Science.gov

Sample records for ple kfa jlich

  1. Basin modeling, methane and nitrogen generation, and migration problems: Industry cooperation with research at KFA Juelich

    SciTech Connect

    Poelchau, H.S.; Frielingsdorf, J.; Krooss, B.

    1995-08-01

    Research definition and selection of projects at the Institute of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry (KFA Juelich) have always been driven by the need of industry. This poster presents a summary of three studies involving industry collaboration. Gas Generation in the West Siberian Basin and Atmospheric Methane Balance: This collaborative project at KFA Juelich and VNII Geosystems (Moscow) with a Russian gas company (Urengoy Neft Gas Geologiya) is funded by several German gas companies (Ruhrgas, Veba and Wintershall). The objective is the understanding of methane generation and accumulation in the crust, and methane release to the atmosphere. The area chosen for study in NW Siberia contains the largest gas fields on earth and supplies a large portion of natural gas used in Germany. Measurements of soil gas emanation rates and in-flight atmospheric methane concentrations are used to calculate the methane balance between lithosphere and atmosphere and possibly anthropogenic pollution (pipeline leaks, etc.). Nitrogen-Rich Natural Gas in the North German Basin - Origin, Kinetics and Numerical Simulation: Many gas reservoirs in the North German Basin contain high concentration (< 10 to >90%) of nitrogen, making these accumulations non-commercial. Pyrolysis of Carboniferous coals showed that not only methane but also significant amounts of nitrogen are generated from the coaly organic matter. Using these pyrolysis kinetics in a basin modelling study, nitrogen concentrations were predicted which closely correlate with observed nitrogen concentrations. German-Norwegian Geoscientific Cooperation: The main goals of this joint effort between the Norwegian and German petroleum industry and research organizations are to: understand and reconstruct the processes involved in the dynamic evolution of the lithosphere; promote the collaboration of scientists of different background; address open questions of basin evolution and reservoir formation in a common study area (North Sea).

  2. Production and revision of maps using satellite photography from MKF-6, KATE-140, KATE-200 and KFA-1000 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Joachim

    The paper describes experiences with the production and revision of maps using satellite photographs in the German Democratic Republic. Since 1976 we have been producing photogrammetric products at scales between 1:500,000 and 1:50,000 from space photographs. In the last years we have obtained high-resolution Soviet space photographs taken with the KFA-1000 camera with a resolution of 5 to 10 m. Experience has shown that the photographs can be used for the "shortened updating" of maps at 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 scale.

  3. May I Suggest? Comparing Three PLE Recommender Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modritscher, Felix; Krumay, Barbara; El Helou, Sandy; Gillet, Denis; Nussbaumer, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich; Dahn, Ingo; Ullrich, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Personal learning environment (PLE) solutions aim at empowering learners to design (ICT and web-based) environments for their learning activities, mashing-up content and people and apps for different learning contexts. Widely used in other application areas, recommender systems can be very useful for supporting learners in their PLE-based…

  4. 40 CFR Table 30 to Subpart G of... - Roof Fitting Loss Factors, KFa, KFb, and m, a and Typical Number of Fittings, NT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Roof Fitting Loss Factors, KFa, KFb, and m, a and Typical Number of Fittings, NT 30 Table 30 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  5. 40 CFR Table 30 to Subpart G of... - Roof Fitting Loss Factors, KFa, KFb, and m, a and Typical Number of Fittings, NT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1.0 a The roof fitting loss factors, KFa, KFb, and m, may only be used for wind speeds from 2 to 15... floating roofs. They are, however, used on double-deck floating roofs and are typically left open. f The... provided for use if this smaller size roof is used on a particular floating roof. g Rim vents are used only...

  6. 40 CFR Table 30 to Subpart G of... - Roof Fitting Loss Factors, KFa, KFb, and m, a and Typical Number of Fittings, NT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1.0 a The roof fitting loss factors, KFa, KFb, and m, may only be used for wind speeds from 2 to 15... floating roofs. They are, however, used on double-deck floating roofs and are typically left open. f The... provided for use if this smaller size roof is used on a particular floating roof. g Rim vents are used only...

  7. 40 CFR Table 30 to Subpart G of... - Roof Fitting Loss Factors, KFa, KFb, and m, a and Typical Number of Fittings, NT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1.0 a The roof fitting loss factors, KFa, KFb, and m, may only be used for wind speeds from 2 to 15... floating roofs. They are, however, used on double-deck floating roofs and are typically left open. f The... provided for use if this smaller size roof is used on a particular floating roof. g Rim vents are used only...

  8. 40 CFR Table 30 to Subpart G of... - Roof Fitting Loss Factors, KFa, KFb, and m, a and Typical Number of Fittings, NT

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1.0 a The roof fitting loss factors, KFa, KFb, and m, may only be used for wind speeds from 2 to 15... floating roofs. They are, however, used on double-deck floating roofs and are typically left open. f The... provided for use if this smaller size roof is used on a particular floating roof. g Rim vents are used only...

  9. Quantifying temporal and spatial variability of nearshore processes around a nearshore kelp forest rocky reef with the KFA cabled observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squibb, M. E.; Martone, R. G.; Litvin, S.; Woodson, C. B.; Monismith, S. G.; Dunckley, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    Oceanographic data from the Kelp Forest Array (KFA) cabled observatory is used to determine the frequency, intensity, duration and seasonal variation of low-pH and low-DO events, and relate them to temperature and density variability associated with internal waves and upwelling. We employ standard time series analyses, to determine the frequency distributions of variance in pH, DO, and T and coherence analysis to identify frequency dependent co-variability among the three variables. Statistical analysis is used to identify the probability of a hypoxic event of given strength (e.g., DO < 4.5 mg/l17) lasting for a given duration and compare this between habitats. Joint probability distribution functions of low-pH and low-DO are computed from the data in the same way. This approach can be used to identify the likelihood of extreme events with respect to specific DO and pH thresholds of physiological relevance for species of interest in MPAs. The time scales and vertical structure of velocities, temperature, and dissolved oxygen associated with low-DO events are analyzed to determine the dominant transport mechanisms for these events and how they are tied to internal shoaling waves prevalent in the southern part of Monterey Bay. Our work in 2015 is contextualized by multi-year data sets from the three previous years which contain observations of both upwelling and non-upwelling periods. Long-term instrumentation attached to the KFA main node include a 1200 KHz ADCP, a CTD with transmissometer, oxygen optode, and fluorometer (Chla), a Satlantic SeaFET pH sensor, and a PME temperature and dissolved oxygen string (DO/T chain).

  10. Lessons Learnt from and Sustainability of Adopting a Personal Learning Environment & Network (Ple&N)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Eric; Sabetzadeh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the feedback from the configuration and deployment of a Personal Learning Environment & Network (PLE&N) tool to support peer-based social learning for university students and graduates. An extension of an earlier project in which a generic and PLE&N was deployed for all learners, the current PLE&N is a…

  11. Deliverable for FαST project: Ln Resin based PLE

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dominic S.; Armenta, Claudine E.; Rim, Jung H.

    2012-05-03

    This memo describes the fabrication of a polymer ligand extractant based on Eichrom's LN-1 resin. This work has been in support of the Fast Alpha Spectrometry Tool (F{alpha}ST) project. The first part of LANL's role in this project is to evaluate new extractants for use in polymer ligand extractants (PLEs). The first new extractant evaluated is Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), which is an effective metal extractant. It has very efficient chelating properties for a wide variety of metal ions. HDEHP is an amphiphillic molecule with two long hydrocarbon chains and a polar end with a phosphoryl oxygen (P=O) and an acidic -OH group as shown in Figure 1. HDEHP has shown effectiveness in extracting lanthanides, selective actinides, and other trivalent elements. Several authors have reported that lanthanides and elements with +3 oxidation state have similar extraction behavior in nitric acid. The distribution ratio for lanthanides rapidly decreases at lower nitric concentration then start to increase at higher concentration as shown in. The trivalent americium, curium, and yttrium exhibit similar trend as trivalent lanthanides. This extraction trend can be also observed from hydrogen chloride solution. This work describes the use of this ligand in a PLE to extract plutonium from solution. Polymer ligand films were prepared by dissolving HDEHP ligands and polystyrene beads in THF. The solution was directly deposited onto a 40 mm diameter stainless steel substrate using an automated pipette. HDEHP based PLEs with direct stippling method are shown in Figure 2. The solution was air dried at room temperature overnight to ensure complete evaporation of THF. The plutonium tracer solution was prepared in 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 8M nitric solutions to study the effect of nitric concentration in plutonium extraction. 0.1667 Bq {sup 239}Pu tracer solution was directly stippled on each PLE and was allowed to equilibrate for 3 hours before removing the solution. The plutonium

  12. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part I. The application of PLE for HPLC analysis of caffeine in green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    A broad spectrum of sample preparation methods is currently used for the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds from plant and herbal materials. The paper compares the effectiveness of infusion, microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE), matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) as sample preparation methods for the isolation of caffeine from green tea leaves. The effect of PLE variables, such as extraction temperature, pressure and time, on the yield of caffeine from the investigated matrix is discussed. The obtained results revealed that PLE, in comparison with other sample preparation methods applied, has significantly lower efficacy for caffeine isolation from green tea leaves. The evaluation of PLE conditions leads to the conclusion that elevated pressure applied in the PLE process is the factor hindering the extraction.

  13. TriPleX: a versatile dielectric photonic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörhoff, Kerstin; Heideman, René G.; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Photonic applications based on planar waveguide technology impose stringent requirements on properties such as optical propagation losses, light coupling to optical fibers, integration density, as well as on reliability and reproducibility. The latter is correlated to a high level of control of the refractive index and waveguide geometry. In this paper, we review a versatile dielectric waveguide platform, called TriPleX, which is based on alternating silicon nitride and silicon dioxide films. Fabrication with CMOS-compatible equipment based on low-pressure chemical vapor deposition enables the realization of stable material compositions being a prerequisite to the control of waveguide properties and modal shape. The transparency window of both materials allows for the realization of low-loss waveguides over a wide wavelength range (400 nm-2.35 μm). Propagation losses as low as 5×10-4 dB/cm are reported. Three basic geometries (box shell, double stripe, and filled box) can be distinguished. A specific tapering technology is developed for on-chip, low-loss (<0.1 dB) spotsize convertors, allowing for combining efficient fiber to chip coupling with high-contrast waveguides required for increased functional complexity as well as for hybrid integration with other photonic platforms such as InP and SOI. The functionality of the TriPleX platform is captured by verified basic building blocks. The corresponding library and associated design kit is available for multi-project wafer (MPW) runs. Several applications of this platform technology in communications, biomedicine, sensing, as well as a few special fields of photonics are treated in more detail.

  14. Can the Integration of a PLE in an E-Portfolio Platform Improve Generic Competences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galván-Fernández, Cristina; Rubio-Hurtado, María José; Martínez-Olmo, Francesc; Rodríguez-Illera, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    The study analyzes the improvement in generic competences through e-portfolio/PLE platform and didactic planning. The new version of the platform, Digital Folder, contains utilities for students and teachers and some PLE components that help the learning process through e-portfolios. Didactic planning is compared for students from the University…

  15. Personal Learning Environments (PLE) in the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallego, Maria Jesus; Gamiz, Vanesa Maria

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to analyze the elements that compose the PLE of pre-service teachers and to determine whether the composition of these environments is related to academic achievement in a course on Information and Communication Technologies in Education. The hypothesis is that a PLE with more components is related to a higher…

  16. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Parametric Decay of Pump Waves into two Linear Modes in SINP MaPLE Device

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Subir; Pal, Rabindranath

    2010-11-23

    Parametric decay of incident waves of ion cyclotron frequency range into linear modes is observed in experiment performed in the SINP MaPLE device where nitrogen plasma produced by ECR discharge. Along with a mode in drift wave frequency range, sideband of the incident waves are observed when amplitude of the exciter signal goes above a threshold value. Sideband of the second harmonic is also seen. Preliminary studies point towards excitation of ion Bernstein wave. Details of the experimental results are presented.

  18. FIV diversity: FIV Ple subtype composition may influence disease outcome in African lions.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Roelke, Melody E; Jespersen, Jillian M; Baggett, Natalie; Buckley-Beason, Valerie; MacNulty, Dan; Craft, Meggan; Packer, Craig; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2011-10-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects domestic cats and at least 20 additional species of non-domestic felids throughout the world. Strains specific to domestic cat (FIV(Fca)) produce AIDS-like disease progression, sequelae and pathology providing an informative model for HIV infection in humans. Less is known about the immunological and pathological influence of FIV in other felid species although multiple distinct strains of FIV circulate in natural populations. As in HIV-1 and HIV-2, multiple diverse cross-species infections may have occurred. In the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, three divergent subtypes of lion FIV (FIV(Ple)) are endemic, whereby 100% of adult lions are infected with one or more of these strains. Herein, the relative distribution of these subtypes in the population are surveyed and, combined with observed differences in lion mortality due to secondary infections based on FIV(Ple) subtypes, the data suggest that FIV(Ple) subtypes may have different patterns of pathogenicity and transmissibility among wild lion populations.

  19. Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Ya; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L.; Tang, Yan-Jie; Pearson, Norman J.; Liu, Yu; Chu, Mei-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Tang, Guo-Qiang; O’Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the behavior of Li in zircon, we have analyzed the abundance and isotopic composition of Li in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora) widely used for microbeam analysis of U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. We have mapped Li concentration ([Li]) on large grains, using a Cameca 1280HR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). All zircons have a rim 5–20 μm wide in which [Li] is 5 to 20 times higher than in the core. Up to ~20‰ isotopic fractionation is observed on a small scale in the rims of a single zircon grain. The measured δ7Li values range from –14.3 to 3.7‰ for Plešovice, –22.8 to 1.4‰ for Qinghu and –4.7 to 16.1‰ for Temora zircon. The [Li] and δ7Li are highly variable at the rims, but relatively homogenous in the cores of the grains. From zircon rim to core, [Li] decreases rapidly, while δ7Li increases, suggesting that the large isotopic variation of Li in zircons could be caused by diffusion. Our data demonstrate that homogeneous δ7Li in the cores of zircon can retain the original isotopic signatures of the magmas, while the bulk analysis of Li isotopes in mineral separates and in bulk-rock samples may produce misleading data. PMID:26594042

  20. Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota; Mardarowicz, Marek; Gawdzik, Jan

    2008-08-15

    Essential plants, due to their long presence in human history, their status in culinary arts, their use in medicine and perfume manufacture, belong to frequently examined stock materials in scientific and industrial laboratories. Because of a large number of freshly cut, dried or frozen plant samples requiring the determination of essential oil amount and composition, a fast, safe, simple, efficient and highly automatic sample preparation method is needed. Five sample preparation methods (steam distillation, extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus, supercritical fluid extraction, solid phase microextraction and pressurized liquid extraction) used for the isolation of aroma-active components from Thymus vulgaris L. are compared in the paper. The methods are mainly discussed with regard to the recovery of components which typically exist in essential oil isolated by steam distillation. According to the obtained data, PLE is the most efficient sample preparation method in determining the essential oil from the thyme herb. Although co-extraction of non-volatile ingredients is the main drawback of this method, it is characterized by the highest yield of essential oil components and the shortest extraction time required. Moreover, the relative peak amounts of essential components revealed by PLE are comparable with those obtained by steam distillation, which is recognized as standard sample preparation method for the analysis of essential oils in aromatic plants.

  1. Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu-Ya; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L.; Tang, Yan-Jie; Pearson, Norman J.; Liu, Yu; Chu, Mei-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Tang, Guo-Qiang; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2015-11-01

    To understand the behavior of Li in zircon, we have analyzed the abundance and isotopic composition of Li in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora) widely used for microbeam analysis of U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. We have mapped Li concentration ([Li]) on large grains, using a Cameca 1280HR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). All zircons have a rim 5-20 μm wide in which [Li] is 5 to 20 times higher than in the core. Up to ~20‰ isotopic fractionation is observed on a small scale in the rims of a single zircon grain. The measured δ7Li values range from -14.3 to 3.7‰ for Plešovice, -22.8 to 1.4‰ for Qinghu and -4.7 to 16.1‰ for Temora zircon. The [Li] and δ7Li are highly variable at the rims, but relatively homogenous in the cores of the grains. From zircon rim to core, [Li] decreases rapidly, while δ7Li increases, suggesting that the large isotopic variation of Li in zircons could be caused by diffusion. Our data demonstrate that homogeneous δ7Li in the cores of zircon can retain the original isotopic signatures of the magmas, while the bulk analysis of Li isotopes in mineral separates and in bulk-rock samples may produce misleading data.

  2. Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Ya; Li, Xian-Hua; Griffin, William L; Tang, Yan-Jie; Pearson, Norman J; Liu, Yu; Chu, Mei-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Tang, Guo-Qiang; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y

    2015-11-23

    To understand the behavior of Li in zircon, we have analyzed the abundance and isotopic composition of Li in three zircon standards (Plešovice, Qinghu and Temora) widely used for microbeam analysis of U-Pb ages and O-Hf isotopes. We have mapped Li concentration ([Li]) on large grains, using a Cameca 1280HR Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS). All zircons have a rim 5-20 μm wide in which [Li] is 5 to 20 times higher than in the core. Up to ~20‰ isotopic fractionation is observed on a small scale in the rims of a single zircon grain. The measured δ(7)Li values range from -14.3 to 3.7‰ for Plešovice, -22.8 to 1.4‰ for Qinghu and -4.7 to 16.1‰ for Temora zircon. The [Li] and δ(7)Li are highly variable at the rims, but relatively homogenous in the cores of the grains. From zircon rim to core, [Li] decreases rapidly, while δ(7)Li increases, suggesting that the large isotopic variation of Li in zircons could be caused by diffusion. Our data demonstrate that homogeneous δ(7)Li in the cores of zircon can retain the original isotopic signatures of the magmas, while the bulk analysis of Li isotopes in mineral separates and in bulk-rock samples may produce misleading data.

  3. Mercuric chloride-induced protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) in brown Norway (BN) rats

    SciTech Connect

    Knoflach, P.; Weiser, M.M.; Albini, B.

    1986-03-05

    Prolonged exposure to low doses of mercuric chloride (MC) may induce immunologically mediated kidney disease in man and animals. Mercury compounds are of growing importance as environmental pollutants. Twenty female BN rats were gavaged with 150 microgram MC/100 gm body weight 3x/wk for up to 39 wks. Starting with wk 2, rat intestines demonstrated linear IgG and IgA deposits along the vascular and intestinal basement membranes (VBM and IBM). Serum antibodies to IBM were observed during the first 4 wks of gavage. At wk 11, first granular deposits of IgG and C3 were observed along VBM. Only after wk 35 were granular deposits also seen along the IBM. Using radioactive chromium chloride, 50% of rats with granular deposits along BM showed significantly increased protein loss into the intestines. Thus, granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the IBM, probably representing immune complexes, may lead to PLE. This animal model may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of PLE in man described in graft-vrs-host reactions following bone marrow grafts, allergic enteritides, inflammatory bowel disease, and arsenic intoxication, as well as the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollutants.

  4. Contact allergy to sunscreen chemicals in photosensitivity dermatitis/actinic reticuloid syndrome (PD/AR) and polymorphic light eruption (PLE).

    PubMed

    Bilsland, D; Ferguson, J

    1993-08-01

    From 1989-1991, 214 patients (45 PD/AR, 54 PLE, 115 controls) were patch tested to a sunscreen series containing 9 constituents. 16/214 (7.5%) patients reacted to one or more sunscreens, with allergy being significantly more common in PD/AR patients (10/45 versus 2/54 PLE and 4/115 contact dermatitis clinic controls). The benzophenone group of sunscreens (mexenone, oxybenzone) were the most frequent sensitizers, accounting for 8 of the 27 positive patch tests observed. Clinicians should consider contact allergy to sunscreens in PD/AR patients as an explanation for exposed-site dermatitis episodes.

  5. A novel method of sensing temperatures of magnet coils of SINP-MaPLE plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A. M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biswas, S.; Basu, S.; Pal, R.

    2014-03-01

    A set of 36 magnet coils is used to produce a continuous, uniform magnetic field of about 0.35 Tesla inside the vacuum chamber of the MaPLE Device, a linear laboratory plasma device (3 m long and 0.30 m in diameter) built for studying basic magnetized plasma physics phenomena. To protect the water cooled-coils from serious damage due to overheating temperatures of all the coils are monitored electronically using low cost temperature sensor IC chips, a technique first being used in similar magnet system. Utilizing the Parallel Port of a Personal Computer a novel scheme is used to avoid deploying microprocessor that is associated with involved circuitry and low level programming to address and control the large number of sensors. The simple circuits and a program code to implement the idea are developed, tested and presently in operation. The whole arrangement comes out to be not only attractive, but also simple, economical and easy to install elsewhere.

  6. Excitation of Electron Acoustic Waves in Plasmas of the SINP-MaPLE Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Satyajit; Biswas, Subir; Chakrabrati, Nikhil; Pal, Rabindranath

    2016-10-01

    Electron acoustic wave (EAW) is the low frequency branch of the undamped electrostatic plasma wave and has low phase velocity. In order to overcome Landau damping the EAW needs a non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution with a flat region near the phase velocity, or equivalently, a plasma with two temperature electron species with a relative velocity between them. The ECR produced plasmas of the MaPLE device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics provide such characteristics as observed by retarded field energy analyzer and single Langmuir probe. Experiments are carried out to exploit this feature by putting a negatively biased mesh launcher inside the plasma and energizing it with sinusoidal voltages from a function generator with frequencies varying near the ion plasma frequency. Circular mesh probes along the axis of the device serve as detectors for wave propagation. Experimental results show EAWs are indeed launched and propagate along the magnetic field direction. The dispersion curve experimentally obtained shows the phase velocity matching satisfactorily with the estimated theoretical values. Changing the bias on the launcher the electron distribution function is varied, which, in turn, controls the wave amplitude. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India.

  7. Measuring Black men's police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Bowleg, Lisa; Del Río-González, Ana Maria; Tschann, Jeanne M; Agans, Robert P; Malebranche, David J

    2017-04-01

    Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men's perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents' experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men's experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong

    2015-01-01

    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution. PMID:25705725

  9. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong

    2014-10-01

    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution.

  10. Mercury in the central European lake district - case study Plešné lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Tomas; Rohovec, Jan; Novakova, Tereza; Matouskova, Sarka; Kopacek, Jiri; Kana, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    The central European lake district extends within the Bohemian forest and Bavarian forest Mountains. It includes 8 glacial lakes extending in altitudes from 935 to 1087 m a.s.l. All of them have been oligotrophic and forests of the lake catchments are dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies). Plešné lake (PL) catchment is at 1087 m .a.s.l. and it covers area of 0.67 km2. In 2004, the forest at PL catchment was infested by the bark beetle (Ips typographus) and 88%-99% of trees had died by 2011. In contrast to relatively detailed research of North American and Scandinavian lake ecosystems the information concerning Hg contamination of central European lake ecosystems are rather scarce. The PL ecosystem can provide base for assessment of Hg contamination as well as for changes induced by the bark beetle infestation. In 2016, mean annual Hg concentration in bulk precipitation at Plešné lake reached 3.0 ng/L and bulk Hg deposition flux amounted at 4.6 µg/m2. The most important pathway of Hg deposition to the forest ecosystems has been litterfall. The highest Hg concentrations in litterfall material at PL were found in lichens 205 µg/kg, mixture of unidentifiable organic debris 159 µg/kg and bark 123 µg/kg. Litterfall spruce needles averaged at 56 µg/kg, only. Removal of spruce due to bark beetle infestation caused decrease of litterfall Hg fluxes. Recent litterfall fluxes in the unimpacted stands reached 55.8 µg/m2, while in the impacted dead stands they amounted 23.0 µg/m2, only. The qualitative composition of the litterfall in the infested stands was typical with absence of needles and prevalence of twigs and bark. To assess changes in Hg distribution within the soil profile due to forest dieback the soil data from year 1999 were compared with 2015 data. The mean Hg concentrations in the O horizons decreased from 424 to 311 µg/kg between years 1999 and 2015, and in A horizons the situation was reversed and an increase from 353 to 501 µg/kg occurred. The

  11. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  12. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: construction and its plasma aspects.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis; Chowdhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density approximately 3-5x10(10) cm(-3) and temperature approximately 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  13. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density ˜3-5×1010 cm-3 and temperature ˜7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  14. The PLE(2)NO self-management and exercise program for knee osteoarthritis: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Marconcin, Priscila; Espanha, Margarida; Yázigi, Flávia; Campos, Pedro

    2016-06-07

    International recommendations suggest exercise and self-management programs, including non-pharmacological treatments, for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) because they can benefit pain relief and improve function and exercise adherence. The implementation of a combined self-management and exercise program termed PLE(2)NO may be a good method for controlling KOA symptoms because it encourages the development of self-efficacy to manage the pathology. This study will assess the effects of a self-management and exercise program in comparison to an educational intervention (control program) on symptoms, physical fitness, health-related quality of life, self-management behaviors, self-efficacy, physical activity level and coping strategies. This PLE(2)NO study is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial of elderly (aged above 60 yrs old) patients with clinical and radiographic KOA. The patients will be allocated into either an educational group (control) or a self-management and exercise group (experimental). All participants will receive a supplement of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfates. This paper describes the protocol that will be used in the PLE(2)NO program. This program has several strengths. First, it involves a combination of self-management and exercise approaches, is available in close proximity to the patients and occurs over a short period of time. The latter two characteristics are crucial for maintaining participant adherence. Exercise components will be implemented using low-cost resources that permit their widespread application. Moreover, the program will provide guidance regarding the effectiveness of using a self-management and exercise program to control KOA symptoms and improve self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. NCT02562833 (09/23/2015).

  15. Soil Collembola communities within Plešné Lake and Čertovo Lake catchments, the Bohemian Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The soil Collembola communities were studied for three years in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo and Plešné Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study was focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: undamaged (control) forest stands, "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and freshly harvested windthrown stands. After two years of research a total of 7,294 Collembola specimens were recorded belonging to 93 species. We recorded the highest collembolan abundance and species richness in the reference stands within catchments of both lakes, while both given parameters were considerably lower in harmed forest stands. To summarize, the disturbance led to a general decrease of Collembola communities.

  16. In Silico Discovery and In Vitro Validation of Catechol-Containing Sulfonohydrazide Compounds as Potent Inhibitors of the Diguanylate Cyclase PleD

    PubMed Central

    Fernicola, Silvia; Paiardini, Alessandro; Giardina, Giorgio; Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biofilm formation is responsible for increased antibiotic tolerance in pathogenic bacteria. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely used second-messenger signal that plays a key role in bacterial biofilm formation. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), a conserved class of enzymes absent in mammals and hence considered attractive molecular targets for the development of antibiofilm agents. Here, the results of a virtual screening approach aimed at identifying small-molecule inhibitors of the DGC PleD from Caulobacter crescentus are described. A three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore model, derived from the mode of binding of GTP to the active site of PleD, was exploited to screen the ZINC database of compounds. Seven virtual hits were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit the activity of purified PleD by using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Two drug-like molecules with a catechol moiety and a sulfonohydrazide scaffold were shown to competitively inhibit PleD at the low-micromolar range (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of ∼11 μM). Their predicted binding mode highlighted key structural features presumably responsible for the efficient inhibition of PleD by both hits. These molecules represent the most potent in vitro inhibitors of PleD identified so far and could therefore result in useful leads for the development of novel classes of antimicrobials able to hamper biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Biofilm-mediated infections are difficult to eradicate, posing a threatening health issue worldwide. The capability of bacteria to form biofilms is almost universally stimulated by the second messenger c-di-GMP. This evidence has boosted research in the last decade for the development of new antibiofilm strategies interfering with c-di-GMP metabolism. Here, two potent inhibitors of c-di-GMP synthesis have been identified in silico and characterized in vitro by using the well-characterized DGC enzyme PleD from C. crescentus as a structural

  17. Beneficial phosphate recovery from reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate of an integrated membrane system using polymeric ligand exchanger (PLE).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Adham, Samer; Oppenheimer, Joan

    2007-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) discharge to surface water is a major environmental problem. Wastewater treatment is targeted towards removal of this nutrient to prevent degradation of surface water. Integrated membrane systems (IMS) are increasingly being considered for wastewater reclamation, and provide excellent removal of P compounds. However, reverse osmosis (RO), which forms an integral part of these IMSs, concentrates most dissolved substances including P-species such as phosphates in the RO waste stream. In this study, removal of phosphate from this stream using polymeric ligand exchange (PLE) resins was investigated. Further, the possibility of phosphate recovery through struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4).6H(2)O) precipitation was tested. Struvite has been promoted as a slow release fertilizer in recent years. This study demonstrates that PLEs can be successfully used to remove phosphate from RO-concentrate, and to recover more than 85% of the adsorbed phosphorus from the exhausted media and precipitated as a beneficial product (struvite). The approach, presented in this study, suggests advantages of providing economic benefit from a waste product (RO) while avoiding phosphorus discharge to the environment.

  18. CelR, an ortholog of the diguanylate cyclase PleD of Caulobacter, regulates cellulose synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, D Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E; Banta, Lois M; Farrand, Stephen K

    2013-12-01

    Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and Δcel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division.

  19. CelR, an Ortholog of the Diguanylate Cyclase PleD of Caulobacter, Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, D. Michael; Su, Shengchang; Baccaro, Brenna E.; Banta, Lois M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose fibrils play a role in attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. While the genes for cellulose biosynthesis in the bacterium have been identified, little is known concerning the regulation of the process. The signal molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has been linked to the regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in many bacterial species, including A. tumefaciens. In this study, we identified two putative diguanylate cyclase genes, celR (atu1297) and atu1060, that influence production of cellulose in A. tumefaciens. Overexpression of either gene resulted in increased cellulose production, while deletion of celR, but not atu1060, resulted in decreased cellulose biosynthesis. celR overexpression also affected other phenotypes, including biofilm formation, formation of a polar adhesion structure, plant surface attachment, and virulence, suggesting that the gene plays a role in regulating these processes. Analysis of celR and Δcel mutants allowed differentiation between phenotypes associated with cellulose production, such as biofilm formation, and phenotypes probably resulting from c-di-GMP signaling, which include polar adhesion, attachment to plant tissue, and virulence. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that species containing both celR and celA, which encodes the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase, adapted the CelR protein to regulate cellulose production while those that lack celA use CelR, called PleD, to regulate specific processes associated with polar localization and cell division. PMID:24038703

  20. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable.

  2. The DivJ, CbrA and PleC system controls DivK phosphorylation and symbiosis in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Pini, Francesco; Frage, Benjamin; Ferri, Lorenzo; De Nisco, Nicole J; Mohapatra, Saswat S; Taddei, Lucilla; Fioravanti, Antonella; Dewitte, Frederique; Galardini, Marco; Brilli, Matteo; Villeret, Vincent; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Walker, Graham C; Becker, Anke; Biondi, Emanuele G

    2013-10-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium that invades the root nodules it induces on Medicago sativa, whereupon it undergoes an alteration of its cell cycle and differentiates into nitrogen-fixing, elongated and polyploid bacteroid with higher membrane permeability. In Caulobacter crescentus, a related alphaproteobacterium, the principal cell cycle regulator, CtrA, is inhibited by the phosphorylated response regulator DivK. The phosphorylation of DivK depends on the histidine kinase DivJ, while PleC is the principal phosphatase for DivK. Despite the importance of the DivJ in C. crescentus, the mechanistic role of this kinase has never been elucidated in other Alphaproteobacteria. We show here that the histidine kinases DivJ together with CbrA and PleC participate in a complex phosphorylation system of the essential response regulator DivK in S. meliloti. In particular, DivJ and CbrA are involved in DivK phosphorylation and in turn CtrA inactivation, thereby controlling correct cell cycle progression and the integrity of the cell envelope. In contrast, the essential PleC presumably acts as a phosphatase of DivK. Interestingly, we found that a DivJ mutant is able to elicit nodules and enter plant cells, but fails to establish an effective symbiosis suggesting that proper envelope and/or low CtrA levels are required for symbiosis.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    PubMed

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices.

  4. A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in human and laboratory animal biological fluids and tissues by PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoqin; Wu, Shuangchan; Yue, Yuan; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yuting; Tao, Li; Tian, Hui; Xie, Jianmei; Ding, Hong

    2013-12-30

    A high-throughput method for the determination of 28 mycotoxins involving pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been optimised and validated for determination in various biological fluids and tissues of human and laboratory animals. High-throughput analysis was achieved using PLE pre-treatment and without the need for any cleanup. The extraction solvent was acetonitrile/water/acetic acid (80/19/1, v/v/v). The static extraction time was 5min. The extraction pressure and temperature were 1500psi and 140°C, respectively. The flush volume was 60%. The limits of detection, which were defined as CCα, varied from 0.01μg/kg (μg/L) to 0.69μg/kg (μg/L). The recoveries of spiked samples from 0.20μg/kg (μg/L) to 2μg/kg (μg/L) ranged from 71% to 100.5% with relative standard deviations of less than 17.5%, except FB1 and FB2 recoveries, which were lower than 60%. The method was successfully applied in real samples, and the data indicate that this technique is a useful analytical method for the determination of mycotoxins from humans and animals. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first for the large-scale testing of multi-class mycotoxins in all types of biological fluids and tissues that uses PLE and HPLC-MS/MS.

  5. Soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes, the Bohemian Forest: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    The soil microarthropod communities were studied in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo (CT) and Plešné (PL) Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study is focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Within the soil microarthropods, two main groups, Collembola (Hexapoda) and Oribatida (Acari) are analysed. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: CT1 and PL1 stands - undamaged control forest stands, CT2 and PL2 stands - "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, CT3 and PL3 stands - slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and CT4 and PL4 stands - harvested windthrown stands. Soil samples were taken in June (CT1/PL1 - CT3/PL3), July and October (CT1/PL1 - CT4/PL4) 2012 from each treatment. Microarthropods were subsequently extracted in a modified high-gradient apparatus in the laboratory for seven days. Finally, the comparison of the microarthropod assemblages found at different treatment stands was performed. The most abundant groups in both study areas (Čertovo and Plešné Lakes) were Collembola and Oribatida with considerable diferences within particular treatments and in time as well.

  6. The metabolic network of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Comparison of the approximate Bayesian computation via sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) and profile likelihood estimation (PLE) methods for determinability analysis.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drop of egg production in chickens by experimental infection with an avian metapneumovirus strain PLE8T1 derived from swollen head syndrome and the application to evaluate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Miki; Koimaru, Hiroyuki; Shiba, Masahiro; Ono, Eriko; Nagata, Tadashi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-08-01

    Decreases in egg production and increased incidence of abnormal eggs due to malformation of egg shells were observed in specific pathogen free (SPF) 173-day-old laying hens inoculated intravenously with an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) strain PLE8T1. This strain was derived from an isolate from broiler birds exhibiting swollen head syndrome (SHS). Some SPF birds inoculated with the virus showed, slight diarrhea without any respiratory symptoms. Thus, the PLE8T1 strain was used as a challenge virus to evaluate efficacy of aMPV vaccines. SPF chickens which received a live attenuated aMPV vaccine (NEMOVAC; Merial) at 7 or 77 days old and an inactivated aMPV vaccine (OVO-4; Merial) at 105 days old were protected against poor egg production caused by the challenge with the PLE8T1 strain. Thus, aMPV, the PLE8T1 strain passaged 22 times after isolation, from birds exhibiting SHS, could induce a drop in egg production in laying hens accompanied by malformation of egg shells. It was suggested that this challenge system could be applied to evaluate the efficacy of aMPV vaccine.

  8. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    PubMed

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20].

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contents in house and car dust of Portugal by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Cunha, S C; Kalachova, K; Pulkrabova, J; Fernandes, J O; Oliveira, M B P P; Alves, A; Hajslova, J

    2010-03-01

    Dust is the repository of various compounds including flame retardants. In this study an analytical method based on PLE extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected for the analysis of 16 PBDEs congeners in house and car dust samples collected in Portugal. The analytical performance of the method was validated using standard reference material (SRM); values from 90% to 109% and from 2% to 11% were obtained for recovery and precision, respectively. The PBDE congeners distribution in whole and sieved fractions of the dust samples, as well as influence of the source on the levels of these contaminants, were obtained. The wide range of PBDEs contents found in the dust samples indicates heterogeneous levels of contamination in these matrices. The clearest feature of the results obtained was that Deca-BDE was the main PBDE in both house and car dust samples. The total PBDEs measured in house dust (ranging from 34 to 1928 ng g(-1)) was lower than those found in car dust (ranging from 193 to 22955 ng g(-1)). However, house dust provides a major contribution to human exposure due to the time spent there, much higher than in cars. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of a combined self-management and exercise intervention for elderly people with osteoarthritis of the knee: the PLE(2)NO program.

    PubMed

    Marconcin, Priscila; Espanha, Margarida; Teles, Júlia; Bento, Paulo; Campos, Pedro; André, Rui; Yázigi, Flávia

    2017-07-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week self-management and exercise intervention (the PLE(2)NO program) in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Randomized controlled trial. Four different community settings. Eighty individuals aged 60 years or older with clinical and radiographic knee osteoarthritis enrolled in the study. A combined self-management and exercise intervention (treatment group) and an educational intervention (control group). The primary outcomes were pain and other knee osteoarthritis symptoms (swelling, crackling, limitation on movement, and stiffness), self-management behaviors (communication with physician and cognitive symptom management), and functional lower limb strength. Secondary outcomes were knee osteoarthritis-specific health-related quality of life, self-perceived health, aerobic capacity, lower and upper limb flexibility, and handgrip strength. In all, 67 participants, mean age 69.1 ± 5.8 years, completed the study: 32 in the Educational Group and 35 in the Self-Management and Exercise Group. A significant group effect favorable to the Self-Management and Exercise Group was observed in the following variables: communication with the physicians ( P = .048), aerobic capacity ( P = .035), and functional lower limb strength ( P = .015). Although no significant group effect was detected, clinical improvements in pain (31%) and knee osteoarthritis symptoms (29%) were observed in the experimental group. No improvements regarding cognitive symptom management, self-perceived health, lower limb flexibility, and handgrip strength were found. This study supports the importance of a combined self-management and exercise intervention to improve functional lower limb strength and aerobic capacity in a Portuguese sample. Additionally, pain and other symptoms have improved clinically.

  12. Determination of tributyltin (TBT) in marine sediment using pressurised liquid extraction-gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PLE-GC-IDMS) with a hexane-tropolone mixture.

    PubMed

    Konieczka, Piotr; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Schimmel, Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Extraction conditions for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment samples have been developed further. The analytical procedure is based on spiking with isotopically labelled analyte, pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) with a hexane/tropolone mixture, Grignard derivatization and quantification by GC-MS. It was applied to two unknown sediment samples as part of an intercomparison exercise of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). The detection limit was approximately 1.5 ng/g TBT as Sn, while the repeatability and intermediate precision (as the coefficient of variation) were 1.9% and 3.2%, respectively. The expanded uncertainty was 6.2% (coverage factor k = 2), and the accuracy was confirmed by measurement of a certified reference material.

  13. Design Trajectories: Four Experiments in PLE Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Harmelen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a shared understanding that the educational approach driving the development of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) is one of learner empowerment and facilitation of the efforts of self-directed learners. This approach fits well with concepts of social constructivism, constructionism, and the development and execution of…

  14. Modeling Physical Systems Using Vensim PLE Systems Dynamics Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmark, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many physical systems are described by time-dependent differential equations or systems of such equations. This makes it difficult for students in an introductory physics class to solve many real-world problems since these students typically have little or no experience with this kind of mathematics. In my high school physics classes, I address…

  15. Modeling Physical Systems Using Vensim PLE Systems Dynamics Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmark, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many physical systems are described by time-dependent differential equations or systems of such equations. This makes it difficult for students in an introductory physics class to solve many real-world problems since these students typically have little or no experience with this kind of mathematics. In my high school physics classes, I address…

  16. Putting the PLE into PLD: Virtual Professional Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    The range of affordances that a virtual environment offers can provide opportunities for more formal Professional Learning and Development (PLD) that has flexibility of choice, time and approach for educators. It was this potential that inspired the design of the Virtual Professional Learning and Development (VPLD) program that was instigated in…

  17. From Diagrams to Self-Regulated Learning: Student Teachers' Reflections on the Construction of Their PLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tur, Gemma; Marín, Victoria I.; Moreno, Juan; Gallardo, Antonio; Urbina, Santos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the reflections on their PLEs by student teachers in an ICT subject of the fourth degree course in Teacher Education (Early Childhood Teacher Training) at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). There were four student teacher groups (n = 117) participating in this project, from the three Balearic Islands'…

  18. From Diagrams to Self-Regulated Learning: Student Teachers' Reflections on the Construction of Their PLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tur, Gemma; Marín, Victoria I.; Moreno, Juan; Gallardo, Antonio; Urbina, Santos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the reflections on their PLEs by student teachers in an ICT subject of the fourth degree course in Teacher Education (Early Childhood Teacher Training) at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). There were four student teacher groups (n = 117) participating in this project, from the three Balearic Islands'…

  19. SimPLE.ca: Simulator of Productivity Loss due to Erosion for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, Eric; Greer, Ken J.; Black, Malcolm; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Malhi, S. S.; Izaurralde, R Cesar; Larney, F. J.

    2008-05-01

    Robust and practical estimates of the impact of soil erosion on crop productivity are essential for developing and implementing appropriate solutions for soil erosion on agricultural land. The objective of this study was to develop a simple model which captured the most important relationships between topsoil erosion and productivity loss for major agricultural regions of Canada. The model was developed for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Using annual time steps, maximum crop yields were reduced by soil erosion due to losses in available water-holding capacity, N-mineralization potential and available P. Using minimal input data, the model accounted for 56% of the variation in relative yields (fraction of non-eroded controls) determined in field studies using desurfacing or comparison plot methods.

  20. iPLE Network: An Integrated eLearning 2.0 Architecture from a University's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Portillo, Javier; Ovelar, Ramon; Benito, Manuel; Romo, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Universities can offer eLearning 2.0 tools and services to learners while obtaining clear benefits from releasing the control over some learning content. This means a shift from the institution centred and monolithic model of traditional virtual learning environments (VLEs) to a more heterogeneous and open model. This article tries to plot an…

  1. Propagation of electric fields during Pi2 pulsations based on multi­ple magnetospheric satellites and ionospheric radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Kasaba, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Teramoto, M.; Hori, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Nishitani, N.

    2015-12-01

    Pi2 pulsations are irregular oscillations having 40-150 s periods, and their source lies in the nightside magnetosphere. Electromagnetic disturbances associated with Pi2 pulsations propagate through the magnetosphere by magnetohydrodynamic waves. The compressional fast mode waves are launched by localized plasma sheet fast flows and propagate into the inner magnetosphere. On the other hand, the velocity shears at the edge of these flows excite shear Alfven waves, which transport magnetic shear and carry field-aligned currents along field lines. These propagation processes have been proposed based on several previous studies using magnetic field observations and numerical simulations. However, there have been few results by electric field observations although the electric field is an important quantity for detecting Pi2 pulsations than magnetic field. In addition, Pi2 pulsations are known to be associated with substorms. Nishimura et al. [2012] shows evolution of auroral streamers at the substorm onset time followed by Pi2 pulsations after a few minutes, using ground-based observations. It suggests that Pi2 pulsations are driven by multiple plasma sheet flow bursts to earthward, and reflects the nature of the current wedge and plasma sheet flow bursts. However, it is unknown whether Pi2 pulsations in the magnetosphere are caused by the oscillating current wedge or induced by a cavity mode. Therefore, simultaneous spacecraft and ground-based observations need to investigate this issue. In this study, we investigate the evolution and propagation of the electric field during Pi2 pulsations using THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, GOES 13 and 15, SuperDARN and HF Doppler radars. Pi2 events are identified by the low-latitude geomagnetic field detected at Kakioka and AL index. We will investigate several events that satellites and radars have the same local time, and evaluate the possible propagation process of the electromagnetic energy associated with Pi2 pulsations.

  2. Kurtosis fractional anisotropy, its contrast and estimation by proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj

    2016-04-01

    The diffusion kurtosis observed with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) may vary with direction. This directional variation is summarized in the scalar kurtosis fractional anisotropy (KFA). Recent studies suggest that kurtosis anisotropy offers microstructural contrast not contained in other commonly used dMRI markers. We compare KFA to other dMRI contrasts in fixed rat brain and in human brain. We then investigate the observed contrast differences using data obtained in a physical phantom and simulations based on data from the phantom, rat spinal cord, and human brain. Lastly, we assess a strategy for rapid estimation of a computationally modest KFA proxy by evaluating its correlation to true KFA for varying number of sampling directions and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. We also map this proxy’s b-value dependency. We find that KFA supplements the contrast of other dMRI metrics - particularly fractional anisotropy (FA) which vanishes in near orthogonal fiber arrangements where KFA does not. Simulations and phantom data support this interpretation. KFA therefore supplements FA and could be useful for evaluation of complex tissue arrangements. The KFA proxy is strongly correlated to true KFA when sampling is performed along at least nine directions and SNR is high.

