an important public health problem due to an increasing proportion over time of immigrant women with a lower attendance and greater risk for CC.

  17. Investigation of PrPres in dental tissues in variant CJD.

    PubMed

    Head, M W; Ritchie, D; McLoughlin, V; Ironside, J W

    2003-09-27

    To study the distribution of disease-associated prion protein (PrP) in oral and dental tissues in variant CJD. Prospective single centre autopsy based study. Within the National CJD Surveillance Unit, UK, 2000-2002. Patients with suspected variant CJD undergoing autopsy where permission to remove tissues for research purposes had been obtained from the relatives. Fixed and frozen autopsy tissues from the brain, trigeminal ganglion, alveolar nerve, dental pulp, gingiva, salivary gland, tongue and tonsils were studied by Western blot, PET blot and immunocytochemistry to detect disease-associated PrP. Disease-associated PrP was only detected in the brain, trigeminal ganglia and tonsils. The failure to detect disease-associated PrP in most dental and oral tissues will help inform ongoing risk assessments for dental surgery in relation to the possible iatrogenic transmission of variant CJD via dental instruments.

  18. Antarctic ice-rafted detritus (IRD) in the South Atlantic: Indicators of iceshelf dynamics or ocean surface conditions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Simon H.H.; Hodell, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean sediment core TN057-13PC4/ODP1094, from the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, contains elevated lithogenic material in sections representing the last glacial period compared to the Holocene. This ice-rafted detritus is mainly comprised of volcanic glass and ash, but has a significant input of what was previously interpreted as quartz during peak intervals (Kanfoush et al., 2000, 2002). Our analysis of these clear mineral grains indicates that most are plagioclase, and that South Sandwich Islands is the predominant source, similar to that inferred for the volcanic glass (Nielsen et al., in review). In addition, quartz and feldspar with possible Antarctic origin occur in conjunction with postulated episodes of Antarctic deglaciation. We conclude that while sea ice was the dominant ice rafting agent in the Polar Frontal Zone of the South Atlantic during the last glacial period, the Holocene IRD variability may reflect Antarctic ice sheet dynamics.

  19. Comparison between the probability distribution of returns in the Heston model and empirical data for stock indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. Christian; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2003-06-01

    We compare the probability distribution of returns for the three major stock-market indexes (Nasdaq, S&P500, and Dow-Jones) with an analytical formula recently derived by Drăgulescu and Yakovenko for the Heston model with stochastic variance. For the period of 1982-1999, we find a very good agreement between the theory and the data for a wide range of time lags from 1 to 250 days. On the other hand, deviations start to appear when the data for 2000-2002 are included. We interpret this as a statistical evidence of the major change in the market from a positive growth rate in 1980s and 1990s to a negative rate in 2000s.

  20. The first steps towards fluoroquinolone resistance in Hungarian pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Dobay, O; Rozgonyi, F; Ghidán, A; Matuz, M; Nagy, K; Amyes, S G B

    2006-12-01

    The incidence of fluoroquinolone resistance among Hungarian routine laboratory Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, collected in 2000-2002, in common with other European countries, was very low; only 5/304 strains (1.64%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 4 microg/ml), and the other fluoroquinolones showed full efficacy. However, we could identify the Lys-137-Asp amino acid change, caused by a point mutation in the QRDR of the parC gene, in five strains. Additionally, we observed a definite shift in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all fluoroquinolones towards higher values throughout the study period. These two findings, coupled with the increasing consumption figures of fluoroquinolones, suggest that pneumococcal resistance looks poised to develop in Hungary.

  1. Working conditions and major weight gain-a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of working conditions with major weight gain. Three different groups of work-related factors were examined: (i) work arrangements, (ii) physical working conditions, and (iii) psychosocial working conditions. The data are based on the Helsinki Health Study (HHS) questionnaire surveys. A baseline mail survey was made among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002. A follow-up survey was made in 2007. Regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. During the 5- to 7-year follow-up, 26% of women and 24% of men gained in weight 5 kg or more. Working conditions were mostly unassociated with weight gain. However, nighttime shift work, physical threat at work, and hazardous exposures at work were moderately associated with weight gain. More attention should be devoted to the prevention of weight gain in general and among risk groups in particular.

  2. CO2 and CO Simulations and Their Source Signature Indicated by CO/CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Randy; Huisheng, Bian

    2004-01-01

    Three years (2000-2002) atmospheric CO2 and CO fields are simulated by a Chemistry Transport Model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from GEOS-4. The simulated CO2 and CO are evaluated by measurements from surface (CMDL), satellite (MOPITT/CO), and aircraft. The model-observation comparisons indicate reasonable agreement in both source and remote regions, and in the lower and upper troposphere. The simulation also captures the seasonality of CO2 and CO variations. The ratios of CO/CO2 are analyzed over different representative regions to identify the source signature, since the anthropogenic CO comes fiom the same combustion processes as CO2. This work enables us to improve satellite inversion estimates of CO2 sources and sinks by simultaneously using satellite CO measurement.

  3. Household social characteristics of the demand for alcoholic beverages among Spanish students.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta

    2013-03-01

    This paper studies how household social capital affects adolescents' demand for alcoholic drinks. To that end, we focus on a theoretical framework that combines elements from the Model of Rational Addiction and the Model of Social Economics. For the empirical framework, we use a simultaneous Type II Tobit model, with data drawn from the Spanish National Survey on Drug Use in the School Population (2000, 2002, and 2004). The sample is comprised of 12,627 students aged 17 years old. Our results confirm that parents' decisions about drinking are even more decisive in their children's behavior than socioeconomic variables, such as parents' educative levels or working status. Parental responsibilities go beyond the endowment of health and educational goods and services; so, these results suggest the importance of designing family-drug use prevention programs. The study's limitations are noted.

  4. Entertaining the stranger.

    PubMed

    Saban, Mark

    2011-02-01

    This paper attempts to address the problematic of the other in analytical psychology. Despite the important contributions of Papadopoulos (1991, 2002) and Huskinson (2000, 2002) this question has not received the attention it warrants. Read in the light of Levinas' writings on otherness, Jung's tendency to characterize the self as unitary, autonomous and undivided may be seen as a defence against or even an erasure of otherness. However, a Derridean revisioning of this approach suggests that the ambiguities and paradoxes which Jung insisted were intrinsic to his intuitions about the self-concept have the potential to evoke a remarkably subtle vision of Selfhood manifesting within the very tensions generated between Same and Other. In conclusion, this experience of Selfhood is amplified in the light of some of the insights of contemporary German philosopher Waldenfels, with particular attention to the role of pathos in the encounter with alterity. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  5. CO2 and CO Simulations and Their Source Signature Indicated by CO/CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, Randy; Huisheng, Bian

    2004-01-01

    Three years (2000-2002) atmospheric CO2 and CO fields are simulated by a Chemistry Transport Model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from GEOS-4. The simulated CO2 and CO are evaluated by measurements from surface (CMDL), satellite (MOPITT/CO), and aircraft. The model-observation comparisons indicate reasonable agreement in both source and remote regions, and in the lower and upper troposphere. The simulation also captures the seasonality of CO2 and CO variations. The ratios of CO/CO2 are analyzed over different representative regions to identify the source signature, since the anthropogenic CO comes fiom the same combustion processes as CO2. This work enables us to improve satellite inversion estimates of CO2 sources and sinks by simultaneously using satellite CO measurement.

  6. Rapid activation of specific phospholipase(s) D by cytokinin in Amaranthus assay system.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Volodymir S; Kolesnikov, Yaroslav S; Kretynin, Sergey V; Getman, Irina A; Romanov, Georgy A

    2010-03-01

    The suggested link between intracellular cytokinin signaling and phospholipase D (PLD, EC 3.1.4.4.) activity (Romanov et al. 2000, 2002) was investigated. The activity of PLD in the early period of cytokinin action was studied in vivo in derooted Amaranthus caudatus seedlings, using the level of phosphatidylbutanol production as a measure of PLD activity. Rapid activation of phosphatidylbutanol synthesis was demonstrated as early as within 5 min of cytokinin administration. Neomycin, a known phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) antagonist, strongly repressed both physiological cytokinin effect and cytokinin-dependent PLD activation. N-acylethanolamine (NAE 12), an inhibitor of alpha-class PLD, did not influence significantly cytokinin effect on Amaranthus seedlings. Together, results suggest the involvement of PIP(2)-dependent non-class alpha-PLD in the molecular mechanism of cytokinin action.

  7. Social class inequalities in health among occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kivimäki, Mika; Martikainen, Pekka; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Shipley, Martin; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Lallukka, Tea

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether relative occupational social class inequalities in physical health functioning widen, narrow or remain stable among white collar employees from three affluent countries. Health functioning was assessed twice in occupational cohorts from Britain (1997-1999 and 2003-2004), Finland (2000-2002 and 2007) and Japan (1998-1999 and 2003). Widening inequalities were seen for British and Finnish men, whereas inequalities among British and Finnish women remained relatively stable. Japanese women showed reverse inequalities at follow up, but no health inequalities were seen among Japanese men. Health behaviours and social relations explained 4-37% of the magnitude in health inequalities, but not their widening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Teacher psychological needs, locus of control and engagement.

    PubMed

    Betoret, Fernando Doménech

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among psychological needs, locus of control and engagement in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher needs were identified based on the study of Bess (1977) and on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2002). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the construct selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by conducting hierarchical regression analyses. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression reveals that psychological needs have significant positive effects on the three engagement dimensions (vigor, dedication and absorption). Furthermore, the results show the moderator role played by locus of control in the relationship between teacher psychological needs and the so-called core of engagement (vigor and dedication). Finally, practical implications are discussed.

  9. Trends in health behaviors in the old-old population: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine changes in the practice of health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) via comparing two Israeli cohorts of persons aged 75 to 94 over a 10-year period. Data collection was conducted during 1989-1992 for the first cohort (N=1,200) and during 2000-2002 for the second (N=421). Decreases in smoking indices (rates of current smokers, total nicotine consumption, years of smoking), increase in physical activity levels, and decreases in alcohol consumption of liquor and whiskey were found in the more recent cohort compared to the earlier one. Sex differences were found with regards to alcohol consumption and smoking. The findings indicate consistent improvements in health behaviors of smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption of beverages other than beer or wine in old-old Israeli persons.

  10. First reports evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for preventing violence: firearms laws. Findings from the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert A; Bilukha, Oleg O; Crosby, Alex; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Liberman, Akiva; Moscicki, Eve K; Snyder, Susan; Tuma, Farris; Briss, Peter

    2003-10-03

    During 2000-2002, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force), an independent nonfederal task force, conducted a systematic review of scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of firearms laws in preventing violence, including violent crimes, suicide, and unintentional injury. The following laws were evaluated: bans on specified firearms or ammunition, restrictions on firearm acquisition, waiting periods for firearm acquisition, firearm registration and licensing of firearm owners, "shall issue" concealed weapon carry laws, child access prevention laws, zero tolerance laws for firearms in schools, and combinations of firearms laws. The Task Force found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of any of the firearms laws or combinations of laws reviewed on violent outcomes. (Note that insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness should not be interpreted as evidence of ineffectiveness.) This report briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, summarizes the Task Force findings, and provides information regarding needs for future research.

  11. Hand injuries from tools in domestic and leisure settings: relative incidence and patterns of initial management.

    PubMed

    Williams, S T B; Power, D

    2011-06-01

    A search of the UK Department of Trade and Industry's Home and Leisure Accident database found 16,003 emergency hospital attendances in 2000-2002 following accidents with tools. The hand was the site of injury in 9535 cases (60%). The tool most commonly involved was a Stanley knife, causing as many hand injuries (21%) as all power tools combined. The power tools most frequently causing hand injury were circular saws (28% of power tool injuries), hedge trimmers (21%) and electric drills (17%). Compared to injuries from manual tools, power tool hand injuries were more than twice as likely to be referred to specialists and three times more likely to be admitted to hospital. Specialist referral/admission most commonly occurred following hand injury from mowers (51% admitted/referred), routers (50%) and circular saws (48%). The rate for manual blade injuries was 14%. Missed diagnoses following manual blade injuries may stem from comparatively low rates of specialist assessment.

  12. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  13. Common Grackle breeding on bottomland forest restoration sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Two of 36 forest restoration sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley surveyed from 2000-2002 harbored Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle). Occupied sites were in less-forested landscapes and had sparser understory vegetation due to flooding. Probability of daily nest survival (0.9077) of 169 Common Grackle nests was influenced by nest-placement, temporal, and landscape effects. Age of nest markedly affected nest survival, which increased from 0.92 when nestlings were present (age > 18 days). Extrapolating daily nest survival to a 31 -day nest period resulted in 5% nest success, far less then previously estimated for this species in more northern latitudes and likely less than required to sustain populations on these sites.

  14. [Time of permanence of nurses at a school-hospital and expenses related to admission, resignation and hiring of a new professional].

    PubMed

    de Holanda, Flávia Lilalva; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm

    2005-01-01

    This descriptive study aimed to find out how long nurses stay at a hospital institution and the relationship with expenses in terms of hours/salary regarding admission, resignation and hiring of a new nurse. We analyzed the resignation records of 109 nurses (2000-2002) from a hospital in the eastern region of São Paulo, provided by the Human Resource Department in 2003, as well as the amounts spent on hours/salary of the personnel involved in the selection process, admission, training and resignation. The study showed that the nurses stayed for a short period (average of 20 months and median 18). 30.53% of the nurses left the hospital in less than one year. 881.43 R dollars was spent on hours/salary for admission and resignation. This short time of permanence doubled the cost for hiring a new professional.

  15. Sex ratio estimations of loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings by histological examination and nest temperatures at Fethiye beach, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaska, Yakup; Ilgaz, Çetin; Özdemir, Adem; Başkale, Eyüp; Türkozan, Oğuz; Baran, Ibrahim; Stachowitsch, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Hatchling sex ratios in the loggerhead turtle ( Caretta caretta) were estimated by placing electronic temperature recorders in 21 nests at Fethiye beach during 2000 2002. Over the seasons, the mean temperature in the middle third of the incubation period ranged from 26.7 to 32.1°C, and incubation periods ranged from 49 to 67 days. Based on the mean temperatures during the middle third of the incubation period, and on histologically sexed dead hatchlings, the sex ratios of hatchlings at Fethiye beach were roughly equal, i.e. 60 65% of the hatchlings were females. This contrasts with the highly female-skewed sex ratios in loggerhead turtles elsewhere; Fethiye has a relatively high proportion of male hatchlings. For endangered sea turtles, the knowledge of hatchling sex ratios at different beaches, coupled with appropriate conservation measures, can make an important contribution to their survival.

  16. The continued pandemic threat posed by avian influenza viruses in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2002-07-01

    In 1997, a highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus was transmitted directly from live commercial poultry to humans in Hong Kong. Of the 18 people infected, six died. The molecular basis for the high virulence of this virus in mice was found to involve an amino acid change in the PB2 protein. To eliminate the source of the pathogenic virus, all birds in the Hong Kong markets were slaughtered. In 1999, another avian influenza virus of H9N2 subtype was transmitted to two children in Hong Kong. In 2000-2002, H5N1 avian viruses reappeared in the poultry markets of Hong Kong, although they have not infected humans. Continued circulation of H5N1 and other avian viruses in Hong Kong raises the possibility of future human influenza outbreaks. Moreover, the acquisition of properties of human viruses by the avian viruses currently circulating in southeast China might result in a pandemic.

  17. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  18. The Importance of Cognition, Metacognition and Motivation in the Character Development through Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykent, Derya; Eşme, Isa

    2007-04-01

    This is a discussion paper in order to show the importance of cognition, metacognition and motivation in an individual's character development through Science. Two studies were illustrated for this reason. By means of the first study it is aimed to provide students with better comprehension skills in Science field by encouraging them to raise an interest in Science and, using this positive environment developed through motivation, build desired and expected behaviors in the society. The study has been applied to 660 students between 2000-2002 at VKV Koc School, Turkey. The other study examined how an individual reacts to questions about self-recognition of that individual's unique selfhood; that individual's feeling fulfilled; that individual's realizing the importance of his impact on his global society. For this, an online survey was conducted. There were 93-submissions gathered from different countries with different education levels and age groups. This study was conducted in the spring 2006.

  19. Cost-effective advertising through TV and newspaper "banner" ads.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Krauss, Katie; Medeiros, Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Banner ads, small strip ads in newspapers used to specifically promote an information piece, were introduced into one newspaper in the Connecticut market in 1999 by Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH). Based on their success, the concept was expanded to six additional newspapers in late 2000 and to TV in the summer of 2001. Between 2000-2002, even as the overall marketing/advertising budget declined 30%, switching advertising dollars from image/display ads to banner ads resulted in consumer awareness of YNHH increasing from 29% to 42%. Perception of YNHH as "the advanced medicine" hospital grew from 22% to 40% during the same period. The specific strategic and operational actions generated since the implementation of the program are detailed and the advantages and disadvantages of this banner advertising approach are discussed. Banner ads may offer an alternative approach for organizations to advertise their products and programs.

  20. Crustacean assemblages in a polluted estuary from South-Western Spain.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moyano, J Emilio; García-Asencio, Isabel

    2010-10-01

    The spatial-temporal variation in crustacean assemblages of the Odiel-Tinto estuary, one of the most polluted areas in the world, was studied in 2000, 2002 and 2004. The crustacean assemblages were mainly established according to the natural gradient from estuarine to marine environment (based on water and sediment characteristics such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, granulometry or organic content). Pollutants such as copper, zinc or phosphates could also explain partially this pattern based on BIOENV and canonical correspondence analyses. However, there were clear symptoms of perturbation, mainly in the inner areas, such as a low number of species and a low abundance, especially in relation to the typical estuarine species (e.g. Cyathura carinata, Corophium spp.). This study provides baseline information which can be used as a reference point in a long-term perspective.

  1. Benthic status of near-shore fishing grounds in the central Philippines and associated seahorse densities.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J E; Samoilys, M A; Meeuwig, J J; Villongco, Z A D; Vincent, A C J

    2007-09-01

    Benthic status of 28 near-shore, artisanal, coral reef fishing grounds in the central Philippines was assessed (2000-2002) together with surveys of the seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Our measures of benthic quality and seahorse densities reveal some of the most degraded coral reefs in the world. Abiotic structure dominated the fishing grounds: 69% of the benthos comprised rubble (32%), sand/silt (28%) and dead coral (9%). Predominant biotic structure included live coral (12%) and Sargassum (11%). Rubble cover increased with increasing distance from municipal enforcement centers and coincided with substantial blast fishing in this region of the Philippines. Over 2 years, we measured a significant decrease in benthic 'heterogeneity' and a 16% increase in rubble cover. Poor benthic quality was concomitant with extremely low seahorse densities (524 fish per km(2)). Spatial management, such as marine reserves, may help to minimize habitat damage and to rebuild depleted populations of seahorses and other reef fauna.

  2. Ellipsis and discourse coherence

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2006-01-01

    VP-ellipsis generally requires a syntactically matching antecedent. However, many documented examples exist where the antecedent is not appropriate. Kehler (2000, 2002) proposed an elegant theory which predicts a syntactic antecedent for an elided VP is required only for a certain discourse coherence relation (resemblance) not for cause-effect relations. Most of the data Kehler used to motivate his theory come from corpus studies and thus do not consist of true minimal pairs. We report five experiments testing predictions of the coherence theory, using standard minimal pair materials. The results raise questions about the empirical basis for coherence theory because parallelism is preferred for all coherence relations, not just resemblance relations. Further, strict identity readings, which should not be available when a syntactic antecedent is required, are influenced by parallelism per se, holding the discourse coherence relation constant. This draws into question the causal role of coherence relations in processing VP ellipsis. PMID:16896367

  3. Near-Earth Asteroid Returned Sample (NEARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Cheng, Andrew F.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the Near-Earth Asteroid Returned Sample (NEARS) mission is to return to Earth 10-100 g from each of four to six sites on a near-Earth asteroid and to perform global characterization of the asteroid and measure mass, volume, and density to ten percent. The target asteroid for the mission is 4660 Nereus, probably a primitive C-type asteroid, with the alternate target being 1989ML, an extremely accessible asteroid of unknown type. Launch dates will be 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2004 on the Delta II-7925 launch vehicle. The mission objectives are three-fold. (1) Provide first direct and detailed petrological, chemical, age, and isotopic characterization of a near-Earth asteroid and relate it to terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic materials. (2) Sample the asteroid regolith and characterize any exotic fragments. (3) Identify heterogeneity in the asteroid's isotopic properties, age, and elemental chemistry.

  4. VI CCD Photometry Of The Old Open Clusters Arp-madore 2, Tombaugh 2 And Saurer 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Randy L.

    2007-05-01

    Faint-magnitude VI CCD photometry has been obtained for the clusters Arp-Madore 2, Tombaugh 2 and Saurer 1 with the DuPont 2.5-meter telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. These three clusters are among a handful that have been proposed to be associated with the so-called “Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure” (GASS). Using the Padova isochrones (Girardi et al. 2000, 2002), we have self-consistently determined the ages, distances and Galactocentric positions of these clusters. In this contribution the newly determined parameters will be discussed, as will the potential association of the clusters with the “GASS”. This work is supported, in part, by a Research and Creative Activities award from the California State University, Sacramento and a grant (AST-0652742) from the National Science Foundation.

  5. Comparing online and lab methods in a problem-solving experiment.

    PubMed

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Shultz, Thomas R; Onishi, Kristine H

    2008-05-01

    Online experiments have recently become very popular, and--in comparison with traditional lab experiments--they may have several advantages, such as reduced demand characteristics, automation, and generalizability of results to wider populations (Birnbaum, 2004; Reips, 2000, 2002a, 2002b). We replicated Dandurand, Bowen, and Shultz's (2004) lab-based problem-solving experiment as an Internet experiment. Consistent with previous results, we found that participants who watched demonstrations of successful problem-solving sessions or who read instructions outperformed those who were told only that they solved problems correctly or not. Online participants were less accurate than lab participants, but there was no interaction with learning condition. Thus, we conclude that online and Internet results are consistent. Disadvantages included high dropout rate for online participants; however, combining the online experiment with the department subject pool worked well.

  6. Sex ratio estimations of loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings by histological examination and nest temperatures at Fethiye beach, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaska, Yakup; Ilgaz, Cetin; Ozdemir, Adem; Başkale, Eyüp; Türkozan, Oğuz; Baran, Ibrahim; Stachowitsch, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Hatchling sex ratios in the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) were estimated by placing electronic temperature recorders in 21 nests at Fethiye beach during 2000-2002. Over the seasons, the mean temperature in the middle third of the incubation period ranged from 26.7 to 32.1 degrees C, and incubation periods ranged from 49 to 67 days. Based on the mean temperatures during the middle third of the incubation period, and on histologically sexed dead hatchlings, the sex ratios of hatchlings at Fethiye beach were roughly equal, i.e. 60-65% of the hatchlings were females. This contrasts with the highly female-skewed sex ratios in loggerhead turtles elsewhere; Fethiye has a relatively high proportion of male hatchlings. For endangered sea turtles, the knowledge of hatchling sex ratios at different beaches, coupled with appropriate conservation measures, can make an important contribution to their survival.

  7. Are employers changing their behavior toward older workers? An analysis of employers' surveys 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Conen, Wieteke S; Henkens, Kène; Schippers, Joop J

    2011-04-01

    This article addresses possible changes in Dutch employers' behavior regarding the recruitment and retention of older workers during the last decade. The authors analyze surveys administered to Dutch employers in 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2009. The results show that efforts to recruit older workers are changing, congruous with the economic climate, while retention behavior shows a clear and rather gradual time effect. The authors conclude that the position of older workers has improved between 2000 and 2008 and has done so in comparison with other underrepresented groups in the labor market. During the recession, recruitment of older workers declined substantially, while efforts to retain older workers are in both absolute and relative terms higher than in 2000. With respect to organizational policies, the authors conclude that throughout the period under observation these policies are dominated by measures that "spare" older workers.

  8. Effects of phosphorus fertilizer supplementation on processing quality and functional food ingredients in tomato.

    PubMed

    Oke, Moustapha; Ahn, Taehyun; Schofield, Andrew; Paliyath, Gopinadhan

    2005-03-09

    Even though several types of phosphorus fertilizers are used in crop production, the influence of phosphorus on produce quality is not well understood. Several quality attributes of tomato juice were analyzed in relation to phosphorus supplementation during a three-year field study (2000-2002). In addition to the recommended phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus supplementations, either through soil (low and high) or through foliar spray (hydrophos, seniphos), were tested. In general, soil and foliar phosphorus supplementation did not provide a statistically significant increase in yield. Tomato juice was evaluated for various quality characteristics including pH, titratable acidity, precipitate weight ratio, total solids, serum viscosity, Brookfield viscosity, color, lycopene levels, vitamin C, and flavor volatiles. Changes observed in several quality parameters were marginal, statistically insignificant and influenced by the season. Therefore, it appears that phosphorus supplementation may not significantly affect the processing quality parameters in tomato fruits.

  9. Considerations on the type specimens and type locality of Pyrrhura roseifrons (Gray, 1859) (Psittacidae).

    PubMed

    Costa, Thiago V V; Joseph, Leo; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2016-10-28

    The Rose-fronted Parakeet Pyrrhura roseifrons (Gray, 1859) is a poorly known species that occurs in lowland forest of western Amazonia, from eastern Peru to western Brazil and northern Bolivia (Collar 1997; Forshaw 2010). Like many Pyrrhura species, it is mostly green, and has a pale auricular patch, red tail and belly, but presents a bright red head, distinct from any other close relatives within the genus. It was long considered a subspecies of P. picta (Statius Miller, 1776) (Arndt 1983; Arndt 1996; Collar 1997; Juniper & Parr, 1998) and only recently has its specific rank been restored (Joseph 2000, 2002; Ribas et al. 2006) and accepted in the literature (Dickinson & Remsen 2013; del Hoyo & Collar 2014; Remsen et al. 2015).

  10. Childhood victimization and illicit drug use in middle adulthood.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Marmorstein, Naomi R; White, Helene Raskin

    2006-12-01

    Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989-1995 and again in middle adulthood (mean age = 40 years) during 2000-2002. In middle adulthood, abused and neglected individuals were about 1.5 times more likely than controls to report using any illicit drug (in particular, marijuana) during the past year and reported use of a greater number of illicit drugs and more substance-use-related problems compared with controls. The current results reveal the long-term impact of childhood victimization on drug use in middle adulthood. These new results reinforce the need for targeted interventions with abused and neglected children, adolescents, and adults, and particularly for women.

  11. Effect of analytical conditions in wavelength dispersive electron microprobe analysis on the measurement of strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios in otoliths of anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Nielsen, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    The use of strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios in otoliths is becoming a standard method to describe life history type and the chronology of migrations between freshwater and seawater habitats in teleosts (e.g. Kalish, 1990; Radtke et al., 1990; Secor, 1992; Rieman et al., 1994; Radtke, 1995; Limburg, 1995; Tzeng et al. 1997; Volk et al., 2000; Zimmerman, 2000; Zimmerman and Reeves, 2000, 2002). This method provides critical information concerning the relationship and ecology of species exhibiting phenotypic variation in migratory behavior (Kalish, 1990; Secor, 1999). Methods and procedures, however, vary among laboratories because a standard method or protocol for measurement of Sr in otoliths does not exist. In this note, we examine the variations in analytical conditions in an effort to increase precision of Sr/Ca measurements. From these findings we argue that precision can be maximized with higher beam current (although there is specimen damage) than previously recommended by Gunn et al. (1992).

  12. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  13. Calibrating the scale of the NRLMSISE00 model during solar maximum using the two line elements dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuang; Li, Wenwen; Li, Min; Zhao, Qile; Sang, Jizhang

    2015-07-01

    Empirical mass density models for the thermosphere are widely used for object orbit determination and prediction, object collision avoidance, and re-entry analysis. But the error of these empirical models can often reach 15-30% or even larger during highly disturbed periods of the space environment. On the other hand, the mass density of the thermosphere can be derived from the orbit information contained in the two line elements (TLE) dataset. This technique provides an approach for calibrating the empirical model. Here we select TLE data of 36 low Earth orbiters (LEOs) recorded during 2000-2002 (solar maximum). The ratios of the TLE-derived densities to those from the empirical NRLMSISE00 model are calculated and used to calibrate the scale error of the NRLMSISE00 model by applying a linear height-dependent function. The calibration models for the NRLMSISE00 model during 2000-2002 are then obtained by a least squares adjustment procedure. The calibration factors at 250, 400, and 550 km from this calibration model are compared to the density ratios obtained by Emmert et al. (2008) who used TLE data from ∼5000 LEOs. The result indicates that the biases between these two independent factors at the 3 altitudes are all within +/-2%, and the standard deviations (STDs) are under 7%. Another 5 LEOs with altitudes ranging from 200 to 500 km are also selected to validate the precision of the calibration model. Their density ratios are calculated using the calibration model and the NRLMSISE00 model, respectively. The results demonstrate that by applying this calibration method the relative root mean square (RMS) error of the NRLMSISE00 model can be reduced by about 9%.

  14. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  15. Unintentional domestic burns in Iran: Analysis of 125,000 cases from a national register.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to map out some epidemiological aspects of unintentional burn injuries among Iranian victims using a national injury registry data. Injury data were taken from a national injury surveillance system over the period 2000-2002. The study population comprised 31.5% of Iran's population. Burn-injury cases were retrieved and analysed. Of all the grossly 307,000 home injuries reported during the years 2000-2002 in Iran, about 125,000 cases (41%) were unintentional burn injuries. Women comprised 58% of the unintentional burn victims. The mean age among burn victims was 19.18±19 (standard deviation, SD) years. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates showed that children had a much higher incidence of domestic burns but the elderly suffered higher fatality in spite of lower incidence in this age group. Overall, 65.2% of the domestic burn injuries occurred in the living rooms or bedrooms followed by 27% in the kitchen. The hands and fingers were injured in 43.6% followed by the lower limbs in 37.6%. According to injury mechanism, scalds were the most common type of burn injuries comprising 77.7% of all burns. Of all the burn victims, 791 died, 48 victims became disabled and the remaining improved or were undergoing therapy when reported. Burns form a major health problem in Iran. Due to high mortality rate, the elderly need specific attention regarding burn prevention and treatment in this age group. Moreover, in spite of lower fatality, any prevention programme should have a focus on childhood burns mainly due to the overwhelming distribution of burns in children and the young population of Iran. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in overweight and obesity in Danish children and adolescents: 2000-2008--exploring changes according to parental education.

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Stockmarr, Anders; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Fagt, Sisse; Zhang, Hao; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2014-06-01

    To examine the hypotheses that an overall levelling off in the prevalence of overweight and obesity during the period 2000-2008 has occurred, and that increasing social inequality in overweight and obesity exists in a nationally representative sample of Danish children and adolescents. The population comprised a random sample of 1849 children aged 4-14 years who participated in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity in 2000-2002, 2003-2004 and 2005-2008. Parental education was chosen as an indicator of children's socioeconomic status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from parent-reported weight and height. Subjects were classified as overweight and obese according to the International Obesity Task Force age- and gender-specific BMI cut-off values. Crude prevalence estimates and logistic regression models were used to analyse trends in overweight and obesity as the main outcome measures. An increase was found in the crude prevalence of overweight (including obesity) in boys (12.8-21.7%, p = 0.0006), but not in girls (17.6-15.9%, p = 0.56), between 2000-2002 and 2005-2008. The prevalence of overweight increased significantly in boys of parents with low educational level only. A strong inverse social gradient in overweight and obesity was documented for boys and girls during the whole survey period. The present study showed an increase in the prevalence of overweight in Danish boys, but not in girls. This increase was due to increasing social inequality in overweight among boys. Public health initiatives aimed at preventing and reducing overweight and obesity should consider gender difference and especially target boys with parents of low educational level. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Effects of tillage on the activity density and biological diversity of carabid beetles in spring and winter crops.

    PubMed

    Hatten, Timothy D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Labonte, James R; Guy, Stephen O; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2007-04-01

    The effects of tillage regimen (conventional [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) on the activity density and diversity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied by pitfall trapping within a rain-fed cropping system in northwestern Idaho, 2000-2002. The cropping rotation consisted of a spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2000 and 2001; and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 2002), spring dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2000-2002, and wheat (T. aestivum), spring in 2000 and 2001, and winter in 2002. A total of 14,480 beetles comprised of 30 species was captured, with five numerically dominant species [Poecilus scitulus L., Poecilus lucublandus Say, Microlestes linearis L., Pterostichus melanarius Ill., and Calosoma cancellatum (Eschscholtz)], accounting for 98% of all captures. All species including the dominants responded idiosyncratically to tillage regimen. Adjusting for trapping biases did not significantly change seasonal activity density of Poecilus spp. or Pt. melanarius to tillage. More beetles were captured in CT than in NT crops because of the dominance of P. scitulus in CT, whereas species richness and biological diversity were generally higher in NT crops. Observed patterns suggest that direct effects of tillage affected some species, whereas indirect effects related to habitat characteristics affected others. CT may provide habitat preferable to xerophilic spring breeders. A relationship was found between beetle species size and tillage regimen in pea and to a lesser extent across all spring crops, with large species (>14 mm) conserved more commonly in NT, small species (<7 mm) in CT, and intermediate species (7-14 mm) conserved equally between tillage systems.

  18. Survival of European patients with central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Sant, Milena; Minicozzi, Pamela; Lagorio, Susanna; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Francisci, Silvia

    2012-07-01

    We present estimates of population-based 5-year relative survival for adult Europeans diagnosed with central nervous system tumors, by morphology (14 categories based on cell lineage and malignancy grade), sex, age at diagnosis and region (UK and Ireland, Northern, Central, Eastern and Southern Europe) for the most recent period with available data (2000-2002). Sources were 39 EUROCARE cancer registries with continuous data from 1996 to 2002. Survival time trends (1988 to 2002) were estimated from 24 cancer registries with continuous data from 1988. Overall 5-year relative survival was 85.0% for benign, 19.9% for malignant tumors. Benign tumor survival ranged from 90.6% (Northern Europe) to 77.4% (UK and Ireland); for malignant tumors the range was 25.1% (Northern Europe) to 15.6% (UK and Ireland). Survival decreased with age at diagnosis and was slightly better for women (malignant tumors only). For glial tumors, survival varied from 83.5% (ependymoma and choroid plexus) to 2.7% (glioblastoma); and for non-glioma tumors from 96.5% (neurinoma) to 44.9% (primitive neuroectoderm tumor/medulloblastoma). Survival differences between regions narrowed after adjustment for morphology and age, and were mainly attributable to differences in morphology mix; however UK and Ireland and Eastern Europe patients still had 40% and 30% higher excess risk of death, respectively, than Northern Europe patients (reference). Survival for benign tumors increased from 69.3% (1988-1990) to 77.1% (2000-2002); but survival for malignant tumors did not improve indicating no useful advances in treatment over the 14-year study period, notwithstanding major improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of other solid cancers. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. Longitudinal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Ayers, Colby R; McGuire, Darren K; Maalouf, Naim M

    2017-09-01

    While the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is well described in various populations, limited data are available regarding longitudinal variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. To evaluate the temporal trends in serum 25(OH)D, prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and factors influencing these trends. Adults enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study, a longitudinal, probability-based, multiethnic, population study in Dallas, Texas, USA. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and predictors of change in serum 25(OH)D. A total of 2045 participants had serum 25(OH)D measured on two occasions (2000-2002 and 2007-2009) at a median interval of 7 years. Serum 25(OH)D decreased (42.7-39.4 nmol/L, P<.001) and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] increased significantly (60.6%-66.4%, P<.0001) despite vitamin D supplementation increasing over the interval (7.2%-23.0%; P<.0001). In a multivariable model adjusting for sex, race, BMI, age, season of blood draw, smoking and exercise, a greater decline in serum 25(OH)D was noted in men compared with women (-8.0 vs -3.5 nmol/L, P<.0001), in participants of Hispanic ethnicity vs White and Black ethnicity (P<.0001), in nonobese vs obese participants (-7.2 vs -4.0 nmol/L, P=.005) and in nonusers vs users of vitamin D supplements (-5.7 vs -1.7 nmol/L, P=.032). Despite increased vitamin D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D decreased in an ethnically diverse cohort of Dallas County residents between 2000-2002 and 2007-2009. Features most predictive of a decline in serum 25(OH)D include male sex, Hispanic ethnicity and weight gain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Improved survival among ICU-hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia by unidentified organisms: a multicenter case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rello, J; Diaz, E; Mañez, R; Sole-Violan, J; Valles, J; Vidaur, L; Zaragoza, R; Gattarello, S

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective analysis from prospectively collected data was conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) at 33 hospitals in Europe comparing the trend in ICU survival among adults with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to unknown organisms from 2000 to 2015. The secondary objective was to establish whether changes in antibiotic policies were associated with different outcomes. ICU mortality decreased (p = 0.02) from 26.9 % in the first study period (2000-2002) to 15.7 % in the second period (2008-2015). Demographic data and clinical severity at admission were comparable between groups, except for age over 65 years and incidence of cardiomyopathy. Over time, patients received higher rates of combination therapy (94.3 vs. 77.2 %; p < 0.01) and early (<3 h) antibiotic delivery (72.9 vs. 50.3 %; p < 0.01); likewise, the 2008-2015 group was more likely to receive adequate antibiotic prescription [as defined by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines] than the 2000-2002 group (70.7 vs. 48.2 %; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed an independent association between decreased ICU mortality and early (<3 h) antibiotic administration [odds ratio (OR) 3.48 [1.70-7.15], p < 0.01] or adequate antibiotic prescription according to guidelines (OR 2.22 [1.11-4.43], p = 0.02). In conclusion, our findings suggest that ICU mortality in severe CAP due to unidentified organisms has decreased in the last 15 years. Several changes in management and better compliance with guidelines over time were associated with increased survival.

  1. Physical Modelling of Sedimentary Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, David A.

    2003-04-24

    The main goals of the first three years have been achieved, i.e., the development of particle-based and continuum-based algorithms for cross-scaleup-scale analysis of complex fluid flows. The U. Minnesota team has focused on particle-based methods, wavelets (Rustad et al., 2001) and visualization and has had great success with the dissipative and fluid particle dynamics algorithms, as applied to colloidal, polymeric and biological systems, wavelet filtering and visualization endeavors. We have organized two sessions in nonlinear geophysics at the A.G.U. Fall Meeting (2000,2002), which have indeed synergetically stimulated the community and promoted cross-disciplinary efforts in the geosciences. The LANL team has succeeded with continuum-based algorithms, in particular, fractal interpolating functions (fif). These have been applied to 1-D flow and transport equations (Travis, 2000; 2002) as a proof of principle, providing solutions that capture dynamics at all scales. In addition, the fif representations can be integrated to provide sub-grid-scale homogenization, which can be used in more traditional finite difference or finite element solutions of porous flow and transport. Another useful tool for fluid flow problems is the ability to solve inverse problems, that is, given present-time observations of a fluid flow, what was the initial state of that fluid system? We have demonstrated this capability for a large-scale problem of 3-D flow in the Earth's crust (Bunge, Hagelberg & Travis, 2002). Use of the adjoint method for sensitivity analysis (Marchuk, 1995) to compute derivatives of models makes the large-scale inversion feasible in 4-D, , space and time. Further, a framework for simulating complex fluid flow in the Earth's crust has been implemented (Dutrow et al, 2001). The remaining task of the first three-year campaign is to extend the implementation of the fif formalism to our 2-D and 3-D computer codes, which is straightforward, but involved.

  2. Twenty-two-year population trends in sodium and potassium consumption: the Minnesota Heart Survey.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Harnack, Lisa J; Luepker, Russell V; Zhou, Xia; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M

    2013-10-02

    Limiting dietary sodium consumption is a core lifestyle recommendation for the prevention of hypertension. There is increasing evidence that low potassium consumption also increases hypertension risk. We estimated sex-specific 22-year trends in sodium and potassium consumption. We used data from the Minnesota Heart Survey, which performs surveillance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. The Minnesota Heart Survey is a random population-based sample of free-living adults aged 25 to 74. Surveys were conducted in 1985-1987 (n = 2273), 1990-1992 (n = 2487), 1995-1997 (n = 1842), 2000-2002 (n = 2759), and 2007-2009 (n = 1502). Dietary intake of sodium and potassium was estimated from one 24-hour dietary recall. Over 22 years, age-adjusted sodium and potassium intake among men remained relatively stable in 1985-1987 and 2007-2009 (Ptrend = 0.41 and 0.29, respectively); sodium ranged from 3820 mg/day (1995-1997) to 3968 mg/day (2007-2009) and potassium from 3111 mg/day (2000-2002) to 3249 mg/day (1995-1997). Sodium and potassium intake increased among women, from 2531 mg/day in 1985-1987 to 2854 mg/day in 2007-2009 (Ptrend = 0.001) for sodium and from 2285 to 2533 mg/day (Ptrend < 0.0001) for potassium. We observed stable or increasing sodium and potassium intake within some strata of age, education, and body mass index. Despite long-standing public health recommendations to limit sodium intake to < 2300 mg/day, high sodium intake levels have persisted over the past 22 years. Furthermore, although potassium consumption increased in some subgroups over the study period, mean consumption remained significantly lower than the recommended 4700 mg/day in all groups.

  3. Media ownership and news framing: an analysis of HIV/AIDS coverage by Ugandan press.

    PubMed

    Kiwanuka-Tondo, James; Albada, Kelly F; Payton, Fay Cobb

    2012-12-01

    Applying framing theory, the present research analyzes trends in Ugandan news coverage and the prominent issue frames for HIV/AIDS-related stories. In order to determine the influence of other factors, such as media ownership and journalist origin, nearly 800 articles, from 2000 to 2004, were gathered from the major private newspaper and government-owned newspaper in Uganda. After systematic sampling, 365 articles constitute the sample. The results indicate that print news coverage of HIV and AIDS followed a non-linear trajectory, declining from 2000-2002 and then increasing from 2003-2004. Curative medicine emerged as the most prominent issue frame. Higher-risk behaviour was the least prominent issue frame overall. The 'solutions' issue frame nearly doubled in prominence from 2000-2004, while the HIV-prevention frame decreased from 2000-2002 and then rebounded from 2003-2004. Concerning HIV-related topics, the private newspaper included more features, printed lengthier articles, incorporated a greater variety of news frames, and published more articles by foreign journalists than the government-owned newspaper. The private newspaper employed the 'HIV-prevention,' 'action,' and 'victims' frames more often than the government-owned newspaper. Journalists at the government-owned newspaper adopted a 'solutions' frame more often than their private-press counterparts. Though foreign journalists were more likely than local journalists to employ the HIV-prevention frame, additional tests revealed that the news organisation for which the journalists worked contributed to issue framing to a greater extent than did either a local or foreign reporting origin. Local (Ugandan) journalists working for the two news organisations differed in their tendencies to apply the HIV-prevention, action, victims, and tragedy frames in news stories on HIV and AIDS, with journalists at the private newspaper using these frames more often than did journalists at the government-owned newspaper.

  4. An ecological study of factors associated with rates of self-inflicted death in prisons in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Leese, Morven; Thomas, Stuart; Snow, Louisa

    2006-01-01

    This study describes ecological associations between self-inflicted death rates and prison-level environmental indicators over the period 2000-2002 in England and Wales. The objective was to assist in the development of interventions for reducing the incidence of self-inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales, by identifying risk factors, including overcrowding, positive drug tests, the number of assaults, purposeful activity, offending behaviour programmes, and cost per prisoner. Poisson regression was used to estimate associations between self-inflicted death rates and these potential risk factors, controlling for different categories of prison. The annual rate of self-inflicted death during 2000-2002 was 1.14 per 1000 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.34), with no evidence for a difference in the two years. Highest rates were in the Male Local and Women's prisons at 1.86 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.26) and 2.27 (95% CI 1.35 to 3.84) per 1000 respectively. In a multivariate analysis, overcrowding, assault rate and purposeful activity were significant. In an analysis controlling also for prison category, only purposeful activity remained independently significant, as a protective factor (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.92, p=0.02) with weaker evidence for a positive association with positive drug tests (RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.05, p=0.08). Despite concerns about the quality of routinely collected data and the interpretation of ecological associations, this study suggests that a higher level of purposeful activity is independently associated with lower rates of self-inflicted death, whatever the prison category. This adds support to other studies conducted at the level of the individual prisoner.

  5. Decline in semen quality among infertile men in Brazil during the past 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Edson; Setti, Amanda Souza; Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Figueira, Rita de Cassia Savio; Iaconelli, Assumpto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate whether the semen quality of men undergoing conventional semen analysis is deteriorating over time. Materials and Methods: We analyzed and compared the sperm count, motility and morphology of 2300 semen samples provided by males undergoing conventional seminal analysis, from years 2000 to 2002 and 2010 to 2012. The incidences of severe oligozoospermia and azoospermia over time were also compared. Results: A total of 764 sperm samples were analyzed in 2000-2002 and 1536 in 20102012. Over time, the mean sperm concentration/ml decreased significantly from 61.7 million in 2000-2002 to 26.7 million in 2010-2012 (R2=11.4%, p<0.001), the total sperm concentration decreased significantly from 183.0 million to 82.8 million (R2=11.3%, p<0.001), and the percentage of normal forms decreased significantly from 4.6% to 2.7% (R2=9.8%, p<0.001). The incidence of severe oligozoospermia significantly increased from 15.7% to 30.3% (OR: 1.09, p<0.001) and the incidence of azoospermia increased from 4.9% to 8.5% (OR: 1.06, p=0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant time-related decline in semen quality of infertile patients. This finding might have implications on fertility and emphasizes the need for further studies addressing subject's life-style in order to find and reduce the causative agents. Future prospective and multicenter studies including representative samples of the general population are needed to confirm whether semen quality is really declining. PMID:26401870

  6. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon region predicted from satellite data and ecosystem modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-03-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m-2) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon are highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris are more rapid and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr-1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct carbon emissions from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6-1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from year to year during the period 2000-2002.

  7. Phosphorus Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in the Illinois River Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2000-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; Pickup, Barbara E.

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois River and tributaries, Flint Creek and Baron Fork, are designated scenic rivers in Oklahoma. Recent phosphorus levels in streams in the basin have resulted in the growth of excess algae, which have limited the aesthetic benefits of water bodies in the basin, especially the Illinois River and Lake Tenkiller. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board has established a standard for total phosphorus not to exceed the 30-day geometric mean concentration of 0.037 milligram per liter in Oklahoma Scenic Rivers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to summarize phosphorus concentrations and provide estimates of phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in the Illinois River and tributaries from January 2000 through December 2004. Data from water-quality samples collected from 2000 to 2004 were used to summarize phosphorus concentrations and estimate phosphorus loads, yields, and mean flow-weighted concentrations in the Illinois River basin for three 3-year periods - 2000-2002, 2001-2003, and 2002-2004, to update a previous report that used data from water-quality samples from 1997 to 2001. This report provides information needed to advance knowledge of the regional hydrologic system and understanding of hydrologic processes, and provides hydrologic data and results useful to multiple parties for interstate compacts. Phosphorus concentrations in the Illinois River basin were significantly greater in runoff samples than in base-flow samples. Phosphorus concentrations generally decreased with increasing base flow, from dilution, and decreased in the downstream direction in the Illinois River from the Watts to Tahlequah stations. Phosphorus concentrations generally increased with runoff, possibly because of phosphorus resuspension, stream bank erosion, and the addition of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. Estimated mean annual phosphorus loads were greater at the Illinois River

  8. Long-term variations in dissolved silicate, nitrogen, and phosphorus flux from the Yangtze River into the East China Sea and impacts on estuarine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maotian; Xu, Kaiqin; Watanabe, Masataka; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2007-01-01

    Variations of dissolved silicate (DSi) flux in the Yangtze River have caused great concern among scientists. Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of DSi indicates that the distribution of DSi concentration (DSiC) is closely related to the occurrence of bedrocks in the river cathchment. On average, the upper Yangtze River and Dongting and Poyang Lake of the middle Yangtze basin serve as the major DSi sinks, retaining 3.39 × 10 4 t y -1, 5.59 × 10 4 and 2.51 × 10 4 t y -1. The middle and low Yangtze River remains DSi sources, emitting 2.85 × 10 4 and 2.48 × 10 4 t y -1, respectively. Geochemical data at Datong hydrological station recorded the flux of nutrients entering into the sea during the flood season, i.e. 74% for DSi, 73% for DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrate) and 68% DIP (Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate). The yearly DSiC and flux show a sharp decrease since 1950s. The mean DSiC was 109.47, 91.09, and 77.56 μmol l -1 in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, respectively. The mean DSi fluxes for the same time period were 2.72, 2.23, and 2.13 × 10 6 t. A PP (primary productivity) model estimates 3.14 × 10 5 t of DSi (13.08% of the annual mean flux entering into the sea) was fixated within the 162 reservoirs in 2002. On the other hand, DIN and DIP concentration and flux have increased greatly since the 1950s. Fertilizer application peaked after the 1980s can interpret these high DIN and DIP. A sharply decreasing DSi flux and quickly increasing DIN and DIP fluxes into the sea have enhanced eutrophication and caused frequent harmful algal blooms in coastal waters. On average, red-tide frequency was from 0.04 during 1933-1979 to 7.0 during 2000-2002. The Skeletonema costatum (siliceous alga), the red-tide-predominant species that is in positive proportion to DSi flux, decreased from 33% during the 1980s to 24% during 2000-2002. The present data evidence the increase of Prorocentrum dentatum (non-siliceous alga) from 12.5% in the 1980s to 36% in 2000-2002, which

  9. Explanation of Europa's Unusual Polarization Properties: The Regolith is Sub-micron, Fine-Grained, High Porosity Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Boryta, M. D.; Hapke, B. W.; Manatt, K. S.; Nebedum, A.; Kroner, D. O.; Shkuratov, Y.; Psarev, V.; Vanderoort, K.; Smythe, W. D.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, unusual reflectance and polarization phase curves have been reported on Europa by experienced ground based astronomers (Rosenbush et al., 1997, 2015). The observed reflectance phase curve is consistent with the phase curves reported in the laboratory in fine grained particulate media (Nelson et al., 2000, 2002, Shkuratov et al., 2002). Shkuratov et al. (2002) also measured polarization properties of fine grained media showing that they relate to the coherent backscatter enhancement phenomenon and are consistent with the astronomical data. We have reconfigured a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP) (Nelson et al., 2000, 2002) to measure in the laboratory the polarization phase curves of highly reflective particulate materials that simulate the Europa's predominately water ice regolith. We apply the Helmholtz Reciprocity Principle - we present our samples with linearly polarized light and measure the change in the intensity of the reflected component with phase angle from 0.05 to 15 degrees. This is physically equivalent to the astronomical polarization measurements. We report here the polarization phase curves for a suite of high albedo particulates of size 0.1

  10. Jupiter's Satellite Europa: Evidence for an Extremely Fine-Grained, High Porosity Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark D.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Manatt, Ken S.; Nebedum, Adaeze; Kroner, Desiree; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Psarev, Vladimir; Smythe, William D.

    2015-11-01

    We have measured the polarization phase curves of highly reflective, fine-grained, particulate materials that simulate Europa’s predominately water ice regolith. Our laboratory measurements exhibit polarization phase curves that are remarkably similar to results reported by experienced astronomers (Rosenbush et al., 1997, 2015). Our previous reflectance phase curve measurements of the same materials were in agreement with the same astronomical observers. In addition, we found that these materials exhibit an increase in circular polarization ratio with decreasing phase angle. This is consistent with coherent backscattering (CB) of photons in the regolith (Nelson et al., 2000, 2002). Shkuratov et al. (2002) report that the polarization properties of these particulate media are also consistent with the CB enhancement process (Shkuratov, 1989; Muinonen, 1990).We have reconfigured a goniometric photopolarimeter (Nelson et al., 2000, 2002) to undertake measurements of the polarization phase curves of these particulate materials. Our reconfiguration applies the Helmholtz Reciprocity Principle (Hapke, 2012, p264) - i.e. we present our samples with linearly polarized light and measure the intensity of the reflected component. These laboratory measurements are physically equivalent to the astronomical polarization measurements. We report here the polarization phase curves of high albedo Aluminium Oxide particulates of size 0.1

  11. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  12. Medical factors associated with early IVF discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Troude, Pénélope; Guibert, Juliette; Bouyer, Jean; de La Rochebrochard, Elise

    2014-03-01

    Even when IVF is reimbursed by the social insurance system, as in France, high discontinuation rates have been reported and some patients drop out as soon as the first failed IVF cycle. This study aims to investigate medical factors associated with treatment discontinuation in an IVF centre after the first unsuccessful cycle. The study included 5135 couples recruited in eight French IVF centres and who had had an unsuccessful first IVF cycle in these centres in 2000-2002 (i.e. no live birth). Of these couples with a first failed IVF, 1337 did not have a second IVF in the centre (26%, 'early discontinuation group') and 3798 continued treatment with a second IVF in the centre. The characteristics of couples who discontinued IVF treatment were compared with those who continued using logistic regressions. Older women, women with duration of infertility >5years, with female factor or unexplained infertility, with 0 or 1 oocyte retrieved and no embryo transfer during the first IVF were more likely to discontinue treatment early. Risk of early discontinuation was associated with medical factors that are also well known to be associated with impaired chance of successful IVF. Even when IVF is reimbursed by the social insurance system, as in France, high discontinuation rates have been reported and some patients drop out as soon as the first failed IVF cycle. This study aims to investigate medical factors associated with treatment discontinuation in an IVF centre after the first unsuccessful cycle. The study included 5135 couples recruited in eight French IVF centres who had had an unsuccessful first IVF cycle in these centres in 2000-2002 (i.e. who remained childless after a first cycle). Of these couples with a first failed IVF, 1337 did not have a second IVF in the centre and 3798 continued treatment with a second IVF in the centre. The characteristics of couples who discontinued IVF treatment were compared with those who continued. After a first failed IVF cycle, more

  13. Comparison of breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns in a common cohort of South Asian women in England

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004) of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002) were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5). South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057) compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969) for non-Asians (p < 0.001). Women in both groups who consistently chose to undertake breast cancer screening in rounds 1, 2 and 5 were more likely to complete round 1 bowel cancer screening. However, the likelihood of completion of bowel cancer screening was still significantly lower for South Asians; 49.5% vs. 82.3% for non-Asians, p < 0.001. South Asian women who undertook breast cancer screening in only one round were no more likely to complete bowel cancer screening than those who decided against breast cancer screening in all three rounds. In contrast, similar women in the non-Asian population had an increased likelihood of completing the new bowel cancer screening

  14. Where Europe meets Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent).

    From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data

  15. Views of junior doctors about whether their medical school prepared them well for work: questionnaire surveys

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216) in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997) in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0) of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2) of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9) of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7) to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0) to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7). Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87) at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35) at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious). Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about elements of

  16. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-11-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m-2) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg{=}1015 g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr-1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr-1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  17. Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms and primary liver cancer epidemiological studies in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Svircev, Zorica; Krstic, Svetislav; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Baltic, Vladimir; Vidovic, Milka

    2009-01-01

    A large part of Central Serbia experiences continual shortage of sufficient ground water resources. For that reason, more than 20 reservoirs serve as drinking water suppliers. Significant and persistent cyanobacterial "blooms" have been recognized in nine of them. Samples for cyanotoxin analyses were taken during and after "blooms" in Celije Reservoir and from Krusevac town-supplied tap water from that reservoir two days later. Concentration of microcystin-LR was 650 microg L(-1) in the reservoir, while the tap water contained 2.5 microg L(-1). In the two investigated periods, the high primary liver cancer (PLC) mortality of 11.6 from 1980-1990 and extremely high PLC incidence of 34.7 from 2000-2002 were observed in the regions affected by heavy cyanobacterial "blooms." In contrast, PLC mortality and incidence rates were substantially lower in the regions not affected by cyanobacterial blooms: in 1980-1990 the rate of PLC mortality amounted to 2.7 in Kosovo, 7.6 in Vojvodina, and 8.3 in the non-affected regions of Central Serbia; while in 2000-2002 PLC incidence amounted to 4.1 in Kosovo, 5.2 in Vojvodina, and 13.6 in the non- or less-affected regions of Central Serbia. Keeping in mind that the most affected PLC regions in Central Serbia (Toplicki, Niski, and Sumadijski regions) have the water supply systems based on six reservoirs found regularly in bloom during summer months and that some of the regions are also connected with two boundary "blooming" reservoirs, representing a total of eight of nine blooming reservoirs, it is easy to presume that the PLC incidence could be related to drinking water quality. The uneven geographic distribution of liver cancer in Serbia is conspicuous and hot spots could be related to drinking water supply. It is very clear that the high-risk regions for PLC occurrence correspond with drinking water reservoirs continually found with cyanobacterial blooms, and the low risk regions correspond with water supplies not affected by

  18. Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cancrini, G; Frangipane di Regalbono, A; Ricci, I; Tessarin, C; Gabrielli, S; Pietrobelli, M

    2003-12-30

    Investigations were carried out in Padova town (Veneto region, NE Italy) to define the actual role of Aedes albopictus in the natural transmission of Dirofilaria nematodes, and to assess the risk that its presence might represent for veterinary and medical health. During summer 2000-2002 daytime captures of human-attracted mosquitoes were carried out in three areas of the town. The presence of filarial parasites in mosquitoes was evaluated by PCR, and sequencing confirmed species assessment. DNA extraction was performed separately on pools of the insect abdomen and thorax-head, to discriminate between Dirofilaria infected/infective specimens. A total of 2721 mosquitoes were caught and A. albopictus was the most abundant species (2534). Filarial DNA was found in 27.5% (19/69) of the abdomen pools formed with mosquitoes collected in summer 2000, and in 11.1% (16/144) and 4.9% (6/123) thorax-head pools coming from samplings 2001 and 2002, respectively. Filarial DNA was belonging to D. immitis and all studied areas harboured infective specimens. These results prove A. albopictus as natural vector of D. immitis in Italy. Moreover, they support the hypothesis that the presence of the mosquito could affect the transmission pattern of canine heartworm disease in urban environment and, considering the aggressive anthropophylic behaviour of the species (30-48 bites/h) proven in Padova town, could enhance the circulation of filarial nematodes from animals to humans.

  19. Context-dependent effects of the loss of Spartina alterniflora on salt marsh invertebrate communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlin, Caroline R.; Bishop, T. Dale; Hester, Mark W.; Alber, Merryl

    2015-09-01

    Sudden dieback of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora during 2000-2002 transformed once-vegetated areas to bare sediment in coastal Georgia and Louisiana. We investigated the effects of losing this foundation species on habitat provisioning for benthic epifauna, macroinfauna, and meiofauna in these distinct geographical regions. In GA, significant shifts in invertebrate community assemblages were observed between bare and reference (vegetated) plots, with abundances of all invertebrate groups and the diversity of macroinfauna lower in bare plots. In LA, community assemblages overlapped considerably in dieback and reference plots. Although epifaunal snails were significantly decreased in dieback plots, meiofauna were unexpectedly increased. Other invertebrates did not differ between plots. Supplemental transplanted plots allowed for direct evaluation of stem density effects on invertebrates. Stem density predicted abundances of all invertebrate groups in GA, and was positively correlated with increased soil moisture. In LA, elevation and soil moisture were good predictors of infauna but were not related to stem density. Differences between the states suggest that S. alterniflora may not provide equivalent ecosystem services in all salt marshes. Additional disturbances (drought, GA; hurricanes, LA) decreased infaunal density and taxon richness in 2008. However, in both states the reduction of macroinfauna was larger in bare than reference areas, suggesting that vegetation protected against further disturbance. Our results suggest that the role of S. alterniflora is context-dependent both in terms of geographic setting and the specific ecosystem service under consideration.

  20. A performance assessment method for hospitals: the case of municipal hospitals in Angola.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Emrouznejad, Ali; Cassoma, Basilio; Asbu, Eyob Zere; Barry, Saidou

    2008-12-01

    Over 60% of the recurrent budget of the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Angola is spent on the operations of the fixed health care facilities (health centres plus hospitals). However, to date, no study has been attempted to investigate how efficiently those resources are used to produce health services. Therefore the objectives of this study were to assess the technical efficiency of public municipal hospitals in Angola; assess changes in productivity over time with a view to analyzing changes in efficiency and technology; and demonstrate how the results can be used in the pursuit of the public health objective of promoting efficiency in the use of health resources. The analysis was based on a 3-year panel data from all the 28 public municipal hospitals in Angola Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a non-parametric linear programming approach, was employed to assess the technical and scale efficiency and productivity change over time using Malmquist index. The results show that on average, productivity of municipal hospitals in Angola increased by 4.5% over the period 2000-2002; that growth was due to improvements in efficiency rather than innovation.

  1. Nonprice Competition and Quality of Care in Managed Care: The New York SCHIP Market

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hangsheng; Phelps, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of nonprice competition among managed care plans on the quality of care in the New York SCHIP market. Data Sources U.S. Census 2000; 2002 New York State Managed Care Plan Performance Report; and 2001 New York State Managed Care Annual Enrollment Report. Study Design Each market is defined as a county, and competition is measured as the number of plans in a market. Quality of care is measured in percentages using three Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey and three Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set scores. Two-stage least squares is applied to address the endogeneity between competition and the quality of care, using population as an instrument. Principle Findings We find a negative association between competition and quality of care. An additional managed care plan is significantly associated with a decrease of 0.40–2.31 percentage points in four out of six quality measures. After adjusting for production cost, a positive correlation is observed between price and quality measures across different pricing regions. Conclusions It seems likely that pricing policy is a constraint on quality production, although it may not be interpreted as a causal relationship and further study is needed. PMID:18454776

  2. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Jay Bussard, Anne; McNeil, Jean; Diamond, James

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.

  3. Mapping global land cover in 2001 and 2010 with spatial-temporal consistency at 250 m resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Congcong; Yu, Le; Liu, Desheng; Gong, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover types in 2001 and 2010 were mapped at 250 m resolution with multiple year time series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. The map for each single year was produced not only from data of that particular year but also from data acquired in the preceding and subsequent years as temporal context. Slope data and geographical coordinates of pixels were also used. The classification system was derived from the finer resolution observation and monitoring of global land cover (FROM-GLC) project. Samples were based on the 2010 FROM-GLC project and samples for other years were obtained by excluding those changed from 2010. A random forest classifier was used to obtain original class labels and to estimate class probabilities for 2000-2002, and 2009-2011. The overall accuracies estimated from cross validation of samples are 74.93% for 2001 and 75.17% for 2010. The classification results were further improved through post processing. A spatial-temporal consistency model, Maximum a Posteriori Markov Random Fields (MAP-MRF), was first applied to improve land cover classification for each 3 consecutive years. The MRF outputs for 2001 and 2010 were then processed with a rule-based label adjustment method with MOD44B, slope and composited EVI series as auxiliary data. The label adjustment process relabeled the over-classified forests, water bodies and barren lands to alternative classes with maximum probabilities.

  4. Physical activity, measures of obesity, and cardiometabolic risk: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    McAuley, Paul A; Chen, Haiying; Lee, Duck-Chul; Artero, Enrique Garcia; Bluemke, David A; Burke, Gregory L

    2014-05-01

    The influence of higher physical activity on the relationship between adiposity and cardiometabolic risk is not completely understood. Between 2000-2002, data were collected on 6795 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants. Self-reported intentional physical activity in the lowest quartile (0-105 MET-minutes/week) was categorized as inactive and the upper three quartiles (123-37,260 MET-minutes/week) as active. Associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference categories, stratified by physical activity status (inactive or active) with cardiometabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, upper quartile of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] for population, and impaired fasting glucose or diabetes) were assessed using logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and current smoking. Among obese participants, those who were physically active had reduced odds of insulin resistance (47% lower; P < .001) and impaired fasting glucose/diabetes (23% lower; P = .04). These associations were weaker for central obesity. However, among participants with a normal waist circumference, those who were inactive were 63% more likely to have insulin resistance (OR [95% CI] 1.63 [1.24-2.15]) compared with the active reference group. Physical activity was inversely related to the cardiometabolic risk associated with obesity and central obesity.

  5. Trends in cervical and breast cancer screening practices among women in rural and urban areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Doescher, Mark P; Jackson, J Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess rural-urban differences in mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1994-2000, 2002, 2004) were used to examine trends in these two tests by rural-urban residence location. In 2004, 70.8 percent of rural and 75.7 percent of urban respondents had received timely mammography; this difference remained significant in adjusted analyses and was greatest for women in remote rural locations. Although overall participation in mammography increased over time, a persistent rural-urban gap was identified. In contrast, in 2004, while 83.1 percent of rural and 86.1 percent of urban respondents had received a timely Pap test, the adjusted difference was not significant and Pap testing did not improve over time. Advanced age and low socioeconomic status were associated with a lack of screening. Over an 11-year interval, mammography screening improved nationally, but women living in rural locations remained less likely than their urban counterparts to receive this test. However, no secular improvement in Pap testing was found, and no significant rural-urban differences were observed. Interventions to improve breast cancer screening are needed for rural women. Such efforts should target older women and those with low socioeconomic status.

  6. Changes in the composition of the homeless population: 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Israel, Nathaniel; Toro, Paul A; Ouellette, Nicole

    2010-09-01

    This study examines changes in the characteristics of the homeless population before and after a period of extended economic expansion (1992-2002). Data from other sources suggest that, during this 10-year period, the size of the overall population of homeless persons may have declined slightly, though not significantly, both in the city studied and nationally. In-depth surveys of representative samples of homeless adults (N = 249 in 1992-94; N = 220 in 2000-2002) revealed significant differences in the composition of the homeless population across the time period, consistent with queuing theory. Persons experiencing homelessness after the expansion appeared to be a more "chronic," less readily employable population than those interviewed at the start of the expansion: Those interviewed after were older, spent more time living on the streets, had more health symptoms, were more likely to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and had more restricted social networks and social support. Policy, research, and service provision implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Presence of viral proteins in drinkable water--sufficient condition to consider water a vector of viral transmission?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M F; Alvarado, M V; Martínez, E; Ajami, N J

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the role of water as a possible vector for transmission of the most prevalent enteric viruses affecting infantile populations, 226 water samples were collected from Facatativa's (Colombian municipality located 30km away from Bogotá) water works in the years 2000, 2002, and 2005. The samples were clarified and virus was concentrated by filtering and ultrafiltering techniques. The presence of viral protein (VP) was assessed by enzyme immunoassay method (EIA) and viral RNA presence was detected by reverse trascriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using these techniques, one sample positive for Astrovirus (HAstV) was found in a sample collected from the river that supplies the aqueduct, two samples positive for Norovirus (NV) from fresh treated potable water and 13 samples positive for Rotavirus (RV), some in water from the plant during treatment and others from treated fresh water. RT-PCR inhibitors were also found in water samples obtained from the plant and in the fresh treated water. No inhibitors were found in the river water. VP, but no nucleic acid, was detected in the water samples at different stages of treatment, thus suggesting that the virus might have been complete and infectious at some stage prior to water purification.

  8. Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.S.; Shoham, O.

    2001-01-18

    The objective of this five-year project (October 1997 - September 2002) was to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project was executed in two phases. Phase I (1997 - 2000) focused on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase included the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000 - 2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crude conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

  9. Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.S.; Shoham, O.

    2001-01-10

    The objective of this five-year project (October 1997--September 2002) was to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project was executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) focused on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase included the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crude conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

  10. Neighborhood stressors and cardiovascular health: crime and C-reactive protein in Dallas, USA.

    PubMed

    Browning, Christopher R; Cagney, Kathleen A; Iveniuk, James

    2012-10-01

    We apply neighborhood-based theories of social organization and environmental stress to examine variation in a key indicator of inflammation-related cardiovascular risk-C-reactive protein (CRP). Specifically, we emphasize the potentially health-compromising role of rapid increases in the crime rate or "crime spikes" (focusing on a particularly fear-inducing crime - burglary). We also consider the extent to which the magnitude and significance of the association between burglary rate change and inflammatory processes varies by gender. Data on CRP, neighborhood of residence, and individual-level characteristics for adult women and men ages 30-65 are drawn from the 2000-2002 Dallas Heart Study. Results from neighborhood fixed effects models using piecewise linear splines to estimate short-term burglary rate change effects offer support for the hypothesis that crime spikes are associated with CRP. Specifically, we find that short-term burglary rate change is independently associated with CRP for men. Short-term burglary rate change was not associated with CRP for women. These findings shed light on the contextual processes that influence cardiovascular health and point to the potentially important role of short-term changes in environmental stressors in shaping health outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Current antibiotic therapy for isolated urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Alexander J; Welch, H Gilbert; Sirovich, Brenda E

    2006-03-27

    Sulfa antibiotics, such as a combination product of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, have traditionally been the drugs of choice for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and remained the most common treatment as recently as a decade ago. However, increasing sulfa resistance among Escherichia coli may have led to changes in prescribing practices. We used the 2000-2002 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to obtain nationally representative data on antibiotics prescribed for women with isolated outpatient UTIs following visits to physicians' offices, hospital clinics, and emergency departments (n = 2638). Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of quinolone use. Quinolones were more commonly prescribed than sulfa antibiotics in each year evaluated. In the most recent year of data, quinolones were prescribed in 48% and sulfas in 33% of UTI visits (P<.04). Quinolones were significantly more likely to be prescribed to older patients and in visits occurring in the Northeast; however, no difference in quinolone prescribing was seen when evaluating insurance status, setting, race, ethnicity, health care provider type, and year. Approximately one third of the quinolones used were broader-spectrum agents. Quinolones have surpassed sulfas as the most common class of antibiotic prescribed for isolated outpatient UTI in women. Few significant predictors of quinolone use exist, suggesting that the increase is not confined to a certain subset of patients. This pervasive growth in quinolone use raises concerns about increases in resistance to this important class of antibiotics.

  12. Children of treated substance-abusing mothers: a 10-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hser, Y-I; Evans, E; Li, L; Metchik-Gaddis, A; Messina, N

    2014-04-01

    This study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers' admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000-2002. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each mother reported on one child 6-17 years of age. All of the children had been exposed to drugs, either in utero or postnatally. At follow-up about 22% of the children demonstrated borderline or clinical range problem behaviors. Child behavior problems were related significantly to the mothers' ethnicity (lower among Hispanics relative to white), and problem severity in family/social relationship and mental health, marginally related to her prior medical/health problem, and not related to severity of alcohol, drug, legal and employment problems. Assisting mothers to address their family/social relationship and psychological problems may have an added value to prevent or reduce behavioral problems of their children.

  13. A Multistate Life Table Analysis of Union Regimes in the United States: Trends and Racial Differentials, 1970-2002.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Morgan, S Philip; Wang, Zhenglian; Gu, Danan; Yang, Chingli

    2012-04-01

    We estimate trends and racial differentials in marriage, cohabitation, union formation and dissolution (union regimes) for the period 1970-2002 in the United States. These estimates are based on an innovative application of multistate life table analysis to pooled survey data. Our analysis demonstrates (1) a dramatic increase in the lifetime proportions of transitions from never-married, divorced or widowed to cohabiting; (2) a substantial decrease in the stability of cohabiting unions; (3) a dramatic increase in mean ages at cohabiting after divorce and widowhood; (4) a substantial decrease in direct transition from never-married to married; (5) a significant decrease in the overall lifetime proportion of ever marrying and re-marrying in the 1970s to 1980s but a relatively stable pattern in the 1990s to 2000-2002; and (6) a substantial decrease in the lifetime proportion of transition from cohabiting to marriage. We also present, for the first time, comparable evidence on differentials in union regimes between four racial groups.

  14. Retreat of glaciers on Puncak Jaya, Irian Jaya, determined from 2000 and 2002 IKONOS satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andrew G.; Kincaid, Joni L.

    Puncak Jaya, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, contains the only remaining tropical glaciers in East Asia. The extent of the ice masses on Puncak Jaya has been mapped from high-resolution IKONOS satellite images acquired on 8 June 2000 and 11 June 2002. Exclusive of Southwall Hanging Glacier, the ice extent on Puncak Jaya was 2.326 km2 and 2.152 km2 in 2000 and 2002, respectively. From 2000 to 2002, the Puncak Jaya glaciers lost a surface area of 0.174 km2 or 7.48% of their 2000 ice extent. Comparison of the IKONOS-based glacier extents with previous glacier extents demonstrates a continuing reduction of ice area on Puncak Jaya. By 2000, ice extent on Puncak Jaya had reduced by 88% of its maximum neoglacial extent. Between 1992 and 2000 Meren Glacier disappeared entirely. All remaining ice masses on Puncak Jaya continue their retreat from their neoglacial maxima. Comparison of 2000/2002 ice extents with previous extents suggests that these glaciers have not experienced accelerating rates of retreat during the last half of the 20th century. If the recession rates observed from 2000 to 2002 continue, the remaining ice masses on Puncak Jaya will melt within 50 years.

  15. The universal toolbox thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollock, Steve; Jones, Graham; Usowicz, Paul

    2003-09-01

    The Introduction of Microsoft Pocket PC 2000/2002 has seen a standardisation of the operating systems used by the majority of PDA manufacturers. This, coupled with the recent price reductions associated with these devices, has led to a rapid increase in the sales of such units; their use is now common in industrial, commercial and domestic applications throughout the world. This paper describes the results of a programme to develop a thermal imager that will interface directly to all of these units so as to take advantage of the existing and future installed base of such devices. The imager currently interfaces with virtually any Pocket PC which provides the necessary processing, display and storage capability; as an alternative, the output of the unit can be visualised and processed in real time using a PC or laptop computer. In future, the open architecture employed by this imager will allow it to support all mobile computing devices, including phones and PDAs. The imager has been designed for one-handed or two-handed operation so that it may be pointed at awkward angles or used in confined spaces; this flexibility of use coupled with the extensive feature range and exceedingly low-cost of the imager, is extending the marketplace for thermal imaging from military and professional, through industrial to the commercial and domestic marketplaces.

  16. Five-grass pollen immunotherapy tablet: an update on the latest findings from clinical trials: an interview with Olivier de Beaumont.

    PubMed

    de Beaumont, Olivier; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Interview by Jonathan Wilkinson (Managing Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group). Olivier de Beaumont became Doctor of Medicine at the University of Paris Descartes in 1993. In the same year, he also took a Master of Health Economics degree at Paris Dauphine University. He is also a Master of Business Administration, ESCP Paris, 1999. At Stallergenes, he has been serving as Vice President/Head of Corporate Clinical Development since 2005, responsible for the clinical development plan, clinical operations, biometry and pharmacovigilance. In 2011, he took the responsibility of Senior Vice President Global Medical Affairs responsible for medical information and education, medical communication and nonregistration clinical studies. In 2014 he became Senior Vice President Global Scientific and Medical Affairs. From 2002 to 2005 he led the European business development of the world's leading clinical research organization Quintiles, developing Phase I-IV clinical trial programs for pharmaceutical companies. Previous roles included: Chief Scientific Officer and cofounder of Direct Medica (2000-2002), product champion and lifecycle management at Aventis (1998-2000), medical affairs manager in oncology and respiratory diseases at corporate Rhone-Poulenc Rorer (1993-1998).

  17. Gamma, Gaussian and logistic distribution models for airborne pollen grains and fungal spore season dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, I; Walanus, A

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of a pollen season, such as timing and magnitude, depend on a number of factors such as the biology of the plant and environmental conditions. The main aim of this study was to develop mathematical models that explain dynamics in atmospheric concentrations of pollen and fungal spores recorded in Rzeszów (SE Poland) in 2000-2002. Plant taxa with different characteristics in the timing, duration and curve of their pollen seasons, as well as several fungal taxa were selected for this analysis. Gaussian, gamma and logistic distribution models were examined, and their effectiveness in describing the occurrence of airborne pollen and fungal spores was compared. The Gaussian and differential logistic models were very good at describing pollen seasons with just one peak. These are typically for pollen types with just one dominant species in the flora and when the weather, in particular temperature, is stable during the pollination period. Based on s parameter of the Gaussian function, the dates of the main pollen season can be defined. In spite of the fact that seasonal curves are often characterised by positive skewness, the model based on the gamma distribution proved not to be very effective.

  18. Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Ram S.; Shoham, Ovadia

    1999-10-28

    The objective of this five-year project (October, 1997--September, 2002) is to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project will be executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) will focus on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase will include the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crudes conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

  19. Input-output modeling for urban energy consumption in Beijing: dynamics and comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making.

  20. Third-Party Finance for Commercial Photovoltaic Systems: The Rise of the PPA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-02-15

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. This article, which is excerpted from a longer report, focuses specifically on just one subset of the non-residential PV market: systems hosted (and perhaps owned) by commercial, tax-paying entities. Tax-exempt entities (e.g., non-profits or municipalities) face unique issues and have different financing options at their disposal; readers interested in PV financing options for tax-exempt entities can find more information in the Bolinger report.

  1. Older men's lay definitions of successful aging over time: the Manitoba follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Swift, Audrey U; Bayomi, Dennis J

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the male Manitoba Follow-up Study cohort (www.mfus.ca) in 1996, 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006 (n = 2,043 men were alive at a mean age of 78 years in 1996). One question on each survey asked: "What is YOUR definition of successful aging?" Applying content analysis to the 5,898 narratives received over the 11 years, we developed a coding system encompassing 21 main themes and 86 sub-themes defining successful aging. We quantitatively analyzed trends in prevalence of themes of successful aging prospectively over time. Our findings empirically support colleagues' past suggestions to shift from defining successful aging in primarily biomedical terms, by taking lay views into account.

  2. DM Ori: A Young Star Occulted by a Disturbance in Its Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Lund, Michael B.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Prieto, Jose L.; Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C.

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ˜1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ˜1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000-2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013-2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ˜12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ˜14.6 km s-1 and is ˜4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  3. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a flooded underground coal mine groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Vermeulen, D.

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical processes have an important influence on evolution of the groundwater chemistry and its quality. An investigation was conducted to assess the hydrogeochemical processes in a flooded underground coal mine located in a typical Karoo Basin of Southern Africa. The study utilises scatter plots, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical model and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to analyse the groundwater chemistry. 144 Samples were collected from 16 piezometers drilled into the flooded underground coal mine during a three year monitoring period (2000-2002). Field results indicate that the groundwater system is characterised by a Ca-SO4 main hydrochemical groundwater type that evolved from acid mine drainage (AMD) buffering by calcite and dolomite carbonate minerals. The carbonate AMD buffering process is hindering the leaching of metals into the flooded mine groundwater system. Hardness in at least 85% of the samples exceeded 1200 mg/L as CaCO3 and the groundwater was classified as excessively hard. Modelling results using PHREEQC suggests that increase of Ca2+ and SO42- concentration that evolve from carbonate AMD buffering process can only occur up to certain point until which the aqueous solubility of these ions becomes indirectly limited by gypsum saturation.

  4. Brown rust disease control in winter wheat: I. Exploring an approach for disease progression based on night weather conditions.

    PubMed

    El Jarroudi, Moussa; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe; Tychon, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The approach was elaborated based on night weather conditions (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and leaf rust occurrences. Data from three consecutive cropping seasons (2000-2002) at four representative sites of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg were used in the set-up phase. The capability to correctly simulate the occurrence expression of P. triticina infections on the upper leaf layers was then assessed over the 2003-2006 period. Our study revealed that the development of leaf rust required a period of at least 12 consecutive hours with air temperatures ranging between 8 and 16 °C, a relative humidity greater than 60 % (optimal values being 12-16 °C and up to 80 % for air temperatures and relative humidity, respectively) and rainfall less than 1 mm. Moreover, leaf rust occurrences and infections were satisfactorily simulated. The false alarm ratio was ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 in all the study sites. The probability of detection and critical success index for WLR infection were also close to 1 (perfect score).

  5. Social inequality in dental caries and changes over time among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children.

    PubMed

    Ha, Diep Hong; Xiangqun, Ju; Cecilia, Mejia Gloria; Jason, Armfield; Do, Loc G; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes and compares magnitudes of socioeconomic (SES) inequalities in oral health among Indigenous and non-Indigenous children over a 10-year period. We analysed annual oral health survey data from NSW, NT and SA. Data were extracted for time period 1 (2000-2002, N=215,317) and time period 2 (2007-2010, N=34,495). Oral health outcomes were untreated decayed deciduous teeth (dt) and cumulative dental caries experience (dmft). Postcode-level Socioeconomic Index for Areas was used to assess SES. Age standardisation and complex survey weights were used. Indices of socioeconomic inequality in health (Slope Index of Inequality, Relative Index of Inequality, Absolute and Relative Concentration Index) were used to quantify inequality in dental caries and its changes over time. Oral health outcomes deteriorated in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations over time. Indigenous children experienced higher levels of disease at both times. Untreated dt increased in both populations. The cummulative disease (dmft) increased at higher rate among children in low-SES areas in both populations. Over time, there was an increase in socioecononomic inequalities in dmft in all children and in dt in non-Indigenous children. Area-level socioeconomic inequality in child oral health has widened due to deterioration in low-SES children. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Status of respirable dust particle (RDP) concentration--a case study in Chennai city.

    PubMed

    Senthilnathan, T

    2005-06-01

    Air pollution has been aggravated by developments that typically occur, as countries become industrialised and higher levels of energy consumption. Respirable dust particles (RDP) is a general term for tiny air borne particles (under 10 microns PM 10) and it is categorised as critical primary air pollutant. Finer particulate matter less than 10 micron size have been identified as potential health hazard for human beings. A case study was carried out to assess RDP concentration present in the ambient air in Chennai city during the year 2000-2002. The study was conducted at Theagaraya nagar (T. Nagar), a most important commercial shopping place. The observed RDP concentrations are made statistical analysis and a high value of 607.1 microg/m(3) is recorded during October 2001. It is also found that 90% of the observed values exceed the recommended values of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The important finding of this research work is that the RDP data collected every year from this sampling station were found to give best fit for cubic equations which are very useful for analysing future trends.

  7. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shude

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27114877

  8. Evaluating Sources of Job Satisfaction: A Survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Refuge Managers and Biologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponds, Phadrea D.; Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin

    2003-01-01

    The following summary consists of revised excerpts from the thesis study that was conducted in 2000-2002 by Ayeisha Brinson, Colorado State University (Brinson, 2002). The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with additional finding related to sources of job satisfaction. Because this is a report of additional findings from a length study, the information in this report is condensed and represented without references from the original research. The literature review, methodology, and discussion from the original thesis are not presented in this report. Any questions concerning the thesis should be directed to Ayeisha Brinson, who may be reached by e-mail. The purpose of the report is to examine differences and similarities between National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists on a selection of independent variable related to job satisfaction occupation status (being either a manager or a biologist): are managers more satisfied with their jobs than biologist? If so, what are the components of that satisfaction? What are the sources of dissatisfaction? a?|

  9. Diagnosis and management of dementia in family practice.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, Jane; Jain, Priya; Griffin, Mark; Thuné-Boyle, Ingela; Lefford, Frances; Rapp, David; Iliffe, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Improving quality of care for people with dementia is a high priority. Considerable resources have been invested in financial incentives, guideline development, public awareness and educational programmes to promote earlier diagnosis and better management. Evaluating family physicians' concordance with guidelines on diagnosis and management of people with dementia, from first documentation of symptoms to formal diagnosis. Analysis of medical records of 136 people with dementia recruited by 19 family practices in NW London and surrounding counties. Practices invited 763 people with dementia to participate, 167 (22%) agreed. Complete records were available for 136 (18%). The majority of records included reference to recommended blood tests, informant history and caregiver concerns. Presence or absence of symptoms of depression, psychosis, other behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and cognitive function tests were documented in 30%-40% of records. Documentation of discussions about signs and symptoms of dementia, treatment options, care, support, financial, legal and advocacy advice were uncommon. Comparison of these findings from a similar study in 2000-2002 suggests improvements in concordance with blood tests, recording informant history, presence or absence of depression or psychosis symptoms. There was no difference in documenting cognitive function tests. Immediate referral to specialists was more common in the recent study. Five years after UK dementia guidelines and immediately after the launch of the dementia strategy, family physicians appeared concordant with clinical guidelines for dementia diagnosis (other than cognitive function tests), and referred most patients immediately. However, records did not suggest systematic dementia management.

  10. River Runoff within Large River Basins of Russia during Epochs of Global Warming in Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A.; Milyukova, I.; Kashutina, E.

    2007-12-01

    Results of an estimation of deviations of river runoff from their modern values within the largest rivers of Russian plain (Volga, Don, Dnieper) and Siberia (Lena) observed during the period of the Late Atlantic Optimum of the Holocene (5-6 thousand years ago) and probable at global climate warming in the XXI century caused by growth of atmospheric content of greenhouse gases of an anthropogenic origin are presented. A scenarios of climatic changes are based on results of experiments on global models of the general circulation of atmosphere and ocean, included in the international programs of comparison of results of paleoclimate modeling (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project - PIMP) and future climate (Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Climate Change - IPCC) have been used. For estimation of hydrological changes macroscale model of monthly water balance developed in Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Science (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000; 2002; 2006) especially for study of hydrological consequences of global climatic changes in large river basins is used. Research was executed at support of Russian Fund on Basic Research 07-05-12085-ofi and 05-05-64499a.

  11. Quantifying change in North American Arctic lakes between 1990 and present.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, M.; Wooten, M.; DiMiceli, C.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Arctic and Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) is a new multi-year and mulit-disciplinary field campaign that is set to begin in 2015. One of the primary themes of this campaign is to understand the complicated hydrology of the region. Small lakes and ponds are a prominent feature of the landscape in the High Northern Latitudes. Previous mapping efforts have been accomplished with either single date medium to fine resolution imagery or multiple observations with coarse resolution imagery. The maps from single date imagery are prone to errors relate to weather phenomena such as flood and drought. The coarse resolution products are limited to larger water bodies and miss the many smaller lakes and ponds in the region. We have created a time series of maps from Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper in three epochs (1990 - 1992), (2000 - 2002), and (2010 - 2012) showing the location and extent of water bodies in the region. These maps represent the first comprehensive time series of water bodies in the region that have been generated with a consistent input data set at 30m spatial resolution. We can use these maps to quantify the amount of change that has occurred in the Arctic lakes over the past 20+ years. Here we will present the first versions of the maps with the associated structure and formats and some initial results from analysis of change in northern Canada.

  12. The nature of chromospheric active regions on V410 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkaden, M. V.; Pukalenthi, S.; Muneer, S.; Bastian, Anju Barbara

    2005-12-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the region of H alpha and Li I lines of the weak emission T Tauri star V410 Tau obtained over 1999/2000, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 seasons. The emission strength showed rotational modulation during the 1999/2000 season in such a way that the emis- sion strength is maximum at light minimum and vice versa. This indicates that the photospheric and chromospheric active regions overlap over shorter dura- tions of time and the lifetimes of chromospheric active regions are far shorter than the photospheric active regions. But the observations obtained during the 2003/2004 season do not follow the trend observed at earlier seasons. This can be due to the change in the location of chromospheric active regions. Another possibility is the occurrence of a major change in the photospheric active re- gions that have caused a redistribution of photospheric as well as chromospheric active regions. The Li I EW does not show any appreciable change over the four-year period.

  13. Diversity and large-scale biogeography of Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) in South Atlantic Abyssal Plains and the deep Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheerardyn, Hendrik; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2009-10-01

    Multicorer samples for meiofaunal study were obtained within the framework of the international project CeDAMar, at 21 stations occupied during the DIVA and ANDEEP campaigns (2000, 2002 and 2005) to the southern Atlantic Ocean (Guinea, Angola and Cape Basins) and the Southern Ocean (Weddell and Scotia Seas), respectively. A total of 311 adult Paramesochridae Lang, 1944 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) was extracted from 437 cores obtained during 83 deployments of the corer at depths between 1107 and 5655 m. All specimens were determined to species based on morphological characteristics. They belonged to 19 species and four genera ( Kliopsyllus Kunz, 1962, Leptopsyllus T. Scott, 1894, Paramesochra T. Scott, 1892 and Scottopsyllus Kunz, 1962). Eleven species were restricted to single regions, whereas the others showed a much wider distribution. For example, Kliopsyllus andeep Veit-Köhler, 2004 and Kliopsyllus diva Veit-Köhler, 2005, were both collected from Guinea, Angola and Weddell Abyssal Plains, and Kliopsyllus schminkei Veit-Köhler & Drewes, 2009 occurred in the three West-African basins. This study provides a first insight into the large-scale biogeography of deep-sea harpacticoids, represented by the Paramesochridae, and indicates that distribution ranges, at least in this family, may extend across South Atlantic and Southern Ocean Abyssal Plains.

  14. Final Technical Report: Electromagnetic Pump Insulation Materials Development and Testing (PLM-DOC-0005-2465) Report # DOEGEHB00613

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, John; Reed, Claude; Loewen, Eric

    2015-10-29

    Final Technical Report: Electromagnetic Pump Insulation Materials Development and Testing (Report # DOEGEHB00613) summarizes the information gathered from the analysis of the 160 m3/min EM Pump insulation that was tested in 2000-2002 and additional evaluations of new resilient, engineered insulation system evaluated and tested at both GRC and ANL. This report provides information on Tasks 1 and 2 of the entire project. This report also provides information in three broad areas: Historical and current data; Conclusions based on test data; and Insulation specifications for use in EM Pumps. The research for Task 2 builds upon Task 1: Update EM Pump Databank, which is summarized within this report. Where research for Task 3 and 4 Next-Generation EM Pump Analysis Tools identified parameters or analysis model that benefits Task 2 research, those items are noted within this report. The important design variables for the manufacture and operation of an EM Pump that the insulation research can evaluate are: space constraints; voltage capability of insulation system; maximum flux density through iron; flow rate and outlet pressure; efficiency and manufacturability. The development summary of the Electromagnetic Pump Insulation Materials Development and Testing was completed to include: Historical and current data; Conclusions based on test data; and Insulation specifications for use in EM Pumps.

  15. Spatial consistency of chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Katherine J.C.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Henning, Julie A.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington, using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale temporal and spatial data collected during biweekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991–2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008–2009 (100–500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held GPS synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook Salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, 5 years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years. Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations. On a finer temporal scale, we observed that Chinook Salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week. Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009. Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook Salmon spawning surveys.

  16. Seismic Vulnerability Evaluations Within The Structural And Functional Survey Activities Of The COM Bases In Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; Albanese, V.; Mercuri, C.; Papa, F.; Pizza, A. G.; Sergio, S.; Severino, M.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes technical and functional surveys on COM buildings (Mixed Operative Centre). This activity started since 2005, with the contribution of both Italian Civil Protection Department and the Regions involved. The project aims to evaluate the efficiency of COM buildings, checking not only structural, architectonic and functional characteristics but also paying attention to surrounding real estate vulnerability, road network, railways, harbours, airports, area morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, hazardous activities, etc. The first survey was performed in eastern Sicily, before the European Civil Protection Exercise 'EUROSOT 2005'. Then, since 2006, a new survey campaign started in Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria and Puglia Regions. The more important issue of the activity was the vulnerability assessment. So this paper deals with a more refined vulnerability evaluation technique by means of the SAVE methodology, developed in the 1st task of SAVE project within the GNDT-DPC programme 2000-2002 (Zuccaro, 2005); the SAVE methodology has been already successfully employed in previous studies (i.e. school buildings intervention programme at national scale; list of strategic public buildings in Campania, Sicilia and Basilicata). In this paper, data elaborated by SAVE methodology are compared with expert evaluations derived from the direct inspections on COM buildings. This represents a useful exercise for the improvement either of the survey forms or of the methodology for the quick assessment of the vulnerability.

  17. Development of a livestock population model for winter disaster risk assessment in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Shinoda, M.; Morinaga, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Mongolia has historically experienced winter disasters, called dzuds in Mongolian, and posed serious damages in the livestock sector. For example, a series of dzuds in 2000-2002 killed more than 11 million livestock, and that in 2010 killed over 10 million livestock. For effective risk assessment of this disaster, we are now developing a livestock population model. In this model, livestock die when their weights are very low, and the weights are calculated by energy balance. The energy intake is calculated as a product of potential and relative intake. Potential intake is determined by weight, and relative intake is a function of biomass amount in surrounding grassland. In winter, accessibility to grass (function of snow depth, air temperature, and wind speed) is also considered. On the other hand, energy consumption is the sum of those by thermoregulation and grazing activity. Energy loss by thermoregulation is a function of weight and climatic conditions (at present air temperature and wind speed). Energy loss by grazing activity is calculated from biomass density and condition. We plan to validate and calibrate this model by using data in Mongolian grassland, and then to use for dzud risk assessment of that country.