  3. Investigation of long-range temporal correlation in electron cyclotron resonance produced linear magnetized plasma of the MaPLE device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subir; Iyengar, A. N. S.; Pal, Rabindranath

    2012-03-01

    Long range temporal correlation of the low frequency fluctuations is investigated in a linear electron cyclotron resonance produced magnetized plasma at different radial positions and filling gas pressures. These fluctuations turn from chaotic to coherent and again chaotic as one moves radially outwards from the center towards the edge region. The power spectrum of these fluctuations shows three distinct frequency regions characterized by their power exponents. Long range temporal correlation of these fluctuations is investigated by estimating the self similarity parameter (Hurst exponents) using rescaled range (R/S) statistics as well as from power spectrum analysis. Dependence of this long range temporal correlation on filling gas pressure has also been investigated.

  4. Global evolution and propagation of electric fields associated with Sudden Commencements observed by multi­ple magnetospheric satellites and ionospheric radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Kasaba, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Nishimura, Y.; Kikuchi, T.; Hori, T.; Nishitani, N.

    2015-12-01

    Sudden commencements (SCs) are triggered by a compression of the dayside magnetosphere, leading to fast mode wave propagation in the equatorial plane. In contrast, the compression induces Alfven waves that propagate toward the dayside polar ionosphere along field lines, and then ionospheric electric fields propagate toward low-latitude ionosphere at speed of light. Several direct observations have provided evidence of the fast mode or Alfven wave propagation, but spatial and temporal evolutions of these propagations are not well known. Moreover, a previous study shows that upward Poynting fluxes transport electromagnetic energy toward the nightside magnetosphere. However, whether such upward Poynting fluxes are launched from the ionosphere or converted from fast mode waves has not been confirmed yet. In this study, we investigate evolution of the electric field in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupled system using THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, GOES 13 and 15, SuperDARN, and HF Doppler radars. We find 70 SC events occurred from January 2013 to December 2014. The result of event studies shows the time delay of the onsets between dayside and nightside magnetospheric electric fields, which can be explained by the fast mode wave propagation. However, we also find that the SC onset of the nightside electric field (~21 h LT) is 15 s later than that of the midnight one although they are detected in the same L-value, which may suggest a dawn-dusk asymmetry of the electromagnetic energy propagation time in the inner magnetosphere. In the ionosphere, both SuperDARN and HF Doppler radars detect a northward velocity at ~15 h LT about 1 min after that of the dayside magnetospheric electric field, which is consistent with the Alfven velocity from the dayside magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere. We will evaluate the possible propagation path of the electromagnetic energy associated with SCs.

  5. Potassium-based sorbents from fly ash for high-temperature CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Aimaro; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2016-11-01

    Potassium-fly ash (K-FA) sorbents were investigated for high-temperature CO2 sorption. K-FAs were synthesised using coal fly ash as source of silica and aluminium. The synthesised materials were also mixed with Li2CO3 and Ca(OH)2 to evaluate their effect on CO2 capture. Temperature strongly affected the performance of the K-FA sorbents, resulting in a CO2 uptake of 1.45 mmol CO2/g sorbent for K-FA 1:1 at 700 °C. The CO2 sorption was enhanced by the presence of Li2CO3 (10 wt%), with the K-FA 1:1 capturing 2.38 mmol CO2/g sorbent at 700 °C in 5 min. This sorption was found to be similar to previously developed Li-Na-FA (2.54 mmol/g) and Li-FA (2.4 mmol/g) sorbents. The presence of 10 % Li2CO3 also accelerated sorption and desorption. The results suggest that the increased uptake of CO2 and faster reaction rates in presence of K-FA can be ascribed to the formation of K-Li eutectic phase, which favours the diffusion of potassium and CO2 in the material matrix. The cyclic experiments showed that the K-FA materials maintained stable CO2 uptake and reaction rates over 10 cycles.

  6. Finite range and upper branch effects on itinerant ferromagnetism in repulsive Fermi gases: Bethe–Goldstone ladder resummation approach

    DOE PAGES

    He, Lianyi

    2014-09-19

    In this study, we investigate the ferromagnetic transition in repulsive Fermi gases at zero temperature with upper branch and effective range effects. Based on a general effective Lagrangian that reproduces precisely the two-body ss-wave scattering phase shift, we obtain a nonperturbative expression of the energy density as a function of the polarization by using the Bethe–Goldstone ladder resummation. For hard sphere potential, the predicted critical gas parameter kFa = 0.816 and the spin susceptibility agree well with the results from fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. In general, positive and negative effective ranges have opposite effects on the critical gas parametermore » kFa: While a positive effective range reduces the critical gas parameter, a negative effective range increases it. For attractive potential or Feshbach resonance model, the many-body upper branch exhibits an energy maximum at kFa = α with α = 1.34 from the Bethe–Goldstone ladder resummation, which is qualitatively consistent with experimental results. The many-body T-matrix has a positive-energy pole for kFa > α and it becomes impossible to distinguish the bound state and the scattering state. These positive-energy bound states become occupied and therefore the upper branch reaches an energy maximum at kFa = α. In the zero range limit, there exists a narrow window (0.86< kFa < 1.56) for the ferromagnetic phase. At sufficiently large negative effective range, the ferromagnetic phase disappears. On the other hand, the appearance of positive-energy bound state resonantly enhances the two-body decay rate around kFa = α and may prevent the study of equilibrium phases and ferromagnetism of the upper branch Fermi gas.« less

  7. Divalent folate modification on PEG: an effective strategy for improving the cellular uptake and targetability of PEGylated polyamidoamine-polyethylenimine copolymer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Duanwen; Tian, Shouqin; Huang, Huan; Chen, Jianhai; Pan, Shirong

    2015-01-05

    The stability and targeting ability of nanocarrier gene delivery systems are necessary conditions to ensure the good therapeutic effect and low nonspecific toxicity of cancer treatment. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been widely applied for improving stability and as a spacer for linking ligands and nanocarriers to improve targetability. However, the cellular uptake and endosomal escape capacity of nanocarriers has been seriously harmed due to the introduction of PEG. In the present study, we synthesized a new gene delivery vector by coupling divalent folate-PEG (PEG3.4k-FA2) onto polyamidoamine-polyethylenimine (PME) copolymer (PME-(PEG3.4k-FA2)1.72). Both PEG and monovalent folate-PEG (PEG3.4k-FA1) modified PME were prepared as control polymers, which were named as PME-(PEG3.5k)1.69 and PME-(PEG3.4k-FA1)1.66, respectively. PME-(PEG3.4k-FA2)1.72 exhibited strong DNA condensation capacity like parent polymer PME which was not significantly influenced by PEG. PME-(PEG3.4k-FA2)1.72/DNA complexes at N/P = 10 had a diameter ∼143 nm and zeta potential ∼13 mV and showed the lowest cytotoxicity and hemolysis and the highest transfection efficiency among all tested polymers. In folate receptor positive (FR-positive) cells, the cellular uptake and transfection efficiency were increased with the increase in the number of folates coupled on PEG; the order was PME-(PEG3.4k-FA2)1.72 > PME-(PEG3.4k-FA1)1.66 > PME-(PEG3.5k)1.69. Folate competition assays showed that PME-(PEG3.4k-FA2)1.72 complexes had stronger targeting ability than PME-(PEG3.5k)1.69 and PME-(PEG3.4k-FA1)1.66 complexes due to their higher folate density per PEG molecule. Cellular uptake mechanism study showed that the folate density on PEG could change the endocytosis pathway of PME-(PEG3.5k)1.69 from clathrin-mediated endocytosis to caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to less lysosomal degradation. Distribution and uptake in 3D multicellular spheroid assays showed that divalent folate could offer PME

  8. (Discussions of global environmental problems)

    SciTech Connect

    Krahl-Urban, B.

    1989-11-02

    The traveler visited the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Environmental Sciences Division to provide programmatic interpretations and technical overviews of research topics addressing international environmental issues. Many of today's environmental problems can no longer be considered as regional-scale impacts. Global warming, acidification, ozone depletion, drought, deforestation, and air pollution effects are global-level processes that can only be effectively approached by international scientific cooperation. The traveler's recommendations for the final planning and coordination of international environmental issues emphasized focusing on international cooperation with research institutions in West Germany and in other countries of the European Community. Several key global environmental issues are addressed by the Juelich Nuclear Research Center (KFA Juelich), West Germany. Scientific cooperation with KFA Juelich should be promising in theoretical ecology, systems analysis, and toxicology. Scientific exchange between ORNL and KFA Juelich in environmental sciences has been initiated by the traveler.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Approved Rear End Marking Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for or by manufacturers 1. Manufacturer: Star Headlight & Lantern Co., 168 West Main Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472. FRA identification Nos. FRA-PLE-STAR-845-F (flasher) and FRA-PLE-STAR-845-C...

  14. Accelerated Reliability Testing Utilizing Design of Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    hat to Measure ............................... 23 b. Identify Stresses ................................ 24 c . Stress Levels...36 c . Test Time ................................... 48 d. Trade Off Analysis .............................. 56 3. A nalysis...79 2. Exam ple 2 . ..................................... 92 3. Exam ple 3 . .................................... 102 C . Conclusion

  15. Europe Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-29

    permission to utilize genetic engineering for insulin and growth hormone respectively. The trial by the appeals court has not been completed yet...Table 1 TÜ Institution Hannover LHW GBF Bayer Hoechst KFA Subject membrane reactors X X X X X airlift reactors X X X X ultrafiltration X X

  16. Benign summer light eruption and polymorphic light eruption: genetic and functional studies suggest that a revised nomenclature is required.

    PubMed

    Hawk, John

    2004-07-01

    New research indicates that polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is an autoimmune disease against an ultraviolet radiation-induced cutaneous antigen. PLE may even confer some protection against skin cancer later in life. This new information demands a reassessment of the precise nature and nomenclature of PLE. Benign summer light eruption (BSLE) (lucite estivale bénigne) is the name used in continental Europe, and particularly France, to describe a clinically short-lived, itchy, papular eruption particularly affecting young women after several hours of sunbathing at the beginning of summer or on sunny vacations. Clinically more prolonged forms of solar eruption, starting early in spring and persisting for long periods, have been known in France as polymorphic light eruption (PLE) (lucite polymorphe) ('European PLE'). Investigative studies, however, now suggest that BSLE and some cases of 'European PLE' are part of the same spectrum. In the Anglo-Saxon literature, they are lumped together as PLE ('Anglo-Saxon PLE'). The other cases of 'European PLE', which do not fall within the compass of 'Anglo-Saxon PLE', are, in the Anglo-Saxon literature, classified as either actinic prurigo (AP) (a genetically determined, prolonged, excoriated form of Anglo-Saxon PLE), or chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) (a sunlight-induced eczema precisely resembling allergic contact dermatitis, apparently to an ultraviolet radiation-induced antigen). It is therefore proposed that: i. the European term BSLE be dropped and that these patients be reclassified within the spectrum of (Anglo-Saxon) PLE, ii. the European use of the term PLE ('European PLE') be discontinued, iii. those previously diagnosed as having 'European PLE' be reclassified as (Anglo-Saxon) PLE, AP or CAD, as appropriate. The benefits of such a change in nomenclature would be twofold, firstly a uniformity of terminology and secondly, and more importantly, terminology would then correlate better with our recently improved

  17. Successful diuretics treatment of protein-losing enteropathy in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Suda, Kenji; Seki, Yoshitaka; Yanagi, Tadahiro; Yoshimoto, Hironaga; Kudo, Yoshiyuki; Iemura, Motofumi; Tanikawa, Ken; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-04-01

    There are few reports on successful high-dose spironolactone treatment of refractory protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) caused by Fontan procedure. We report successful diuretics treatment with spironolactone and furosemide at standard dose, of refractory PLE in a patient with Noonan syndrome and repaired congenital heart disease. This is the first successful application of diuretics treatment in a patient with refractory PLE without Fontan procedure. This case illustrates that diuretics treatment can be the first-line treatment of PLE regardless of the causative physiology, and can be effective in refractory PLE with Noonan syndrome. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Third-Generation Sequencing and Analysis of Four Complete Pig Liver Esterase Gene Sequences in Clones Identified by Screening BAC Library

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiliang; Xiao, Yuncai; Bi, Dingren; Yin, Jingdong; Shi, Deshi

    2016-01-01

    Aim Pig liver carboxylesterase (PLE) gene sequences in GenBank are incomplete, which has led to difficulties in studying the genetic structure and regulation mechanisms of gene expression of PLE family genes. The aim of this study was to obtain and analysis of complete gene sequences of PLE family by screening from a Rongchang pig BAC library and third-generation PacBio gene sequencing. Methods After a number of existing incomplete PLE isoform gene sequences were analysed, primers were designed based on conserved regions in PLE exons, and the whole pig genome used as a template for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Specific primers were then selected based on the PCR amplification results. A three-step PCR screening method was used to identify PLE-positive clones by screening a Rongchang pig BAC library and PacBio third-generation sequencing was performed. BLAST comparisons and other bioinformatics methods were applied for sequence analysis. Results Five PLE-positive BAC clones, designated BAC-10, BAC-70, BAC-75, BAC-119 and BAC-206, were identified. Sequence analysis yielded the complete sequences of four PLE genes, PLE1, PLE-B9, PLE-C4, and PLE-G2. Complete PLE gene sequences were defined as those containing regulatory sequences, exons, and introns. It was found that, not only did the PLE exon sequences of the four genes show a high degree of homology, but also that the intron sequences were highly similar. Additionally, the regulatory region of the genes contained two 720bps reverse complement sequences that may have an important function in the regulation of PLE gene expression. Significance This is the first report to confirm the complete sequences of four PLE genes. In addition, the study demonstrates that each PLE isoform is encoded by a single gene and that the various genes exhibit a high degree of sequence homology, suggesting that the PLE family evolved from a single ancestral gene. Obtaining the complete sequences of these PLE genes

  19. Assessment of structural and functıonal vısual outcomes ın relapsıng remıttıng multıple sclerosıs wıth vısual evoked potentıals and optıcal coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Tugcu, Betul; Soysal, Aysun; Kılıc, Murat; Yuksel, Burcu; Kale, Nılufer; Yıgıt, Ulvıye; Arpaci, Baki

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to consider the clinical utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and find a correlation with VEP. Effects of different disease modifying treatments (DMT) were further evaluated by measuring OCT parameters and whether a correlation exists between the RNFL thickness, disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were also assessed. 13 patients were on interferon beta-1a (IFN), 14 patients were receiving glatiramer acetate (GA), 19 patients were not being treated with any DMT and 21 healthy controls were included the study. During OCT examination, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness was found to be lower in all MS groups but macular volume (MV) was lower only in GA group than controls. Although, P100 latencies were longer than controls in all MS groups, there was no statistically significant difference between IFN and w/o DMT groups. Patients with ON history, P100 latencies were found significantly longer than those without ON. VEP amplitudes were found lower with ON history patients than those without ON, however this was not statistically significant. EDSS strongly correlated with P100 latency, RNLF, GCC but no correlation was observed with VEP amplitude and MV. Our results show that RNFL, GCC and MV were all decreased in MS patients with or without DMT comparing to controls and it is more prominent in eyes with ON. Further follow-up studies are warranted to understand the pathophysiology of CNS axonal degeneration and involvement of optic nerves. © 2013.

  20. Effect of Persimmon Leaf Extract on Phthalic Anhydride-induced Allergic Response in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Ji Ye; Jeon, In Hwa; Cho, Jung-Keun; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Kang, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyung Soon; Jang, Seon Il

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-allergy activities of persimmon leaf extract (PLE) on a phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced allergic mouse model. A human leukemic mast cell line (HMC-1) was used to examine the inhibitory activity of PLE on the histamine release by human leukemic mast cells. PLE inhibited histamine release from HMC-1 cells in response to cross-linkage of high-affinity IgE receptor-α (FcεRIα). Additionally, a PA-induced allergic mouse model was used to investigate the effects of PLE in vivo. Mice were orally administrated with or without PLE of single dose (250 mg/kg/day) for 31 days. Oral intake of PLE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous reactions. Oral administration of PLE to PA-induced allergic mice also led to a striking suppression of the development of contact dermatitis, ear swelling and lymph node weight. In addition, PA-specific IL-4 production of draining lymph node cells was markedly diminished by PLE oral administration, but not IFN-γ. Furthermore, PLE treatment suppressed PA-induced thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (CCL17) and cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine (CCL27) expressions in ear tissues. Based on these results, we suggest that PLE may have therapeutic potential as an effective material for management of irritant contact dermatitis or related inflammatory diseases. PMID:24471058

  1. SNG from synthesis gas-operation of single-stage methanation

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlein, B.; Skov, I.A.; Vorwerk, M.

    1982-08-01

    Methanation plants are important process units in the production of SNG from coal gasification and in the release of heat in the NFE system (Projekt Nukleare Fernenergie - Nuclear Long-Distance Energy Transport Project) EVA-ADAM. In these processes methane is formed from synthesis gases rich in CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/; the reaction is exothermic. Within the framework of the joint NFE project involving the Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH (KFA) and the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG, supported by the Federal Republic of Germany, methanation processes have been developed and demonstrated in pilot plants at the Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH since 1977. Cooperation between the NFE project and H. Topsoe A/S enabled successful test a single-stage methanation process in a catalytic fixed bed at the KFA Julich with the pilot plant IRMA in September 1981.

  2. (Fuel, fission product, and graphite technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.

    1990-07-25

    Travel to the Forschungszentrum (KFA) -- Juelich described in this report was for the purpose of participating in the annual meeting of subprogram managers for the US/DOE Umbrella Agreement for Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Technology. At this meeting the highlights of the cooperative exchange were reviewed for the time period June 1989 through June 1990. The program continues to contribute technology in an effective way for both countries. Revision 15 of the Subprogram Plan will be issued as a result of the meeting. There was interest expressed by KFA management in the level of support received from the NPR program and in potential participation in the COMEDIE loop experiment being conducted at the CEA.

  3. Biomechanical Profiles When Towing a Sled and Wearing a Weighted Vest Once Cleared for Sports Post-ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Erin; Lawrence, Michael; Murray, Thomas; Shaw, Bernadette; Collins, Erin; Powers, Kaitlin; Townsend, James

    2016-09-01

    Though rehabilitation attempts to correct "stiff knee gait" and control for dynamic limb valgus after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), impaired biomechanics often persist when an individual is cleared to return to sport (RTS). Reduced knee extension moments (KEMs) and knee flexion angles (KFAs) often continue. While at the hip, increased hip adduction angles (HADDAs) and hip internal rotation angles (HIRAs) often persist in spite of dynamic hip stabilization exercises. Sled towing and weighted vest tasks increase KEM and hip extension moments (HEMs) in healthy individuals, yet biomechanical profiles during these tasks after ACLR are unknown. Weighted gait will increase KEM, HEM, hip abduction moments (HABDMs), and hip external rotation moments (HERMs) and will not increase unwanted biomechanics (limb asymmetries, HIRA, HADDA) compared with normal gait. Controlled laboratory study. Level 4. Fourteen men and 24 women who were 5 to 12 months after ACLR, had no concomitant ligament injuries, and were cleared to RTS were recruited. Sexes were evaluated independently given the sex-specific incidence to ACL injury, reinjury, and gait responses to certain interventions. Joint moment impulses and peak angles over the first 25% of stance were compared between limbs and across tasks (eg, unweighted gait, sled 50% body weight [BW], and vest 50% BW). Men showed that weighted gait increased KEM, HEM, HERM, HADBM (vest only), HADDA, HIRA (sled only), and KFA. Asymmetrical KEM and KFA existed across tasks. Women showed that weighted gait increased KEM, HEM, HERM, HADBM (vest only), HFA (sled only), HADDA, and KFA. Asymmetrical KEM, HEM, HIRA, and KFA (sled only) existed across tasks. Weighted gait generally increased joint moments. Unwanted biomechanics were unique for each weighted gait task. Though joint moments increased, both tasks created unwanted biomechanics after ACLR. Persistent hip (women only) and KEM asymmetries across tasks when cleared to RTS are

  4. Multifunctional Core@Shell Magnetic Nanoprobes for Enhancing Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fluorescent Labeling in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yin, Ting; Gao, Guo; Shapter, Joseph G; Lai, Weien; Huang, Peng; Qi, Wen; Song, Jie; Cui, Daxiang

    2017-05-31

    Core@shell magnetic nanoparticles (core@shell MNPs) are attracting widespread attention due to their enhancement properties for potential applications in hyperthermia treatment, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnostics, and so forth. Herein, we developed a facile thermal decomposition method for controllable synthesis of a superparamagnetic, monodispersed core@shell structure (Co@Mn = CoFe2O4@MnFe2O4) with uniform size distribution (σ < 5%, dc ≈ 15 nm). The CoFe2O4 core could enhance magnetic anisotropy, and the MnFe2O4 shell could improve the magnetization value. The Co@Mn MNPs were transferred into aqueous solution with an amphiphilic polymer (labeled 2% TAMRA) and functionalized with PEG2k and target molecules (folic acid, FA) to fabricate multifunctional PMATAMRA-Co@Mn-PEG2k-FA nanoprobes. The obtained PMATAMRA-Co@Mn-PEG2k-FA nanoprobes exhibit good biocompatibility, high T2 relaxation values, and long-term fluorescence stability (at least 6 months). Our results demonstrate that the synthesized PMATAMRA-Co@Mn-PEG2k-FA nanoprobes can effectively enhance the targeted MRI and fluorescent labeling in vitro and in vivo. The research outcomes will contribute to the rational design of new nanoprobes and provide a promising pathway to promote core@shell nanoprobes for further clinical contrast MRI and photodynamic therapy in the near future.

  5. (HFR-B1 experiment reporting and capsule disassembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1991-02-22

    The traveler visited the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten, The Netherlands, the Forschungszentrum GmbH (KFA), Juelich, Germany; and the Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung (ZfK), Rossendorf, Germany, during the period January 28 through February 9. At JRC, the analysis of the experiment HFR-B1 was discussed; a new schedule for issuance of the final data report was established. Other discussions at JRC concerned the capabilities of Petten to conduct two reactor experiments being proposed under the US/FRG cooperative program and the initial results of a proof test of Germany fuel spheres. At KFA, the main emphasis was on the disassembly of capsules 2 and 3 of the HFR-B1 experiment and agreement on the examinations and tests to be conducted with the disassembled components. The disassembly of capsule 3 was observed. Extensive discussions were conducted on the work, both experimental and analytical, being conducted in the Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktor Technologie. A major portion of the experimental work is being conducted at ZfK and a visit to this laboratory, sponosored by the KFA, was made on February 6 and 7. Cooperation with the US on the experimental and analytical work in the safety area was strongly emphasized. 1 tab.

  6. Identification of two Penelope-like elements with different structures and chromosome localization in kuruma shrimp genome.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takashi; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo

    2013-02-01

    Penelope, originally found as a key element responsible for the hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis, has been widely conserved throughout eukaryotic genomes. In other organisms, they are often referred to as Penelope-like elements or PLEs. In this study, we found two types of PLEs, designated MjPLE01 and MjPLE02, from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. There was no observed nucleotide similarity between MjPLE01 and 02, and both elements differed from each other in terms of their structure; MjPLE02 has a distinctive endonuclease (EN) domain at the C-terminus while MjPLE01 do not. A phylogenetic tree that includes publicly available PLEs and TERTs showed that MjPLE01 and 02 were closely related to Coprina elements, which have been reported as an EN-deficient PLE, and to Penelope-Poseidon group, which possess an EN domain, respectively. Genomic Southern blot analysis using MjPLE01 as a probe showed several multiple bands that differ among individual shrimps. On the other hand, two major identical bands were observed when MjPLE02 was used. Colony hybridization showed co-localization of MjPLE01 and GGTTA repeats, suggesting that MjPLE01 might be prevalent in subtelomeric regions of kuruma shrimp genome. These results suggest that the kuruma shrimp genome has at least two types of PLEs with different domain compositions, phylogenetic positions, and probably chromosomeal localization. Such distinctive types of PLEs in an organism have never been described and hence could be a potential source to understand how multiple PLE types evolved.

  7. Spontaneous Improvement of Compensatory Knee Flexion After Surgical Correction of Mismatch Between Pelvic Incidence and Lumbar Lordosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Jigong; Zhu, Zhenan; Dai, Kerong; Zhao, Jie

    2016-08-15

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL) mismatch and knee flexion during standing in patients with lumbar degenerative diseases and to examine the effects of surgical correction of the PI-LL mismatch on knee flexion. Only several studies focused on knee flexion as a compensatory mechanism of the PI-LL mismatch. Little information is currently available on the effects of lumbar correction on knee flexion in patients with the PI-LL mismatch. A group of patients with lumbar degenerative diseases were divided into PI-LL match group (PI-LL ≤ 10°) and PI-LL mismatch group (PI-LL > 10°). A series of radiographic parameters and knee flexion angle (KFA) were compared between the two groups. The PI-LL mismatch group was further subdivided into operative and nonoperative group. The changes in KFA with PI-LL were examined. The PI-LL mismatch group exhibited significantly greater sagittal vertical axis (SVA), pelvic tilt (PT) and KFA, and smaller LL, thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sacral slope than the PI-LL match group. PI-LL, LL, PI, SVA, and PT were significantly correlated with KFA in the PI-LL mismatch group. From baseline to 6-month follow-up, all variables were significantly different in the operative group with the exception of PI, although there was no significant difference in any variable in the nonoperative group. The magnitude of surgical correction in the PI-LL mismatch was significantly correlated with the degree of spontaneous changes in KFA, PT, and TK. The PI-LL mismatch would contribute to compensatory knee flexion during standing in patients with lumbar degenerative disease. Surgical correction of the PI-LL mismatch could lead to a spontaneous improvement of compensatory knee flexion. The degree of improvement in knee flexion depends in part on the amount of correction in the PI-LL mismatch. 3.

  8. Phototherapeutic hardening modulates systemic cytokine levels in patients with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Rinner, Beate; Griesbacher, Antonia; Eberhard, Katharina; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Mayer, Gerlinde; Stauber, Rudolf E; Byrne, Scott N

    2013-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) has been linked to impaired UV-immunosuppression, Langerhans cell (LC) retention, and an absence of neutrophil infiltration into UV-exposed PLE skin. We have previously shown that photohardening restores the impaired neutrophil responsiveness to the chemoattractants leucotriene B4 and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanin in PLE patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether photohardening modulates baseline chemokine and cytokine levels which would alter chemoresponsiveness and hence immune function in PLE patients. Sixteen PLE patients received photohardening therapy for 4-9 weeks by 311 nm UVB. Plasma samples were taken both before and within 48 h of the penultimate phototherapeutic exposure. Plasma from these 16 patients, 8 non-irradiated PLE patients, and 14 control subjects was analyzed for IL-1β, CXCL8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-17, TNF, CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL11 (eotaxin), and CCL22 (MDC). These cytokines and chemokines were measured in early spring (March to April) and again in late spring (April to June). PLE patients had a significantly elevated level of CCL11 (p = 0.003) and IL-1β (p = 0.002) in early spring (before phototherapy). In late spring, after phototherapy, PLE patients had significantly elevated CCL2 (p = 0.002) and TNF (p = 0.002) but a trend for lowered plasma levels of CXCL8 (p = 0.021). When comparing the cytokine shifts from early to late spring, while healthy controls and non-UV-irradiated PLE patients showed an increase, PLE patients undergoing photohardening exhibited a trend for decrease in IL-1β (p = 0.012). Taken together, our results indicate that photohardening may alter the complex cytokine milieu in PLE, in particular via IL-1β, helping to normalise the pathophysiologic response to subsequent UV exposure.

  9. Experimental reproduction of polymorphous light eruption and benign summer light eruption by whole-body UVA irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J; Verheyen, A; Dockx, P

    1997-01-01

    The entity 'benign summer light eruption' (BSLE) has been introduced to make a clinical subdivision in the heterogeneous group of polymorphous light eruptions (PLE). Provocation tests for PLE are not always easy to perform and require expensive apparatus. Our purpose was to evaluate a provocation test that could be readily done by a dermatologist with a UVA cabin. Provocation tests are currently required in order to obtain a financial contribution from the social security services in Belgium. In addition, we were interested in determining whether the results of the provocation test would permit us to differentiate between the clinical entities of BSLE and PLE. We studied the efficacy of whole-body UVA irradiation for BSLE and PLE patients. A total of 45 patients was tested, of whom 26 were diagnosed as having BSLE and 19 PLE. In the BSLE group, 24 patients (92%) presented lesions. In the PLE group, 15 patients (79%) had a reaction, but 3 had a positive UVB test. The mean dose to induce lesions was 65.96 J/cm2 for the BSLE group and 52.86 J/cm2 for the PLE group. We conclude that the whole-body UVA test is a high-performance provocation test for both BSLE and PLE patients although it cannot differentiate the two entities from one another.

  10. 78 FR 64597 - Youngstown & Southeastern Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Mule Sidetracks, L.L.C.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...) Easements granted by Allied Erecting & Dismantling Company, Inc. to The Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad Company by agreements dated June 3, 1992, and November 10, 1993, and easements retained by PLE in deeds dated June 3, 1992, and November 10, 1993, from PLE to Allied (Allied Easements), which Allied...

  11. Cloning and characterization of piggyBac-like elements in lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Sun, Zhichan; Luo, Guanghua; Hu, Chunlin; Zhang, Wei; Han, Zhaojun

    2011-01-01

    PiggyBac-like elements (PLE) are widespread in variety of organisms, however, few of them are active or have an intact transposon structure. To further define the distribution PLEs in Lepidoptera, where the original active piggyBac IFP2 was discovered, and potentially isolate new functional elements, a survey for PLEs by PCR amplification and Southern dot blots was performed. Two new PLEs, AyPLE and AaPLE, were successfully isolated from the noctuid species, Agrotis ypsilon and Argyrogramma agnate, respectively. These elements were found to be closely related to each other by sequence similarity, and by sharing the same 16 bp inverted terminal repeat sequences. The AyPLE1.1 and AaPLE1.1 elements are structurally intact having characteristic TTAA target site duplications, inverted terminal repeats and intact open reading frames encoding putative transposases with the presumed piggyBac DDD domains, which are features consistent with autonomous functional transposons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AyPLE1.1 and AaPLE1.1 cluster with another noctuid species element, HaPLE1.1, suggesting a common ancestor for the three types of PLEs. This contributes to our understanding of the distribution and evolution of piggyBac in Lepidoptera.

  12. Powerful Learning Environments: The Critical Link between School and Classroom Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Christine; Schnepel, Katherine C.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated classrooms within four Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) schools, operationalizing the ASP principles, values, and concepts of a "powerful learning environment" (PLE), examining how similarly PLE was implemented in different classrooms and schools, and analyzing the relation between degree of implementation and differences in…

  13. Constant Change: The Ever-Evolving Personal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres Kompen, Ricardo; Monguet, Josep Ma.; Brigos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    There are several definitions for the term "personal learning environment" (PLE); in this article, PLE refers to a group of web technologies, with various degrees of integration and interaction, that helps users and learners manage the flow of information that relates to the learning process, the creation of knowledge, and the…

  14. Learning in Online Continuing Professional Development: An Institutionalist View on the Personal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark William; Prescott, Denise; Lyon, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The nature of institutions is an important question for the Personal Learning Environment (PLE). Whilst the PLE has tended to focus on what is considered to be "non-institutional" technology like social software, most online tools today have a corporate/institutional foundation. How should educators position themselves with learners who…

  15. Powerful Learning Environments: The Critical Link between School and Classroom Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Christine; Schnepel, Katherine C.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated classrooms within four Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) schools, operationalizing the ASP principles, values, and concepts of a "powerful learning environment" (PLE), examining how similarly PLE was implemented in different classrooms and schools, and analyzing the relation between degree of implementation and differences in…

  16. Effects of ethylene oxide gas sterilization on physical properties of poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ah, Y C; Choi, Y; Kim, S Y; Kim, S H; Lee, K S; Byun, Y

    2001-01-01

    The aggregation of poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) microspheres during ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilization makes it difficult for the microspheres to be used in clinical applications. In this study, six kinds of PLLA-PEG-PLLA triblock copolymers (TriPLE) were synthesized with various composition ratios of PEG/PLLA in the range of 0.012 to 0.103. TriPLE microspheres were prepared by the oil-in-water emulsion method. TriPLE microspheres were characterized by using 1H-NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After sterilization by EO gas at 55 degrees C, the microspheres were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser diffractometry, standard sieves, X-ray diffraction (XRD), GPC, and DSC. When the composition ratio of PEG/PLLA was above 0.02, the initial crystallinity of TriPLE in microspheres was as high as 50%, and the microspheres were suitable to be sterilized by EO gas. On the other hand, TriPLE microspheres, which had composition ratios of PEG/PLLA below 0.02, had low initial crystallinities of about 30%, and aggregated during EO gas sterilization. For these microspheres, crystallinity increased up to 50% during the sterilization, whereas other TriPLE microspheres did not show any changes in crystallinity. Therefore, the aggregation of TriPLE microspheres during EO gas sterilization was markedly reduced as the initial crystallinity of TriPLE in the microspheres was increased.

  17. Focused ultrasound of the pleural cavities and the pericardium by nurses after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Graven, Torbjørn; Wahba, Alexander; Hammer, Anne Marie; Sagen, Ove; Olsen, Øystein; Skjetne, Kyrre; Kleinau, Jens Olaf; Dalen, Havard

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to study the feasibility and reliability of focused ultrasound (US) examinations to quantify pericardial (PE)- and pleural effusion (PLE) by a pocket-size imaging device (PSID) performed by nurses in patients early after cardiac surgery. After a 3-month training period, with cardiologists as supervisors, two nurses examined 59 patients (20 women) with US using a PSID at a median of 5 days after cardiac surgery. The amount of PE and PLE was classified in four categories by US (both) and chest x-ray (PLE only). Echocardiography, including US of the pleural cavities, by experienced cardiologists was used as reference. Focused US by the nurses was more sensitive than x-ray to detect PLE. The correlations of the quantification of PE and PLE by the nurses and reference was r (95% confidence interval) 0.76 (0.46-0.89) and 0.81 (0.73-0.89), both p < 0.001. PE and PLE were drained in one and six (eight cavities) patients, all classified as large amount by the nurses. Cardiac nurses were able to obtain reliable measurements and quantification of both PE and PLE bedside by focused US and outperform the commonly used chest x-ray regarding PLE after cardiac surgery.

  18. Genetically divergent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat (Felis catus) and the African lion (Panthera leo) share usage of CD134 and CXCR4 as entry receptors.

    PubMed

    McEwan, William A; McMonagle, Elizabeth L; Logan, Nicola; Serra, Rodrigo C; Kat, Pieter; Vandewoude, Sue; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2008-11-01

    The env open reading frames of African lion (Panthera leo) lentivirus (feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV(Ple)]) subtypes B and E from geographically distinct regions of Africa suggest two distinct ancestries, with FIV(Ple)-E sharing a common ancestor with the domestic cat (Felis catus) lentivirus (FIV(Fca)). Here we demonstrate that FIV(Ple)-E and FIV(Fca) share the use of CD134 (OX40) and CXCR4 as a primary receptor and coreceptor, respectively, and that both lion CD134 and CXCR4 are functional receptors for FIV(Ple)-E. The shared usage of CD134 and CXCR4 by FIV(Fca) and FIV(Ple)-E may have implications for in vivo cell tropism and the pathogenicity of the E subtype among free-ranging lion populations.

  19. Solvent Selection for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Polymeric Sorbents Used in Air Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Primbs, Toby; Genualdi, Susan; Simonich, Staci

    2014-01-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated as a method for extracting semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from air sampling media; including quartz fiber filter (QFF), polyurethane foam (PUF), and a polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer (XAD-2). Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the PLE solvent selection in order to reduce both co-extraction of polyurethane and save time in evaluating solvent compatibility during the initial steps of method development. A PLE solvent composition of 75:25% hexane:acetone was chosen for PUF. The XAD-2 copolymer was not solubilized under the PLE conditions used. The average percent PLE recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) of 63 SOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine, amide, triazine, thiocarbamate, and phosphorothioate pesticides, were 76.7 (6.2), 79.3 (8.1), and 93.4 (2.9) % for the QFF, PUF, and XAD-2, respectively. PMID:18220448

  20. Polymorphous light eruption. Experimental reproduction of skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzle, E.; Plewig, G.; Hofmann, C.; Roser-Maass, E.

    1982-07-01

    The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy.

  1. Patient-reported outcomes and associations with pleural effusion in outpatients with heart failure: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Guri H; Norekvål, Tone M; Graven, Torbjørn; Haug, Hilde H; Skjetne, Kyrre; Kleinau, Jens O; Gustad, Lise T; Dalen, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to study whether patient-reported outcomes, measured by quality of life (QoL) and functional class, are sensitive to pleural effusion (PLE) in patients with heart failure (HF), and to study changes in QoL and functional class during follow-up of PLE. Methods A cohort of 62 patients from an outpatient HF clinic was included. The amount of PLE was quantified using a pocket-sized ultrasound imaging device. Self-reports of QoL and functional class were collected using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification. Results At baseline, 26 (42%) patients had PLE of which 19 (31%) patients had moderate to severe amounts of PLE. Patients with no to mild PLE had a lower MLHFQ score (mean 42, SD 21) compared with patients with a moderate to severe amount of PLE (mean 55, SD 24), p=0.03. For 28 patients (45%) with follow-up data, we observed a linear improvement of the MLHFQ-score (3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) with each centimetre reduction of PLE. Correspondingly, patient-reported NYHA-class followed the same pattern as the MLHFQ-score. Conclusions Our study indicates that patient-reported outcome measures as MLHFQ may be sensitive tools to identify patients with HF at highest risk of symptomatic PLE and that treatment targeting reduction of PLE during follow-up is essential to improvement of QoL and functional capacity of outpatients with HF. Trial registration number NCT01794715; Results PMID:28320791

  2. Immune Abnormalities in Fontan Protein-Losing Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Magdo, H Sonali; Stillwell, Terri L; Greenhawt, Matthew J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Yu, Sunkyung; Fifer, Carlen G; Russell, Mark W; Schumacher, Kurt R

    2015-08-01

    To comprehensively characterize the immunologic characteristics of patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) post-Fontan and compare them with patients without PLE post-Fontan. Patients with PLE post-Fontan and age-matched controls post-Fontan were prospectively studied with laboratory markers of immune function. Infectious history was obtained by interview and chart review. The groups' demographics, cardiac history, immune characteristics, and infection history were compared using appropriate 2-group statistics. A total of 16 patients enrolled (8 patients with PLE and 8 controls). All patients with PLE had lymphopenia compared with 25% of controls (P = .01). All patients with PLE had markedly depressed CD4 T cell counts (median 58 cells/μL) compared with controls (median 450 cells/μL, P = .0002); CD4% was also low in the PLE group (12.3%) and normal in control (36.9%, P = .004). Both groups had mildly depressed CD8 T cells and normal to slightly elevated natural killer and B-cell subsets. A majority of patients with PLE (62.5%) had negative titers to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination, compared with no control Fontan with a negative titer (P = .03). Despite profoundly low CD4 counts, the frequency of infection was not different between groups with no reported opportunistic infections. Patients with Fontan-associated PLE have extensive quantitative immune abnormalities, particularly CD4 deficiency. These immune abnormalities are similar to those found in non-Fontan patients with PLE caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of Proliferation and Antigen Presentation Activity following Internalization of Polydispersed Carbon Nanotubes by Primary Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mandavi; Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between poly-dispersed acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells were studied. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs, known phagocytic cells) were used as positive controls in this study. Recovery of live cells from cultures of PLE cells and PMs was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-SWCNTs, in a time and dose dependent manner. Both PLE cells as well as PMs could take up fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs in a time dependent manner and this uptake was significantly blocked by cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks the activity of acto-myosin fibers and therefore the phagocytic activity of cells. Confocal microscopic studies confirmed that AF-SWCNTs were internalized by both PLE cells and PMs. Intra-trachially instilled AF-SWCNTs could also be taken up by lung epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages. Freshly isolated PLE cells had significant cell division activity and cell cycling studies indicated that treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in a marked reduction in S-phase of the cell cycle. In a previously standardized system to study BCG antigen presentation by PLE cells and PMs to sensitized T helper cells, AF-SWCNTs could significantly lower the antigen presentation ability of both cell types. These results show that mouse primary lung epithelial cells can efficiently internalize AF-SWCNTs and the uptake of nanotubes interfered with biological functions of PLE cells including their ability to present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells. PMID:22384094

  4. Polyopes lancifolia Extract, a Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Seong Won; Han, Ji Sook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Polyopes lancifolia extract (PLE) on α-glucosidase activity, α-amylase activitiy, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results of this study revealed a marked inhibitory effect of PLE on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities. The IC50s of PLE against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 0.20 mg/mL and 0.35 mg/mL, respectively. PLE was a more effective inhibitor of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than acarbose, the positive control. The postprandial blood glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic mice were significantly lower in the PLE treated group than in the control group. Moreover, PLE administration was associated with a decreased area under the curve for the glucose response in diabetic mice. These results indicate that PLE may be a potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities and may suppress postprandial hyperglycemia.

  5. Loss of proliferation and antigen presentation activity following internalization of polydispersed carbon nanotubes by primary lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mandavi; Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between poly-dispersed acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells were studied. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs, known phagocytic cells) were used as positive controls in this study. Recovery of live cells from cultures of PLE cells and PMs was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-SWCNTs, in a time and dose dependent manner. Both PLE cells as well as PMs could take up fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs in a time dependent manner and this uptake was significantly blocked by cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks the activity of acto-myosin fibers and therefore the phagocytic activity of cells. Confocal microscopic studies confirmed that AF-SWCNTs were internalized by both PLE cells and PMs. Intra-trachially instilled AF-SWCNTs could also be taken up by lung epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages. Freshly isolated PLE cells had significant cell division activity and cell cycling studies indicated that treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in a marked reduction in S-phase of the cell cycle. In a previously standardized system to study BCG antigen presentation by PLE cells and PMs to sensitized T helper cells, AF-SWCNTs could significantly lower the antigen presentation ability of both cell types. These results show that mouse primary lung epithelial cells can efficiently internalize AF-SWCNTs and the uptake of nanotubes interfered with biological functions of PLE cells including their ability to present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells.

  6. Recovery of anthocyanins from residues of Rubus fruticosus, Vaccinium myrtillus and Eugenia brasiliensis by ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and their combination.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian

    2017-09-15

    This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom, Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes), Polysaccharide Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamac, Mustafa; Zeytinoglu, Melih; Senturk, Hakan; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Gungor; Bayramoglu, Gokhan; Oglakci, Aysegul; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the healing effects of a Phellinus linteus fruiting body hot water extract (PLE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. PLE was given before and after STZ. The preprotective, protective, and postprotective effects of PLE on STZ-induced oxidative stress were studied using biochemical (caspase 3 activity, cytosolic-to-lysosomal ratio of cathepsin B and L, DNA fragmentation levels), ordinary histological and immuno-histochemical investigation parameters. Following oral administration of PLE after STZ application, the serum glucose concentration significantly decreased up to 41.13% compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The hypoglycemic potential of the PLE was further supported by an increase of insulin secretion in the islets of Langerhans. In addition, the number of cells in Langerhans islets increased by 45.89% when PLE was given after STZ application. On the other hand, the use of PLE before oxidative stress could not prevent the onset of diabetes. This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the effect of application time of orally administered Ph. Linteus hot water extract on STZ-induced diabetes.

  8. Protective effects of phyllanthus emblica leaf extract on sodium arsenite-mediated adverse effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Sadia; Ahsan, Nazmul; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Rashid, Abdur; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). 'Control' mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated 'SA' and 'SA+PLE' were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity.