  18. Input-Output Modeling for Urban Energy Consumption in Beijing: Dynamics and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making. PMID:24595199

  19. Outbursts in Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Keyes, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A major question for symbiotic stars concerns the nature and cause of their outbursts. A small subset of symbiotics, the slow novae are fairly well established as thermonuclear events that last on the order of decades. The several symbiotic recurrent novae, which are much shorter and last on the order of months, are also thought to be thermonuclear runaways. Yet the majority of symbiotics are neither slow novae nor recurrent novae. These are the so-called classical symbiotics, many of which show outbursts whose cause is not well understood. In some cases, jets are produced in association with an outburst, therefore an investigation into the causes of outbursts will yield important insights into the production of collimated outflows. To investigate the cause and nature of classical symbiotic outbursts, we initiated a program of multiwavelength observations of these events. In FUSE Cycle 2, we obtained six observational epochs of the 2000-2002 classic symbiotic outburst in the first target of our campaign - class prototype, Z Andromedae. That program was part of a coordinated multi-wavelength Target-of-Opportunity (TOO) campaign with FUSE, XMM, Chandra, MERLIN, the VLA, and ground-based spectroscopic and high time-resolution photometric observations. Our campaign proved the concept, utility, and need for coordinated multi-wavelength observations in order to make progress in understanding the nature of the outburst mechanisms in symbiotic stars. Indeed, the FUSE data were the cornerstone of this project

  20. Analysis of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Lima, Peru: Trends and Seasonal Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacsi, S.; Rappenglueck, B.

    2007-12-01

    This research was carried out to show a general analysis of the monthly and yearly variation (1996-2002) and the tendency of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 5 stations of the air quality network of Lima. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured by the Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), using the active sampling method and the chemical analysis has been determined by Turbidimetry and Colorimetry for the SO2 and NO2 respectively. The monthly average variation (1996-2001) of SO2 in the Lima Center station has a small annual range (32,4 mikrograms/m3) with maximum values in autumn (April) and minimum in winter (June). The NO2 presents a higher annual range (128,2 mikrograms/m3) and its minimum values occur in the summer and the maximum in spring. The annual averages analysis (2000-2002) of the air quality monitoring network of Lima shows that the SO2 and NO2 values are maximum in the Lima Center station and exceed the Peruvian air quality standard (ECAs) in 30% and 75% respectively. The yearly variation (1996-2001) in the Lima Center station show an increasing tendency in the SO2 (significant) and NO2 (not significant) values, which indicates the critical level of the air quality in Lima, therefore the implementation of the air pollution control programs is urgent.

  1. Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medin, Jennie; Ekberg, Kerstin; Nordlund, Anders; Eklund, Jörgen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30-65. In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30-65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000-2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire. In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke. This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  2. Seasonal dynamics of the density of the crab larvae (Decapoda: Brachyura et Anomura) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2013-03-01

    As the materials for this project, we used data on the distribution of the larvae of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonicus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861); the spider crabs Hyas coarctatus ursinus (= Hyas ursinus) (Rathbun, 1924), Pugettia quadridens (de Haan, 1839), and Pisoides bidentatus (H. Milne-Edwards, 1873); the samurai crab Paradorippe granulata (= Dorippe granulata) (de Haan, 1841); the pea crab Pinnixa rathbuni (Sakai, 1934); and the porcelain crab Pachycheles stevensii (Stimpson, 1858) in Minonosok Bay of Pos'eta Bay obtained during 2000-2002 and in 2004. The planktonic samples were collected from the last third of May to September. The greatest density of the larvae was observed in May, mid-June, late June-early July, and late July-early August. The greatest densities of the crab larvae and the decapod larvae ranged from 20.4 to 48.2 and from 88.4 to 245.3 specimens/m3. The schedule of the crab larvae's occurrence in the plankton is provided for the first time. The distribution of the density showed pronounced patchiness.

  3. Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk.

    PubMed

    Lönn, Stefan; Ahlbom, Anders; Hall, Per; Feychting, Maria

    2005-03-15

    Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Sweden during the late 1980s. The purpose of this population-based, case-control study was to test the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of brain tumors. The authors identified all cases aged 20-69 years who were diagnosed with glioma or meningioma during 2000-2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Randomly selected controls were stratified on age, gender, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 371 (74%) glioma and 273 (85%) meningioma cases and 674 (71%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, the odds ratio was 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for glioma and 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 0.9) for meningioma. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone use. No risk increase was found for ipsilateral phone use for tumors located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, the odds ratio did not increase, regardless of tumor histology, type of phone, and amount of use. This study includes a large number of long-term mobile phone users, and the authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure in cars among middle and high school students--United States, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes poses a significant health risk to nonsmokers. Among youth, the home is the primary source of SHS. However, little is known about youth exposure to SHS in other nonpublic areas, particularly motor vehicles. Data were obtained from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of US students in grades 6 to 12. Trends in SHS exposure in a car were assessed across survey years by school level, gender, and race/ethnicity by using binary logistic regression. From 2000 to 2009, the prevalence of SHS exposure in cars declined significantly among both nonsmokers (39.0%-22.8%; trend P < .001) and smokers (82.3%-75.3%; trend P < .001). Among nonsmokers, this decline occurred across all school level, gender, and race/ethnicity subgroups. SHS exposure in cars decreased significantly among US middle and high school students from 2000 to 2009. Nevertheless, in 2009, over one-fifth of nonsmoking students were exposed to SHS in cars. Jurisdictions should expand comprehensive smoke-free policies that prohibit smoking in worksites and public places to also prohibit smoking in motor vehicles occupied by youth.

  5. Psychological Resilience of Chinese Centenarians and Its Associations With Survival and Health: A Fuzzy Set Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Feng, Qiushi

    2016-06-23

    To investigate psychological resilience (positive adaptations or effective responses to challenges in daily living) and its associations with survival and health among Chinese centenarians. On the basis of the latest 5 waves (2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011) of a nationwide longitudinal survey in China with more than 7,400 centenarians, we constructed 5 resilience types using the grade of membership (fuzzy set) method: high, upper middle, lower middle, low, and unable to answer questions. About 50% of male centenarians and nearly 60% of female centenarians have 0% membership in the high resilience group; only 9% of male centenarians and 6% of female centenarians have 80%-100% probability of membership in the high resilience group. Each additional 10-percentage-point increase in the probability of membership in the high resilience group is associated with 2%-4% lower mortality risk; 36%-55% higher odds of no cognitive impairment, self-rated good health, and self-rated good life satisfaction; and 7%-12% higher odds of no activities of daily living (ADL) disability in male centenarians after adjusting for covariates. Results for female centenarians are similar. High resilience is not significantly associated with short-term health decline. Higher psychological resilience is associated with a lower mortality and better health among centenarians. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. War outside, ceasefire inside: An analysis of the performance appraisal system of a public hospital in a zone of conflict.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Sebastiano, Antonio; Tamimi, Hadeel Al

    2012-02-01

    Our study examines the use of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital (Palestine) during the second intifada, started in 2000. The aim of the article is to shed light on the reasons behind the use of performance appraisal systems in organizations operating in zones of conflicts, an area relatively neglected by HR scholars. To create the theoretical fundament we draw on mainstream literature on performance appraisal, contextualizing it to the Middle-Eastern context. From the literature analysis, we identify five guiding logics for the implementation and use of performance appraisal systems (Appendix A). We use a multi-method approach, qualitative and quantitative, to analyze the longitudinal performance evaluation data over the period 2000-2002 for about 250 individuals. These data are complemented with interviews and observations in the field. Our analysis shows that the trends evidenced in the quantitative analysis are similar to trends evident in Western contexts. However, these trends were not the consequence of the same five Western logics found in the literature. The qualitative study allows us to identify two additional logics for making sense of the performance appraisal system at Hebron Public Hospital: the need to find peace within the organization (organizational peacefulness logic); and the need to maintain order through the acceptance of the status quo (dominance logic). These results allow us to draw conclusions for theory and practice of HR management and to identify useful criteria for doing research in areas of conflicts.

  7. Early Cross-Modal Interactions in Auditory and Visual Cortex Underlie a Sound-Induced Visual Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Martinez, Antigona; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    When a single flash of light is presented interposed between two brief auditory stimuli separated by 60 –100 ms, subjects typically report perceiving two flashes (Shams et al., 2000, 2002). We investigated the timing and localization of the cortical processes that underlie this illusory flash effect in 34 subjects by means of 64-channel recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs). A difference ERP calculated to isolate neural activity associated with the illusory second flash revealed an early modulation of visual cortex activity at 30 – 60 ms after the second sound, which was larger in amplitude in subjects who saw the illusory flash more frequently. These subjects also showed this early modulation in response to other combinations of auditory and visual stimuli, thus pointing to consistent individual differences in the neural connectivity that underlies cross-modal integration. The overall pattern of cortical activity associated with the cross-modally induced illusory flash, however, differed markedly from that evoked by a real second flash. A trial-by-trial analysis showed that short-latency ERP activity localized to auditory cortex and polymodal cortex of the temporal lobe, concurrent with gamma bursts in visual cortex, were associated with perception of the double-flash illusion. These results provide evidence that perception of the illusory second flash is based on a very rapid dynamic interplay between auditory and visual cortical areas that is triggered by the second sound. PMID:17428990

  8. Surveillance of human influenza A(H3N2) virus from 1999 to 2009 in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    DE Donno, A; Idolo, A; Quattrocchi, M; Zizza, A; Gabutti, G; Romano, A; Grima, P; Donatelli, I; Guido, M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of influenza virus co-infections in humans and changes in the genetic variability of A(H3N2) virus strains in southern Italy from 1999 to 2009. A partial sequence of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene by human influenza H3N2 strains identified in oropharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness was analysed by DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. During the seasons 1999-2000, 2002-2003, 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, the influenza viruses circulating belonged to subtype H3N2. However, A(H1N1) subtype virus and B type were respectively prevalent during the 2000-2001, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 seasons. The HA sequences appeared to be closely related to the sequence of the influenza A vaccine strain. Only the 2002-2003 season was characterized by co-circulation of two viral lineages: A/New York/55/01(H3N2)-like virus of the previous season and A/Fujian/411/02(H3N2)-like virus, a new H3 variant. In this study, over the decade analysed, no significant change was seen in the sequences of the HA gene of H3 viruses isolated.

  9. Smoke-free policy development in Italy through the legislative process of the ban 2000-2005, and press media review 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Currie, Laura; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Galeone, Daniela; Lopez, Maria J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the process of approval of the Italian smoking ban, enacted in 2005. The method is to conduct a review of proposed and approved legislation 2000- 2005, and of articles published in Italian newspapers, 1998-2008. Enabling factors in the process were: the leadership of two consecutive Health Ministers, both physicians, who introduced the bill four times between 2000-2002; the repeated presentation and final approval of the bill as an amendment within a bill on public administration which enabled timely approval of the ban; and the stringent air quality standards in the 2003 regulation that made building smoking rooms impracticable and prohibitively expensive. Limiting factors in the process were: the 6-month delay in approving the regulation on smoking rooms; the 1.5-year delay in approving the regulation establishing owners' responsibility for enforcing the ban in hospitality premises and the legal action in August 2005, which shifted responsibility for enforcement to police. Eighty-three percent of the 808 articles published on smoking in 1998-2008 were released between 2000-2005, during the policy process. While the press devoted considerable attention to the issues raised by the hospitality sector, the long legislative process of the bill and its regulations also stimulated coverage on tobacco control issues.

  10. Obesity and awareness of obesity as risk factors for breast cancer in six ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Conway, Francine; Neugut, Alfred I

    2004-10-01

    To document BMI and knowledge regarding obesity as a risk factor for breast cancer among subpopulations of African-, Caribbean-, and European-American women and to consider the variables predicting obesity in these diverse groups. A stratified cluster-sampling plan was used to recruit 1364 older women from Brooklyn, NY, during 2000-2002. Two groups were born in the United States (African Americans and European Americans), whereas others were from the English-speaking Caribbean, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Eastern Europe. Participants provided demographics, height and weight measures, and estimates of the risk obesity posed for breast cancer. Women from all groups were significantly overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)), although European Americans were lowest, followed by Dominicans and Haitians; African-American and English-speaking Caribbean women fell into the obese range, even when background variables were controlled. Knowledge of obesity as a breast cancer risk factor was also poor across groups, but Dominicans and Haitians had the lowest scores on knowledge. Importantly, knowledge was not associated with BMI in the overall sample, even when controlling for demographics and ethnicity, although logistic regressions comparing normal weight women with overweight and obese groupings suggested some knowledge of breast cancer risk in the overweight, but not the obese, group. The findings remind health professionals of the need to consider more specific ethnic groupings than has hitherto been the case, as well as consider how ethnic and cultural variables may influence perceptions of obesity and its relation to cancer risk.

  11. Great expectations: private sector activity in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Michael J; Jaklenec, Ana; Deweerd, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    This report draws upon data from a variety of sources to provide a detailed estimate of the current scope of private sector development and commercial activity in the aggregate field comprising tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapeutics. Economic activity has grown a remarkable fivefold in the past 5 years. As of mid-2007 approximately 50 firms or business units with over 3000 employees offered commercial tissue-regenerative products or services with generally profitable annual sales in excess of $1.3 billion. Well over a million patients have been treated with these products. In addition, 110 development-stage companies with over 55 products in FDA-level clinical trials and other preclinical stages employed approximately 2500 scientists or support personnel and spent 850 million development dollars in 2007. These totals represent a remarkable recovery from the downturn of 2000-2002, at which time tissue engineering was in shambles because of disappointing product launches, failed regulatory trials, and the general investment pullback following the dot-com crash. Commercial success has resulted in large measure from identification of products that are achievable with available technology and under existing regulatory guidelines. Development-stage firms have become much more adept at risk management. The resilience of the field, as well as its current breadth and diversity, augurs well for the future of regenerative medicine.

  12. Boron intake and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alejandro; Peters, Ulrike; Lampe, Johanna W; White, Emily

    2007-12-01

    Experimental studies suggest that boron may prevent prostate cancer. Only one small epidemiological study has been conducted of boron, which found that those in the highest quartile of boron intake had less than half the risk of prostate cancer versus those in the lowest quartile. We evaluated the association between boron intake and prostate cancer within the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. A total of 35,244 men completed the baseline supplement and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 2000-2002. A boron database was constructed from published sources to estimate boron intake from the FFQ and from multivitamins. A total of 832 men developed prostate cancer from baseline to 31 December 2004. Dietary boron intake and total boron intake from diet plus multivitamins were not associated with prostate cancer risk. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer for those in the highest versus lowest quartile of total boron intake was 1.17 (95% CI 0.85, 1.61). This risk did not vary by prostate cancer stage or Gleason score. Furthermore, none of the foods high in boron content was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. This cohort study provides no evidence for a preventive role of boron intake on prostate cancer. Since few studies exist on this topic, future research is needed to better elucidate any role that boron may play in the prevention of prostate cancer.

  13. Ecological network analysis of an urban metabolic system based on input-output tables: model development and case study for Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Fath, Brian D; Liu, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan; Su, Meirong

    2014-01-15

    If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases".

  14. Lithospheric Structure in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Plate from Joint Inversion of Surface Wave Dispersion Data and Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugda, M. T.; Nyblade, A. A.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.; Julia, J.

    2006-12-01

    Lithospheric structure beneath Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti) and the Arabian Shield and Platform has been investigated using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements from 10 to 175 s. Our models help to constrain the extent of modification made to the lithosphere in the region by hotspot tectonism. Most of the data for this study come from three major sources: the Ethiopia and Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiments which were carried out between 2000-2002 and 2001-2002, respectively, and data from the Saudi Arabia National Digital Seismic Network (KACST). We find that there is little or no seismic lid under the Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar. The results for the Ethiopian Plateau show that there has been thinning of the lithosphere by about ~30 40 km from typical Mozambique Belt lithosphere under Tanzania, which was reported to be up to 120 km thick, and that there has been a reduction in maximum shear wave velocity of the lid by about 7%. Replacement of the bottom of the former Mozambique Belt lithosphere by warm plume material with a partial erosion of the lithosphere can explain both the thinning of the lithosphere and the reduction of maximum velocity. Preliminary results suggest similar lithospheric structure beneath the Arabian Shield. The results from Kenya are similar to that of the results for the Mozambique Belt Lithosphere in Tanzania, showing 100-120 km thick lithosphere.

  15. Drug utilisation profile in the Italian paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Clavenna, Antonio; Berti, Alessandra; Gualandi, Lucia; Rossi, Elisa; De Rosa, Marisa; Bonati, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    In order to evaluate the prescribing pattern in the Italian paediatric population, prescriptions involving 923,353 children under 14 years old and dispensed during 2006 by the retail pharmacies of 22 Italian local health units were analysed. A total of 561,237 children (61%) received at least one drug prescription. The prescription prevalence rate was highest in children 3 years of age (78%), decreased with increasing age and was higher in boys than in girls (chi(2)=655; p<0.001). Each treated child received an average of 3.2 prescriptions and 4.8 boxes. Antibiotics and anti-asthmatics were the more prescribed therapeutic classes and represented 80% of prescriptions. Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid was the most prescribed drug (24% of the overall population; 17% of all boxes), followed by inhaled beclometasone and amoxicillin. A total of 620 different drugs were prescribed and the ten leading drugs represented 64% of the prescribed boxes. Six of the ten most prescribed drugs were the same in all age groups. Wide differences were found in the prevalence rate between the different local health units; these ranged between 50.1 and 68.4% (p<0.001). The prescription prevalence increased in the 2000-2002 period (from 62.2 to 68.3%) and slightly decreased afterwards. Despite some limitations, the systematic monitoring of prescriptions is a valuable tool for evaluating the appropriateness of the care.

  16. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  17. The Growth of Terrestrial Planets: results from high resolution N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinhardt, Z. M.; Richardson, D. C.

    2004-11-01

    We will present the results of our most recent numerical simulations of terrestrial planet formation. We have developed the most realistic planetesimal collision model to date that handles accretion and erosion of planetesimals in a self-consistent manner. In our collision model gravity is the dominant mechanism in determining the collision outcome. We have fully integrated our collision model into a direct, parallelized, hierarchical, N-body code, called pkdgrav (Richardson et al. 2000, Stadel 2001) in order to study terrestrial planet formation in detail. We have run several numerical simulations with our collision model using similar initial conditions to previous numerical simulations (Kokubo and Ida 1998, 2000, 2002), allowing a straightforward basis for comparison. We have found that our "dust" component -- the particles that are below our resolution limit -- is potentially dynamically important, as suggested by Goldreich, Lithwick, and Sari (2004). We have also found that the general outcome of our simulations depends strongly on the initial conditions of the planetesimal disk and the collision model but is effectively independent of the coefficient of restitution of the planetesimals. In order to achieve higher resolution we will submit a large (106 particle) simulation to the Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center. This work is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant Nos. NAG511722 and NGT550454 issued through the Office of Space Science.

  18. Ethnicity and clinical psychiatric diagnosis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Shula; Petti, Theodore; Gara, Michael; Vega, William; Lu, Weili; Kiely, Gerard

    2006-09-01

    This paper focuses on whether a consistent difference by ethnicity existed in the clinical diagnosis of children and adolescents in two behavioral health service environments and reviews plausible explanations for such a difference. Key measures were clinical diagnosis and ethnicity, abstracted from the administrative dataset of a New Jersey behavioral health care organization during 2000-2002, and a data collection conducted for the State of Indiana during 1991-1992. Sample sizes were 5,394 and 10,437, respectively. Only primary diagnoses were used in this study, classified into externalizing versus internalizing disorders. Logistic regression was performed for the dependent variable of presence/absence of an externalizing disorder or internalizing disorder. A main effect for ethnicity was found; African American youth received more externalizing diagnoses than did European American youth (odds ratio 2.01 (CI: 1.73-2.33) in one sample and 1.67 (CI: 1.44-1.94) in the other); African American youth also received fewer internalizing diagnoses than European American youth (odds ratio 0.55 (CI: .48-.63) in one sample and 0.75 (CI:.64-.88) in the other. Potential explanations for these findings include: 1. Biopsychosocial origin; 2. Clinician bias; 3. Discordant normative behavioral expectations between parents and service providers; and 4. Interaction between differential expression of underlying pathology and tolerance for such expressions.

  19. MS 04-044: demographic features of drug and chemical poisoning in northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed Ibrahim; Ab Rahman, Ab Fatah; Mohd Zain, Zaininah

    2005-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a significant health problem all over the world. In Malaysia, nationwide data on poisoning pattern is scarce and incomplete. The objectives of our study were to determine the pattern of acute drug and chemical poisoning at Penang General Hospital (PGH), in the northern region of Malaysia, and to compare poisoning characteristics between different ethnic groups. The study was a retrospective case review of all poisoned patients admitted to PGH during the years 2000-2002. We collected data concerning demographic parameters of patients, information about the agent(s) implicated, and circumstances surrounding the event. There were 493 poisoning incidents. Nearly two-thirds of the poisoned cases involved female patients. The predominant mode of poisoning was intentional (51.5%). The age group 15.1-30 years ranked at the top, constituting 55.2% of all cases. Drugs were the predominant agents implicated. Among cases associated with drugs, paracetamol was the main causative agent (44.7%). Chinese patients constituted 37.7% of all poisoning cases, followed by the Indians (31.6%) and Malays (26.6%). Between ethnic groups, Indian patients were found to have the highest rate of poisoning admission of 75.2 per 100,000 persons.

  20. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Cars Among Middle and High School Students—United States, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from cigarettes poses a significant health risk to nonsmokers. Among youth, the home is the primary source of SHS. However, little is known about youth exposure to SHS in other nonpublic areas, particularly motor vehicles. METHODS Data were obtained from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of US students in grades 6 to 12. Trends in SHS exposure in a car were assessed across survey years by school level, gender, and race/ethnicity by using binary logistic regression. RESULTS From 2000 to 2009, the prevalence of SHS exposure in cars declined significantly among both nonsmokers (39.0%–22.8%; trend P < .001) and smokers (82.3%–75.3%; trend P < .001). Among nonsmokers, this decline occurred across all school level, gender, and race/ethnicity subgroups. CONCLUSIONS SHS exposure in cars decreased significantly among US middle and high school students from 2000 to 2009. Nevertheless, in 2009, over one-fifth of nonsmoking students were exposed to SHS in cars. Jurisdictions should expand comprehensive smoke-free policies that prohibit smoking in worksites and public places to also prohibit smoking in motor vehicles occupied by youth. PMID:22311992

  1. Prekindergarten teachers' verbal references to print during classroom-based, large-group shared reading.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Tricia A; Justice, Laura M; Piasta, Shayne B

    2009-10-01

    The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print references occur at similar rates across different types of books. The relation between frequency of print referencing and quality of teachers' language instruction was also studied. Seventeen pre-K teachers were randomly assigned to a regular reading condition as part of a larger study, and 92 videos of their large-group, shared-reading sessions were analyzed for print-referencing utterances and quality of language instruction. Teachers' verbal print references were compared across texts that were purposefully sampled to include different levels of print salience. Teachers discussed all domains of print studied; however, their rate of print referencing was relatively low. More verbal print references were observed when the teachers read books exhibiting higher amounts of print-salient features. When reading books, there was no apparent relation between teachers' use of print referencing and their quality of language instruction. It is unclear whether this low rate of explicit, verbal print referencing would impact children's print knowledge. Nonetheless, print-salient books appear to offer a natural context for discussions about print. Implications for educational practice are considered.

  2. Non-accidental burns in children--are we neglecting neglect?

    PubMed

    Chester, Darren L; Jose, Rajive Mathew; Aldlyami, Ehab; King, Helen; Moiemen, Naiem S

    2006-03-01

    Although many studies have described burn abuse in detail, burns that have occurred as a result of neglect have been studied to a much lesser degree. A retrospective study of 440 hospitalised paediatric burns patients during 2000-2002 inclusive was performed. A multidisciplinary team investigation of suspicious cases was used. This included a home assessment. There were 41 cases of neglect (9.3%) and 395 cases of accidental burning (89.8%). Parental drug abuse, single parent families, delay to presentation and a lack of first aid were statistically more prevalent in the "neglect" group than in the "accidental" group. Children in the "neglect" group were also statistically more likely to have deeper burns and require skin grafting. 82.9% of children whose burns were deemed to be due to neglect had a previous entry on the child protection register. 48.8% were transferred into foster care. This study shows that burning by neglect is far more prevalent than abuse. We advocate a multidisciplinary investigation coupled with the use of home assessments to aid diagnosis. It may be possible to target preventative strategies on the children with the above risk factors.

  3. Education, income and alcohol misuse: a stress process model.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Marta; Lowman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study applies stress process theory to study and explain the negative association between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol misuse. SES is theorized to reduce alcohol misuse by reducing exposure to stressors and increasing access to resources. The National Co-Morbidity panel sample (N = 4,979) interviewed in 1990-1992 and 2000-2002 are analyzed to estimate direct and indirect pathways between SES and alcohol misuse over time via stressors and resources. Higher education and income predict decreased alcohol misuse via internal and external locus of control. External locus of control is associated with increased alcohol intake over time, whereas internal locus of control is associated with a lower likelihood of developing future alcohol-related disorders. Income is also associated with increased alcohol misuse via religiosity, which is more common among people of low income, and protects against alcohol misuse. SES is negatively associated with alcohol misuse because low SES increases people's perceptions that their lives are determined by luck, and reduces their sense of personal control. However, low income has a countervailing negative influence on alcohol misuse via its association with religiosity.

  4. Vegetation communities at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.; Stroh, Esther D.

    2011-01-01

    New and existing data were used to describe and map vegetation communities at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Existing data had been gathered during the growing seasons of 2002, 2003, and 2004. New data were collected in 2007 to describe previously unsampled communities and communities within which insufficient data had been collected. Plot data and field observations were used to describe 17 natural and semi-natural communities at the Association level of the National Vegetation Classification System (NVCS). Four ruderal communities not included in the NVCS are also described. Data were used to inform delineation of communities using aerial photos from 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2007. During this process, eleven additional land cover classes including cultural features, managed vegetation communities, and water features were identified. These features were mapped, some were described, but no vegetation data were collected. In 2009, nearly all community polygons were field visited and classified to the Association level. When necessary, polygon boundaries were adjusted based on field observations. The final map includes 482 polygons of 27 land cover classes encompassing 3,174 hectares on 5 units of the refuge. Data and information will inform the development of the refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan.

  5. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry, soil disturbance and plant stress: A multiple year comparison using two herbs, Ipomoea pandurata and Cnidoscolus stimulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, D.C.; Brown, M.L.; Duda, J.J.; Graraham, J.H.; Emlen, J.M.; Krzysik, A.J.; Balbach, H.; Kovacic, D.A.; Zak, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied Cnidoscolus stimulosus and Ipomoea pandurata, two common herbs of the Fall Line Sandhills to assess their potential as ecosystem level stress indicators. We focused on plants because they are among the most persistent organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. We used developmental instability as an indicator of plant population stress. Developmental instability is usually measured as deviations from symmetry, in traits that normally develop symmetrically. Thus, symmetry represents an idealized a priori phenotype. Stress presumably causes perturbations during development that may exceed the capacity of the organism to buffer or correct, resulting in developmental instability, and hence deviations from this ideal. Soil disturbance imposed by different land use patterns at Fort Benning, Georgia provided a gradient of soil disturbance. In 2000-2002 we collected plants from nine different sites representing three levels of disturbance. In addition, in 2002 we collected microhabitat data in 1 m quadrats surrounding each plant whose developmental stability we also assessed. The developmental instability of both species was influenced by land use patterns, whether or not the sites had been previously burned, and microhabitat variables. Developmental instability increased with soil disturbance, burning in the prior year, and as the percentage of bare ground increased around the target individual. To some extent, favorable microhabitat conditions reduced developmental instability in sites with medium and high soil disturbance, whereas unfavorable conditions at low soil disturbance sites increased developmental instability. As an indicator of community level stress, developmental instability is best used in conjunction with other indices of environmental quality. ?? Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  7. Cholera epidemic associated with raw vegetables--Lusaka, Zambia, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-09-03

    Zambia experienced widespread cholera epidemics in 1991 (13,154 cases), 1992 (11,659), and 1999 (11,327). In response to the large outbreak in 1999, the Zambian Ministry of Health (ZMOH) urged use of in-home chlorination with the locally produced solution, Clorin, and the practice increased substantially Clorin had been introduced in Zambia in 1998 as part of the Safe Water System (SWS), a point-of-use water disinfection and safe-water storage strategy launched by the Society for Family Health, in partnership with ZMOH, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and CDC. Although no outbreaks were reported during 2000-2002, cholera remained endemic. Epidemic cholera returned to Zambia in November 2003, when cases of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor were confirmed in the capital city, Lusaka. During November 28, 2003-January 4, 2004, an estimated 2,529 cholera cases and 128 cholera deaths (case-fatality rate [CFR] = 5.1%) occurred in Lusaka. In February 2004, the Lusaka District Health Management Team (LDHMT) invited CDC to assist in an investigation of the epidemic. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which implicated foodborne transmission via raw vegetables and demonstrated a protective role for hand washing with soap. The results underscore the importance of hygiene, clean water, and sanitary food handling for cholera prevention.

  8. Cost effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control programmes: participatory versus vertical.

    PubMed

    Baly, A; Toledo, M E; Boelaert, M; Reyes, A; Vanlerberghe, V; Ceballos, E; Carvajal, M; Maso, R; La Rosa, M; Denis, O; Van der Stuyft, P

    2007-06-01

    We conducted an economic appraisal of two strategies for Aedes aegypti control: a vertical versus a community-based approach. Costs were calculated for the period 2000-2002 in three pilot areas of Santiago de Cuba where a community intervention was implemented and compared with three control areas with routine vertical programme activities. Reduction in A. aegypti foci was chosen as the measure of effectiveness. The pre-intervention number of foci (614 vs. 632) and economical costs for vector control (US$243746 vs. US$263486) were comparable in the intervention and control areas. During the intervention period (2001-2002), a 13% decrease in recurrent costs for the health system was observed. Within the control areas, these recurrent relative costs remained stable. The number of A. aegypti foci in the pilot areas and the control areas fell by 459 and 467, respectively. The community-based approach was more cost effective from a health system perspective (US$964 vs. US$1406 per focus) as well as from society perspective (US$1508 vs. US$1767 per focus).

  9. Analysis of vegetation dynamics and climatic variability impacts on greenness across Canada using remotely sensed data from 2000 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiuqin; Zhu, Qiuan; Chen, Huai; Ma, Zhihai; Wang, Weifeng; Song, Xinzhang; Zhao, Pengxiang; Peng, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    Using time series of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from 2000 to 2009, we assessed decadal vegetation dynamics across Canada and examined the relationship between NDVI and climatic variables (precipitation and temperature). The Palmer drought severity index and vapor pressure difference (VPD) were used to relate the vegetation changes to the climate, especially in cases of drought. Results indicated that MODIS NDVI measurements provided a dynamic picture of interannual variation in Canadian vegetation patterns. Greenness declined in 2000, 2002, and 2009 and increased in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Vegetation dynamics varied across regions during the period. Most forest land shows little change, while vegetation in the ecozone of Pacific Maritime, Prairies, and Taiga Shield shows more dynamics than in the others. Significant correlations were found between NDVI and the climatic variables. The variation of NDVI resulting from climatic variability was more highly correlated to temperature than to precipitation in most ecozones. Vegetation grows better with higher precipitation and temperature in almost all ecozones. However, vegetation grows worse under higher temperature in the Prairies ecozone. The annual changes in NDVI corresponded well with the change in VPD in most ecozones.

  10. Monitoring the Urban Growth of Dhaka (bangladesh) by Satellite Imagery in Flooding Risk Management Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Franci, F.; Mandanici, E.

    2013-01-01

    There is large consensus that demographic changes, the lack of appropriate environmental policies and sprawling urbanization result in high vulnerability and exposure to the natural disasters. This work reports some experiences of using multispectral satellite imagery to produce landuse/cover maps for the Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, which is subject to frequent flooding events.The activity was conducted in collaboration with the non-profit organization ITHACA (Information Technology for Humanitarian Assistance, Cooperation and Action). The Landsat images acquired in 2000, 2002 and 2009 were used to evaluate the urban growth in order to support risk assessment studies; to identify areas routinely flooded during the monsoon season, the image of October 2009 (the most critical month for the effects of rain) was compared with two images acquired in January and February 2010. The analysis between 2000 and 2009 was able to quantify a very rapid growth of the metropolis, with an increase in built-up areas from 75 to 111 km2. The analysis highlights also a sharp rise of Bare soil class, likely related to the construction of embankments for the creation of new building space; consequently a decrease of cultivated land was observed. In particular, these artificial islands have been invading flooding areas. The change detection procedure also showed that the flooding in October 2009 affected about 20% (115 out of 591 km2) of the entire study area; furthermore these areas became wetlands and farmland over the next three/four months.

  11. Ecology of aphidophagous predators in pomegranate ecosystem in India.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, K; Verghese, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    The aphid, Aphis punicae Passerini (Homoptera : Aphididae) is a serious pest attacking pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), an important semi arid fruit crop grown widely in most parts of the country. The major predators found preying on A. punicae in pomegranate ecosystem were Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius), Scymnus sp., Pseudaspidemerus circumflexo (Motsch.), Paragus serratus (Fabricius), Ischiodon scutellaris (Fabricius) and Chrysopa sp. The population dynamics and spatial distribution of these predators in an unsprayed pomegranate ecosystem were studied at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (12 degrees 58' N; 77 degrees 35'E), India during 2000-2002. The predators were found to be distributed uniformly among different tree quadrants and followed the same distributional pattern of A. punicae during their peak in January and February. The predator density was relatively higher in lower canopies than upper canopies. The spatial distribution of predators showed aggregate distribution pattern at higher mean densities and exhibited regular or under-dispersed distribution at lower mean densities. The temporal distribution of aphidophagous predators on A. punicae showed two peaks one during January - February and second during August - September The population of predators started building up along with aphid population and reached maximum at high aphid densities and declined as the prey availability declined. This indicated that predators followed the same trend of their prey, A. punicae, showing a clear numerical response.

  12. Cost-utility analysis of the National truth campaign to prevent youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Holtgrave, David R; Wunderink, Katherine A; Vallone, Donna M; Healton, Cheryl G

    2009-05-01

    In 2005, the American Journal of Public Health published an article that indicated that 22% of the overall decline in youth smoking that occurred between 1999 and 2002 was directly attributable to the truth social marketing campaign launched in 2000. A remaining key question about the truth campaign is whether the economic investment in the program can be justified by the public health outcomes; that question is examined here. Standard methods of cost and cost-utility analysis were employed in accordance with the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine; a societal perspective was employed. During 2000-2002, expenditures totaled just over $324 million to develop, deliver, evaluate, and litigate the truth campaign. The base-case cost-utility analysis result indicates that the campaign was cost saving; it is estimated that the campaign recouped its costs and that just under $1.9 billion in medical costs was averted for society. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the basic determination of cost effectiveness for this campaign is robust to substantial variation in input parameters. This study suggests that the truth campaign not only markedly improved the public's health but did so in an economically efficient manner.

  13. Spontaneous pregnancies among couples previously treated by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Troude, Pénélope; Bailly, Estelle; Guibert, Juliette; Bouyer, Jean; de la Rochebrochard, Elise

    2012-07-01

    To determine the frequency of live births following spontaneous pregnancy (BSP) and to examine their associated factors among couples who have unsuccessfully or successfully experienced fertility treatments. Retrospective cohort. Eight IVF centers. A total of 2,134 couples who began IVF treatment in the centers in 2000-2002 and were followed up by a postal questionnaire sent 7-9 years after they started treatment in the inclusion center. None. Rates of BSP and factors associated with BSP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression. The BSP rate was 17% (218/1,320) among couples who had previously had a child through medical treatment and 24% (193/814) among couples who had remained childless after treatment. In both groups, the probability of BSP was higher among younger women and increased with a smaller number of IVF attempts. Probability was also higher when the cause of infertility was unexplained. Our results should give hope to couples who have been unsuccessfully treated by IVF, especially young couples with unexplained infertility. Nonetheless, it should be remembered that the BSP rates are cumulative rates observed over a long period of time and that these couples have a very low monthly probability of conceiving. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of vertical structures of hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones as observed by spaceborne precipitation radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Khajonrat, Direk

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation radar (PR) on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite offers three-dimensional downwardlooking observations of tropical storms. Such observations are very useful to study the structure of tropical storms. This work presents a systematic study of vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) of hurricanes over North Atlantic, typhoons over North Western Pacific and cyclones over South Indian Ocean. Due to a large number of VPR observation, it is possible to classify them into characteristic profiles so that it can be useful in comparing different structures. In this study, Self Organizing Map (SOM) is used to classify VPR of hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones observed in the years 2000, 2002 and 2003. We have not included the 2001 data because of the orbit transition during that year. More than 100 storms are studied in this work. VPR of the storms are classified into characteristic profiles. Percentages of contribution of each characteristics profile are determined. In addition the microphysical structure including drop size and its concentration is also derived. Comparative study on yearly basis of hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones reveals similarities and systematic differences among them, and those results are presented.

  15. What was different about exposures reported by male Australian Gulf War veterans for the 1991 Persian Gulf War, compared with exposures reported for other deployments?

    PubMed

    Glass, Deborah C; Sim, Malcolm R; Kelsall, Helen L; Ikin, Jill F; McKenzie, Dean; Forbes, Andrew; Ittak, Peter

    2006-07-01

    This study identified chemical and environmental exposures specifically associated with the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Exposures were self-reported in a postal questionnaire, in the period of 2000-2002, by 1,424 Australian male Persian Gulf War veterans in relation to their 1991 Persian Gulf War deployment and by 625 Persian Gulf War veterans and 514 members of a military comparison group in relation to other active deployments. Six of 28 investigated exposures were experienced more frequently during the Persian Gulf War than during other deployments; these were exposure to smoke (odds ratio [OR], 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-6.6), exposure to dust (OR, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.3), exposure to chemical warfare agents (OR, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-7.9), use of respiratory protective equipment (OR, 13.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-26.8), use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective suits (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.4-15.4), and entering/inspecting enemy equipment (OR, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-4.8). Other chemical and environmental exposures were not specific to the Persian Gulf War deployment but were also reported in relation to other deployments. The number of exposures reported was related to service type and number of deployments but not to age or rank.

  16. Observations and Modeling of Winter Storms in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T. J.; Barros, A. P.

    2002-12-01

    Based on observations from a hydrometeorological network on the eastern slopes of the Annapurna Range, the summer monsoon (June-September) is responsible for 80-90% of annual precipitation at low elevations (< 2000 m MSL) in Nepal, with nearly all of it in liquid form even during the winter. However, high elevations can receive up to 25% of their annual precipitation as snowfall during the winter, with the percentage of the annual total an increasing function of elevation. Significant snowstorms often are associated with terrain-locked low-pressure systems that form when an upper-level disturbance passes over the notch formed by the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains. These systems cause deep upslope flow over central Nepal, resulting in orographic precipitation. Notable case studies for three winters (January-March 2000-2002) are reviewed using local precipitation (snow and rain) and other meteorological data, as well as satellite (Meteosat-5 and TRMM) and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. Based on these results, a 15-year (1988-2002) climatology is developed and interannual variability of winter storms is diagnosed. Finally, a cloud-resolving model with realistic topography is used to investigate mechanisms for controlling the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation during winter storms.

  17. Correlation and volatility in an Indian stock market: A random matrix approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Varsha; Deo, Nivedita

    2007-11-01

    We examine the volatility of an Indian stock market in terms of correlation of stocks and quantify the volatility using the random matrix approach. First we discuss trends observed in the pattern of stock prices in the Bombay Stock Exchange for the three-year period 2000 2002. Random matrix analysis is then applied to study the relationship between the coupling of stocks and volatility. The study uses daily returns of 70 stocks for successive time windows of length 85 days for the year 2001. We compare the properties of matrix C of correlations between price fluctuations in time regimes characterized by different volatilities. Our analyses reveal that (i) the largest (deviating) eigenvalue of C correlates highly with the volatility of the index, (ii) there is a shift in the distribution of the components of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue across regimes of different volatilities, (iii) the inverse participation ratio for this eigenvector anti-correlates significantly with the market fluctuations and finally, (iv) this eigenvector of C can be used to set up a Correlation Index, CI whose temporal evolution is significantly correlated with the volatility of the overall market index.

  18. Dietary glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Zhang, Xianglan; Cai, Hui; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Mixed results have been reported in recent epidemiologic studies in Western populations that have investigated the hypothesis that high glycemic load may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. This association has not been prospectively evaluated in other populations. We examined the association of overall glycemic index and glycemic load with colorectal cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. A total of 73,061 women aged 40-70 y and free of cancer at enrollment were included in this analysis. Usual dietary intake was assessed at baseline (1997-2000) and reassessed during the first follow-up (2000-2002) through in-person interviews by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During an average follow-up of 9.1 y, 475 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. Glycemic load was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (P for trend = 0.84). The multivariable hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of glycemic load was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.24). Similar results were also observed for associations with dietary glycemic index and total carbohydrate intake, and results did not vary by excluding individuals with a history of diabetes from the analysis. This prospective study, conducted in a population with a high intake of carbohydrates, provides no evidence that a high-glycemic index diet or high glycemic load is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  19. Cross-cultural analysis of determinants of hot flashes and night sweats: Latin-American immigrants to Madrid and their Spanish neighbors.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

    2013-11-01

    This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55 years, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n = 274) participated in The Decisions At Menopause Study in 2000-2002. The Latin-American sample (n = 301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010-2011. χ(2) analyses and logistic regression models were carried out on the combined sample, controlling for origin of provenance. Forty-four percent of women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats, and 26% reported both symptoms. Compared with Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (odds ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9), after demographic variables and menopause status were controlled for. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Because their determinants differ, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women are less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes, as the lesser reporting among immigrants could have been a cultural phenomenon rather than a biological phenomenon.

  20. Survival and cure trends for European children, adolescents and young adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia from 1982 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Gemma; Rossi, Silvia; Foschi, Roberto; Trama, Annalisa; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pastore, Guido; Peris-Bonet, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    Proportion cured is a potentially more informative cancer outcome measurement than 5-year survival. We present population-based estimates of cure for young patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Europe from 1982 to 2002. Thirty-five European cancer registries provided data. Survival was estimated by age, period of diagnosis and European region, and used as input for parametric cure models, which assume cured patients have the same mortality as the general population. For acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed in 1-14 year olds in 2000-2002, over 77% were estimated cured. The proportion cured improved significantly over the study period: an impressive 26-58% in infants (up to 1 year), 70-90% in 1-4 year olds, 63-86% in 5-9 year olds, 52-77% in 10-14 year olds, and 44-50% in 15-24 year olds. Regional variations in proportion cured reduced over time for 1-14 year-olds, but persisted in infants and 15-24 year olds. Five-year survival was always slightly higher than proportion cured. Considerable proportions of young patients were estimated cured of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nevertheless, a small excess risk of death persisted beyond five years after diagnosis when patients remained at risk for late treatment effects, late relapses and second primaries.

  1. Survival of European children and young adults with cancer diagnosed 1995-2002.

    PubMed

    Gatta, Gemma; Zigon, Giulia; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Desandes, Emmanuel; Kaatsch, Peter; Pastore, Guido; Peris-Bonet, Rafael; Stiller, Charles A

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses survival in 40,392 children (age 0-14 years) and 30,187 adolescents/young adults (age 15-24 years) diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 2002. The cases were from 83 European population-based cancer registries in 23 countries participating in EUROCARE-4. Five-year survival in countries and in regional groupings of countries was compared for all cancers combined and for major cancers. Survival for 15 rare cancers in children was also analysed. Five-year survival for all cancers combined was 81% in children and 87% in adolescents/young adults. Between-country survival differences narrowed for both children and adolescents/young adults. Relative risk of death reduced significantly, by 8% in children and by 13% in adolescents/young adults, from 1995-1999 to 2000-2002. Survival improved significantly over time for acute lymphoid leukaemia and primitive neuroectodermal tumours in children and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents/young adults. Cancer survival in patients <25 years is poorly documented in Eastern European countries. Complete cancer registration should be a priority for these countries as an essential part of a policy for effective cancer control in Europe.

  2. Progress in colorectal cancer survival in Europe from the late 1980s to the early 21st century: the EUROCARE study.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Bouvier, Anne Marie; Foschi, Roberto; Hackl, Monika; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Lemmens, Valery; Mangone, Lucia; Francisci, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death due to cancer causing death in Europe, accounting for more than 200,000 deaths per year. Prognosis strongly depends on stage at diagnosis, and the disease can be cured in most cases if diagnosed at an early stage. We aimed to assess trends and recent developments in 5-year relative survival in European countries, with a special focus on age, stage at diagnosis and anatomical cancer subsite. Data from 25 population-based cancer registries from 16 European countries collected in the context of the EUROCARE-4 project were analyzed. Using period analysis, age-adjusted and age-specific 5-year relative survival was calculated by country, European region, stage and cancer subsite for time periods from 1988-1990 to 2000-2002. Survival substantially increased over time in all European regions. In general, increases were more pronounced in younger than in older patients, for earlier than for more advanced cancer stages and for rectum than for colon cancer. Substantial variation of CRC survival between European countries and between age groups persisted and even tentatively increased over time. There is a huge potential for reducing the burden of CRC in Europe by more widespread and equal delivery of existing options of effective early detection and curative treatment to the European population. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R; Franco, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2-3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food > or =1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%-61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%-17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful.

  4. Air pollution, precipitation chemistry and forest health in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Popescu, Flaviu; Musselman, Robert; Tanase, Mihai; Barbu, Ioan; Fraczek, Witold; Gembasu, Nicolae; Surdu, Aurelia; Danescu, Florin; Postelnicu, Daniela; Cenusa, Radu; Vasile, Cristian

    2005-10-01

    In the Retezat Mountains concentrations of O3, NO2 and SO2 in summer season 2000-2002 were low and below toxicity levels for forest trees. While NH3 concentrations were low in 2000, the 2001 and 2002 concentrations were elevated indicating possibility for increased N deposition to forest stands. More than 90% of the rain events were acidic with pH values <5.5, contributing to increased acidity of soils. Crown condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was good, however, defoliation described as >25% of foliage injured increased from 9.1% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2002. Drought that occurred in the southern Carpathians between fall 2000 and summer 2002 and frequent acidic rainfalls could cause the observed decline of forest condition. Both Norway spruce and European beech with higher defoliation had lower annual radial increments compared to the trees with low defoliation. Ambient O3 levels found in the Retezat did not affect crown condition of Norway spruce or European beech.

  5. Incidence of hematologic malignancies in Europe by morphologic subtype: results of the HAEMACARE project.

    PubMed

    Sant, Milena; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; De Angelis, Roberta; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Visser, Otto; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Maynadié, Marc; Simonetti, Arianna; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Berrino, Franco

    2010-11-11

    Changing definitions and classifications of hematologic malignancies (HMs) complicate incidence comparisons. HAEMACARE classified HMs into groupings consistent with the latest World Health Organization classification and useful for epidemiologic and public health purposes. We present crude, age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates for European HMs according to these groupings, estimated from 66,371 lymphoid malignancies (LMs) and 21,796 myeloid malignancies (MMs) registered in 2000-2002 by 44 European cancer registries, grouped into 5 regions. Age-standardized incidence rates were 24.5 (per 100,000) for LMs and 7.55 for MMs. The commonest LMs were plasma cell neoplasms (4.62), small B-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphatic leukemia (3.79), diffuse B-cell lymphoma (3.13), and Hodgkin lymphoma (2.41). The commonest MMs were acute myeloid leukemia (2.96), other myeloproliferative neoplasms (1.76), and myelodysplastic syndrome (1.24). Unknown morphology LMs were commonest in Northern Europe (7.53); unknown morphology MMs were commonest in Southern Europe (0.73). Overall incidence was lowest in Eastern Europe and lower in women than in men. For most LMs, incidence was highest in Southern Europe; for MMs incidence was highest in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Differences in diagnostic and registration criteria are an important cause of incidence variation; however, different distribution of HM risk factors also contributes. The quality of population-based HM data needs further improvement.

  6. Survival of European patients diagnosed with myeloid malignancies: a HAEMACARE study.

    PubMed

    Maynadié, Marc; De Angelis, Roberta; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Visser, Otto; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Giacomin, Adriano; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Martos, Carmen; Sankila, Risto; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Simonetti, Arianna; Sant, Milena

    2013-02-01

    Population-based information on the survival of patients with myeloid malignancies is rare mainly because some entities were not recognized as malignant until the publication of the third revision of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology and World Health Organization classification in 2000. In this study we report the survival of patients with myeloid malignancies, classified by updated criteria, in Europe. We analyzed 58,800 cases incident between 1995 to 2002 in 48 population-based cancer registries from 20 European countries, classified into HAEMACARE myeloid malignancy groupings. The period approach was used to estimate 5-year relative survival in 2000-2002. The relative overall survival rate was 37%, but varied significantly between the major groups: being 17% for acute myeloid leukemia, 20% for myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, 31% for myelodysplastic syndromes and 63% for myeloproliferative neoplasms. Survival of patients with individual disease entities ranged from 90% for those with essential thrombocythemia to 4% for those with acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia. Regional European variations in survival were conspicuous for myeloproliferative neoplasms, with survival rates being lowest in Eastern Europe. This is the first paper to present large-scale, European survival data for patients with myeloid malignancies using prognosis-based groupings of entities defined by the third revision of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology/World Health Organization classifications. Poor survival in some parts of Europe, particularly for treatable diseases such as chronic myeloid leukemia, is of concern for hematologists and public health authorities.

  7. Survival of European patients diagnosed with myeloid malignancies: a HAEMACARE study

    PubMed Central

    Maynadié, Marc; De Angelis, Roberta; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Visser, Otto; Allemani, Claudia; Tereanu, Carmen; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Giacomin, Adriano; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Martos, Carmen; Sankila, Risto; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Simonetti, Arianna; Sant, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Population-based information on the survival of patients with myeloid malignancies is rare mainly because some entities were not recognized as malignant until the publication of the third revision of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology and World Health Organization classification in 2000. In this study we report the survival of patients with myeloid malignancies, classified by updated criteria, in Europe. We analyzed 58,800 cases incident between 1995 to 2002 in 48 population-based cancer registries from 20 European countries, classified into HAEMACARE myeloid malignancy groupings. The period approach was used to estimate 5-year relative survival in 2000-2002. The relative overall survival rate was 37%, but varied significantly between the major groups: being 17% for acute myeloid leukemia, 20% for myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, 31% for myelodysplastic syndromes and 63% for myeloproliferative neoplasms. Survival of patients with individual disease entities ranged from 90% for those with essential thrombocythemia to 4% for those with acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia. Regional European variations in survival were conspicuous for myeloproliferative neoplasms, with survival rates being lowest in Eastern Europe. This is the first paper to present large-scale, European survival data for patients with myeloid malignancies using prognosis-based groupings of entities defined by the third revision of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology/World Health Organization classifications. Poor survival in some parts of Europe, particularly for treatable diseases such as chronic myeloid leukemia, is of concern for hematologists and public health authorities. PMID:22983589

  8. [The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; de Noronha, Ana Beatriz Marinho; Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; de Souza, Adriana de Alvarenga Linhares; Oliveira, Catia Veronica dos Santos; Pontes Júnior, Durval Martins

    2010-11-01

    Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq). The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were 735 research groups, created mostly from 2000 to 2003 and 6,263 researchers concentrated in the Southeast Region and in CNPq sub area of Public Health. The great increase of the production lead to the conclusion that sanitary surveillance have been a locus of production only in the last decade, presented in scientific events of Public Health and until now concentrated just like others areas in Health.

  9. [Mortality due to traffic injuries and its impact on life expectancy: a comparison between Mexico and Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vega-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique

    2015-09-01

    To determine the impact of mortality due to motor vehicle traffic injuries (MVTI) compared with other causes of death on life expectancy in Mexico and Spain during the three-year periods 2000-2002 and 2010-2012 and the weight of the different age groups in years of life expectancy lost (YLEL) due to this cause. Based on official death and population data, abridged life tables in Mexico and Spain were constructed for the three-year periods studied. Temporary life expectancy and YLEL for persons aged 15 to 75 years were calculated by selected causes (MVTI, diabetes mellitus, malignant neoplasms and ischemic heart diseases) and age groups in each three-year period. In Spain, YLEL decreased in both sexes from all the causes studied, especially MVTI; this reduction was greater in the younger ages. In addition, temporary life expectancy increased. In Mexico, YLEL due to MVTI increased in men, mainly in young people, and remained unchanged among women. Temporary life expectancy declined in men but increased slightly among women. The reduction in YLEL due to MVTI in Spain has contributed to increased life expectancy. By contrast, the increase in YLEL due to MVTI among Mexican men has contributed to the decline in male life expectancy. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in childhood with early emphysema in adulthood among nonsmokers: the MESA-lung study.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Diez Roux, Ana V; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Jacobs, David R; Barr, R Graham

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical stress to alveolar walls may cause progressive damage after an early-life insult such as exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This hypothesis was examined by using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based cohort aged 45-84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease, recruited from 6 US sites in 2000-2002. The MESA-Lung Study assessed a fractal, structural measure of early emphysema ("alpha," lower values indicate more emphysema) and a standard quantitative measure ("percent emphysema") from cardiac computed tomography scans. Childhood ETS exposure was assessed retrospectively as a report of living with one or more regular indoor smokers. Analyses included 1,781 nonsmokers (<100 cigarettes, 20 cigars, or 20 pipefulls in their lifetime and urinary cotinine levels <100 ng/mL); mean age was 61 years (standard deviation, 10), and 65% were women. Childhood ETS exposure from 2 or more smokers (17%) compared with none (52%) was associated with 0.05 lower alpha and 2.8 higher percent emphysema (P for trend = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively) after adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, parental, and participant characteristics, as well as adult exposures (e.g., cumulative residential air pollution exposure, exposure to ETS as an adult). Childhood ETS exposure was associated with detectable differences on computed tomography scans of adult lungs of nonsmokers.

  11. Insomnia symptoms and subsequent psychotropic medication: a register-linked study with 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Haaramo, Peija; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Hublin, Christer; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent psychotropic medication, reflecting mental health. Postal baseline surveys among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland, were collected in 2000-2002 (N = 6,227, response rate 67%, 78% women) and longitudinally linked with national register data on prescribed reimbursed medication. Insomnia symptoms at baseline comprised difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, and non-restorative sleep. All purchased psychotropic medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline was included. Outcomes were any psychotropic medication; antidepressants; and anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives. Covariates included socio-demographic and work-related factors, health behaviors, lifetime mental disorders, and prior psychotropic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Insomnia symptoms were associated with higher frequency of subsequent psychotropic medication prescriptions. The associations were strongest for frequent insomnia symptoms (women OR 3.55, 95% CI 2.64-4.77; men OR 4.64, 95% CI 2.49-8.66, adjusted for age and prior medication), but also rare and occasional symptoms were associated with psychotropic medication. Further adjustments had negligible effects. Insomnia symptoms were associated with prescribed psychotropic medication during follow-up in a dose-response manner. Attention should be given to the prevention of insomnia symptoms to curb subsequent mental problems.

  12. Influence of agro-environmental factors on fusarium infestation and population structure in wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Rohácik, Tibor; Hudec, Kamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of location, year and cultivar on occurrence, level of infestation and Fusarium species spectrum in winter wheat seeds were evaluated. The wheat seeds from different cultivars and localities of the Slovak Republic were used for Fusarium species evaluation during years 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003. The significant influence of the locality on total Fusarium kernel infestation was confirmed. The total sample infestation was significantly higher in the colder and moister localities, lower infestation was in warmer and dryer ones. Cultivar "Astella" was significantly the most susceptible. The widest Fusarium species spectrum was recorded in the locations with a high level of total kernel infestation. In localities with lower infestation, the species spectrum was less numerous. F. poae was the dominant species in all locations. The species F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale were subdominant and relatively frequent in the locations with higher altitude. The frequency and density of other isolated species (F. graminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. tricinctum, F. semitectum, F. acuminatum, F. heterosporum, F. sambucinum, F. solani, F. compactum and F. oxysporum) was trivial in all localities. The kernel infestation and Fusarium population structure in wheat grains mostly depends on microclimatic condition of the locality. Rising of rainfall rate and altitude led to an increase in the species spectrum. The wide Fusarium species spectrum is connected with the high frequency of coincident species. The species with low and medium frequency achieved low or trivial density in population structure.

  13. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders.

  14. Variability analysis of AGN: a review of results using new statistical criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibecchi, L.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Romero, G. E.; Combi, J. A.

    We present here a re-analysis of the variability results of a sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN), which have been observed on several sessions with the 2.15 m "Jorge Sahade" telescope (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina, and whose results are published (Romero et al. 1999, 2000, 2002; Cellone et al. 2000). The motivation for this new analysis is the implementation, dur- ing the last years, of improvements in the statistical criteria applied, taking quantitatively into account the incidence of the photometric errors (Cellone et al. 2007). This work is framed as a first step in an integral study on the statistical estimators of AGN variability. This study is motivated by the great diversity of statistical tests that have been proposed to analyze the variability of these objects. Since we note that, in some cases, the results of the object variability depend on the test used, we attempt to make a com- parative study of the various tests and analyze, under the given conditions, which of them is the most efficient and reliable.

  15. Retention of basic science knowledge: a comparison between body system-based and clinical presentation curricula.

    PubMed

    Woloschuk, Wayne; Mandin, Henry; Harasym, Peter; Lorscheider, Fritz; Brant, Rollin

    2004-01-01

    When the University of Calgary implemented the clinical presentation (CP) curriculum in 1994, it was prospectively decided to administer the National Board of Medical Examiner's Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) as a measure of students' basic science knowledge retention. The exam performance from 2 classes (1995, 1996) of the previous system-based (SB) curriculum was compared to exam performance of 2 classes (2000, 2002) of the CP curriculum. Data analyses employed 2 statistical models (covariate multiple linear regression and hierarchical mixed effects), and effect sizes were computed. Differences between CBSE mean scores produced by students from the SB and CP curricula showed a curricular effect on students' retention of basic science knowledge. However, preexisting differences between groups were found to be in the small-to-medium range. Evidence supporting the potential of schemes within a CP curriculum and their relation to basic science knowledge retention was observed. Effect size for the CP curriculum on students' retention of basic science knowledge was substantial; however, a notable part of that difference can be accounted for by extraneous and confounding factors. Further research utilizing more rigorous designs to investigate the relation between schemes and basic science retention is warranted.

  16. Introduction, establishment and expansion of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Oosterschelde (SW Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaal, A. C.; Kater, B. J.; Wijsman, J.

    2009-03-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was first introduced as an exotic species by oyster farmers in 1964 in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands). The initial phase is not well documented but first natural spatfall was recorded in 1975. Excessive spatfall occurred in 1976 and this is considered the start of the expansion phase of the wild oysters. Oyster beds in intertidal and subtidal areas of the Oosterschelde estuary have been growing since. The development in the intertidal area has been reconstructed by using aerial photography, validated by ground truth in 2000-2002. In the subtidal areas extensive oyster beds have been detected by using side scan sonar; on hard substrates along the dikes coverage with oysters up to 90% locally has been recorded by scuba diving surveys. Expansion has also occurred into adjacent water bodies including the Wadden Sea. By forming resistant reefs the oysters induce structural changes in the ecosystem. It is concluded that bed area is still expanding while decrease of the fraction live animals may indicate adjustment of the stock size to the local conditions.

  17. Use of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) to characterize soil moisture for the Little River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashion, J. E.; Lakshmi, V.; Bosch, D.

    2003-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in many hydrological processes including infiltration, evaporation, and runoff. Additionally, soil moisture has a direct effect on weather patterns. Satellite based passive microwave sensors offer an effective way to observe soil moisture data over vast areas, and there are currently several satellite systems that detect soil moisture. Long-term in situ (field) measurements of soil moisture are collected in the Little River Watershed (LRWS) located in Tifton, Georgia and compared with the remotely sensed data collected over the watershed. The LRWS has been selected by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to represent the south eastern costal plains region of North America. The LRWS is composed primarily of sandy soils and has a flat topography with meandering streams. The in-situ measurements were collected by stationary soil moisture probes attached to rain gage stations throughout the LRWS for the period 2000-2002. The remotely sensed data was acquired by two satellites viz. - the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager (TMI) for soil moisture and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for vegetation. The TMI is equipped with a passive vertically and horizontally polarized 10.65GHz sensor that is capable of detecting soil moisture. Soil moisture collected in the field is related to the TMI brightness temperatures. However, vegetation has a strong affect on the 10.65GHz brightness temperature. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, provided by the (MODIS), are used to evaluate the effect of vegetation on soil microwave emission.

  18. Field evaluation of an intravital diagnostic test of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in red foxes.

    PubMed

    Reiterová, K; Miterpáková, M; Turceková, L'; Antolová, D; Dubinský, P

    2005-03-10

    Echinococcus multilocularis parasitizes the small intestine of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other carnivores, and has a wide distribution throughout the northern hemisphere. This cestode is the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, a life-threatening helminth zoonosis. In 2000-2002, 2130 red foxes were examined for its presence in Slovakia, with a total prevalence of 30.7%. The data on occurrence were obtained by the combination of necropsy of small intestines from red foxes and coproantigen detection in faecal samples. The correlation between the number of detected specimens and the value of optical density of copro-ELISA test was found. When worm burdens were low (1-25 specimens) the sensitivity of the method was 31.3+/-8.64%, when worm burdens were >50 specimens, 81.8+/-0.66%, and with high worm burdens (>1000 specimens) the sensitivity reached 100+/-0.34%. E. multilocularis presence was detected using the nested PCR method from the eggs in the faecal samples with a 100% specificity. In epidemiological surveys of this zoonosis, it is of crucial importance to detect animals with a high level of infection, which are responsible for the bulk of environmental contamination. The advantage of copro-ELISA test lies in allowing the intravital diagnostics to be employed within the epidemiological survey of E. multilocularis occurrence in the protected and urban areas.

  19. [Analysis of literature citations in original articles published in Spanish and international nursing journals and journals in 2 closely related disciplines].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Flores-López, María José; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    To compare Spanish nursing journals with 2 English-language standard journals, as well as Spanish journals in closely related disciplines, to identify possible quantitative and qualitative shortcomings in scientific documentation. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study of the references contained in 796 articles from 6 Spanish journals from 3 health disciplines (2000-2002) and 2 English-language nursing journals (2000-2001). The number of references, type of publication cited, and language of the document cited were compared in individual journals, and in journals grouped by discipline and according to language. Spanish-language nursing journals had the lowest mean number of references per article (X- = 16.20) when compared with psychology journals (X- = 31.24), medical journals (X- = 31.39) and international nursing journals (X- = 37.11). Among Spanish journals, citation of English-language publications was most frequent in medical journals (X- = 26.28) and least frequent in nursing journals (X- = 6.04). In contrast, citation of Spanish documents was most frequent in nursing journals (X- = 9.79) and least frequent in medical journals (X- = 4.43). Although scientific publication of Spanish nursing has improved, it is not comparable to publication of closely related disciplines and international nursing. The low citation of English documents clearly reveals the risk of scientific insularity.

  20. [Growth in weight and height in children less than two years old in the IMSS].

    PubMed

    González-Unzaga, Marco; Martínez-Andrade, Gloria; Maya, Juan Luis; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Turnbull, Bernardo; Flores, Sergio; Duque, Ximena; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Martínez-Salgado, Homero

    2007-01-01

    To describe the physical growth in weight and height of children less than two years of age cared for the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). A population-based National Survey, which was also regional representative, was carried out in Ordinary Regime (RO) and the IMSS-Oportunidades Program (IO). In two years (2000-2002) the study gathered data on 17,502 children from the RO and 9872 from IO. The measures of weight and length were made by nurses, according to WHO criteria. Growth is reported as weight and length for each month of age and gender, in tables and percentile curves derived from quintile regressions, using a third degree polynomial to smooth out the lines. The trends of the means of weight and height in the first two years of life in children cared by Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social show a pattern similar to those described in healthy children in other populations. However, the values are lower than those obtained in developed countries. Children's growth at two years of age at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social shows a curve that is lower than that of the reference population recommended by the World Health Organization as an international standard.

  1. [Trace metals in coastal sediments from Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García-Céspedes, Jairo; Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A

    2004-12-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 microg/g, respectively) and lower in Moín Bay (3.4% and 52 microg/g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 microg/g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 microg/g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moín Bay (6.4 microg/g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 microg/g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moín Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition.

  2. Otoacoustic emissions and the ``set of the center:'' Covariances linking ear, brainstem, and cortex, documented with the AXS Test Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Judith L.

    2003-04-01

    Although otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are believed to reflect afferent processes connecting the central auditory system with the ear, such relations have not been demonstrated in humans, for central components rostral to the lower pons. The Auditory Cross-Section (AXS) Test Battery (Lauter, 2000, 2002) provides a straightforward way to do this, with the result that one can observe covariances between any of a number of OAE variables (TEOAE amplitude, DPOAE stability, etc.), and measures of the physiological status of the auditory nerve, brainstem centers from caudal pons to midbrain, and auditory cortex. The testing methodologies employed are relatively inexpensive and should be within the means of many more clinics and laboratories than can afford access to brain-imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET. In addition, a new statistical means of testing covariation in multivariate, within-subject data sets (Ninness and Lauter, 2003) will be described that offers a means of mathematically testing the results. Data illustrating this approach will be presented, documenting covariances observed during spontaneous day-to-day systemic fluctuations, as well as responses to medications.

  3. Neighborhood ethnic composition, spatial assimilation, and change in body mass index over time among Hispanic and Chinese immigrants: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lê-Scherban, Félice; Albrecht, Sandra S; Osypuk, Theresa L; Sánchez, Brisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2014-11-01

    We investigated relations between changes in neighborhood ethnic composition and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference among Chinese and Hispanic immigrants in the United States. We used Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data over a median 9-year follow-up (2000-2002 to 2010-2012) among Chinese (n = 642) and Hispanic (n = 784) immigrants aged 45 to 84 years at baseline. We incorporated information about residential moves and used econometric fixed-effects models to control for confounding by time-invariant characteristics. We characterized neighborhood racial/ethnic composition with census tract-level percentage Asian for Chinese participants and percentage Hispanic for Hispanic participants (neighborhood coethnic concentration). In covariate-adjusted longitudinal fixed-effects models, results suggested associations between decreasing neighborhood coethnic concentration and increasing weight, although results were imprecise: within-person BMI increases associated with an interquartile range decrease in coethnic concentration were 0.15 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00, 0.30) among Chinese and 0.17 kilograms per meters squared (95% CI = -0.17, 0.51) among Hispanic participants. Results did not differ between those who did and did not move during follow-up. Residential neighborhoods may help shape chronic disease risk among immigrants.

  4. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  5. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  6. A mathematical model of psychotherapy: an investigation using dynamic non-linear equations to model the therapeutic relationship.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Paul R; Liebovitch, Larry S; Gottman, John M; Norman, Michael D; Su, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models, such as the one developed by Gottman et al. (1998, 2000, 2002) to understand the interaction between husbands and wives, can provide novel insights into the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship. A set of nonlinear equations were used to model the changing emotional state of a therapist and client. The results suggest: (1) The person that is most responsive to the other achieves the most positive state, (2) the emotional state of the client oscillates before reaching its final state, (3) therapy is least successful when the therapist starts from a negative state, and (4) there is an inverse relationship between models that change only the influence parameter and models that change only the inertia parameter, creating a series of four basic models to work with. These theoretical models require further, empirical investigation to test the derived parameters. If validated, or revised based on observations of therapist-client relationships in development, they could provide specific direction in creating successful therapeutic relationships for training clinicians and those already in practice.

  7. [Level of and change in road traffic mortality in Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, 2000-2011].

    PubMed

    Escanés, Gabriel; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Cardona, Doris

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of run-over fatalities and traffic collisions in life expectancy in Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, between 2000 and 2011. Years of life expectancy lost (YLEL) were calculated for the periods 2000-2002 and 2009-2011. The results show that road traffic deaths made up between 1% and 4% of all deaths in each country. In the first period, the highest level of mortality occurred in Colombia (YLEL=0.96) and the lowest in Argentina (YLEL=0.59). In all the countries studied except Argentina, the impact of these deaths on life expectancy was reduced in the second period. The main change took place in Colombia, reaching 0.72 YLEL in the second period. It is concluded that traffic-related deaths have a negative impact on health systems, victims, the productive sector, and society in general. From this point of view, the issue of road transit must be considered a matter of public health, requiring multi-sector intervention in the design of national and regional policies.

  8. Tracking the pathways of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates.

    PubMed

    Vestergren, Robin; Cousins, Ian T

    2009-08-01

    Recent analyses of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in human blood sera show that the background-exposed population in industrialized countries worldwide exhibits a narrow concentration range; arithmetic means of published studies range between 2 and 8 microg/L PFOA, with the exception of a few outlier studies. The globally comparable human serum concentrations of PFOA and characteristic dominance of PFOA with respect to other perfluorocarboxylate (PFCA) homologues indicate that exposure pathways of humans differ from those of wildlife, where perfluorononanoate (PFNA) is often the dominant homologue. The observed correlations between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA in human serum together with a simultaneous downward time trend of these compounds in human blood sera and blood spots from the year 2000 onward indicate a connection between historical perfluorooctanesulfonyl (POSF) production (phased out by the major manufacturer in 2000-2002) and exposure to both PFOS and PFOA. A comparison of estimated daily intakes to humans based on samples from exposure media (collected post 2000) indicates that food intake is the major contemporary exposure pathway for the background population, whereas drinking water exposure is dominant for populations near sources of contaminated drinking water. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model used to back-calculate daily intakes from serum levels is shown to provide agreement within a factor of 1.5-5.5 of the daily intakes derived from exposure media, which provides further supporting evidence that dietary exposure is a major ongoing exposure pathway of PFOA to the background population.

  9. Allegation of ethnic minorities from 1993-2008: an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) study.

    PubMed

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Ketchum, Jessica M; Hurley, Jessica; Getachew, Almaz M; Gary, Kelli Williams

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 25% of working-aged Americans with disabilities work full or part time, yet still face discrimination despite the passing of the American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) over 20 years ago. To determine if the proportion of allegations of ADA Title I workplace discrimination with merit closed at any year between 1993 and 2008 differs among Whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians; to determine if there was a change over time from 1993 to 2008 in merit closure rate within each race/ethnicity group; and to determine whether changes over time between 1993 and 2008 in the merit closure rate differ among the race/ethnicity groups. Logistic regression was used for this cross-sectional panel study to model the merit closure rate for each ethnic group from 1993 to 2008 using 318,587 charging parties from the EEOC database. All ethnic groups exhibited significant changes over time in the merit closure rate. There were significant differences in the closure rates among the race/ethnicity groups specifically at closure years 1995-2000, 2002, 2003, and 2006. Finally, there was evidence that the trends in merit closure rates over time differed significantly among the race/ethnicity groups. There was significant evidence that the proportion of claims closed with merit was significantly different among the racial/ethnicity groups.

  10. Low workplace social capital as a predictor of depression: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Stafford, Mai; Wilkinson, Richard; Schneider, Justine; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Cox, Sara J; Pentti, Jaana; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-05-15

    In a prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees, the authors examined the association between workplace social capital and depression. Data were obtained from 33,577 employees, who had no recent history of antidepressant treatment and who reported no history of physician-diagnosed depression at baseline in 2000-2002. Their risk of depression was measured with two indicators: recorded purchases of antidepressants until December 31, 2005, and self-reports of new-onset depression diagnosed by a physician in the follow-up survey in 2004-2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether self-reported and aggregate-level workplace social capital predicted indicators of depression at follow-up. The odds for antidepressant treatment and physician-diagnosed depression were 20-50% higher for employees with low self-reported social capital than for those reporting high social capital. These associations were not accounted for by sex, age, marital status, socioeconomic position, place of work, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and body mass index. The association between social capital and self-reported depression attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for baseline psychological distress (a proxy for undiagnosed mental health problems). Aggregate-level social capital was not associated with subsequent depression.

  11. Adolescent behavior and achievement, social capital, and the timing of geographic mobility.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between geographic mobility and adolescent academic achievement and behavior problems. Specifically, it addresses how the effects of moving differ by age and how social capital moderates the impact of moving on children (aged 6 to 15). Children's behavior problems and academic achievement test scores were compared across four survey waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006) and matched to data from their mothers' reports from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The findings indicate that the negative behavioral effects of geographic mobility on adolescents are most pronounced for individuals relocating to a new city, county, or state as opposed to those moving locally (i.e., within the same city). Furthermore, as suggested by a life-course perspective, the negative effects of moving on behavior problems decrease as children get older. The results also show that several social capital factors moderate the effects of moving on behavior but not achievement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes.

  13. Lupus erythematosus cell phenomenon in pediatric bronchoalveolar lavages: possible manifestation of early radioadaptive response in radiation induced alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Zunic, S

    2013-01-01

    A ten-year (December 1992 - December 2002) evaluation of 225 pediatric bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts showed appearance of the cells corresponding to the cytological entity - lupus erythematosus cell (LEC) in 47 specimens of which not a single case was associated with the coexistent autoimmune disease. There was a significant increase in the percentage of LEC in BAL samples of the examinees during the first 6 months after the bombing of targets in Serbia (July-December 1999) in comparison to the period 1992 to March 24, 1999, and after the bombing of targets in Serbia (2000-2002). Maintaining the character of occurrence of LEC in BAL as nonspecific (Zunic et al. 1996), the devastating power of alpha particles (originated from uranium decay) gives an opportunity to discuss this phenomenon more comprehensibly and perceive a new vista related to the pathogenesis of LEC phenomenon in BAL. Since the period after 1991 corresponds to the time after the first Gulf War, and later the bombing of targets in Bosnia, the possibility of occurrence of LEC in BAL as a manifestation of radiation alveolitis due to contamination by air transferred depleted uranium (DU) particles could not be excluded.

  14. Effect of individual or neighborhood disadvantage on the association between neighborhood walkability and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Quinn, James W; Weiss, Christopher C; Rundle, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    We sought to test whether the association between walkable environments and lower body mass index (BMI) was stronger within disadvantaged groups that may be particularly sensitive to environmental constraints. We measured height and weight in a diverse sample of 13 102 adults living throughout New York City from 2000-2002. Each participant's home address was geocoded and surrounded by a circular buffer with a 1-km radius. The composition and built environment characteristics of these areas were used to predict BMI through the use of generalized estimating equations. Indicators of individual or area disadvantage included low educational attainment, low household income, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity. Higher population density, more mixed land use, and greater transit access were most consistently associated with a lower BMI among those with more education or higher incomes and among non-Hispanic Whites. Significant interactions were observed for education, income, race, and ethnicity. Contrary to expectations, built environment characteristics were less consistently associated with BMI among disadvantaged groups. This pattern may be explained by other barriers to maintaining a healthy weight encountered by disadvantaged groups.

  15. The response of the diets of four carnivorous fishes to variations in the Yellow Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo; Xue, Ying

    2010-06-01

    The stomach contents of Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius), snailfish ( Liparis tanakae), anglerfish ( Lophius litulon), and Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) from the Yellow Sea during 1985-1987 and 2000-2002 were analyzed. The diets of these four carnivorous species changed over time, showing that the importance of the previous major prey, Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), had greatly decreased, owing to its declining abundance, and that intake of Crangon affinis had increased. Spanish mackerel foraged for more food, particularly for other small pelagic species in addition to Japanese anchovy, causing an increase in its niche width in recent years, whereas the other three demersal carnivorous species had mainly targeted the small benthic shrimp C. affinis, and their niche widths had reduced in the later years. This phenomenon may be an adaptive response to changes in the food availability of the ecosystem, indicating a change in the food web and community structure of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Changes in the composition of the diet of major predators may be an indicator of changes in a marine ecosystem.

  16. Genetic factors account for half of the phenotypic variance in liability to sleep-related bruxism in young adults: a nationwide Finnish twin cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rintakoski, Katariina; Hublin, Christer; Lobbezoo, Frank; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the role of genetic and environmental factors in the phenotypic variance of bruxism in a large population-based cohort of young adult twins in Finland. The material of the present study derives from the FinnTwin16 cohort study consisting of five birth cohorts of twin pairs born in 1975-1979 who completed a questionnaire (at mean age 24, range 23-27 years) with data on frequency of sleep-related bruxism in 2000-2002. We used quantitative genetic modeling, based on the genetic similarity of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, to estimate the most probable genetic model for bruxism, based on decomposition of phenotypic variance into components:additive genetic effects (A), dominant genetic effects (D), and non-shared environmental effects (E). On average, 8.7% experienced bruxism weekly, 23.4% rarely, and 67.9% never, with no significant gender difference (p = .052). The best fitting genetic model for bruxism was the AE-model. Additive genetic effects accounted for 52% (95% Cl 0.41--0.62) of the total phenotypic variance. Sex-limitation model revealed no gender differences. Genetic factors account for a substantial proportion of the phenotypic variation of the liability to sleep-related bruxism, with no gender difference in its genetic architecture.

  17. Three Generations of Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaleski, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The current Tracking and Data Relay Satellite configuration consists of nine in-orbit satellites (four first generation, three second generation and two third generation satellites) globally distributed in geosynchronous orbit to provide near continuous data relay service to missions like Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station. The 1st generation spacecraft were designed by TRW/Northrop Grumman with their launches of the five spacecraft ranging from 1983 through 1995. The 2nd and 3rd generation spacecraft were designed by Boeing with their launches ranging 2000 - 2002 and 2013 - 2017 respectively. TDRS-3 is now 27 years on orbit, continues to be a capable asset for the TDRS constellation. Lack of need for inclination control combined with large fuel reserves and redundancy on critical elements provides spacecraft that operate well past design life, all of which contributes to expanded TDRS constellation support capabilities. All spacecraft generations have issues. Significant issues will be summarized with the focus on the Boeing related problems. Degradations and failures are continually assessed and provide the foundation for yearly updates to spacecraft reliability models, constellation service projections and deorbit plans (in order to meet NASAs mandate of limiting orbital debris). Even when accounting for degradations and failures, the life expectancy for the Boeing delivered 2nd generation TDRS-8, 9 10 TDRS are anticipated to be 25+ years.

  18. Analysis of urban metabolic processes based on input-output method: model development and a case study for Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Yating

    2014-06-01

    Discovering ways in which to increase the sustainability of the metabolic processes involved in urbanization has become an urgent task for urban design and management in China. As cities are analogous to living organisms, the disorders of their metabolic processes can be regarded as the cause of "urban disease". Therefore, identification of these causes through metabolic process analysis and ecological element distribution through the urban ecosystem's compartments will be helpful. By using Beijing as an example, we have compiled monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007 and calculated the intensities of the embodied ecological elements to compile the corresponding implied physical input-output tables. We then divided Beijing's economy into 32 compartments and analyzed the direct and indirect ecological intensities embodied in the flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes. Based on the combination of input-output tables and ecological network analysis, the description of multiple ecological elements transferred among Beijing's industrial compartments and their distribution has been refined. This hybrid approach can provide a more scientific basis for management of urban resource flows. In addition, the data obtained from distribution characteristics of ecological elements may provide a basic data platform for exploring the metabolic mechanism of Beijing.

  19. The Impact of Surface Albedo on the Retrievals of Low-Level Stratus Cloud Properties: An Updated Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of Dong et al. (1998, hereafter D98) parameterization is developed from a total of 40 hours of data with a broad range of surface albedos (0.1-0.8) during the 2000-2002 winter seasons at the DOE ARM SGP site. The updated parameterization includes the impact of surface albedo on the retrievals of stratus cloud microphysical and radiative properties, and has a significant improvement over D98 when surface albedo is high. Comparing the retrievals, the cloud-droplet effective radii (r(sub e)) calculated from the updated parameterization have a higher correlation coefficient (0.733) and lower Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error (1.74 m or 17.4%) than those (0.602, 4.0 m or 40%) from the D98. The cloud albedos also have a much higher correlation coefficient (0.983) and lower RMS (3%) than those 0.465, 26%) from the D98. The upper limit of surface albedo is 0.3 in applying the D98.

  20. Comparison of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations by wetland type and year in the lower river Dalälven region, Central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L; Lundström, J O; Petersson, E

    2008-06-01

    We studied adult mosquito assemblages in six wetlands, representing three types (wet meadow, alder swamp, and bog), in the lower part of the River Dalälven in Central Sweden during three consecutive years (2000-2002) and evaluated the influence of wetland type and year. Mosquito abundance differed significantly between years but not between wetland types. Mosquito species richness showed no significant variation between years or wetland types. Cluster analysis based on percentage of similarity resulted in three clusters, with high similarity between all wetlands in 2000. Ordination analysis showed that mosquito assemblages were mainly correlated with wetland type and water level increase in the previous month. Hydrological conditions varied between the years and between the wetland types, and our collections also included a year (2000) with extreme flood situations. The floodwater mosquito species Ochlerotatus sticticus was the predominant species with a strong influence on the whole study due to its long-range dispersal ability. The entire region suffered from enormous numbers of Oc. sticticus in 2000. The data from this study provided the basis for the initiation of a mosquito control project in the region.

  1. Monitoring coyote population dynamics by genotyping faeces.

    PubMed

    Prugh, L R; Ritland, C E; Arthur, S M; Krebs, C J

    2005-04-01

    Reliable population estimates are necessary for effective conservation and management, and faecal genotyping has been used successfully to estimate the population size of several elusive mammalian species. Information such as changes in population size over time and survival rates, however, are often more useful for conservation biology than single population estimates. We evaluated the use of faecal genotyping as a tool for monitoring long-term population dynamics, using coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Alaska Range as a case study. We obtained 544 genotypes from 56 coyotes over 3 years (2000-2002). Tissue samples from all 15 radio-collared coyotes in our study area had > or = 1 matching faecal genotypes. We used flexible maximum-likelihood models to study coyote population dynamics, and we tested model performance against radio telemetry data. The staple prey of coyotes, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), dramatically declined during this study, and the coyote population declined nearly two-fold with a 1(1/2)-year time lag. Survival rates declined the year after hares crashed but recovered the following year. We conclude that long-term monitoring of elusive species using faecal genotyping is feasible and can provide data that are useful for wildlife conservation and management. We highlight some drawbacks of standard open-population models, such as low precision and the requirement of discrete sampling intervals, and we suggest that the development of open models designed for continuously collected data would enhance the utility of faecal genotyping as a monitoring tool.

  2. Ion Dynamics and ICRH Heating in the Exhaust Plasma of The VASIMR Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A., III; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.; Jacobson, V.; Ilin, A.; Winter, D. S.; Bengtson, R. D.; Gibson, J. N.; Glober, T. W.; Brukardt, M.; Rodriguez, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) is a high power, radio frequency-driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of Isp/thrust modulation at constant power. The plasma is produced by an integrated helicon discharge. However, the bulk of the plasma energy is added in a separate downstream stage by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH.) Axial momentum is obtained by the adiabatic expansion of the plasma in a magnetic nozzle. Exhaust variation in the VASIMR is primarily achieved by the selective partitioning of the RF power to the helicon and ICRH systems, with the proper adjustment of the propellant flow. A laboratory simulation of the 25 kW proof of concept VASIMIR engine has been under development and test at NASA-JSC for several years. Experimentally, high density, stable plasma discharges have been generated in Helium, Hydrogen, Deuterium, Argon and Xenon. This paper will review the plasma diagnostic results obtained in 2000-2002 in a continuing series of performance optimization and design development studies. Available plasma diagnostics include a triple probe, a Mach probe, a bolometer, a television monitor, an H- photometer, a spectrometer, neutral gas pressure and flow measurements, several gridded energy analyzers (retarding potential analyzer or RPA), a surface recombination probe system, an emission probe, a directional, steerable RPA and other diagnostics. Reciprocating Langmuir and Mach probes are the primary plasma diagnostics. The Langmuir probe measures electron density and temperature profiles while the Mach probe measures flow profiles. Together this gives total plasma particle flux. An array of thermocouples provides a temperature map of the system. Ion flow velocities are estimated through three techniques: Mach probes, retarding potential analyzer, and spectroscopic measurements. During 2000-2002, we have performed a series of experiments on the VASIMR apparatus with several objectives, to explore the parameter space that

  3. What impact will shortened training have on urological service delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S. R.; Shaw, M. B. K.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Modernisation of Medical Careers dictates a shortening of the training required to achieve consultant status. Precisely what type of work these consultants could be expected to accomplish, and be trained to do, is not clear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a method of stratifying urological workload so as to determine what a urological trainee, undergoing shortened training, might be expected to do as a consultant and to use this stratification to help manpower planning within the specialty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort study of all urological activity undertaken over a 3-year period in a single teaching hospital in the UK was performed. All out-patient, in-patient or day-case activity within the urological department was analysed in the years 2000-2002. Urological activity was stratified according to the absolute numbers of patients presenting for different types of out-patient consultation, the grade of complexity of any surgical intervention undertaken, and the theatre resource consumed by the study population. RESULTS: Utilising prospectively collected data, it was possible to aggregate information about the contributions generalist and sub-specialty activity made to the overall workload of a urological unit. Whilst the majority of out-patient activity, and almost 88% of the surgical workload, could be accomplished by consultants undergoing shortened training, 11.9% of specialised urological activity, consuming nearly 43% of the available theatre resource, was outwith the remit of such a specialist. CONCLUSIONS: Shortened training seems able to satisfy the service delivery needs of the majority of out-patient and day-case urological activity. It will not, however, fulfil the need for subspecialty-based training required to cope with the large minority of patients necessitating complex surgical intervention. Specialist training programmes, promoting advanced operative skills, need to be evolved in parallel to shortened training so

  4. How will alcohol sales in the UK be affected if drinkers follow government guidelines?

    PubMed

    Baumberg, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The proportion of alcohol consumption that is above government guidelines ('risky drinking') has been estimated in several countries, suggesting that reductions in risky drinking would lead to significant declines in total alcohol consumption. However, this has not previously been conducted transparently in the UK. Furthermore, existing studies have under-explored the importance of several methodological decisions, as well as not closely examining the meaning of these figures for debates on 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR). Secondary analysis of the amount of alcohol consumption above various government guidelines in four British datasets for 2000-2002: the National Diet and Nutrition Survey; the General Household Survey; Smoking, Drinking and Drug Use among Young People; and the March 2002 ONS Omnibus Survey. Risky drinking accounts for 55-82% of the total consumption by 18- to 64-year olds, depending on the definition of risky drinking used. If only alcohol above the government guidelines is counted, this falls to 22-47%. Consumption by underage drinkers accounts for 4.5% of the total consumption, while consumption by drink-drivers accounts for 0.5-8.0% depending on the assumptions made. Methodologically, the study shows that at least two decisions have considerable importance: the definition of risky drinking used and whether we count all drinking (as in most previous studies) or only drinking above guidelines. Substantively, these studies do not directly show that drink companies' profitability would be affected by declines in risky drinking. Nevertheless, they are valuable for present debate in themselves and form the basis of a more complex analysis of alcohol CSR.

  5. [Microbiological characteristics of pathogens causing bacteremia among hospitalized pediatric oncology patients with fever and neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Leibson, Tom; Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Hazan, Guy; Fruchtman, Yariv; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Greenberg, David

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to pediatric oncology patients with fever and neutropenia. Current management consists of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and prompt medical evaluation. Local bacterial susceptibility rates were published in 2005, and the local protocol (piperacillin and amikacin) was established as an adequate empiric treatment with -100% efficiency against the common pathogens in our pediatric hemato-oncology ward. To characterize the spectrum of bacteria isolated from blood cultures at the pediatric hemato-oncology ward between 2008- 2010, and to evaluate the current protocol. A prospective study, conducted in the pediatric hemato-oncologic ward among hospitalized children (2 months - 18 years) with fever and neutropenia. Blood cultures from peripheral blood and central lines were obtained from all patients at admission. Bacterial resistance to various antimicrobial agents was determined. During 2008-2010, 195 admissions (105 children) due to fever and neutropenia were recorded. Approximately 30% of all blood cultures were positive for a pathogen with -50% Gram positive bacteria mostly CONS. The most prevalent Gram negative bacteria were acinetobacter and klebsiella spp. Candida species were isolated from 7% of positive cultures. Susceptibility rates for the current empiric antimicrobial regimen were about 90%. CONS bacteremia rate increased from 4% in 2000-2002 to 29% in 2008-2010 (p < 0.01). The currently applied empiric antimicrobial protocol is an optimal first line regimen, considering the susceptibility of the most common pathogens. Judicious use of carbapenems for gram negative bacteria and glycopeptides or other novel antimicrobial agents in cases of CONS bacteremia is required.

  6. Do psychosocial stress and social disadvantage modify the association between air pollution and blood pressure?: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hicken, Margaret T; Adar, Sara D; Diez Roux, Ana V; O'Neill, Marie S; Magzamen, Sheryl; Auchincloss, Amy H; Kaufman, Joel D

    2013-11-15

    Researchers have theorized that social and psychosocial factors increase vulnerability to the deleterious health effects of environmental hazards. We used baseline examination data (2000-2002) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were 45-84 years of age and free of clinical cardiovascular disease at enrollment (n = 6814). The modifying role of social and psychosocial factors on the association between exposure to air pollution comprising particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and blood pressure measures were examined using linear regression models. There was no evidence of synergistic effects of higher PM2.5 and adverse social/psychosocial factors on blood pressure. In contrast, there was weak evidence of stronger associations of PM2.5 with blood pressure in higher socioeconomic status groups. For example, those in the 10th percentile of the income distribution (i.e., low income) showed no association between PM2.5 and diastolic blood pressure (b = -0.41 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -1.40, 0.61), whereas those in the 90th percentile of the income distribution (i.e., high income) showed a 1.52-mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.22, 2.83). Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that there are stronger associations between PM2.5 exposures and blood pressure in persons of lower socioeconomic status or those with greater psychosocial adversity.

  7. Interactive effects of senescence and natural disturbance on the annual survival probabilities of snail kites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichert, Brian E.; Martin, J.; Kendall, William L.; Cattau, Christopher E.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals in wild populations face risks associated with both intrinsic (i.e. aging) and external (i.e. environmental) sources of mortality. Condition-dependent mortality occurs when there is an interaction between such factors; however, few studies have clearly demonstrated condition-dependent mortality and some have even argued that condition-dependent mortality does not occur in wild avian populations. Using large sample sizes (2084 individuals, 3746 re-sights) of individual-based longitudinal data collected over a 33 year period (1976-2008) on multiple cohorts, we used a capture-mark-recapture framework to model age-dependent survival in the snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus population in Florida. Adding to the growing amount of evidence for actuarial senescence in wild populations, we found evidence of senescent declines in survival probabilities in adult kites. We also tested the hypothesis that older kites experienced condition-dependent mortality during a range-wide drought event (2000-2002). The results provide convincing evidence that the annual survival probability of senescent kites was disproportionately affected by the drought relative to the survival probability of prime-aged adults. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of condition-dependent mortality to be demonstrated in a wild avian population, a finding which challenges recent conclusions drawn in the literature. Our study suggests that senescence and condition-dependent mortality can affect the demography of wild avian populations. Accounting for these sources of variation may be particularly important to appropriately compute estimates of population growth rate, and probabilities of quasi-extinctions.

  8. Characterization of drought and its assessment over Sindh, Pakistan during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Shahzada; Ullah, Kalim; Gao, Shouting

    2015-10-01

    Drought is one of the complex meteorological disasters affecting water resources, agriculture, livestock, and socioeconomic patterns of a region. Although drought prediction is difficult, it can be monitored based on climatological information. In this study, we provide high spatiotemporal resolution drought climatology, using observational, gridded precipitation data (0.5°×0.5°) from the Global Precipitation Climatological Center and soil moisture data from the Climate Prediction Center for the 60-yr period 1951-2010. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) based on a fitted Gamma distribution and Run method has been calculated from the regional drought identification model (ReDIM) for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months. The results show strong temporal correlations among anomalies of precipitation, soil moisture, and SPI. Analysis of long-term precipitation data reveals that the drought vulnerability concentrates on monsoon season (July-September), which contributes 72.4% and 82.1% of the annual precipitation in northern and southern Sindh, respectively. Annual and seasonal analyses show no significant changes in the observed precipitation. The category classification criteria are defined to monitor/forecast drought in the selected area. Further analysis identifies two longest episodes of drought, i.e., 1972-1974 and 2000-2002, while 1969, 1974, 1987, and 2002 are found to be the most severe historical drought years. A drought hazard map of Sindh was developed, in which 10 districts are recognized as highly vulnerable to drought. This study helps to explain the time, duration, intensity, and frequency of meteorological droughts over Sindh as well as its neighboring regions, and provides useful information to disaster management agencies and forecasters for assessing both the regional vulnerability of drought and its seasonal predictability in Pakistan.

  9. Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

    2003-11-01

    Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer

  10. Recent Surface Faulting Investigated in Kamchatka Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2004-04-01

    Large tectonic earthquakes may trigger other phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and edifice collapse, and such events in coastal areas can generate tsunamis. When closely spaced in time, these events can combine their effects to cause more serious and variable consequences than anticipated from volcanic or seismic hazards forecast separately. The Kamchatka volcanic arc, because it has been affected in the recent past by such events, provides an invaluable natural laboratory for understanding these phenomena.An international team recently studied the strong events (Mw ~ 5.5) that have occurred in Kamchatka over the last 10 k.y. The work was organized within the framework of a new NATO-Russia collaborative project studying major events occurring in volcanic arcs. It follows a joint U.S-Russian investigation carried out during 2000-2002 under the umbrella of the National Geographic Society, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, which combined volcanic, geochemical, and geophysical evidence of catastrophic geological events. This work is now being built on by providing the field data necessary to understand the age, magnitude, and recurrence intervals of paleo-earthquakes, and the location, geometry, and kinematics of the main active crustal faults. Improvements in the understanding of the age and size of Holocene eruptions and refinement of their ash dispersal patterns are also being made. A multidisciplinary team is involved in this work, as well as similar studies in the Aeolian volcanic arc in Italy, thus allowing the results to be combined and compared to arrive at more general perspectives.