  9. Towards a proposal for a universal diagnostic definition of protein-losing enteropathy in Fontan patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Udink Ten Cate, Floris Ea; Hannes, Tobias; Germund, Ingo; Khalil, Markus; Huntgeburth, Michael; Apitz, Christian; Brockmeier, Konrad; Sreeram, Narayanswami

    2016-07-15

    A standardised diagnostic definition of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) in Fontan patients serves both patient care and research. The present study determined whether a diagnostic definition of PLE was routinely used in published clinical Fontan studies, and to identify potentially relevant diagnostic criteria for composing a uniform PLE definition. A systematic review was conducted in adherence to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) recommendations. Published clinical Fontan studies that were written in English and included at least four patients with PLE were selected. PLE definitions were quantitatively analysed using a lateral thinking tool in which definitions were fractionated into constituent pieces of information (building blocks or diagnostic criteria). We identified 364 papers. In the final analysis, data from 62 published articles were extracted. A diagnostic definition of PLE was used in only 27/62 (43.5%) of selected studies, and definitions were very heterogeneous. We identified eight major diagnostic criteria. Hypoalbuminaemia (n=23 studies, 85.2%), clinical presentation (n=18, 66.7%), documentation of enteric protein loss (n=16, 59.3%) and exclusion of other causes of hypoproteinaemia (n=17, 63.0%), were the most frequently used diagnostic criteria. Most studies used three diagnostic variables (n=13/27, 48.1%). Cut-off values for laboratory parameters (serum albumin, protein or faecal α-1-antitrypsin) were frequently incorporated in the PLE definition (n=16, 59.3%). Establishment of a universally accepted PLE definition for routine use in clinical research and daily practice is required. The diagnostic criteria may help constitute a diagnostic PLE definition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Topical liposomal DNA-repair enzymes in polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Angelika; Legat, Franz J; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Quehenberger, Franz; Wolf, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is a very frequent photodermatosis in Europe whose pathogenesis may involve resistance to UV-induced immune suppression and simultaneous immune reactions against skin photoneoantigens. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intra-individual half-body trial to investigate the protective effect of an after-sun (AS) lotion containing DNA-repair enzymes (photolyase from Anacystis nidulans and Micrococcus luteus extract with endonuclease activity). Fourteen PLE patients were exposed to suberythemal doses of solar-simulated UV radiation on 4 consecutive days at 4 symmetrically located PLE-prone test fields per patient. The test fields were treated with (i) active AS lotion or (ii) a placebo lotion immediately after each UV exposure, or (iii) an SPF30 sunscreen before UV exposure or left untreated. All test fields were exposed to photoactivating blue light 1 h after each UV exposure. As shown by a newly established specific PLE test score (AA + SI + 0.4P [range, 0-12], where AA is affected area score [range, 0-4], SI is skin infiltration score [range, 0-4], and P is pruritus score on a visual analogue scale [range, 0-10]), PLE symptoms were significantly fewer on test sites treated with active AS lotion than on untreated (P = 0.00049) or placebo-treated test sites (P = 0.024). At 144 h after first UV exposure (the time point of maximal PLE symptoms), the mean test scores for untreated, active AS lotion-treated, and placebo-treated test fields were 4.39, 1.73 (61% reduction; 95% confidence interval (CI), 36% to 85%), and 3.20 (27% reduction; 95% CI, 3% to 51%), respectively. Pretreatment with SPF30 sunscreen completely prevented PLE symptoms in all patients. The present results indicate that DNA damage may trigger PLE and that the application of topical liposomes containing DNA repair enzymes to increase DNA repair may effectively prevent PLE.

  11. Perilla frutescens leaves extract ameliorates ultraviolet radiation-induced extracellular matrix damage in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-01-04

    Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional herb that is consumed in East Asian countries as a traditional medicine. This traditional herb has been documented for centuries to treat various diseases such as depression, allergies, inflammation and asthma. However, the effect of Perilla frutescens on skin has not been characterized well. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Perilla frutescens leaves extract (PLE) on ultraviolet radiation-induced extracellular matrix damage in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice skin. Human dermal fibroblasts and Skh-1 hairless mice were irradiated with UV and treated with PLE. Protein and mRNA levels of various target molecules were analyzed by western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Histological changes of mouse skin were analyzed by H&E staining. To elucidate underlying mechanism of PLE, activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding assay and the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed. PLE significantly inhibited basal and UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression dose-dependently, and also decreased UV-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This inhibitory effects of PLE on MMP-1 and MMP-3 were mediated by reduction of ROS generation and AP-1 DNA binding activity induced by UV. Furthermore, PLE promoted type I procollagen production irrespective of UV irradiation. In the UV-irradiated animal model, PLE significantly reduced epidermal skin thickness and MMP-13 expression induced by UV. Our results demonstrate that PLE has the protective effect against UV-induced dermal matrix damage. Therefore, we suggest that PLE can be a potential agent for prevention of skin aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypoglycemic effects of aqueous persimmon leaf extract in a murine model of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    BAE, UI-JIN; PARK, SOO-HYUN; JUNG, SU-YOUNG; PARK, BYUNG-HYUN; CHAE, SOO-WAN

    2015-01-01

    Previously, powdered persimmon leaves have been reported to have glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in diabetic (db/db) mice. As persimmon leaf is commonly consumed as tea, an aqueous extract of persimmon leaves (PLE) was prepared and its anti-diabetic efficacy was investigated. In the present study, PLE was tested for its inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase in vitro. An oral maltose tolerance test was performed in diabetic mice. Next, the acute effect of PLE was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Last, the long-term effect of PLE supplementation was assessed in db/db after eight weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters, as well as histological analyses of liver and pancreas were evaluated at the end of the study. PLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity and increased antioxidant capacity. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice pre-treated with PLE displayed hypoglycemic activity. Daily oral supplementation with PLE for eight weeks reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, enhanced the glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), improved blood lipid parameters, suppressed fat accumulation in the liver and maintained islet structure in db/db mice. Further mechanistic study showed that PLE protected pancreatic islets from glucotoxicity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that PLE exhibits considerable anti-diabetic effects through α-glucosidase inhibition and through the maintenance of functional β-cells. These results provided a rationale for the use of persimmon leaf tea for the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. PMID:25955179

  13. Hypoglycemic effects of aqueous persimmon leaf extract in a murine model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Soo-Hyun; Jung, Su-Young; Park, Byung-Hyun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2015-08-01

    Previously, powdered persimmon leaves have been reported to have glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in diabetic (db/db) mice. As persimmon leaf is commonly consumed as tea, an aqueous extract of persimmon leaves (PLE) was prepared and its anti-diabetic efficacy was investigated. In the present study, PLE was tested for its inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase in vitro. An oral maltose tolerance test was performed in diabetic mice. Next, the acute effect of PLE was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Last, the long-term effect of PLE supplementation was assessed in db/db after eight weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters, as well as histological analyses of liver and pancreas were evaluated at the end of the study. PLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity and increased antioxidant capacity. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice pre-treated with PLE displayed hypoglycemic activity. Daily oral supplementation with PLE for eight weeks reduced body weight gain without affecting food intake, enhanced the glucose tolerance during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), improved blood lipid parameters, suppressed fat accumulation in the liver and maintained islet structure in db/db mice. Further mechanistic study showed that PLE protected pancreatic islets from glucotoxicity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that PLE exhibits considerable anti-diabetic effects through α-glucosidase inhibition and through the maintenance of functional β-cells. These results provided a rationale for the use of persimmon leaf tea for the maintenance of normal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  14. Photoluminescence excitation measurements using pressure-tuned laser diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bercha, Artem; Ivonyak, Yurii; Mędryk, Radosław; Trzeciakowski, Witold A. Dybała, Filip; Piechal, Bernard

    2015-06-15

    Pressure-tuned laser diodes in external cavity were used as tunable sources for photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy. The method was demonstrated in the 720 nm-1070 nm spectral range using a few commercial laser diodes. The samples for PLE measurements were quantum-well structures grown on GaAs and on InP. The method is superior to standard PLE measurements using titanium sapphire laser because it can be extended to any spectral range where anti-reflection coated laser diodes are available.

  15. [Protein-losing enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, A I; Krums, L M

    2017-01-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a rare complication of intestinal diseases. Its main manifestation is hypoproteinemic edema. The diagnosis of PLE is based on the verification of protein loss into the intestinal lumen, by determining fecal α1-antitrypsin concentration and clearance. The localization of the affected colonic segment is clarified using radiologic and endoscopic techniques. The mainstay of treatment for PLE is a fat-free diet enriched with medium-chain triglycerides. Surgical resection of the affected segment of the colon may be the treatment of choice for severe hypoproteinemia resistant to drug therapy.

  16. Polymorphic light eruption sine eruption.

    PubMed

    Dover, J S; Hawk, J L

    1988-01-01

    We describe seven patients, four female and three male, who developed intense pruritus on sun-exposed skin without visible change. The clinical features resembled those of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) without rash. Four patients also occasionally developed typical PLE upon sun exposure, but sun-induced pruritus alone occurred most frequently. No patient was taking any drug therapy. One patient developed similar pruritus following solar simulated irradiation, and one following PUVA therapy. All other laboratory investigations were negative. Treatment with low dose UVB phototherapy or PUVA therapy was effective. The condition, which we have called polymorphic light eruption sine eruptione (PLESE), appears to be a variant of PLE not previously reported.

  17. Role of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract in dermatologic diseases: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Samreen Z; Bhatia, Neal; Ceilley, Roger; Hougeir, Firas; Lieberman, Robert; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W

    2014-02-01

    Polypodium leucotomos extract (PLE), derived from the tropical fern of Polypodiaceae family, has properties ranging from immunomodulatory and antioxidative to photoprotective. It is these multiple mechanisms of action, in combination with a favorable side effect profile, which makes PLE a promising adjunctive treatment for several dermatologic disorders. Studies are summarized on the use and potential applications of PLE in the treatment or management of photodermatoses, vitiligo, melasma, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and more recently, in minimizing infections in high-performance athletes. More data, however, with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these benefits.

  18. Control of Cerebral Blood Velocity with Furosemide-Induced Hypovolemia and Upright Tilt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-25

    cardiovascular and cerebrovascular control mechanisms, subjects abstained from caffeine , exercise, and alcohol for 24 h before the experiment. Additionally...does not necessarily imply unchanging flow. For exam - ple, Heistad and Kontos (17) suggested implicitly that cerebral autoregulation reflects the

  19. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  20. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  1. Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy Characterization of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, James E.; Wang, Xufeng; Grubbs, Elizabeth K.; Drayton, Jennifer; Johnston, Steve; Levi, Dean; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Bermel, Peter

    2016-11-21

    The use of steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy as a contactless characterization tool, suitable for inline optical characterization, has been previously demonstrated for high efficiency solar cells such as GaAs. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of PLE characterization on a thin film CdS/CdTe np heterojunction solar cell, and compare the results to measured EQE and I-V data. In contrast to previous work on high-quality GaAs, the PLE and EQE spectra do not match closely here. We still find, however, that reliable material parameters can be extracted from the PLE measurements. We also provide a physical explanation of the limits defining the cases when the PLE and EQE spectra may be expected to match.

  2. Pulmonary Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... common PFT’s are spirometry (spy-RAH-me-tree), diffusion studies and body plethysmography (ple-thiz-MA-gra- ... blowing and let the staff know. What are diffusion studies? Diffusion tests find out how well the ...

  3. New insight on the interaction of self-activated and Mn-related emission centers in ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Vorona, I.; Zhuk, A.; Gilchuk, A. V.; Korsunska, N.; Markevich, I.

    2017-02-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra of undoped and thermally doped with Mn ZnS single crystals are studied. In the PL spectra, the bands caused by Mn-related and self-activated (SA) emission centers were observed. A number of narrow peaks whose intensity enhanced with increasing Mn content were found in the PLE spectra of SA emission. The same peaks were present in the PLE spectra of the Mn-related emission band. Some of these peaks were previously observed in the absorption spectra and attributed to Mn2+ ions. The appearance of Mn-related peaks in the PLE spectra of SA emission is explained by excitation transfer from the Mn2+ ions to SA emission centers. The conditions required for this transfer and possible mechanisms of the process are discussed.

  4. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  5. Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis in a Male with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Sauri, Tamara; Izquierdo, Àngel; Ramió-Torrentà, LLuis; Sanchez-Montañez, Àngel; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare syndrome characterized by memory impairment, symptoms of hypothalamic dysfunction, and seizures. It commonly precedes the diagnosis of cancer. Small-cell lung cancer is the neoplasm that is most frequently reported as the etiology underlying PLE. Case Report This report describes a male patient who presented with neurologic symptoms consistent with anterograde amnesia, apathy, and disorientation. MRI revealed diffuse hyperintensities located predominantly in the medial bitemporal lobes, basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and leptomeninges on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images, suggesting PLE. Study of the primary tumor revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which resulted in his neurologic symptoms gradually improving. Conclusions PLE might be a rare debut of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Treatment of the primary tumor may improve the neurologic symptoms. PMID:25628742

  6. Effect of nonionic surfactants on naphthalene dissolution and biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Mulder, H; Wassink, G R; Breure, A M; van Andel, J G; Rulkens, W H

    1998-11-20

    The effect of six nonionic surfactants, Igepal CA-720, Tergitol NPX, Triton X-100, PLE4, PLE10, and PLE23, on the dissolution rate of solid naphthalene was studied in stirred batch reactors. Results showed increased mass-transfer rates with increased surfactant concentrations up to 10 kg m-3. Dissolution experiments were adequatly described by a mechanistic mass-transfer model. Partitioning of naphthalene into the micelles and the diffusion coefficients of the micelles affected the dissolution rate most significantly. Combined dissolution and biodegradation experiments with Triton X-100 or PLE10 with naphthalene showed that the biomass-formation rate of Pseudomonas 8909N (DSM No. 11634) increased concomitantly with the mass-transfer rate under naphthalene-dissolution limited conditions up to surfactant concentrations of 6 kg m-3.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of the n-BuOH subfraction of mushroom Phellinus linteus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Seon; Kim, Seung-Kook; Kim, Byung-Chul; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and related activities of mushroom Phellinus linteus. The results show that the EtOH extract of Phellinus linteus (PLE) dose-dependently inhibited the mouse ear edema induced by croton oil. Among PLE subfractions, the n-BuOH subfraction showed highest anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema test. The n-BuOH subfraction also showed highest inhibitory activity on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. PLE could significantly reduce the number of writhing induced by acetic acid in mice, indicating that PLE possesses potent antinociceptive effect mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Mycelial extract of six different Phellinus strains were found to contain anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. These results suggest that Phellinus linteus has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, in addition to its anti-angiogenic activity.

  8. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  9. Phellinus linteus Extract Exerts Anti-asthmatic Effects by Suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK Activity in an OVA-induced Mouse Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guang Hai

    2014-01-01

    Phellinus linteus has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asian countries and is known to have anti-tumor, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities. However, the protective effects of P. linteus against experimental asthma have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether P. linteus ethanol extract (PLE) suppresses inflammatory response in an OVA-induced asthma model. As expected, the oral administration of PLE significantly inhibited eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA-challenged BALB/c mice. Supporting these data, the augmentation of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), eotaxin, and adhesion molecules in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after OVA inhalation was markedly attenuated by PLE. Furthermore, PLE reduced OVA-induced activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in lung tissues. Therefore, our results suggest the potential of P. linteus as a therapeutic agent for asthma. PMID:24851100

  10. Pressurised liquid extraction of volatile compounds in coffee bean.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun-Wai; Tan, Alena Ann-Ann; Liu, Shao-Quan; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin

    2013-10-15

    In this work, we reported a novel application of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) on coffee bean. The condition of PLE was carefully optimised with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM) including adjustment of experimental parameters (solvent type and sample to hydromatrix ratio) and other operating parameters (i.e. temperature (50-100°C), pressure (1000-2000 psi) and static extraction time (5-15 min)). The coffee extracts obtained under three different extraction conditions were evaluated through descriptive sensory analysis. Then, the results showed that those targeted compounds obtained from PLE were nearly three times higher (1473 ppm) than conventional solvent extraction (571 ppm). Thus, PLE demonstrated the feasibility of producing a series of coffee extracts under controllable extraction conditions in correlation with desirable sensory attributes. This approach has not previously reported to characterise the aroma of coffee bean. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electric field of the power terrestrial sources observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere in frequency range 1-60 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkin, Fedir; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-07-01

    The power line emission (PLE) 50/60 Hz and the Schumann resonance (SR) harmonics were detected by the use of a compact electrical field sensor of length 0.42 m during microsatellite Chibis-M mission in years 2012-2014. The initial orbit of Chibis-M has altitude 500 km and inclination 52°. We present the space distribution of PLE and its connections with the possible overhead power lines. PLE has been recorded both in the shade and sunlit parts of the orbits as opposed to SR which have been recorded only in the nightside of the Earth. The cases of an extra long distance of PLE propagation in the Earth's ionosphere and increased value of SR Q factor have been also observed. These results should stimulate the ionosphere model refinement for ultralow frequency and extremely low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation as well as a study on new possibility of the ionosphere diagnostics.

  12. Fission product retention in TRISCO coated UO sub 2 particle fuels subjected to HTR simulated core heating tests

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.A.; Kania, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    Results of the examination and analysis of 25,730 individual microspheres from spherical fuel elements HFR-K3/1 and HFR-K3/3 are reported. The parent spheres were irradiated in excess of end-of-life exposure and subsequently subjected to simulated core heating tests in a special high-temperature furnace at Forschungszentrum, Juelich, GmbH (KFA). Following the heating tests, the spheres were electrolytically deconsolidated to obtain unbonded fuel particles for Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) analysis. For sphere HFR-K3/1, which was heated for 500 h at 1600{degree}C, only four particles were identified as having released fission products. The remaining particles from the sphere showed no statistical evidence of fission product release. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination showed that three of the defect particles had large sections of the TRISO coating missing, while the fourth appeared normal. For sphere HFR-K3/3, which was heated for 100 h at 1800{degree}C, the IMGA data revealed that fission product release (cesium) from individual particles was significant and that there was large particle-to-particle variation in retention capabilities. Individual particle release (cesium) averaged ten times the KFA-measured integral spherical fuel element release value. In addition, the bimodal distribution of the individual particle data indicated that two distinct modes of failure at fuel temperatures of 1800{degree}C and above may exist. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Tracking Knee Joint Functional Axes through Tikhonov Filtering and Plűcker Coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wangdo; Kim, Yoon-Hyuk; Veloso, António P; Kohles, Sean S

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have reported several compensation methods to estimate bone and joint position from a cluster of skin-mounted markers as influenced by Soft Tissue Artifacts (STA). Tikhonov Regularization Filtering (TRF) as a means to estimate Instantaneous Screw Axes (ISA) was introduced here as a means to reduce the displacement of a rigid body to its simplest geometric form. Recent studies have suggested that the ISA of the knee, i.e., Knee Functional Axes (KFA), might be closely connected to the estimation of constraint forces such as those due to medial and lateral connective tissues. The estimations of ISAs were known to be highly sensitive to noisy data, which may be mathematically ill-posed, requiring smoothing such as that conducted by regularization. The main contribution in this work was to establish the reciprocal connection between the KFA and Ground Reaction Forces (GRF) as a means to estimate joint constraint forces. Presented results compare the computational performance with published kinetic and kinematic joint data generated from an instrumented total knee replacement. Implications of these preliminary findings with respect to dynamic alignment as a functional anatomic metric are discussed. PMID:23720709

  14. Visible-to-SWIR Downconversion and Its Application to Individual Identification Friend or Foe (IIFF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Glint Tape/GloTape® One technique that has been developed in order to reduce the possibility of fratricide is the use of “glint tape” or GloTape...filter samples, photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE) measurements were performed. PLE is a technique in which the energy of the...incident optical excitation is varied while measuring the intensity of the resulting luminescence. This technique is of value in correlating optical

  15. [Effects of extract from Pegasus laternarius on the weight of immune organs and the antistress in mice].

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Yan, G; Xu, S

    1999-06-01

    Extract from Pegasus laternarius Cuvier (PLE) could increase the splenic and thymic weight in immunity-suppressed mice induced by hydrocortisone or cyclophosphamide and could increase the thymic weight in senile mice. PLE could prolonged the survival time of anoxic mice under normal pressure or chemically anoxic mice poisoned by potassium cyanide. It could also prolong the survival time of mice swimming in ice-water and enhance the tolerance of mice without food to eat and water to drink.

  16. Prevention of polymorphic light eruption with a sunscreen of very high protection level against UVB and UVA radiation under standardized photodiagnostic conditions.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Verena; Weber, Oliver; Yazdi, Amir; Benedix, Frauke; Dietz, Klaus; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE), with an overall prevalence of 10-20%, is mainly provoked by ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) and to a lesser degree by UVB (280-320 nm). The most effective prophylaxis of PLE, application of UV protection clothing, is not feasible for all sun-exposed areas of the skin and UV-hardening is time-consuming and may be associated with side-effects. Most sunscreens protect predominantly against UVB and therefore fail to prevent PLE. The protection level of potent UVA-protective filters remains unresolved. This single-centre, open, placebo-controlled, intra-individual, comparative study, analysed the efficacy of a sunscreen of very high protection level against UVB and UVA, containing methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane as UVA absorbing filters, in the prevention of PLE under standardized photodiagnostic conditions. After determination of the minimal erythema dose at day 0, photoprovocation was performed in 12 patients with a clinical history of PLE, on days 1, 2 and 3 with 100 J/cm2 UVA and variable doses of UVB, starting with the 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose of UVB. Prior to irradiation, placebo was applied to the right and sunscreen to the left dorsal forearm under COLIPA (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association) conditions. In 10 patients PLE could be provoked at the placebo site, with positive reactions in 90% of the UVA, 40% of the UVB and 90% of the UVA/UVB irradiated fields. At the site with the active treatment none of these patients developed PLE. These data demonstrate that a sunscreen with effective filters against UVA and UVB can successfully prevent the development of PLE. Further studies are needed to examine whether regular application of sunscreen under everyday conditions, especially in doses less than the tested COLIPA-norm, could be an equivalent alternative to UV-hardening therapy.

  17. Immunological changes following protein losing enteropathy after surgery total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) by cytomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Lenz, Dominik; Mittag, Anja; Sauer, Ursula; Wild, Lena; Hess, John; Schranz, Dietmar; Hambsch, Jörg; Schneider, Peter; Tárnok, Attila

    2008-02-01

    Complex immunophenotyping single-cell analysis are essential for systems biology and cytomics. The application of cytomics in immunology and cardiac research and diagnostics is very broad, ranging from the better understanding of the cardiovascular cell biology to the identification of heart function and immune consequences after surgery. TCPC or Fontan-type circulation is an accepted palliative surgery for patients with a functionally univentricular heart. Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), the enteric loss of proteins, is a potential late complication after TCPC surgery. PLE etiology is poorly understood, but immunological factors seem to play a role. This study was aimed to gain insight into immune phenotype alterations following post-TCPC PLE. Patients were studied during routine follow-up up to 5yrs after surgery, blood samples of TCPC patients without (n=21, age 6.8+/-2.6 years at surgery; mean+/-SD) and with manifest PLE (n=12, age 12.8+/- 4.5 years at sampling) and age matched healthy children (control, n=22, age 8.6+/-2.5 years) were collected. Routine laboratory, immune phenotype and serological parameters were determined. Following PLE the immune phenotype dramatically changed with signs of acute inflammation (increased neutrophil and monocyte count, CRP, IL-8). In contrast, lymphocyte count (NK-cells, αβTCR +CD4 +, αβTCR +CD8 + cells) decreased (p<0.001). The residual T-cells had elevated CD25 and CD69 expression. In PLE-patients unique cell populations with CD3 +αβ/γδTCR - and αβTCR +CD4 -8 - phenotype were present in increased frequencies. Our studies show dramatically altered leukocyte phenotype after PLE in TCPC patients. These alterations resemble to changes in autoimmune diseases. We conclude that autoimmune processes may play a role in etiology and pathophysiology of PLE.

  18. Selective removal of arsenate from drinking water using a polymeric ligand exchanger.

    PubMed

    An, Byungryul; Steinwinder, Thomas R; Zhao, Dongye

    2005-12-01

    The new maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 microg/L for arsenic in the US drinking water will take effect on January 22, 2006. The compliance cost is estimated to be approximately dollar 600 million per year using current treatment technologies. This research aims to develop an innovative ion exchange process that may help water utilities comply with the new MCL in a more cost-effective manner. A polymeric ligand exchanger (PLE) was prepared by loading Cu2+ to a commercially available chelating ion exchange resin. Results from batch and column experiments indicated that the PLE offered unusually high selectivity for arsenate over other ubiquitous anions such as sulfate, bicarbonate and chloride. The average binary arsenate/sulfate separation factor for the PLE was determined to be 12, which were over two orders of magnitude greater than that (0.1-0.2) for commercial strong-base anion (SBA) exchangers. Because of the enhanced arsenate selectivity, the PLE was able to treat approximately 10 times more bed volumes (BVs) of water than commonly used SBA resins. The PLE can operate optimally in the neutral pH range (6.0-8.0). The exhausted PLE can be regenerated highly efficiently. More than 95% arsenate capacity can be recovered using approximately 22 BVs of 4% (w/w) NaCl at pH 9.1, and the regenerated PLE can be reused without any capacity drop. Upon treatment using FeCl3, the spent brine was recovered and reused for regeneration, which may cut down the regenerant need and reduces the volume of process waste residuals. The PLE can be used as a highly selective and reusable sorbent for removal of arsenate from drinking water.

  19. Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy and plastic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2015-04-01

    To characterize the medical history, disease progression, and treatment of current-era patients with the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis. A novel survey that queried demographics, medical details, and treatment information was piloted and placed online via a Facebook portal, allowing social media to power the study. Participation regardless of PLE or plastic bronchitis diagnosis was allowed. Case control analyses compared patients with PLE and plastic bronchitis with uncomplicated control patients receiving the Fontan procedure. The survey was completed by 671 subjects, including 76 with PLE, 46 with plastic bronchitis, and 7 with both. Median PLE diagnosis was 2.5 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for PLE occurred in 71% with 41% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy varied significantly. Patients with PLE more commonly had hypoplastic left ventricle (62% vs 44% control; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.43-5.53), chylothorax (66% vs 41%; OR 2.96, CI 1.65-5.31), and cardiothoracic surgery in addition to staged palliation (17% vs 5%; OR 4.27, CI 1.63-11.20). Median plastic bronchitis diagnosis was 2 years post-Fontan. Hospitalization for plastic bronchitis occurred in 91% with 61% hospitalized ≥ 3 times. Therapy was very diverse. Patients with plastic bronchitis more commonly had chylothorax at any surgery (72% vs 51%; OR 2.47, CI 1.20-5.08) and seasonal allergies (52% vs 36%; OR 1.98, CI 1.01-3.89). Patient-specific factors are associated with diagnoses of PLE or plastic bronchitis. Treatment strategies are diverse without clear patterns. These results provide a foundation upon which to design future therapeutic studies and identify a clear need for forming consensus approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Successful Short Desensitization Treatment Protocol with Narrowband UVB Phototherapy (TL-01) in Polymorphic Light Eruption.

    PubMed

    Combalia, A; Fernández-Sartorio, C; Fustà, X; Morgado-Carrasco, D; Podlipnik, S; Aguilera, P

    2017-10-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is a common idiopathic photodermatosis that typically presents with pruritic papular or papulovesicular lesions on sun-exposed skin between spring and autumn. In many subjects PLE is mild, and can usually be prevented by the use of broad-spectrum topical sunscreens and a gradual increase in sunlight exposure. However, in some individuals, sunlight exposure results in florid PLE and they often benefit from prophylactic desensitization treatment using phototherapy in early spring, an artificial method that induces a "hardening" phenomenon. To describe and evaluate the efficacy of a short desensitization protocol, based on a one-month-treatment, administered twice a week with narrow band UVB in subjects with severe polymorphic light eruption (PLE). A retrospective, open planned and non-randomized study to assess the efficacy of UVB phototherapy in prevention of polymorphic light eruption. Fifteen subjects diagnosed with severe PLE were treated with the standard protocol in our Photobiology Unit between 2014 and 2015. The effect of hardening was sustained during follow up in 87.5% of desensitization treatments. A statistically significant association (p<0.05) between the years of duration of the PLE and the response to treatment was found. The effect of hardening was maintained in the vast majority of subjects, obtaining a good benefit with no PLE episodes during all the summer. We demonstrate that our standard protocol is effective, and produces a successful outcome for the majority of PLE subjects. Our protocol is shorter than those currently applied, being favourable both for the patient and the physician. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Parallel Architectures for BM/C3 Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    23,24,25;36,37,38; ... ; 57,58,59; **% section for one operand instructions neg 3,4,5; 5,6,8; 0 EOF Input Program File Example: loop: move ari, ard add arid, ari...10 Figure 2.5 Sam ple processor files .......................................................... 12 Figure 2.5 (cont’d) Sam ple...data files ............................................................... 13 Figure 3.1 A 16x16 Butterfly Parallel Processor with 8 switches

  2. Biochemical Activities of Three Pairs of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Two-Component Regulatory System Proteins Involved in Inhibition of Lysosomal Fusion†

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yumi; Cheng, Zhihui; Lin, Mingqun; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2006-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the etiologic agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, replicates in early endosomes by avoiding lysosomal fusion in monocytes and macrophages. In E. chaffeensis we predicted three pairs of putative two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) designated PleC-PleD, NtrY-NtrX, and CckA-CtrA based on amino acid sequence homology. In the present study to determine biochemical pairs and specificities of the TCSs, the recombinant proteins of the three putative histidine kinase (HK) kinase domains (rPleCHKD, rNtrYHKD, and MBP-rCckAHKD) and the full-length forms of three putative response regulators (RRs) (rPleD, rNtrX, and rCtrA) as well as the respective mutant recombinant proteins (rPleCHKDH244A, rNtrYHKDH498A, MBP-rCckAHKDH449A, rPleDD53A, rNtrXD59A, and rCtrAD53A) were expressed and purified as soluble proteins. The in vitro HK activity, the specific His residue-dependent autophosphorylation of the kinase domain, was demonstrated in the three HKs. The specific Asp residue-dependent in vitro phosphotransfer from the kinase domain to the putative cognate RR was demonstrated in each of the three RRs. Western blot analysis of E. chaffeensis membrane and soluble fractions using antibodies specific for each recombinant protein detected PleC and CckA in the membrane fraction, whereas it detected NtrY, NtrX, and PleD in the soluble fraction. CtrA was found in the two fractions at similar levels. E. chaffeensis was sensitive to closantel, an HK inhibitor. Closantel treatment induced lysosomal fusion of the E. chaffeensis inclusion in a human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1 cells, implying that functional TCSs are essential in preventing lysosomal fusion of the E. chaffeensis inclusion compartment. PMID:16926392

  3. Linking inter-individual differences in the perceptual load effect to spontaneous brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Tan, Jinfeng; Chen, Antao

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches have widely demonstrated that the interference from peripheral distractor will decrease when the task load is high. However, no study to date has paid attention to the individual differences in perceptual load effect (PLE) and little is known of spontaneous brain activity associated with PLE during resting state. To investigate this issue, we used resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and PLE. The results showed that there were large individual differences in PLE and we found PLE was significantly associated with ALFFs in left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and left precentral/postcentral gyrus. The present study suggested that the PLE was measurable, and there were individual differences in this effect. Moreover, these results implicated that: 1) mutual competition for limited capacity, which is involved in visual attention, and 2) response control that is included in behavior response both may contribute to the modulation induced by perceptual load. PMID:26257628

  4. Heparan sulfate and syndecan-1 are essential in maintaining murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Lars; Salvestrini, Camilla; Park, Pyong Woo; Li, Jin-Ping; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Yamaguchi, Yu; Murch, Simon; Freeze, Hudson H.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) fail to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function and develop an excessive and potentially fatal efflux of plasma proteins. PLE occurs in ostensibly unrelated diseases, but emerging commonalities in clinical observations recently led us to identify key players in PLE pathogenesis. These include elevated IFN-γ, TNF-α, venous hypertension, and the specific loss of heparan sulfate proteoglycans from the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells during PLE episodes. Here we show that heparan sulfate and syndecan-1, the predominant intestinal epithelial heparan sulfate proteoglycan, are essential in maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier function. Heparan sulfate– or syndecan-1–deficient mice and mice with intestinal-specific loss of heparan sulfate had increased basal protein leakage and were far more susceptible to protein loss induced by combinations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and increased venous pressure. Similarly, knockdown of syndecan-1 in human epithelial cells resulted in increased basal and cytokine-induced protein leakage. Clinical application of heparin has been known to alleviate PLE in some patients but its unknown mechanism and severe side effects due to its anticoagulant activity limit its usefulness. We demonstrate here that non-anticoagulant 2,3-de-O-sulfated heparin could prevent intestinal protein leakage in syndecan-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a safe and effective therapy for PLE patients. PMID:18064305

  5. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Hee Ju; Koo, Song Yi; Song, Dae-Geun; Lee, Dong-Un; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2010-01-27

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied to the extraction of carotenoids and chlorophylls from the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Four extraction techniques such as maceration (MAC), Soxhlet extraction (SOX), ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE), and PLE were compared, and both the extraction temperature (50, 105, and 160 degrees C) and the extraction time (8, 19, and 30 min), which are the two main factors for PLE, were optimized with a central composite design to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The extraction solvent (90% ethanol/water) could adequately extract the functional components from C. vulgaris. PLE showed higher extraction efficiencies than MAC, SOX, and UAE. Temperature was the key parameter having the strongest influence on the extraction of carotenoids and chlorophylls from chlorella. In addition, high heat treatment (>110 degrees C) by PLE minimized the formation of pheophorbide a, a harmful chlorophyll derivative. These results indicate that PLE may be a useful extraction method for the simultaneous extraction of carotenoids and chlorophylls from C. vulgaris.

  6. Fractionation of honey carbohydrates using pressurized liquid extraction with activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Matute, A I; Ramos, L; Martínez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2008-09-24

    This article describes the development of a new procedure that combines the use of activated charcoal and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to obtain enriched fractions of di- and trisaccharides from honey. Honey was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and packed into a PLE extraction cell. Optimum results were obtained at 10 MPa and 40 degrees C using two consecutive PLE cycles: first, 1:99 (v/v) ethanol/water for 5 min and second, 50:50 (v/v) ethanol/water for 10 min. Di- and trisaccharide fractions were enriched after PLE treatment, accounting for 73% and 8% of total carbohydrates, respectively. This procedure was also compared with other methodologies reported in the literature for the fractionation of honey carbohydrates (yeast treatment and extraction from activated charcoal). While the removal of monosaccharides was more efficient with yeast treatment, recovery of di- and trisaccharides was higher when either the PLE or the activated charcoal treatment was used. PLE was found to be the faster technique; it also required less solvent volume and minimized handling of the sample.

  7. Two Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Syndromes: Limbic Encephalitis and Palmar Fasciitis in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lazarev, Irina; Shelef, Ilan; Refaely, Yael; Ariad, Samuel; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by a relatively high rate of autoimmune phenomena. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is an autoimmune syndrome in which a non-neural tumor containing an antigen normally present in the nervous system precipitates an antibody attack on neural tissues. Patients with PLE usually present with rapidly progressive short-term memory deficits, confusion or even dementia. Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome (PFPAS) is another autoimmune syndrome characterized by rheumatologic manifestations, especially involving the palms of the hands. We report a case of a 59-year old woman who presented with worsening neurological symptoms of two-week duration, and later coma. The combined clinical, serological, and imaging studies suggested a diagnosis of PLE. A chest computed tomographic scan showed a 1.2 cm-diameter mass in the upper lobe of the left lung that was surgically removed and showed SCLC. Following surgery, neurological symptoms rapidly improved, allowing the patient to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. While in remission for both SCLC and PLE, the patient developed pain, soft-tissue swelling, and stiffness in both palms, suggesting the diagnosis of PFPAS. Five months following the diagnosis of palmar fasciitis, SCLC relapsed with mediastinal and cervical lymphadenopathy. This case report underlines the continuous interaction of SCLC with the immune system, expressed by coexistence of two rare paraneoplastic diseases, PLE, and PFPAS, in a patient with SCLC. While symptoms related to PLE preceded the initial diagnosis of SCLC, other symptoms related to PFPAS preceded relapse. PMID:26500723

  8. Marginal Zone Lymphoma Complicated by Protein Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Nadine; Bauerfeind, Peter; Herzog, Guido; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Reiner, Cäcilia; Manz, Markus G; Goede, Jeroen S; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE. Additional treatments with steroids, octreotide, a diet devoid of long-chain fatty-acids, and parenteral nutrition did not prevent further clinical deterioration with marked weight loss (23 kg), further reduction in albumin concentrations (nadir 8 g/L), and a pronounced drop in performance status. Finally, immunochemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine resulted in hematological remission and remarkable clinical improvement. 18 months after therapy the patient remains free of gastrointestinal complaints and has regained his body weight with normal albumin levels. We demonstrate a case of PLE secondary to indolent marginal zone lymphoma. No intestinal pathologies were detected, contrasting a severe and almost lethal clinical course. Immunochemotherapy relieved lymphoma and PLE, suggesting that a high suspicion of lymphoma is warranted in otherwise unexplained cases of PLE.

  9. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system of persimmon leaf extract: Optimization and bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanwen; Yi, Shaoling; Wang, Zhouhua; Chen, Si; Xin, Shuang; Xie, Jingwen; Zhao, Chunshun

    2011-11-25

    In current study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) leaf extract (PLE) was developed and characterized to compare its in vitro dissolution and relative bioavailability with commercially available tablets (Naoxinqing tablets). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed by phase diagram by micro plate dilution (PDMPD) method, of which the evaluation method was improved to use Multiskan Ascent for identifying turbidity. The formulation of PLE-loaded SNEDDS was optimized by an extreme vertices experimental design. The optimized nanoemulsion formulation, loading with 44.48 mg/g PLE total flavonoids, consisted of Cremophor EL, Transcutol P, Labrafil M 1944 CS (56:34:10, w/w), and it remained stable after storing at 40°C, 25°C, 4°C for at least 6 months. When diluted with water, the SNEDDS droplet size was 34.85 nm and the zeta potential was -6.18 mV. Compared with the commercial tablets, the AUC of both quercetin and kaempferol, which are representative active flavonoids of PLE, was increased by 1.5-fold and 1.6-fold respectively following oral administration of PLE-loaded SNEDDS in fasting beagle dogs. These results indicate that SNEDDS is a promising drug delivery system for increasing the oral bioavailability of PLE.

  10. Marginal Zone Lymphoma Complicated by Protein Losing Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, Nadine; Bauerfeind, Peter; Herzog, Guido; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Lenggenhager, Daniela; Reiner, Cäcilia; Manz, Markus G.; Goede, Jeroen S.

    2016-01-01

    Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE. Additional treatments with steroids, octreotide, a diet devoid of long-chain fatty-acids, and parenteral nutrition did not prevent further clinical deterioration with marked weight loss (23 kg), further reduction in albumin concentrations (nadir 8 g/L), and a pronounced drop in performance status. Finally, immunochemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine resulted in hematological remission and remarkable clinical improvement. 18 months after therapy the patient remains free of gastrointestinal complaints and has regained his body weight with normal albumin levels. We demonstrate a case of PLE secondary to indolent marginal zone lymphoma. No intestinal pathologies were detected, contrasting a severe and almost lethal clinical course. Immunochemotherapy relieved lymphoma and PLE, suggesting that a high suspicion of lymphoma is warranted in otherwise unexplained cases of PLE. PMID:27891267

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Mohamad Ali; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  12. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    PubMed Central

    El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:28280516

  13. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  14. Possible effects of Phillyrea latifolia on weight loss in rats fed a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Yazici-Tutunis, Secil; Gurel-Gurevin, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan; Mericli, Filiz

    2016-10-01

    Context Phillyrea latifolia L. (Oleaceae), commonly found in the Mediterranean region in Turkey, is used as medicinal teas for weight loss and hyperglycaemia in folk medicine. Objective The study investigated the possible effects of P. latifolia leaves aqueous extract's on weight loss and biochemical-histological changes in the rats fed a high-energy diet (HED), also isolated and determined the main phenolic compounds. Materials and methods Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups such as the HED group fed a HED, the PLE group given only the extract of P. latifolia leaves (220 mg/kg), the HED + PLE group administrated with the extract of leaves (220 mg/kg) after being fed with HED and a control group fed with standard pellet diet. Results PLE administration caused a remarkable decrement of body weight in the HED + PLE group (p < 0.05). PLE showed an improved effect on structural integrity and decreased leukocyte infiltration in liver and small intestinal tissues. The blood glucose (117.3 mmol/L), leptin (5.6 ng/mL), total cholesterol (61.8 mg/dL) and LDL (9.3 mmol/L) levels were significantly increased in the HED group. PLE administration in the HED group decreased these levels. The levels of HDL (26.8 mmol/L) in the HED + PLE group were higher than both control and HED groups. Chemical composition was investigated and luteolin 7-O-glucoside and chlorogenic acid were determined for the first time in Turkish sample from the EtOAc extract of leaves. Discussion and conclusion Phillyrea latifolia leaves may have beneficial effects on obesity related cellular problems and may become a good source of antidiabetic medication.

  15. Immunostimulatory polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Diospyros kaki Thumb modulate macrophage via TLR2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suel-Gie; Jung, Ji-Yun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Cho, Chang-Won; Rhee, Young-Kyoung; Hong, Hee-Do; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory effects of a polysaccharide fraction from the leaves of Diospyros kaki Thumb (PLE0) and the molecular mechanism responsible for its action in RAW 264.7 macrophages as well as in vivo effects on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice. PLE0 concentration-dependently activated the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the protein and mRNA levels and its promoter activity, and that these activations caused attendant increases the nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, PLE0 increased the mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. Molecular data revealed that PLE0 increased the transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inducing the degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα) and the phosphorylation of inhibitory κB kinase (IKK). Moreover, anti-toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) antibody and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-specific siRNA significantly reduce PLE0-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pretreatment with PLE0 recovered cyclophosphamide-induced reductions in thymus and spleen indices as well as neutrophil counts. Taken together, our data suggest that PLE0 up-regulates the expressions of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 genes by activating TLR2-mediated NF-κB activations, and that these actions are responsible for its immunostimulatory effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectral and temporal luminescent properties of Eu(III) in humic substance solutions from different origins.

    PubMed

    Brevet, Julien; Claret, Francis; Reiller, Pascal E

    2009-10-01

    Although a high heterogeneity of composition is awaited for humic substances, their complexation properties do not seem to greatly depend on their origins. The information on the difference in the structure of these complexes is scarce. To participate in the filling of this lack, a study of the spectral and temporal evolution of the Eu(III) luminescence implied in humic substance (HS) complexes is presented. Seven different extracts, namely Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and humic acid (SRHA), and Leonardite HA (LHA) from the International Humic Substances Society (USA), humic acid from Gorleben (GohyHA), and from the Kleiner Kranichsee bog (KFA, KHA) from Germany, and purified commercial Aldrich HA (PAHA), were made to contact with Eu(III). Eu(III)-HS time-resolved luminescence properties were compared with aqueous Eu(3+) at pH 5. Using an excitation wavelength of 394 nm, the typical bi-exponential luminescence decay for Eu(III)-HS complexes is common to all the samples. The components tau(1) and tau(2) are in the same order of magnitude for all the samples, i.e., 40 KFA/KHA, induce inner coherent luminescent properties of Eu(III) within each group. The (5)D(0) --> (7)F(2) transition exhibits the most striking differences. A slight blue shift is observed compared to aqueous Eu(3+) (lambda(max) = 615.4 nm), and the humic samples share almost the same lambda(max) approximately 614.5 nm. The main differences between the samples reside in a shoulder around lambda approximately 612.5 nm, modelled by a mixed Gaussian-Lorentzian band around lambda approximately 612 nm. SRFA shows the most intense shoulder with an intensity ratio of I(612.5)/I(614.7) = 1.1, KFA

  17. Spectral and temporal luminescent properties of Eu(III) in humic substance solutions from different origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevet, Julien; Claret, Francis; Reiller, Pascal E.

    2009-10-01

    Although a high heterogeneity of composition is awaited for humic substances, their complexation properties do not seem to greatly depend on their origins. The information on the difference in the structure of these complexes is scarce. To participate in the filling of this lack, a study of the spectral and temporal evolution of the Eu(III) luminescence implied in humic substance (HS) complexes is presented. Seven different extracts, namely Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and humic acid (SRHA), and Leonardite HA (LHA) from the International Humic Substances Society (USA), humic acid from Gorleben (GohyHA), and from the Kleiner Kranichsee bog (KFA, KHA) from Germany, and purified commercial Aldrich HA (PAHA), were made to contact with Eu(III). Eu(III)-HS time-resolved luminescence properties were compared with aqueous Eu 3+ at pH 5. Using an excitation wavelength of 394 nm, the typical bi-exponential luminescence decay for Eu(III)-HS complexes is common to all the samples. The components τ1 and τ2 are in the same order of magnitude for all the samples, i.e., 40 ≤ τ1 (μs) ≤ 60, and 145 ≤ τ2 (μs) ≤ 190, but significantly different. It is shown that different spectra are obtained from the different groups of samples. Terrestrial extract on the one hand, i.e. LHA/GohyHA, plus PAHA, and purely aquatic extracts on the other hand, i.e., SRFA/SRHA/KFA/KHA, induce inner coherent luminescent properties of Eu(III) within each group. The 5D 0 → 7F 2 transition exhibits the most striking differences. A slight blue shift is observed compared to aqueous Eu 3+ ( λmax = 615.4 nm), and the humic samples share almost the same λmax ≈ 614.5 nm. The main differences between the samples reside in a shoulder around λ ≈ 612.5 nm, modelled by a mixed Gaussian-Lorentzian band around λ ≈ 612 nm. SRFA shows the most intense shoulder with an intensity ratio of I612.5/ I614.7 = 1.1, KFA/KHA/SRHA share almost the same ratio I612.5/ I614.7 = 1.2-1.3, whilst the LHA

  18. [Protein-losing enteropathy with systemic lupus erythematosus effectively treated with octreotide and medium chain triglyceride diet: A case report].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Makoto; Uchida, Kousuke; Nakashima, Tadaaki; Oda, Seiko; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Watada, Toshiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Araki, Jun; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Yano, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    In January 2009, a 62-year-old man presented with diarrhea, leg edema, and thrombopenia and was admitted to our hospital. The past medical history revealed Sjögren's syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis for which he had been administered prednisolone. On admission, a laboratory examination revealed massive hypoalbuminemia and high levels of C-reactive protein and platelet-associated IgG. Anti-double stranded DNA and anti-Sm antibodies were negative. Analysis of the bone marrow aspirate and Tc-99m albumin scintigraphy findings suggested autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP) and protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), respectively. We diagnosed him as SLE, because past immunoserological testing had showed positivity for anti-double stranded DNA antibody and LE cells. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy were ineffective. Rituximab was ineffective against PLE but was effective against AITP. Cyclosporine and Cyclophosphamide were ineffective against PLE. Subcutaneous injection of 200-μg octreotide daily and a medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet was effective against PLE, and the patient's condition dramatically improved. The effectiveness of octreotide treatment and an MCT diet in the treatment of PLE with SLE is discussed.