  11. Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Cadeau, Claire; Fournier, Agnès; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2016-07-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results on the relation between vitamin C intake and breast cancer risk. We investigated the relation between vitamin C supplement intake and breast cancer risk while considering dietary vitamin C intake. Between 1995 and 2008, 2482 invasive breast cancer cases occurred in 57,403 postmenopausal women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) prospective cohort during 581,085 person-years. We estimated vitamin C intake from foods with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire that was sent to subjects in 1993-1995 and vitamin C supplement use via questionnaires sent in 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2005. Multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for primary invasive breast cancer were estimated with the use of Cox regression models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Vitamin C supplement use (ever compared with never) was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; it was associated with higher breast cancer risk in women in the fourth quartile of vitamin C intake from foods (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.67) but not in other quartiles of dietary vitamin C intake (P-interaction = 0.03). We observed that vitamin C supplement use was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in women with high vitamin C intake from foods. Our data suggest a potential U- or J-shaped relation between total vitamin C intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk that deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys varies among dabbling duck species and locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eadie, J.M.; Szymanski, M.L.; Caswell, J.H.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Checkett, J.M.; Afton, A.D.; Moore, T.G.; Caswell, F.D.; Walters, R.A.; Humburg, D.D.; Yee, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Spinning-wing decoys are strong attractants to ducks and inc rease kill rates over traditional decoying methods. However, it is unknown whether all duck species are attracted similarly to spinning-wing decoys and whether the effectiveness of these decoys changes with latitude. We examined the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys for 9 species of dabbling ducks during 545 experimental hunts in California (1999-2000), Minnesota (2002), Manitoba (2001-2002), Nebraska (2000-2002), Missouri (2000-2001), and Arkansas (2001-2003). During each experimental hunt, we systematically alternated between 2 paired decoy treatments every 15-30 min (depending on study site): traditional decoys only and traditional decoys with a spinning-wing decoy. Overall, 70.2% (n=1,925) of dabbling ducks were harvested (shot and retrieved) when spinning-wing decoys were turned on, ranging from 63.6% (n=187) in Missouri to 76.4% (n=356) in Minnesota. Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys increased with latitude of study sites. Proportions of ducks shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on differed among species, from a low of 50.0% (n=8) for cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera) to a high of 79.0% (n=119) for American wigeon (A. americana). The probability of being shot when spinning-wing decoys were turned on increased with annual survival rates among species; for example, spinning-wing decoys were more effective for American wigeon and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) than they were for cinnamon teal and American green-winged teal (A. crecca). Effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys did not differ consistently by age or sex of harvested ducks. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of spinning-wing decoys differs among duck species and changes with latitude; thus, consideration of these effects may be warranted when setting harvest regulations and methods of take.

  13. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J.; Kendall, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for ??18O, NO3-, and SO42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm runoff

  14. Molecular Genetics of Root Thigmoresponsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Patrick H.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow plant roots to use gravity and touch as growth guides are investigated. We are using a molecular genetic strategy in Arabidopsis thaliana to study these processes. When Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grow on tilted hard-agar surfaces, their roots develop a wavy pattern of growth which appears to derive from a succession of left-handed and right-handed circumnutation-like processes triggered by gravity and touch stimulation (Okada and Shimura, 1990; Rutherford et al., 1998; Rutherford and Masson, 1996). Interestingly, mutations that affect root waving on tilted hard-agar surfaces can be identified and characterized. Some of these mutations affect root gravitropism, while others appear to be responsible for the production of abnormal waves (no waves, compressed or square waves, coils) without affecting gravitropism. The specific objectives of this project were to functionally characterize two genes (WVD2 and WVD6) which are required for root waving on tilted agar surfaces, but not for root gravitropism. Specific objectives included a physiological and cytological analysis of the mutants, and molecular cloning and characterization of the corresponding genes. As summarized in this paper, we have reached these objectives. We have also identified and partially characterized other mutations that affect root skewing on hard-agar surfaces (sku5-1 and ago1), and have completed our work on the root-wave phenotype associated with mutations in genes of the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (Lynn et al., 1999; Rutherford et al., 1998; Sedbrook et al., 2000, 2002). We briefly describe our progress on the cloning and characterization of WVD6, WVD2 and SKU5, and provide a list of papers (published, or in preparation) that derived from this grant. We also discuss the biological implications of our findings, with special emphasis on the analysis of WVD2.

  15. Screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency, fetal heart rate, free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Karl O; Wright, Dave; Valencia, Catalina; Maiz, Nerea; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2008-09-01

    A beneficial consequence of screening for trisomy 21 is the early diagnosis of trisomies 18 and 13. Our objective was to examine the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness, fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal serum-free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). Prospective screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, fetal NT, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11(+0)-13(+6) weeks in singleton pregnancies, including 56 376 normal cases, 395 with trisomy 21, 122 with trisomy 18 and 61 with trisomy 13. Risk algorithms were developed for the calculation of patient-specific risks for each of the three trisomies based on maternal age, NT, FHR, free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. Detection (DR) and false positive rates (FPR) were calculated and adjusted according to the maternal age distribution of pregnancies in England and Wales in 2000-2002. The DR and FPR were 90% and 3%, respectively, for trisomy 21, 91% and 0.2% for trisomy 18 and 87% and 0.2% for trisomy 13. When screen positivity was defined by an FPR of 3% on the risk for trisomy 21 in conjunction with an FPR of 0.2% on the maximum of the risks for trisomies 13 and 18, the overall FPR was 3.1% and the DRs of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 were 91%, 97% and 94%, respectively. As a side effect of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21, approximately 95% of trisomy 13 and 18 fetuses can be detected with an 0.1% increase in the FPR.

  16. Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Berkay; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight predicts compromised cognitive ability. We used data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS), and the 2000–2002 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to analyze how this association has changed over time. Birth weight was divided into two categories, <2,500 g (low) and 2,500–4,500 g (normal) and verbal cognitive ability was measured at the age of 10 or 11 y. A range of maternal and family characteristics collected at or soon after the time of birth were considered. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between birth weight and cognitive ability in a baseline model and in a model that adjusted for family characteristics. The standardized difference (SD) in cognitive scores between low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children was large in the NCDS [−0.37 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.46, −0.27] and in the BCS (−0.34, 95% CI: −0.43, −0.25) cohorts, and it was more than halved for children born in the MCS cohort (−0.14, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.06). The adjustment for family characteristics did not explain the cross-cohort differences. The results show that the association between low birth weight and decreased cognitive ability has declined between the 1950s and 1970s birth cohorts and the 2000--2002 birth cohort, despite a higher proportion of the low-birth-weight babies having a very low birth weight (<1,500 g) in the more recent birth cohort. Advancements in obstetric and neonatal care may have attenuated the negative consequences associated with being born small. PMID:27994141

  17. Circulating level of hepatocyte growth factor predicts incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Bancks, Michael P; Bielinski, Suzette J; Decker, Paul A; Hanson, Naomi Q; Larson, Nicholas B; Sicotte, Hugues; Wassel, Christina L; Pankow, James S

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleotropic factor posited to have metabolic homeostatic properties. The purpose of this study is to examine whether level of HGF is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) were used to examine the prospective association between serum level of HGF and incident diabetes. Fasting HGF was measured at Exam 1 (2000-2002) in 5395 participants free from diabetes (61.5±10.2 years old) and incidence of diabetes was determined at four subsequent follow-up exams over 12 years. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes were estimated according to 1 standard deviation (SD) unit increment of HGF (1 SD=26 μg/l), before and after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, study center, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose and insulin, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 levels. A 1 SD increment of baseline HGF was associated with a 46% (95% CI=1.37, 1.56) increased risk of diabetes before adjustment. After adjustment, diabetes risk per 1 SD increment of HGF was attenuated but remained significantly increased (HR=1.21; 95% CI=1.12, 1.32). Men had a significantly greater HR compared to women per equivalent increase of HGF (p-value for sex interaction=0.04). There was no evidence of effect modification by race/ethnicity. This study advances understanding from cross-sectional studies and investigation of incident insulin resistance, demonstrating higher level of HGF is associated with incident diabetes and may reflect a unique type of impaired metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Workplace bullying and subsequent sleep problems--the Helsinki Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-05-01

    The associations between workplace bullying and subsequent sleep problems are poorly understood. This study aims to address this evidence gap. We used the Helsinki Health Study questionnaire survey data at baseline in 2000-2002 and follow-up in 2007 (N=7332). The 4-item Jenkins sleep questionnaire was used in both surveys. Two measures of workplace bullying asked whether the respondent had (i) reported being bullied and (ii) observed bullying. Logistic regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, childhood bullying, education, working conditions, obesity, common mental disorders, limiting long-standing illness, and baseline sleep problems. At baseline, 5% of women and men reported being currently bullied. Additionally, 9% of women and 7% of men had frequently observed bullying at their workplace. Adjusted for age, reporting bullying was associated with sleep problems at follow-up among women [odds ratio (OR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.30-2.20) and men (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.85-5.43). Also, reporting earlier bullying was associated with sleep problems among both women (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.26-1.72) and men (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.06-2.36). Separate adjustments for covariates had some effects on the associations. After full adjustment for childhood bullying and baseline sociodemographic factors, working conditions, health, and sleep problems, the associations reduced. Similarly, adjusted for age, observing bullying was associated with sleep problems among women (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.61-2.48) and men (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.23-3.39). Workplace bullying is associated with sleep problems, but associations attenuate after factors related to the social environment, work, and health are simultaneously taken into account.

  19. Workplace bullying and common mental disorders: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-06-01

    Workplace bullying has been associated with mental health, but longitudinal studies confirming the association are lacking. This study examined the associations of workplace bullying with subsequent common mental disorders 5-7 years later, taking account of baseline common mental disorders and several covariates. Baseline questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000-2002 among municipal employees, aged 40-60 years (n=8960; 80% women; response rate 67%). Follow-up data were collected in 2007 (response rate 83%). The final data amounted to 6830 respondents. Workplace bullying was measured at baseline using an instructed question about being bullied currently, previously or never. Common mental disorders were measured at baseline and at follow-up using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Those scoring 3-12 were classified as having common mental disorders. Covariates included bullying in childhood, occupational and employment position, work stress, obesity and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used. After adjusting for age, being currently bullied at baseline was associated with common mental disorders at follow-up among women (OR 2.34, CI 1.81 to 3.02) and men (OR 3.64, CI 2.13 to 6.24). The association for the previously bullied was weaker. Adjusting for baseline common mental disorders, the association attenuated but remained. Adjusting for further covariates did not substantially alter the studied association. CONCLUSION The study confirms that workplace bullying is likely to contribute to subsequent common mental disorders. Measures against bullying are needed at workplaces to prevent mental disorders.

  20. Statin use and risk of depression in patients with coronary heart disease: longitudinal data from the Heart and Soul Study.

    PubMed

    Otte, Christian; Zhao, Shoujun; Whooley, Mary A

    2012-05-01

    Statins are among the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Although their benefits for cardiovascular disease are well established, the effects of statins on depressive symptoms are unknown. We examined the association between baseline statin use (2000-2002) and subsequent depressive symptoms in a prospective cohort study of 965 outpatients with coronary disease from 12 outpatient clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually for 6 years using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) (primary outcome measure). We evaluated the cross-sectional association between statin use and risk of depressive symptoms at baseline and the longitudinal association between baseline statin use and risk of depressive symptoms during follow-up. Of the 965 participants, 629 (65%) used statins. At baseline, statin users had lower mean ± SE PHQ depression scores than nonusers (4.8 ± 0.2 vs 5.9 ± 0.3, P < .01). Statin users were less likely than nonusers to have depression (PHQ score ≥ 10) at baseline (17% vs 24%; P = .02) and during follow-up (28% vs 40%; P < .01). Among the 776 patients without depressive symptoms at baseline (PHQ < 10), statin use was associated with a 48% decreased odds of developing depression during follow-up (odds ratio [OR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.38-0.73; P < .01). After we adjusted for potentially confounding variables, statin use remained associated with a 38% decreased odds of subsequent depression (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.95; P = .02). We found that statin use was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent depressive symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease. Whether use of statins prevents depressive symptoms deserves further study. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Monitoring Fine-Grained Sediment in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona - Control Network and Conventional Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Roderic A.; Kohl, Keith; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam was initiated to survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents the methods used to establish the high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) control network required for this effort as well as the conventional surveying techniques used in the study. Using simultaneous, dual-frequency GPS vector-based methods, the network points were determined to have positioning accuracies of less than 0.03 meters (m) and ellipsoidal height accuracies of between 0.01 and 0.10 m at a 95-percent degree of confidence. We also assessed network point quality with repeated, electronic (optical) total-station observations at 39 points for a total of 362 measurements; the mean range was 0.022 m in horizontal and 0.13 in vertical at a 95-percent confidence interval. These results indicate that the control network is of sufficient spatial and vertical accuracy for collection of airborne and subaerial remote-sensing technologies and integration of these data in a geographic information system on a repeatable basis without anomalies. The monitoring methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches over various time intervals. The reaches varied from 1.3 to 6.4 kilometers in length. Field results from surveys in 2000, 2002, and 2004 are described, during which conventional surveying was used to collect more than 3000 points per day. Ground points were used as checkpoints and to supplement areas just below or above the water surface, where remote-sensing data are not collected or are subject to greater error. An accuracy of +or- 0.05 m was identified as the minimum precision of individual ground points. These results are important for assessing digital elevation model (DEM) quality and identifying detection limits of significant change among surfaces generated from remote-sensing technologies.

  2. Mandatory fortification with folic acid in the United States is associated with increased expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 in the cervix.

    PubMed

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Celedonio, Jorge E; Macaluso, Maurizio; Bell, Walter C; Azrad, Maria; Grizzle, William E

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid in the United States is associated with changes in DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt-1) expression in cells involved in cervical carcinogenesis. Archived specimens of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) diagnosed before (1990-1992) and after (2000-2002) mandatory folic acid fortification were used to examine the expression of Dnmt-1 in specific lesions involved in cervical carcinogenesis by immunohistochemistry. The total number of lesions examined was 101 in the prefortification period and 96 in the postfortification period. Immunohistochemical staining for Dnmt-1, its assessment, and data entry were blinded with regard to the fortification status. Age- and race-adjusted mean percentage of cells positive for Dnmt-1 or the Dnmt-1 score was significantly higher in all lesion types (i.e., normal cervical epithelium, reactive cervical epithelium, metaplastic cervical epithelium, CIN, or carcinoma in situ) detected in the postfortification period compared with the prefortification period (P < 0.05, all comparisons). The degree of Dnmt-1 was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in CIN > or = 2 lesions compared with CIN < or = 1 lesions, regardless of the fortification group. These results suggest that mandatory fortification with folic acid in the United States seems to have resulted in a change in the degree of expression of Dnmt-1 in cells involved in cervical carcinogenesis. Because the approach we have taken to demonstrate these differences have limitations inherent to a study of this nature and this is the first study to report a folate fortification associated change in Dnmt-1, validating these results in other study populations and/or with other techniques of assessing Dnmt-1 will increase the scientific credibility of these findings.

  3. Predictors of Drug-Use Patterns in Maltreated Children and Matched Controls Followed Up Into Middle Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether child abuse; child neglect; demographic, family and social, behavioral, economic, and neighborhood risk; and protective factors predict different drug-use patterns into middle adulthood. Method: Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (processed during 1967-1971) and a matched control group were followed into middle adulthood. Participants completed in-person interviews in 1989-1995 (average age 29), 2000-2002 (average age 39.5), and 2003-2004 (average age 41). The sample for this study included 374 women and 332 men. Results: Four patterns of drug use were revealed: (a) abstinence and low use (34%), (b) adolescent and young adult limited use (31 %), (c) chronic-persistent use (29%), and (d) late use (7%). The chronic-persistent pattern was associated with being male, parental substance-use problems, involvement in crime, and neighborhood problems. The late-use pattern was significantly associated with childhood neglect and being Black, when other risk factors were controlled; bivariate analyses also indicated associations with female gender, lower income, and greater neighborhood disadvantage. Conclusions: This study revealed two patterns of drug use involving substance use and substance-related problems in middle adulthood that are associated with different sets of risk factors. Further research is needed to understand the late-drug-use pattern, which appears to disproportionately involve low-income Black women with histories of childhood neglect. These individuals may be missed in efforts to prevent or reduce drug use among youths. PMID:20946736

  4. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf: 1999-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Waite, Janice M.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Moore, Sue E.

    2012-06-01

    Visual line transect surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf in association with pollock stock assessment surveys aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman in June and July of 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. Transect survey effort ranged from 1188 km in 1999 to 3761 km in 2002. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were the most common large whale in all years except 2004 when humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were more abundant. Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) were the most common small cetacean in all years. Abundance estimates were calculated by year for each oceanographic domain: coastal, middle, and outer/slope. The middle and outer/slope domains were divided into two strata ("north" and "south") because of variable survey effort. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales changed between the earlier (colder) and later (warmer) survey years. Fin whales consistently occupied the outer shelf and secondarily the middle shelf, and their abundance was an order of magnitude greater in cold compared to warm years. Humpback whales "lived on the margin" of the northern Alaska Peninsula, eastern Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay; their preferred habitat is possibly associated with areas of high prey availability due to nutrient upwelling and aggregation mechanisms. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) occur shoreward of fin whales in the outer and middle shelf and in coastal habitats along the Alaska Peninsula. The highest abundance for this species was observed in a cold (1999) year. No clear relationship emerged for odontocetes with regard to warm and cold years. Dall's porpoise occupied both outer and middle domains and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were more common in middle and coastal domains. This study provided a unique, broad-scale assessment of cetacean distribution and abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and a baseline for future comparisons.

  5. Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Svanes, Cecilie; Janson, Christer; Sigsgaard, Torben; Johannessen, Ane; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Forsberg, Bertil; Torén, Kjell; Holm, Mathias; Bråbäck, Lennart; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2014-06-01

    The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61). This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.

  6. Seismogenic behavior of symmetric vs. detachment-dominated sections of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olive, J. A. L.; Escartin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Normal faults are essential in shaping the seafloor formed at slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges, and information on their behavior on short (seismic cycle) time scales is limited. Here we combine catalogs of hydro-acoustically recorded [Bohnenstiehl et al., 2000; 2002] and teleseismic earthquakes to analyze the modes of seismic moment release along the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge between the Marathon (12ºN) and Oceanographer (35ºN) Fracture Zones. Along about 50% of the ridge axis, tectonic extension is taken up by steep, symmetric conjugate faults that bound a well-defined axial valley. By contrast, along the remaining 50% most of the tectonic strain is accommodated by large-offset detachment faults [Escartín et al., 2008]. Upon declustering the catalogs to remove major aftershock sequences, we estimate seismicity rates and infer seismic moment release along the ridge axis by converting hydro-acoustic source level to moment magnitude. The shape of the resulting cumulative moment release curves is then investigated at individual ridge sections defined by tectonic interpretation of seafloor morphology. Qualitatively, the seismogenic behavior of symmetric sections appears more stick slip-like (with large events separated by a few years of relative quiescence) than that of detachment-dominated sections, which feature more frequent, smaller events. We quantify these differences by measuring relevant parameters (e.g., background seismicity rates, b-values...) along different tectonic ridge sections, as well as along sliding windows with no prior knowledge of the seafloor morphology. Finally, we assess possible relations between the observed contrasted seismogenic behavior and the systematic variations in fault geometry and rheology (dip, offset, cross-axis and down-dip extent, presence of weak minerals in the fault zone) inferred from seafloor observations along slow-spreading ridges.

  7. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses' Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000-2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend=0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes=0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study.

  8. Genetic diversity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from Feather River and Lake Oroville, California, and virulence of selected isolates for Chinook salmon and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bendorf, Christin M; Kelley, Garry O; Yun, Susan C; Kurath, Gael; Andree, Karl B; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2007-12-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a significant pathogen of young salmonid fishes worldwide but particularly within the historical range of the Pacific Northwest and California. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River drainages of California, IHNV outbreaks in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha have been observed regularly at large production hatcheries, including Coleman National Fish Hatchery (established in 1941) and Feather River State Fish Hatchery (FRH; established in 1967), since facility operations began. Recent severe epidemics at the FRH in 1998 and 2000-2002 prompted investigations into the characteristics and potential sources of virus at this facility. Both phylogenetic analyses of a variable portion of the glycoprotein gene and serologic comparisons based on neutralization with three polyclonal rabbit sera were used to characterize 82 IHNV isolates from the Feather River watershed between 1969 and 2004. All isolates examined were in the L genogroup and belonged to one of three serologic groups typical of IHNV from California. The IHNV isolates from the Feather River area demonstrated a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 4.0%, and new isolates appeared to emerge from previous isolates rather than by the introduction of more diverse subgroups from exogenous sources. The earliest isolates examined from the watershed formed the subgroup LI, which disappeared coincidently with a temporal shift to new genetic and serologic types of the larger subgroup LII. Experimental challenges demonstrated no significant differences in the virulence for juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout O. mykiss from selected isolates representing the principal types of IHNV found historically and from recent epidemics at FRH. While most isolates were equally virulent for both host species, one isolate was found to be more virulent for Chinook salmon than for rainbow trout.

  9. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas; Vitvar, Tomas; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Hassett, James; Duncan, Jonathan; Kendall, Carol

    2005-09-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for δ 18O, NO 3-, and SO 42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm

  10. The Vegetation Greenness Trend in the Arctic and Subarctic of North America from Landsat Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, J.; Masek, J.; Carroll, M.

    2014-12-01

    Circum-Arctic warming has been linked to a range of vegetation changes, including increased shrub-tundra biomass, shrub encroachment, and altered forest succession. Coarse spatial resolution AVHRR satellite data have been commonly used to study these vegetation dynamics at continental scales, usually via the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) metric. However, AVHRR cannot resolve local, patch-scale trends in vegetation, or provide sufficient spatial detail to relate observed trends in NDVI to specific land cover types. We have assembled a record of atmospherically-corrected 30-meter Landsat data acquired during peak greenness months over three decades (1990-1992, 2000-2002, and 2010-2012) to study the vegetation dynamics of the entire Arctic and Subarctic of North America, and compare with the results derived from 1/12-degree AVHRR NDVI3g data for 1990-2012. Landsat NDVI values were screened for abrupt changes indicative of disturbance, and then assessed for statistically significant temporal trends. Landsat NDVI, at both 30-meter resolution and the aggregated 1/12-degree NDVI3g resolution, showed a strong greening trend continuously along the Arctic coast and sporadic browning trends inland (e.g. southern NWT). Approximately 29% and 3% of the study area shows greening and browning trend respectively. The spatial pattern and summary statistics are generally in good agreement with those for AVHRR results and are consistent with previous results indicating increased shrub-tundra biomass. Additional efforts are focusing on separating long-term, climate-induced vegetation change from disturbance recovery, and in relating observed changes to specific vegetation types and topographic/edaphic conditions. These results also illustrate the importance of long-term, calibrated satellite records for monitoring gradual changes in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Standing stocks and body size of deep-sea macrofauna: Predicting the baseline of 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Lin; Rowe, Gilbert T.; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Nunnally, Clifton; Soliman, Yousria; Ellis, Nick

    2012-11-01

    A composite database encompassing 6 benthic surveys from years 1983 to 2003 was constructed to evaluate the distribution of macrofaunal biomass in the deep Gulf of Mexico (GoM) prior to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Predictive models based on optimal scaling of ocean color data and high resolution bathymetry were employed to map the benthic biomass in the vicinity of spill site because no previous sampling had been conducted at that exact location. The predicted biomass declines with water and mixed layer depth and is an increasing function of surface primary production and temporal variation of sea surface temperature. The decline of animal size with depth, however, was a function of a shift of dominant abundance from large to small taxa. At a local scale, high benthic biomass in the N GoM was associated with the enhanced productivity by the nutrient-laden Mississippi River outflows, offshore transport of the river plumes, and upwelling along the northern edge of the Loop Current. The apparent biomass enhancement at the Mississippi and De Soto Canyon and deep sediment fan was presumably related to lateral down-slope advection of organic carbon from the surrounding continental margin. Except for the Campeche Bank, the meager biomass of the Mexican margin may reflect the characteristic low-productivity Caribbean water that enters the GoM through Yucatan Strait. Benthic biomass in the N GoM was not statistically different between comprehensive surveys in the years 1983-1985 and 2000-2002. The stock assessment and biomass predictions from 669 cores at 170 locations throughout the deep GoM provide an important baseline of the sediment-dwelling fauna that may be subjected to immediate or long-term impacts from the oil spill or from climate change.

  12. Post-harvest field manipulations to conserve waste rice for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kurtz, M.E.; Manley, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rice seeds escaping collection by combines during harvest (hereafter, waste rice) provide quality forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and other rice growing regions in the United States. Recent sample surveys across the MAV have revealed abundance of waste rice in fields declined an average of 71% between harvest and late autumn. Thus, we evaluated the ability of common post-harvest, field-management practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl until early winter via controlled experiments in Mississippi rice test plots in 2001 and 2003 and analyses of data from MAV-wide surveys of waste rice in rice production fields in 2000-2002. Our experiments indicated test plots with burned rice stubble that were not flooded during autumn contained more waste rice than other treatments in 2001 (P?0.10). Waste-rice abundance in test plots did not differ among postharvest treatments in 2003 (P = 0.97). Our analyses of data from the MAV sample surveys did not detect differences in abundance of waste rice among fields burned, rolled, disked, or left in standing stubble post-harvest (P?0.04; Bonferroni corrected critical ( a= 0.017). Because results from test-plot experiments were inconclusive, we based our primary inference regarding best post-harvest treatments on patterns of rice abundance identified from the MAV surveys and previously documented environmental and agronomic benefits of managing harvested rice fields for wintering waterfowl. Therefore, we recommend leaving standing stubble in rice fields after harvest as a preliminary beneficial management practice. We suggest future research evaluate potential of postharvest practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl and reduce straw in production rice fields managed for wintering waterfowl throughout the MAV.

  13. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Stiller, C A; Trama, A; Brewster, D H; Verne, J; Bouchardy, C; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Marcos-Gragera, R; Visser, O; Serraino, D; Weiderpass, E; Dei Tos, A P; Ascoli, V

    2014-12-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 2667 KS incident cases diagnosed during 1995-2002 and registered by 75 population-based European cancer registries contributing to the RARECARE project. Total crude and age-standardized incidence rate was 0.3 per 100,000 per year with an estimated 1642 new cases per year in the EU27 countries. Age-standardized incidence rate was 0.8 per 100,000 in Southern Europe but below 0.3 per 100,000 in all other regions. The elevated rate in southern Europe was attributable to a combination of classic Kaposi sarcoma in some Mediterranean countries and the relatively high incidence of AIDS in several countries. Five-year relative survival for 2000-2002 by the period method was 75%. More than 10,000 persons were estimated to be alive in Europe at the beginning of 2008 with a past diagnosis of KS. The aetiological link with suppressed immunity means that many people alive following diagnosis of KS suffer comorbidity from a pre-existing condition. While KS is a rare cancer, it has a relatively good prognosis and so the number of people affected by it is quite large. Thus it provides a notable example of the importance of networking in diagnosis, therapy and research for rare cancers.

  15. Socioeconomic differences in health check-ups and medically certified sickness absence: a 10-year follow-up among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland.

    PubMed

    Piha, Kustaa; Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-04-01

    There is contradictory evidence on the association between health check-ups and future morbidity. Among the general population, those with high socioeconomic position participate more often in health check-ups. The main aims of this study were to analyse if attendance to health check-ups are socioeconomically patterned and affect sickness absence over a 10-year follow-up. This register-based follow-up study included municipal employees of the City of Helsinki. 13 037 employees were invited to age-based health check-up during 2000-2002, with a 62% attendance rate. Education, occupational class and individual income were used to measure socioeconomic position. Medically certified sickness absence of 4 days or more was measured and controlled for at the baseline and used as an outcome over follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 7.5 years. Poisson regression was used. Men and employees with lower socioeconomic position participated more actively in health check-ups. Among women, non-attendance to health check-up predicted higher sickness absence during follow-up (relative risk =1.26, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) in the fully adjusted model. Health check-ups were not effective in reducing socioeconomic differences in sickness absence. Age-based health check-ups reduced subsequent sickness absence and should be promoted. Attendance to health check-ups should be as high as possible. Contextual factors need to be taken into account when applying the results in interventions in other settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Abolition of user fees: the Uganda paradox.

    PubMed

    Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Mugisha, Frederick; Kirunga, Christine; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2011-11-01

    Inadequate health financing is one of the major challenges health systems in low-income countries currently face. Health financing reforms are being implemented with an increasing interest in policies that abolish user fees. Data from three nationally representative surveys conducted in Uganda in 1999/2000, 2002/03 and 2005/06 were used to investigate the impact of user fee abolition on the attainment of universal coverage objectives. An increase in illness reporting was noted over the three surveys, especially among the poorer quintiles. An increase in utilization was registered in the period immediately following the abolition of user fees and was most pronounced in the poorest quintile. Overall, there was an increase in utilization in both public and private health care delivery sectors, but only at clinic and health centre level, not at hospitals. Our study shows important changes in health-care-seeking behaviour. In 2002/03, the poorest population quintile started using government health centres more often than private clinics whereas in 1999/2000 private clinics were the main source of health care. The richest quintile has increasingly used private clinics. Overall, it appears that the private sector remains a significant source of health care. Following abolition of user fees, we note an increase in the use of lower levels of care with subsequent reductions in use of hospitals. Total annual average expenditures on health per household remained fairly stable between the 1999/2000 and 2002/03 surveys. There was, however, an increase of US$21 in expenditure between the 2002/03 and 2005/06 surveys. Abolition of user fees improved access to health services and efficiency in utilization. On the negative side is the fact that financial protection is yet to be achieved. Out-of-pocket expenditure remains high and mainly affects the poorer population quintiles. A dual system seems to have emerged where wealthier population groups are switching to the private sector.

  17. The Effect of an All-Ages Bicycle Helmet Law on Bicycle-Related Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kett, Paula; Rivara, Frederick; Gomez, Anthony; Kirk, Annie Phare; Yantsides, Christina

    2016-12-01

    In 2003, Seattle implemented an all-ages bicycle helmet law; King County outside of Seattle had implemented a similar law since 1994. For the period 2000-2010, the effect of the helmet legislation on helmet use, helmet-preventable injuries, and bicycle-related fatalities was examined, comparing Seattle to the rest of King County. Data was retrieved from the Washington State Trauma Registry and the King County Medical Examiner. Results comparing the proportions of bicycle related head injuries before (2000-2002) and after (2004-2010) the law show no significant change in the proportion of bicyclists admitted to the hospital and treated for head injuries in either Seattle (37.9 vs 40.2 % p = 0.75) nor in the rest of King County (30.7 vs 31.4 %, p = 0.84) with the extension of the helmet law to Seattle in 2003. However, bicycle-related major head trauma as a proportion of all bicycle-related head trauma did decrease significantly in Seattle (83.9 vs 64.9 %, p = 0.04), while there was no significant change in King County (64.4 vs 57.6 %, p = 0.41). While the results do not show an overall decrease in head injuries, they do reveal a decrease in the severity of head injuries, as well as bicycle-related fatalities, suggesting that the helmet legislation was effective in reducing severe disability and death, contributing to injury prevention in Seattle and King County. The promotion of helmet use through an all ages helmet law is a vital preventative strategy for reducing major bicycle-related head trauma.

  18. Metabolic Profile as a Potential Modifier of Long-Term Radiation Effects on Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomonori; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    Immune system impairments reflected by the composition and function of circulating lymphocytes are still observed in atomic bomb survivors, and metabolic abnormalities including altered blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been detected in such survivors. Based on closely related features of immune and metabolic profiles of individuals, we investigated the hypothesis that long-term effects of radiation exposure on lymphocyte subsets might be modified by metabolic profiles in 3,113 atomic bomb survivors who participated in health examinations at the Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 2000-2002. The lymphocyte subsets analyzed involved T-, B- and NK-cell subsets, and their percentages in the lymphocyte fraction were assessed using flow cytometry. Health examinations included metabolic indicators, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c, as well as diabetes and fatty liver diagnoses. Standard regression analyses indicated that several metabolic indicators of obesity/related disease, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were positively associated with type-1 helper T- and B-cell percentages but were inversely associated with naïve CD4 T and NK cells. A regression analysis adjusted for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol revealed a radiation dose relationship with increasing NK-cell percentage. Additionally, an interaction effect was suggested between radiation dose and C-reactive protein on B-cell percentage with a negative coefficient of the interaction term. Collectively, these findings suggest that radiation exposure and subsequent metabolic profile changes, potentially in relationship to obesity-related inflammation, lead to such long-term alterations in lymphocyte subset composition. Because this study is based on cross-sectional and exploratory analyses, the implications regarding radiation exposure, metabolic

  19. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  20. Measuring the surgical academic output of an institution: the "institutional" H-index.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Kiran K; Gamblin, T Clark

    2012-01-01

    The Hirsch index is a novel index that combines the number of publications and citations in measuring the research output of researchers. We hypothesized that the h-index can be used to measure the academic success of an institution in a subject area (surgery) and compared this measure to previously published measures of ranking institutions. We identified the top 10 research medical schools as designated by the United States News and World Report 2010. The h-index for an institution was obtained in 3-year periods for articles published in surgery. Independent rankings from the NIH and other web sites were then used to compare with our newly generated rankings. The median h-index for institutions was 52.5 (46-54) for 2000-2002, 50 (44-52) for 2003-2005, 35.5 (33-40) for 2006-2008, and 15.5 (13-16) for 2009-2011. The percentage of self citations was the highest in publications from Harvard University (22.2%) and the lowest from Columbia University (10%) in the years 2009-11. Our ranking closely mirrored the United States News and World Report, and Harvard Medical School remains the top ranking in the field of surgery, although NIH funding-based ranking may suggest otherwise. The institutional h-index appears to be a viable indicator for the measure of academic success of institutions in a subject area. Despite limitations, it yields objective data regarding the citations and number of articles published by an institution in a subject area and could be used to measure performance. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2000-04-28

    The objective of this five-year project (October, 1997-September, 2002) is to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project will be executed in two phases. Phase I (1997-2000) will focus on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC{copyright}) Separator. The activities of this phase will include the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000-2002), the developed GLCC{copyright} separator will be tested under high pressure and real crudes conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC{copyright} design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP. This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 1999-March 31, 2000) of the budget period (October 1, 1999-September 30, 2000). The total tasks of the budget period are given initially, followed by the technical and scientific results achieved till date. The report concludes with a detailed description of the plans for the conduct of the project for the second half year (April 1, 2000-September 30, 2000) of the current budget period.

  2. [Changes in clinic-epidemiological characteristics of new cases of HIV-1 infection in Castellón (Spain), and its impact on delayed presentation (1987-2011)].

    PubMed

    Mínguez-Gallego, Carlos; Vera-Remartinez, Enrique J; Albert-Coll, Monica; Roldán-Puchalt, M Concepción; Aguilar-Climent, Manuel; Rovira-Ferrando, Rosa E; Andrés-Soler, Jorge; Roig-Espert, Belén; Penadés-Vidal, María; Usó-Blasco, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    To describe the trend of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients in Castellón (Spain), and its impact on the delayed presentation. Data from HIV-1 infected outpatients presenting for care for the first time between 1987 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. There have been significant changes in the characteristics of the 1001 newly presented patients during the period studied. An increase in the mean age was observed (increasing from about 30 years before 1996, to approximately 35 after the 2000-2002 period), as well as an increase in the percentage of immigrants (<2% before 1997, to 50% in the 2009-2011 period), and a decline in the proportion of intravenous drug use as the main transmission route (changing from being 92.3% before 1988 to below 20% after the 2003-2005 period), together with a decrease in the proportion of hepatitis-C coinfection. The rate of late presentation has not significantly changed, being 47.1% in the period studied. Factors associated with this late presentation were: older age, hospital diagnosis, an increased delay between estimated infection time and diagnosis, and between diagnosis and initial presentation. The epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in our area has dramatically changed since the beginning of the disease. The increasing delay between estimated infection time and diagnosis is an important cause of the lack of variation in the late presentation rate, and highlights the low impact of early diagnosis strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioral responses of bison and elk in Yellowstone to snowmobiles and snow coaches.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, John J; White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Davis, Troy; Hardy, Amanda R; Reinhart, Daniel J

    2006-10-01

    Managers of public lands are charged with protecting some of our most important natural resources and ecosystems, while providing for their use and enjoyment by visitors. Almost one million visitors entered Yellowstone National Park by motorized means on snowmobiles (87%) or snow coaches (13%) during 1992-2003. Most vehicles toured the central portion of the park where bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) concentrate in geothermal areas. We sampled >6500 interactions between groups of these species and groups of snowmobiles and snow coaches (collectively, OSV, over-snow vehicles) during five winters (1999-2000, 2002-2004). Multinomial logits models were used to identify conditions leading to behavioral responses. Elk responded three times as often (52%) as bison (19%) during interactions with groups of snowmobiles and snow coaches due to increased vigilance responses (elk, 44%; bison, 10%). However, the frequency of higher-intensity movement responses by bison and elk were similar (6-7% travel, 1-2% flight, <1% defense) and relatively low compared to other studies of ungulates and snowmobile disturbance. The likelihood of active responses by bison and elk increased significantly if animals were on or near roads, groups were smaller, or humans approached. The likelihood of an active response by bison decreased within winters having the largest visitation, suggesting some habituation to snowmobiles and snow coaches. There was no evidence that snowmobile use during the past 35 years affected the population dynamics or demography of bison or elk. Thus, we suggest that regulations restricting levels and travel routes of over-snow vehicles (OSVs) were effective at reducing disturbances to bison and elk below a level that would cause measurable fitness effects. We recommend park managers consider maintaining OSV traffic levels at or below those observed during our study. Regardless, differing interpretations of the behavioral and physiological response data will

  4. Serum cystatin C in youth with diabetes: The SEARCH for diabetes in youth study.

    PubMed

    Kanakatti Shankar, Roopa; Dolan, Lawrence M; Isom, Scott; Saydah, Sharon; Maahs, David M; Dabelea, Dana; Reynolds, Kristi; Hirsch, Irl B; Rodriguez, Beatriz L; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Marcovina, Santica; D'Agostino, Ralph; Mauer, Michael; Mottl, Amy K

    2017-08-01

    We compared cystatin C in youth with versus without diabetes and determined factors associated with cystatin C in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Youth (ages 12-19years) without diabetes (N=544) were ascertained from the NHANES Study 2000-2002 and those with T1D (N=977) and T2D (N=168) from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Adjusted means of cystatin C concentrations were compared amongst the 3 groups. Next, we performed multivariable analyses within the T1D and T2D SEARCH samples to determine the association between cystatin C and race, sex, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, fasting glucose, and BMI. Adjusted cystatin C concentrations were statistically higher in NHANES (0.85mg/L) than in either the T1D (0.75mg/L) or T2D (0.70mg/L) SEARCH groups (P<0.0001). Fasting glucose was inversely related to cystatin C only in T1D (P<0.001) and BMI positively associated only in T2D (P<0.01) while HbA1c was inversely associated in both groups. Cystatin C concentrations are statistically higher in youth without diabetes compared to T1D or T2D, however the clinical relevance of this difference is quite small, especially in T1D. In youth with diabetes, cystatin C varies with BMI and acute and chronic glycemic control, however their effects may be different according to diabetes type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Asthma trajectories in early childhood: identifying modifiable factors.

    PubMed

    Panico, Lidia; Stuart, Beth; Bartley, Mel; Kelly, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There are conflicting views as to whether childhood wheezing represents several discreet entities or a single but variable disease. Classification has centered on phenotypes often derived using subjective criteria, small samples, and/or with little data for young children. This is particularly problematic as asthmatic features appear to be entrenched by age 6/7. In this paper we aim to: identify longitudinal trajectories of wheeze and other atopic symptoms in early childhood; characterize the resulting trajectories by the socio-economic background of children; and identify potentially modifiable processes in infancy correlated with these trajectories. The Millennium Cohort Study is a large, representative birth cohort of British children born in 2000-2002. Our analytical sample includes 11,632 children with data on key variables (wheeze in the last year; ever hay-fever and/or eczema) reported by the main carers at age 3, 5 and 7 using a validated tool, the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood module. We employ longitudinal Latent Class Analysis, a clustering methodology which identifies classes underlying the observed population heterogeneity. Our model distinguished four latent trajectories: a trajectory with both low levels of wheeze and other atopic symptoms (54% of the sample); a trajectory with low levels of wheeze but high prevalence of other atopic symptoms (29%); a trajectory with high prevalence of both wheeze and other atopic symptoms (9%); and a trajectory with high levels of wheeze but low levels of other atopic symptoms (8%). These groups differed in terms of socio-economic markers and potential intervenable factors, including household damp and breastfeeding initiation. Using data-driven techniques, we derived four trajectories of asthmatic symptoms in early childhood in a large, population based sample. These groups differ in terms of their socio-economic profiles. We identified correlated intervenable pathways in infancy

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  7. Successional Change in Phosphorus Stoichiometry Explains the Inverse Relationship between Herbivory and Lupin Density on Mount St. Helens

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Jennifer L.; Wink, Michael; Wills, Shannon E.; Bishop, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The average nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio (N∶P) of insect herbivores is less than that of leaves, suggesting that P may mediate plant-insect interactions more often than appreciated. We investigated whether succession-related heterogeneity in N and P stoichiometry influences herbivore performance on N-fixing lupin (Lupinus lepidus) colonizing primary successional volcanic surfaces, where the abundances of several specialist lepidopteran herbivores are inversely related to lupin density and are known to alter lupin colonization dynamics. We examined larval performance in response to leaf nutritional characteristics using gelechiid and pyralid leaf-tiers, and a noctuid leaf-cutter. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted four studies. First, growth of larvae raised on wild-collected leaves responded positively to leaf %P and negatively to leaf carbon (%C), but there was no effect of %N or quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs). Noctuid survival was also positively related to %P. Second, we raised gelechiid larvae on greenhouse-grown lupins with factorial manipulation of competitors and soil N and P. In the presence of competition, larval mass was highest at intermediate leaf N∶P and high %P. Third, survival of gelechiid larvae placed on lupins in high-density patches was greater when plant competitors were removed than on controls. Fourth, surveys of field-collected leaves in 2000, 2002, and 2003 indicated that both %P and %N were generally greater in plants from low-density areas. QAs in plants from low-density areas were equal to or higher than QAs in high-density areas. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that declines in lupin P content under competitive conditions are associated with decreased larval growth and survival sufficient to cause the observed negative relationship between herbivore abundance and host density. The results support the theoretical finding that declines in stoichiometric resource quality (caused here by succession

  8. Gender differences in sexual and injection risk behavior among active young injection drug users in San Francisco (the UFO Study).

    PubMed

    Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R

    2003-03-01

    Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.

  9. Activity of chemotherapy in mucinous ovarian cancer with a recurrence free interval of more than 6 months: results from the SOCRATES retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pignata, Sandro; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Scarfone, Giovanna; Scollo, Paolo; Odicino, Franco; Cormio, Gennaro; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Villa, Antonella; Mereu, Liliana; Ghezzi, Fabio; Manzione, Luigi; Lauria, Rossella; Breda, Enrico; Alletti, Desiderio Gueli; Ballardini, Michela; Lombardi, Alessandra Vernaglia; Sorio, Roberto; Mangili, Giorgia; Priolo, Domenico; Magni, Giovanna; Morabito, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Mucinous ovarian carcinoma have a poorer prognosis compared with other histological subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, the activity of chemotherapy in patients with platinum sensitive recurrent mucinous ovarian cancer. The SOCRATES study retrospectively assessed the pattern of care of a cohort of patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer observed in the years 2000-2002 in 37 Italian centres. Data were collected between April and September 2005. Patients with recurrent ovarian cancer with > 6 months of platinum free interval were considered eligible. Twenty patients with mucinous histotype and 388 patients with other histotypes were analyzed. At baseline, mucinous tumours differed from the others for an higher number of patients with lower tumor grading (p = 0.0056) and less advanced FIGO stage (p = 0.025). At time of recurrence, a statistically significant difference was found in performance status (worse in mucinous, p = 0.024). About 20% of patients underwent secondary cytoreduction in both groups, but a lower number of patients were optimally debulked in the mucinous group (p = 0.03). Patients with mucinous cancer received more frequently single agent platinum than platinum based-combination therapy or other non-platinum schedules as second line therapy (p = 0.026), with a response rate lower than in non-mucinous group (36.4% vs 62.6%, respectively, p = 0.04). Median time to progression and overall survival were worse for mucinous ovarian cancer. Finally, mucinous cancer received a lower number of chemotherapy lines (p = 0.0023). This analysis shows that platinum sensitive mucinous ovarian cancer has a poor response to chemotherapy. Studies dedicated to this histological subgroup are needed.

  10. Impact of early-season thrips management on reducing the risks of spotted wilt virus and suppressing aphid populations in Flue-cured tobacco.

    PubMed

    McPherson, R M; Stephenson, M G; Lahue, S S; Mullis, S W

    2005-02-01

    The influence of tray drench (TD) treatments, with and without foliar applications of the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard), was examined in replicated field plots in 2000--2002. TD treatments of Actigard, imidacloprid (Admire), and these two products combined had little effect on seasonal mean thrips populations; however, thrips densities were lower in the Admire-treated plots at 4 and 5 wk after transplanting. Actigard and Admire TD treatments significantly reduced the seasonal incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) symptomatic plants in 2 yr in the study. The combination of both products was better in reducing TSWV than Actigard alone. Three early-season foliar sprays of Actigard had no effect on thrips population densities, but they did reduce TSWV incidence. The tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), comprised 92-95% of the thrips complex each year. Other thrips collected on tobacco foliage at very low densities included Haplothrips spp., Chirothrips spp., Limothrips cerealium (Haliday), other Frankliniella spp. and other unidentified species. Using nonstructural TSWV protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 1.5-2.3% of the F. fusca tested positive for nonstructural TSWV protein. Cured yields were higher in the TD treatments and the Actigard foliar treatments in the years with high TSWV in the untreated plots. The TD treatments and foliar Actigard had little impact on plant height or grade index; however, TD treatments with Admire had low tobacco aphid, Myzus nicotianae Blackman, populations through 10 wk after transplanting. The early-season Actigard and Admire treatment options are management decisions that can effectively reduce the risks of TSWV incidence in flue-cured tobacco.