  19. Simplified procedure of silymarin extraction from Silybum marianum L. Gaertner.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota; Wiśniewski, Mariusz

    2015-02-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans exhibiting many pharmacological activities, is obtained from the fruits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertner). Due to the high lipid content in thistle fruits, the European Pharmacopoeia recommends a two-step process of its extraction. First, the fruits are defatted for 6 h, using n-hexane; second, silymarin is extracted with methanol for 5 more hours. The presented data show that this extremely long traditional Soxhlet extraction process can be shortened to a few minutes using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). PLE also allows to eliminate the defatting stage required in the traditional procedure, thus simplifying the silymarin extraction procedure and preventing silymarin loss caused by defatting. The PLE recoveries obtained under the optimized extraction conditions are clearly better than the ones obtained by the Pharmacopoeia-recommended Soxhlet extraction procedure. The PLE yields of silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A and isosilybin B in acetone are 3.3, 6.9, 3.3, 5.1, 2.6 and 1.5 mg/g of the non-defatted fruits, respectively. The 5-h Soxhlet extraction with methanol on defatted fruits gives only ∼72% of the silymarin amount obtained in 10 min PLE at 125°C. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ultrasound pleural effusion sign as a useful marker for identifying heart failure worsening in established heart failure patients during follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2012-01-01

    Clinical significance of UltraSound Pleural Effusion (US-PLE) and test characteristics of this sign for identifying worsening heart failure (HF) during follow-up of HF patients are unclear. Clinical records of 83 established HF patients were examined. The diagnosis of worsening HF was classified as "highly certain,"probable,"uncertain," or "no" based on the combination of the changes in symptoms/signs and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Routine test included searching for the US-PLE sign. During a follow-up of 652±456 days, 1826 visits were evaluated. Among the 83 study patients, 78 had at least one of the following: worsening symptom(s), HF-related sign(s), and/or elevated BNP levels (≥3-fold increase) at one or more clinic visits. The US-PLE sign was present at 83 visits of 49 study patients. Its appearance was associated with the presence of HF-related symptom(s)/sign(s) and BNP elevation (odds ratio, 53-177, P<.0001 each). The test characteristics of the US-PLE sign for diagnosis of high possibility of worsening HF status fulfilling the "highly certain" or "probable" criteria were: sensitivity (76.6%), specificity (98.6%), positive predictive value (71.1%), and negative predictive value (99.0%). The US-PLE sign has high diagnostic accuracy for identifying worsening HF, including asymptomatic events, in HF patients during follow-up.

  1. Pressurized liquid extraction with water as a tool for chemical and toxicological screening of soil samples at army live-fire training ranges.

    PubMed

    Ragnvaldsson, D; Brochu, S; Wingfors, H

    2007-04-02

    Significant discrepancies in the results of risk assessments based on chemical and toxicity analyses of soils may arise through differences in the efficiency of the extraction or leaching methods used. A rapid technique that may be used in the screening phase of live-fire training ranges and suitable for extracting explosive residues is pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with water. Therefore, PLE and the commonly used batch leaching method EN-124 57-2 were compared for their utility to extract specific residues from soil samples collected from the Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Petawawa, Ontario. After extraction the cytotoxicity of the samples were assessed in the L-929 growth inhibition assay. The PLE method yielded extracts suitable for direct use in the toxicity assay within 20 min as compared to 24h for the batch leaching method. Analysis of the extracts showed that the PLE water extracts tended to give higher recoveries of explosive residues and the resulting exposure concentrations were confirmed by higher cytotoxicities. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the samples contained significant amounts of several munition-related stabilizers and plasticizers of toxicological significance in addition to the analysed explosive residues. In conclusion, PLE using water is a promising extraction technique for both chemical and toxicological screening of soil samples from areas that may be contaminated with explosive residues.

  2. Development and validation of a selective and effective pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of fructosazine analogues in the ammonia treated extract of Eugenia jambolana Lamarck seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minjie; Arau Jo, Michel Mozeika; Dal, Stéphanie; Sigrist, Séverine; Bergaentzlé, Martine; Ramanitrahasimbola, David; Andrianjara, Charles; Marchioni, Eric

    2016-11-18

    This study describes a selective and effective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS method for the identification and quantification of three fructosazine analogues (FZAs), fructosazine, 2,6- and 2,5-deoxyfructosazine in Madeglucyl(®) (MG) which is an ammonia treated extract of Eugenia jambolana Lamarck seeds, and is the world's first anti-diabetic phytodrug. FZAs were extracted from MG by PLE using methanol as extraction solvent. The PLE extract was then analyzed directly by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS without cleanup step. Chromatographic separation of these highly related structures was achieved on a porous graphic carbon (PGC) column. The identification of the target FZAs was confirmed by the similar retention time, similar UV and MS spectra to the corresponding pure standards. The quantification was performed by using an electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The PLE procedure was optimized and overall method was validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity, selectivity and matrix effect, precision, accuracy and recovery, and stability of the target FZAs in the aqueous solution and in the PLE extracts solution of MG. The developed method was proved to be selective, sensitive, precise, accurate for the quantification of FZAs in MG.

  3. Theoretical studies of multistep processes, isospin effects in nuclear scattering, and meson and baryon interactions in nuclear physics: Annual progess report, 1 May 1988--30 April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1988-10-25

    A progress report is presented for DOE grant FG06-86ER40283 supporting theoretical studies in nuclear and particle physics at Oregon State University. The research was led by Professors Landau and Madsen, and carried out in collaboration with graduate students in Corvallis, and scientists at LLNL-Livermore, TRIUMF, KFA-Juelich, Purdue University, and Florida State University. The studies include meson-exchange-current effects, quark effects, and relativistic (Dirac) effects deduced from spin observables in p-/sup 3/He scattering, atomic and nuclear Gamow states in momentum space of kaons and antiprotons, and charge-symmetry violation in pion scattering. Additional studies include microscopic optical potential calculations, multiple step processes, and differences in neutron and proton multipole matrix elements and transition densities in low lying collective states and in giant resonances. 13 refs.

  4. Theoretical studies of multistep processes, isospin effects in nuclear scattering, and meson and baryon interactions in nuclear physics: Three year summary, 1 May 1986--30 April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1988-10-25

    A three-year summary is presented for DOE grant FG06-86ER40283 supporting theoretical studies in nuclear and particle physics at Oregon State University. The research was led by Professors Landau and Madsen, and carried out in collaboration with graduate students in Corvallis, and scientists at LLNL-Livermore, LLNL, Los Alamos, TRIUMF, KFA-Juelich, Purdue University, and Florida State University. The studies include meson-exchange-current effects, quark effects, and relativistic (Dirac) effects deduced from spin observable in p-/sup 3/He scattering, atomic and nuclear Gamow states in momentum space of kaons and antiprotons, and charge-symmetry violation in pion scattering. Additional studies include microscopic optical potential calculations, multiple step processes, and differences in neutron and proton multipole matrix elements and transition densities in low lying collective states and in giant resonances.

  5. Monte Carlo Code System for High-Energy Radiation Transport Calculations.

    SciTech Connect

    FILGES, DETLEF

    2000-02-16

    Version 00 HERMES-KFA consists of a set of Monte Carlo Codes used to simulate particle radiation and interaction with matter. The main codes are HETC, MORSE, and EGS. They are supported by a common geometry package, common random routines, a command interpreter, and auxiliary codes like NDEM that is used to generate a gamma-ray source from nuclear de-excitation after spallation processes. The codes have been modified so that any particle history falling outside the domain of the physical theory of one program can be submitted to another program in the suite to complete the work. Also response data can be submitted by each program, to be collected and combined by a statistic package included within the command interpreter.

  6. Melt inclusion record of CO2 and H2O evolution of magma from Kikai-Akahoya caldera-forming eruption of Satsuma-Iojima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, G.; Morishita, Y.; Kawanabe, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Geological survey and chemical analyses of pyroclastic rocks and melt inclusions in the deposits of Kikai-Akahoya caldera-forming eruption (7.3 ka) of Satsuma-Iojima volcano, Japan, were carried out in order to investigate compositional variation and degassing process οf the magma. Three pyroclastic units were erupted by the eruption successively; Koya-Funakura air-fall pumice (KFA), densely welded Funakura pyroclastic flow deposit and nonwelded Takeshima pyroclastic flow deposit (TPF; Ono et al., 1982). The total mass of the tephra is estimated to be more than 100 km3 (Machida and Arai, 2003). The KFA is a layer of coarse-grained rhyolitic pumice deposit (SiO2=71-72 wt.%) with 2-3m thick. The TPF has a thickness of about 30m and can be divided into at least three units. The deposit mainly consists of rhyolitic pumice (SiO2=70-72 wt.%) and vitric ash with small amount of andesitic scoria (SiO2=58-60 wt.%) and banded pumice. The upper unit is more rich in andesitic scoria than the lower unit. Analyses of major elements and S of the melt inclusions (MIs) in plagioclases and pyroxenes in the pumice and scoria were made by EPMA, and H2O and CO2 by SIMS. Major element composition of MIs in the pumice and scoria is similar to that of groundmass of them, respectively, indicating the melt entrapment just before the eruption. The MIs in the KFA have volatile contents of 4-6 wt.% H2O, <0.007 wt.% CO2 and <0.01 wt.% S. Gas saturation pressure of the magma is calculated to be 100-260 MPa on the basis of the H2O and CO2 contents of the MIs. On the other hand, the MIs in the rhyolitic pumice in the lower TPF have similar H2O and S contents but higher CO2 content (0.01-0.03 wt.%) than those of the KFA. Gas saturation pressure of the magma is calculated to be 130-270 MPa. The MIs in the andesitic scoria in the upper TPF have higher S (0.05-0.12 wt.%), similar CO2 content and lower H2O (2-3 wt.%) contents than those of the lower unit. Gas saturation pressure of the magma is

  7. Ferromagnetism in the upper branch of the Feshbach resonance and the hard-sphere Fermi gas

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Soon-Yong; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2011-01-01

    We address the question of ferromagnetism in repulsive Fermi gas, a problem of fundamental interest, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations that include backflow corrections. We investigate a two-component Fermi gas on the upper branch of a Feshbach resonance and contrast it with the hard-sphere gas. We find that, in both cases, the Fermi liquid becomes unstable to ferromagnetism at a kFa smaller than the mean field result, where kF is the Fermi wavevector and a is the scattering length. Even though the total energies E(kFa) are similar in the two cases, their pair correlations and kinetic energies are completely different, reflecting the underlying potentials. We discuss the extent to which our calculations shed light on recent experiments.

  8. Thermoelectricity in a junction between interacting cold atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekera, Tibor; Bruder, Christoph; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    A gas of interacting ultracold fermions can be tuned into a strongly interacting regime using a Feshbach resonance. Here, we theoretically study quasiparticle transport in a system of two reservoirs of interacting ultracold fermions on the BCS side of the BCS-BEC crossover coupled weakly via a tunnel junction. Using the generalized BCS theory, we calculate the time evolution of the system that is assumed to be initially prepared in a nonequilibrium state characterized by a particle number imbalance or a temperature imbalance. A number of characteristic features like sharp peaks in quasiparticle currents or transitions between the normal and superconducting states are found. We discuss signatures of the Seebeck and the Peltier effects and the resulting temperature difference of the two reservoirs as a function of the interaction parameter (kFa ) -1. The Peltier effect may lead to an additional cooling mechanism for ultracold fermionic atoms.

  9. Deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica in monovalent and divalent salts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pingting; Long, Guoyu; Ni, Jinren; Tong, Meiping

    2009-08-01

    The deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica surfaces were examined in both monovalent and divalent solutions under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and pH conditions by employing a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (DCM-D). Soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from four bacterial strains with different characteristics. Maximum favorable deposition rates (k(fa)) were observed for all EPS at low ionic strengths in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. With the increase of ionic strength, k(fa) decreased due to the simultaneous occurrence of EPS aggregation in solutions. Deposition efficiency (alpha; the ratio of deposition rates obtained under unfavorable versus corresponding favorable conditions) for all EPS increased with increasing ionic strength in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which agreed with the trends of zeta potentials and was consistent with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Comparison of alpha for SEPS and BEPS extracted from the same strain showed that the trends of alpha did not totally agree with trends of zeta potentials, indicating the deposition kinetics of EPS on silica surfaces were not only controlled by DLVO interactions, but also non-DLVO forces. Close comparison of alpha for EPS extracted from different sources showed alpha increased with increasing proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Subsequent experiments for EPS extracted from the same strain but with different proteins to polysaccharides ratios and from activated sludge also showed that alpha were largest for EPS with greatest proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Additional experiments for pure protein and solutions with different pure proteins to pure saccharides ratios further corroborated that larger proteins to polysaccharides ratio resulted in greater EPS deposition.

  10. Efficacy of a new topical gel-spray formulation of ketoprofen lysine salt in the rat: percutaneous permeation in vitro and in vivo and pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Porzio, S; Caselli, G; Pellegrini, L; Pallottini, V; Del Rosario, M; Coppola, A; Boltri, L; Gentile, M; Clavenna, G; Melillo, G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the percutaneous permeation of a new topical Gel-Spray formulation, containing 15% of ketoprofen lysine salt (KLS), both in vitro, using the Franz-type diffusion cells and in vivo, by evaluating urinary recovery after topical administration and to correlate the absorption data with KLS pharmacological activity in the rat. Concentrations of ketoprofen free acid (KFA) were determined by HPLC in the receptor compartment (in vitro), or in urine (in vivo). The permeation of ketoprofen evaluated in vitro after the application of KLS Gel-Spray was higher than that observed with the marketed formulation Profénid gel (containing KFA at 2.5%). The same evidence was found in vivo, except when the ratio between the administered dose and the area treated was higher than 1 mg cm-2. Thus, the difference between the two formulations seems to be the resultant of two opposing components: a positive gradient of concentration that favours the absorption of ketoprofen from KLS Gel-Spray and the presence of the enhancer ethanol that could favour the efficacy of Profénid gel. Under our conditions the former prevailed. As for the efficacy, evaluated in the carrageenan-induced oedema and hyperalgesia model, KLS Gel-Spray confirmed the data obtained for in vivo absorption, being more efficient than the reference standard Profénid gel. The observed inhibitory effects were due only to dermal absorption, oral absorption was excluded by an Elizabethan collar applied around the neck of the rat. In these experimental conditions, no significant damage of the rat stomach mucosa was observed. These results indicate that KLS Gel-Spray, due to its high KLS concentration, allows a very high efficiency in delivering ketoprofen to the inflamed area using a minimal amount of formulation, even in the absence of permeation enhancers.

  11. Active targeting co-delivery system based on pH-sensitive methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)2K-poly(ε-caprolactone)4K-poly(glutamic acid)1K for enhanced cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Nuannuan; Huang, Chunzhi; Luan, Yuxia; Song, Aixin; Song, Yunmei; Garg, Sanjay

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, we successfully synthesized folate-modified pH-sensitive copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)2K-poly(ε-caprolactone)4K-poly(glutamic acid)1K (mPEG2K-PCL4K-PGA1K-FA), which could form the polymeric assembly in an aqueous solution, for co-delivering hydrophilic drugs doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and verapamil hydrochloride (VER) (FA-poly(DOX+VER)). Since VER was an effective P-glycoprotein inhibitor, the combination of DOX and VER could reverse the multidrug resistance efficiently and enhance the therapeutic effect. Therefore, the inhibition ratios of MCF-7/ADR resistant cancer cell treated by FA-poly (DOX+VER) were almost more than 30% higher than those of FA-polyDOX after 48h and 72h. Furthermore, the conjugation of FA could lead the co-delivery systems actively targeting into the FA receptor over-expressing cancer cells in addition to the passive accumulation of the assembly in tumor tissues. Importantly, the prepared mPEG2K-PCL4K-PGA1K-FA assembly showed high pH-sensitive property, which made the drugs mostly released in tumor tissue (acid environment) than in physiological environment (neutral environment). In summary, the as-prepared co-delivery system FA-poly(DOX+VER) demonstrated a high efficiency in reversing the multidrug resistance and targeting FA receptor to improve the anticancer effect of DOX in MCF-7/ADR resistant cells.

  12. JOIN: Jülich OWS Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waychal, Snehal; Schultz, Martin; Decker, Michael; Lührs, Sebastian; Schröder, Sabine; Stein, Olaf

    2013-04-01

    A large amount of global and regional environmental data is being produced from processing, analysis and model calculations. Building operational services for analysis and interpretation of such datasets is becoming more and more challenging due to different data formats, data protocols, access restrictions, large number of data sources and ever increasing data sizes. We present a key step to build an "interoperable" global data network to effectively analyze and interpret such datasets. The Jülich OWS Interface (JOIN) provides interoperable web services for modeling and emission data sets allowing for easy download and visualization of multi-dimensional atmospheric composition and emission data via the internet. The European project Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) provides daily analyses and forecasts of the global and European atmospheric chemical composition using a comprehensive modeling and data assimilation system. These data are made available in the form of different catalogs either stored locally on the Jülich WCS server or accessed from other WCS servers from European and international partners. JOIN provides a user friendly interface for flexible selection of data sets delivered from WCS servers. The user can select a geographical region, time range and different variables from the selected dataset and then can download or visualize the data in the form of maps, vertical cross sections or time series. A special feature is the comparison of model results with observational data in near real-time (daily updates). Join uses standards like WCS, CF-netCDF and INSPIRE to test in a real-life environment. It is being implemented at present and put to regular use in the MACC project's global boundary condition service at http://macc.icg.kfa-juelich.de:50080/ for regional air quality models, or as a front-end to the TFHTAP multi-model experiment database at http://htap.icg.kfa-juelich.de:50080/ hosted at IEK-8, Forschungszentrum J

  13. Optimization of Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Three Major Acetophenones from Cynanchum bungei Using a Box-Behnken Design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Li-Chun; Sun, Yin-Shi; Lei, Feng-Jie; Wang, Zi; Gui, Xiong-Bin; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    In this work, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of three acetophenones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, baishouwubenzophenone, and 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone) from Cynanchum bungei (ACB) were investigated. The optimal conditions for extraction of ACB were obtained using a Box-Behnken design, consisting of 17 experimental points, as follows: Ethanol (100%) as the extraction solvent at a temperature of 120 °C and an extraction pressure of 1500 psi, using one extraction cycle with a static extraction time of 17 min. The extracted samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using an UV detector. Under this optimal condition, the experimental values agreed with the predicted values by analysis of variance. The ACB extraction yield with optimal PLE was higher than that obtained by soxhlet extraction and heat-reflux extraction methods. The results suggest that the PLE method provides a good alternative for acetophenone extraction. PMID:23203079

  14. Protein-losing enteropathy associated with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus with a good response to rituximab.

    PubMed

    Sansinanea, Pierina; Carrica, Sebastián Augusto; Marcos, Josefina; García, Mercedes Argentina

    2016-01-01

    A case is presented of a protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) as the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a 17 year-old female patient, who presented with ascites, edema and hypoalbuminemia. The diagnosis of SLE was based on the presence of: malar rash, oral ulcers, thrombocytopenia, antinuclear antibodies, IgM anticardiolipin antibody, and lupus anticoagulant. Renal and liver diseases were ruled out. The PLE diagnosis was confirmed with fecal alpha 1-antitrypsin clearance. The PLE was refractory to different lines of immunosuppressive agents like glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and cyclosporine, showing a satisfactory and sustained response with rituximab, allowing steroid sparing and long term remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Pressurized liquid extraction and HPLC quantification of folic acid in fortified wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michel Mozeika; Marchioni, Eric; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis; Zhao, Minjie; Zimmermann, Pierre; El-Khoury, Etienne; Bergaentzle, Martine

    2012-08-08

    A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method using phosphate buffer as solvent was applied for folic acid (FA) extraction from fortified wheat flours and was compared to a standard solid-liquid extraction (SLE) method. Extracted FA was quantified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) hyphenated with a phenyl column and an absorption photometric detector (λ = 280 nm). Detection and quantification limits were 0.12 and 0.4 ng, respectively, corresponding to 0.06 and 0.2 μg g(-1) of analyzed wheat flour. Equivalent FA contents were found by both extraction methods, but a single PLE allowed a total recovery of FA content, whereas at least three successive SLEs were needed to achieve a total recovery of FA. The obtained results indicated that PLE is a rapid and efficient technique for FA extraction from fortified wheat flour.

  16. Statistical and physical evolution of QSO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caditz, David; Petrosian, Vahe

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the physical evolution of discrete extragalactic sources, the statistical evolution of the observed population of sources, and the cosmological model is discussed. Three simple forms of statistical evolution: pure luminosity evolution (PLE), pure density evolution (PDE), and generalized luminosity evolution (GLE), are considered in detail together with what these forms imply about the physical evolution of individual sources. Two methods are used to analyze the statistical evolution of the observed distribution of QSO's (quasars) from combined flux limited samples. It is shown that both PLE and PDE are inconsistent with the data over the redshift range 0 less than z less than 2.2, and that a more complicated form of evolution such as GLE is required, independent of the cosmological model. This result is important for physical models of AGN, and in particular, for the accretion disk model which recent results show may be inconsistent with PLE.

  17. Inhomogeneous free-electron distribution in InN nanowires: Photoluminescence excitation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; Garro, N.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Iikawa, F.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2010-09-01

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra have been measured for a set of self-assembled InN nanowires (NWs) and a high-crystalline quality InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The PLE experimental lineshapes have been reproduced by a self-consistent calculation of the absorption in a cylindrical InN NW. The differences in the PLE spectra can be accounted for the inhomogeneous electron distribution within the NWs caused by a bulk donor concentration (ND+) and a two-dimensional density of ionized surface states (Nss+) . For NW radii larger than 30 nm, ND+ and Nss+ modify the absorption edge and the lineshape, respectively, and can be determined from the comparison with the experimental data.

  18. Psychotic-like experiences and happiness in the English general population.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Ai

    2017-11-01

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes but how they affect happiness in individuals with PLE is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the association between PLEs and happiness, and the factors that may influence this association. Nationally representative data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey including adults aged ≥ 16 years was analyzed. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire was used to assess past 12-month PLE. Individuals who endorsed at least one of the following were considered to have any PLE: thought control, paranoia, strange experiences, auditory hallucinations. Happiness (3-point scale) was assessed with a validated question with higher scores indicating lower levels of happiness. The association between PLE and happiness was assessed by multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Mediation analysis was also performed. Among the 7363 individuals included in the analysis, the prevalence of any PLE increased with decreasing levels of happiness [very happy (2.3%), fairly happy (5.4%), not too happy (14.9%)]. This was also shown in the multivariable analysis adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events (from very happy to not too happy: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.86-3.12). Mediation analysis showed that anxiety disorders explained the largest proportion of the association (38.8%) followed by depressive episode (28.5%), insomnia (21.9%), disability (16.5%), pain (12.5%), social support (10.0%), and physical health conditions (6.0%). The cross-sectional design limits causal inference. Interventions to identify and address conditions that may have a negative impact on happiness in individuals with PLE may be important to improve their well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA LEAF EXTRACT ON SODIUM ARSENITE-MEDIATED ADVERSE EFFECTS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    SAYED, SADIA; AHSAN, NAZMUL; KATO, MASASHI; OHGAMI, NOBUTAKA; RASHID, ABDUR; AKHAND, ANWARUL AZIM

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). ‘Control’ mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated ‘SA’ and ‘SA+PLE’ were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity. PMID:25797979

  20. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C; O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues against maternal transmission (in favor of horizontal spread) as a major route of infection among lions. A phylogenetic analysis of cloned FIV-Ple pol gene sequences from 27 lions from four African populations (from the Serengeti reserve, Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Manyara, and Kruger Park) revealed remarkably high intra- and interindividual genetic diversity at the sequence level. Three FIV-Ple phylogenetic clusters or clades were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood analytical procedures. The three clades, which occurred not only together in the same population but throughout Africa, were as divergent from each other as were homologous pol sequences of lentivirus isolated from distinct feline species, i.e., puma and domestic cat. The FIV-Ple clades, however, were more closely related to each other than to other feline lentiviruses (monophyletic for lion species), suggesting that the ancestors of FIV-Ple evolved in allopatric (geographically isolated) lion populations that converged recently. To date, there is no clear evidence of FIV-Ple-associated pathology, raising the possibility of a historic genetic accommodation of the lion lentivirus and its host leading to a coevolved host-parasite symbiosis (or commensalism) in the population similar to that hypothesized for endemic

  1. Assessing the impact of feline immunodeficiency virus and bovine tuberculosis co-infection in African lions.

    PubMed

    Maas, M; Keet, D F; Rutten, V P M G; Heesterbeek, J A P; Nielen, M

    2012-10-22

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease that was introduced relatively recently into the Kruger National Park (KNP) lion population. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(ple)) is thought to have been endemic in lions for a much longer time. In humans, co-infection between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus increases disease burden. If BTB were to reach high levels of prevalence in lions, and if similar worsening effects would exist between FIV(ple) and BTB as for their human equivalents, this could pose a lion conservation problem. We collected data on lions in KNP from 1993 to 2008 for spatio-temporal analysis of both FIV(ple) and BTB, and to assess whether a similar relationship between the two diseases exists in lions. We found that BTB prevalence in the south was higher than in the north (72 versus 19% over the total study period) and increased over time in the northern part of the KNP (0-41%). No significant spatio-temporal differences were seen for FIV(ple) in the study period, in agreement with the presumed endemic state of the infection. Both infections affected haematology and blood chemistry values, FIV(ple) in a more pronounced way than BTB. The effect of co-infection on these values, however, was always less than additive. Though a large proportion (31%) of the lions was co-infected with FIV(ple) and M. bovis, there was no evidence for a synergistic relation as in their human counterparts. Whether this results from different immunopathogeneses remains to be determined.

  2. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: characterization of piperine as active principle.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-05-20

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L., Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short Personality and Life Event scale for detection of suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Delgado-Gómez, David; Ruiz-Hernández, Diego; García-Vega, Juan Manuel; Berenguer, Nuria; Oquendo, Maria A; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario

    2015-01-01

    To develop a brief and reliable psychometric scale to identify individuals at risk for suicidal behaviour. Case-control study. 182 individuals (61 suicide attempters, 57 psychiatric controls, and 64 psychiatrically healthy controls) aged 18 or older, admitted to the Emergency Department at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital in Madrid, Spain. All participants completed a form including their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Personality and Life Events scale (27 items). To assess Axis I diagnoses, all psychiatric patients (including suicide attempters) were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Descriptive statistics were computed for the socio-demographic factors. Additionally, χ(2) independence tests were applied to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and the Personality and Life Events scale between groups. A stepwise linear regression with backward variable selection was conducted to build the Short Personality Life Event (S-PLE) scale. In order to evaluate the accuracy, a ROC analysis was conducted. The internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α, and the external reliability was evaluated using a test-retest procedure. The S-PLE scale, composed of just 6 items, showed good performance in discriminating between medical controls, psychiatric controls and suicide attempters in an independent sample. For instance, the S-PLE scale discriminated between past suicide and past non-suicide attempters with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75%. The area under the ROC curve was 88%. A factor analysis extracted only one factor, revealing a single dimension of the S-PLE scale. Furthermore, the S-PLE scale provides values of internal and external reliability between poor (test-retest: 0.55) and acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.65) ranges. Administration time is about one minute. The S-PLE scale is a useful and accurate instrument for estimating the risk of suicidal behaviour in

  5. An Automated Procedure for Flutter and Strength Analysis and Optimization of Aerospace Vehicles. Volume 2. Program User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    t***+ OilHENT r COMM EN T r aaaaa PLE ISE IIEUNT REEL . IA aa aa a PLEASE HOUNT REEL O IB SAVE SCOPE FTLE NEIiTAPEE SAVE SCOPE FILE NEIDATAO DEST...o COPYBF’FLOl O 3 r TAPEO I . COPYBF rFLO lO 4r TAPE0I . COPYAF TFL 0 I 05 r TAPE0 I o UNLO AD TTAPEO I . REOvESTT fAPE09 rHI . .... . PLEASE HOUNT ...OUNT FEEL . IA t aaaoaa HOUNT REEL . IB . SAYE SCOPE FILE SAVE SCOPE FILE NETTAPE. NEIDATA. aaaa aa PLEASETCUNTFEEL.2.. aaaaa PLE ASE I,CaIiT REEL . 3

  6. Zero birefringence films of pullulan ester derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Danjo, Takahiro; Enomoto, Yukiko; Shimada, Hikaru; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2017-01-01

    High-performance films with almost zero-birefringence and zero-wavelength dispersion were succeeded to prepare from pullulan esters derivatives (PLEs) without any additives. Optical transmittance analysis, birefringence measurement of PLE cast film and hot stretched films, and infrared dichroism analysis were conducted to characterize optical properties of PLE films comparing with cellulose triacetate which is commercially used as low-birefringence in optical devices. The aims of this study, characterization of optical properties of pullulan esters, can develop a deep understanding of the fundamental knowing and applicability of polysaccharides. Accordingly, authors believe this paper will open the gate for researches in the application of polysaccharides. PMID:28417955

  7. Exciton coupling of surface complexes on a nanocrystal surface.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangxing; Ji, Jianwei; Wang, Guan; You, Xiaozeng

    2014-08-25

    Exciton coupling may arise when chromophores are brought into close spatial proximity. Herein the intra-nanocrystal exciton coupling of the surface complexes formed by coordination of 8-hydroxyquinoline to ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) is reported. It is studied by absorption, photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), and PL lifetime measurements. The exciton coupling of the surface complexes tunes the PL color and broadens the absorption and PLE windows of the NCs, and thus is a potential strategy for improving the light-harvesting efficiency of NC solar cells and photocatalysts.

  8. Transjugular melody valve placement in a small child with protein losing enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Mallula, Kiran K; Kenny, Damien; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2015-02-01

    The authors present a patient with situs inversus totalis, dextrocardia, and tetralogy of Fallot with complete AV canal who underwent pulmonary valve-sparing complete repair during infancy but developed progressive pulmonary outflow obstruction on serial follow-up. His right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was prestented as a precursor for Melody valve placement. After this, he developed protein losing enteropathy (PLE) which was unresponsive to medical management. Finally, he received transcatheter Melody valve percutaneously in the pulmonic position that lead to clinical and biochemical resolution of his PLE symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of inositols from pine nuts (Pinus pinea L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Ramos, L

    2014-06-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time to extract bioactive inositols from pine nuts. The influence of extraction time, temperature and cycles of extraction in the yield and composition of the extract was studied. A quadratic lineal model using multiple linear regression in the stepwise mode was used to evaluate possible trends in the process. Under optimised PLE conditions (50°C, 18 min, 3 cycles of 1.5 mL water each one) at 10 MPa, a noticeable reduction in extraction time and solvent volume, compared with solid-liquid extraction (SLE; room temperature, 2h, 2 cycles of 5 mL water each one) was achieved; 5.7 mg/g inositols were extracted by PLE, whereas yields of only 3.7 mg/g were obtained by SLE. Subsequent incubation of PLE extracts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37°C, 5h) allowed the removal of other co-extracted low molecular weight carbohydrates which may interfere in the bioactivity of inositols.

  10. Doing What We Teach: Promoting Digital Literacies for Professional Development through Personal Learning Environments and Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laakkonen, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of social media, few learners make effective use of digital technology to support their learning or graduate with the skills necessary for developing and communicating their expertise in the knowledge-driven networked society of the digital age. This article makes use of the concept of Personal Learning Environments (PLE)…

  11. Towards New Cultures of Learning: Personal Learning Environments as a Developmental Perspective for Improving Higher Education Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laakkonen, Ilona; Taalas, Peppi

    2015-01-01

    This article provides readers with an understanding of the concept of the personal learning environment (PLE). It suggests that PLEs can be used in two complementary ways: as a developmental lens for integrating ICT and creating new pedagogical practices and digital literacies for academic language learning, and as a context in which learners can…

  12. Human Dietary Fibre: A Review,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    hickening occurs. They arc therefore lightly lignif ied, e.g. carrots . turnips . iv ) Fruits: These vary widely. There are two distinct classes, f leshy ( e.g...1973). 1~rtiits and vegetables asa bsorbers are : turnip < potato < hianam ia < cauliflower < pea < winter cab- bage < lettuce < a~)ple < carrot

  13. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2009-12-15

    A fast and simple method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples was developed using a one-step extraction and clean-up by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS). The selective PLE method provided to obtain ready-to-analyse extracts without any additional clean-up step, using a sorbent as fat retainer inside the PLE cell. Several PLE operating conditions, such as solvent type, extraction temperature and time, number of cycles and type of fat retainer, were studied. Using Florisil as fat retainer, maximum recoveries of PBDEs (83-108%) with minimum presence of matrix-interfering compounds were obtained using a mixture of n-hexane:dichloromethane 90:10 (v/v) as solvent, an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C and a static extraction time of 5 min in combination with three static cycles. Quality parameters of the method were established using standards and fish samples. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 10 to 34 pg g(-1) wet weight and between 34 and 68 pg g(-1) wet weight, respectively. In addition, good linearity (between 1 and 500 ng ml(-1)) and high precision (RSD %<15%) were achieved. The method was validated using the standard reference material SRM-1945 (whale blubber) and was then applied to the analysis of PBDEs in fish samples.

  14. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea del Pilar; García-Cañas, Virginia; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116). The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1) pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent) at lab-scale; (2) Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at pilot scale; (3) Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4) Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF) at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight), this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide), suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts. PMID:27941607

  15. The Dialogic Potential of ePortfolios: Formative Feedback and Communities of Learning within a Personal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehiyazaryan-White, Ester

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into the use of ePortfolios as personal learning environments (PLE) by a group of students pursuing Master's degrees in Education. The qualitative study explores the potential of the ePortfolio to support learners in engaging in formative peer and tutor feedback as well as in developing a learning…

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-12

    rightly said that the soil is "a living body" wherein a vast number of microorganisms, insects, acarids, nematodes , etc., develop. Moreover, soil...pressure device. Very few specialty offices are adequately equipped. For exam- ple, a gastrointestinal medicine office cannot do gastro- fiberoscopy

  17. Daily Report East Europe Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    peo- ple’s consciousness—in a manner that would "put Orwell to shame"—phobias about Lakes Balaton and Velence, as well as about eels, and tried to...make people understand how important the facilities on the Danube and the Tisza were. [Hollos] As long as you mentioned Orwell : What does the

  18. Personal Learning Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for Cognition, e-Learning Satisfaction and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Barrio-García, Salvador; Arquero, José L.; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    As long as students use Web 2.0 tools extensively for social purposes, there is an opportunity to improve students' engagement in Higher Education by using these tools for academic purposes under a Personal Learning Environment approach (PLE 2.0). The success of these attempts depends upon the reactions and acceptance of users towards e-learning…

  19. Team Performance in Dynamic Decision Making: The Importance of Heuristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    exam- ple, systematically biased in tneir perception of uncertainty ( Grether , 1978). In addition to being biased in their judgments of uncertainty...McGraw-Hill Book Company. 47 Grether , D., May 1973, "Recent Psychological Studies of Behavior Under Uncertainty, "American Economic Review, Volume 68

  20. Social media methods for studying rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Stringer, Kathleen A; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    For pediatric rare diseases, the number of patients available to support traditional research methods is often inadequate. However, patients who have similar diseases cluster "virtually" online via social media. This study aimed to (1) determine whether patients who have the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB) would participate in online research, and (2) explore response patterns to examine social media's role in participation compared with other referral modalities. A novel, internet-based survey querying details of potential pathogenesis, course, and treatment of PLE and PB was created. The study was available online via web and Facebook portals for 1 year. Apart from 2 study-initiated posts on patient-run Facebook pages at the study initiation, all recruitment was driven by study respondents only. Response patterns and referral sources were tracked. A total of 671 respondents with a Fontan palliation completed a valid survey, including 76 who had PLE and 46 who had PB. Responses over time demonstrated periodic, marked increases as new online populations of Fontan patients were reached. Of the responses, 574 (86%) were from the United States and 97 (14%) were international. The leading referral sources were Facebook, internet forums, and traditional websites. Overall, social media outlets referred 84% of all responses, making it the dominant modality for recruiting the largest reported contemporary cohort of Fontan patients and patients who have PLE and PB. The methodology and response patterns from this study can be used to design research applications for other rare diseases.

  1. Engaging Students in Learning: Findings from a Study of Project-Led Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Sandra; Mesquita, Diana; Flores, Maria Assunção; Lima, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a three-year study of project-based learning implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme, at the University of Minho, Portugal. This particular model was inspired on project-led education (PLE), following Powell and Weenk's [2003. "Project-Led Engineering…

  2. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  3. Multimedia and Textual Reading Comprehension: Multimedia as Personal Learning Environment's Enriching Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, J. Daniel; Rigo, Eduardo; Jiménez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    In this article we will discuss part of a piece of research that was conducted with two 4ESO groups. Textual learning is opposed to multimedia learning within the context of PLE's (Personal Learning Environment) reading tools and strategies. In the research an analysis was made of whether it would be possible to improve the reading process through…

  4. Solar urticaria with a wide action spectrum from UVB to visible light complicated with UVA-induced polymorphous light eruption.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Izumi; Uetsu, Naoko; Tanimura, Hirotsugu; Fujii, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-04

    Solar urticaria and polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are acquired idiopathic photosensitivity disorders, but each phenomenon is extremely different; one is an immediate reaction, and one is a delayed-type reaction. Phototesting is necessary not only for the diagnosis of these photosensitivity disorders but also for the determination of the action spectrum so that the patient can try to avoid the triggering wavelengths in ordinary life. Solar urticaria is unique in that the particular spectra that inhibit or enhance the reactions by action spectra are present in some cases. In contrast, with PLE, phototesting is difficult, because a single or even repeated exposure of ultraviolet light or visible light sometimes fails to provoke the reaction. Here, we report a case of solar urticaria complicated with PLE. Solar urticaria with an action spectrum ranging from UVB to visible light was diagnosed by clinical presentation, phototesting and intradermal injections of photo-irradiated autologous serum. PLE induced by UVA was diagnosed by clinical presentation and phototesting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  6. Poultry litter environment selects for the development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in Salmonella Heidelberg via conjugative IncX plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fitness of S. Heidelberg in poultry litter (PL) was determined following growth preconditioning in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or poultry litter extracts (PLE, a centrifuged and filter sterilized PL slurry). Isolates were monitored by direct culture count for up to 9 days. The concen...

  7. Students' Views of Assessment in Project-Led Engineering Education: Findings from a Case Study in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Sandra; Flores, Maria Assuncao; Lima, Rui Manuel

    2012-01-01

    According to the demands of the Bologna process, new educational methods and strategies are needed in order to enhance student-centred learning. Project work is one of those approaches. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of project-led education (PLE) on students' learning processes and outcomes, within the context of a first-year engineering…

  8. Cyber Professionals in the Military and Industry-Partnering in Defense of the Nation: A Conversation between Maj Gen Suzanne Vautrinot, Commander, Twenty-Fourth Air Force, and Mr. Charles Beard, Chief Information Officer, Science Applications International Corporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    military controlled, across several different networks, including foreign systems, making it critical to establish relationships with com- mercial...level, you had to go beyond awareness. Peo- ple had to get on board, understand the codependency , and see its benefit to the individual. Having the

  9. Hydrolytical instability of hydroxyanthraquinone glycosides in pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxyanthraquinones represent a group of pharmacologically active compounds characteristic for plants of the Rumex and Rheum genera. These compounds in the human intestine act as laxative compounds. As they cause the greatest side effects and are often abused by the public, their accurate analysis in plants and plant-derived laxatives is much needed. To isolate compounds from plants, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is frequently applied. The technique has been regarded, so far, as very effective, even in isolation of sensitive compounds for which exposure time in high temperature has a negative impact. This work demonstrates some interesting and surprising results accompanying PLE of hydroxyanthraquinones from the Rumex crispus L. root using methanol/water mixtures as extractant. The presented results demonstrate that glycoside forms of hydroxyanthraquinones (emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and physcion-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) are hydrolytically unstable even in the short-lasting PLE. The increase of water concentration in the extractant leads to the increase of the transformation degree of the glycoside forms to the corresponding aglycones (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion), increasing the concentration of the latter. The rise in the PLE temperature accelerates the hydrolytical degradation of the glycoside forms. The extension of the extraction time also intensifies this process. The presented results show that extraction of glycosides using extractants containing water can lead to false conclusions about the chemical composition of plants.

  10. Personal Learning Environments for Supporting Out-of-Class Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo

    2014-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) it is a combination of tools (usually digital) and resources chosen by the learner to support different aspects of the learning process, from goal setting to materials selection to assessment. The importance of PLEs for teachers lies in their ability to help students develop autonomy and prepare them for…

  11. The Reliability and Validity of Liu´s Self-Report Questionnaire for Screening Putative Pre-Psychotic States (BQSPS) in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, D.; Arias, V. B.; Campos, S.

    2016-01-01

    The usage of rigorous analyses based on contemporary methods to enhance psychometric properties of screening questionnaires aimed to address psychotic-like experiences (PLE) is currently being encouraged. The Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for Screening Putative Pre-psychotic States (BQSPS) is a recently created tool addressing PLE beyond attenuated positive symptoms (APS). Its psychometric properties as a screening tool for first step assessment seems to be adequate, but further research is needed to evaluate certain validity aspects, particularly its dimensionality, internal structure, and psychometric properties in different populations. We assessed the reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity of BQSPS in two samples: 727 adolescents aged 13–18 years, and 245 young adults aged 18–33 years. We used exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The original four-factor structure was not replicated. The best fit in adolescents was obtained by a structure of three-correlated factors: social anxiety (SA), negative symptoms (NS), and positive symptoms (PS). This structure was confirmed in young adult subjects. The three-factor model reached a predictive capability with suicidality as external criterion. PLE are represented by a three-factor structure, which is highly stable between adolescent and young-adult samples. Although the BQSPS seems to be a valid tool for screening PLE, its psychometric properties should be improved to obtain a more accurate measurement. PMID:27973533

  12. Incidence of Pregnancy and Single Parenthood among Enlisted Personnel in the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    5 Expanded Sam ple of Pregnant W om en .................................................................... 9 Sex Education...Personnel Who Attended a Navy Sex Education Course and W ere Involved with a Pregnancy...15 3. Distribution of enlisted single parents by sex and pay grade ................................. 18 X INTRODUCTION Pregnancy

  13. USSR Report, Military Affairs, No. 1806.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-24

    34There’s not a civilian enterprise in the vicinity where people from our unit would not work. One can see them anywhere—both in the confectionary ...navy is a triumph for the labors of our peo- ple and a product of the selfless efforts of our scientists, designers, engineers and workers. The

  14. Differential Effects of Controllable and Uncontrollable Stress on Immune Function in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-24

    11101 . ago 104 21. Ple.ue indicate the nUlllber of 8 ounce serving! of each of the folloWing beverage’ ?Cu consume daily’ coffee __________ __ tea ...v. (1966). Physiologic responses of the albino rat to chronic noise stress. Archives of Environmental Health, 12, 751-754. Glaser, R., & Gotleib

  15. Education for Sustainability Using a Campus Eco-Garden as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheang, Chi Chiu; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Zhan, Ying; Tsoi, Kwok Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore stakeholder perspectives of the role of a campus eco-garden in education for sustainability (EfS). It will combine the perspectives to highlight a powerful learning environment (PLE) for university students to realize the concept of EfS. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to…

  16. Engaging Students in Learning: Findings from a Study of Project-Led Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Sandra; Mesquita, Diana; Flores, Maria Assunção; Lima, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a three-year study of project-based learning implemented in the first year of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme, at the University of Minho, Portugal. This particular model was inspired on project-led education (PLE), following Powell and Weenk's [2003. "Project-Led Engineering…

  17. Eta-Sub-Earth Projection from Kepler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    Outline of talk: (1) The Kepler database (2) Biases (3) The radius distribution (4) The period distribution (5) Projecting from the sam ple to the population (6) Extrapolating the period distribution (7) The Habitable Zone (8) Calculating the number of terrestrial, HZ plan ets (10) Conclusions

  18. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  19. Protozoan Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Other protozoal infections are caused by luminal parasites. Of these, Giardia lamblia , Crytosporidium and Trichomonas vaginalis are the most...complement- mediated killing. African trypanosomes and Giardia lamblia , for exam- ple, are killed by action of the alternative complement pathway...operation between T cells and macrophages is import- ant in defence against Giardia . Resistance to murine giardiasis requires participation of thymus

  20. Research Results of Two Personal Learning Environments Experiments in a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín Juarros, Victoria; Salinas Ibáñez, Jesús; de Benito Crosetti, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on institutionally powered personal learning environments (iPLEs). The concept of the iPLE can be seen as a way universities can incorporate learner-centred approach into the architecture of their technology-enhanced learning environments. The aim of this paper is to pose that there are other ways to learn complementary to…

  1. Eta-Sub-Earth Projection from Kepler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    Outline of talk: (1) The Kepler database (2) Biases (3) The radius distribution (4) The period distribution (5) Projecting from the sam ple to the population (6) Extrapolating the period distribution (7) The Habitable Zone (8) Calculating the number of terrestrial, HZ plan ets (10) Conclusions

  2. 76 FR 35902 - Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... meeting includes: (1) Introductions, (2) Advisory Team Concept of Operations update, (3) Agency report-out of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant lessons- learned, (4) National Level Exercise 2011 After-Action Report, (5) Senior Official Exercise/Principal Level Exercise SOE/PLE 3-10 update. The FRPCC Chair...

  3. Ultrafast Method for Selective Design of Graphene Quantum Dots with Highly Efficient Blue Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Suk Hyun; Mhin, Sungwook; Han, Hyuksu; Kim, Kang Min; Jones, Jacob L.; Ryu, Jeong Ho; Kang, Ju Seop; Kim, Shin Hee; Shim, Kwang Bo

    2016-12-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attractive properties and potential applications. However, their various applications are limited by a current synthetic method which requires long processing time. Here, we report a facile and remarkably rapid method for production of GQDs exhibiting excellent optoelectronic properties. We employed the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique to exfoliate GQDs from multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs), which can be referred to as a pulsed laser exfoliation (PLE) process. Strikingly, it takes only 6 min to transform all MWCNTs precursors to GQDs by using PLE process. Furthermore, we could selectively produce either GQDs or graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) by simply changing the organic solvents utilized in the PLE processing. The synthesized GQDs show distinct blue photoluminescence (PL) with excellent quantum yield (QY) up to 12% as well as sufficient brightness and resolution to be suitable for optoelectronic applications. We believe that the PLE process proposed in this work will further open up new routes for the preparation of different optoelectronic nanomaterials.

  4. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  5. Extraction of thymol from different varieties of thyme plants using green solvents.

    PubMed

    Villanueva Bermejo, David; Angelov, Ivan; Vicente, Gonzalo; Stateva, Roumiana P; Rodriguez García-Risco, Mónica; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena; Fornari, Tiziana

    2015-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range 30-43 °C are reported. The highest thymol recoveries were attained with T. vulgaris (7-11 mg g(-1)). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (∼900 mg g(-1) at ∼40 °C), and is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2 . © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Selective production of 1-monocaprin by porcine liver carboxylesterase-catalyzed esterification: Its enzyme kinetics and catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Hong, Sung-Chul; Kwon, Chang Woo; Jo, Minje; Choi, Seung Jun; Kim, Keesung; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2016-01-01

    Porcine liver carboxylesterase (PLE) belongs to carboxylesterase family (EC 3.1.1.1) as a serine-type esterase. The PLE-catalyzed esterification of capric acid with glycerol in reverse micelles was investigated on the catalytic performance and enzyme kinetics. The most suitable structure of reverse micelles was comprised of isooctane (reaction medium) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT, anionic surfactant) with 0.1 of R-value ([water]/[surfactant]) and 3.0 of G/F-value ([glycerol]/[fatty acid]) for the PLE-catalyzed esterification. In the aspect of regio-selectivity, the PLE mainly produced 1-monocaprin without any other products (di- and/or tricaprins of subsequent reactions). Furthermore, the degree of esterification at equilibrium state (after 4 h from the initiation) was 62.7% under the optimum conditions at pH 7.0 and 60 °C. Based on Hanes-Woolf plot, the apparent Km and Vmax values were calculated to be 16.44 mM and 38.91 μM/min/mg protein, respectively.

  7. Students' Personal Networks in Virtual and Personal Learning Environments: A Case Study in Higher Education Using Learning Analytics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel; Alberdi, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of the affordances of a virtual learning environment and a personal learning environment (PLE) in the configuration of the students' personal networks in a higher education context. The results are discussed in light of the adaptation of the students to the learning network made up by two…

  8. Addressing the electronic properties of III-V nanowires by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, M.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been attracting an increasing interest in the scientific community. This is due to their peculiar filamentary shape and nanoscale diameter, which renders them versatile and cost-effective components of novel technological devices and also makes them an ideal platform for the investigation of a variety of fascinating physical effects. Absorption spectroscopy is a powerful and non-destructive technique able to provide information on the physical properties of the NWs. However, standard absorption spectroscopy is hard to perform in NWs, because of their small volume and the presence of opaque substrates. Here, we demonstrate that absorption can be successfully replaced by photoluminescence excitation (PLE). First, the use of polarization-resolved PLE to address the complex and highly-debated electronic band structure of wurtzite GaAs and InP NWs is shown. Then, PLE is used as a statistically-relevant method to localize the presence of separate wurtzite and zincblende NWs in the same InP sample. Finally, a variety of resonant exotic effects in the density of states of In x Ga1-x As/GaAs core/shell NWs are highlighted by high-resolution PLE. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics’ series 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Marta De Luca was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. D as a Leader.

  9. Building Personal Learning Environments by Using and Mixing ICT Tools in a Professional Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castaneda, Linda; Soto, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a teaching experience of the introduction of ICT to higher education students in a complementary professional approach and a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) development approach, as well as a naturalistic study based on this experience. The central focus of this methodology was the use of hands-on sessions to introduce…

  10. Introducing a Personal Learning Environment in Higher Education. An Analysis of Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saz, Alexandra; Engel, Anna; Coll, César

    2016-01-01

    Universities have a key role to play in the progress and development of the Knowledge Society. They should lead the way in the design of teaching strategies that promote knowledge building. Personal learning environments (PLE) represent a groundbreaking new development in educational practices through the incorporation of Information and…

  11. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  12. Ultrafast Method for Selective Design of Graphene Quantum Dots with Highly Efficient Blue Emission

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk Hyun; Mhin, Sungwook; Han, Hyuksu; Kim, Kang Min; Jones, Jacob L.; Ryu, Jeong Ho; Kang, Ju Seop; Kim, Shin Hee; Shim, Kwang Bo

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attractive properties and potential applications. However, their various applications are limited by a current synthetic method which requires long processing time. Here, we report a facile and remarkably rapid method for production of GQDs exhibiting excellent optoelectronic properties. We employed the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique to exfoliate GQDs from multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs), which can be referred to as a pulsed laser exfoliation (PLE) process. Strikingly, it takes only 6 min to transform all MWCNTs precursors to GQDs by using PLE process. Furthermore, we could selectively produce either GQDs or graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) by simply changing the organic solvents utilized in the PLE processing. The synthesized GQDs show distinct blue photoluminescence (PL) with excellent quantum yield (QY) up to 12% as well as sufficient brightness and resolution to be suitable for optoelectronic applications. We believe that the PLE process proposed in this work will further open up new routes for the preparation of different optoelectronic nanomaterials. PMID:27929121

  13. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 3. Skylab, Vibration Testing and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    ORTHO Option ple shakers (maximum of 12). Fine tuning is accomplished with this The orthogo’iality routine provides for software module. selecting the...placing the shakers sym- Table /1 metricaJ*y on both Wies of the airplane and applying Pra -Test Identification Tags In-phase or out-of-phas: excitation the

  14. Effects of solvent and temperature on pressurized liquid extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from dried red grape skin.

    PubMed

    Ju, Zhi Yong; Howard, Luke R

    2003-08-27

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used to extract anthocyanins from the freeze-dried skin of a highly pigmented red wine grape with six solvents at 50 degrees C, 10.1 MPa, and 3 x 5 min extraction cycles. Temperature (from 20 to 140 degrees C in 20 degrees C increments) effects on anthocyanin recovery by acidified water and acidified 60% methanol were also studied. Acidified methanol extracted the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas the solvent mixture (40:40:20:0.1 methanol/acetone/water HCl) extracted the highest levels of total phenolics and total acylated anthocyanins. Acidified water extracts obtained by PLE at 80-100 degrees C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides, total acylated anthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and ORAC values. Acidified methanol extracts obtained by PLE at 60 degrees C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas extracts obtained at 120 degrees C had the highest levels of total phenolics. High-temperature PLE (80-100 degrees C) using acidified water, an environmentally friendly solvent, was as effective as acidified 60% methanol in extracting anthocyanins from grape skins.

  15. Education for Sustainability Using a Campus Eco-Garden as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheang, Chi Chiu; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Zhan, Ying; Tsoi, Kwok Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore stakeholder perspectives of the role of a campus eco-garden in education for sustainability (EfS). It will combine the perspectives to highlight a powerful learning environment (PLE) for university students to realize the concept of EfS. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to…

  16. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction and quantification of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analysis of anthocyanins responsible for the purple flesh color is important for breeding programs and development of value-added products. This study aimed to optimize the conditions for anthocyanin extraction from purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (PFSP) using pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) metho...

  18. Comparative Study of Green Sub- and Supercritical Processes to Obtain Carnosic Acid and Carnosol-Enriched Rosemary Extracts with in Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity on Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; García-Cañas, Virginia; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-12-07

    In the present work, four green processes have been compared to evaluate their potential to obtain rosemary extracts with in vitro anti-proliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and HCT116). The processes, carried out under optimal conditions, were: (1) pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, using an hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent) at lab-scale; (2) Single-step supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at pilot scale; (3) Intensified two-step sequential SFE at pilot scale; (4) Integrated PLE plus supercritical antisolvent fractionation (SAF) at pilot scale. Although higher extraction yields were achieved by using PLE (38.46% dry weight), this extract provided the lowest anti-proliferative activity with no observed cytotoxic effects at the assayed concentrations. On the other hand, extracts obtained using the PLE + SAF process provided the most active rosemary extracts against both colon cancer cell lines, with LC50 ranging from 11.2 to 12.4 µg/mL and from 21.8 to 31.9 µg/mL for HCT116 and HT-29, respectively. In general, active rosemary extracts were characterized by containing carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS) at concentrations above 263.7 and 33.9 mg/g extract, respectively. Some distinct compounds have been identified in the SAF extracts (rosmaridiphenol and safficinolide), suggesting their possible role as additional contributors to the observed strong anti-proliferative activity of CA and CS in SAF extracts.

  19. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  20. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The Personal Learning Environment and the Human Condition: From Theory to Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark; Liber, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    We present the Personal Learning Environment (PLE) as a practical intervention concerning the organization of technology in education. We explain this by proposing a cybernetic model of the "Personal Learner" using Beer's Viable System Model (VSM). Using the VSM, we identify different regulatory mechanisms that maintain viability for learners, and…

  2. The Need for an Expanded Definition of Glistening Surface,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    maintenance alyim-Ithlns a ro empovedi. Monte Carlo techniquesa are used to calculate errors in canve and~ :.-ill Ic (’Ctim-ition or e~ach !arget a...parameters and severial values of -)w ple f xieltIr-t cii~tant charate rizieg diffe rent c lasses of terrairc. .6 I r. 0 * .. ~ 0 - r .. - I-. - 2 -’ * u

  3. Research Results of Two Personal Learning Environments Experiments in a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín Juarros, Victoria; Salinas Ibáñez, Jesús; de Benito Crosetti, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on institutionally powered personal learning environments (iPLEs). The concept of the iPLE can be seen as a way universities can incorporate learner-centred approach into the architecture of their technology-enhanced learning environments. The aim of this paper is to pose that there are other ways to learn complementary to…

  4. Learner Self-Regulation and Web 2.0 Tools Management in Personal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura E.; Armfield, Shadow W. J.; Chan, Junn-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology integration requires a higher level of self-regulated learning skills to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE). This study examined each of the four aspects of learner self-regulation in online learning (i.e., environment structuring, goal setting, time management, & task strategies) as the predictor for level of…

  5. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  6. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in street dust samples.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-07-26

    Owing to massive pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls in the harbour area of Dortmund (Germany), several dust samples were taken from surfaces at industrial sites and analyzed by the North-Rhine Westphalian State Agency for Nature, Environment, and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW). This report describes and validates a rapid approach to screening for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in street dust. Samples were collected by using a natural bristle brush and stainless steel scoops. Mass recovery of fine-particle sea sand (a dust surrogate) on asphalt and concrete surfaces was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of sampling. Better recoveries of sea sand were achieved on concrete than on asphalt surfaces. Furthermore, temperature optimization for a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method used to extract PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) from street dust samples was developed and compared with Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PCBs in real street dust samples. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent in both cases. During this study, a combination of toluene and PLE achieved better extraction efficiencies than Soxhlet extraction. Finally, the performance of the PLE method was evaluated by analysing NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a for PCB and PCDD/F concentrations. This demonstrated that the accuracy of the PLE method for the determination of both substance classes was satisfactory. In addition, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in street dust samples from industrial sites are reported.

  7. Diet options of obesity: fad or famous?

    PubMed

    Balart, Luis A

    2005-03-01

    This article highlights the different dietary approaches that have evolved and become popular over the past few years. Whether these are fads or truly represent important changes in the way peo-ple eat and that ultimately will lead to a lower rate of obesity and improved health is impossible to know.

  8. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  9. Learner Self-Regulation and Web 2.0 Tools Management in Personal Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura E.; Armfield, Shadow W. J.; Chan, Junn-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology integration requires a higher level of self-regulated learning skills to create a Personal Learning Environment (PLE). This study examined each of the four aspects of learner self-regulation in online learning (i.e., environment structuring, goal setting, time management, & task strategies) as the predictor for level of…

  10. Determination of gastrodin and vanillyl alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume by pressurized liquid extraction at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ong, Eng Shi; Heng, Ming Yuan; Tan, Swee Ngin; Hong Yong, Jean Wan; Koh, Huijing; Teo, Chin Chye; Hew, Choy Sin

    2007-08-01

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at room temperature with a laboratory-assembled system was applied for the extraction of gastrodin (GA) and vanillyl alcohol (VA) in Gastrodia elata Blume. The proposed system setup for this current work was simpler as no heating and backpressure regulator was required. Extraction with PLE was carried out dynamically at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, at room temperature, under an applied pressure of 10-20 bars with an extraction time of 40-50 min. The extraction efficiencies of the proposed method using 20% aqueous ethanol were compared with heating under reflux using organic solvents such as methanol and ethanol/water (20:80) for different batches of medicinal plant materials. For the determination of GA and VA in G. elata Blume, the extraction efficiencies of PLE at room temperature were observed to be comparable with heating under reflux. The method precision was found to vary from 1.6 to 8.6% (RSD, n = 6) on different days. The marker compounds present in the various medicinal plant extracts were determined by gradient elution HPLC and HPLC/MS/MS. Our work demonstrated the possibility of implementation of PLE at room temperature and the advantages of minimizing the use of organic solvents in the extraction process.

  11. Considerations on the use of enzyme-assisted extraction in combination with pressurized liquids to recover bioactive compounds from algae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea del Pilar; Montero, Lidia; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie; Tanniou, Anaëlle; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-02-01

    Pressurized liquids, PLE, and enzyme-assisted extraction, EAE, have been tested to improve the extraction of phlorotannins from the seaweed Sargassum muticum. Enzymatic treatment with proteases and carbohydrases, alkaline hydrolysis and PLE with ethanol:water as extracting solvent have been studied in terms of extraction yield, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (TEAC assay). Results demonstrated that the application of PLE alone provided the highest yields and relevant antioxidant activity. An experimental design was employed to further optimize the PLE extraction conditions; optimum parameters included the use of 160 °C and 95% ethanol. Under these conditions, values of 21.9%, 94.0mg gallic acid equivalents g(-1), 5.018 mg phloroglucinol equivalents g(-1) and 1.275 mmol trolox equivalents g(-1) were obtained for extraction yield, total phenols, total phlorotannins and TEAC, respectively. A preliminary chemical characterization by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry provided insight in terms of the mechanisms involved in the different processes.

  12. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children’s externalizing symptoms. Fathers’ parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children’s mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict. PMID:28878705

  13. Parietal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Salanova, Vicenta

    2012-10-01

    Patients with parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE) exhibit an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome that is rarely seen even at large epilepsy centers. Clinically, most patients with PLE exhibit a somatosensory aura that may include painful dysesthesias, though vertigo, aphasia, disturbances of one's body image also occur, when ictal propagation occurs from the parietal lobe to the supplementary motor area, hypermotor manifestations are noted. When temporolimbic propagation occurs, complex visual or auditory hallucinations and automatisms may appear. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is often nonlocalizing. Ictal EEG is rarely localizing in PLE, and invasive EEG is often required for definitive localization and functional mapping. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology during the evaluation of patients with refractory partial epilepsy include Ictal magnetic source imaging (MSI). Combined EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) may be useful for patients with PLE to refine the localization in patients undergoing a presurgical evaluation. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are more concentrated inside the seizure onset zone (SOZ), indicating that they may be used as interictal scalp EEG biomarker for the SOZ. When medical therapy fails, resective epilepsy surgery can result in seizure freedom or significant reduction especially when a lesion is present.

  14. Towards New Cultures of Learning: Personal Learning Environments as a Developmental Perspective for Improving Higher Education Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laakkonen, Ilona; Taalas, Peppi

    2015-01-01

    This article provides readers with an understanding of the concept of the personal learning environment (PLE). It suggests that PLEs can be used in two complementary ways: as a developmental lens for integrating ICT and creating new pedagogical practices and digital literacies for academic language learning, and as a context in which learners can…

  15. Leachate Testing and Evaluation for Freshwater Sediments. Long-Term Effects of Dredging Operations Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    of the sam- ple and 10 mL of CISA reagent. Follow the instructions given in steps c and d under "Calibration Curve Preparation." b. Calculate...contain- ing 10 mL of CISA into the beaker. Measure the sample accord- ing to steps c and d above. (3) Calculate the concentration of the diluted sample as

  16. Planning for Conflict Termination and Post-Conflict Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    In 1956, for exam- ple, British Prime Minister Anthony Eden with French Premier Guy Mollet planned to unseat President Nasser of Egypt and reduce his...1992), p. 24. 15. Bobby R. Inman, et al., “U.S. Strategy After the Storm,” in Nye and Smith, p. 286; Bruce C. Clark and William J. Flavin, “Results of

  17. Personal Learning Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for Cognition, e-Learning Satisfaction and Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Barrio-García, Salvador; Arquero, José L.; Romero-Frías, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    As long as students use Web 2.0 tools extensively for social purposes, there is an opportunity to improve students' engagement in Higher Education by using these tools for academic purposes under a Personal Learning Environment approach (PLE 2.0). The success of these attempts depends upon the reactions and acceptance of users towards e-learning…

  18. Beyond the Personal Learning Environment: Attachment and Control in the Classroom of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark William; Sherlock, David

    2014-01-01

    The Personal Learning Environment (PLE) has been presented in a number of guises over a period of 10 years as an intervention which seeks the reorganisation of educational technology through shifting the "locus of control" of technology towards the learner. In the intervening period to the present, a number of initiatives have attempted…

  19. The Personal Learning Environment and the Human Condition: From Theory to Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark; Liber, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    We present the Personal Learning Environment (PLE) as a practical intervention concerning the organization of technology in education. We explain this by proposing a cybernetic model of the "Personal Learner" using Beer's Viable System Model (VSM). Using the VSM, we identify different regulatory mechanisms that maintain viability for learners, and…

  20. Children Affected by War and Armed Conflict: Parental Protective Factors and Resistance to Mental Health Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12-14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the Child Behavior Checklist for assessment of the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results confirmed that severity of PLE exposure was positively correlated with psychological distress and with internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Maternal authoritativeness and warmth functioned as protective factors and had moderating effects on the relation between PLE exposure and mental health symptoms. In contrast, maternal authoritarianism exacerbated the relation between PLE exposure and children's externalizing symptoms. Fathers' parenting style and warmth had no significant relationship with children's mental health outcomes. These findings have important clinical and practical implications for parental guidance and support during periods of war and armed conflict.

  1. Cigarette Smoking, Body Mass Index, and physical Fitness Changes Among Male Navy Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-30

    runners (Kyrolainen, Hakkinen , Kautiainen, Santtila, Pihlainen & Hakkinen , 2008). This study has several strengths, including the large sam- ple of men (n... Hakkinen , K., Kautiainen, H., Santtila, M., Pihlainen, K., & Hakkinen , A. (2008). Physical fitness, BMI and sickness absence in male military personnel

  2. Photosensitivity testing in children.

    PubMed

    ten Berge, Onno; Sigurdsson, Vigfus; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; van Weelden, Huib; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2010-12-01

    Phototesting is an important diagnostic tool to objectify light-related symptoms. Data on phototesting procedures in children are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate phototest results in photosensitivity disorders in children. The phototest procedures are described. All children phototested in our department between 1995 and 2007 were included in this retrospective study. Children given the diagnosis of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) were selected for follow-up. A total of 92 children (39 boys and 53 girls, age range 4-16 years) were successfully phototested. A photosensitivity disorder was confirmed in 56 children (61%, 24 boys and 32 girls). PLE was diagnosed in 39%, photosensitivity associated with atopic dermatitis in 23%, and erythropoietic protoporphyria in 23%. Other diagnoses were less common. Ten children with PLE were followed up for at least 5 years. Seven reported their photosensitivity had not changed over time, in two cases it had diminished, and in one patient the photosensitivity had disappeared. Retrospective study design is a limitation. Phototesting in children is feasible when performed in a case- and child-dependent manner. PLE was the most prevalent diagnosis in our series followed by photosensitivity in atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical spectroscopy and imaging of the higher energy excitons and bandgap of monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borys, Nicholas; Bao, Wei; Barnard, Edward; Ko, Changhyun; Tongay, Sefaatin; Wu, Junqiao; Yang, Li; Schuck, P. James

    Monolayer MoS2 (ML-MoS2) exhibits a rich manifold of excitons that dictate optoelectronic performance and functionality. Disentangling these states, which include the quasi-particle bandgap, is critical for developing 2D optoelectronic devices that operate beyond the optical bandgap. Whereas photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy only probes the lowest-energy radiative state and absorption spectroscopy fails to discriminate energetically degenerate states, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy selectively probes only the excited states that thermalize to the emissive ground state exciton. Using PLE spectroscopy of ML-MoS2, we identify the Rydberg series of the exciton A and exciton B states as well as signatures of the quasi-particle bandgap and coupling between the indirect C exciton and the lowest-energy A exciton, which have eluded previous PLE studies. The assignment of these states is confirmed with density functional theory. Mapping the PLE spectrum reveals spatial variations of the higher-energy exciton manifold and quasi-particle bandgap which mirror the heterogeneity in the PL but also indicate variations in local exciton thermalization processes and chemical potentials.

  4. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz extracts and their addition in beef burgers as antioxidant ingredient.

    PubMed

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Martín, Diana; Villanueva Bermejo, David; Jaime, Laura; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-06-14

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (mortiño) constitutes a source of bioactive phytochemicals, but reports related to its efficient and green production are scarce. In this study, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction of mortiño were compared. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS(•+) ) were determined. Beef burgers with 20 g kg(-1) of mortiño (MM) or its PLE extract (ME) were manufactured. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) and instrumental color changes were measured after refrigerated storage. High TPC (up to 72 g gallic acid equivalent kg(-1) extract) was determined in mortiño extracts, which was positively correlated with antioxidant activity. TBARS values of beef burgers containing either MM or ME did not change after refrigerated storage, whereas lipid oxidation of control burgers increased significantly. The color of burgers with added MM or ME was different (lower b* and a* values) from that of control burgers. However, the evolution of color after storage was similar between control and ME samples. Mortiño extracts with high TPC can be obtained by PLE. Both mortiño and its PLE extract are able to control lipid oxidation of beef burgers, but the extract is preferred from the color quality point of view. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. COPD: Are You at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    CoPD: the more you know, the better For you anD your loveD ones. PeoPle who have CoPD: • Become short of breath while doing everyday activities ... time goes by, these symPtoms get graDually worse. COPD develops slowly, and can worsen over time. Many ...

  6. On the origin of fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra of the β-sialon:Eu2+ green phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohsei; Yoshimura, Ken-ichi; Harada, Masamichi; Tomomura, Yoshitaka; Takeda, Takashi; Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra of Si6−zAlzOzN8−z (β-sialon):Eu2+ phosphors with small z values (z=0.025–0.24) were studied at room temperature and 6 K. The PL and PLE spectra exhibit fine structure with the PL lines being as sharp as 45–55 nm even at room temperature; this fine structure was enhanced by decreasing the z value. These results can be used for expanding the color gamut of liquid crystal displays, particularly in the blue–green region. From low-temperature measurements, the fine PLE structure was ascribed to discrete energy levels of 7FJ states. The 4f65d excited states of Eu2+ are considered to be localized near the 4f orbital. This is because the bonding of Eu2+ with surrounding atoms is ionic rather than covalent. Lattice phonon absorptions were also observed in the PLE spectrum, revealing that the optically active Eu2+ ions are located in the β-sialon crystal. The PL spectrum of the sample with the smallest z value (0.025) consists of a sharp zero-phonon line and lattice phonon replicas, which results in a sharp and asymmetric spectral shape. PMID:27877471

  7. Photoluminescence excitation spectra of lanthanide doped YAlO3 in vacuum ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yuhei; Ueda, Kazushige; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki

    2017-04-01

    To understand luminescent mechanisms of lanthanide (Ln) doped phosphors, it is important to know the energy positions of unoccupied Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d states, as well as occupied Ln3+ 4f states, relative to the energy bands of host materials. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra of Ln doped YAlO3 were measured in a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region and the energy positions of Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d states in the wide-gap YAlO3 were elucidated. Peaks assignable to host lattice excitation were observed in all samples at approximately 8 eV in the PLE spectra. PLE peaks derived from charge transfer (CT) and 4f-5d transitions were observed at lower energy than the bandgap energy. Ln2+ 4f energy levels were obtained from the PLE peak energies for the CT transitions along with the valence band maximum. In contrast, Ln3+ 5d energy levels were evaluated from those for the 4f-5d transitions along with the Ln3+ 4f energy levels, which were obtained previously from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The elucidated Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d energy levels were exhibited in an energy diagram together with Ln3+ 4f energy levels and host energy bands. The experimental Ln2+ 4f and Ln3+ 5d energy levels were in good agreement with the reported theoretical data.

  8. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects and Report on Emerging Technologies and Technology Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Kaiser 03] Kaiser, G.; Parekh, J.; Gross, P.; & Veletto, G. � Kinesthetics eX- treme: An External Infrastructure for Monitoring Distributed Leg- acy...multiple learner in- stances across calls to the verification engine and implementing algorithms to validate multi- ple previous observation tables in an

  9. Beyond the Personal Learning Environment: Attachment and Control in the Classroom of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark William; Sherlock, David

    2014-01-01

    The Personal Learning Environment (PLE) has been presented in a number of guises over a period of 10 years as an intervention which seeks the reorganisation of educational technology through shifting the "locus of control" of technology towards the learner. In the intervening period to the present, a number of initiatives have attempted…

  10. Powerful Learning Experiences and Suzuki Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuning-Hummel, Carrie; Meyer, Allison; Rowland, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Powerful Learning Experiences (PLEs) of Suzuki music teachers were examined in this fifth study in a series. The definition of a PLE is: "Experiences that stand out in memory because of their high quality, their impact on one's thoughts and actions over time, and their transfer to a wide range of contexts and circumstances." Ten…

  11. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  12. Broadband near ultra violet sensitization of 1 μm luminescence in Yb3+-doped CeO2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2011-10-01

    Broadband spectral modification of near ultra violet (UV) light to infra-red (IR) light is investigated in Yb3+-doped CeO2 polycrystalline ceramics sintered in different atmospheres (air, oxygen, and 95%N2-5%H2). The intense Yb3+ photoluminescence (PL) peaked at 970 nm was observed by the UV excitation at around 390 nm in the samples except those sintered under N2-H2. A broad photoluminescence excitation (PLE) band of Yb3+ luminescence peaked at 390 nm corresponds to the absorption band and the photocurrent excitation band in the non-doped CeO2 crystal, which are also in accordance with the PLE band of Eu3+ luminescence in the Eu3+-doped CeO2. Judging from these results, the PLE band is attributed to the charge transfer (CT) band from O2- to Ce4+, but not to the CT from O2- to Yb3+. From the sintering atmosphere dependence of the PL and PLE, we found that the oxygen vacancies and Ce3+ impurities are not responsible for the 390 nm-absorption band but they work as a quenching center for the Yb3+ luminescence.

  13. RADC Reliability Engineer’s TOOLKIT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    25,000 Ground Color Display ................................... 2,500-7,500 Ground Hard Disk Drive ................................. 5,000-20,000 Ground...Administration HO USAF/ LEYE (202) 697-0311 Pentagon Washington DC 20330 Air Force Systems Command HO AFSC/PLE (301) 981-4076 Andrews AFB DC 20334 Air Force

  14. Students' Personal Networks in Virtual and Personal Learning Environments: A Case Study in Higher Education Using Learning Analytics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel; Alberdi, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of the affordances of a virtual learning environment and a personal learning environment (PLE) in the configuration of the students' personal networks in a higher education context. The results are discussed in light of the adaptation of the students to the learning network made up by two…

  15. Patterns of feline immunodeficiency virus multiple infection and genome divergence in a free-ranging population of African lions.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Black, Lori; Packer, Craig; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS-like immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Free-ranging lions, Panthera leo, carry a chronic species-specific strain of FIV, FIV-Ple, which so far has not been convincingly connected with immune pathology or mortality. FIV-Ple, harboring the three distinct strains A, B, and C defined by pol gene sequence divergences, is endemic in the large outbred population of lions in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania. Here we describe the pattern of variation in the three FIV genes gag, pol-RT, and pol-RNase among lions within 13 prides to assess the occurrence of FIV infection and coinfection. Genome diversity within and among FIV-Ple strains is shown to be large, with strain divergence for each gene approaching genetic distances observed for FIV between different species of cats. Multiple in fections with two or three strains were found in 43% of the FIV-positive individuals based on pol-RT sequence analysis, which may suggest that antiviral immunity or interference evoked by one strain is not consistently protective against infection by a second. This comprehensive study of FIV-Ple in a free-ranging population of lions reveals a dynamic transmission of virus in a social species that has historically adapted to render the virus benign.

  16. Creative and Playful Learning: Learning through Game Co-Creation and Games in a Playful Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Marjaana

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study in which children aged 7-12 (N = 68) had an opportunity to study in a novel formal and informal learning setting. The learning activities were extended from the classroom to the playful learning environment (PLE), an innovative playground enriched by technological tools. Curriculum-based learning was intertwined…

  17. Interplay between the localization and kinetics of phosphorylation in flagellar pole development of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Tropini, Carolina; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cells maintain sophisticated levels of intracellular organization that allow for signal amplification, response to stimuli, cell division, and many other critical processes. The mechanisms underlying localization and their contribution to fitness have been difficult to uncover, due to the often challenging task of creating mutants with systematically perturbed localization but normal enzymatic activity, and the lack of quantitative models through which to interpret subtle phenotypic changes. Focusing on the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, which generates two different types of daughter cells from an underlying asymmetric distribution of protein phosphorylation, we use mathematical modeling to investigate the contribution of the localization of histidine kinases to the establishment of cellular asymmetry and subsequent developmental outcomes. We use existing mutant phenotypes and fluorescence data to parameterize a reaction-diffusion model of the kinases PleC and DivJ and their cognate response regulator DivK. We then present a systematic computational analysis of the effects of changes in protein localization and abundance to determine whether PleC localization is required for correct developmental timing in Caulobacter. Our model predicts the developmental phenotypes of several localization mutants, and suggests that a novel strain with co-localization of PleC and DivJ could provide quantitative insight into the signaling threshold required for flagellar pole development. Our analysis indicates that normal development can be maintained through a wide range of localization phenotypes, and that developmental defects due to changes in PleC localization can be rescued by increased PleC expression. We also show that the system is remarkably robust to perturbation of the kinetic parameters, and while the localization of either PleC or DivJ is required for asymmetric development, the delocalization of one of these two components does not prevent

  18. Applicability of (99m) Tc-Labeled Human Serum Albumin Scintigraphy in Dogs With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, N; Ondreka, N; von Pückler, K; Mohrs, S; Sicken, J; Neiger, R

    2017-03-01

    Diagnosis of protein loss into the gastrointestinal tract using noninvasive techniques is challenging. In people, scintigraphy not only is a sensitive tool to confirm protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), but it also allows for localization of protein loss. To investigate the feasibility of (99m) Tc-labeled human serum albumin (HSA) scintigraphy in dogs with PLE in comparison with control dogs. A total of 8 clinically healthy control research dogs and 7 client-owned dogs with gastrointestinal clinical signs and hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin concentration <2.0 g/dL). Prospective case-control study. After IV injection of 400 MBq freshly prepared (99m) Tc HSA (30 mg/dog), images of the abdomen were obtained 10, 60, 120, and 240 minutes postinjection. Additional images of the salivary and thyroid glands were obtained to rule out free (99m) Tc. A scan was considered positive for PLE when radiopharmaceutical exudation was detectable in the intestinal tract. Only 1 control dog showed exudation of the radiopharmaceutical into the intestinal tract. No free (99m) Tc was detected in any dog. In dogs with PLE, focal small intestinal and diffuse small intestinal radiopharmaceutical exudation into the bowel was detected in 2 and 3 dogs, respectively, whereas in 2 dogs, there was disagreement about whether radiopharmaceutical exudation was focal or diffuse. (99m) Tc-labeled HSA scintigraphy was feasible to diagnose PLE in dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Long lasting preventive effects of piperlongumine and a Piper longum extract against stress triggered pathologies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vaishali; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Majeed, Muhammed; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare doxycycline (DOX) such as oral efficacies of piperlongumine (PL) and a Piper longum fruits extract (PLE) as stress resistance inducers. Materials and Methods: Efficacies of oral pretreatments with 5 mg/kg PL or PLE or of 50 mg/kg DOX for 10 consecutive days against stress resistance were compared. Mice in treated groups were subjected to a stress induced hyperthermia on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10thday. Treated mice were then subjected to tail suspension test on the 11thday. Alteration in body weights, core temperatures, and gastric ulcers triggered by occasional exposures to foot shocks were determined. Results: DOX like long-lasting protective effects of PL and PLE against gradual alterations in body weights, basal temperatures and transient hyperthermic responses triggered by foot shocks during the post-treatment days were observed. Altered responses of stressed mice in tail suspension test observed 1 day after the last foot-shock exposures and gastric ulcers and other pathologies quantified 1 day after the test were also suppressed in PL or PLE or DOX pretreated groups. Conclusion: PL and crude PLE are DOX like long-acting desensitizers of stress triggered co-morbidities. Reported observations add further experimental evidences justifying traditionally known medicinal uses of P. longum and other plants of the Piperaceae family, and reveal that PL is also another very long acting and orally active inducer of stress resistance. Efforts to confirm stress preventive potentials of low dose plant-derived products enriched in PL or piperine like amide alkaloids in volunteers and patients can be warranted. PMID:26649232

  20. Papaya (Carica papaya) leaf methanolic extract modulates in vitro rumen methanogenesis and rumen biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Saeid; Goh, Yong M; Rajion, Mohamed A; Jahromi, Mohammad F; Ahmad, Yusof H; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Papaya leaf methanolic extract (PLE) at concentrations of 0 (CON), 5 (LLE), 10 (MLE) and 15 (HLE) mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) with 30 mL buffered rumen fluid were incubated for 24 h to identify its effect on in vitro ruminal methanogenesis and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH). Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) by addition of PLE compared to the CON at 24 h of incubation. Methane (CH4 ) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of PLE. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (P <0.05) in MLE (2.02) and HLE (1.93) compared to the CON (2.28). Supplementation of the diet with PLE significantly (P <0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to CON after 24 h incubation, which resulted in higher concentrations of BH intermediates such as C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid; VA), c9t11 conjugated LA (CLA) (rumenic acid; RA) and t10c12 CLA. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the total bacteria, total protozoa, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and methanogen population in HLE decreased (P <0.05) compared to CON, but the total bacteria and B. fibrisolvens population were higher (P < 0.05) in CON compared to the PLE treatment groups. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation: Effects on performance and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Afsarian, O; Shahir, M H; Akhlaghi, A; Lotfolahian, H; Hoseini, A; Lourens, A

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (16 replicates of 75 eggs per treatment). The eggs were incubated at a constant eggshell temperature (EST) of 37.8ºC throughout the incubation period (CON) or were periodically exposed to 15°C for one hour on days 11, 13, 15, and 17 of incubation and the EST was measured (periodical low EST; PLE). After hatching, 240 one-day-old male broiler chicks from both treatment groups were reared for 42 d with or without dietary arginine supplementation in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. In order to induce ascites, all chicks were exposed to a 15°C room temperature from 14 d onwards. Results showed that second grade chicks and yolk sac weight were decreased, and final body weight was increased in the PLE group. Ascites mortality rate was decreased only in the PLE group and dietary arginine supplementation had no apparent effect. In the PLE group, the packed cell volume (PCV) percentage and red blood cell (RBC) count were decreased. In conclusion, the results showed that the PLE treatment during incubation was associated with improved hatchability, chick quality, and productive performance of broilers and decreased ascites incidence during post hatch cold exposure. Dietary arginine supplementation had no beneficial effects in cold exposed broilers. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zirui; Obara, Natsuho; Davis, Henry Hap; Pokorny, Johanna; Northoff, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an overlap between the neural substrate of resting-state activity and self-related processing in the cortical midline structures (CMS). However, the neural and psychological mechanisms mediating this so-called "rest-self overlap" remain unclear. To investigate the neural mechanisms, we estimated the temporal structure of spontaneous/resting-state activity, e.g. its long-range temporal correlations or self-affinity across time as indexed by the power-law exponent (PLE). The PLE was obtained in resting-state activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 47 healthy subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed correlation analyses of the PLE and Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (SCSR) scores, which enabled us to access different dimensions of self-consciousness and specified rest-self overlap in a psychological regard. The PLE in the MPFC's resting-state activity correlated with private self-consciousness scores from the SCSR. Conversely, we found no correlation between the PLE and the other subscales of the SCSR (public, social) or between other resting-state measures, including functional connectivity, and the SCSR subscales. This is the first evidence for the association between the scale-free dynamics of resting-state activity in the CMS and the private dimension of self-consciousness. This finding implies the relationship of especially the private dimension of self with the temporal structure of resting-state activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservation of mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter activity in chicken lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Donovan, D M; Sax, C M; Klement, J F; Li, X; Chepelinsky, A B; Piatigorsky, J

    1992-10-01

    Previous transfection experiments have shown that 162 base pairs (bp) of the 5' flanking sequence of the chicken alpha A-crystallin gene are required for promoter activity in primary chicken lens epithelial cells (PLE), while only 111 bp of the 5' flanking sequence are needed for activity of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter in transfected chicken PLE cells or in a SV40 T-antigen-transformed transfected mouse lens epithelial cell line (alpha TN4-1). The effect of site-directed mutations covering positions -111 to -34 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was compared in transfected chicken PLE cells and mouse alpha TN4-1 cells; selected mutations were also examined in a nontransformed rabbit lens epithelial cell line (N/N1003A). In general, the same mutations reduced promoter activity in the transfected lens cells from all three species, although differences were noted. The mutations severely affected regions -111/-106 and -69/-40 regions in all the transfected cells examined; by contrast, mutations at positions -105/-99 and -87/-70 had a somewhat greater effect in the chicken PLE than the mouse alpha TN4-1 cells, while mutations of the -93/-88 sequence reduced expression in the alpha TN4-1 but not the PLE cells. A partial cDNA with sequence similarity to alpha A-CRYPB1 of the mouse has been isolated from a chicken lens library; mouse alpha A-CRYBP1 is a putative transcription factor which binds to the -66/-55 sequence of the mouse alpha A-crystallin promoter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Development of new green processes for the recovery of bioactives from Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Barranco, Almudena; Herrero, Miguel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2017-09-01

    Two novel extraction techniques, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) have been evaluated for the recovery of bioactive compounds from Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Microalga P. tricornutum is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as EPA, and has a high content of the carotenoid fucoxanthin, which is a valuable pigment with several biological activities. Cells were disrupted at high pressure and then freeze-dried as a previous step to extraction. Additionally, only green solvents as water and ethanol (EtOH) - and mixtures of them - were used. For comparison purposes, the same response variables were considered in both processes: extraction yield (% w/w), total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), total carotenoids and chlorophylls, and antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, expressed as TEAC value). Factorial experimental designs were employed for both PLE and MAE optimization, being %EtOH in water and temperature the common experimental factors. Extraction time was also a factor considered for optimization in MAE. A detailed chemical characterization of pigments was performed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry), being fucoxanthin the main compound extracted. Optimum extraction conditions were 50°C, 100% EtOH, 20min for PLE, while optimum conditions for MAE were 30°C, 100% EtOH and 2min. Both technologies extract fucoxanthin as a main compound but higher recoveries were achieved using PLE due to a higher extraction yield. In addition, both MAE and PLE extracts contained different lipid classes potentially enriched in EPA, given an added-value to the extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory activities of Perilla frutescens britton leaf extract against the growth, migration, and adhesion of human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Youngeun; Ju, Jihyeung

    2015-02-01

    Perilla frutescens Britton leaves are a commonly consumed vegetable in different Asian countries including Korea. Cancer is a major cause of human death worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of perilla leaf (PLE) against important characteristics of cancer cells, including unrestricted growth, resisted apoptosis, and activated metastasis, using human cancer cells. Two human cancer cell lines were used in this study, HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells and H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide were performed for measurement of cell growth. Soft agar and wound healing assays were performed to determine colony formation and cell migration, respectively. Nuclear staining and cell cycle analysis were performed for assessment of apoptosis. Fibronectin-coated plates were used to determine cell adhesion. Treatment of HCT116 and H1299 cells with PLE resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of growth by 52-92% (at the concentrations of 87.5, 175, and 350 µg/ml) and completely abolished the colony formation in soft agar (at the concentration of 350 µg/ml). Treatment with PLE at the 350 µg/ml concentration resulted in change of the nucleus morphology and significantly increased sub-G1 cell population in both cells, indicating its apoptosis-inducing activity. PLE at the concentration range of 87.5 to 350 µg/ml was also effective in inhibiting the migration of H1299 cells (by 52-58%) and adhesion of both HCT116 and H1299 cells (by 25-46%). These results indicate that PLE exerts anti-cancer activities against colon and lung cancers in vitro. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether similar effects are reproduced in vivo.

  6. Polymeric lithography editor: Editing lithographic errors with nanoporous polymeric probes.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Pradeep Ramiah; Zhou, Chuanhong; Dasari, Mallika; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Trautmann, Christina; Kohli, Punit

    2017-06-01

    A new lithographic editing system with an ability to erase and rectify errors in microscale with real-time optical feedback is demonstrated. The erasing probe is a conically shaped hydrogel (tip size, ca. 500 nm) template-synthesized from track-etched conical glass wafers. The "nanosponge" hydrogel probe "erases" patterns by hydrating and absorbing molecules into a porous hydrogel matrix via diffusion analogous to a wet sponge. The presence of an interfacial liquid water layer between the hydrogel tip and the substrate during erasing enables frictionless, uninterrupted translation of the eraser on the substrate. The erasing capacity of the hydrogel is extremely high because of the large free volume of the hydrogel matrix. The fast frictionless translocation and interfacial hydration resulted in an extremely high erasing rate (~785 μm(2)/s), which is two to three orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the atomic force microscopy-based erasing (~0.1 μm(2)/s) experiments. The high precision and accuracy of the polymeric lithography editor (PLE) system stemmed from coupling piezoelectric actuators to an inverted optical microscope. Subsequently after erasing the patterns using agarose erasers, a polydimethylsiloxane probe fabricated from the same conical track-etched template was used to precisely redeposit molecules of interest at the erased spots. PLE also provides a continuous optical feedback throughout the entire molecular editing process-writing, erasing, and rewriting. To demonstrate its potential in device fabrication, we used PLE to electrochemically erase metallic copper thin film, forming an interdigitated array of microelectrodes for the fabrication of a functional microphotodetector device. High-throughput dot and line erasing, writing with the conical "wet nanosponge," and continuous optical feedback make PLE complementary to the existing catalog of nanolithographic/microlithographic and three-dimensional printing techniques. This new PLE

  7. Home-made online hyphenation of pressurized liquid extraction, turbulent flow chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, Cistanche deserticola as a case study.