  11. Analysis using life tables of the major causes of death and the differences between country of birth groups in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, D P; Parr, N J; Yusuf, F

    2009-05-01

    This study used life table methods to evaluate the potential effects of reduction in major disease mortality on life expectancy in New South Wales (NSW), and the differences in cause-specific mortality between country of birth groups. The total and partial elimination of major causes of death were examined to identify the high-risk groups for community-level health planning. Life tables were used to combine the mortality rates of the NSW population at different ages into a single statistical model. Using abridged, multiple decrement and cause-elimination life tables with the mortality data for NSW in 2000-2002, broader disease groups were examined. Multiple decrement tables were generated by country of birth. The effect of the partial elimination of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was also studied. This study found that Pacific-born men and women who reach their 30th birthday and eventually die from IHD are expected to live, on average, 10.8 and 5.8 years less, respectively, than average men and women in NSW. If IHD is eliminated as a cause of death, 7.5 years for males and 6.7 years for females would be added to life expectancy at birth. Life expectancy at birth is likely to be further increased by reducing deaths caused by diseases of the cardiovascular system, particularly among people aged over 65 years, by reducing malignant neoplasm deaths among those aged below 65 years, and by reducing deaths due to accidents, injury and poisoning, mainly among men aged 15-29 years. Further gains in life expectancy could be achieved with community-level educational programmes on lifestyle management and disease prevention.

  12. Changes in body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumption among breast cancer survivors and cancer-free women: a prospective study in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bidstrup, Pernille E; Dalton, Susanne O; Christensen, Jane; Tjonneland, Anne; Larsen, Signe B; Karlsen, Randi; Brewster, Abenaa; Bondy, Melissa; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-02-01

    A breast cancer diagnosis has been suggested as a teachable moment when a woman is more open to making healthier lifestyle changes. Little is known about the health behaviour changes women with breast cancer initiate compared to those made by other women. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) and tobacco and alcohol consumption among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and among cancer-free women. We used data from 23 420 women aged 50-64 years who participated in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, of whom 449 were diagnosed with breast cancer between baseline (1993-1997) and follow-up (2000-2002), and 22 971 remained cancer-free. We used multiple linear regression analysis to examine differences in BMI and alcohol and tobacco consumption between the two groups and to examine whether demographic and prognostic factors were associated with behavioural changes in women with breast cancer. There were no significant differences in changes in BMI, alcohol and tobacco consumption between the two groups. Only in sub-analyses among women who lost weight between baseline and follow-up, women with breast cancer lost more weight than cancer-free women (β = 0.2; CI 0.1; 0.4), but residual confounding from stage cannot be excluded. Among the women with breast cancer we found no significant changes in BMI, alcohol and tobacco consumption by level of education, marital status, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or radiation. Women with breast cancer did not reduce their BMI, or modify their alcohol use or tobacco consumption compared with cancer-free women. This study indicates that guidelines and interventions to change health behaviour are needed after a cancer diagnosis.

  13. Long-term isoprene flux measurements above a northern hardwood forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Flaherty, Julia; Chen, Jack; Vogel, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    We report continuous whole canopy isoprene emission fluxes from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan for the 1999-2002 growing seasons. The eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene, CO2, latent heat, and sensible heat are presented along with an analysis of the seasonal and year-to-year variations. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) and the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET). In general, isoprene emissions increased throughout the day with increasing temperature and light levels, peaked at midafternoon, and declined to zero by night. There were significant variations from one 30-min period to the next, and from one day to the next. Average midday isoprene fluxes were 2.8, 3.2, and 2.9 mg C m-2 h-1 for 2000 through 2002, respectively. Insufficient data were available to include 1999. Last frost and full leaf out were significantly later in 2002 compared to the other years; however, total accumulated isoprene emissions for each year varied by less than 10%. Fully developed isoprene emissions occurred between 400 and 500 heating degree days, roughly half those required at other sites. Using long-term net ecosystem exchange measurements from the UMBS˜Flux group, isoprene emissions represent between 1.7 to 3.1% of the net carbon uptake at this site. Observations for 2000-2002 were compared with the BEIS3 emission model. Estimates agree well with observations during the midsummer period, but BEIS3 overestimates observations during the spring onset of emissions and the fall decline in emissions. This work provides a unique long-term data set useful for verifying canopy scale models and to help us better understand the dynamics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene.

  14. Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Ji, Lei; Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Howar, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the grasslands may be carbon sinks or near equilibrium, and they often shift between carbon sources in drought years and carbon sinks in other years. It is important to understand the responses of net ecosystem production (NEP) to various climatic conditions across the U.S. Great Plains grasslands. Based on 15 grassland flux towers, we developed a piecewise regression model and mapped the grassland NEP at 250 m spatial resolution over the Great Plains from 2000 to 2008. The results showed that the Great Plains was a net sink with an averaged annual NEP of 24 ± 14 g C m−2 yr−1, ranging from a low value of 0.3 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2002 to a high value of 47.7 g C m−2 yr−1 in 2005. The regional averaged NEP for the entire Great Plains grasslands was estimated to be 336 Tg C yr−1 from 2000 to 2008. In the 9 year period including 4 dry years, the annual NEP was very variable in both space and time. It appeared that the carbon gains for the Great Plains were more sensitive to droughts in the west than the east. The droughts in 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2008 resulted in increased carbon losses over drought-affected areas, and the Great Plains grasslands turned into a relatively low sink with NEP values of 15.8, 0.3, 20.1, and 10.2 g C m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years, respectively.

  15. A new measure of the cognitive, metacognitive, and experiential aspects of residents' learning.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rudolph; Regan-Smith, Martha; Fisher, Melissa A; Knox, Isabella; Lambert, David R

    2009-07-01

    Psychometric data are presented for the Cognitive Behavior Survey: Residency Level (rCBS), a survey that profiles cognitive, metacognitive, and experiential aspects of residents' learning. The authors asked 963 residents from seven medicine residencies of large academic medical centers to participate in their study and gathered data from the respondents during a three-year period, 2000-2002. A factor analysis cross-validation design guided the development of rCBS's seven scales: memorization, conceptualization, reflection, independent learning, critical thinking, meaningful learning experience, and attitude toward educational experience. Interscale correlations and MANOVA provided preliminary evidence of scale construct validity. A total of 424 residents (44%) responded. With several minor exceptions, items for each scale loaded .40 or higher. Memorization did not correlate with any other scale, except correlating negatively with critical thinking. Higher-order thinking scales (conceptualization, reflection, independent learning, critical thinking) correlated with one another and with meaningful learning experience and attitude toward educational experience. The one exception: conceptualization did not correlate with critical thinking. MANOVA results reveal that residents who scored in the top 20% on the reflection scale conceptualized, learned independently, and thought critically more than did the bottom 20%. Results provide preliminary support for scale reliability and construct validity. As residencies seek to meet expectations of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Outcome Project, rCBS could prove useful in program evaluation, residents' self-assessment, and assessment by serving as a means to explore how residents learn, how residency programs affect learning behavior, and how clinically strong and weak residents differ in learning behaviors.

  16. Impact of regionalisation of cardiac surgery in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Nobilio, L; Fortuna, D; Vizioli, M; Berti, E; Guastaroba, P; Taroni, F; Grilli, R

    2004-02-01

    Assessment of the impact of the regionalisation of cardiac surgery through the organisational form of a hub&spoke model introduced in the year 2000. Case mix adjusted before (1998-1999)-after (2000-2002) comparison of: (a) in-hospital and 30 days mortality rates; (b) proportion of patients timely (within one day) referred for surgery from spoke to hub centres; (c) patients' waiting times to surgery. Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with four million residents. 16,512 patients aged > or =18 years and referred to cardiac surgery over the period 1998-2002. Overall, taking into account differences in case mix across the whole study period, the implementation of the regionalisation policy was associated with a 22% reduction (OR: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.66 to 0.93) in in-hospital mortality rate. The corresponding figure for 30 day mortality was 18% (OR: 0.82: 95%CI: 0.69 to 0.98). The individual centres' volume of cases changed over the study period for all hospitals but two, and the biggest reduction in mortality was seen at the centre with the largest increase in caseload. This study provides additional evidence on the benefit of regionalisation of cardiac surgery interventions. The system allowed each centre to reach the minimum caseload required to assure good quality of care. These findings suggest that policies aimed at increasing cooperation rather than competition among health service providers have a positive impact on quality of care. Timely referrals for surgery increased by 21% (95%CI: 1.12 to 1.31), and mean waiting times were reduced by 7.5 average days (95%CI: -10.33 to -4.71).

  17. Relation between neighborhood environments and obesity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Mahasin S; Diez Roux, Ana V; Shen, Mingwu; Gowda, Deepthiman; Sánchez, Brisa; Shea, Steven; Jacobs, David R; Jackson, Sharon A

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated associations between neighborhood physical and social environments and body mass index in 2,865 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) aged 45-84 years and residing in Maryland, New York, and North Carolina. Neighborhood (census tract) environments were measured in non-MESA participants residing in MESA neighborhoods (2000-2002). The neighborhood physical environment score combined measures of a better walking environment and greater availability of healthy foods. The neighborhood social environment score combined measures of greater aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion and less violent crime. Marginal maximum likelihood was used to estimate associations between neighborhood environments and body mass index (kg/m(2)) before and after adjustment for individual-level covariates. MESA residents of neighborhoods with better physical environments had lower body mass index (mean difference per standard deviation higher neighborhood measure = -2.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.38, -1.38) kg/m(2) for women and -1.20 (95% CI: -1.84, -0.57) kg/m(2) for men), independent of age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Attenuation of these associations after adjustment for diet and physical activity suggests a mediating role of these behaviors. In men, the mean body mass index was higher in areas with better social environments (mean difference = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.97) kg/m(2)). Improvement in the neighborhood physical environment should be considered for its contribution to reducing obesity.

  18. Audition influences color processing in the sound-induced visual flash illusion.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Jyoti; Martinez, Antigona; Hillyard, Steven A

    2013-12-18

    Multisensory interactions can lead to illusory percepts, as exemplified by the sound-induced extra flash illusion (SIFI: Shams, Kamitani, & Shimojo, 2000, 2002). In this illusion, an audio-visual stimulus sequence consisting of two pulsed sounds and a light flash presented within a 100 ms time window generates the visual percept of two flashes. Here, we used colored visual stimuli to investigate whether concurrent auditory stimuli can affect the perceived features of the illusory flash. Zero, one or two pulsed sounds were presented concurrently with either a red or green flash or with two flashes of different colors (red followed by green) in rapid sequence. By querying both the number and color of the participants' visual percepts, we found that the double flash illusion is stimulus specific: i.e., two sounds paired with one red or one green flash generated the percept of two red or two green flashes, respectively. This implies that the illusory second flash is induced at a level of visual processing after perceived color has been encoded. In addition, we found that the presence of two sounds influenced the integration of color information from two successive flashes. In the absence of any sounds, a red and a green flash presented in rapid succession fused to form a single orange percept, but when accompanied by two sounds, this integrated orange percept was perceived to flash twice on a significant proportion of trials. In addition, the number of concurrent auditory stimuli modified the degree to which the successive flashes were integrated to an orange percept vs. maintained as separate red-green percepts. Overall, these findings show that concurrent auditory input can affect both the temporal and featural properties of visual percepts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Audition Influences Color Processing in the Sound-Induced Visual Flash Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Martinez, Antigona; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory interactions can lead to illusory percepts, as exemplified by the sound-induced extra flash illusion (SIFI: Shams et al., 2000, 2002). In this illusion, an audio-visual stimulus sequence consisting of two pulsed sounds and a light flash presented within a 100 ms time window generates the visual percept of two flashes. Here, we used colored visual stimuli to investigate whether concurrent auditory stimuli can affect the perceived features of the illusory flash. Zero, one or two pulsed sounds were presented concurrently with either a red or green flash or with two flashes of different colors (red followed by green) in rapid sequence. By querying both the number and color of the participants visual percepts, we found that the double flash illusion is stimulus specific: i.e., two sounds paired with one red or one green flash generated the percept of two red or two green flashes, respectively. This implies that the illusory second flash is induced at a level of visual processing after perceived color has been encoded. In addition, we found that the presence of two sounds influenced the integration of color information from two successive flashes. In the absence of any sounds, a red and a green flash presented in rapid succession fused to form a single orange percept, but when accompanied by two sounds, this integrated orange percept was perceived to flash twice on a significant proportion of trials. In addition, the number of concurrent auditory stimuli modified the degree to which the successive flashes were integrated to an orange percept versus maintained as separate red-green percepts. Overall, these findings show that concurrent auditory input can affect both the temporal and featural properties of visual percepts. PMID:24161662

  20. Effects of Earthquake and Human Migration on Land Cover Change and Mass Wasting from the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionThe 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced millions of people and drastically induced mass wasting. The purpose of this study is to explore comprehensive relationships between population displacement and landslide frequency by comparing land use and land cover (LULC) maps of pre- and post-earthquake. To assess the impact of anthropogenic activities, we employed a maximum likelihood method to produce LULC maps from Landsat images for the dry season of 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Landslide inventory maps were created with ArcGIS and Google Earth to visually detect mass wasting coverage for each year. We assessed LULC characteristics of new landslide areas for pre- and post-earthquake to find out what types of land cover most likely caused landslide events and how they were affected by anthropogenic activities in Haiti. The result (Figure 1) shows that the majority of the landslides occurred in the areas of bare soil and grassland over the entire period of this study. These types of land cover are generally considered to be landslide prone due to lack of forest, which leads to a weakening of slope stability. In the earthquake year of 2010, landslide events were dominantly found in bare soil (67.5%) while grassland only occupied 5.1% of total land use. After the earthquake, landslides increased 14.6% in the forest areas, and then decreased to 7% of the total land use in 2014. Post-earthquake data shows an increase of urban area landslides (16%). After the earthquake from 2010 to 2012, landslides in the forest area noticeably increased. This may be due to refugee camps, which were constructed after the earthquake. Clearing trees for biomass energy might have resulted in poor slope stability because roots are necessary to maintain soils.

  1. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Wang, Youfa; Lima, João A; Michos, Erin D; Jacobs, David R

    2009-04-01

    We determined associations between diet soda consumption and risk of incident metabolic syndrome, its components, and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Diet soda consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2000-2002). Incident type 2 diabetes was identified at three follow-up examinations (2002-2003, 2004-2005, and 2005-2007) as fasting glucose >126 mg/dl, self-reported type 2 diabetes, or use of diabetes medication. Metabolic syndrome (and components) was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CI for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic syndrome components were estimated, adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary confounders. At least daily consumption of diet soda was associated with a 36% greater relative risk of incident metabolic syndrome and a 67% greater relative risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with nonconsumption (HR 1.36 [95% CI 1.11-1.66] for metabolic syndrome and 1.67 [1.27-2.20] for type 2 diabetes). Of metabolic syndrome components, only high waist circumference (men >or=102 cm and women >or=88 cm) and high fasting glucose (>or=100 mg/dl) were prospectively associated with diet soda consumption. Associations between diet soda consumption and type 2 diabetes were independent of baseline measures of adiposity or changes in these measures, whereas associations between diet soda and metabolic syndrome were not independent of these factors. Although these observational data cannot establish causality, consumption of diet soda at least daily was associated with significantly greater risks of select incident metabolic syndrome components and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Observational test of empirical magnetopause location models using geosynchronous satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunsu; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Kangjin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we identify 123 geosynchronous magnetopause crossings using geosynchronous satellite observation data from 1996 to 2010 as well as make an observational test of magnetopause location models using the identified events. For this, we consider three models: Petrinec and Russell (1996), Shue et al. (1998), and Lin et al. (2010). To evaluate the models, we estimate a probability of detection (PoD) and a critical success index (CSI) as a function of year. To examine the effect of solar cycle phase, we consider three different time periods: (1) ascending phase (1996-1999), (2) maximum phase (2000-2002), and (3) descending phase (2003-2008). Major results from this study are as follows. First, the PoD values of all models range from 0.4 to 0.8 for the most of years. Second, the PoD values of Lin et al. (2010) are noticeably higher than those of the other models. Third, the CSI values of all models range from 0.1 to 0.3, and those of Shue et al. (1998) are slightly higher than those of the other models. Fourth, the predicted magnetopause radii based on Lin et al.(2010) well match the observed ones within 1 Earth radius, while those on Shue et al. (1998) overestimate the observed ones by about 2 Earth radii. Fifth, the PoD and critical success index (CSI) values of all the models are better for the solar maximum phase than those for the other phases, implying that the models are more optimized for the phase.

  3. Impact of COPD on the Mortality and Treatment of Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Kimberly A.; Stefan, Mihaela S.; Darling, Chad; Lessard, Darleen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure, yet little is known about the impact of this condition in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), especially from a more generalizable, community-based perspective. The primary objective of this study was to describe the in-hospital and postdischarge mortality and treatment of patients hospitalized with ADHF according to COPD status. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients hospitalized with ADHF at all 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts during four study years: 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2004. Patients were followed through 2010 for determination of their vital status. RESULTS: Of the 9,748 patients hospitalized with ADHF during the years under study, 35.9% had a history of COPD. The average age of this population was 76.1 years, 43.9% were men, and 93.3% were white. At the time of hospital discharge, patients with COPD were less likely to have received evidence-based heart failure medications, including β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, than patients without COPD. Multivariable, adjusted in-hospital death rates were similar for patients with and without COPD. However, among patients who survived to hospital discharge, patients with COPD had a significantly higher risk of dying at 1 year (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14) and 5 years (adjusted RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.28-1.52) after hospital discharge than patients who were not previously diagnosed with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: COPD is a common comorbidity in patients hospitalized with ADHF and is associated with a worse long-term prognosis. Further research is required to understand the complex interactions of these diseases and ensure that patients with ADHF and COPD receive optimal treatment modalities. PMID:25188234

  4. Magnetospheric Storms at Saturn and Jupiter and Their Relation to Rotational Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Sitnov, M. S.; Khurana, K. K.; Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C. P.; Mauk, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    A magnetospheric storm is a well-known phenomenon in the terrestrial magnetosphere and leads to intensified plasma pressure, electrical currents and magnetic field perturbations. While terrestrial magnetospheric storms are externally driven predominantly by dayside reconnection with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), imaging of Saturn's magnetospheric energetic plasma distribution by Cassini/INCA reveals that storms occur during enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. Galileo measurements in Jupiter's magnetosphere strongly suggest a similar scenario for Jovian magnetospheric storms. We discuss the possible mechanisms behind the stormy behaviors and the consequences for rotational periodicities that appear to become more pronounced during storms. One such periodic phenomenon is the periodic magnetic field perturbations seen in Saturn's magnetosphere. We show that these can be explained by the currents driven by the injected and energized plasma pressure distribution drifting around Saturn. We use a magnetic field model based on the Tsyganenko et al. [2000, 2002] formulation, with a magnetodisc like configuration, seasonal tilt, and a rotating partial ring current (PRC) distribution. The asymmetric PRC pressure is retrieved from Cassini/MIMI and CAPS observations of hot and cold plasma. Our preliminary findings show that the magnetic field perturbations are consistent with the hot plasma pressure distributions observed by the Cassini/MIMI/INCA. However, there appears to be a need for a component of cold plasma, not observed by MIMI, to fully match the magnetic field measurements. With a seasonal tilt of the plasmasheet, the PRC causes perturbations that expand the plasmasheet asymmetrically in the north-south direction, resulting in a periodic oscillation of the plasmasheet tilt southward in winter and northward in summer. This is consistent with the idea discussed by Khurana et al. [2008]. We seek direct evidence in the INCA images for this periodic oscillation.

  5. Climatology of vTEC at midnight over mid-latitude regions using PCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, M. Paula; Meza, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    At night the content of the electron density at mid-latitude is mainly controlled by loss processes, recombination and electron movement, which are related by the continuity equation. The vertical wind plays an important role in these processes. Global vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) maps produced by the International Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service, the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07) and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model are used to describe the climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions during 2000-2002. In particular, four regions were selected. They are approximately centered in zero magnetic declination, two in the northern hemisphere and two in southern hemisphere. They are located near and far from geomagnetic poles respectively. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) technique highlights the spatial-temporal variations to the overall vTEC variability which can be well represented by an orthogonal base. Indeed, we show for the four selected regions the contributions of the first three modes account for more than 95% of its variability. PCA results show that vTEC variability respond to vertical wind variation with decreasing values of about 10% -15% with the action of a vertical wind lasting for two hours. The Mid-latitude Summer Night Anomaly (MSNA), which is directly related with vertical wind, is present in regions far from geomagnetic poles. A remnant effect of the winter anomaly is also observed, in regions near geomagnetic poles. A longitudinal variation for mid-latitude ionospheric vTEC with maximum values in equinoxes, associated with negative and positive magnetic declination in all regions is observed. For the IRI model, PCA results, are quite similar but the mean values are lower than the obtained with the Global vTEC Maps. These data show the MSNA but not the remnant of the winter anomaly. In all regions the longitudinal variation is present with the same seasonal variation as Global vTEC Maps.

  6. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Dentener, Frank; McConnell, J.R.; Ro, C-U; Shaw, Mark; Vet, Robert; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Dalsoren, S.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Zeng, G.; Curran, M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Das, S.; Fritzsche, D.; Nolan, M.

    2013-08-20

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States, but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching >1300 mgN/m2/yr averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, ~30-50% larger than the values in any region currently (2000). Despite known issues, the new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  7. Historical Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Processes of the Ponto-Caspian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koriche, Sifan A.; Singarayer, Joy S.; Coe, Michael T.; Nandini, Sri; Prange, Matthias; Cloke, Hannah; Lunt, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The Ponto-Caspian basin is one of the largest basins globally, composed of a closed basin (Caspian Sea) and open basins connecting to the global ocean (Black and Azov Sea). Over the historical time period (1850-present) Caspian Sea levels have varied between -25 and -29mbsl (Arpe et al., 2012), resulting in considerable changes to the area of the lake (currently 371,000 km2). Given projections of future climate change and the importance of the Caspian Sea for fisheries, agriculture, and industry, it is vital to understand how sea levels may vary in the future. Hydrological models can be used to assess the impacts of climate change on hydrological processes for future forecasts. However, it is critical to first evaluate such models using observational data for the present and recent past, and to understand the key hydrological processes driving past changes in sea level. In this study, the Terrestrial Hydrological Model (THMB) (Coe, 2000, 2002) is applied and evaluated to investigate the hydrological processes of the Ponto-Caspian basin for the historical period 1900 to 2000. The model has been forced using observational reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-20) and historical climate model data outputs (from CESM and HadCM3 models) to investigate the variability in the Caspian Sea level and the major river discharges. We examine the differences produced by driving the hydrological model with reanalysis data or climate models. We evaluate the model performance compared to observational discharge measurements and Caspian Sea level data. Secondly, we investigated the sensitivity of historical Caspian Sea level variations to different aspects of climate changes to examine the most important processes involved over this time period.

  8. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in relation to mortality.

    PubMed

    Bell, Griffith A; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Lampe, Johanna W; Shen, Danny D; White, Emily

    2012-08-01

    Glucosamine and chondroitin are products commonly used by older adults in the US and Europe. There is limited evidence that they have anti-inflammatory properties, which could provide risk reduction of several diseases. However, data on their long-term health effects is lacking. To evaluate whether use of glucosamine and chondroitin are associated with cause-specific and total mortality. Participants (n = 77,510) were members of a cohort study of Washington State (US) residents aged 50-76 years who entered the cohort in 2000-2002 by completing a baseline questionnaire that included questions on glucosamine and chondroitin use. Participants were followed for mortality through 2008 (n = 5,362 deaths). Hazard ratios (HR) for death adjusted for multiple covariates were estimated using Cox models. Current (baseline) glucosamine and chondroitin use were associated with a decreased risk of total mortality compared to never use. The adjusted HR associated with current use of glucosamine (with or without chondroitin) was 0.82 (95 % CI 0.75-0.90) and 0.86 (95 % CI 0.78-0.96) for chondroitin (included in two-thirds of glucosamine supplements). Current use of glucosamine was associated with a significant decreased risk of death from cancer (HR 0.87 95 % CI 0.76-0.98) and with a large risk reduction for death from respiratory diseases (HR 0.59 95 % CI 0.41-0.83). Use of glucosamine with or without chondroitin was associated with reduced total mortality and with reductions of several broad causes of death. Although bias cannot be ruled out, these results suggest that glucosamine may provide some mortality benefit.

  9. The relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S; Narod, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses' Health Study. We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989-1990 and/or 2000-2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed-effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels versus women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL) (P < 0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P = 0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) versus those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L) (P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower DHEAS (P = 0.02) levels compared with women with natural menopause but not with other hormone levels. Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction of testosterone levels in women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development.

  10. Dietary intakes of zinc and heme iron from red meat, but not from other sources, are associated with greater risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Alonso, Alvaro; Lee, Duk-Hee; Delclos, George L; Bertoni, Alain G; Jiang, Rui; Lima, Joao A; Symanski, Elaine; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share an inflammatory etiology and are known to be influenced by diet. We investigated associations of hypothesized prooxidative (Fe) and antioxidative (Zn, Mg, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E) micronutrients with incident MetS, T2D, and CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed by FFQ. After adjusting for demographics and behavioral confounders, including BMI, dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with incident MetS and CVD [HR for extreme quintiles: MetS = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.99,1.56), P-trend = 0.03; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03,1.61), P-trend = 0.04] and CVD [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.65 (95% CI = 1.10,2.47), P-trend = 0.01; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.02, 2.24), P-trend = 0.01]. Dietary intakes of nonheme iron, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene were not associated with risk of MetS, T2D, or CVD. Data provided little support for the associations between specific micronutrients and MetS, T2D, or CVD. However, nutrients consumed in red meat, or red meat as a whole, may increase risk of MetS and CVD.

  11. Outbursts in Symbiotic Binaries: Z and Continued Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Keyes, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A major question for symbiotic stars concerns the nature and cause of their outbursts. A small subset of symbiotics, the "slow novae" are fairly well established as thermonuclear events that last on the order of decades. The several symbiotic "recurrent novae", which are much shorter and last on the order of months, are also thought to be thermonuclear runaways. Yet the majority of symbiotics are neither slow novae nor recurrent novae. These are the so-called "classical symbiotics," many of which show outbursts whose cause is not well understood. In some cases, jets are produced in association with an outburst, therefore an investigation into the causes of outbursts will yield important insights into the production of collimated outflows. To investigate the cause and nature of classical symbiotic outbursts, we initiated a program of multi- wavelength observations of these events. First of all in FUSE Cycle 2, we obtained six observational epochs of the 2000-2002 classic symbiotic outburst in the first target of our campaign - class prototype, Z Andromedae. That program was part of a coordinated multi-wavelength Target-of-Opportunity (TOO) campaign with FUSE, XMM, Chandra, MERLIN, the VLA, and ground-based spectroscopic and high time-resolution photometric observations. Our campaign proved the concept, utility, and need for coordinated multi-wavelength observations in order to make progress in understanding the nature of the outburst mechanisms in symbiotic stars. Indeed, the FUSE data were the cornerstone of this project. The present program is a continuation of that cycle 2 effort. Indeed, the observations acquired in this program are vital to the proper interpretation of the material acquired in cycle 2 as the new data cover the critical time period when the star continues to decline from outburst and actually returns to quiescence. The utilization of these data have allowed us to refine and complete description of our new model for classical symbiotic system

  12. Long-Term Survival for Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure According to Ejection Fraction Findings

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Andrew H.; Fisher, Kimberly; Darling, Chad; Yarzebski, Jorge; McManus, David D.; Gore, Joel M.; Lessard, Darleen; Goldberg, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited data exists about the long-term prognosis of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) further stratified according to ejection fraction (EF) findings. The primary objective of this population-based observational study was to characterize and compare trends in long-term prognosis after an episode of ADHF across 3 EF strata. Hospital medical records were reviewed for 3,604 residents of the Worcester (MA) metropolitan area who were discharged after ADHF from all 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts during 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2004 and had EF measurements during their index hospitalization. The average age of this population was 75 years, the majority was white, and 44% were men. Approximately 49% of the population had preserved EF HF (HF-PEF) (≥50%), 37% had reduced EF HF (HF-REF) (<40%), and 14% had borderline EF HF (41-49%) (HF-BREF). Patients with HF-PEF experienced higher post discharge survival rates than patients with either HF-REF or HF-BREF at 1, 2, and 5-years after discharge from all central Massachusetts medical centers. While prognosis at 1-year after hospital discharge improved for all patient groups during the years under study, especially for those with HF-REF and HF-PEF, these encouraging trends declined with increasing duration of follow-up. In conclusion, although improvements in 1-year post-discharge survival were observed for patients in each of the 3 EF groups examined to varying degrees, the post-discharge prognosis of all patients with ADHF remains guarded. PMID:25092194

  13. Alterations in bottom sediment physical and chemical characteristics at the Terra Nova offshore oil development over ten years of drilling on the grand banks of Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlois, Elisabeth M.; Paine, Michael D.; Kilgour, Bruce W.; Tracy, Ellen; Crowley, Roger D.; Williams, Urban P.; Janes, G. Gregory

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes sediment composition at the Terra Nova offshore oil development. The Terra Nova Field is located on the Grand Banks approximately 350 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, at an approximate water depth of 100 m. Surface sediment samples (upper 3 cm) were collected for chemical and particle size analyses at the site pre-development (1997) and in 2000-2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Approximately 50 stations have been sampled in each program year, with stations extending from less than 1 km to a maximum of 20 km from source (drill centres) along five gradients, extending to the southeast, southwest, northeast, northwest and east of Terra Nova. Results show that Terra Nova sediments were contaminated with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium-the two main constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site. Highest levels of contamination occurred within 1 to 2 km from source, consistent with predictions from drill cuttings dispersion modelling. The strength of distance gradients for >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, and overall levels, generally increased as drilling progressed but decreased from 2006 to 2010, coincident with a reduction in drilling. As seen at other offshore oil development sites, metals other than barium, sulphur and sulphide levels were elevated and sediment fines content was higher in the immediate vicinity (less than 0.5 km) of drill centres in some sampling years; but there was no strong evidence of project-related alterations of these variables. Overall, sediment contamination at Terra Nova was spatially limited and only the two major constituents of synthetic-based drilling muds used at the site, >C10-C21 hydrocarbons and barium, showed clear evidence of project-related alternations.

  14. Impact of the single-dose immunization strategy against hepatitis A in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vizzotti, Carla; González, Jorge; Gentile, Angela; Rearte, Analía; Ramonet, Margarita; Cañero-Velasco, María Cristina; Pérez Carrega, María Eugenia; Urueña, Analía; Diosque, Máximo

    2014-01-01

    After a country wide outbreak occurred during 2003-2004, 1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine was introduced into Argentinian regular immunization schedule for all children aged 12 months in June 2005. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this novel intervention. A longitudinal analysis was done of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection rates reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance System from 2000 to 2011. Occurrence of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and liver transplantation cases up to 2011 were also assessed. Incidence rates and clinical impact were compared between pre- and postvaccination periods (2000-2002 vs. 2006-2011). Notification rates were also compared by age groups and geographical regions. Since 2006, an abrupt decline was observed in HAV infection rates, as well as in FHF and liver transplantation cases. The mean incidence rate of 7.9/100,000 in the postvaccination period represents a reduction of 88.1% (P < 0.001) when compared with the prevaccination period. Neither FHF nor liver transplantation due to HAV infection were observed since March 2007. Decline in incidence rates was evident in all geographical regions and all age groups but was higher in the prevaccination most affected areas and in young children. Although an absolute decrease was observed for cases and rates in all age groups, since 2006, a higher proportion of cases was observed in people >14 years of age. The single-dose vaccination strategy has been highly effective for controlling HAV infection in all age groups till now in Argentina. Long-term surveillance will be critical to document the sustained success of this unique intervention.

  15. Chronic workplace stress and insufficient physical activity: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Väänänen, Ari K P; Heponiemi, Tarja; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether exposure to workplace stressors predicts changes in physical activity and the risk of insufficient physical activity. Prospective data from the Finnish Public Sector Study. Repeated exposure to low job control, high job demands, low effort, low rewards and compositions of these (job strain and effort-reward imbalance) were assessed at Time 1 (2000-2002) and Time 2 (2004). Insufficient physical activity (<14 metabolic equivalent task hours per week) was measured at Time 1 and Time 3 (2008). The effect of change in workplace stressors on change in physical activity was examined using fixed-effects (within-subject) logistic regression models (N=6665). In addition, logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the associations between repeated exposure to workplace stressors and insufficient physical activity (N=13 976). In these analyses, coworker assessed workplace stressor scores were used in addition to individual level scores. The proportion of participants with insufficient physical activity was 24% at baseline and 26% at follow-up. 19% of the participants who were sufficiently active at baseline became insufficiently active at follow-up. In the fixed-effect analysis, an increase in workplace stress was weakly related to an increase in physical inactivity within an individual. In between-subjects analysis, employees with repeated exposure to low job control and low rewards were more likely to be insufficiently active at follow-up than those with no reports of these stressors; fully adjusted ORs ranged from 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) to 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.39). Workplace stress is associated with a slightly increased risk of physical inactivity.

  16. Comparing Arterial Function Parameters for the Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Hom, Elizabeth K; Duprez, Daniel A; Jacobs, David R; Bluemke, David A; Brumback, Lyndia C; Polak, Joseph F; Peralta, Carmen A; Greenland, Philip; Magzamen, Sheryl L; Lima, João A C; Redheuil, Alban; Herrington, David M; Stein, James H; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Ouyang, Pamela; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-12-15

    Arterial dysfunction has been linked to decline in cardiac function and increased risk of cardiovascular disease events. We calculated the value of arterial function, measured at baseline (2000-2002), in predicting time to first coronary heart disease (CHD) event (median follow-up, 10.2 years) among participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Measures included the following: C1 and C2, derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis from the radial artery blood pressure waveform obtained by tonometry (n = 6,336); carotid distensibility and Young's elastic modulus at the carotid artery, derived from carotid artery ultrasonography (n = 6,531 and 6,528); and aortic distensibility, measured using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (n = 3,677). After adjustment, the hazard ratio for a CHD event per standard-deviation increment in arterial function was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 1.10) for C1, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.86) for C2, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.11) for carotid distensibility, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.09) for Young's modulus, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.10) for aortic distensibility. We examined the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model with full adjustment plus the addition of each measure individually. C2 provided additional discrimination for the prediction of CHD (area under the curve = 0.736 vs. 0.743; P = 0.04). Lower C2 was associated with a higher risk of future CHD events.

  17. The risk of diabetic renal function impairment in the first decade after diagnosed of diabetes mellitus is correlated with high variability of visit-to-visit systolic and diastolic blood pressure: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chi-Hsiao; Yu, Hsiu-Chin; Huang, Tzu-Yen; Huang, Pin-Fu; Wang, Yao-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ping; Yin, Shun-Ying

    2017-03-22

    The variability of visit-to-visit (VVV) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is proved as a predictor of renal function deterioration in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the variability in SBP and the magnitude of renal function impairment for normal renal function patients in the first 10-years diagnosed with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of 789 patients who were first diagnosed with diabetes mellitus during 2000-2002 and regularly followed for 10 years with a total of 53,284 clinic visits. The stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) of every patient were determined using estimated glomerular filtration rate. The occurrence of nephropathy was defined in those patients whose CKD stages elevated equal or larger than three. Patients were categorized according to the VVV of systolic and diastolic BP into three groups. Patients with high VVV of both SBP and DBP had a 2.44 fold (95% CI: 1.88-3.17, p < 0.001) increased risk of renal function impairment compared with patients with low VVV of both SBP and DBP. Risk of renal function impairment for patients with high VVV of either SBP or DBP had a 1.43-fold increase (95% CI: 1.08-1.89, p = 0.012) compared with patients with low VVV of both SBP and DBP. Cox regression analysis also demonstrated that every 1-year increase of DM diagnosed age significantly raised the risk of renal function impairment with a hazard ration of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.06, p < 0.001). Not only VVV of SBP but also VVV in DBP is correlated with diabetic nephropathy in the first decade for patients diagnosed with type 2 DM.

  18. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    DOE PAGES

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; ...

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity andmore » Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.« less

  19. Simulation of saltwater movement in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area, predevelopment-2004, and projected movement for 2000 pumping conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Payne, Dorothy F.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2006-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Savannah, Georgia-Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, area. The model was used to (1) simulate trends of saltwater intrusion from predevelopment to the present day (1885-2004), (2) project these trends from the present day into the future, and (3) evaluate the relative influence of different assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions and physical properties. The model is based on a regional, single-density ground-water flow model of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. Variable-density ground-water flow and solute transport were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element, variable-density solute-transport simulator SUTRA, 1885-2004. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. The model was calibrated to September 1998 water levels, for single-density freshwater conditions, then refined using variable density and chloride concentration to give a reasonable match to the trend in the chloride distribution in the Upper Floridan aquifer inferred from field measurements of specific conductance made during 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2004. The model was modified to simulate solute transport by allowing saltwater to enter the system through localized areas near the northern end of Hilton Head Island, at Pinckney Island, and near the Colleton River, and was calibrated to match chloride concentrations inferred from field measurements of specific conductance. This simulation is called the 'Base Case.'

  20. Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Russell K; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2014-06-01

    Young people in the United States are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) primarily in 2 settings: homes and cars. Recently, researchers reported that the prevalence of U.S students exposed to SHS in cars decreased from 2000 to 2009; however, comparisons of trends across school levels, gender, and racial/ethnic groups were not assessed. Moreover, no studies have examined trends of exposure to SHS in rooms. We used data from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of U.S. middle and high school students. For SHS in cars and rooms, we identified exposure trends among nonsmokers from 2000 to 2009 and compared trends across subpopulations with binary logistic regression. We identified significant downward linear trends in SHS in cars and rooms for nearly all measured subpopulations of nonsmoking students from 2000 to 2009. SHS exposure in cars and rooms declined at a significantly greater rate for males than for females. SHS exposure in cars declined at a significantly greater rate for non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks than for NH Whites. SHS exposure in rooms declined at a significantly greater rate for NH Whites than for Hispanics and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. Although prevalence of exposure to SHS in cars and rooms among nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students has declined from 2000 to 2009, the rates of decline were not equal across genders and racial/ethnic groups. Identification of these differing rates of exposure can help the public health community advocate for interventions focused on reducing adolescent SHS exposure.

  1. Trihalomethanes in public drinking water and stillbirth and low birth weight rates: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Iszatt, Nina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Bennett, James E; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-12-01

    During 2003-2004, United Utilities water company in North West England introduced enhanced coagulation (EC) to four treatment works to mitigate disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. This enabled examination of the relation between DBPs and birth outcomes whilst reducing socioeconomic confounding. We compared stillbirth, and low and very low birth weight rates three years before (2000-2002) with three years after (2005-2007) the intervention, and in relation to categories of THM change. We created exposure metrics for EC and trihalomethane (THM) concentration change (n=258 water zones). We linked 429,599 live births and 2279 stillbirths from national birth registers to the water zone at birth. We used Poisson regression to model the differences in birth outcome rates with an interaction between before/after the intervention and EC or THM change. EC treatment reduced chloroform concentrations more than non-treatment (mean -29.7 µg/l vs. -14.5 µg/l), but not brominated THM concentrations. Only 6% of EC water zones received 100% EC water, creating exposure misclassification concerns. EC intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth outcome rates. Areas with the highest chloroform decrease (30 - 65 μg/l) had the greatest percentage decrease in low -9 % (-12, -5) and very low birth weight -16% (-24, -8) rates. The interaction between before/after intervention and chloroform change was statistically significant only for very low birth weight, p=0.02. There were no significant decreases in stillbirth rates. In a novel approach for studying DBPs and adverse reproductive outcomes, the EC intervention to reduce DBPs did not affect birth outcome rates. However, a measured large decrease in chloroform concentrations was associated with statistically significant reductions in very low birth weight rates.

  2. Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Dynamic and Static Longitudinal Marginal Structural Working Models

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Joshua; Gruber, Susan; Blaser, Nello; Schomaker, Michael; van der Laan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE) for the parameters of longitudinal static and dynamic marginal structural models. We consider a longitudinal data structure consisting of baseline covariates, time-dependent intervention nodes, intermediate time-dependent covariates, and a possibly time-dependent outcome. The intervention nodes at each time point can include a binary treatment as well as a right-censoring indicator. Given a class of dynamic or static interventions, a marginal structural model is used to model the mean of the intervention-specific counterfactual outcome as a function of the intervention, time point, and possibly a subset of baseline covariates. Because the true shape of this function is rarely known, the marginal structural model is used as a working model. The causal quantity of interest is defined as the projection of the true function onto this working model. Iterated conditional expectation double robust estimators for marginal structural model parameters were previously proposed by Robins (2000, 2002) and Bang and Robins (2005). Here we build on this work and present a pooled TMLE for the parameters of marginal structural working models. We compare this pooled estimator to a stratified TMLE (Schnitzer et al. 2014) that is based on estimating the intervention-specific mean separately for each intervention of interest. The performance of the pooled TMLE is compared to the performance of the stratified TMLE and the performance of inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimators using simulations. Concepts are illustrated using an example in which the aim is to estimate the causal effect of delayed switch following immunological failure of first line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients. Data from the International Epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS, Southern Africa are analyzed to investigate this question using both TML and IPW estimators. Our results demonstrate practical advantages of the

  3. Major depression and depressive symptoms in Australian Gulf War veterans 20 years after the Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Ikin, J F; McKenzie, D P; Gwini, S M; Kelsall, H L; Creamer, M; McFarlane, A C; Clarke, D M; Wright, B; Sim, M

    2016-01-01

    Risk of major depression (depression) was elevated in Australia's Gulf War veterans in a 2000-2002 (baseline) study. A follow up study has measured the Gulf War-related risk factors for depression, also the current prevalence and severity of depression, use of anti-depressant medication, and persistence, remittance or incidence of depression since baseline in Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview v.2.1, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Military Service Experience Questionnaire, and consented to Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) and PBS linkage. Prevalence of depression (9.7% Gulf War veterans and 7.7% comparison group; adj RR=1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), and pattern of persistence, remittance and incidence of depression since baseline, were similar in the two groups, however veterans reported slightly more severe symptoms (adj median difference 1, 95% CI 0.26-1.74) and were more likely to have been dispensed anti-depressant medication (adj RR=1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32). Depression amongst veterans was associated with self-reported Gulf War-related stressors in a dose-response relationship (adj RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Lower participation rates at follow up resulted in reduced statistical power compared with baseline, Gulf War related stressor data collected at baseline was at risk of recall bias, and RPBS and PBS databases do not capture all dispensed Nervous System medications. More than 20 years after the Gulf War, veterans are experiencing slightly more severe depressive symptoms than a military comparison group, and depression continues to be associated with Gulf War-related stressors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Toward restoring the net carbon sink function of degraded peatlands: Short-term response in CO2 exchange to ecosystem-scale restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, J. M.; Strack, M.; Greenwood, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    Northern peatlands represent a globally important stock of soil carbon and have acted as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 throughout the Holocene. Disturbance for horticultural peat extraction disrupts ecosystem function and converts these ecosystems to large, persistent sources of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study investigates the effect of ecosystem-scale restoration on growing season CO2 exchange in a peatland by comparing a restored site to a neighboring nonrestored section for 1 year prerestoration (1999) and 3 years postrestoration (2000-2002). Prior to restoration, less than 23% of the site was vegetated, and it was a source of 245 g C m-2 to the atmosphere during the growing season (May to early October). Following restoration, the water table remained deep, and soil moisture was significantly higher than the nonrestored section. By the third year postrestoration, vegetation covered 50% of the restored peatland. Moss covered 90% of this vegetated area. Vegetation productivity at the restored site was also enhanced with gross ecosystem photosynthesis under full light conditions significantly higher at the restored site at both moss and herbaceous plots by 2002. While this increase in vegetation productivity provided fresh substrate and resulted in higher CO2 production potential for restored site peat, ecosystem respiration was similar to or lower than that at the nonrestored site for both bare peat and vegetated areas because of the generally wetter site conditions resulting from restoration. By upscaling chamber CO2 exchange measurements to the ecosystem level, on the basis of the relative proportion of each surface cover type, we determined the site was a net sink of ˜20 ± 5 g C m-2 during the growing season only 2 years postrestoration. Combining our results with previous work on CH4 emissions and dissolved organic carbon export, we suggest that this degraded peatland ecosystem will likely return to a net carbon sink in 6 to 10 years postrestoration.

  5. Multi-stage sampling for large scale natural resources surveys: a case study of rice and waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Joshua D; Reinecke, Kenneth J; Kaminski, Richard M; Gerard, Patrick D

    2006-03-01

    Large-scale sample surveys to estimate abundance and distribution of organisms and their habitats are increasingly important in ecological studies. Multi-stage sampling (MSS) is especially suited to large-scale surveys because of the natural clustering of resources. To illustrate an application, we: (1) designed a stratified MSS to estimate late autumn abundance (kg/ha) of rice seeds in harvested fields as food for waterfowl wintering in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) investigated options for improving the MSS design; and (3) compared statistical and cost efficiency of MSS to simulated simple random sampling (SRS). During 2000-2002, we sampled 25-35 landowners per year, 1 or 2 fields per landowner per year, and measured seed mass in 10 soil cores collected within each field. Analysis of variance components and costs for each stage of the survey design indicated that collecting 10 soil cores per field was near the optimum of 11-15, whereas sampling >1 field per landowner provided few benefits because data from fields within landowners were highly correlated. Coefficients of variation (CV) of annual estimates of rice abundance ranged from 0.23 to 0.31 and were limited by variation among landowners and the number of landowners sampled. Design effects representing the statistical efficiency of MSS relative to SRS ranged from 3.2 to 9.0, and simulations indicated SRS would cost, on average, 1.4 times more than MSS because clustering of sample units in MSS decreased travel costs. We recommend MSS as a potential sampling strategy for large-scale natural resource surveys and specifically for future surveys of the availability of rice as food for waterfowl in the MAV and similar areas.

  6. The changing incidence and sites of colorectal cancer in the Israeli Arab population and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Paul; Rosner, Guy; Liphshitz, Irena; Barchana, Micha

    2007-01-01

    Israeli Arabs have been at low risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and had mainly proximal cancer, but increasing CRC is now noted. We examined this trend and CRC site and compared them to the total Jewish population and to the low-risk Jews of Asian-African origin. Israel Cancer Registry CRC data, 1982-2002, for Arabs and Jews was computed by gender, age and site: rectal cancer included recto-sigmoid junction; "right-sided" CRC included the proximal colon up to and also the splenic flexure. During 1982-2002, Arab CRC trends increased significantly in both sexes due to left-sided CRC (women, p = 0.01; men, p = 0.02) and rectal cancers (p = 0.05). Left-sided CRC increased significantly in both men and women aged > or = 65 years (p = 0.02). Comparing 1982-1984 to 2000-2002, the proportion of right-sided CRC decreased in both genders (p < 0.01) from 39.4 to 27.1% of male CRC, and from 44.8 to 31.3% in females. In general, this pattern of increasing rectal and left-sided CRC had been seen over a decade earlier in Jews of Asian-African origin and then their trend reversed during the last decade. In conclusion, there is a recent trend for left-sided CRC in Israeli Arabs, probably related to their changing life style. These results should influence their cancer preventive lifestyle recommendations, and CRC screening and diagnostic methodologies used.