    PubMed

    Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Liping; Jiang, Yong; Song, Yuelin; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-03-18

    Incompatibility between the conventional pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) devices and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) extensively hinders direct and green chemical analysis of herbal materials. Herein, a facile PLE module was configured, and then it was online hyphenated with HPLC via a turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) column. Regarding PLE module, a long PEEK tube (0.13 × 1000 mm) was employed to generate desired pressure (approximately 13.0 MPa) when warm acidic water (70 °C) was delivered as extraction solvent at a high flow rate (2.5 mL/min), and a hollow guard column (3.0 × 4.0 mm) was implemented to hold crude materials. Effluent was collected from the outlet of PEEK tube, concentrated, and subjected onto HPLC coupled with hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometer to assess the extraction efficiency and also to profile the chemical composition of Cistanche deserticola (CD) that is honored as "Ginseng of the desert". Afterwards, a TFC column was introduced to accomplish online transmission of low molecule weight components from PLE module to HPLC coupled with diode array detection, and two electronic 6-port/2-channel valves were in charge of alternating the whole system between extraction (0-3.0 min) and elution (3.0-35.0 min) phases. Quantitative method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of eight primary phenylethanoid glycosides in CD using online PLE-TFC-HPLC. All findings demonstrated that the home-made platform is advantageous at direct chemical analysis, as well as time-, solvent-, and material-savings, suggesting a robust tool for chemical fingerprinting of herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Skin hardening effect in patients with polymorphic light eruption: comparison of UVB hardening in hospital with a novel home UV-hardening device.

    PubMed

    Franken, S M; Genders, R E; de Gruijl, F R; Rustemeyer, T; Pavel, S

    2013-01-01

    An effective prophylactic treatment of patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE) consists of repeated low, gradually increasing exposures to UVB radiation. This so-called UV(B) hardening induces better tolerance of the skin to sunlight. SunshowerMedical company (Amsterdam) has developed an UV (B) source that can be used during taking shower. The low UV fluence of this apparatus makes it an interesting device for UV hardening. In a group of PLE patients, we compared the effectiveness of the irradiation with SunshowerMedical at home with that of the UVB treatment in the hospital. The PLE patients were randomized for one of the treatments. The hospital treatment consisted of irradiations with broad-band UVB (Waldmann 85/UV21 lamps) twice a week during 6 weeks. The home UV-device was used each day with the maximal irradiation time of 6 min. The outcome assessment was based on the information obtained from patients' dermatological quality of life (DLQI) questionnaires, the ability of both phototherapies to reduce the provocation reaction and from the patients' evaluation of the long-term benefits of their phototherapies. Sixteen patients completed treatment with SunshowerMedical and thirteen completed treatment in hospital. Both types of phototherapy were effective. There was a highly significant improvement in DLQI with either treatment. In most cases, the hardening reduced or even completely suppressed clinical UV provocation of PLE. The patients using SunshowerMedical at home were, however, much more content with the treatment procedure than the patients visiting the dermatological units. Both treatments were equally effective in the induction of skin tolerance to sunlight in PLE patients. However, the home treatment was much better accepted than the treatment in the hospital. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Psychotic-Like Experiences at the Healthy End of the Psychosis Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A.; Wotruba, Diana; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206) incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R). For the first time, the PAGE-R was cross validated with PLE, disorganized-, and negative-like symptoms [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS)]. We subjected the PAGE-R to exploratory factor analyses and examined the resulting subtypes of EE for specific associations with contextual factors, valence ratings, socio-demographic variables, and general psychological burden (Revised Symptom-Checklist-90). Correlational cross-validation suggested that the PAGE-R measures facets of PLE. Importantly, we (1) identified three types of exceptional experiences (EE): Odd beliefs, dissociative anomalous perceptions, and hallucinatory anomalous perceptions. Further, the results suggested that even in healthy individuals (2) PLE and EE are indicative of reduced functioning, as reflected by increased psychological burden and lower educational achievement. Moreover, (3) similar sex-differences might exist as in psychotic patients with women reporting more positive-like symptoms and EE but less disorganized-like symptoms than men. Importantly, (4) EE might be differentially implicated in psychological functioning. We suggest that the PAGE-R holds the potential to complement the current assessment of sub-clinical psychosis. However, whereas our results might point toward a continuity of psychotic symptoms with EE and normal experiences, they require replication in larger samples as well as equivalence testing

  10. Psychotic-Like Experiences at the Healthy End of the Psychosis Continuum.

    PubMed

    Unterrassner, Lui; Wyss, Thomas A; Wotruba, Diana; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence pointing toward a continuous distribution of psychotic symptoms and accompanying factors between subclinical and clinical populations. However, for the construction of continuum models, a more detailed knowledge of different types of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) and their associations with distress, functional impairment, and demographic variables is needed. We investigated PLE in a sample of healthy adults (N = 206) incorporating the recently developed revised Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire (PAGE-R). For the first time, the PAGE-R was cross validated with PLE, disorganized-, and negative-like symptoms [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS)]. We subjected the PAGE-R to exploratory factor analyses and examined the resulting subtypes of EE for specific associations with contextual factors, valence ratings, socio-demographic variables, and general psychological burden (Revised Symptom-Checklist-90). Correlational cross-validation suggested that the PAGE-R measures facets of PLE. Importantly, we (1) identified three types of exceptional experiences (EE): Odd beliefs, dissociative anomalous perceptions, and hallucinatory anomalous perceptions. Further, the results suggested that even in healthy individuals (2) PLE and EE are indicative of reduced functioning, as reflected by increased psychological burden and lower educational achievement. Moreover, (3) similar sex-differences might exist as in psychotic patients with women reporting more positive-like symptoms and EE but less disorganized-like symptoms than men. Importantly, (4) EE might be differentially implicated in psychological functioning. We suggest that the PAGE-R holds the potential to complement the current assessment of sub-clinical psychosis. However, whereas our results might point toward a continuity of psychotic symptoms with EE and normal experiences, they require replication in larger samples as well as equivalence testing

  11. Transition and Transversion Mutations Are Biased towards GC in Transposons of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Guang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Huan; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Chun; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao

    2016-09-24

    Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE) family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C. suppressalis individuals, and then multiple sequence alignments were performed. There were numerous single-base substitutions in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, but only a few insertion and deletion mutations. Similarly, in both transposons, the occurring frequencies of transitions were significantly higher than transversions (p ≤ 0.01). In the single-base substitutions, the most frequently occurring base changes were A→G and T→C in both types of transposons. Additionally, single-base substitution frequencies occurring at positions 1, 2 or 3 (pos1, pos2 or pos3) of a given codon in the element transposase were not significantly different. Both in CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3, the patterns of nucleotide substitution had the same characteristics and nucleotide mutations were biased toward GC. This research provides a perspective on the understanding of transposon mutation patterns.

  12. Abundances of presolar graphite and SiC from supernovae and AGB stars in the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

    2014-05-02

    Pesolar graphite grains exhibit a range of densities (1.65 – 2.20 g/cm{sup 3}). We investigated abundances of presolar graphite grains formed in supernovae and in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the four density fractions KE3, KFA1, KFB1 and KFC1 extracted from the Murchison meteorite to probe dust productions in these stellar sources. Seventy-six and 50% of the grains in the low-density fractions KE3 and KFA1, respectively, are supernova grains, while only 7.2% and 0.9% of the grains in the high-density fractions KFB1 and KFC1 have a supernova origin. Grains of AGB star origin are concentrated in the high-density fractions KFB1 and KFC1. From the C isotopic distributions of these fractions and the presence of s-process Kr with {sup 86}Kr/{sup 82}Kr = 4.43±0.46 in KFC1, we estimate that 76% and 80% of the grains in KFB1 and KFC1, respectively, formed in AGB stars. From the abundance of graphite grains in the Murchison meteorite, 0.88 ppm, the abundances of graphite from supernovae and AGB stars are 0.24 ppm and 0.44 ppm, respectively: the abundances of graphite in supernovae and AGB stars are comparable. In contrast, it has been known that 1% of SiC grains formed in supernovae and 95% formed in AGB stars in meteorites. Since the abundance of SiC grains is 5.85 ppm in the Murchison meteorite, the abundances of SiC from supernovae and AGB stars are 0.063 ppm and 5.6 ppm, respectively: the dominant source of SiC grains is AGB stars. Since SiC grains are harder and likely to survive better in space than graphite grains, the abundance of supernova graphite grains, which is higher than that of supernova SiC grains, indicates that supernovae proficiently produce graphite grains. Graphite grains from AGB stars are, in contrast, less abundant that SiC grains from AGB stars (0.44 ppm vs. 5.6 ppm). It is difficult to derive firm conclusions for graphite and SiC formation in AGB stars due to the difference in susceptibility to grain destruction. Metallicity of

  13. Recovery of steroidal alkaloids from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Rawson, Ashish; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-05-13

    A higher yield of glycoalkaloids was recovered from potato peels using pressurized liquid extraction (1.92 mg/g dried potato peels) compared to conventional solid-liquid extraction (0.981 mg/g dried potato peels). Response surface methodology deduced the optimal temperature and extracting solvent (methanol) for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of glycoalkaloids as 80 °C in 89% methanol. Using these two optimum PLE conditions, levels of individual steroidal alkaloids obtained were of 597, 873, 374 and 75 µg/g dried potato peel for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Corresponding values for solid liquid extraction were 59%, 46%, 40% and 52% lower for α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively.

  14. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  15. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-11-19

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  16. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Oszmiański, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids. PMID:26132562

  17. Kinetic transition during the growth of proeutectoid ferrite in Fe-C-Mn-Si quaternary steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hong; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Song, Eun-Ju; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of ferrite growth in Fe-0.1C-1.5Mn-0.94Si (mass pct) quaternary steel is investigated through the characterization of isothermal growth behavior, the thermodynamic prediction of kinetic boundary and the diffusional growth simulations using DICTRA. The change in microstructural evolution from slow growth to fast one is consistent with the calculated change of interface condition from the partitioning local equilibrium (PLE) to the negligible partitioning local equilibrium (NPLE). Compared with the DICTRA simulation, the observed growth kinetics of ferrite are between the calculated ones assuming local equilibrium (LE) and paraequilibrium (PE) criterions. At temperatures below the PLE/NPLE kinetic boundary, the observed growth behavior can be reasonably described by kinetic transition from PE to NPLE condition as isothermal time elapses, taking into account the critical velocity of interface at which trans-interface diffusion of subsitutional element permits the transition from PE to NPLE growth.

  18. Growth of Ferro-Electric Tungsten Bronze Epitaxial Thin Films for Electro-Optic Device Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    b24 = 0 b25 = 0 b26 = %6?l b31 = 0 b32 = 0 b33 = 0 b34 = Q44P1 b25 = Q44P1 b36 = 0 (4.4) 33 C7458A/bje AB 11 = {gn + g2i) pi AB22 = (g11...92l)Pl AB 33 29l3Pl and for the linear electro-optic effect. rll = r22 = 29llPlell ൔ = r21 = 2921Plell r13 = r23 = 29l3Ple 33 r34 = r35...944Ple33 0» Rockwell International Science Center For the quadratic electro-optic effect, SCb340.13FR AB 12 = 965P1 (4.5) r16 = r26 = 944Plell (4.6

  19. Evaluation of microwave-assisted and pressurized liquid extractions to obtain β-d-glucans from mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Smiderle, Fhernanda Ribeiro; Morales, Diego; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; de Jesus, Liana Inara; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Iacomini, Marcello; Soler-Rivas, Cristina

    2017-01-20

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) were compared as advanced technologies to obtain polysaccharides (particularly biologically active β-glucans) from Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies. Extraction effectiveness was compared by a full-factorial experimental design (response surface methodology, RSM), using water as extraction solvent. Total carbohydrate content of the obtained extracts and polysaccharide yields were the variable responses investigated, while temperature and extraction time were the experimental factors. Temperature showed stronger influence in the polysaccharide extraction than time. The latter factor slightly affected MAE but not PLE extractions. Optimal conditions within the studied range were determined for each extraction method and species based on the desirability functions. Regarding the polysaccharide composition, the main differences between the species were more quantitative rather than qualitative, since NMR analyses indicated that all extracts contained mainly β- and α-glucans and heteropolysaccharides. Both extraction systems were effective for polysaccharide extraction from mushrooms.

  20. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth leaves.

    PubMed

    Péres, Valéria Flores; Saffi, Jenifer; Melecchi, Maria Inês S; Abad, Fernanda C; Martinez, Migdalia M; Oliveira, Eniz Conceição; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Caramão, Elina B

    2006-02-10

    Piperaceae family is original from tropical regions and it shows more than 700 species around the world. Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is the specie more abundant in Brazil, occurring from Northeast to South Brazil. In this paper, it was investigated the influence of some experimental parameters on the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of P. gaudichaudianum Kunth leaves, using petroleum ether as extractor solvent. The optimization of the main variables involved in the PLE process (extraction temperature and time) has been done by response surface methodology (RSM) using, as responses, the extraction yield and the chromatographic profile (GC/MS) of the extracts. The optimized procedure employed 3 g of ground leaves, 10 min of extraction and one cycle of extraction at 85 degrees C. The major compounds present in the petroleum ether extracts were: palmitic acid, stearic acid and nerolidol. The results presented in this work show the possibility of using a fast and easy process to recover compounds from P. gaudichaudianum Kunth.

  1. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gotoh, Hideki Sanada, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2014-10-15

    Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL) method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD). PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE) are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  2. Photonic hybrid assembly through flexible waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörhoff, K.; Prak, A.; Postma, F.; Leinse, A.; Wu, K.; Peters, T. J.; Tichem, M.; Amaning-Appiah, B.; Renukappa, V.; Vollrath, G.; Balcells-Ventura, J.; Uhlig, P.; Seyfried, M.; Rose, D.; Santos, R.; Leijtens, X. J. M.; Flintham, B.; Wale, M.; Robbins, D.

    2016-05-01

    Fully automated, high precision, cost-effective assembly technology for photonic packages remains one of the main challenges in photonic component manufacturing. Next to the cost aspect the most demanding assembly task for multiport photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the high-precision (±0.1 μm) alignment and fixing required for optical I/O in InP PICs, even with waveguide spot size conversion. In a European research initiative - PHASTFlex - we develop and investigate an innovative, novel assembly concept, in which the waveguides in a matching TriPleX interposer PIC are released during fabrication to make them movable. After assembly of both chips by flip-chip bonding on a common carrier, TriPleX based actuators and clamping functions position and fix the flexible waveguides with the required accuracy.

  3. Moodle 2.0: Shifting from a Learning Toolkit to a Open Learning Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alier, Marc; Casañ, María José; Piguillem, Jordi

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) have reached a plateau of maturity in features, application to teaching practices and wide adoption by learning institutions. But the Web 2.0 carries new kinds of tools, services and ways of using the web; personally and socially. Some educators and learners have started to advocate for a new approach to frame one's learning sources, from the LMS course space towards Personal Learning Environments (PLE). But PLE's are characterized by its absence of structure, just what is provided by open standards and mashup techniques. Based on 5 years of participative observation research, this article explains the changes in architecture performed on the second version of Moodle, why did these changes happen and what should be the next steps so Moodle can shift from being a learning tool to a true open learning platform.

  4. High-temperature photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of Al0.60Ga0.40N/Al0.70Ga0.30N multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murotani, Hideaki; Nakamura, Katsuto; Fukuno, Tomonori; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa; Yamada, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    The excitonic optical properties of an Al0.60Ga0.40N/Al0.70Ga0.30N multiple quantum well (MQW) structure were studied using photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy at high temperatures. Clear excitonic PL was observed at temperatures up to 750 K. Biexciton luminescence was clearly observed even at this high temperature. These observations unambiguously demonstrated the extremely high thermal stability of biexcitons in this MQW. Furthermore, additional PL peaks were observed on the low-energy side of the biexciton luminescence. The observation of biexciton two-photon resonance in the PLE spectra of these peaks indicates that these peaks can be explained by processes involving inelastic scattering of excitons and biexcitons.

  5. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from rice (Oryza sativa) grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2016-02-01

    An analytical pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process has been studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. A fractional factorial design (2(7-2)) with a centre point was used to optimize PLE parameters such as solvent composition (EtOAc in MeOH), extraction temperature, pressure, flushing, static extraction time, solvent-purge and sample weight. Extraction temperature, solvent and static extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the response value. The optimized method was validated for selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of a wide variety of rice grains. Seventeen phenolic compounds were detected in the sample and guaiacol, ellagic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Nonetheless, different species of rice show very varied compound diversity and levels of compounds in their grain compositions.

  6. New sample treatment for the determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Díaz, I; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Crovetto, G; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-06-01

    A new sample treatment for alkylphenols (AP) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) determination in agricultural soil samples has been developed. In a first stage these compounds were isolated from soil by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using methanol. In a second stage the extracts were cleaned up and pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using ENV+cartridges. The effect of different variables on PLE and SPE was also studied. In the last place, separation and quantification of analytes were performed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification limits (QL) ranged from 20 to 200 ng g(-1) for LC-FD and from 3 to 126 ng g(-1) for GC-MS. This method was satisfactorily applied in a study field designed to evaluate the environmental behaviour of APEOs in agricultural soils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Path Length Entropy Analysis of Diastolic Heart Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Griffel, B.; Zia, M. K.; Fridman, V.; Saponieri, C.; Semmlow, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using the acoustic approach, a noninvasive and cost-effective method, would greatly improve the outcome of CAD patients. To detect CAD, we analyze diastolic sounds for possible CAD murmurs. We observed diastolic sounds to exhibit 1/f structure and developed a new method, path length entropy (PLE) and a scaled version (SPLE), to characterize this structure to improve CAD detection. We compare SPLE results to Hurst exponent, Sample entropy and Multi-scale entropy for distinguishing between normal and CAD patients. SPLE achieved a sensitivity-specificity of 80%–81%, the best of the tested methods. However, PLE and SPLE are not sufficient to prove nonlinearity, and evaluation using surrogate data suggests that our cardiovascular sound recordings do not contain significant nonlinear properties. PMID:23930808

  8. Evaluation of extraction procedures for the ion chromatographic determination of arsenic species in plant materials.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A C; Reisser, W; Mattusch, J; Popp, P; Wennrich, R

    2000-08-11

    The determination of arsenic species in plants grown on contaminated sediments and soils is important in order to understand the uptake, transfer and accumulation processes of arsenic. For the separation and detection of arsenic species, hyphenated techniques can be applied successfully in many cases. A lack of investigations exists in the handling (e.g., sampling, pre-treatment and extraction) of redox- and chemically labile arsenic species prior to analysis. This paper presents an application of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using water as the solvent for the effective extraction of arsenic species from freshly harvested plants. The method was optimized with respect to extraction time, number of extraction steps and temperature. The thermal stability of the inorganic and organic arsenic species under PLE conditions (60-180 degrees C) was tested. The adaptation of the proposed extraction method to freeze-dried, fine-grained material was limited because of the insufficient reproducibility in some cases.

  9. Comparison of soxhlet, ultrasound-assisted and pressurized liquid extraction of terpenes, fatty acids and Vitamin E from Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    PubMed

    Péres, Valéria Flores; Saffi, Jenifer; Melecchi, Maria Inês S; Abad, Fernanda C; de Assis Jacques, Rosângela; Martinez, Migdalia M; Oliveira, Eniz Conceição; Caramão, Elina B

    2006-02-10

    This paper describes a comparative study of extraction methods of terpenes (terpenic alcohols and phytosterols), fatty acids and Vitamin E from leaves of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth. The analysis of extracts was done by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The identification and quantification was made by co-injections of the extract with certified standards. The use of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE; Dionex trade name: ASE, for accelerated solvent extraction) decrease significantly the total time of extraction, the amount of solvent and the manipulation of sample and solvents in comparison with soxhlet (SE) and ultrasound-assisted (USE). In addition, PLE was more effective for the extractions of terpenes (terpenic alcohols and phytosterols), fatty acids and Vitamin E.

  10. Comparison of low-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment revealed by Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-03-31

    We analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in lake sediment at low levels (<1 microg g(-1)) by using Soxhlet extraction (Soxhlet), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in combination with gas chromatography and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. Although all extraction techniques showed good repeatability for five target PAHs (relative standard deviation <5.2%, n=3), the results decreased in the order PLE>MAE>Soxhlet. Differences in the results originated mainly from differences in the extraction efficiencies of the techniques for native PAHs, because all techniques gave comparable recovery yields of corresponding 13C-labeled PAHs (13C-PAHs) (51-84%). Since non-negligible amounts of both native PAHs and 13C-PAHs were re-adsorbed on matrix in MAE, not only recovery yields of 13C-PAHs but also efficiencies of extraction of native PAHs should be examined to evaluate the appropriateness of any analytical procedures.

  11. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, Jan; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Wojdyło, Aneta; Cebulak, Tomasz; Oklejewicz, Krzysztof

    2015-06-26

    Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones). In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%), flavonols (max. 44%) and anthocyanins (max. 29%), than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE) method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids.

  12. Tellurium quantum dots: Preparation and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chaoyu; Li, Xueming; Tang, Libin; Lai, Sin Ki; Rogée, Lukas; Teng, Kar Seng; Qian, Fuli; Zhou, Liangliang; Lau, Shu Ping

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we report an effective and simple method for producing Tellurium Quantum dots (TeQDs), zero-dimensional nanomaterials with great prospects for biomedical applications. Their preparation is based on the ultrasonic exfoliation of Te powder dispersed in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Sonication causes the van der Waals forces between the structural hexagons of Te to break so that the relatively coarse powder breaks down into nanoscale particles. The TeQDs have an average size of about 4 nm. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the TeQDs showed an absorption peak at 288 nm. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the optical properties of TeQDs. Both the PLE and PL peaks revealed a linear relationship against the emission and excitation energies, respectively. TeQDs have important potential applications in biological imaging and catalysis as well as optoelectronics.

  13. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  14. New spallation neutron sources, their performance and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Pulsed spallation sources now operating in the world are at the KEK Laboratory in Japan (the KENS source), at Los Alamos National Laboratory (WNR) and at Argonne National Laboratory (IPNS), both the latter being in the US. The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) is currently the world's most intense source with a peak neutron flux of 4 x 10/sup 14/ n cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at a repetition rate of 30 Hz, and globally producing approx. 1.5 x 10/sup 15/ n/sec. Present pulsed sources are still relatively weak compared to their potential. In 1985 the Rutherford Spallation Neutron Source will come on line, and eventually be approx. 30 more intense than the present IPNS. Later, in 1986 the WNR/PSR option at Los Alamos will make that facility of comparable intensity, while a subcritical fission booster at IPNS will keep IPNS competitive. These new sources will expand the applications of pulsed neutrons but are still based on accelerators built for other scientific purposes, usually nuclear or high-energy physics. Accelerator physicists are now designing machines expressly for spallation neutron research, and the proton currents attainable appear in the milliamps. (IPNS now runs at 0.5 GeV and 14 ..mu..A). Such design teams are at the KFA Laboratory Julich, Argonne National Laboratory and KEK. Characteristics, particularly the different time structure of the pulses, of these new sources will be discussed. S

  15. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  16. Investigation of oxidation resistance of carbon based first-wall liner materials of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moormann, R.; Hinssen, H. K.; Krüssenberg, A.-K.; Stauch, B.; Wu, C. H.

    1994-09-01

    One important aspect in selection of carbon based first-wall liner materials in fusion reactors is a sufficient oxidation resistance against steam and oxygen; this is because during accidents like loss of coolant into vacuum or loss of vacuum these oxidizing media can enter the vacuum vessel and may cause some corrosion of carbon followed by release of adsorbed tritium; in addition other consequences of oxidation like formation of burnable gases and their explosions have to be examined. Based on extensive experience on nuclear graphite oxidation in HTRs KFA has started in cooperation with NET some experimental investigations on oxidation of fusion reactor carbons. Results of first experiments on CFCs, Ti- and Si-doped carbons and graphites in steam (1273-1423 K) and oxygen (973 K) are reported. It was found that most materials have a similar reactivity as HTR nuclear graphites (which is much smaller than those of usual technical carbons); Si-doped CFCs however have a remarkably better oxidation resistance than those, which is probably due to the formation of a protecting layer of SiO 2. The measured kinetic data will be used in safety analyses for above mentioned accidents.

  17. Strategies for assessing mental health in Haiti: local instrument development and transcultural translation.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Bonnie N; Kohrt, Brandon A; Keys, Hunter M; Khoury, Nayla M; Brewster, Aimée-Rika T

    2013-08-01

    The lack of culturally appropriate mental health assessment instruments is a major barrier to screening and evaluating efficacy of interventions. Simple translation of questionnaires produces misleading and inaccurate conclusions. Multiple alternate approaches have been proposed, and this study compared two approaches tested in rural Haiti. First, an established transcultural translation process was used to develop Haitian Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). This entailed focus group discussions evaluating comprehensibility, acceptability, relevance, and completeness. Second, qualitative data collection was employed to develop new instruments: the Kreyòl Distress Idioms (KDI) and Kreyòl Function Assessment (KFA) scales. For the BDI and BAI, some items were found to be nonequivalent due to lack of specificity, interpersonal interpretation, or conceptual nonequivalence. For all screening tools, items were adjusted if they were difficult to endorse or severely stigmatizing, represented somatic experiences of physical illness, or were difficult to understand. After the qualitative development phases, the BDI and BAI were piloted with 31 and 27 adults, respectively, and achieved good reliability. Without these efforts to develop appropriate tools, attempts at screening would have captured a combination of atypical suffering, everyday phenomena, and potential psychotic symptoms. Ultimately, a combination of transculturally adapted and locally developed instruments appropriately identified those in need of care through accounting for locally salient symptoms of distress and their negative sequelae.

  18. Ecotoxicological Impact of the Bioherbicide Leptospermone on the Microbial Community of Two Arable Soils

    PubMed Central

    Romdhane, Sana; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Barthelmebs, Lise; Calvayrac, Christophe; Bertrand, Cédric; Cooper, Jean-François; Dayan, Franck E.; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The ecotoxicological impact of leptospermone, a β-triketone bioherbicide, on the bacterial community of two arable soils was investigated. Soil microcosms were exposed to 0 × (control), 1 × or 10 × recommended dose of leptospermone. The β-triketone was moderately adsorbed to both soils (i.e.,: Kfa ~ 1.2 and Koc ~ 140 mL g−1). Its dissipation was lower in sterilized than in unsterilized soils suggesting that it was mainly influenced by biotic factors. Within 45 days, leptospermone disappeared almost entirely from one of the two soils (i.e., DT50 < 10 days), while 25% remained in the other. The composition of the microbial community assessed by qPCR targeting 11 microbial groups was found to be significantly modified in soil microcosms exposed to leptospermone. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a shift in the bacterial community structure and a significant impact of leptospermone on the diversity of the soil bacterial community. Changes in the composition, and in the α- and β-diversity of microbial community were transient in the soil able to fully dissipate the leptospermone, but were persistent in the soil where β-triketone remained. To conclude the bacterial community of the two soils was sensitive to leptospermone and its resilience was observed only when leptospermone was fully dissipated. PMID:27252691

  19. The Solubility of Aluminum in Cryolite-Based Electrolyte-Containing KF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Jiangyu; Gao, Bingliang; Liu, Yibai; Hu, Xianwei; Shi, Zhongning; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of aluminum in NaF-AlF3-CaF2-KF-A12O3 electrolyte system at 1253 K (980 °C) has been measured by the analysis of quenched samples saturated with aluminum. The content of the dissolved metal in the quenched melt was determined by collecting the volume of hydrogen gas when a finely crushed sample is treated with HCl. Addition of 0 to 5 pct KF has no obvious effect on the solubility of aluminum in cryolite-based melts with molar ratio of NaF/AlF3 (cryolite ratio) ranging from 2.2 to 3.0. The solubility of aluminum increases from 0.015 to 0.026 wt pct with cryolite ratio increases from 2.2 to 4.0 in the NaF-AlF3-5 wt pct CaF2-3 wt pct A12O3 electrolyte at 1253 K (980 °C). Aluminum solubility was affected by both chemical replacement reaction of Al + 3NaF = AlF3 + 3Na and physical dissolution.

  20. Terrorism and the Communication Utilities: A National Security Concern?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    c h I y p rh .i -1. t ed .Ln f rasIt ruLct ure T- --, i.-) r t a t. Lon , enr-i.rg y c- ominuni ic at ion s , f i -ran c e, irndu strI- fflt.:t :i... inci dent,. Secon d , wit :hou a NCEP. muli.:.ple disasters Linvolving commLnic:ations and electric power u.tili ties and the _ r r- totwor-.k nou i

  1. Evaluation of Tests of Perceptual Speed/Accuracy and Spatial Ability for Use in Military Occupational Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-22

    e.g., Ree & Carretta, 1994), a strong general factor for the ASVAB dominated by the verbal and math tests, which they interpreted as crys- tallized...content have been a mainstay of multi- ple aptitude aircrew test batteries (Carretta & Ree , 2003) such as the Air Force Officer Qual- ifying Test...Drasgow, Nye, Carretta, & Ree , 2010) and other aircrew aptitude batteries (Car- retta & Ree , 2003) for many years, as well as periodically appearing on

  2. Guidance for Optimizing Remedy Evaluation, Selection, and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    soils that are similarly contaminated, then on-site treatment (e.g., a biopile ) followed by on-site disposal (as clean fill or daily cover at the base... membrane interface probe followed by confirmation sampling with a Geoprobe™ could be used to better define contaminant extent prior to implementation of...presence of a nearby source. Vari- ous characterization technologies can then be applied to further delineate the source. For exam- ple, a membrane

  3. Selective pressurised liquid extraction of halogenated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from pine needles.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Karen S; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2012-10-05

    Pine needles are an ideal matrix for the long-term monitoring of semi-volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere because they are naturally occurring and distributed worldwide. However, typical extraction methods result in the co-elution of matrix-interfering compounds and thus require time-consuming clean-up steps. A selective pressurised liquid extraction method (S-PLE) for extracting current-use pesticides, historic-use pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from pine needles that does not require additional clean-up steps was developed and validated. The selective extraction was achieved by packing the extraction vessel with a fat retainer, Florisil, down-stream of the pine needle matrix. A fat to fat-retainer ratio of 0.0057 (corresponding to 35 g of Florisil per 10 g of pine needle sample) was selected to minimise the co-elution of matrix-interfering compounds. Three 5-min extractions were performed using 25:75 (v/v) dichloromethane:n-hexane and a solvent flush of 150%. The mean recovery of spiked current-use pesticides, historic-use pesticides and PCBs using this method was 71%, 72%, and 84%, respectively. The method was validated by comparing target analyte concentrations measured in a pine needle sample using the optimised S-PLE method to those obtained using a conventional PLE method with external clean-up. The method detection limits and reproducibility were similar for the two methods; however, sample preparation time was 67% shorter when using the S-PLE method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. International Conference on Phonon Physics, 31 August-3 September 1981. Bloomington, Indiana,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    multi- ple- quantum - well heterostructures. The analysis is applied to the interpretation of inelastic light scattering spectra and yields the Coulomb...1vibrations The multilayer 2D electron gases in modulation-doped 2 GaAs - (ALGa)As multiple- quantum - well (NW) heterostructures are an extremely...fields, escribed by effective plasma frequencies 5 ’ 6 , of the collective intersubband excitations. In the case of isolated quantum - wells , the coupled

  5. AMAR: A Computational Model of Autosegmental Phonology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    the 8th International Joint Conference on Artificial Inteligence . 683-5. Koskenniemi, K. 1984. A general computational model for word-form recognition...NUMBER Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AI-TR 1450 545 Technology Square Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 9...reader a feel for the workinigs of ANIAR. this chapter will begini withi a very sininpb examl- ple based oni ani artificial tonie laniguage with oiony t

  6. A Method for Predicting Manning Factors in Post Year 2000 Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    exploration of the feasibility of developing methods for reducing confusion relative to the estimation of manning requirements for post year 2000...no specific method is available which allows the prediction of the manning requirements for such ships. It is neces- sary to know, early in the...use of other types of predictive methods are untenable, uneconomical, or impossible. For exam- ple, in a modificatior of a human oriented

  7. New possibilities for the valorization of olive oil by-products.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Miguel; Temirzoda, Temirkhon N; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Quirantes, Rosa; Plaza, Merichel; Ibañez, Elena

    2011-10-21

    In this contribution, the capabilities of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using food-grade solvents, such as water and ethanol, to obtain antioxidant extracts rich on polyphenolic compounds from olive leaves are studied. Different extraction conditions were tested, and the PLE obtained extracts were characterized in vitro according to their antioxidant capacity (using the DPPH radical scavenging and the TEAC assays) and total phenols amounts. The most active extracts were obtained with hot pressurized water at 200 °C (EC(50) 18.6 μg/mL) and liquid ethanol at 150 °C (EC(50) 27.4 μg/mL), attaining at these conditions high extraction yields, around 40 and 30%, respectively. The particular phenolic composition of the obtained extracts was characterized by LC-ESI-MS. Using this method, 25 different phenolic compounds could be tentatively identified, including phenolic acids, secoiridoids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonols and flavones. Among them, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and luteolin-glucoside were the main phenolic antioxidants and were quantified on the extracts together with other minor constituents, by means of a UPLC-MS/MS method. Results showed that using water as extracting agent, the amount of phenolic compounds increased with the extraction temperature, being hydroxytyrosol the main phenolic component on the water PLE olive leaves extracts, reaching up to 8.542 mg/g dried extract. On the other hand, oleuropein was the main component on the extracts obtained with ethanol (6.156-2.819 mg/g extract). Results described in this work demonstrate the good possibilities of using PLE as a useful technique for the valorization of by-products from the olive oil industry, such as olive leaves.

  8. Stochastic Control and Numerical Methods with Applications to Communications. Game Theoretic/Subsolution to Importance Sampling for Rare Event Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    approximate the (weak-sense) solution to the Fokker - Planck equation between observations and then use Bayes’ rule 5 to incorporate the observations. In... delays as, for exam- ple in hydraulic control systems, delays due to noninstantaneous human responses or chemical reactions, or delays due to visco...of the original and approximated system were presented, and it is seen that the approximations can be quite good. Delay equations might have rapidly

  9. Security Primitives for Reconfigurable Hardware-Based Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    logical isolation, interconnect traceability, secure reconfigurable broadcast, and configuration scrubbing. Each of these is a fundamental This...provide isolation and physical interface compliance for multi- ple cores on a single reconfigurable chip. The key idea of the moat is to provide logical and...separation, this improved form of moats uses logical separation. We compare these two versions of moats to determine which is optimal. 2. SEPARATION The

  10. Better Vision Through Manipulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    segment objects is not general -purpose, and first formulated the hypothesis that objects are rep- improves with experience, resented differently during...be aligned (dashed line), the colors of the ple, although some patients could not grasp generic cube and table are not well separated, and the cube has...in standard supervised learning action is Motion of the arm may generate optic flow directly not required since the trainer does the job of pre

  11. Differing Event-Related Patterns of Gamma-Band Power in Brain Waves of Fast- and Slow-Reacting Subjects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Wilhelm Wundt proposed that there are two types of subjects in sim- ple RT experiments: fast-reacting subjects, who respond before they fully...quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects...accord with the hypothesis of Wundt and others that slower ("sensorial") responders wait to fully perceive a stimulus and then react to their perception

  12. Generalizing Concepts and Methods of Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A) for Military Simulations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    oriented programming), and common languages and operating systems such as C/Unix, the DoD should avoid requiring modeling efforts to adopt a particular...Process 20 4.1. W&A as a Continuing Process Sensitive to Context.... 27 A. 1. An Idealized Separation of System , Model, and Program 36 TABLE 2.1...MODELS AND PROGRAMS "Models" are representations of certain aspects of reality (for exam- ple, of certain aspects of particular systems ). They come in

  13. Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions in a Dynamic Human-Infrastructure Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    maintain affordability… There is little question that the majority of peo- ple are willing to pay for safe, reliable drinking water , however their abil...presumed to treat water for drinking and not wastewater, given that the census indicates that latrines are the norm for urban areas in Borno state...environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental

  14. Energy Transfer and 1.54 micrometers Emission in Amorphous Silicon Nitride Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    redshift in the optical bandgap of SiNx, which we determined from the Tauc plot of the absorp- tion data Fig. 2b, inset. The lineshape of the PLE...obtained depending on the sputtering method and deposition conditions.15 However, it is also important to note that our HRTEM analysis cannot ex- clude the...ions can be nonresonantly excited even below the optical bandgap of the embedding amorphous matrix where disorder-induced local- ized states in the

  15. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 3. Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    seuemb t. p tek4:30A.M.JUPbroadcasthasb enw akastbhar lyard,anm rni gn blerll.Ple seco siderc ingv length.lat lyb mrtilt d yf ut pl tely.todstaticinc...thefamiliesofJapaneseinresidenceherecansecurepermitstosendfundsto their families in Japan between 200 and 400 pesos . I understand that persons in Japan receiv- ing...business amounting to less than 2,000 pesos is concerned. I understandthattheywereextremelycautiousinhowtheyconductedtheinvestigation,fear- ing that

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-22

    the current period and especially the rise of the new order and the " universalization " of national independence as a state of being and a mani...nature of some of the actions of peo- ple or states and their options have extensive and sometimes universal implica- tions and consequences, and man...Due to the " architecture " of the present international system, contorted by its anachronistic structures and mechanisms based on inequality and

  17. Social Media Methods for Studying Rare Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Kathleen A.; Donohue, Janet E.; Yu, Sunkyung; Shaver, Ashley; Caruthers, Regine L.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Fifer, Carlen; Goldberg, Caren; Russell, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    For pediatric rare diseases, the number of patients available to support traditional research methods is often inadequate. However, patients who have similar diseases cluster “virtually” online via social media. This study aimed to (1) determine whether patients who have the rare diseases Fontan-associated protein losing enteropathy (PLE) and plastic bronchitis (PB) would participate in online research, and (2) explore response patterns to examine social media’s role in participation compared with other referral modalities. A novel, internet-based survey querying details of potential pathogenesis, course, and treatment of PLE and PB was created. The study was available online via web and Facebook portals for 1 year. Apart from 2 study-initiated posts on patient-run Facebook pages at the study initiation, all recruitment was driven by study respondents only. Response patterns and referral sources were tracked. A total of 671 respondents with a Fontan palliation completed a valid survey, including 76 who had PLE and 46 who had PB. Responses over time demonstrated periodic, marked increases as new online populations of Fontan patients were reached. Of the responses, 574 (86%) were from the United States and 97 (14%) were international. The leading referral sources were Facebook, internet forums, and traditional websites. Overall, social media outlets referred 84% of all responses, making it the dominant modality for recruiting the largest reported contemporary cohort of Fontan patients and patients who have PLE and PB. The methodology and response patterns from this study can be used to design research applications for other rare diseases. PMID:24733869

  18. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish Aerial Target Vulnerability Assessment Methodologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-04

    for Triangle Approximation of a Heat Exchanger (Volume Mode) A-27 A-12 Code Sheet Illustrating Volume Subtraction for Cone/ Cylinder and Sphere-Type...problems are also solved with the same assumptions and equations, but for some of them, there are differences. One great difference is the treament of...envelope 9002 Heat exchanger 9010 Wing, bottom surface - left TABLE 1. SA4PLE MISSILE COMPONENT CODE LIST (CONCLUDED) COMPONENT NUMBER COMPONENT NAME

  19. efficiency, inlet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2015-09-10

    ... i'C' ~#td/-f"()I1.s-: /" UC-C/1 0 r- /7 /Hi~c "f'Or "TiNt,.' -oJ \\". 1'f..;C"~-f()", /If)tu..~ : I ~ tl ~ ... F'KNO (::-1 Alit!EL lEI ::;;:11PLE NO I) ;:t:F'ORT riO 96 • f • • • • • ...

  20. Excitation enhancement of CdSe quantum dots by single metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yeechi; Munechika, Keiko; Jen-La Plante, Ilan; Munro, Andrea M.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Xia, Younan; Ginger, David S.

    2008-08-01

    We study plasmon-enhanced fluorescence from CdSe /CdS/CdZnS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots near a variety of Ag and Au nanoparticles. The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectrum of quantum dots closely follows the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering spectrum of the nanoparticles. We measure excitation enhancement factors of ˜3 to 10 for different shapes of single metal nanoparticles.

  1. The Emperor’s New Password Manager: Security Analysis of Web-based Password Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-07

    web. For exam- ple, browsers share authentication tokens such as cook- ies across applications (including across applications and extensions), leading...LastPass bookmarklet to log in to dropbox.com. At the Dropbox entry point, Alice clicks on her LastPass bookmarklet, which includes the token ...8: LastPass OTP Creation. Note the absence of any CSRF token in the request in Step 1. 1 h|rand_encrypted_key lastpass.com/otp.php LastPass save

  2. Measurement of the Effectiveness of Concave Spherical Dimples for the Enhancement of Hot-gas Side Heat Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    Nomenclature d = Dim ple diameter h = Dimple depth H = Channel height f = Fraction of surface covered by dimples t = Dimple spacing Nu = Nusselt number ...2000) examined the effect of channel height on Nusselt number for a staggered pattern of CSD with h/d=0.19 and f=0.57. The globally averaged heat...described the flow patterns and measured local Nusselt number distributions over the surface for the same dimple pattern used by Moon. The most important

  3. Toward a Theory of Assurance Case Confidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    assurance case claim. The framework is based on the notion of eliminative induction—the princi- ple (first put forward by Francis Bacon ) that confidence in...eliminative induction. As first proposed by Francis Bacon [Schum 2001] and extended by L. Jonathan Cohen [Cohen 1970, 1977, 1989], eliminative induction is...eliminative in- duction—the principle (first put forward by Francis Bacon ) that confidence in the truth of a hypothesis (or claim) increases as reasons for

  4. Case-Based Parameter Selection for Plans: Coordinating Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    reasoning (GR) module to assist with multi-agent plan generation. CBR has previously been used for parameter setting. For exam- ple, Wayland [16] is a...outcome data, nor use them for case reuse. Several CBR systems set parameter values while interacting with other rea- soning modules, though to our...our domain due to long run times. Jin and Zhu [5] use CBR to set the initial param- eter values for an injection molding process. These settings are

  5. An Examination of the Feasibility of a Nuclear-Pumped Laser-Driven Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor with Magnetically Protected Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    23 N eutronics of Sim ple Reactor Blanket M odel...energy through a thermal cycle such as a gas turbine (1:14-15). In order to store the energy required to power the laser between pulses, huge banks of... thermal conversion process such as steam or a gas 1 turbine which has a potential efficiency of 30-45%. In contrast, the charged-particle yield of the

  6. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Poles undertook this difficult, honor- Dmowski’s personal effects (his ballpoint pen , for exam- able task. Would they not be in GAZETA? ple). [Hugo...nowadays, and that a state role need not be not like to discuss exactly what that activity is. It began as played at all. Specifics questions must be...basis of orders received from plish the specifics . Another role VOSZ must play relates abroad. This became a factory in 1988, and I left it. Then it to

  7. Perturbations in dopamine synthesis lead to discrete physiological effects and impact oxidative stress response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Marley E.; Bednár̂ová, Andrea; Rakshit, Kuntol; Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; O’Donnell, Janis M.; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of mutations in four essential genes involved in dopamine (DA) synthesis and transport on longevity, motor behavior, and resistance to oxidative stress was monitored in Drosophila melanogaster. The fly lines used for this study were: (i) a loss of function mutation in Catecholamines up (Catsup26), which is a negative regulator of the rate limiting enzyme for DA synthesis, (ii) a mutant for the gene pale (ple2) that encodes for the rate limiting enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), (iii) a mutant for the gene Punch (PuZ22) that encodes guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase, required for TH activity, and (iv) a mutant in the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMATΔ14), which is required for packaging of DA as vesicles inside DA neurons. Median lifespans of ple2, PuZ22 and VMATΔ14 mutants were significantly decreased compared to Catsup26 and wild type controls that did not significantly differ between each other. Catsup26 flies survived longer when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (80 μM) or paraquat (10 mM) compared to ple2, PuZ22 or VMATΔ14 and controls. These flies also exhibited significantly higher negative geotaxis activity compared to ple2, PuZ22, VMATΔ14 and controls. All mutant flies demonstrated rhythmic circadian locomotor activity in general, albeit Catsup26 and VMATΔ14 flies had slightly weaker rhythms. Expression analysis of some key antioxidant genes revealed that glutathione S-transferase Omega-1 (GSTO1) expression was significantly up-regulated in all DA synthesis pathway mutants and especially in Catsup26 and VMATΔ14 flies at both mRNA and protein levels. Taken together, we hypothesize that DA could directly influence GSTO1 transcription and thus play a significant role in the regulation of response to oxidative stress. Additionally, perturbations in DA synthesis do not appear to have a significant impact on circadian locomotor activity rhythms per se, but do have an influence on general locomotor activity levels. PMID:25585352

  8. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 4, April 1988.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    socialist production in our country is the process of converting our still highly subsistent economy into a commodity economy. We are managing , through...place an appropriate management mechanism with the aim of tapping the capability of each sector of the economy in order to develop production ...differ- ent production and business management methods and different producer and consumer habits among the peo- ple in the South and the North

  9. Retention time generates short-term phytoplankton blooms in a shallow microtidal subtropical estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Abreu, Paulo C.; Carstensen, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    In this study it was hypothesised that increasing water retention time promotes phytoplankton blooms in the shallow microtidal Patos Lagoon estuary (PLE). This hypothesis was tested using salinity variation as a proxy of water retention time and chlorophyll a for phytoplankton biomass. Submersible sensors fixed at 5 m depth near the mouth of PLE continuously measured water temperature, salinity and pigments fluorescence (calibrated to chlorophyll a) between March 2010 and 12th of December 2011, with some gaps. Salinity variations were used to separate alternating patterns of outflow of lagoon water (salinity <8; 46% of the time) and inflow of marine water (salinity >24; 35% of the time). The two transition phases represented a rapid change from lagoon water outflow to marine water inflow and a more gradually declining salinity between the dominating inflow and outflow conditions. During the latter of these, a significant chlorophyll a increase relative to that expected from a linear mixing relationship was observed at intermediate salinities (10-20). The increase in chlorophyll a was positively related to the duration of the prior coastal water inflow in the PLE. Moreover, chlorophyll a increase was significantly higher during austral spring-summer than autumn-winter, probably due to higher light and nutrient availability in the former. Moreover, the retention time process operating on time scales of days influences the long-term phytoplankton variability in this ecosystem. Comparing these results with monthly data from a nearby long-term water quality monitoring station (1993-2011) support the hypothesis that chlorophyll a accumulations occur after marine inflow events, whereas phytoplankton does not accumulate during high water outflow, when the water residence time is short. These results suggest that changing hydrological pattern is the most important mechanism underlying phytoplankton blooms in the PLE.