  7. Association of menopause age and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-05-01

    Menopause age can affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 y) and menopause age with N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure. Our cross-sectional study included 2,275 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 85 years and without clinical CVD (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Five hundred sixty-one women had early menopause. The median (25th-75th percentiles) NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1-151.6) pg/mL for all participants, 83.4 (41.4-164.9) pg/mL for women with early menopause, and 78.0 (40.8-148.3) pg/mL for women without early menopause. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause, respectively. No significant interactions between menopause age and ethnicity were observed. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP levels. Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels, in postmenopausal women.

  8. Age at menopause and incident heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 years) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in postmenopausal women. We also explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in postmenopausal women. We included 2,947 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2,123 postmenopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Across a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction > 0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a decreased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMVR; Pinteraction = 0.02). In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with a higher LVMVR (+0.11; P = 0.0002), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a lower LVMVR (-0.004; P = 0.04) at baseline. Older age at menopause is independently associated with a decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodeling, indicated by a higher LVMVR, is present in Chinese-American women who experienced early menopause at baseline.

  9. Age at Menopause and Incident Heart Failure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in post-menopausal women. We also explored associations of early, and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in post-menopausal women. Methods We included 2947 post-menopausal women, aged 45-84 years, without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic study of Atherosclerosis. Cox-Proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of early, and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2123 post-menopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored associations of early, and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Results Over a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction>0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with increased risk of incident HF [1.66 (1.01-2.73)], while each year increase in age at menopause was associated with decreased risk of incident HF [0.96 (0.94-0.99)]. We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass to volume ratio (LVMVR), Pinteraction=0.02. In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with higher LVMVR (+0.11, p=0.0002), while each year increase in age at menopause was associated with lower LVMVR (−0.004, p=0.04) at baseline. Conclusion An older menopausal age is independently associated with decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodelling, indicated by a higher LVMVR was present in Chinese-American women with early menopause at baseline. PMID:24423934

  10. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age <46 y) identifies women as at risk for future coronary heart disease or stroke. The study population came from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a longitudinal, ethnically diverse cohort study of US men and women aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in 2000-2002 and followed up until 2008. The association between a personal history of early menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age <46 y) and future coronary heart disease and stroke was assessed in 2,509 women (ages 45-84 y; 987 white, 331 Chinese, 641 black, and 550 Hispanic) from the Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Of 2,509 women, 693 (28%) reported either surgical or natural early menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  11. Tea Consumption and Mortality Among Oldest-Old Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality among oldest-old Chinese. Design Population-based longitudinal data from The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) was analyzed using Cox semi-parametric proportional hazard model. Setting 631 randomly selected counties and cities of China’s 22 provinces. Participants 9,093 old adults aged 80 and above who provided complete data at baseline survey (year 1998). Measurements Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency around age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey, and follow-up survey was conducted respectively in years 2000, 2002 and 2005. Results Among oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI 1.01–1.07) for occasional tea drinkers respectively (P for linear trend=0.003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status around age 60 was used in analysis. Further analysis showed that compared to consistently infrequent tea drinkers, subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at both age 60 and at baseline survey had a 10% reduction in mortality (HR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.97). Conclusion Tea consumption is associated reduced risk of mortality among oldest-old Chinese. PMID:24117374

  12. Perceived social approval and condom use with casual partners among youth in urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programs targeting youth often emphasize the role of peers, and assume that youths will model their behavior after their peers'. We challenge this view; we argue that adopting a given behavior requires social approval, and that youths do not necessarily turn to peers for such approval. This study analyzes survey data on youths in urban Cameroon to 1) identify which type of persons youths look to for social approval, and 2) establish how important social approval by these persons is for condom use among youths. Methods We analyzed data from three survey waves (2000, 2002, and 2003) of a reproductive health survey conducted among urban Cameroonian youth (aged 15-24). Only respondents who reported having at least one casual partner in the past year were retained for the analysis. Bivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among perceived social approval, attitudes towards condoms and condom use. Results The data show that only 3% of youths named their friends as people whose opinion they valued, while 93% mentioned family members. The perceived approval of condom use by these persons had a significant positive effect on the frequency of condom use among youths. The frequency of condom use was also affected by the respondents' attitudes toward condom use, the range of persons with whom they discussed reproductive health matters, whether they were enrolled in school, socioeconomic status, their self-efficacy, perceived severity of AIDS, risk perception and sexual risk behavior. The perceived social approval of condom use and the respondents' own condom attitudes were correlated. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that perceived social approval facilitates the adoption of condom use among urban Cameroonian youth. However, youths tend to value the opinions of family members much more than the opinions of their peers. These results suggest that interventions targeting youths should not focus

  13. Storage and transit time of chemicals in thick unsaturated zones under rangeland and irrigated cropland, High Plains, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Dennehy, K.F.; Bruce, B.W.; Böhlke, J.K.; Michel, R.L.; Gurdak, J.J.; Hurlbut, D.B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2000-2002, three rangeland and six irrigated sites were instrumented to assess the storage and transit time of chemicals in thick (15 to 50 m) unsaturated zones (UZ) in the High Plains. These processes are likely to influence relations between land use and groundwater quality, yet they have not been documented systematically in the High Plains. Land use and climate were important controls on the size of subsoil chloride, nitrate, and pesticide compound reservoirs. The reservoirs under irrigated cropland generally were larger than those under rangeland because more chemicals were applied to cropland than to rangeland. In some cases, chloride and nitrate reservoirs under rangeland were larger than those under cropland, presumably because of long-term evaporative concentration near the base of the root zone. Natural salts mobilized by irrigation return flow accounted for as much as 60 and 80% of the nitrate and chloride reservoirs, respectively, under some cropland, as indicated by detailed chemical profiles and isotopic tracers (15N, 18O in nitrate and 2H, 3H, 18O in water). Advective chemical transit times in the UZ under cropland ranged from about 50 to 375 years, longer than any of the instrumented fields had been irrigated, yet agrichemicals were detected at the water table at four of the six sites. The data provide evidence for the existence of slow and fast paths for water movement in the UZ, with larger subsoil chemical reservoirs occurring in areas dominated by slow paths. Implications of these findings with respect to water quality in the aquifer are significant because they indicate that the amount of chemical mass reaching the aquifer could increase with time as chemicals that still reside under irrigated fields reach the water table. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke at home and child smoking at age 11 among British children with and without intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Emerson, E; Hatton, C; Robertson, J; Baines, S

    2016-03-01

    The exposure of children to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) is a well-established risk factor for a range of adverse health conditions in childhood and later life. Little is known about the extent to which children with intellectual disability (ID) may be exposed to SHS. Our aim in this study was to estimate the risk of childhood exposure to SHS and early experience of smoking among children with and without ID in a nationally representative cohort of British children. Secondary analysis of data extracted from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample of over 18,000 UK children born 2000-2002. Children with ID are significantly more likely than their peers to be exposed to SHS and to have themselves experimented with smoking by age 11. Controlling for between-group differences in socio-economic position eliminated the increased risk of exposure to SHS and significantly attenuated, but did not eliminate, increased risk of experimenting with smoking by age 11. Levels of exposure to SHS among children with ID are typical of those of families of children without ID living in similar socio-economic circumstances. The results lend no support to the hypothesis that increased rates of parental smoking may be associated with any additional 'burden of care' experienced by parents of children with ID. Nevertheless, it will be important to ensure that evidence-based interventions to reduce exposure to SHS are tailored to the specific needs of families supporting children with ID (e.g. through the provision of disability-friendly child care arrangements). © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How is leflunomide prescribed and used in Australia? Analysis of prescribing and adverse effect reporting.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vivien; Tett, Susan E

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the use of leflunomide in the Australian community since introduction in 2000. Trends in adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting were also studied. Annual Australian prescription and dispensing statistics were analysed. Drug utilisation was estimated as defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day. ADR data from the Therapeutic Goods Administration's Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee (ADRAC) national monitoring system were compared with the World Health Organisation (WHO) Vigibase records. Leflunomide use in Australia (dispensing data) increased from 0.2 in 2000 to 0.4 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2002. The same overall pattern was observed in the 'authority to prescribe' data. From 2000-2002, prescribing of the starter pack (3 x 100 mg loading dose plus 30 x 20 mg tablets) declined (down 74%); likewise for the 20 mg (30 tablets) pack. Gradual increases were noted for the 10 mg (30 tablets) pack (up 40%). Approximately 135 reports, detailing about 370 individual ADR, were generated annually. Gastro-intestinal disorders predominated, accounting for 24% of reactions reported to ADRAC. Skin and appendages disorders constituted 14% of reported reactions. Deaths in leflunomide users were attributed to a combination of haematological and gastro-intestinal complications, but it was not possible to ascertain other medication usage or contributing factors. Trends observed with the ADRAC reports were consistent with the WHO database. Leflunomide was the first registered DMARD in Australia in over a decade and its use has increased within the community. The ADR reports might have contributed to Australian rheumatologists gradually abandoning loading patients with high doses of leflunomide in favour of starting therapy at lower doses. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Area change of glaciers in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, 1919 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, C.; Menounos, B.; Wheate, R.; Clague, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers in the Canadian Rocky Mountains constitute an important freshwater resource. To enhance our understanding of the influence climate and local topography have on glacier area, large numbers of glaciers of different sizes and attributes need to be monitored over periods of many decades. We used Interprovincial Boundary Commission Survey (IBCS) maps of the Alberta-British Columbia (BC) border (1903-1924), BC Terrain Resource Information Management (TRIM) data (1982-1987), and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery (2000-2002 and 2006) to document planimetric changes in glacier cover in the central and southern Canadian Rocky Mountains between 1919 and 2006. Over this period, glacier cover in the study area decreased by 590 ± 70 km2 (40 ± 5%), 17 of 523 glaciers disappeared and 124 glaciers fragmented into multiple ice masses. Glaciers smaller than 1.0 km2 experienced the greatest relative area loss (64 ± 8%), and relative area loss is more variable with small glaciers, suggesting that the local topographic setting controls the response of these glaciers to climate change. Small glaciers with low slopes, low mean/median elevations, south to west aspects, and high insolation experienced the largest reduction in area. Similar rates of area change characterize the periods 1919-1985 and 1985-2001; -6.3 ± 0.6 km2 yr-1 (-0.4 ± 0.1% yr-1) and -5.0 ± 0.5 km2 yr-1 (-0.5 ± 0.1% yr-1), respectively. The rate of area loss, however, increased over the period 2001-2006; -19.3 ± 2.4 km2 yr-1 (-2.0 ± 0.2% yr-1). Applying size class-specific scaling factors, we estimate a total reduction in glacier cover in the central and southern Canadian Rocky Mountains for the period 1919-2006 of 750 km2 (30%).

  17. Identifying and locating tectonic tremor beneath the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA, with the PASO array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Thurber, C. H.; Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Brown, J. R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is a weak but persistent shaking of the Earth that was first discovered in subduction zones and later found beneath the San Andreas Fault (SAF). Tremor events represent spasmodic slip on the deep extension of the SAF, occurring at a depth of about 20-25 kilometers. Tremor occurs deeper than the nearby regular earthquakes, which can be found at maximum depths of 12-15 kilometers. Tremor is characterized by bursts of low frequency and/or very low frequency earthquakes (LFE/VLF) with dominant energy in the 1-10 Hz range. Tremor tells us about fault slip at depth in both space and time by illuminating the fault down to about the base of the crust. In the pursuit of deriving information about deep fault behavior and crustal structure, we are analyzing continuous data from the previously untapped Parkfield Area Seismic Observatory (PASO) temporary array, operated in 2000-2002 and 2004-2006. We started the identification process by correlating templates of known events from a nearby station array based on an existing catalog of tremor events. Using the dense PASO array and various correlation methods, including autocorrelation (Brown et. al. 2008), a scanning algorithm (Rowe, 2005), and cross correlation of template events (Shelly et al., 2007), we will refine the locations of these known events and seek to identify undiscovered clusters of LFEs and tremor. After generating an updated catalog initially for the month of September 2002, we will use S-wave arrivals from the 59 stations comprising the PASO array to provide strong constraints on the locations of identified events.

  18. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia.

  19. Economic difficulties and subsequent disability retirement.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Mauramo, Elina; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether economic difficulties are associated with subsequent disability retirement while controlling for covariates. Survey data among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002 were linked with the Finnish Centre for Pensions register data on all-cause disability retirement among women (n=4816) and men (n=1354) until the end of 2010. Additionally, disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders (ICD-10) was examined among women. Frequency in difficulties paying pills and buying food and clothes, and covariates (occupational class, income, housing tenure, and work- and health-related covariates) were self-reported at baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Frequent economic difficulties were associated with all-cause disability retirement after adjusting for age among both women (HR=2.11; 95% CI 1.63-2.73) and men (HR=2.69; 95% CI 1.65-4.41). Adjustment for covariates somewhat attenuated the associations, but they remained. Economic difficulties were also associated with disability retirement due to both mental disorders (HR=3.29; 95% CI 1.98-5.46) and musculoskeletal diseases (HR=1.85; 95% CI 1.24-2.75) among women. Adjustments made a minor contribution to the risk of disability retirement due to mental disorders, whereas the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases reduced after considering socioeconomic circumstances. Conclusions: economic difficulties are independently associated with disability retirement. Thus, they should be considered in attempts to tackle early exit from the labour market due to disability. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.

  1. Reasons why doctors choose or reject careers in general practice: national surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Raph; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Background Less than one-third of newly qualified doctors in the UK want a career in general practice. The English Department of Health expects that half of all newly qualified doctors will become GPs. Aim To report on the reasons why doctors choose or reject careers in general practice, comparing intending GPs with doctors who chose hospital careers. Design and setting Questionnaire surveys in all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years. Method Questions about specialty career intentions and motivations, put to the qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2009, 1 year after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results ‘Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty’ was a very important determinant of choice for intending doctors, regardless of chosen specialty. ‘Hours and working conditions’ were a strong influence for intending GPs (cited as having had ‘a great deal’ of influence by 75% of intending GPs in the first year after qualification), much more so than for doctors who wanted a hospital career (cited by 30%). Relatively few doctors had actually considered general practice seriously but then rejected it; 78% of the doctors who rejected general practice gave ‘job content’ as their reason, compared with 32% of doctors who rejected other specialties. Conclusion The shortfall of doctors wanting a career in general practice is not accounted for by doctors considering and rejecting it. Many do not consider it at all. There are very distinctive factors that influence choice for, and rejection of, general practice. PMID:23211266

  2. Associations of Neighborhood Crime and Safety and With Changes in Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Moore, Kari; Allen, Norrina; Block, Richard; Evenson, Kelly R; Mujahid, Mahasin; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-08-01

    Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of neighborhood crime and safety with changes in adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference). MESA is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease among adults aged 45-84 years at baseline in 2000-2002, from 6 US sites, with follow-up for MESA participants until 2012. Data for this study were limited to Chicago, Illinois, participants in the MESA Neighborhood Ancillary Study, for whom police-recorded crime data were available, and who had complete baseline data (n = 673). We estimated associations of individual-level safety, aggregated neighborhood-level safety, and police-recorded crime with baseline levels and trajectories of BMI and waist circumference over time using linear mixed modeling with random effects. We also estimated how changes in these factors related to changes in BMI and waist circumference using econometric fixed-effects models. At baseline, greater individual-level safety was associated with more adiposity. Increasing individual- and neighborhood-level safety over time were associated with decreasing BMI over the 10-year period, with a more pronounced effect observed in women for individual-level safety and men for neighborhood-level safety. Police-recorded crime was not associated with adiposity. Neighborhood-level safety likely influences adiposity change and subsequent cardiovascular risk in multiethnic populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. A multiproxy reconstruction of Hebridean Shelf Sea spring sea surface temperatures from 1805-2010 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D.; Butler, P.; Williams, S.; Scourse, J. D.; Richardson, C.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Austin, W.; Cage, A.; Sayer, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multiproxy reconstruction of Hebridean shelf sea (Tiree Passage; NW Scotland) spring sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period AD 1805-2010. The reconstruction is based on growth increment series from the first absolutely dated annually-resolved multi-centennial Glycymeris glycymeris bivalve mollusc sclerochronology and is coupled with previously published stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) from benthic foraminifera sampled from a dated sediment core from nearby Loch Sunart. The independent series contain significant correlations with SSTs across complementary frequency domains. The low frequency component of the sedimentary archive was combined with the mid and high frequency components of the G. glycymeris chronology indices to create a single multiproxy series. Split calibration-verification statistics (reduction of error, RE, coefficient of efficiency, CE, and R2) indicate that the multiproxy record, calibrated to local instrumental sea surface temperatures, contains significant precision and skill at reconstructing spring SSTs (RE=0.59, CE=0.26, R2=0.54). These data demonstrate that bivalve sclerochronologies, when combined with low frequency proxies such as sediment archives, can facilitate statistically robust reconstructions of palaeoceanographic variability over the late Holocene for hydrographically-significant regions of the temperate marine system previously void of annually-resolved archives. The reconstructed SSTs contain a general warming trend of 0.60 ×0.14oC per century. Only four years in the reconstructed period (1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003) exceed temperatures greater than two standard deviations higher than the reconstructed mean SST (9.03oC), whilst just three years in the first half of the 19th century (1835, 1838 and 1840) fall more than 2σ below the reconstructed mean (6.80oC).

  4. Evaluation of particle dispersal from mining and milling operations using lead isotopic fingerprinting techniques, Rio Pilcomayo Basin, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jerry R; Lechler, Paul J; Mackin, Gail; Germanoski, Dru; Villarroel, Lionel F

    2007-10-01

    Mining and milling of ores from the Cerro Rico de Potosí precious metal-polymetallic tin deposits of Bolivia have led to severe contamination of water and sediments of the Rio Pilcomayo drainage system. Lead (Pb) isotopic data were used in this study to first document downstream dispersal patterns of Pb contaminated sediment within the channel of the Rio Pilcomayo, and then to determine the relative contribution of Pb from Cerro Rico within alluvial terrace soils that are used for agriculture. The concentration and isotopic composition of Pb within channel bed sediments differed significantly between 2000, 2002, and 2004. These differences presumably reflect changes in the type of ore mined and milled at Cerro Rico, and alterations in dispersal and grain-size dilution mechanisms associated with interannual variations in rainfall and runoff. Within agricultural terrace soils, both Pb concentrations and the percentage of Pb from Cerro Rico: (1) semi-systematically decrease downstream, (2) were found to decrease with terrace height above the channel, and (3) reflect the use of contaminated irrigation water. In upstream reaches (within 30 km of the mills), Pb from mining represents the most significant Pb source, accounting for more than 80% of Pb in the examined agricultural fields. At Sotomayor, located approximately 170 km from the mills, the relative contribution of Pb from Cerro Rico is highly variable between fields, but can be significant, ranging from approximately 15% to 35%. The analysis demonstrates that Pb isotopic ratios can be used to effectively trace contaminated particles through river systems and into adjacent alluvial soils, even where multiple Pb sources exist and Pb concentrations are similar to background values.

  5. Genetic diversity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from Feather River and Lake Oroville, California, and virulence of selected isolates for Chinook salmon and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bendorf, C.M.; Kelley, G.O.; Yun, S.C.; Kurath, G.; Andree, K.B.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a significant pathogen of young salmonid fishes worldwide but particularly within the historical range of the Pacific Northwest and California. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River drainages of California, IHNV outbreaks in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha have been observed regularly at large production hatcheries, including Coleman National Fish Hatchery (established in 1941) and Feather River State Fish Hatchery (FRH; established in 1967), since facility operations began. Recent severe epidemics at the FRH in 1998 and 2000-2002 prompted investigations into the characteristics and potential sources of virus at this facility. Both phylogenetic analyses of a variable portion of the glycoprotein gene and serologic comparisons based on neutralization with three polyclonal rabbit sera were used to characterize 82 IHNV isolates from the Feather River watershed between 1969 and 2004. All isolates examined were in the L genogroup and belonged to one of three serologic groups typical of IHNV from California. The IHNV isolates from the Feather River area demonstrated a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 4.0%, and new isolates appeared to emerge from previous isolates rather than by the introduction of more diverse subgroups from exogenous sources. The earliest isolates examined from the watershed formed the subgroup LI, which disappeared coincidently with a temporal shift to new genetic and serologic types of the larger subgroup LII. Experimental challenges demonstrated no significant differences in the virulence for juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout O. mykiss from selected isolates representing the principal types of IHNV found historically and from recent epidemics at FRH. While most isolates were equally virulent for both host species, one isolate was found to be more virulent for Chinook salmon than for rainbow trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  6. Increasing general dentists' provision of care to child patients through changes in the undergraduate pediatric dentistry program.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Predrag-Charles; Sanche, Natalie; Odlum, Olva; deVries, Johann; Wiltshire, William A

    2005-03-01

    Reduced caries rates and an increased percentage of children with dental insurance have made it more difficult for dental schools to provide undergraduates with sufficient numbers of pediatric dental patients requiring restorative procedures. This may result in graduates who are not competent and are reluctant to treat children after graduation. To ensure the quality of the undergraduate clinical training program, the Division of Pediatric Dentistry at the University of Manitoba changed from a comprehensive-based clinic to a block system in 1998-99. Specific communities with limited access to dental care (neighboring core area schools and Hutterite colonies) were specifically targeted as potential sources for child patients. This format increased the exposure of students to patient management as well as to complex pediatric dentistry procedures. To assess the learning experiences before and after the changes to the clinical pediatric dentistry program, sixty general dentists who had graduated from the University of Manitoba were randomly selected using the Manitoba Dental Association Directory. Surveys were sent to twenty general dentists who graduated in each of the following years: 1993, 2000, and 2002. Forty-five dentists responded, fifteen from each of the three surveyed classes. Dentists who graduated after the changes to the program (2000, 2002) reported that they performed a greater number of complex pediatric dentistry procedures and treated more toddler and preschool children than the group that graduated before the changes (1993). Referrals to pediatric dentistry specialists were higher in the 1993 group than in the 2000 and 2002 groups. In conclusion, an adequate pool of pediatric patients is critical to provide dental students with sufficient learning experiences. The dentists who graduated from the program after the changes were implemented are providing more comprehensive treatment to younger children.

  7. Patterns of mortality in a montane mixed-conifer forest in San Diego County, California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mary Pyott; Stow, Douglas A; An, Li

    2017-07-17

    We examine spatial patterns of conifer tree mortality and their changes over time for the montane mixed-conifer forests of San Diego County. These forest areas have recently experienced extensive tree mortality due to multiple factors. A spatial contextual image processing approach was utilized with high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to map dead trees for the years 1997, 2000, 2002, and 2005 for three study areas: Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna mountains. Plot-based fieldwork was conducted to further assess mortality patterns. Mean mortality remained static from 1997 to 2002 (4, 2.2, and 4.2 trees ha(-1) for Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna) and then increased by 2005 to 10.3, 9.7 and 5.2 trees ha(-1) , respectively. The increase in mortality between 2002 and 2005 represents the temporal pattern of a discrete disturbance event, attributable to the 2002-2003 drought. Dead trees are significantly clustered for all dates, based on spatial cluster analysis, indicating that they form distinct groups, as opposed to spatially random single dead trees. Other tests indicate no directional shift or spread of mortality over time, but rather an increase in density. While general temporal and spatial mortality processes are uniform across all study areas, the plot-based species and quantity distribution of mortality, and diameter distributions of dead versus living trees, vary by study area. The results of this study improve our understanding of stand- to landscape-level forest structure and dynamics, particularly by examining them from the multiple perspectives of field and remotely sensed data. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Coronary Artery Calcium and Risk of Dementia in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Jacobs, David R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Alonso, Alvaro; Duprez, Daniel A; Sharrett, A Richey; Seeman, Teresa; Blaha, Michael J; Luchsinger, José A; Rapp, Stephen R

    2017-05-01

    Studies suggest a link between vascular injuries and dementia. Only a few studies, however, examined a longitudinal relation of subclinical vascular disease with dementia. We tested whether baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC), a biomarker of subclinical vascular disease, is associated with incident dementia independent of vascular risk factors and APOE-ε4 genotype in a community-based sample. We analyzed 6293 participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000-2002), initially free of cardiovascular disease and noticeable cognitive deficit. Dementia cases were identified using hospital and death certificate International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. Cox models were used to obtain hazard ratios according to CAC category, or per 1 SD log2[CAC+1], adjusted for vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, with or without exclusion of interim stroke or cardiovascular disease. We observed 271 dementia cases in a median follow-up of 12.2 years. Baseline CAC had a graded positive association with dementia risk. Compared with no CAC, CAC score of 1 to 400, 401 to 1000, and ≥1001 had increased risk of dementia by 23%, 35%, and 71%, respectively, (Ptrend=0.026) after adjustment. 1 SD higher log2[CAC+1] was associated with 24% (95% confidence interval, 8%-41%; P=0.002) increase in dementia risk. Although the association was partially explained by interim stroke/cardiovascular disease, it remained significant even after excluding the interim events, or regardless of baseline age. Higher baseline CAC was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia independent of vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, and incident stroke. This is consistent with a hypothesis that vascular injuries play a role in the development of dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Contribution of the Pacific Coast Area to Particulate Sulfate in the Western United States Based on Trajectory Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Dubois, D.; Pitchford, M.; Green, M.; Etyemezian, V.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can significantly reduce visibility and result in regional haze. The Clean Air Act amendments established a national visibility goal to remedy existing impairment and prevent future impairment in Federal Class I areas (national parks and wilderness areas designated by Congress), most of which are in the western U.S. In order to identify the major source regions of the atmospheric aerosols in the Class I areas of the western United States, backtrajectories are calculated for each Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) Class I area every three hours at three starting heights (10, 500, 1500m) for the years 2000-2002 using the NOAA HYSPLIT v4.6 model. Under the concept that the amount of time air spends over a region determines that region's contribution to the sulfate concentration measured at the receptor site, multiple-linear regression between the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) measured sulfate concentration and the residence time in the pre-defined potential source regions was conducted for each Class I area. The results suggest that sulfate aerosol can be transported over long distances and impact large areas. Shipping and other port emissions from the Pacific Coast area are estimated to have significant contributions to atmospheric sulfate aerosol concentrations in large areas of the western United States. On average, 11 to 15 percent of the sulfate is attributed to the Pacific Coast area for all WRAP continental IMPROVE sites studied. The Pacific Coast area contributes about 50 percent to ambient sulfate for the major port areas of southern California based on the regression. These analyses suggest that shipping / port emissions need to be considered in the development of efficient control strategies for reducing the concentrations of sulfate and other aerosol species.

  10. Working as a doctor when acutely ill: comments made by doctors responding to United Kingdom surveys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives We undertook multi-purpose surveys of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2012. Doctors were asked specific questions about their careers and were asked to comment about any aspect of their training or work. We report doctors’ comments about working whilst acutely ill. Design Self-completed questionnaire surveys. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Nine cohorts of doctors, comprising all United Kingdom medical qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments made by doctors about working when ill, in surveys one, five and 10 years after graduation. Results The response rate, overall, was 57.4% (38,613/67,224 doctors). Free-text comments were provided by 30.7% (11,859/38,613). Three-hundred and twenty one doctors (2.7% of those who wrote comments) wrote about working when feeling acutely ill. Working with Exhaustion/fatigue was the most frequent topic raised (195 doctors), followed by problems with Taking time off for illness (112), and general comments on Physical/mental health problems (66). Other topics raised included Support from others, Leaving or adapting/coping with the situation, Bullying, the Doctor’s ability to care for patients and Death/bereavement. Arrangements for cover due to illness were regarded as insufficient by some respondents; some wrote that doctors were expected to work harder and longer to cover for colleagues absent because of illness. Conclusions We recommend that employers ensure that it is not unduly difficult for doctors to take time off work when ill, and that employers review their strategies for covering ill doctors who are off work. PMID:27066264

  11. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Bello, Gonzalo; Romero, Hector; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 (DENV-3) at the early 2000s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. In this study, we investigated the origin and dispersion dynamics of DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil by examining a large number (n=107) of E gene sequences sampled between 2001 and 2009 from diverse Brazilian regions. These Brazilian sequences were combined with 457 DENV-3 genotype III E gene sequences from 29 countries around the world. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages. Three lineages (BR-I, BR-II, and BR-III) were probably imported from the Lesser Antilles (Caribbean), while the fourth one (BR-IV) was probably introduced from Colombia or Venezuela. While lineages BR-I and BR-II succeeded in getting established and disseminated in Brazil and other countries from the Southern Cone, lineages BR-III and BR-IV were only detected in one single individual each from the North region. The phylogeographic analysis indicates that DENV-3 lineages BR-I and BR-II were most likely introduced into Brazil through the Southeast and North regions around 1999 (95% HPD: 1998-2000) and 2001 (95% HPD: 2000-2002), respectively. These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance.

  12. Cognitive trajectories associated with β-amyloid deposition in the oldest-old without dementia.

    PubMed

    Snitz, Beth E; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Saxton, Judith; Singhabahu, Dilrukshika M; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Price, Julie C; Ives, Diane G; Cohen, Ann D; McDade, Eric; Dekosky, Steven T

    2013-04-09

    To determine whether a high prevalence (55%) of Aβ deposition in a cohort of individuals remaining dementia-free into their 9th and 10th decades is associated with cognitive decline prior to imaging. A total of 194 participants (mean age 85.5 years, range 82-95) who completed the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS) and remained dementia-free subsequently completed Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging. We examined cross-sectional associations between Aβ status and performance on a broad neuropsychological test battery completed at GEMS entry 7-9 years prior to neuroimaging. We also longitudinally examined cognition over annual evaluations using linear mixed models. At GEMS screening (2000-2002), participants who were Aβ-positive in 2009 had lower performance on the Stroop test (p < 0.01) and Raven's Progressive Matrices (p = 0.05), with trend level difference for Block Design (p = 0.07). Longitudinal analyses showed significant slope differences for immediate and delayed recall of the Rey-Osterrieth figure, semantic fluency, and Trail-Making Test parts A and B, indicating greater performance decline prior to neuroimaging for Aβ-positive relative to Aβ-negative participants (ps < 0.05). Highly prevalent Aβ deposition in oldest-older adults is associated with cognitive decline in visual memory, semantic fluency, and psychomotor speed beginning 7-9 years prior to neuroimaging. Mean differences in nonmemory domains, primarily executive functions, between Aβ-status groups may be detectable 7-9 years before neuroimaging.

  13. Waste rice for waterfowl in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Manley, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Flooded rice fields are important foraging habitats for waterfowl in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Waste rice previously was abundant in late autumn (140?492 kg/ha), but early planting and harvest dates in recent years may have increased losses of waste rice during autumn before waterfowl arrive. Research in Mississippi rice fields revealed waste-rice abundance decreased 79?99% during autumns 1995?1996. To determine if this trend existed throughout the MAV, we used multistage sampling (MSS) to estimate waste-rice abundance during September?December 2000?2002. Averaged over years, mean abundance of waste rice decreased 71% between harvest ((x) over bar = 271.0 kg/ha, CV = 13% n = 3 years) and late autumn ( (x) over bar = 78.4 kg/ha, CV = 15% n = 3). Among 15 models formulated to explain variation in rice abundance among fields and across years, the best model indicated abundance of waste rice in late autumn differed between harvester types (i.e., conventional > stripper header) and was positively related to initial waste-rice abundance after harvest. Because abundance of waste rice in late autumn was less than previous estimates in all 3 years, we concluded that waterfowl conservationists have overestimated carrying capacity of rice fields for wintering waterfowl by 52?83% and recommend 325 duck-use days/ha (DUDs) as a revised estimate. We suggest monitoring advances in rice harvest dates to determine when new surveys are warranted and recommend increased management of moist-soil wetlands to compensate for decreased rice abundance.

  14. The population decline of Gyps vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of diclofenac was banned.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vibhu; Bishwakarma, Mohan Chandra; Chaudhary, Anand; Cuthbert, Richard; Dave, Ruchi; Kulkarni, Mandar; Kumar, Sashi; Paudel, Khadananda; Ranade, Sachin; Shringarpure, Rohan; Green, Rhys E

    2012-01-01

    Populations of oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus) and slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) crashed during the mid-1990s throughout the Indian subcontinent. Surveys in India, initially conducted in 1991-1993 and repeated in 2000, 2002, 2003 and 2007, revealed that the population of Gyps bengalensis had fallen by 2007 to 0.1% of its numbers in the early 1990s, with the population of Gyps indicus and G. tenuirostris combined having fallen to 3.2% of its earlier level. A survey of G. bengalensis in western Nepal indicated that the size of the population in 2009 was 25% of that in 2002. In this paper, repeat surveys conducted in 2011 were analysed to estimate recent population trends. Populations of all three species of vulture remained at a low level, but the decline had slowed and may even have reversed for G. bengalensis, both in India and Nepal. However, estimates of the most recent population trends are imprecise, so it is possible that declines may be continuing, though at a significantly slower rate. The degree to which the decline of G. bengalensis in India has slowed is consistent with the expected effects on population trend of a measured change in the level of contamination of ungulate carcasses with the drug diclofenac, which is toxic to vultures, following a ban on its veterinary use in 2006. The most recent available information indicates that the elimination of diclofenac from the vultures' food supply is incomplete, so further efforts are required to fully implement the ban.

  15. Green space as a buffer between stressful life events and health.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Agnes E; Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates whether the presence of green space can attenuate negative health impacts of stressful life events. Individual-level data on health and socio-demographic characteristics were drawn from a representative two-stage sample of 4529 Dutch respondents to the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2), conducted in 2000-2002. Health measures included: (1) the number of health complaints in the last 14 days; (2) perceived mental health (measured by the GHQ-12); and (3) a single item measure of perceived general health ranging from 'excellent' to 'poor'. Percentages of green space in a 1-km and 3-km radius around the home were derived from the 2001 National Land cover Classification database (LGN4). Data were analysed using multilevel regression analysis, with GP practices as the group-level units. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, income, education level, and level of urbanity. The results show that the relationships of stressful life events with number of health complaints and perceived general health were significantly moderated by amount of green space in a 3-km radius. Respondents with a high amount of green space in a 3-km radius were less affected by experiencing a stressful life event than respondents with a low amount of green space in this radius. The same pattern was observed for perceived mental health, although it was marginally significant. The moderating effects of green space were found only for green space within 3 km, and not for green space within 1 km of residents' homes, presumably because the 3-km indicator is more affected by the presence of larger areas of green space, that are supposed to sustain deeper forms of restoration. These results support the notion that green space can provide a buffer against the negative health impact of stressful life events. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between meeting the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and colorectal cancer incidence: results from the VITAL cohort.

    PubMed

    Hastert, Theresa A; White, Emily

    2016-11-01

    In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published eight recommendations regarding body weight, physical activity, and dietary behaviors aimed at reducing cancer incidence worldwide. In this paper, we assess whether meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations is associated with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence; evaluate whether particular recommendations are most strongly associated with lower CRC incidence; and assess whether associations differ by sex. We operationalized six of the recommendations (related to body weight, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, red and processed meat, and alcohol) and examined their association with CRC incidence over 7.6 years of follow-up in the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle Study cohort. Participants included 66,920 adults aged 50-76 years at baseline (2000-2002) with no history of CRC and with complete data for the recommendations evaluated. Incident colorectal cancers (n = 546) were tracked through 2009. Compared with meeting no recommendations, meeting 1-3 recommendations was associated with 34-45 % lower CRC incidence, and meeting 4-6 was associated with 58 % lower incidence (95 % CI 34 %, 74 %) in fully adjusted analyses. The recommendations most strongly associated with lower CRC risk for women were related to body fatness and red and processed meat, while for men these were alcohol intake and red and processed meat. Differences by sex were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the recommendations related to body weight and to alcohol. Meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly those related to alcohol, body weight, and red and processed meat, could substantially reduce CRC incidence; however, associations differ by sex.

  17. [Population satisfaction with health care and physicians' job satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Bringedal, Berit

    2009-02-26

    To assess whether development of health services in Norway has been well balanced in terms of satisfaction; time series variation has been compared for population satisfaction with health services and physician job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from the following sources and years: the reference panel of The Research Institute of the Norwegian Medical Association on physician job satisfaction in the years 1994, 2000, 2002 and 2006; the municipal surveys of TNS Gallup on population satisfaction with health care (primary) in the years 1995 - 2000, 2003 and 2005 and in 1999, 2000 and 2003 for satisfaction with hospitals, and from the Norwegian part of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) on population willingness to allocate resources to public health care (in 1990 and 2006). Time series of physician satisfaction were computed from changes in satisfaction between consecutive surveys. Time series of population satisfaction were computed from annual regression-adjusted means that control for the association between satisfaction and observable personal characteristics. On a scale from 10 to 70, hospital doctors' job satisfaction increased from 50.2 in 1994 to 52.3 in 2006. General practitioners' job satisfaction increased from 52.3 to 55.5 in the same period. From 1995 to 2005, consumer satisfaction with primary care increased from 4.43 to 4.54 and with hospital services from 4.23 to 4.47 (on a scale from 1 to 6). The proportion of the population who believes more public resources should be spent on health care increased from 82.7 % in 1990 to 85.2 % in 2006. The development in the health care sector seems to be balanced in the sense that views of the population and health personnel have followed parallel trajectories. A large and increasing share of the population is willing to allocate more resources to health care.

  18. Storage and transit time of chemicals in thick unsaturated zones under rangeland and irrigated cropland, High Plains, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, P. B.; Dennehy, K. F.; Bruce, B. W.; BöHlke, J. K.; Michel, R. L.; Gurdak, J. J.; Hurlbut, D. B.

    2006-03-01

    In 2000-2002, three rangeland and six irrigated sites were instrumented to assess the storage and transit time of chemicals in thick (15 to 50 m) unsaturated zones (UZ) in the High Plains. These processes are likely to influence relations between land use and groundwater quality, yet they have not been documented systematically in the High Plains. Land use and climate were important controls on the size of subsoil chloride, nitrate, and pesticide compound reservoirs. The reservoirs under irrigated cropland generally were larger than those under rangeland because more chemicals were applied to cropland than to rangeland. In some cases, chloride and nitrate reservoirs under rangeland were larger than those under cropland, presumably because of long-term evaporative concentration near the base of the root zone. Natural salts mobilized by irrigation return flow accounted for as much as 60 and 80% of the nitrate and chloride reservoirs, respectively, under some cropland, as indicated by detailed chemical profiles and isotopic tracers (15N, 18O in nitrate and 2H, 3H, 18O in water). Advective chemical transit times in the UZ under cropland ranged from about 50 to 375 years, longer than any of the instrumented fields had been irrigated, yet agrichemicals were detected at the water table at four of the six sites. The data provide evidence for the existence of slow and fast paths for water movement in the UZ, with larger subsoil chemical reservoirs occurring in areas dominated by slow paths. Implications of these findings with respect to water quality in the aquifer are significant because they indicate that the amount of chemical mass reaching the aquifer could increase with time as chemicals that still reside under irrigated fields reach the water table.

  19. Analysis of agricultural drought using vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) from Terra/MODIS satellite data.

    PubMed

    Patel, N R; Parida, B R; Venus, V; Saha, S K; Dadhwal, V K

    2012-12-01

    The most commonly used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from remote sensing often fall short in real-time drought monitoring due to a lagged vegetation response to drought. Therefore, research recently emphasized on the use of combination of surface temperature and NDVI which provides vegetation and moisture conditions simultaneously. Since drought stress effects on agriculture are closely linked to actual evapotranspiration, we used a vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) which is more closely related to crop water status and holds a key place in real-time drought monitoring and assessment. In this study, NDVI and land surface temperature (T (s)) from MODIS 8-day composite data during cloud-free period (September-October) were adopted to construct an NDVI-T (s) space, from which the VTCI was computed. The crop moisture index (based on estimates of potential evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion) was calculated to represent soil moisture stress on weekly basis for 20 weather monitoring stations. Correlation and regression analysis were attempted to relate VTCI with crop moisture status and crop performance. VTCI was found to accurately access the degree and spatial extent of drought stress in all years (2000, 2002, and 2004). The temporal variation of VTCI also provides drought pattern changes over space and time. Results showed significant and positive relations between CMI (crop moisture index) and VTCI observed particularly during prominent drought periods which proved VTCI as an ideal index to monitor terminal drought at regional scale. VTCI had significant positive relationship with yield but weakly related to crop anomalies. Duration of terminal drought stress derived from VTCI has a significant negative relationship with yields of major grain and oilseeds crops, particularly, groundnut.

  20. Validity of using multiple imputation for "unknown" stage at diagnosis in population-based cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingwei; Egger, Sam; Yu, Xue Qin; Smith, David P; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2017-01-01

    The multiple imputation approach to missing data has been validated by a number of simulation studies by artificially inducing missingness on fully observed stage data under a pre-specified missing data mechanism. However, the validity of multiple imputation has not yet been assessed using real data. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of using multiple imputation for "unknown" prostate cancer stage recorded in the New South Wales Cancer Registry (NSWCR) in real-world conditions. Data from the population-based cohort study NSW Prostate Cancer Care and Outcomes Study (PCOS) were linked to 2000-2002 NSWCR data. For cases with "unknown" NSWCR stage, PCOS-stage was extracted from clinical notes. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the missing at random assumption adjusted for variables from two imputation models: a basic model including NSWCR variables only and an enhanced model including the same NSWCR variables together with PCOS primary treatment. Cox regression was used to evaluate the performance of MI. Of the 1864 prostate cancer cases 32.7% were recorded as having "unknown" NSWCR stage. The missing at random assumption was satisfied when the logistic regression included the variables included in the enhanced model, but not those in the basic model only. The Cox models using data with imputed stage from either imputation model provided generally similar estimated hazard ratios but with wider confidence intervals compared with those derived from analysis of the data with PCOS-stage. However, the complete-case analysis of the data provided a considerably higher estimated hazard ratio for the low socio-economic status group and rural areas in comparison with those obtained from all other datasets. Using MI to deal with "unknown" stage data recorded in a population-based cancer registry appears to provide valid estimates. We would recommend a cautious approach to the use of this method elsewhere.

  1. Longitudinal association of antidepressant medication use with metabolic syndrome: Results of a 9-year follow-up of the D.E.S.I.R. cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo Da Silva, Marine; Balkau, Beverley; Roussel, Ronan; Tichet, Jean; Fumeron, Frédéric; Fagherazzi, Guy; Nabi, Hermann

    2016-12-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between antidepressant medication use and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). 5014 participants (49.8% were men) from the D.E.S.I.R. cohort study, aged 30-65 years at baseline in 1994-1996, were followed over 9 years at 3-yearly intervals (1997-1999, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005). Antidepressant use and MetS, defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP-ATP III) and the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) criteria, were assessed concurrently at four medical examinations. In fully-adjusted longitudinal logistic regression analyses based on generalized estimating equations, antidepressant users had a 9% (p=0.011) and a 6% (p=0.036) greater annual increase in the odds of having the MetS defined by NCEP-ATP III and AHA/NHLBI criteria respectively. Sex-specific analyses showed that this association was confined to men only. When the different types of antidepressant were considered, men who used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), imipramine type antidepressants or "other" antidepressants had a 52% (p=0.028), 31% (p=0.011), and 16% (p=0.016) greater annual increase in the odds of having the MetS over time compared to non-users, respectively. These associations depended on the definition of the MetS. Our longitudinal data showed that antidepressant use was associated with an increased odds of having the MetS in men but not in women and this was mainly for SSRIs, imipramine type and "other" antidepressants. People on antidepressants may need to be checked regularly for the elements of the metabolic syndrome treatable by change in diet, physical activity and/or by medication therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon dioxide exchange in high arctic north-eastern Greenland related to recent climatic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soegaard, H.; Toudal, L.; Hansen, B. U.; Friborg, T.; Rennermalm, A.; Nordstroem, C.; Hinkler, J.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1996 continuous measurements of CO2-exchange have been conducted at Zackenberg research station in the North-Eastern Greenland (74.5N, 20.5W) covering the growing season from the beginning of June to the end of August. Two different ecosystems have been monitored: wetland (1996-1999) and heath (1997, 2000-2002). For both systems a considerable interannual variability in carbon sequestration has been observed. For the wetland the average three month net ecosystem exchange (NEE) calculated on the basis of the above mentioned periods has been -53 g C m-2 covering a range from -96 to -30 g C m-2 , whereas for the heath site the corresponding figures are average = -10 g C m-2 and range from -19 to -3 g C m-2. The sensitivity of the NEE with respect to climate is evaluated by use of a combined photosynthesis/soil respiration model. For both ecosystems the density and duration of the snow cover is found to be a key parameter for interpreting the year-to-year variation. The denser the snow pack the more CO2 is released during the early melting season whereas a delayed snowmelt shortens the length of the growing season and thereby the summertime CO2 uptake. With respect to soil water balance the two systems responds differently; where the wetland suffer from waterlogged soil in most of the growing season, the CO2 uptake at the drier heat lands may be reduced due to water stress. Finally, the impact of large scale climatic fluctuations is discussed. This is done with focus on the variation in extension and duration of sea ice along the north-eastern coast of Greenland and the higher temperatures observed in the growing season 2002.

  3. Evaluation of the Unique and Specific Contributions of Dimensions of the Triple Vulnerability Model to the Prediction of DSM-IV Anxiety and Mood Disorder Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy A.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The triple vulnerability model (Barlow, 2000, 2002) posits that three vulnerabilities contribute to the etiology of emotional disorders: (1) general biological vulnerability (i.e., dimensions of temperament such as neuroticism and extraversion); (2) general psychological vulnerability (i.e., perceived control over life stress and emotional states); (3) disorder-specific psychological vulnerability (e.g., thought-action fusion for obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCD). Despite the prominence of this model, a comprehensive empirical evaluation has not yet been undertaken. The current study used structural equation modeling to test the triple vulnerability model in a large clinical sample (N = 700), focusing on vulnerabilities for depression, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and OCD. Specifically, we examined the incremental prediction of each level of the triple vulnerability model for each disorder, with the following putative disorder-specific psychological vulnerabilities: thought-action fusion (TAF) for OCD, the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS) for depression, and intolerance of uncertainty (IoU) for GAD. In the final model that included all three levels of vulnerabilities, neuroticism had significant direct effects on all four disorder constructs, and extraversion was inversely associated with depression and social phobia. However, perceived control was significantly associated with GAD and OCD only. Of the disorder-specific psychological vulnerabilities, TAF was significantly and specifically related to OCD. In contrast, DAS and IoU were not significant predictors of depression and GAD respectively, instead contributing to other disorders. The results are discussed in regard to structural models of the emotional disorders and the various roles of general and specific vulnerability dimensions in the onset, severity, and temporal course of psychopathology. PMID:23611077

  4. Searching for Flickering Giants in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Mighell, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of three epochs of archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of a single field in the Ursa Minor (UMi) dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy. These observations were obtained in 2000, 2002, and 2004 (GO-7341, GO-8776, GO-2004; PI: Olszewski). We expand upon the work of Mighell and Roederer 2004 who reported the existence of low-amplitude variability in red giant stars in the UMi dSph. We report the 16 brightest point sources (F606W <= 21.5 mag) that we are able to match between all 3 epochs. The 112 observations were analyzed with HSTphot. We tested for variability with a chi-squared statistic that had a softened photometric error where 0.01 mag was added in quadrature to the reported HSTphot photometric error. We find that all 13 stars and 3 probable galaxies exhibit the same phenomenon as described in Mighell and Roederer with peak to peak amplitudes ranging from 54 to 125 mmags on 10 minute timescales. If these objects were not varying, the deviates should be normally distributed. However, we find that the deviates have a standard deviation of 1.4. This leads to three possible conclusions: (1) the observed phenomenon is real, (2) an additional systematic error of 7 mmag needs to be added to account for additional photometric errors (possibly due to dithering), or (3) there was a small instrumental instability with the WFPC2 instrument from 2000 to 2004. E.J.M. was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No.AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  5. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation Historical and Projected Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Dentener, F.; McConnell, J.; Ro, C.-U.; Shaw, M.; Vet, R.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. For this time slice, we find a multi-model mean deposition of 50 Tg(N) yr1 from nitrogen oxide emissions, 60 Tg(N) yr1 from ammonia emissions, and 83 Tg(S) yr1 from sulfur emissions. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching 1300 mg(N) m2 yr1 averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, 3050 larger than the values in any region currently (2000). The new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  6. Occurrence of cases with peri-implant mucositis or peri-implantitis in a 21-26 years follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Renvert, Stefan; Lindahl, Christel; Persson, G Rutger

    2017-09-29

    to determine the prevalence and development of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis and to assess risk factors over time. The study is a longitudinal case series assessing the occurrence and diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. 218/294 patients who had received dental implants between 1988-1992 were examined between 2000-2002 (exam II; 9-14 years after the first exam). At exam III (20-26 years after exam I, on average 23.3 years), 86 individuals were re-examined. The diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis at exam III was 23.8% and 13.7% respectively. Surgical treatment of peri-implantitis after exam II resulted in a bone gain for 2/12 individuals. Individuals with ≥ 3 implants at exam II were at risk for peri-implantitis at exam III (χ2=7.9, p <0.01, LR: 11.6, 95%CI: 1.5, 92.5, p < 0.01). A history of periodontitis (p=0.07), a diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis (p =0.77), or smoking (p=0.86) at exam II, were not predictive of peri-implantitis at exam III. The diagnosis and occurrence of peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis was high. Healthy conditions at implants after 9-14 years were predictive of future implant health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentrations and Association of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Concentrations With Incident Coronary Heart Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gen-Min; Liu, Kiang; Colangelo, Laura A; Lakoski, Susan G; Tracy, Russell P; Greenland, Philip

    2016-01-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in numerous but not all observational studies, and whether low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) alter this association is unknown. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012), we prospectively assessed the association of hs-CRP concentrations with incident CHD in participants who did not receive lipid-lowering therapy, as well as in those with LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL (n = 3,106) and those with LDL-C concentrations of 130 mg/dL or greater (n = 1,716) at baseline (2000-2002). Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to assess the associations after adjustment for socioeconomic status, traditional risk factors, body mass index, diabetes, aspirin use, kidney function, and coronary artery calcium score. Loge hs-CRP was associated with incident CHD in participants with LDL-C concentrations of 130 mg/dL or higher (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.60) but not in those with LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.05; P for interaction = 0.003). As a whole, loge hs-CRP was not associated with incident CHD in participants who had not received lipid-lowering therapy at baseline (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.20) and who had mean LDL-C concentrations less than 130 mg/dL. These findings suggest that LDL-C concentrations might be a moderator of the contribution of hs-CRP to CHD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ichthyoplankton assemblages of coastal west-central Lake Erie and associated habitat characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E.; Hunter, R. Douglas; Fabrizio, M.C.; Savino, J.F.; Todd, T.N.; Bur, M.

    2008-01-01

    Early life stage survival often determines fish cohort strength and that survival is affected by habitat conditions. The structure and dynamics of ichthyoplankton assemblages can tell us much about biodiversity and fish population dynamics, but are poorly understood in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, where most spawning and nursery habitats exist. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected with a neuston net in waters 2-13 m deep weekly or biweekly from mid-April through August, during 3 years (2000-2002) as part of a study of fish assemblages in west-central Lake Erie. A suite of abiotic variables was simultaneously measured to characterize habitat. Cluster and ordination analyses revealed several distinct ichthyoplankton assemblages that changed seasonally. A lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) dominated assemblage appeared first in April. In May, assemblages were dominated by several percid species. Summer assemblages were overwhelmingly dominated by emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), with large gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) components. This seasonal trend in species assemblages was also associated with increasing temperature and water clarity. Water depth and drift processes may also play a role in structuring these assemblages. The most common and widely distributed assemblages were not associated with substratum type, which we characterized as either hard or soft. The timing of hatch and larval growth separated the major groups in time and may have adaptive significance for the members of each major assemblage. The quality and locations (with reference to lake circulation) of spawning and nursery grounds may determine larval success and affect year class strength.

  9. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  10. The Opposition Effect in Two Component Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Hapke, B. W.; Smythe, W. D.; Hale, A. S.; Piatek, J. L.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments find that the Opposition Effect (OE) in particulate materials is due to two processes, Shadow Hiding (SHOE) and Coherent Backscattering (CBOE)(Nelson, et al. 2000; 2002). SHOE arises because, as phase angle approaches zero, shadows cast by regolith grains on other grains become invisible to the observer. CBOE results from constructive interference beween rays traveling the same path but in opposite directions. We measured the angular scattering properties of 9 mixtures of Aluminum Oxide and Boron Carbide powders of the same particle diameter (25 microns). The reflectance of the materials ranged from 7-91%. Along with the reflectance phase curve we measured the circular polarization ratio, CPR-the ratio of the intensity of the light returned with the same helicity as the incident light to that with the opposite helicity. An increase in CPR with decreasing phase angle indicates increased multiple scattering and is consistent with CBOE. It might be expected that materials of higher albedo would exhibit increased multiple scattering and that CBOE would increase as albedo increases. Remarkably, we find the highest albedo samples did not have the strongest CBOE opposition peaks. Instead, the maximum CBOE contribution was for the samples with reflectance between 15 and 40%. We derived a theoretical model which reproduces the data quite satisfactorily. This model shows that the reflectance where we find the CBOE amplitude to be a maximum is where the contribution of second order scattering is largest relative to the other orders. Hence, for closely packed media the maximum contribution of CBOE does not occur in materials of highest albedo but where the relative contribution of second order scattering is largest. Nelson, et al. 2000. Icarus, 147, 545-558. Nelson, et al., 2002, Planetary and Space Science, 50, 849-856. This work was done at JPL supported by NASA's PGG program.

  11. Characterizing the evolution of perioperative outcomes and costs of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Salzler, Gregory G; Meltzer, Andrew J; Mao, Jialin; Isaacs, Abby; Connolly, Peter H; Schneider, Darren B; Sedrakyan, Art

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the evolution in perioperative outcomes and costs of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair (EVAR) by detailing changes in adjusted outcomes and costs over time. National Inpatient Sample (2000-2011) data were used to evaluate patient characteristics, outcomes, and perioperative costs for elective EVAR performed for intact AAA. Outcomes were adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidities, and hospital factors by multivariate analysis. Costs were calculated from hospital cost to charge ratio files and adjusted to 2011 dollars. From 2000 to 2011, 185,249 patients underwent elective EVAR for intact AAA. The absolute rates of in-hospital major morbidity, mortality, and procedural costs all decreased significantly over time (P < .0001). The prevalence of major comorbidities in patients undergoing EVAR, including obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, all increased significantly over time. After adjusting for multiple demographics, comorbidities, and hospital-level factors, recent outcomes of EVAR (2009-2011) remain superior to the early experience (2000-2002) with respect to mortality and major complications. From 2000-2011, the perioperative outcomes of EVAR improved significantly despite a higher prevalence of comorbidities among patients undergoing repair. Concurrently, procedure-associated costs declined. Advanced technology is often implicated in escalating healthcare spending, and the value of novel techniques is often questioned. These findings highlight that, in the case of EVAR, procedural outcomes have improved while the initial costs of repair have declined over time. EVAR offers an interesting example for stakeholders to consider in the era of cost-containment pressures and criticism of nascent, expensive technology in healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetuin-A and Risk of Diabetes Independent of Liver Fat Content: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Mukamal, Kenneth J; St-Jules, David E; Budoff, Matthew J; Katz, Ronit; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A; de Boer, Ian H; Siscovick, David S; Ix, Joachim H; Jensen, Majken K

    2017-01-01

    Fetuin-A is a hepatic secretory protein and a novel risk factor for diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether the association between high levels of fetuin-A and diabetes can be attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We conducted a case-cohort study among 1,957 subcohort members and 455 incident diabetes cases in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a multicenter US study of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese-American adults aged 45-84 years. Serum fetuin-A and computed tomography-determined liver fat content were measured from samples collected at baseline (2000-2002). In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with follow-up through 2012, a higher fetuin-A level was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, with a stronger association among women (for top quartile vs. bottom, hazard ratio (HR) = 3.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.08, 5.44) than among men (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.93, 2.35) (P-heterogeneity = 0.001). Adjustment for liver fat content attenuated these associations slightly (women: HR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.59, 4.26; men: HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.08). In this study, we observed a particularly strong association of fetuin-A with diabetes risk in women that could not be explained by liver fat. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Tobacco smoking and smoking-related DNA methylation are associated with the development of frailty among older adults.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schöttker, Ben; Breitling, Lutz Philipp; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a preventable environmental factor that contributes to a wide spectrum of age-related health outcomes; however, its association with the development of frailty is not yet well established. We examined the associations of self-reported smoking indicators, serum cotinine levels and smoking-related DNA methylation biomarkers with a quantitative frailty index (FI) in 2 independent subsets of older adults (age 50-75) recruited in Saarland, Germany in 2000 - 2002 (discovery set: n = 978, validation set: n = 531). We obtained DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and calculated the FI according to the method of Mitnitski and Rockwood. Mixed linear regression models were implemented to assess the associations between smoking indicators and the FI. After controlling for potential covariates, current smoking, cumulative smoking exposure (pack-years), and time after smoking cessation (years) were significantly associated with the FI (P-value < 0.05). In the discovery panel, 17 out of 151 previously identified smoking-related CpG sites were associated with the FI after correction for multiple testing (FDR < 0.05). Nine of them survived in the validation phase and were designated as frailty-associated loci. A smoking index (SI) based on the 9 loci manifested a monotonic association with the FI. In conclusion, this study suggested that epigenetic alterations could play a role in smoking-associated development of frailty. The identified CpG sites have the potential to be prognostic biomarkers of frailty and frailty-related health outcomes. Our findings and the underlying mechanisms should be followed up in further, preferably longitudinal studies.

  14. Working as a doctor when acutely ill: comments made by doctors responding to United Kingdom surveys.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2016-04-01

    We undertook multi-purpose surveys of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2012. Doctors were asked specific questions about their careers and were asked to comment about any aspect of their training or work. We report doctors' comments about working whilst acutely ill. Self-completed questionnaire surveys. United Kingdom. Nine cohorts of doctors, comprising all United Kingdom medical qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Comments made by doctors about working when ill, in surveys one, five and 10 years after graduation. The response rate, overall, was 57.4% (38,613/67,224 doctors). Free-text comments were provided by 30.7% (11,859/38,613). Three-hundred and twenty one doctors (2.7% of those who wrote comments) wrote about working when feeling acutely ill. Working with Exhaustion/fatigue was the most frequent topic raised (195 doctors), followed by problems with Taking time off for illness (112), and general comments on Physical/mental health problems (66). Other topics raised included Support from others, Leaving or adapting/coping with the situation, Bullying, the Doctor's ability to care for patients and Death/bereavement. Arrangements for cover due to illness were regarded as insufficient by some respondents; some wrote that doctors were expected to work harder and longer to cover for colleagues absent because of illness. We recommend that employers ensure that it is not unduly difficult for doctors to take time off work when ill, and that employers review their strategies for covering ill doctors who are off work.

  15. The Puzzles of the Vela Pulsar-Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, G. G.

    2008-03-01

    Very few pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) can be studied at the level of detail comparable to that achieved for the Crab PWN. The nearby Vela PWN is the best candidate for such an in-depth study. Using Chandra ACIS observations of 2000-2002, we produced a "movie" which shows that not only the NW outer jet, reported by Pavlov et al. (2003), but also the entire bright Vela PWN is remarkably variable. The most dramatic changes occur in the outer arc, the SE inner jet, and the bright knots in the SE part of the inner PWN. On a time scale of 1-3 weeks, the outer arc changes its brightness, shape, and spectrum, the knots move, disappear and appear again, while the SE inner jet changes its brightness and size. In contrast with the Crab PWN, we see no moving "wisps". The observed changes can be attributed to instabilities in the pulsar wind and to varying density/pressure in the ambient medium. Deep combined images show that the inner arc is part of a ring, but the pulsar is offset from its plane. The large width of the SE outer "jet" suggests either an intrinsic asymmetry of the SE and NW polar outflows or that the SE jet broadens in a low-pressure cavity behind the moving pulsar. We also found a puzzling "bar" at the base of the inner SE jet, possibly a shock in a polar outflow. An adaptively binned spectral map demonstrates that the inner PWN elements have extremely hard spectra (significantly harder than those of the Crab inner PWN), incompatible with those predicted by the shock acceleration models. Overall, the Vela PWN shows a wealth of puzzling features, different from the Crab; their nature can be understood in a specially designed series of Chandra ACIS observations.

  16. Electromagnetic 2D/3D Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal anomalies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, Jan; Lapenta, Giovanni; Lembège, Bertrand; Divin, Andrey; Markidis, Stefano; Amaya, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We present the first 2D/3D fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The simulations are performed using the implicit electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code iPIC3D [Markidis, Lapenta & Rizwan-uddin, 2010]. Multiscale physics is resolved for all plasma components (heavy ions, protons and electrons) in the code, recently updated with a set of open boundary conditions designed for solar wind-body interactions. We use a dipole to model the crustal anomaly. The dipole center is located outside the computational domain and the boundary representing the lunar surface is modeled as a particle-absorbing plane. Photo-emission from the lunar surface is at this point not included, but will be in future work. We study the behaviour of the dipole model with variable surface magnetic field strength under changing solar wind conditions and confirm that lunar crustal magnetic fields may indeed be strong enough to stand off the solar wind and form a mini-magnetosphere, as suggested by MHD simulations [Harnett & Winglee, 2000, 2002, 2003] and spacecraft observations [Kurata et al., 2005; Halekas et al., 2008; Wieser et al., 2010]. 3D-PIC simulations reveal to be very helpful to analyze the diversion/braking of the particle flux and the characteristics of the resulting particles accumulation. The particle flux to the surface is significantly reduced at the magnetic anomaly, surrounded by a region of enhanced density due to the magnetic mirror effect. Finally we will present preliminary results on the interaction of the solar wind with weaker magnetic anomalies in which highly non-adiabatic interactions are expected.

  17. Estimation of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure in Populations With Frequent Seafood Intake: Evidence From MESA and NHANES.

    PubMed

    Jones, Miranda R; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Grau, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Post, Wendy S; Kaufman, Joel D; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-10-15

    The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylated arsenic (monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate (DMA)) species is the main biomarker of iAs exposure. Assessing iAs exposure, however, is difficult in populations with moderate-to-high seafood intakes. In the present study, we used subsamples from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002) (n = 310) and the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 1,175). We calibrated urinary concentrations of non-seafood-derived iAs, DMA, and methylarsonate, as well as the sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species, in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and of DMA in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by regressing their original concentrations by arsenobetaine and extracting model residuals. To confirm that calibrated biomarkers reflected iAs exposure but not seafood intake, we compared urinary arsenic concentrations by levels of seafood and rice intakes. Self-reported seafood intakes, estimated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, and measured n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels were positively associated with the original urinary arsenic biomarkers. Using the calibrated arsenic biomarkers, we found a marked attenuation of the associations with self-reported seafood intake and estimated or measured n-3 fatty acids, whereas associations with self-reported rice intake remained similar. Our residual-based method provides estimates of iAs exposure and metabolism for each participant that no longer reflect seafood intake and can facilitate research about low-to-moderate levels of iAs exposure in populations with high seafood intakes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Polar Ozone Loss Rates: Comparison Of Match Observations With Simulations Of 3-D Chemical Transport Model And Box Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, O. P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Lefevre, F.; Marchand, M.; Pazmino, A.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2005-12-01

    Model simulations of ozone loss rates during recent arctic and Antarctic winters are compared with the observed ozone loss rates from the match technique. Arctic winters 1994/1995, 1999/2000, 2002/2003 and the Antarctic winter 2003 were considered for the analysis. We use a high resolution chemical transport model MIMOSA-CHIM and REPROBUS box model for the calculation of ozone loss rates. Trajectory model calculations show that the ozone loss rates are dependent on the initialization fields. On the one hand when chemical fields are initialized by UCAM (University of Cambridge SLIMCAT model simulated fields) the loss rates were underestimated by a factor of two whereas on the other hand when it is initialized by UL (University of Leeds) fields the model loss rates are in a very good agreement with match loss rates at lower levels. The study shows a very good agreement between MIMOSA-CHIM simulation and match observation in 1999/2000 winter at both levels, 450 and 500 K, except slight underestimation in March at 500 K. But in January we have a very good agreement. This is also true for 1994/1995 when we consider simulated ozone loss rate in view of the ECMWF wind deficiency assuming that match observations were not made on isolated trajectories. Sensitivity tests, by changing JCl2O2 value, particle number density and heating rates, performed for the arctic winter 1999/2000 shows that we need to improve our understanding of particle number density and heating rate calculation mechanism. Burkholder JCl2O2 has improved the comparison of MIMOSA-CHIM model results with observations (Tripathi et al., 2005). In the same study the comparison results were shown to improved by changing heating rates and number density through NAT particle sedimentation.

  19. Experiences of Discrimination and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Pankow, James S; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Lewis, Tené T; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Diez Roux, Ana V; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2017-08-15

    Experiences of discrimination are associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes; however, it is unknown whether discrimination is related to incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes). We investigated the associations of major experiences of discrimination (unfair treatment in 6 situations) and everyday discrimination (frequency of day-to-day experiences of unfair treatment) with incident diabetes among 5,310 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, enrolled in 2000-2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios and confidence intervals, adjusting for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, stress, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, diet, waist circumference, and body mass index. Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, 654 diabetes cases were accrued. Major experiences of discrimination were associated with greater risk of incident diabetes when modeled continuously (for each additional experience of discrimination, hazard ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.17) or categorically (for ≥2 experiences vs. 0, hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.66). Similar patterns were observed when evaluating discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity or to a combination of other sources. Everyday discrimination was not associated with incident diabetes. In conclusion, major experiences of discrimination were associated with increased risk of incident diabetes, independent of obesity or behavioral and psychosocial factors. Future research is needed to explore the mechanisms of the discrimination-diabetes relationship. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Circulating and dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Wu, Jason H Y; Baylin, Ana; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Rich, Stephen S; Tsai, Michael Y; Jacobs, David R; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-12-18

    Dietary guidelines support intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish and vegetable oils. However, some controversy remains about benefits of PUFAs, and most prior studies have relied on self-reported dietary assessment in relatively homogeneous populations. In a multiethnic cohort of 2837 US adults (whites, Hispanics, African Americans, Chinese Americans), plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured at baseline (2000-2002) using gas chromatography and dietary PUFAs estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (including coronary heart disease and stroke; n=189) were prospectively identified through 2010 during 19 778 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable-adjusted Cox models, circulating n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were inversely associated with incident CVD, with extreme-quartile hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 0.49 for eicosapentaenoic acid (0.30 to 0.79; Ptrend=0.01) and 0.39 for docosahexaenoic acid (0.22 to 0.67; Ptrend<0.001). n-3 Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) was inversely associated with CVD in whites and Chinese, but not in other race/ethnicities (P-interaction=0.01). No significant associations with CVD were observed for circulating n-3 alpha-linolenic acid or n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid). Associations with CVD of self-reported dietary PUFA were consistent with those of the PUFA biomarkers. All associations were similar across racial-ethnic groups, except those of docosapentaenoic acid. Both dietary and circulating eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, but not alpha-linolenic acid or n-6 PUFA, were inversely associated with CVD incidence. These findings suggest that increased consumption of n-3 PUFA from seafood may prevent CVD development in a multiethnic population.

  1. Distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species and efficiency of capturing methods in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Sahin; Ozer, Nurdan

    2007-01-01

    The population dynamics of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied in Sanliurfa province in southeastern Turkey, in the country's largest focus of typical anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, during 2000-2002. Sand flies were collected at nine different sampling stations, located throughout the city, representing a cross section of urban and rural habitats. In total, 29,771 sand flies were collected, 45.35% of which were Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. In this study, the overall sand fly species diversity, relative abundance of each species, biodiversity, and similarity indices among sampling stations and efficiency of trapping methods were evaluated. Among the sampling stations, Sanliurfa city center and Suruç were shown to have the highest number of sand fly species; Harran-Akcakale and Hilvan habitats produced the largest number of individuals. The greatest similarity rates (80%) in terms of sand fly species were observed between Hilvan and city center, Harran-Akcakale and city center, Harran-Akcakale and Yenice, and Siverek and Viransehir. The lowest similarity rate (16%) was observed between Bozova-Birecik and city center. Comparison of biodiversity and similarity indices between the various sampling stations reveals the distribution of the suspected vector species and provides basic knowledge required to develop logical and effective control strategies. Among the trapping methods used, light traps showed the highest capture efficiency, above aspirators and sticky papers. It was concluded that light traps alone were sufficient to determine the sand fly fauna of the study area. It is recommended that the spatial and temporal dynamics of sand fly populations be monitored throughout the southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) construction period, considering the potential impact the project may have on mean temperature, humidity, and human population movements.

  2. Winter storms in the central Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A.; Lang, T.

    2003-04-01

    Based on observations from a hydrometeorological network in the Marsyandi river basin, on the eastern slopes of the Annapurna Range, the summer monsoon (June-September) is responsible for 80-90% of annual precipitation at low elevations (< 2000 m MSL) in central Nepal, with nearly all of it in liquid form even during the winter. However, high elevations (> 3000 m MSL) can receive up to 25-35% of their annual precipitation as snowfall during the winter, with the percentage of the annual total an increasing function of elevation. Major snowstorms are associated with terrain-locked low-pressure systems that form when upper-level disturbances (the so-called Western Disturbances) pass over the notch formed by the Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains, causing upper-level SW flow over central Nepal and orographically forced precipitation. Notable case studies for three winters (January-March 2000-2002) are reviewed using local precipitation (snow and rain) and other meteorological data, as well as satellite (Meteosat-5 and TRMM) and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. A 30-year (1973-2002) climatology of “notch” depressions reveals that winter storms in the central Himalayas are characterized by strong inter-annual variability, which cannot be explained based on known modes of climate variability (e.g., ENSO, NAO, etc). Finally, a cloud-resolving model with realistic topography is used to investigate mechanisms for controlling the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation during typical winter storms. The results indicate that precipitation occurs in the central Himalayas only when the large-scale circulation evolves to a spatial configuration that favors orographic precipitation processes. In addition, westerly-propagating along-barrier precipitation features fed by an easterly barrier jet apparently play an important role in bringing precipitation to lower elevations.

  3. Recent Patient Characteristics and Medications at Admission and Discharge in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Tadaaki; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Morito, Natsumi; Shiga, Yuhei; Kitajima, Ken; Morii, Joji; Iwata, Atsushi; Fujimi, Kanta; Yahiro, Eiji; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-02-01

    To improve the clinical outcome of heart failure (HF), it is important to evaluate the etiology and comorbidities of HF. We previously reported the baseline clinical characteristics and medications in hospitalized patients with HF in years 2000 - 2002 (group 2000) and 2007 - 2009 (group 2008). We conducted a retrospective study of 158 patients who were hospitalized due to HF between 2012 and 2014 (group 2013) in the Department of Cardiology, Fukuoka University Hospital. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and medications at admission and discharge, and compared the findings in group 2013 to those in group 2000 and group 2008. The major causes of HF were ischemic heart disease, hypertensive cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. The New York Heart Association classification in group 2013 was significantly higher than those in group 2000 and group 2008. There was no difference in the level of brain natriuretic peptide at admission between group 2008 and group 2013. Tolvaptan began to be administered in group 2013. The median dose of furosemide just before the use of tolvaptan was 40 mg/day. At discharge, group 2013 showed higher rates of β-blocker and aldosterone antagonist. There was no difference in the frequency of loop diuretics. The dose of carvedilol at discharge was only 6.2 ± 4.0 mg/day. Antiarrhythmic drugs and β-blocker were used more frequently in HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) than in HF with preserved EF. We may be able to improve the clinical outcome of HF by examining the differences in the clinical characteristics and medications at admission and discharge in hospitalized patients with HF.

  4. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Saltzman, J.; Begley, H.; Bassett, H.; Hester, M.; Mann, L.; Scott, J.; Ulrich, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999. In cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association, goals include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; and 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Student volunteers complete an intensive 22 hour training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students conduct four baseline monitoring surveys three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring) to identify and count key invertebrate and algae species. During 2000-2002, the density of black turban snails, Tegula funebralis, is lowest in the high intertidal zones in winter yet has little seasonal variability in the mid intertidal zones. Most algae species had consistently higher percent cover in the northern transects than the more accessible southern transects. To test the reliability of the student counts, replicate counts of all species were performed. Replicate counts for invertebrate species within the same quadrat along the permanent transects revealed a very small amount of variability, giving us confidence that our monitoring program can provide reliable data. Student volunteers helped to design and install a rocky intertidal information kiosk to greet visitors at the entrance of Duxbury Reef. The kiosk includes pictures and natural history information on key intertidal species as well as tidepooling etiquette. Students lead an annual celebration at Duxbury Reef and lead intertidal walks for

  5. [Air pollutants and their correlation with medical visits for acute respiratory infections in children less than five years of age in urban Guadalajara, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sánchez, Hermes Ulises; Andrade-García, María Dolores; González-Castañeda, Miguel Ernesto; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo de Jesús

    2006-01-01

    To describe the correlation between the concentration levels of atmospheric air pollutants and the number of medical visits to IMSS, ISSSTE and of SSJ healthcare facilities of the Urban Area of Guadalajara between 2000-2002 by children under five years suffering from acute respiratory infections. An ecological study was performed to describe the correlation between the interpolated monthly average modes, monthly mobile average of air pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microns (PM10) and sulfur dioxide,and the number of medical visits per month due to acute respiratory infections in children under five years. The air pollutants: carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide show a significant correlation with the incidence of acute respiratory infections in children less than five years of age in the Urban Area of Guadalajara. The correlation coefficients were: CO (r= 0.05) and NO2 (r= 0.09). Although the concentrations of air pollutants stay below the official limit, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide affect the health of the child population of the Urban Area of Guadalajara. Although the monthly average mode and monthly mobile average does not exceed the established legislation,the registered maximums do exceed it; this indicates that although throughout most of the day there is no latent risk of population exposure to the air pollutants, during some hours of certain days there is a risk for the population of breathing air contaminated with concentrations higher than the limit, which can cause the development of acute respiratory infections.

  6. Hyper-luminous Wandering Massive Black Holes Discovered in the XMM-Newton Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Homan, Jeroen; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Webb, Natalie; Irwin, Jimmy; Dupke, Renato A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strader, Jay; Barret, Didier; Godet, Olivier; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2017-08-01

    Galaxies are believed to assemble through hierarchical merging. The cosmological simulations find that the merging process should leave many wandering massive black holes in galactic halos. Only a few candidates for such objects have been found. We report the discovery of two ultrasoft hyper-luminous off-nuclear X-ray sources from the XMM-Newton catalog. One has a projected offset of ~1 arcsec (5.2 kpc) from the nucleus of an inactive S0 galaxy at a distance of d_L=2.3 Gpc in the Extended Groth Strip. It was serendipitously detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra in 2000-2002, with characteristic temperature of 0.1-0.2 keV and peak X-ray luminosity of 4X10^43 erg/s. It was not detected in our later follow-up observations, implying a long-term flux variation factor of >14. It has a faint optical counterpart candidate of the absolute V-band magnitude of -15.9 AB mag. The other source has a projected offset of 11.6 arcsec (12.4 kpc) from the nucleus of a barred S0 galaxy at d_L=244 Mpc. It has been detected from 2006 to 1016 with systematic decrease in both the X-ray luminosity (from 7X10^42 erg/s to 4X10^41 erg/s) and the characteristic temperature (from 0.28 keV to 0.14 keV). The X-ray outburst was associated with an optical flare, which suggested that the event started before 2005. We discuss various explanations for both sources and find that they are best explained as massive (10^4-10^5 solar mass) black holes embedded in the nucleus of possibly stripped satellite galaxies, with the X-ray outbursts due to tidal disruption of surrounding stars by the black holes.

  7. Noctilucent cloud variability and mean parameters from 15 years of lidar observations at a mid-latitude site (54°N, 12°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerding, M.; HöFfner, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Kopp, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Noctilucent clouds (NLC) are an important tracer of temperature and dynamics of the summer mesopause region. Our site at Kühlungsborn (Germany, 54°N) is at the equatorward edge of the NLC region and therefore of special interest for the understanding of these clouds. 41 nights (63 h) of NLC are observed since 1997. They form the largest lidar data set from mid-latitudes. NLC are typically weak, with nearly 70% having a backscatter coefficient βmax,532nm < 2 ṡ 10-10 m-1 sr-1. The seasonal variation of NLC shows maximum occurrence around the temperature minimum (saturation maximum) but lower temperatures (higher saturation) at the beginning compared to the end of the season. Mean centroid altitude is 82.7 ± 0.03 km, with strong NLC being typically lower and vertically thinner compared to weak clouds. NLC occurrence was lowest in the years 2000-2002 and reached a maximum in 2009 with a rate of 19%. Overall, NLC are less frequent and dimmer compared to higher latitudes. The occurrence is highly anti-correlated with solar activity. Beside NLC, we are measuring mesospheric temperatures since 2002 by lidars, complemented by microwave observations of water vapor (since October 2009) and radar observations of mesospheric winds. NLC occurrence is found anti-correlated with ambient temperatures (r = -0.85 at 84 km), while low temperatures are necessary but not sufficient for individual events. Meridional winds at 84 km are weakly anti-correlated with NLC occurrence (r = -0.58 at 84 km). Furthermore, we find some biennial variation of NLC occurrence in part of the time series. Any additional trend has not yet been detected.

  8. Hydrochemical Response to Drought Conditions at an Alpine Watershed, Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. R.; Williams, M. W.; Caine, N.; Janke, J. R.; Hartman, M. D.

    2007-12-01

    Extreme climate events play a key role in alpine hydrochemistry by altering source waters and flowpaths. Persistent drought conditions from 2000-2002 at Green Lakes Valley resulted in precipitation and streamflow about 75% of normal for the last 25 years. Surprisingly, both concentrations and fluxes of geochemical weathering products and nutrients increased during the drought at the higher elevation sites. Niwot Ridge LTER has continuously monitored streamflow, precipitation chemistry, and water quality for 25 years in Green Lakes Valley at 8 sites representing an elevation gradient extending from 3250 meters at the valley outlet to 4000 meters at the continental divide. Comparing continuous 5-year blocks of above-average precipitation (1993-1997) vs. below-average years (2000- 2004), both concentrations and fluxes were significantly higher during drought for base cations (p<0.05) throughout upper Green Lakes Valley. DAYCENT modeled predicted discharge correctly during the period of above-average precipitation but underpredicted discharge during drought conditions, suggesting an additional source of water. End Member Mixing Analyses (EMMA) conducted during 1996 constrains streamflow as a mixture of snowmelt, talus water, and groundwater with subsurface flowpaths contributing more than 50% of streamflow, even during snowmelt (Liu, 2004). However, EMMA results during drought years using chemical and isotopic compositions from surface water, talus springs, snowpits, snowmelt, soil water, and groundwater suggest an additional, unidentified source of streamflow. One possible end member is melting permafrost within the basin. We downscaled a qualitative, regional permafrost distribution model of the Colorado Front Range to investigate the potential role of melting permafrost on hydrochemical characteristics in Green Lakes Valley. Model results indicate that increasing mean annual air temperature by 1 degree Celsius results could melt 35% of permafrost in the watershed

  9. Impact of a prescription monitoring program on doctor-shopping for high dosage buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Vincent; Frauger, Elisabeth; Thirion, Xavier; Ronfle, Eléonore; Lapierre, Véronique; Masut, Alain; Coudert, Christine; Blin, Olivier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2009-01-01

    Doctor-shopping (simultaneous use of several physicians by a patient) is one of the most frequent ways of diversion for prescription drugs. A specific method was used to assess the evolution of doctor-shopping for High Dosage Buprenorphine (HDB) in a French region from 2000 to 2005 and the impact of a prescription monitoring program for HDB implemented in 2004. Data from eight periods (semesters of years 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2005) were extracted from a prescription database. Three quantities (the delivered, the prescribed, and the doctor-shopping quantity) were computed for each patient. The total doctor-shopping quantity and the doctor-shopping ratio (percentage of buprenorphine obtained through doctor-shopping) were used to evaluate the diversion of HDB among the population. The total prescribed quantity and the number of patients treated regularly were used as indicators of the access to treatment. The doctor-shopping ratio increased from 1st semester 2000 to 1st semester 2004 (from 14.9 to 21.7%) and then decreased to 16.9% in 2nd semester 2005. The total doctor-shopping quantity followed the same evolution. The number of patients treated remained stable from 1st semester 2000 to 2nd semester 2005. The prescribed quantity increased from 1st semester 2000 to 2nd semester 2002, decreased in 1st semester 2004 (4163 g) and then remained stable. After a four-year increase of the diversion through doctor-shopping for buprenorphine the beginning of the prescription monitoring program was concomitant with a marked decrease of doctor-shopping indicators without notable impact on the access to treatment.

  10. The cancer survival gap between elderly and middle-aged patients in Europe is widening.

    PubMed

    Quaglia, Alberto; Tavilla, Andrea; Shack, Lorraine; Brenner, Hermann; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska; Allemani, Claudia; Colonna, Marc; Grande, Enrico; Grosclaude, Pascale; Vercelli, Marina

    2009-04-01

    The present study is aimed to compare survival and prognostic changes over time between elderly (70-84 years) and middle-aged cancer patients (55-69 years). We considered seven cancer sites (stomach, colon, breast, cervix and corpus uteri, ovary and prostate) and all cancers combined (but excluding prostate and non-melanoma skin cancers). Five-year relative survival was estimated for cohorts of patients diagnosed in 1988-1999 in a pool of 51 European populations covered by cancer registries. Furthermore, we applied the period-analysis method to more recent incidence data from 32 cancer registries to provide 1- and 5-year relative survival estimates for the period of follow-up 2000-2002. A significant survival improvement was observed from 1988 to 1999 for all cancers combined and for every cancer site, except cervical cancer. However, survival increased at a slower rate in the elderly, so that the gap between younger and older patients widened, particularly for prostate cancer in men and for all considered cancers except cervical cancer in women. For breast and prostate cancers, the increasing gap was likely attributable to a larger use of, respectively, mammographic screening and PSA test in middle-aged with respect to the elderly. In the period analysis of the most recent data, relative survival was much higher in middle-aged patients than in the elderly. The differences were higher for breast and gynaecological cancers, and for prostate cancer. Most of this age gap was due to a very large difference in survival after the 1st year following the diagnosis. Differences were much smaller for conditional 5-year relative survival among patients who had already survived the first year. The increase of survival in elderly men is encouraging but the lesser improvement in women and, in particular, the widening gap for breast cancer suggest that many barriers still delay access to care and that enhanced prevention and clinical management remain major issues.

  11. [Risk factors for suicide attempts in elderly and old elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Polewka, Andrzej; Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kroch, Stanisław; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mikołaszek-Boba, Magdalena; Groszek, Barbara; Zieba, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the phenomenon of suicide attempt in the elderly inhabitants of Kraków. Special attention has been paid to the group of "seniors"--aged 75 years or over. The authors have analyzed all the 136 cases of suicide attempts by individuals aged over 60 years, selected from the cases of suicide attempts by self-intoxications by patients hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology, CMUJ in Kraków in the years 2000-2002. The group concerned included 45 males and 91 females. A large number of subjects (over a half of the total) ranged in age from 60 to 65 years. The group of seniors comprised 35 individuals (aged 75 years or over), including 7 males and 28 females. On the basis of the data from medical documentation, the subjects were analysed from the point of view of their health condition and in the psycho-social context. In the majority of cases the subjects are pensioners residing in Kraków, often living alone. In the case of 98% of the subjects, it was their first suicide attempt. Pharmaceuticals used for self-poisoning were most frequently psychotropic, or mixed-type drugs. The assessment of the severity of poisoning indicates that in about 20% patients poisoning was severe. 70% of the subjects suffered from depressive, reactive, or situational disorders, affective depression or organic brain disorders, often with dementive signs. A significant number of subjects suffered from hypertension, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, or alimentary tract diseases. In the group of the seniors, the most conspicuous problems included serious somatic diseases (malignant diseases and chronic respiratory system diseases), depression, organic dementia, loneliness, and bad family situation. Taking into consideration the scantiness of research into attempted and completed suicide in the elderly and in the old elderly, the present authors stress the importance of the continuation of the research to prevent suicide in the aforesaid

  12. Do sex hormones or hormone therapy modify the relation of n-3 fatty acids with incident depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women? The MESA Study.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Laura A; Ouyang, Pamela; Golden, Sherita Hill; Szklo, Moyses; Gapstur, Susan M; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Liu, Kiang

    2017-01-01

    Considering that estradiol (E2) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have roles in neurogenesis and in neurotransmission, we examined whether the association of PUFAs with incident depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women is modified by hormone therapy (HT) use or estrogen status. Women (N=1616) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (2000-2002) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were classified by HT usage and quartiles of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the sum EPA+DHA. Women with serum E2 ≤0.073 nmol/L (sample median), were classified low on E2. Poisson regression was used to model incident depressive symptoms at examination 3 (2004-05), defined by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale ≥16 or taking an antidepressant, first as a function of HT use and n-3 PUFA quartiles, and second, as a function of low E2 status and n-3 PUFA quartiles. Among HT non- users, positive, graded relationships (p-trends≤0.003) were found between PUFAs and incident depressive symptoms. Compared to the lowest quartile, the adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for the highest were 2.10, 2.39, and 2.04 for EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA, respectively. For HT users, no associations were seen. When analyses were run for E2 status, the RRs over quartiles of the PUFAs were positive and graded for low E2 women, but were null for High E2 women. Higher intakes of DHA and EPA were associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in nonusers of HT, contrary to hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accretion States of the Galactic Micro Quasar GRS 1758-258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, Roberto; Mehdipour, Missagh; Broderick, Jess W.; Hao, JingFang; Hannikainen, Diana C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a radio and X-ray study of the Galactic micro quasar GRS 1758-258, using unpublished archival data and new observations. We focus in particular on the 2000-2002 state transitions, and on its more quiet behaviour in 2008-2009. Our spectral and timing analysis of the XMM-Newton data shows that the source was in the canonical intermediate, soft and hard states in 2000 September 19,2001 March 22 and 2002 September 28, respectively. We estimate the disk size, luminosity and temperature, which are consistent with a black hole mass approx.10 Solar Mass, There is much overlap between the range of total X-ray luminosities (on average approx. 0.02L(sub Edd)) in the hard and soft states, and probably between the corresponding mass accretion rates; in fact, the hard state is often more luminous. The extended radio lobes seen in 1992 and 1997 are still present in 2008-2009. The 5-GHz radio core flux density has shown variability between approx. 0.1-0.5 mJy over the last two decades. This firmly places GRS 1758-258 in the radio-quiet sequence of Galactic black holes, in the radio/X-ray plane. We note that this dichotomy is similar to the dichotomy between the radio/X-ray sequences of Seyfert and radio galaxies. We propose that the different radio efficiency of the two sequences is due to relativistic electron/positron jets in radio-loud black holes, and sub-relativistic, thermally dominated outflows in radio-quiet sources.

  14. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Elizabeth D; Lampe, Johanna W.; Peters, Ulrike; Vaughan, Thomas L.; White, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-neoplastic properties, yet evidence for association between LC-PUFAs and colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconsistent. Using the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort, we evaluated how EPA/DHA intake, and its primary sources, fish oil supplement use and dark fish consumption, relate to CRC risk. A total of 68,109 Washington residents aged 50-76 completed a questionnaire between 2000-2002 and were followed for CRC through 2008 (n=488). Persons using fish oil supplements on 4+days/week for 3+years experienced 49% lower CRC risk than non-users (HR:0.51; 95% CI:0.26-1.00; p-trend=0.06). The association between fish oil use and decreased CRC risk was primarily observed for men (p-interaction=0.02; p-trend men=0.02; p-trend women=0.88) and for colon cancer (p-difference=0.05; p-trend colon=0.03; p-trend rectum=0.87). While dark fish and total EPA+DHA intake were not associated with CRC risk overall, these associations varied by genetic risk (p-interaction=0.009 and 0.02, respectively), with inverse associations observed among low-moderate genetic risk groups and positive associations observed among high risk groups. Results suggest that associations between LC-PUFA intake and CRC may vary by gender, subsite, and genetic risk, providing additional insight into the potential role of LC-PUFAs in cancer prevention. PMID:24053119

  15. A prospective examination of the path from child abuse and neglect to illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the potential mediating role of four risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2009-03-01

    This study examines prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and school problems as potential mediators of the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. Children with documented cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 39). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Drug use was assessed via self-reports of past year use of marijuana, psychedelics, cocaine, and/or heroin during 2000-2002 (N = 896). Latent variable structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test: (1) a four-factor model with separate pathways from CAN to illicit drug use through each of the mediating risk factors and (2) a second-order model with a single mediating risk factor comprised of prostitution, homelessness, delinquency and crime, and poor school performance. Analyses were performed separately for women and men, controlling for race/ethnicity and early drug use. In the four-factor model for both men and women, CAN was significantly related to each of the mediators, but no paths from the mediators to drug use were significant. For women, the second-order risk factor mediated the relationship between CAN and illicit drug use in middle adulthood. For men, neither child abuse and neglect nor the second-order risk factor predicted drug use in middle adulthood. These results suggest that for women, the path from CAN to middle adulthood drug use is part of a general "problem behavior syndrome" evident earlier in life.

  16. Self-reported preparedness for clinical work has increased among recent cohorts of UK-trained first-year doctors

    PubMed Central

    Lachish, Shelly; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction UK medical schools have made considerable efforts to ensure that graduates are well prepared for their first year of clinical work. We report the views of two recent cohorts of UK-trained doctors 1 year after graduation about whether their medical school prepared them well, and compare responses with earlier cohorts. Methods We surveyed doctors who qualified in 2011 and 2012 from all UK medical schools. We obtained their responses to the statement ‘My experience at medical school prepared me well for the jobs I have undertaken so far’ on a 5-point scale from ‘Strongly Agree’ to ‘Strongly Disagree’. Responses were compared with those of the UK graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2009, surveyed in the same way 1 year after graduation. Results The percentage of doctors who either ‘Agreed’ or ‘Strongly Agreed’ that they were well prepared doubled from 35% in 1999 to 70% in 2012, while the percentage who ‘Strongly Agreed’ with the statement increased fourfold. Perceptions of being well prepared have increased in graduates from almost every medical school. Variation between medical schools in self-reported preparedness of their graduates has decreased in recent cohorts. However, some large differences between medical schools remain. Significant differences in perceived preparedness remain between white and non-white doctors, but have diminished between men and women. Conclusions Our work contributes to growing evidence suggesting that changes to medical education in the UK are producing doctors who feel well prepared for the challenges of being a doctor, though further improvements could be made. PMID:26903664

  17. Insomnia symptoms and subsequent cardiovascular medication: a register-linked follow-up study among middle-aged employees.

    PubMed

    Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Hublin, Christer; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea

    2014-06-01

    Sleep disturbances have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes. The associations of insomnia with hypertension and dyslipidaemia, the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, are less studied. We especially lack understanding on the longitudinal effects of insomnia on dyslipidaemia. We aimed to examine the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent prescribed medication for hypertension and dyslipidaemia using objective register-based follow-up data. Baseline questionnaire surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, were conducted in 2000-2002 (n = 6477, response rate 67%, 78% women) and linked to a national register on prescribed reimbursed medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline. Associations between the frequency of insomnia symptoms (difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, non-restorative sleep) and hypertension and dyslipidaemia medication during the follow-up were analysed using logistic regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals). Analyses were adjusted for pre-baseline medication, sociodemographic and work-related factors, health behaviours, mental health, and diabetes. Frequent insomnia symptoms were reported by 20%. During the 5-year follow-up, 32% had hypertension medication and 15% dyslipidaemia medication. Adjusting for age, gender and pre-baseline medication, frequent insomnia symptoms were associated with hypertension medication (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.00) and dyslipidaemia medication (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.12). Occasional insomnia symptoms were also associated with cardiovascular medication, though less strongly. Further adjustments had negligible effects. To conclude, insomnia should be taken into account in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Change in Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Weight Gain: Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Lian, Min; McClurkin, Michael; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Das, Sandeep R; Hoehner, Christine M; Leonard, Tammy

    2015-07-01

    Despite a proposed connection between neighborhood environment and obesity, few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between change in neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, as defined by moving between neighborhoods, and change in body weight. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between moving to more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and weight gain as a cardiovascular risk factor. Weight (kilograms) was measured in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic cohort aged 18-65 years, at baseline (2000-2002) and 7-year follow-up (2007-2009, N=1,835). Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Geocoded addresses were linked to Dallas County, TX, census block groups. A block group-level neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created. Multilevel difference-in-difference models with random effects and a Heckman correction factor (HCF) determined weig