  10. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-03

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources.

  11. TNO Contribution to the Quest 303 Trial - Human Performance Assessed by a Vigilance and Tracking Test, a Multi-Attribute Task, and by Dynamic Visual Acuity (TNO Bijdrage aan het Quest 303 Onderzoek)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    TNO Report TI Knweg for. siesIN Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk TNO Defence, Security and Safety fo ple cetfcRsac...objectieve maten voor taakprestatie te verzamelen onder invloed van echte scheepsbewegingen. In opdracht van de Nederlandse marine heeft TNO aan dit...rapport wordt het protocol beschreven, de bewegingscondities, en de resultaten van de Nederlandse tests. De resultaten laten zien dat cognitief

  12. Expression Profiling of Cell Lines Expressing Regulated NP2 Transcripts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    EGF in the presence or absence of exogenous HRS . The results will provide a framework fo r the interpretation of future gene expression studies in...e studies require further verification. Small sam- ple size, tissue heterogeneity, and inter-indivi- dual variations among human patients may result ... studies we proposed using gene expression profiling to determine change s in gene expression as a function of expression of the neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2

  13. JPRS Report, China: 1988 Work Reports From Provinces in Northeast Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-16

    NPC] and the Heilongjiang Provincial Peo- ple’s Congresses, in strengthening the building of social- ist democracy and the legal system , in...and efficient state organ. In order to develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist legal system , better perform the duties of power organs...congress and the 1st session of the 7th NPC and the NPC’s decision on strengthening the building of the socialist democracy and legal system and ensuring

  14. Analysis of Simple Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-20

    ANALYSIS OF SThlPLE NEURAL NETWORKS Chedsada Chinrungrueng Master’s Report Under the Supervision of Prof. Carlo H. Sequin Department of... Neural Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...and guidJ.nce. I have learned a great deal from his teaching, knowledge, and criti- cism. 1. MOTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE NEURAL NETWORKS Chedsada

  15. The Development of PIPA: An Integrated and Automated Pipeline for Genome-Wide Protein Function Annotation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-25

    specific protein functions. For exam- ple, PRIAM [10] and EFICAz [11] provide profile data- bases for protein catalytic function predictions. They have...yield more reliable predictions. Most established profile databases, such as ProDom and EFICAz , are generated using complex procedures based on either...common function. This approach has been used to build the ProDom and the PRIAM data- bases. Conversely, EFICAz builds multiple profiles simul

  16. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  17. Selection of Dogs for Land Mine and Booby Trap Detection Training. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    11). Periodic interaction with humans during the third critical period will favorably influence the developrmont of handler/dog social relationships...behavioral screening, obedience training, and formation of the strong human /canine social bond so important in a maximally effective handler/dog detection...these are mange and ringworm . Loss of hair may also be caused by certain metabolic disturbances. For exam- ple, pregnant and lactating bitches

  18. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: Tap Chi Cong San, No. 2, February 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    exam- ple). This has created a psychology of indifference and acceptance. Dao Tri Uc: People talk a lot about social targets but tend to ignore...concerning the social structure, the state and social mechanisms, and cultural, moral, and psycholog - ical standards. The three divisions of powers of...will lead to subjectivism, empiricism , one-sided views, and errors in evaluating cadres. 18 Letters to the Editorial Staff JPRS-ATC-90-008 1

  19. A critical role for adiponectin-mediated development of endometrial luminal epithelial cells during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Whasun; Choi, Myung Jin; Bae, Hyocheol; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-11-01

    Adiponectin is one of the adipokines in the collagen superfamily. It is secreted primarily by white adipocytes and influences reproductive processes including ovarian and uterine functions. Adiponectin regulates energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and is anti-inflammatory in various tissues. Its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are widely expressed in mammalian tissues, including porcine conceptuses and endometrial during the estrous cycle and peri-implantation period of pregnancy. However, regulatory effects of adiponectin on endometrial epithelial cells are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of parity on expression of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 and the effects of adiponectin in the porcine endometrium during early pregnancy. Results of this study revealed robust expression of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 in uterine luminal (LE) and glandular (GE) epithelia during early pregnancy and expression decreased as with increasing parity. For porcine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells, adiponectin enhanced proliferation, and increased phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K, S6, ERK1/2, JNK, P38, and P90RSK in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the abundance of adiponectin-activated signaling molecules were suppressed by pharmacological inhibitors including wortmannin, U0126, SP600125, and SB203580, respectively, in pLE cells. Furthermore, inhibition of each targeted signal transduction molecule influenced proliferation of adiponectin-stimulated pLE cells. In addition, adiponectin inhibited tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress through effects on ER stress regulated proteins in pLE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that adiponectin affects development of porcine uterine epithelia and reproductive performance through modulation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK cell signaling pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-29

    Thur. 9.10 Video editing - Mark Shelly 10 Optical recording of membrane potential - Lev Ram 4 Mechanisms of Ca oscillations - Stryer Fri. 9-10...marine macrophyte Ulva fenes - Ple’.e ,address all correspondeince nd request% for rrprinits to G. trata. U. fnestrata is a benthic grecn alga possessing a...Duke, S. H.. Friedrich, 1 W. Schrader. L. E.. Koukkari. W L. (1978). Oscillations in the activities of enzymes of nitrate reduc-nitrate when light is

  1. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5pp00398a Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweintzger, N. A.; Gruber-Wackernagel, A.; Shirsath, N.; Quehenberger, F.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.

    2016-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127– Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml–1. Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml–1). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s). PMID:26911519

  2. Defense Systems Management Review, Volume I. Numbers 7-8. Autumn 1978,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    section. a discussion of the genera l capabilities required (e.g., rapid enhancement of mobility for friendly forces and a counter- mobility capability to...vehicle, self- propelled arti l lery , and a number of organic air defense systems. The new artillery includes a mobile multi ple rocket launcher, and self... mobile or man-portable surface-to-air missiles . Much of this new equipment is comparable to or better than equipment deployed in NATO today. Furthermore

  3. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Schweintzger, N A; Gruber-Wackernagel, A; Shirsath, N; Quehenberger, F; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Wolf, P

    2016-03-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml(-1). Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml(-1)). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s).

  4. Quantitative determination of penicillin V and amoxicillin in feed samples by pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Benito-Peña, E; Urraca, J L; Moreno-Bondi, M C

    2009-02-20

    A rapid and simple method is proposed for the routine determination of amoxicillin (AMOX) and penicillin V (PENV) in swine feedingstuffs. The method is based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (PLE-HPLC-UV) for antibiotic analysis. Parameters affecting PLE procedure, such as temperature, solvent composition, number of extraction cycles and sample cell size, were evaluated in order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency. The optimised method employed 11mL extraction cells, acetonitrile-water mixtures (25:75, v/v) for AMOX and (50:50, v/v) for PENV, as extraction solvent, 102.07atm of extraction pressure, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature, 5min of static time and 60% flush volume of the cell size. Extracts were filtered and directly analysed by HPLC-DAD/UV without further clean-up. Mean recovery rates for feed samples fortified with 200-500mgkg(-1) of both antibiotics were 86% for AMOX (RSD< or =6%) and 95% for PENV (RSD< or =3%). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of a commercial medicated swine feedingstuff, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained using mechanical shaking or ultrasonic extraction combined with solid phase extraction (UE-SPE), previously applied in the literature for feed analysis. The extraction efficiencies were evaluated by statistical comparison (analysis of variance, ANOVA-single factor) of the results obtained using the different extraction methods. Compared to the alternative techniques, PLE offers several practical advantages: easy to perform, fast, savings in solvent volume and in time, all steps are fully automated and further clean-up is not necessary for penicillin analysis.

  5. Development and Application of Numerical Models for Reactive Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    B.1 C Documentation of VOYEUR ................................................................ C,1 D Direct Numerical Simulations of Axisym m etric...useful for solving problems involving steady and unsteday transonic and supersonic flow in irregular geometries. The VOYEUR Graphics System is described...printer/plotter, VOYEUR being implemented on a Tektronix 4115) or a DICOMED graphic output device. It is a menu driven system which builds up fromsrn.ple

  6. Power law analysis of the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhanshan Sam

    2015-11-01

    Taylor's (1961, Nature, 189:732) power law, a power function (V = am(b) ) describing the scaling relationship between the mean and variance of population abundances of organisms, has been found to govern the population abundance distributions of single species in both space and time in macroecology. It is regarded as one of few generalities in ecology, and its parameter b has been widely applied to characterize spatial aggregation (i.e. heterogeneity) and temporal stability of single-species populations. Here, we test its applicability to bacterial populations in the human microbiome using extensive data sets generated by the US-NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP). We further propose extending Taylor's power law from the population to the community level, and accordingly introduce four types of power-law extensions (PLEs): type I PLE for community spatial aggregation (heterogeneity), type II PLE for community temporal aggregation (stability), type III PLE for mixed-species population spatial aggregation (heterogeneity) and type IV PLE for mixed-species population temporal aggregation (stability). Our results show that fittings to the four PLEs with HMP data were statistically extremely significant and their parameters are ecologically sound, hence confirming the validity of the power law at both the population and community levels. These findings not only provide a powerful tool to characterize the aggregations of population and community in both time and space, offering important insights into community heterogeneity in space and/or stability in time, but also underscore the three general properties of power laws (scale invariance, no average and universality) and their specific manifestations in our four PLEs.

  7. Recommendations for Future Research in Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    l. ’ COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY t AFOSR-TR· 7 7- 1 0 1 0 Oepertment; of lnformetiion Er)Sin-r-ing Unive,..ltiy of llllnole et; Chicego Cir...CLMMriCATMN P THK Ml PB AMTCOT« -i— ! COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY Department at Information Engineering University of Illinois et Chicago Circle Bo» 4348...Chicago IL 60600.USA P.L.E. Uslenghl (Editor) RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH IN SCATTERING Communications Laboratory Report 76-3 December

  8. The Chinese at the Negotiating Table: Style and Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    earliest descriptive expositions by such observers as Bacon (1597) and Decallieres (1716) to the most recent innovations in quantitative analysis, the...agreement or harmony over the princi- ple, and to indicate there is not yet a consensus among China’s top leade,- s over how to proceed on that issue. The...a iittle over a year later in Geneva. Wang Bingnan: Ambassador Wang was the PRC s first Ambassador to Poland. In addition he was assigned the

  9. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 2. Appendix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    on a basis of equality with other nationals and freedom from discrimination . A-3 THE"MAGIC"BACKGROUNDOFP ARLH RBOR...nationals and freedom from discrimination . The present understanding shall be kept as a confidential memorandum between theofthis Trans. 5-14-41 No.9... discrimination as important in the Pacific, and that the United States practices this princi- ple toward the American States, if Japan is willing also to

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Combat-Related PTSD in Returning War Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...78229 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11...event (Keane, Zimering, & Caddell, 1985; Zoellner, Eftekhari, & Bedard-Gilligan, 2008). For exam - ple, exposure to an IED explosion in a town center

  11. Understanding the Current International Order

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    decades, but it may take a different form from today’s order. For exam - ple, such powers as Russia and China have challenged the more-liberal...like-minded states with shared values to keep peace between its European allies, enhance those allies’ prosperity, and, ulti- mately, balance...sufficient to promote key U.S. interests? Have economic institutions, such as the WTO, had a critical influence on U.S. and global economic performance

  12. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method.

  13. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    growing interest in religion on the part of young peo- ple in Czechoslovakia. Of the more than 100,000 people who took part in celebrations relating...greater activ- ism on the part of the Roman Catholic Church. The former was manifested by an increase in young people’s church attendance and overall...a relatively young group; most were in their teens and twenties. According to Charter 77, about 50 percent of ad- dicts were males between fifteen

  14. Engineer: The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers. Volume 41. January-April 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    training potential. An exam- ple of one exercise toward the end of the course might be— ■ SQUAD #1: Move from A to B (distance of six miles) between... exercises will also progress during the course. All students will employ and handle all available U.S. explosives/mines and representative items from...schedules, field training exercises , and classroom instruction. If a maneuver brigade habitually receives the training schedules of each company of

  15. Installation Restoration Program. Records Search, Newark AFS, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    plants. In this assignment and all that follow, a part of each was spent in conducting health and environment compliance inspections and audits at mili...OH 434&33 EiLO)( 2 bJATEP SYSTE-M, KTTC𔃻EN TAP, ’DATE: 76-P6-16*’.TI- E: 1304.1, APPEA0AfJCE OF SbmPLE CLEAR, TEA;:, 72 I PFE -ULTS OF ANALYS15 C T

  16. TESIS - The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; della Ceca, R.; Mannucci, F.; Ghinassi, F.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Bender, R.; Maraston, C.; Hopp, U.

    2003-06-01

    The epoch at which massive galaxies (M [star] > 10^11M[ scriptstyle sun ]) have assembled provides crucial constraints on the current galaxy formation and evolution models. The LCDM hierarchical merging model predicts that massive galaxies are assembled through mergers of pre-existing disk galaxies at z <= 1.5 (Kauffmann & Charlot 1998; Cole et al. 2000). In the alternative view massive ellipticals formed at z> 3 in a single episode of star formation and follow a pure luminosity evolution (PLE).

  17. Computer Generation of Fourier Transform Libraries for Distributed Memory Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    parallelization. Tensor contraction engine (TCE). The TCE compiler [ Baumgartner et al., 2005] is an exam- ple of a project, that like SPIRAL, uses a...pages 172–184, 2007. 2, 123 Gerald Baumgartner , Alexander Auer, David E. Bernholdt, Alina Bibireata, Venkatesh Choppella, Daniel Cociorva, Xiaoyang Gao... Michael J. Flynn. Some computer organizations and their effectiveness. IEEE Transactions on Computing, C-21:948, 1972. 39 MPI Forum. Message passing

  18. Simultaneous monitoring method of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere using activated carbon fiber filter paper.

    PubMed

    Yagoh, Hiroaki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tominaga, Yasuko; Shibuya, Nobuo; Masuda, Yoshio

    2006-04-01

    In order to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of PAHs and POPs in the atmosphere, an activated carbon fiber filter paper (ACFP) was used as the adsorbing material in this study. The pressurized liquid extraction method (PLE method) was used to extract PAHs and POPs collected on the ACFP. Toluene was an effective solvent to extract them from ACFP using the PLE method, but some of PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, were hardly extracted. These PAHs were adsorbed on the particulate matter in the atmosphere. In general, these forms of particulate matter could be collected using a quartz fiber paper (QFP); these PAHs were efficiently extracted from the QFP using the PLE method with toluene. In this study, the collecting method of the PAHs was modified by using QFP overlapped in front of the ACFP. Atmospheric monitoring of PAHs and POPs in Niigata area was performed using this method, and most of the target compounds were detected. However, some of the POPs, such as aldrin, endrin, mirex, could not be detected. The POPs, such as hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and chlordanes, and most of the PAHs were detected from all of the samples collected throughout the monitoring period. It was confirmed that these methods were effective to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of the PAHs and POPs in the atmosphere.

  19. Determination of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol in feedstuff additives by pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Salcedo, Marta; Tena, María Teresa

    2017-03-03

    Specific blends of essential oils (BEOs) are promising substitutes for antibiotics to promote livestock performance and to reduce the incidence of intestinal disorders. Microencapsulation of BEOs has shown to improve their stability, bioavailability and to control their release rate once they are added to the feedstuff. The development and validation of a method for determining essential oil components such as carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde in a microencapsulated material used as feed additive is presented. Analytes were extracted from feed additives and feedstuff by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with methanol at 50°C for 5min. Methanol provided good recovery values and cleaner extracts than other polar organic solvents tested. However, for certain kind of composite additives ethyl acetate showed to be a better option because trans-cinnamaldehyde undergoes chemical reaction in methanol. Then PLE extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry in selected ion storage (SIS) mode. The analyte stability and the absence of analyte losses during the PLE process was checked by a recovery study. Also, the matrix effect was studied to assess accuracy. Recovery values were between 85 and 115% in most cases. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation values were less than 4 and 14%, respectively. Finally, the developed method was applied to the analysis of a microencapsulated feed additive, several composite feed additive samples containing microencapsulated BEOs and a spiked feedstuff, for quality control and in stability studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Questionnaire study of perceived listening quality in renovated university classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Murray; Davies, Hugh

    2005-04-01

    The research reported here investigated the effect of renovations on student perception of the listening environment in university classrooms. It involved four large classrooms at the University of British Columbia which were studied before and after acoustical renovation. Details of the renovations were identified. Measurements of reverberation time, background-noise level and sound propagation were made in each case. Room-average Speech Transmission Indices were calculated as a physically-based summary quality measure, and their changes on renovation were determined. Questionnaires designed to determine student and instructor perception of the listening environment, as well as the personal, academic and environmental factors that might affect it, were administered to a large number of students taking classes in each classroom, and their instructors, before and after renovation. A summary Perceived Listening Ease (PLE) score, measuring student perception of the quality of the listening environment, was calculated for each questionnaire from the responses. Room-average PLE scores, and the changes on renovation, were then calculated. These results were related to the physical measurement results. Physical, personal, academic and environmental factors affecting the changes in PLE score were investigated. The implications of the results for classroom design were considered.

  1. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T; Goyer, Richard A; Klepzig, Kier D

    2005-05-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposed to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid species between male and female antennal responses to any of the three pheromones. Measurement of antennal threshold responses indicated that Pla. parallelum has increasing antennal sensitivity to ipsdienol, ipsenol, and frontalin. In contrast, Ple. transversus exhibited similar detection thresholds to all three pheromones. Pla. parallelum antennae exhibited different response amplitudes to the three pheromones at quantities above the detection threshold, while Ple. transversus had similar responses to each. Behavioral responses to the same three pheromones were evaluated for both histerid species using pedestrian olfactometer bioassays. Both species were attracted to frontalin and ipsenol, but not ipsdienol. Pla. parallelum was significantly more attracted to frontalin than ipsenol, while Ple. transversus showed no significant preference for either compound. Our results suggest that histerids that prey upon pine bark beetles may have different host or host habitat preferences, which could reduce interspecific competition.

  2. RSS-Based Method for Sensor Localization with Unknown Transmit Power and Uncertainty in Path Loss Exponent

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiyan; Liu, Peng; Lin, Wei; Gui, Guan

    2016-01-01

    The localization of a sensor in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has now gained considerable attention. Since the transmit power and path loss exponent (PLE) are two critical parameters in the received signal strength (RSS) localization technique, many RSS-based location methods, considering the case that both the transmit power and PLE are unknown, have been proposed in the literature. However, these methods require a search process, and cannot give a closed-form solution to sensor localization. In this paper, a novel RSS localization method with a closed-form solution based on a two-step weighted least squares estimator is proposed for the case with the unknown transmit power and uncertainty in PLE. Furthermore, the complete performance analysis of the proposed method is given in the paper. Both the theoretical variance and Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) are derived. The relationships between the deterministic CRLB and the proposed stochastic CRLB are presented. The paper also proves that the proposed method can reach the stochastic CRLB. PMID:27618055

  3. Influence of the Cu Content in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorbers on order-disorder related band gap changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Mario; Renz, Tobias; Mathes, Niklas; Neuwirth, Markus; Schnabel, Thomas; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the radiative recombination in wet-chemically fabricated Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorbers utilizing photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, focusing especially on the effects of varying Cu content. This includes the impact of the latter on the band gap energy and the change in band gap energy related to the order-disorder transition. Characteristic PL and PLE parameters like the energetic position of the PL maximum and the PL yield as a function of the excitation power as well as the PLE tailing parameter do not depend on composition indicating that the nature of the radiative transition is not altered by the Cu content. However, the band gap energy Eg significantly increases as a function of decreasing Cu content. This increase is more pronounced in the disordered than in the ordered atomic arrangement of Cu and Zn atoms in the Cu-Zn planes of the kesterite crystal structure.

  4. Pulmonary emphysema classification based on an improved texton learning model by sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Zhou, Xiangrong; Goshima, Satoshi; Chen, Huayue; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a texture classification method based on texton learned via sparse representation (SR) with new feature histogram maps in the classification of emphysema. First, an overcomplete dictionary of textons is learned via KSVD learning on every class image patches in the training dataset. In this stage, high-pass filter is introduced to exclude patches in smooth area to speed up the dictionary learning process. Second, 3D joint-SR coefficients and intensity histograms of the test images are used for characterizing regions of interest (ROIs) instead of conventional feature histograms constructed from SR coefficients of the test images over the dictionary. Classification is then performed using a classifier with distance as a histogram dissimilarity measure. Four hundreds and seventy annotated ROIs extracted from 14 test subjects, including 6 paraseptal emphysema (PSE) subjects, 5 centrilobular emphysema (CLE) subjects and 3 panlobular emphysema (PLE) subjects, are used to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method is tested on 167 PSE, 240 CLE and 63 PLE ROIs consisting of mild, moderate and severe pulmonary emphysema. The accuracy of the proposed system is around 74%, 88% and 89% for PSE, CLE and PLE, respectively.

  5. Polymorphous light eruption.

    PubMed

    Hölzle, E; Plewig, G; von Kries, R; Lehmann, P

    1987-03-01

    Polymorphous light eruption (PLE) is a common photodermatosis of unknown etiology. It afflicts mainly fair-skinned patients, with a preponderance of young females. There is, however, no absolute restriction as to age, sex, or race. Clinical variants include the papular, vesiculo-bullous, and hemorrhagic variety, as well as plaque, erythema multiforme-like, and insect bite (strophulus)-like types. Skin lesions appear only in certain exposed areas hours or a few days after intense sunshine, and are nearly always monomorphous in the same patient. The rash subsides spontaneously within several days without leaving scars. The histopathologic picture is characteristic and shows a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate in the upper and middle corium with subepidermal edema, vacuolization of basal cells, and spongiosis in the lower epidermis. The most important differential diagnoses are solar urticaria, photosensitive erythema multiforme, and lupus erythematosus. The action spectrum of PLE is under debate. Reproduction of skin lesions has been reported with UVB, UVA, and, rarely, visible light, with UVA probably being the most effective part of the spectrum. More important than treatment of PLE is prophylaxis. UVA- and UVB-effective sunscreens are of some help. Phototherapy and especially photochemotherapy (psoralen + UVA; PUVA) offer effective ways to decrease light sensitivity. Systemic treatment with chloroquine or beta-carotene has been disappointing.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  7. An integrated platform for directly widely-targeted quantitative analysis of feces part I: Platform configuration and method validation.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuelin; Song, Qingqing; Li, Jun; Zheng, Jiao; Li, Chun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Lingling; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-07-08

    Direct analysis is of great importance to understand the real chemical profile of a given sample, notably biological materials, because either chemical degradation or diverse errors and uncertainties might be resulted from sophisticated protocols. In comparison with biofluids, it is still challenging for direct analysis of solid biological samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Herein, a new analytical platform was configured by online hyphenating pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), turbulent flow chromatography (TFC), and LC-MS/MS. A facile, but robust PLE module was constructed based on the phenomenon that noticeable back-pressure can be generated during rapid fluid passing through a narrow tube. TFC column that is advantageous at extracting low molecular analytes from rushing fluid was employed to link at the outlet of the PLE module to capture constituents-of-interest. An electronic 6-port/2-position valve was introduced between TFC column and LC-MS/MS to fragment each measurement into extraction and elution phases, whereas LC-MS/MS took the charge of analyte separation and monitoring. As a proof of concept, simultaneous determination of 24 endogenous substances including eighteen steroids, five eicosanoids, and one porphyrin in feces was carried out in this paper. Method validation assays demonstrated the analytical platform to be qualified for directly simultaneous measurement of diverse endogenous analytes in fecal matrices. Application of this integrated platform on homolog-focused profiling of feces is discussed in a companion paper.

  8. Implication for photosensitive patients of ultraviolet A exposure in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hampton, P J; Farr, P M; Diffey, B L; Lloyd, J J

    2004-10-01

    Photosensitive patients sometimes report disease flares during journeys by car. Window glass blocks all UVB but not all UVA. All car windscreens are made from laminated glass. Side and rear windows are usually made of nonlaminated glass. To determine which types of glass provide most protection from UVA with particular reference to the implications for patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE). The percentage transmission of UVA was determined for a selection of glass, both laminated and nonlaminated, and with differing colour tints. Laminated glass transmits less UVA than nonlaminated glass. Tinted glass transmits less UVA than clear glass. Nonlaminated clear glass transmitted the highest percentage of UVA (62.8%) and grey laminated glass the lowest (0.9%). A dose of 5 J cm(-2) UVA, enough to trigger PLE in some patients, could be transmitted through clear nonlaminated glass in 30 min but would take 50 h through grey laminated glass. Patients with severe UVA-induced PLE and other photosensitivity disorders may have disease flares from solar UVA transmission through side-window glass. Protective measures such as wearing long-sleeved clothing, keeping the arm beneath the bottom of the window aperture, or choosing tinted and laminated car windows may be helpful.

  9. Downstream valorization and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-based chemical characterization of bioactives from black chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) pomace.

    PubMed

    Brazdauskas, T; Montero, L; Venskutonis, P R; Ibañez, E; Herrero, M

    2016-10-14

    In this work, a new alternative for the downstream processing and valorization of black chokeberry pomace (Aronia melanocarpa) which could be potentially coupled to a biorefinery process is proposed. This alternative is based on the application of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to the residue obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction of the berry pomace. An experimental design is employed to study and optimize the most relevant extraction conditions in order to attain extracts with high extraction yields, total phenols content and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the PLE extracts were characterized by using a new method based on the application of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography in order to correlate their activity with their chemical composition. Thanks to the use of this powerful analytical tool, 61 compounds could be separated being possible the tentative identification of different anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. By using the optimized PLE approach (using pressurized 46% ethanol in water at 165°C containing 1.8% formic acid), extracts with high total phenols content (236.6mg GAE g(-1) extract) and high antioxidant activities (4.35mmol TE g(-1) extract and EC50 5.92μgmL(-1)) could be obtained with high yields (72.5%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berrada, Houda; Borrull, Francesc; Font, Guillermina; Marcé, Rosa Maria

    2008-10-24

    We developed a method for determining the quantities of seven macrolide antibiotics in meat and fish by using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-(ESI)MS). The PLE was optimized with regard to solvents, temperature, pressure, extraction time and number of cycles. The optimum conditions were: methanol as the extraction solvent; a temperature of 80 degrees C; a pressure of 1500psi; an extraction time of 15min; 2 cycles; a flush volume of 150% and a purge time of 300s. All recoveries for macrolide antibiotics were over 77% at 200mug/kg, except for erythromycin, which was 58%. The repeatability and reproducibility on days in between, expressed as %RSD (n=12), were lower than 10% and 12%, respectively. The quantification limits of all compounds were 25mug/kg of dry weight of animal muscle except for troleandomycin (50mug/kg). The method was applied to determine the pharmaceuticals in real samples taken from 18 meat and fish samples. The results showed that PLE is quantitative short time consuming technique, with use of smaller initial sample sizes. Greater specificity and selectivity in extraction and increased potential for automation were shown.

  11. Evaluation of pressurized liquid extraction for determination of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in soybean.

    PubMed

    Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Otake, Takamitsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in soybean by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Two organic solvents, acetone and acetonitrile, were evaluated as extraction solvents. In both cases, the amount of extract was enhanced with increasing extraction temperature. The extracts obtained using acetonitrile were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after a cleanup process based on the analytical method for the Japanese Positive List System for Agricultural Chemicals Remaining in Foods. The effect of extraction temperature (range: 40- 130°C) on extraction efficiency was evaluated by a recovery study using 21 organophosphorus pesticides and 10 pyrethroid pesticides as target analytes and acetonitrile as the solvent. The results indicated that at 130°C, some organophosphorus pesticides might be degraded, whereas extraction temperatures between 70°C and 100°C were optimal. Next, a prepared sample containing fenitrothion and permethrin was analyzed. Although the sample was not soaked in water prior to analysis, PLE provided analytical results comparable to those obtained by solvent extraction with homogenization. Therefore, PLE is considered a simple and alternative technique for the extraction of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in soybean.

  12. Gastrointestinal system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Xu, D; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Zhang, S; Li, M; Zeng, X

    2017-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder which can affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although GI symptoms can manifest in 50% of patients with SLE, these have barely been reviewed due to difficulty in identifying different causes. This study aims to clarify clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the four major SLE-related GI system complications: protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO), hepatic involvement and pancreatitis. It is a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the major search terms were SLE, PLE, IPO, hepatitis and pancreatitis. A total of 125 articles were chosen for our study. SLE-related PLE was characterized by edema and hypoalbuminemia, with Technetium 99m labeled human albumin scintigraphy ((99m)Tc HAS) and alpha-1-antitrypsin fecal clearance test commonly used as diagnostic test. The most common site of protein leakage was the small intestine and the least common site was the stomach. More than half of SLE-related IPO patients had ureterohydronephrosis, and sometimes they manifested as interstitial cystitis and hepatobiliary dilatation. Lupus hepatitis and SLE accompanied by autoimmune hepatitis (SLE-AIH overlap) shared similar clinical manifestations but had different autoantibodies and histopathological features, and positive anti-ribosome P antibody highly indicated the diagnosis of lupus hepatitis. Lupus pancreatitis was usually accompanied by high SLE activity with a relatively high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and timely intervention were crucial, and administration of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants was effective for most of the patients.

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for the analysis of isoflavones in pulses.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Zamarreño, María Milagros; Pérez-Martín, Lara; Bustamante-Rangel, Myriam; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we describe a rapid and simple analytical method that exploits pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography with diode array detection for the determination of isoflavones in samples of Spanish pulses. Confirmation of the analytes present was performed using ion-trap mass spectrometry. To optimize the PLE extraction, variables such as the dispersing agent, type of solvent and sample amount, and the experimental parameters, such as temperature and the number of extraction cycles, were studied. Separation was carried out using a reverse-phase C18 with polar endcapping as the stationary phase and acetonitrile/water with 0.2 % of formic acid, under a gradient regime, as the mobile phase. Optimal extraction of formononetin and biochanin-A from chickpeas with PLE was achieved using Hydromatrix as a dispersant agent, methanol/water (50:50), a temperature of 90 °C, and three cycles. The same optimal conditions-except methanol/water (75:25)-for solvent extraction were obtained for the extraction of daidzin, genistin, and formononetin from lentils. Recoveries ranged from 97 to 110 %, and standard deviations lower than 20 % were obtained. The contents obtained for daidzin in lentils using the proposed method were not significantly different from those obtained using another official method of analysis.

  14. Optimization of an analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of different classes of ultraviolet filters in cosmetics by pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marlene; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry; Llompart, Maria

    2015-07-31

    A methodology based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of UV filters including methoxycinnamates, benzophenones, salicylates, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, and others in cosmetic products. The extractions were carried out in 1mL extraction cells and the amount of sample extracted was only 100mg. The experimental conditions, including the acetylation of the PLE extracts to improve GC performance, were optimized by means of experimental design tools. The two main factors affecting the PLE procedure such as solvent type and extraction temperature were assessed. The use of a matrix matched approach consisting of the addition of 10μL of diluted commercial cosmetic oil avoided matrix effects. Good linearity (R(2)>0.9970), quantitative recoveries (>80% for most of compounds, excluding three banned benzophenones) and satisfactory precision (RSD<10% in most cases) were achieved under the optimal conditions. The validated methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of different types of cosmetic formulations including sunscreens, hair products, nail polish, and lipsticks, amongst others.

  15. Black Hoof Medicinal Mushroom Phellinus linteus (Agaricomycetes) Extracts Protect Against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic Abnormality in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Jen-Yin; Chen, Chin-Chu; Su, Chih-Chung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Phellinus linteus extracts (PLEs) against radiation damage in mice. First, BALB/c mice were irradiated once with γ-rays at 4, 5, 6, or 8 Gy and allowed to recover for 20 days. Results reveal that 8-Gy radiation caused death in 100% of mice on day 13, and 6-Gy radiation caused death in 86.7% of mice (13/15) at the end of the experiment, whereas 4- and 5-Gy radiation did not result in any death. We then used 5-Gy γ-ray radiation to examine the protective effects of PLEs. Mice were orally administered a PLE (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg) daily for 2 weeks before radiation and for 6 weeks after radiation. γ-Ray radiation significantly decreased body weight starting from week 2 after radiation. Supplementation with a median and high dose of PLE significantly restored body weights starting at weeks 5 and 3, respectively. The radiation-protective agent WR2721 (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally) restored body weights starting at week 4. White blood cells, platelets, red blood cells, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased by radiation, and PLEs (primarily at high doses) and WR2721 significantly prevented hematologic abnormality. These results suggest that PLE has potential as a radioprotective agent.

  16. RSS-Based Method for Sensor Localization with Unknown Transmit Power and Uncertainty in Path Loss Exponent.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiyan; Liu, Peng; Lin, Wei; Gui, Guan

    2016-09-08

    The localization of a sensor in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has now gained considerable attention. Since the transmit power and path loss exponent (PLE) are two critical parameters in the received signal strength (RSS) localization technique, many RSS-based location methods, considering the case that both the transmit power and PLE are unknown, have been proposed in the literature. However, these methods require a search process, and cannot give a closed-form solution to sensor localization. In this paper, a novel RSS localization method with a closed-form solution based on a two-step weighted least squares estimator is proposed for the case with the unknown transmit power and uncertainty in PLE. Furthermore, the complete performance analysis of the proposed method is given in the paper. Both the theoretical variance and Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) are derived. The relationships between the deterministic CRLB and the proposed stochastic CRLB are presented. The paper also proves that the proposed method can reach the stochastic CRLB.

  17. Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong; Ouyang Yong; He Xiang; Zhang Heping

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 {+-} 2.3 cm to 5.6 {+-} 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 {+-} 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL.

  18. Optimization of a pressurized liquid extraction method by experimental design methodologies for the determination of fluoroquinolone residues in infant foods by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, E; Villoslada, F Navarro; Moreno-Bondi, M C; Marazuela, M D

    2010-01-29

    In the present study, we have developed a method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) for the determination of residues of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in infant food products. PLE extraction has been optimized by the application of experimental design methodologies. Initially, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to screen the significance of four extraction parameters: solvent composition, temperature, pressure and number of cycles. The most significant factors, identified by ANOVA analysis, were the solvent composition, temperature and pressure, which were further optimized with the aid of a face centred design (FCD) and the desirability function. The optimized operating PLE conditions were as follows: ACN/o-phosphoric acid 50mM pH 3.0 (80:20, v/v), 80 degrees C, 2000psi and three extraction cycles of 5min. Under these conditions, recoveries of the target FQs varied between 69% and 107% with RSDs below 9%. The whole method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC guidelines. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of different infant food products bought in local supermarkets and pharmacies. The results showed the presence of residues of enrofloxacin in a non-compliant baby food sample corresponding to a chicken-based formulation, which were also confirmed and quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High pressure extraction of antioxidants from Solanum stenotomun peel.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lourdes Casas; Serrano, Casimiro Mantell; Quintero, Edwin Torrez; López, Clara Pereyra; Antezana, Ruder Medrano; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2013-03-08

    In the work described here, two techniques for the recovery of anthocyanins from potato peel were studied and compared. One of the techniques employed was supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 or with CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent and the other technique was pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), where the solvent used was ethanol in water acidified to pH 2.6. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied and the anthocyanin contents obtained were statistically analyzed. In SFE the use of low pressure (100 bar) and high temperature (65 °C) was desirable for the anthocyanin extraction. With PLE the anthocyanin contents are increased considerably, and the best yields were obtained at 100 bar and 80 °C. This result is in correspondence with antioxidant activity index values (1.66) obtained in a DPPH antioxidant activity assay. In the extracts obtained with PLE the phenolic compounds were also determined, but the main compounds presented in the extract are anthocyanins.

  20. Drug-resistant parietal lobe epilepsy: clinical manifestations and surgery outcome.

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Marjan; Sperling, Michael R; Rabiei, Amin H; Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2017-03-01

    We reviewed a large surgical cohort to investigate the clinical manifestations, EEG and neuroimaging findings, and postoperative seizure outcome in patients with drug-resistant parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE). All drug-resistant PLE patients, who were investigated for epilepsy surgery at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center between 1986 and 2015, were identified. Demographic data, seizure data, EEG recordings, brain MRI, pathological findings, and postsurgical seizure outcome were reviewed. In total, 18 patients (11 males and seven females) were identified. Sixteen patients (88%) had tonic-clonic seizures, 12 (66%) had focal seizures with impaired awareness, and 13 (72%) described auras. Among 15 patients who had brain MRI, 14 patients (93%) had parietal lobe lesions. Only three of 15 patients (20%) who had interictal scalp EEG recordings showed parietal interictal spikes. Of 12 patients with available ictal surface EEG recordings, only three patients (25%) had parietal ictal EEG onset. After a mean follow-up duration of 8.6 years, 14 patients (77.7%) showed a favourable postoperative seizure outcome. In patients with PLE, semiology and EEG may be misleading and brain MRI is the most valuable tool to localize the epileptogenic zone. Postsurgical seizure outcome was favourable in our patients with drug-resistant parietal lobe epilepsy.

  1. Pain, disability, and diagnostic accuracy of clinical instability and endurance tests in subjects with lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvano; Vanti, Carla; Piccarreta, Raffaella; Monticone, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between the main clinical tests to detect spinal instability, the perceived pain and disability, and symptomatic spondylolisthesis (SPL) characteristics, (2) to investigate the relationship between endurance and instability tests, and (3) to measure the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in unstable SPL diagnosed against dynamic radiographs. Four instability tests were evaluated on 119 subjects: aberrant movements, active straight leg raising (ASLR), prone instability test, and passive lumbar extension test (PLE); and 2 endurance tests, prone bridge test and supine bridge test (SBT). The results were compared with the numeric rating scale for pain and the Oswestry Disability Index for disability. These tests were used as index tests and compared with dynamic radiographs as reference standard on 64 subjects. A significant relationship between disability and all the clinical tests but ASLR was observed. The relation between tests and pain was weaker, not significant for prone instability test and aberrant movement and critical for ASLR (P = .05). There was a low relationship between endurance tests and instability tests. Only PLE showed a significant association with dynamic radiographs (P = .017). Endurance and instability tests appear to be weakly related to the amount of pain but significantly related to the disability in symptomatic SPL. Of the tests evaluated, PLE exhibited the best ability to predict positive dynamic radiographs. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  3. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Anatolia propolis and their radical scavenging capacities.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Selim; Ates, Burhan; Durmaz, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ismet; Seckin, Turgay

    2011-07-01

    Propolis samples from important honey producing locations of Anatolia namely; Bingol (BG), Rize (RZ), Tekirdag (TK) and Van (VN), were evaluated for their antiradical capacities, total phenolic contents and individual phenolic compounds which was recovered by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Several extraction parameters of PLE such as; temperature, pressure, solvent type, extraction time and cell size were investigated for their effects on the extraction performances. The results showed that, 40 °C, 1500 psi, Ethanol:water:HCl; (70:25:5, v/v/v) containing 0.1% tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) as solvent, three extraction cycles within 15 min, and a cell size of 11 mL was the most favorable PLE operating conditions. Results of the tests performed to designate the success of the polyphenol analysis showed that the recovery was in the range of 97.2% and 99.7%. Major phenolic compounds in all samples were found to be gallocatechin (GCT), catechin (CT), epicatechin gallate (ECTG), caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acid (ChA), and myricetin (Myr). ChA level of BG propolis was 4.5, 3 and 23 times higher than that of RZ, TK and VN region, respectively. Antiradical tests showed that all propolis samples have superior antiradical capacities up to 500 mg Trolox equivalent activity per gram of extract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How psychotic-like are paranormal beliefs?

    PubMed

    Cella, Matteo; Vellante, Marcello; Preti, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Paranormal beliefs and Psychotic-like Experiences (PLE) are phenotypically similar and can occur in individuals with psychosis but also in the general population; however the relationship of these experiences for psychosis risk is largely unclear. This study investigates the association of PLE and paranormal beliefs with psychological distress. Five hundred and three young adults completed measures of paranormal beliefs (Beliefs in the Paranormal Scale), psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire), delusion (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory), and hallucination (Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale) proneness. The frequency and intensity of PLE was higher in believers in the paranormal compared to non-believers, however psychological distress levels were comparable. Regression findings confirmed that paranormal beliefs were predicted by delusion and hallucination-proneness but not psychological distress. The use of a cross-sectional design in a specific young adult population makes the findings exploratory and in need of replication with longitudinal studies. The predictive value of paranormal beliefs and experiences for psychosis may be limited; appraisal or the belief emotional salience rather than the belief per se may be more relevant risk factors to predict psychotic risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction using a multivariate chemometric approach and comparison of solid-phase extraction cleanup steps for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.

    PubMed

    Foan, L; Simon, V

    2012-09-21

    A factorial design was used to optimize the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from mosses, plants used as biomonitors of air pollution. The analytical procedure consists of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, in association with analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). For method development, homogeneous samples were prepared with large quantities of the mosses Isothecium myosuroides Brid. and Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw., collected from a Spanish Nature Reserve. A factorial design was used to identify the optimal PLE operational conditions: 2 static cycles of 5 min at 80 °C. The analytical procedure performed with PLE showed similar recoveries (∼70%) and total PAH concentrations (∼200 ng g(-1)) as found using Soxtec extraction, with the advantage of reducing solvent consumption by 3 (30 mL against 100mL per sample), and taking a fifth of the time (24 samples extracted automatically in 8h against 2 samples in 3.5h). The performance of SPE normal phases (NH(2), Florisil, silica and activated aluminium) generally used for organic matrix cleanup was also compared. Florisil appeared to be the most selective phase and ensured the highest PAH recoveries. The optimal analytical procedure was validated with a reference material and applied to moss samples from a remote Spanish site in order to determine spatial and inter-species variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conjugation of plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to other Neisseria species: potential reservoirs for the beta-lactamase plasmid.

    PubMed

    Genco, C A; Knapp, J S; Clark, V L

    1984-09-01

    The discovery that penicillinase production in Neisseria gonorrhoeae was plasmid mediated and the spread of the beta-lactamase encoding plasmids in gonococcal isolates since 1976, raise the possibility that a nonpathogenic indigenous bacterium could serve as a reservoir for these plasmids. We initiated studies to define the ability of commensal Neisseria species and Branhamella catarrhalis strains, as well as strains of the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, to serve as recipients in conjugation with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We found that with N. gonorrhoeae as the donor, 3 of 5 Neisseria cinerea, 2 of 5 Neisseria flava, 0 of 1 Neisseria flavescens, 1 of 3 Neisseria subflava, 0 of 6 B. catarrhalis, 0 of 7 Neisseria lactamica, 1 of 5 Neisseria mucosa, 1 of 7 Neisseria perflava/sicca, and 0 of 13 N. meningitidis strains gave detectable conjugation frequencies (greater than 10(-8). N. cinerea was the only species found to maintain the gonococcal conjugal plasmid (pLE2451). A N. cinerea transconjugant containing pLE2451 was observed to transfer both the beta-lactamase plasmid and pLE2451 to N. gonorrhoeae at high frequency.

  7. Under-flap stromal bed CXL for early post-LASIK ectasia: a novel treatment technique.

    PubMed

    Wallerstein, Avi; Adiguzel, Eser; Gauvin, Mathieu; Mohammad-Shahi, Nima; Cohen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Collagen cross-linking (CXL) for post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia (PLE) is traditionally performed either epi-on or epi-off on the corneal surface. This study describes a novel technique in treating early PLE with under-flap CXL (ufCXL) to the stromal bed and reports on 6-month outcomes. Case series of seven patients (eight eyes) with topography-diagnosed early PLE treated with ufCXL. Inclusion criteria were early, mild PLE defined as new-onset postoperative manifest refraction cylinder ≤1.50 D, with new topographic inferior steepening consistent with ectasia, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 20/40 or better, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. Existing LASIK flap was lifted, riboflavin was applied directly to the stromal bed, flap was repositioned, and 18 mW/cm(2) ultraviolet light was applied for 3 minutes to the corneal surface. Post-ufCXL manifest refraction, UDVA and CDVA, corneal cylinder, Kmax, and corneal irregularity index were compared with pre-ufCXL measurements. Patients had a pre-ufCXL sphere of 0.09±0.48 D and cylinder of -0.78±0.49 D. At 6 months, post-ufCXL sphere (0.06±0.8 D; P=0.89) and cylinder (-1.09±0.76 D, P=0.26) were unchanged. Cumulative post-ufCXL UDVA was unchanged, achieving 20/20, 20/30, and 20/40 in 25%, 88%, and 88%, respectively, compared with 13%, 63%, and 88% pre-ufCXL (P=0.68). Post-ufCXL CDVA was unchanged (P=0.93) with a gain of one line in two eyes, a loss of one line in one eye, and five eyes unchanged. The efficacy index (P=0.76), safety index (P=0.89), Kmax (P=0.94), and corneal irregularity index (P=0.73) were also unchanged. Preliminary results with ufCXL for early PLE are promising, demonstrating maintenance of visual accuracy, efficacy, safety, Kmax, and cylinder, with much quicker recovery times than surface CXL.

  8. Under-flap stromal bed CXL for early post-LASIK ectasia: a novel treatment technique

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Avi; Adiguzel, Eser; Gauvin, Mathieu; Mohammad-Shahi, Nima; Cohen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Collagen cross-linking (CXL) for post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia (PLE) is traditionally performed either epi-on or epi-off on the corneal surface. This study describes a novel technique in treating early PLE with under-flap CXL (ufCXL) to the stromal bed and reports on 6-month outcomes. Patients and methods Case series of seven patients (eight eyes) with topography-diagnosed early PLE treated with ufCXL. Inclusion criteria were early, mild PLE defined as new-onset postoperative manifest refraction cylinder ≤1.50 D, with new topographic inferior steepening consistent with ectasia, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) of 20/40 or better, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 20/25 or better. Existing LASIK flap was lifted, riboflavin was applied directly to the stromal bed, flap was repositioned, and 18 mW/cm2 ultraviolet light was applied for 3 minutes to the corneal surface. Post-ufCXL manifest refraction, UDVA and CDVA, corneal cylinder, Kmax, and corneal irregularity index were compared with pre-ufCXL measurements. Results Patients had a pre-ufCXL sphere of 0.09±0.48 D and cylinder of −0.78±0.49 D. At 6 months, post-ufCXL sphere (0.06±0.8 D; P=0.89) and cylinder (−1.09±0.76 D, P=0.26) were unchanged. Cumulative post-ufCXL UDVA was unchanged, achieving 20/20, 20/30, and 20/40 in 25%, 88%, and 88%, respectively, compared with 13%, 63%, and 88% pre-ufCXL (P=0.68). Post-ufCXL CDVA was unchanged (P=0.93) with a gain of one line in two eyes, a loss of one line in one eye, and five eyes unchanged. The efficacy index (P=0.76), safety index (P=0.89), Kmax (P=0.94), and corneal irregularity index (P=0.73) were also unchanged. Conclusion Preliminary results with ufCXL for early PLE are promising, demonstrating maintenance of visual accuracy, efficacy, safety, Kmax, and cylinder, with much quicker recovery times than surface CXL. PMID:28031696

  9. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  10. Highly Efficient Defect Emission from ZnO:Zn and ZnO:S Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everitt, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Bulk Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with an ultraviolet direct band gap energy of 3.4 eV and a broad, defect-related visible wavelength emission band centered near 2 eV. We have shown that the external quantum efficiency can exceed 50% for this nearly white emission band that closely matches the human dark-adapted visual response. To explore the potential of ZnO as a rare earth-free white light phosphor, we investigated the mechanism of efficient defect emission in three types of ZnO powders: unannealed, annealed, and sulfur-doped. Annealing and sulfur-doping of ZnO greatly increase the strength of defect emission while suppressing the UV band edge emission. Continuous wave and ultrafast one- and two-photon excitation spectroscopy are used to examine the defect emission mechanism. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra were measured for all three compounds, and it was found that bound excitons mediate the defect emission. Temperature-dependent PLE spectra for the defect and band edge emission were measured to estimate trapping and activation energies of the bound excitons and clarify the role they play in the defect emission. Time-resolved techniques were used to ascertain the role of exciton diffusion, the effects of reabsorption, and the spatial distributions of radiative and non-radiative traps. In unannealed ZnO we find that defect emission is suppressed and UV band edge emission is inefficient (< 2%) because of reabsorption and non-radiative recombination due to a high density of non-radiative bulk traps. By annealing ZnO, bulk trap densities are reduced, and a high density of defects responsible for the broad visible emission are created near the surface. Interestingly, nearly identical PLE spectra are found for both the band edge and the defect emission, one of many indications that the defect emission is deeply connected to bound excitons. Quantum efficiency, also measured as a function of excitation

  11. Using a simple HPLC approach to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g, a small molecule TNF-α inhibitor, from porcine esterase and from rabbit esterase

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Kenneth; Zhang, Yiguan; Valeriote, Frederick; Chen, Ben; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2013-01-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. As a prelude to investigating the metabolites of UTL-5g, we set out to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g under the treatment of both porcine liver esterase (PLE) and rabbit liver esterase (RLE). First, a number of mixtures made by UTL-5g and PLE were incubated at 25 °C. At predetermined time points, individual samples were quenched by acetonitrile, vortexed, and centrifuged. The supernatants were then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC (using a C18 column). The retention times and UV/Vis spectra of individual peaks were compared to those of UTL-5g and its two postulated enzymatic products; thus the enzymatic products of UTL-5g were tentatively identified. Secondly, a different HPLC method (providing different retentions times) was used to cross-check and to confirm the identities of the two enzymatic products. Based on the observations, it was concluded that under the treatment of PLE, the major enzymatic products of UTL-5g were 5-methyliosxazole-3-carboxylic acid (ISOX) and 2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Treatment of UTL-5g by RLE also provided the same enzymatic products of UTL-5g from esterase. These results indicate that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by PLE/RLE. Michaelis–Menten kinetics showed that the Km values of UTL-5g were 2.07 mM with PLE and 0.37 mM with RLE indicating that UTL-5g had a higher affinity with RLE. In summary, by a simple HPLC approach, we have concluded that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by esterase from either porcine liver or rabbit liver in vitro and afforded DCA (at a mole ratio of 1:1) and ISOX. However, further studies are needed in order to determine whether UTL-5g is metabolized by microsomal enzymes to produce ISOX and DCA. PMID:24126042

  12. Using a simple HPLC approach to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g, a small molecule TNF-α inhibitor, from porcine esterase and from rabbit esterase.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Kenneth; Zhang, Yiguan; Valeriote, Frederick; Chen, Ben; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2013-12-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. As a prelude to investigating the metabolites of UTL-5g, we set out to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g under the treatment of both porcine liver esterase (PLE) and rabbit liver esterase (RLE). First, a number of mixtures made by UTL-5g and PLE were incubated at 25°C. At predetermined time points, individual samples were quenched by acetonitrile, vortexed, and centrifuged. The supernatants were then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC (using a C18 column). The retention times and UV/vis spectra of individual peaks were compared to those of UTL-5g and its two postulated enzymatic products; thus the enzymatic products of UTL-5g were tentatively identified. Secondly, a different HPLC method (providing different retentions times) was used to cross-check and to confirm the identities of the two enzymatic products. Based on the observations, it was concluded that under the treatment of PLE, the major enzymatic products of UTL-5g were 5-methyliosxazole-3-carboxylic acid (ISOX) and 2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Treatment of UTL-5g by RLE also provided the same enzymatic products of UTL-5g from esterase. These results indicate that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by PLE/RLE. Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed that the Km values of UTL-5g were 2.07mM with PLE and 0.37mM with RLE indicating that UTL-5g had a higher affinity with RLE. In summary, by a simple HPLC approach, we have concluded that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by esterase from either porcine liver or rabbit liver in vitro and afforded DCA (at a mole ratio of 1:1) and ISOX. However, further studies are needed in order to determine whether UTL-5g is metabolized by microsomal enzymes to produce ISOX and DCA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. FOREWORD: The 7th International Workshop on Carbon Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Marek

    1996-01-01

    The International Workshop on Carbon Materials, held in Stockholm on the 21st and 22nd of September 1995, was the seventh meeting in the series designed to highlight recent progress in studies and development of plasma facing materials for controlled fusion devices. The meeting was organized in a close cooperation between the groups from the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - Stockholm and Research Centre (KFA) in Juelich - Germany. It is worthwhile to mention that the workshop was for the first time organized outside Germany; all previous meetings of the series were held at the KFA - Juelich. The workshop was sponsored by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences through its Nobel Institute for Physics, the Swedish Natural Science Research Council, the Royal Institute of Technology and the City of Stockholm. The symposium gathered 48 registered participants from Germany, Japan, Sweden, France, the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom, Russia, Poland and India. The scientists were coming from the leading plasma physics and fusion-related materials research laboratories. Presentations included 16 invited talks and several oral presentations given both by the researchers and representatives of industrial companies developing plasma facing materials and components. Moreover, the Toyo Tanso Ltd. (Japan) organized an exhibition of the Company products. Ample time was allowed for discussions and "hot" topic presentations. The workshop was preceded (September 20) by the EU Meeting on Tritium Removal in Controlled Fusion Devices. The programme consisted of three major topics concerning: neutron irradiation effects in materials, hydrogen interaction-tritium inventory phenomena and comparison of carbon materials and beryllium for fusion applictions. The speakers presented both an overview and details of the field. For the first time, the results of the influence of radiation damage on the tritium inventory in the materials were presented by scientists from Europe, Japan

  14. Murchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wopenka, B.; Xu, Y. C.; Zinner, E.; Amari, S.

    2013-04-01

    Raman analyses are reported of μm-sized areas of 103 individual carbonaceous presolar grains ("graphite grains") from three different density fractions of the Murchison meteorite. Few of the grains (2 or 3 of each density fraction) have Raman spectra typical for non-crystalline sp2-bonded carbon (i.e., "organic carbon") with extremely wide 1st-order and no (or very subdued) 2nd-order peaks, similar to the ones found for terrestrial kerogens. Based on depth profiles of isotopic ratios measured with the NanoSIMS, it is unlikely that such kerogen-type Raman signatures are caused by contamination of the presolar grains with insoluble organic material from the Murchison matrix that stuck to the surfaces of the grains. Rather, the kerogen-type grains are considered to be a new type of presolar carbon grains, which are made up of organic (PAH-like) sp2-bonded carbon. However, most of the other studied presolar carbon grains (95 of 103) have spectra with very narrow 1st-order peaks (called D and G peaks) and very strong 2nd-order peaks typical for inorganic sp2-bonded carbon. Based on their D/G intensity ratios, those grains were grouped into the following Raman types: (fairly well ordered) "graphite" (D/G < 0.5), "disordered graphite" (0.5 < D/G < 1.1), "glassy carbon" (D/G > 1.1), and "unusual sp2-bonded graphitic carbon" (with extremely intense 2nd-order peaks relative to the 1st-order peaks). Grains from the low-density fraction KFA1 (2.05-2.10 g/cm3) have predominantly "cauliflower" morphology and Raman spectra characteristic of either very disordered graphite or "glassy carbon" (i.e., the latter is amorphous from the Raman spectroscopic perspective), whereas most grains from the high-density fraction KFC1 (2.15-2.20 g/cm3) have "onion" morphology and Raman spectra characteristic of well-crystalline graphite. The KFB1 grains with intermediate density (2.10-2.15 g/cm3) are mixed, both in terms of their morphology and their Raman spectra but are closer to KFC1 than to

  15. Quantifying Temporal and Spatial Variability of Nearshore Processes Around a Nearshore Kelp Forest Rocky Reef with the Kelp Forest Array Cabled Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squibb, M. E.; Monismith, S. G.; Woodson, C. B.; Dunckley, J. F.; Martone, R. G.; Litvin, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Oceanographic data from the Kelp Forest Array (KFA) cabled observatory is used to determine the frequency, intensity, duration and seasonal variation of low-pH and low-DO events, and relate them to temperature and density variability associated with internal waves and upwelling. We employ standard time series analyses to determine the frequency distributions of variance in pH, DO, and T and coherence analysis to identify frequency dependent co-variability among the three variables. Statistical analysis is used to identify the probability of a hypoxic event of given strength (e.g., DO < 4.5 mg/l17) lasting for a given duration and compare this between habitats. Joint probability distribution functions of low-DO are computed from the data in the same way. This approach can be used to identify the likelihood of extreme events with respect to specific DO thresholds of physiological relevance for species of interest in MPAs. The time scales and vertical structure of velocities, temperature, and dissolved oxygen associated with low-DO events are also analyzed to determine the dominant transport mechanisms for these events and how they are tied to internal shoaling waves prevalent in the southern part of Monterey Bay. The structure and evolution of shoaling internal "bores" are also shown to substantially alter the background nearshore dynamics with their arrival and relaxation. Our work in 2015 is contextualized by multi-year data sets from the three previous years which contain observations of both upwelling and non-upwelling periods.

  16. The Accommodation Coefficient of Water Molecules on Ice: Results from Cirrus Cloud Experiments at the Aerosol Chamber AIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, J.; Connolly, P.; Niemand, M.; Saathoff, H.; Moehler, O.; Ebert, V.; Leisner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Cirrus clouds are pure ice clouds in the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere. One of the parameters governing the growth of ice crystals in these clouds is the accommodation coefficient of water molecules on ice. However, its magnitude is still uncertain to a large degree, since experimental results vary from below 0.01 up to unity depending on the design of the experiment and the examined ice growth process [1]. For the specific case of ice crystal growth in cirrus clouds, no previous experimental studies regarding the accommodation coefficient exist. Therefore, dedicated experiments were carried out at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA [2], examining the ice crystal growth for deposition nucleation in the temperature range from -75 °C to -40 °C. These experiments were evaluated with two different models, a simple one, which just incorporates kinetic and diffusive theory of ice crystal growth, and the more advanced and extended aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction model (ACPIM) [3]. The outcome of these two models is compared to absolute in-situ humidity data measured within AIDA using extractive as well as open path diode laser hygrometers (TDLAS) [4]. For every experiment, this is done by varying the value of the accommodation coefficient within each model, in order to get best agreement with experimental data. The values obtained for the accommodation coefficient at different temperatures are presented and the overall uncertainties as well as the consistency between the two different models are discussed. [1] D. R. Heynes, N. J. Tro, and S. M. George, J. Phys. Chem. 1992, 96, 8502-8509 (1992) [2] O. Möhler et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 211-223 (2003) [3] P. J. Connolly et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 2805-2824 (2009) [4] D. W. Fahey et al., AquaVIT White Paper, avail. at https://aquavit.icg.kfa-juelich.de/AquaVit/AquaVitWiki

  17. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.; Noda, N.

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  18. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time.

  19. Evidence of low frequency waves penetration in the ionosphere observed by Chibis-M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir; Korepanov, Valery

    2016-07-01

    Chibis-M microsatellite (MS) was launched using ISS infrastructure to the 500 km circular orbit with inclination 52° and successfully operated during the years 2012-2014. One of the main tasks of this experiment was the study of how powerful natural and technogenic processes are reflected in the ionosphere. For this study, the magnetic wave complex (MWC) was used which measured one electrical component and three components of the magnetic vector in the frequency range 0.1 Hz-40 kHz. Due to the proximity of the magnetic sensors and the satellite control system, their high sensitivity (up to 0.02 pT/sqrt(Hz)) was not used in full because the level of magnetic noise was about 10 pT/sqrt(Hz) in the low-frequency range. Nevertheless, owing to the symmetric fixation of the electric probes relative to the satellite body, the electrical sensor provided high accuracy measurements (about 0.8-0.04 (µV/m)/sqrt(Hz)) in the frequency range of 0.1-40 000 Hz, despite the very small measurement base of 0.42 m. This allowed us to collect valuable information which revealed a number of interesting physical effects, especially in ultralow frequency (ULF) range. In ULF range the ionospheric emissions with a central frequency of 50 (60) Hz - power line emissions (PLE) and the Schumann resonance harmonics (SR) were detected, though, according to the present model of the ionosphere, they have not penetrate there. A detailed study of the obtained data revealed the features of PLE and SR. The spatial distribution of PLE and their connection with the power lines location on the ground were analyzed. It was found that the intensity of PLE depends on the load characteristics of the power line and usually has a minimum in the morning. The cases of an extra long distance of PLE propagation in the Earth's ionosphere over oceans in the equatorial region have been also observed. Further, it was detected that PLE has been recorded both in the shaded and sunlit parts of the orbits and their

  20. GC-MS method for determining faecal sterols as biomarkers of human and pastoral animal presence in freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Battistel, Dario; Piazza, Rossano; Argiriadis, Elena; Marchiori, Enrico; Radaelli, Marta; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine sterols and stanols in freshwater sediments to reconstruct the past presence of humans and pastoral animals, we developed an analytical method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), clean-up performed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and sterol determination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PLE extraction conditions were optimised using dichloromethane (DCM) and DCM/methanol mixtures. Clean-up was performed with 2 g silica SPE cartridges, and the concentrated extracts were eluted with 70 mL DCM. Extraction yield was evaluated using an in-house reference material spiked with (13)C-labelled cholesterol and aged for 10 days. In comparison with pre-extraction, where the sediment is extracted and then spiked with a known analyte concentration, this approach preserves the original composition of the sediment. DCM and DCM/methanol mixtures resulted in high extraction yields ranging from 86 to 92 % with good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) 5-8 %). PLE extraction yields obtained with DCM as the extracting solvent were about 1.5 times higher than extractions using an ultrasonic bath. The solvent extraction mixture and matrix composition strongly affected the solvent extraction composition where higher overall recoveries (70-80 %) for each compound were obtained with DCM. The extraction mixture and matrix composition also affected the analyte concentrations, resulting in a method precision ranging from 1 to 18 %. Diatomaceous earth spiked with 10 to 100 ng of sterols, and environmental samples fortified with suitable amounts of sterols provided apparent recovery values ranging from 90 to 110 %. We applied the method to environmental samples both close to and upstream from sewage discharge zones, resulting in substantially higher faecal sterol (FeSt) concentrations near the sewage. In addition, we also applied the method to a 37-cm freshwater sediment core in order to evaluate its applicability for

  1. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Determination of rutin and quercetin in Chinese herbal medicine by ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction-liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Chen, Meilan; Fan, Yunchang; Elsebaei, Fawzi; Zhu, Yan

    2012-01-15

    A novel ionic liquid-based pressurized liquid extraction (IL-PLE) procedure coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem chemiluminescence (CL) detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of rutin and quercetin in four Chinese medicine plants including Flos sophorae Immaturus, Crateagus pinnatifida Bunge, Hypericum japonicum Thunb and Folium Mori was described in this paper. To avoid environmental pollution and toxicity to the operators, ionic liquids (ILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(n)mim][Cl]) aqueous solutions were used in the PLE procedure as extractants replacing traditional organic solvents. In addition, chemiluminescence detection was utilized for its minimal interference from endogenous components of complex matrix. Parameters affecting extraction and analysis were carefully optimized. Compared with the conventional ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the optimized method achieved the highest extraction efficiency in the shortest extraction time with the least solvent consumption. The applicability of the proposed method to real sample was confirmed. Under the optimized conditions, good reproducibility of extraction performance was obtained and good linearity was observed with correlation coefficients (r) between 0.9997 and 0.9999. The detection limits of rutin and quercetin (LOD, S/N=3) were 1.1×10(-2)mg/L and 3.8×10(-3)mg/L, respectively. The average recoveries of rutin and quercetin for real samples were 93.7-105% with relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 5.7%. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first contribution to utilize a combination of IL-PLE with chemiluminescence detection. And the experimental results indicated that the proposed method shows a promising prospect in extraction and determination of rutin and quercetin in medicinal plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Convergence of a head-field selector Otx2 and Notch signaling: a mechanism for lens specification.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hajime; Fisher, Marilyn; Grainger, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus is ideal for systematic decoding of cis-regulatory networks because its evolutionary position among vertebrates allows one to combine comparative genomics with efficient transgenic technology in one system. Here, we have identified and analyzed the major enhancer of FoxE3 (Lens1), a gene essential for lens formation that is activated in the presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) when commitment to the lens fate occurs. Deletion and mutation analyses of the enhancer based on comparison of Xenopus and mammalian sequences and in vitro and in vivo binding assays identified two essential transcriptional regulators: Otx2, a homeodomain protein expressed broadly in head ectoderm including the PLE, and Su(H), a nuclear signal transducer of Notch signaling. A Notch ligand, Delta2, is expressed in the optic vesicle adjacent to the PLE, and inhibition of its activity led to loss, or severe reduction, of FoxE3 expression followed by failure of placode formation. Ectopic activation of Notch signaling induced FoxE3 expression within head ectoderm expressing Otx2, and additional misexpression of Otx2 in trunk ectoderm extended the Notch-induced FoxE3 expression posteriorly. These data provide the first direct evidence of the involvement of Notch signaling in lens induction. The obligate integration of inputs of a field-selector (Otx2) and localized signaling (Notch) within target cis-regulatory elements might be a general mechanism of organ-field specification in vertebrates (as it is in Drosophila). This concept is also consistent with classical embryological studies of many organ systems involving a ;multiple-step induction'.

  4. Chemical composition of bioactive pressurized extracts of Romanian aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Plaza, M; Bahrim, G; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2011-07-29

    In this contribution, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been employed to isolate bioactive compounds from three native Romanian plants, oregano (Origanum vulgare), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum). Different PLE conditions have been tested including extraction with water, ethanol and their mixtures in a wide range of extraction temperatures (50-200°C), and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was measured using different assays (DPPH radical scavenging, TEAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteau assay to measure total phenols). Moreover, a complete chemical characterization by using LC-MS/MS was carried out to be able to correlate the bioactivity with the particular chemical composition of each extract and plant. The use of PLE with water as a solvent at the highest temperature tested (200°C) always provided the highest extraction yields for the three studied plants, being maximum for oregano (>60%). Besides, oregano's pressurized water extracts at lower temperatures (50°C) presented the highest content on total phenols (184.9 mg gallic acid/g extract) and the best antioxidant activities (EC(50) 6.98 μg/ml). In general, oregano extracts were the most active, followed by wild thyme extracts. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH assay was highly correlated with the amount of total phenols. Moreover, the use of a LC-MS/MS method allowed the identification of 30 different phenolic compounds in the different extracts, including phenolic acids, flavones, flavanones and flavonols, which have an important influence on the total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pressurized liquid extraction coupled with countercurrent chromatography for systematic isolation of chemical constituents by preprogrammed automatic control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchi; Guo, Liping; Liu, Chunming; Fu, Zi' ao; Cong, Lei; Qi, Yanjuan; Li, Dongping; Li, Sainan; Wang, Jing

    2013-09-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) via an automated procedure was firstly developed to extract and isolate ginsenosides from Panax quinquefolium. The experiments were designed under the guidance of mathematical model. The partition coefficient (K) values of the target compounds and resolutions of peak profiles were employed as the research indicators, and exponential function and binomial formulas were used to optimizing the solvent systems and flow rates of the mobile phases in a three-stage separation. In the first stage, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water were simultaneously pumped into the solvent separator at the flow rates 11.0, 10.0, and 23.0mL/min, respectively. The upper phase of the solvent system in the solvent separator was used as both the PLE solvent and the HSCCC stationary phase, followed by elution with the lower phase of the corresponding solvent system to separate the common ginsenosides. In the second and third stages, rare ginsenosides were first separated by elution with ethyl acetate, n-butanol, methanol, and water (flow rates: 20.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 11.0mL/min, respectively), then with n-heptane, n-butanol, methanol, and water (flow rates: 17.5, 6.0, 5.0, and 22.5mL/min, respectively). Nine target compounds, with purities exceeding 95.0%, and three non-target compounds, with purities above 84.48%, were successfully separated at the semipreparative scale in 450min. The separation results prove that the PLE/HSCCC parameters calculated via mathematical model and formulas were accurately and scientifically. This research has opened up great prospects for industrial automation application.

  6. The evolutionary dynamics of the lion Panthera leo revealed by host and viral population genomics.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Agostinho; Troyer, Jennifer L; Roelke, Melody E; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Packer, Craig; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Frank, Laurence; Stander, Philip; Siefert, Ludwig; Driciru, Margaret; Funston, Paul J; Alexander, Kathy A; Prager, Katherine C; Mills, Gus; Wildt, David; Bush, Mitch; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-11-01

    The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of the lion feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(Ple)), a lentivirus analogous to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long distances, patterns of lion genetic diversity suggest substantial population subdivision (mtDNA Phi(ST) = 0.92; nDNA F(ST) = 0.18), and reduced gene flow, which, along with large differences in sero-prevalence of six distinct FIV(Ple) subtypes among lion populations, refute the hypothesis that African lions consist of a single panmictic population. Our results suggest that extant lion populations derive from several Pleistocene refugia in East and Southern Africa ( approximately 324,000-169,000 years ago), which expanded during the Late Pleistocene ( approximately 100,000 years ago) into Central and North Africa and into Asia. During the Pleistocene/Holocene transition ( approximately 14,000-7,000 years), another expansion occurred from southern refugia northwards towards East Africa, causing population interbreeding. In particular, lion and FIV(Ple) variation affirms that the large, well-studied lion population occupying the greater Serengeti Ecosystem is derived from three distinct populations that admixed recently.

  7. Long-term changes of the phytoplankton community and biomass in the subtropical shallow Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, Lumi; Carstensen, Jacob; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Odebrecht, Clarisse

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal and interannual changes (1993-2012) of water temperature and transparency, river discharge, salinity, water quality properties, chlorophyll a (chl-a) and the carbon biomass of the main taxonomical phytoplankton groups were evaluated at a shallow station (∼2 m) in the subtropical Patos Lagoon Estuary (PLE), Brazil. Large variations in salinity (0-35), due to a complex balance between Patos Lagoon outflow and oceanic inflows, affected significantly other water quality variables and phytoplankton dynamics, masking seasonal and interannual variability. Therefore, salinity effect was filtered out by means of a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). River discharge and salinity had a significant negative relation, with river discharge being highest and salinity lowest during July to October. Diatoms comprised the dominant phytoplankton group, contributing substantially to the seasonal cycle of chl-a showing higher values in austral spring/summer (September to April) and lowest in autumn/winter (May to August). PLE is a nutrient-rich estuary and the phytoplankton seasonal cycle was largely driven by light availability, with few exceptions in winter. Most variables exhibited large interannual variability. When varying salinity effect was accounted for, chl-a concentration and diatom biomass showed less irregularity over time, and significant increasing trends emerged for dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria. Long-term changes in phytoplankton and water quality were strongly related to variations in salinity, largely driven by freshwater discharge influenced by climatic variability, most pronounced for ENSO events. However, the significant increasing trend of the N:P ratio indicates that important environmental changes related to anthropogenic effects are undergoing, in addition to the hydrology in the PLE.

  8. Early Impact of Fontan Operation on Enteric Protein Loss

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jyoti K.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Goldberg, David J.; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Dodds, Kathryn; Rychik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein losing enteropathy (PLE) is a challenging complication after Fontan operation. Subclinical enteric protein loss may precede development of overt PLE. We evaluated the acute effects of Fontan circulation on enteric protein loss and mesenteric vascular resistance. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed evaluating enteric protein loss in children undergoing Fontan operation. Stool alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) concentration was measured in the pre-operative, early post-operative, and intermediate post-operative (3–9 months) periods. The intestinal circulation was characterized by Doppler-derived resistance indices of the superior mesenteric artery, and serum albumin and protein levels were obtained. Results We enrolled 33 subjects at a median age at operation of 3.0 (2.5–3.3) years. No clinical PLE was observed. Six of the 93 stool A1AT samples obtained were elevated (>54 mg/dl), with two abnormal samples at each of the three time points. Two of the five subjects with elevated stool A1AT values had significant hemodynamic disturbances requiring intervention (junctional bradycardia or tricuspid stenosis). There was no difference in superior mesenteric artery resistance in the pre-operative versus early post-operative period (p=0.9). Serum albumin levels were lower in the early post-operative period compared to the pre-operative period (3.2 mg/dl [IQR 2.9–3.5] vs. 4.1 mg/dl [IQR 3.4–4.5], p=0.01) but did not correlate with abnormal stool A1AT concentration or superior mesenteric artery resistance indices. Conclusions The Fontan operation does not commonly result in acute development of increased enteric protein loss. However, increased enteric protein loss may occur in children before or after Fontan operation, particularly when hemodynamic disturbances are present. PMID:26652137

  9. Determination of musk fragrances in sewage sludge by pressurized liquid extraction coupled to automated ionic liquid-based headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Vallecillos, Laura; Borrull, Francesc; Pocurull, Eva

    2012-10-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of ten musk fragrances extensively used in personal care products from sewage sludge was developed by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by an automated ionic liquid-based headspace single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The influence of main factors on the efficiency of PLE was studied. For all musks, the highest recovery values were achieved using 1 g of pretreated sewage sludge, H(2) O/methanol (1:1) as an extraction solvent, a temperature of 80°C, a pressure of 1500 psi, an extraction time of 5 min, 2 cycles, a 100% flush volume, a purge time of 120 s, and 1 g Florisil as in-cell clean-up extraction sorbent. The use and optimization of an in-cell clean-up sorbent was necessary to remove fatty interferents of the PLE extract that make the subsequent ionic liquid-based headspace single-drop microextraction difficult. Validation parameters, namely LODs and LOQs, ranged from 0.5-1.5 to 2.5-5 ng/g, respectively. Good levels of intra- and interday repeatabilities were obtained analyzing sewage sludge samples spiked at 10 ng/g (n = 3, RSDs < 10%). The method applicability was tested with sewage sludge from different wastewater treatment plants. The analysis revealed the presence of all the polycyclic musks studied at concentrations higher than the LOQs, ranging from 6 to 530 ng/g. However, the nitro musk concentrations were below the LOQs or, in the case of musk xylene, was not detected. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Localizing and Lateralizing Value of Auras in Lesional Partial Epilepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Yang-Je; Jang, Sang Hyun; Lee, Moon Kyu; Lee, Byung In

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the localizing and lateralizing values of auras in patients with lesional partial epilepsy on an outpatient basis. Materials and Methods A total of 276 subjects were retrospectively selected for this study if they had a unilateral single lobar lesion based on magnetic resonance image (MRI) results, and their scalp electroencephalography (EEG) findings were not discordant with the MRI-defined lobar localization and lateralization. According to the lesion locations, subjects were considered as having mesial temporal (MTLE), lateral temporal (LTLE), frontal (FLE), parietal (PLE), or occipital (OLE) lobe epilepsies. Auras were classified into 13 categories. Results A hundred and seventy-six subjects (63.8%) had experienced at least one aura. FLE subjects had the fewest number of auras. Epigastric and psychic auras were frequent among MTLE subjects, while visual auras were common in those with PLE and OLE. Somatosensory auras and whole body sensations were more frequent in the subjects with PLE than those without. Autonomic auras were more common in MTLE subjects than in LTLE subjects. Dysphasic auras were more frequently found in left-sided epilepsies. Five pairs of aura categories showed concurrent tendencies, which were the epigastric and autonomic auras, autonomic and emotional auras, visual and vestibular auras, auditory and vestibular auras, and whole-body sensation and auditory auras. Autonomic and emotional auras had a concurrent tendency in left-sided epilepsies, but not in right-sided epilepsies. Conclusion Our results support the previously known localizing value of auras, and suggest that dysphasic auras and the association of emotional and autonomic auras may have a lateralizing value. PMID:22476989

  11. Pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of alkylphenolic compounds in river sediment.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Mira; Lacorte, Silvia; Viana, Paula; Barceló, Damia

    2002-06-14

    A new methodology based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by LC-MS is presented for the simultaneous and unequivocal determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and their degradation products, alkylphenols (APs) and alkylphenoxy carboxylates (APECs), in sediment samples. The protocol, applicable to a full range of APEO oligomers and degradation products, permits the sensitive and selective determination of APEOs (nEO = 1-15), APECs (nEO = 0-1) and APs at low ppb levels (LODs = 1-5 microg/kg) in sediment samples. Optimization of the operational parameters of PLE clearly demonstrates that significant thermal losses of APs occur during extraction at elevated temperatures. The loss of octylphenol (OP) at 100 degrees C was 61.2% and of nonylphenol (NP) 40.0%, whereas other compounds were completely recovered. Thus, to avoid losses due to the volatility of alkylphenols, a low extraction temperature should be applied. The conditions that gave the best results for all target compounds were as follows: extraction solvent mixture, methanol-acetone (1:1, v/v); temperature, 50 degrees C; pressure, 1500 p.s.i.; two static cycles. Using PLE and a subsequent clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE), the simultaneous extraction of APEOs, APs and APECs from sediment samples was achieved yielding recoveries >70% and producing low MS background noise. The developed methodology was applied on a routine basis to the analysis of alkylphenolic compounds in sediment samples. APEOs and their persistent degradation products were detected in significant concentrations in sediments from Portuguese rivers, especially at sites situated in the proximity of industrial plants (mainly the textile industry). The total concentration of alkylphenolic compounds (APEOs+APs+APECs) ranged from 155 to 2400 microg/kg. Of all the alkylphenolic compounds, NP comprised 40 to 50% with concentrations up to 1172 microg/kg.

  12. Optical analysis of the light emission from porous silicon: a hybrid polyatom surface-coupled fluorophor.

    PubMed

    Gole, James L; Veje, Erling; Egeberg, R G; Ferreira da Silva, A; Pepe, I; Dixon, David A

    2006-02-09

    The most extensive data set yet generated correlating photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra is presented for aged (equilibrated) porous silicon (PS) samples. The observed features, which are temperature independent over the range 10-300 K, show a detailed correlation with the results of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and with molecular electronic structure calculations. The observed energy level patterns are reproduced in the photoabsorption (PA) of PS films released after the etching of a silicon wafer. It is concluded that the energy level pattern found for the photoluminescing surface of PS results from a structure which is neither uniquely molecule- or bulk-like but represents a hybrid form for which the density of states associated with a polyatomic vibrationally excited surface-bound fluorophor dominates the nature of the observed features which are not those of a semiconductor. These fluorophor features are broadened and shifted to lower excitation energy as a result of the intimate presence of the silicon surface to which the fluorophor is bound. The dominance of the surface-bound fluorophor accounts for the temperature-independent PLE and PL features. The observed spectral features are thus suggested to be the result of a strong synergistic interaction in which the silicon surface influences the location of surface-bound fluorophor excited states whereas the nature of the vibrationally excited surface-bound fluorophor coupling to the silicon surface provides the mechanism for an enhanced vibronic structure dominated interaction and energy transfer. The observed PLE, PL, PAS, and PA measurements are found to be consistent with previous photovoltaic and photoconductivity measurements, correlating well with a surface-bound oxyhydride-like emitter. This study suggests the important role that the overtone structure of a molecule bound to a surface can play as one forms a hybrid system.

  13. Expression of fibronectin and integrins in cultured periodontal ligament epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Uitto, V J; Larjava, H; Peltonen, J; Brunette, D M

    1992-05-01

    The process of attachment of epithelial cells obtained from the porcine periodontal ligament (cell rests of Malassez) to different extracellular matrix proteins and their expression of fibronectin and integrin receptors were studied by means of immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and time-lapse cinemicrography techniques. The cell lines of periodontal ligament epithelial cells (PLE cells) attached to and spread rapidly on fibronectin, vitronectin, and type I collagen. One of the cell lines also attached to laminin, while the other cell line showed poor attachment to both laminin and Matrigel, a basement membrane material. By use of the in situ hybridization technique, some PLE cells were found to express the fibronectin gene strongly. Immunocytochemical staining localized fibronectin in extracellular fibrils and intracellular granules. Fibronectin was also found in the tracks left behind by the cells migrating on the substratum. Arg-gly-asp-ser peptide inhibited the attachment of the PLE cells to fibronectin, laminin, type I collagen, and vitronectin by 47%, 43%, 83%, and 94%, respectively, suggesting that the cell-matrix interactions were partly mediated by receptors related to the integrin family. Antibodies against the beta 1-integrin subunit stained the cell bodies and the plasma membrane projections of spreading cells. After 24 h or longer in culture, beta 1-integrins were localized to the regions of cell-cell contact. Cinemicrography of the arg-gly-asp-ser-peptide-treated cells demonstrated that the spreading and migration of isolated cells were prevented by the peptide. The peptide did not appear to dissociate the cell-cell contacts or interfere with migration of spread-cell colonies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Stigma toward psychosis and its formulation process: prejudice and discrimination against early stages of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoko; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-02-01

    Stigma toward psychosis can prevent social attendance and help-seeking behavior. Early detection and intervention has been shown to improve patient outcome in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to reveal the characteristics and formulation process of stigma toward each clinical stage of schizophrenia, taking people's backgrounds into consideration. The participants consisted of three groups: general public, patients with mental illness, and psychiatric professionals. We performed a survey examining stigmas toward people with psychotic-like-experiences (PLE), at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS), schizophrenia, or depression. Prejudice was measured using a 21-item questionnaire, and discrimination was measured using the Social Distance Scale. The participants consisted of 149 people from the general public, 97 patients, and 119 psychiatric professionals. Generally, a similar pattern was observed among the groups in which prejudice and discrimination against PLE was mildest, followed by that against ARMS and depression, and finally schizophrenia. When the stigma of the general public was compared with that of psychiatric professionals, the prejudice and discrimination against PLE of the general public were both lower than those of the psychiatric professionals. However, the prejudice of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for ARMS. Furthermore, the discrimination of the general public was stronger than that of the professionals for schizophrenia. The stigmas of mental illness differed according to the clinical stage, although the pattern of severity was similar among the three groups. A formulation process is suggested in which stigma toward schizophrenia develops from an attitudinal property (prejudice) against ARMS and a behavioral property (discrimination) against schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Actigraphy monitoring of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weidong; Kwak, Shin; Li, Fuzhong; Wu, Chunlan; Chen, Yiyun; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Cai, Dingfang

    2013-07-02

    Although the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is the "gold-standard" tool in assessing the severity of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), not all activity-related disease symptoms can be accurately captured by the well-established clinical rating scale. Using an alternative approach, this study examined the level of physical activity measured by actigraphy over time and whether change in physical activity was associated with disease severity assessed by UPDRS. We used a longitudinal design in which physical activity and disease severity were assessed repeatedly during a 4-month interval, over a 3-year observational period, in a sample of 61 patients with idiopathic PD and a control group of 32 neurologically intact individuals. Physical activity data during awake-time were analyzed using the power-law exponent (PLE) method. Correlational relationships between changes in maxima values of PLE and scores of total UPDRS, UPDRS-part II (Activities of Daily Living), and UPDRS-part III (Motor Examination) in patients with PD were examined. Results show an increase in maxima values of PLE and the UPDRS total score in PD patients and that there is a positive association between changes in maxima values and total UPDRS score (r=0.746, p=0.032), UPDRS-part II score (r=0.687, p=0.027), and UPDRS-part III score (r=0.893, p=0.018). There was no significant change in the level of physical activity over time for the controls. Findings from this study indicate that change in physical activity, as captured by actigraphy, is associated with increased severity in patients' clinical symptoms of PD over time. Thus, these data suggest that, when used in conjunction with the conventional UPDRS measure, an actigraphic measure of physical activity may provide clinicians an adjunct measurement approach to monitor patients' activity-based disease progression or responses to treatment in outpatient clinic settings.

  16. Second-harmonic and linear optical spectroscopic study of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junwei; Wirth, Adrian; Downer, Michael C.; Mendoza, Bernardo S.

    2011-10-01

    The optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectra of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) prepared by implanting Si ions uniformly into silica substrates, then annealing, are compared and contrasted to their ellipsometric and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. Three resonances—two close in energy to E1 (3.4 eV) and E2 (4.27 eV) critical-point resonances of crystalline silicon (c-Si), and a broad resonance intermediate in energy between E1 and E2—are observed in all three types of spectra. These features are observed in conjunction with a sharp 520 cm-1 Raman peak characteristic of c-Si. While the ellipsometric and PLE spectra differ only slightly between samples with average NC diameter dNC=3 and 5 nm, the SHG spectrum changes dramatically from a nearly featureless spectrum dominated by the non-bulk-like intermediate resonance for dNC=3 nm, like the SHG spectrum of amorphous Si (a-Si), to a featured spectrum with pronounced resonances at 3.4, 3.73, and 4.8 eV for dNC=5 nm. The results suggest that SHG is uniquely sensitive to a nanointerfacial transition region containing a-Si and suboxide that is most prominent for small dNC, while ellipsometric and PLE spectra are more sensitive to the c-Si core of the NCs. The persistence of an a-Si tail in the Raman spectrum of annealed samples supports the interpretation.

  17. In vitro eye irritancy test of lauryl derivatives using the reconstructed rabbit corneal epithelium model.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Sanae; Hisama, Masayoshi; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Itou, Norihiko; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The rabbit corneal epithelium model (RCE model) was developed as a three-dimensional in vitro model to replace animal testing for the assessment of eye tolerance. In the model, a stratified culture of rabbit corneal epithelial cells is grown at the air-liquid interface on an amniotic membrane acting as a parabasal membrane. The alkaline exposure was restored each day in the presence of no irritants, although with the addition of SLS, which is a major irritant, the restoration of deficit was inhibited on the RCE model in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this test were comparable with those of the Draize test, and thus, this method using the RCE model may prove to be a useful and sensitive in vitro eye irritation test. The lauryl fatty chain derivatives, such as polyoxyethylene (9) lauryl ether (PLE), sodium polyoxyethylene (2) lauryl ether sulfate (SPLE), mono glyceryl laurate (MGL), and sodium N-lauroyl-l-glutaminate (SLG), which are widely used as surfactants for toiletry products and cosmetics, were evaluated for in vitro eye irritation potential using the RCE model. SLS, PLE, SPLE, MGL, and SLG inhibited 88.7%, 59.2%, 69.0%, 47.5%, and 15.7% of the restoration of deletion 24h after treatment at a concentration of 0.05%. The IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) values of SLS, PLE, SPLE, MGL, and SLG were 0.002%, 0.021%, 0.005%, 0.056%, and 0.448%, respectively. These results indicated that a functional group at the end of lauryl chain is an important factor for inhibiting the restoration of deletion using the RCE model.

  18. Macroalga Padina pavonica water extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction inhibit hyaluronidase activity as shown by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Syntia; Nehmé, Reine; Tannoury, Mona; Lesellier, Eric; Pichon, Chantal; Morin, Philippe

    2017-03-20

    Hyaluronidase degrades hyaluronic acid, the principal component of the extracellular matrix. Inhibition of this enzyme is thus expected to hinder skin aging. Brown alga Padina pavonica activity toward hyaluronidase was evaluated using capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based enzymatic assays. This green technique allows evaluation of the biological activity of the natural material in an economic manner. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction and electroporation extraction techniques were used. Extraction conditions were optimized to obtain cosmetically acceptable Padina pavonica extracts with the best inhibition activity. CE-based assays were conducted using only a few nanoliters of reactants, a capillary of 60cm total length and of 50μm internal diameter, +20kV voltage for separation in 50mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 9.0) and 200nm wavelength for detection. The reaction mixture was incubated for 1h and CE analysis time was about 11min. A novel online CE-assay using transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles for in-capillary reactant mixing allowed efficient monitoring of hyaluronidase kinetics with Km and Vmax equal to 0.46±0.04mgmL(-1) and 137.1±0.3nMs(-1) (r(2)=0.99; n=3), respectively. These values compared well with literature, which validates the assay. Water extracts obtained by PLE (60°C; 2 cycles) and MAE (60°C; 1000W; 2min) presented the highest anti-hyaluronidase activity. The half maximal effective concentration (IC50) of water PLE extract was 0.04±0.01mgmL(-1) (r(2)=0.99; n=3). This value is comparable to the one obtained for Einsenia bicyclis phlorotannin fractions (IC50=0.03mgmL(-1)), which makes Padina pavonica bioactivity very promising.

  19. Convergence of a head-field selector Otx2 and Notch signaling: a mechanism for lens specification

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Hajime; Fisher, Marilyn; Grainger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Xenopus is ideal for systematic decoding of cis-regulatory networks because its evolutionary position among vertebrates allows one to combine comparative genomics with efficient transgenic technology in one system. Here we have identified and analyzed the major enhancer of FoxE3/Lens1, a gene essential for lens formation that is activated in the presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) when commitment to the lens fate occurs. Deletion and mutation analyses of the enhancer based on comparison of Xenopus-mammalian sequences and in vitro and in vivo binding assays identified two essential transcriptional regulators; Otx2, a homeodomain protein expressed broadly in head ectoderm including the PLE, and Su(H), a nuclear signal transducer of Notch signaling. A Notch ligand, Delta2, is expressed in the optic vesicle adjacent to the PLE, and inhibition of its activity led to loss or severe reduction of FoxE3 expression followed by failure of placode formation. Ectopic activation of Notch signaling induced FoxE3 expression within head ectoderm expressing Otx2, and additional misexpression of Otx2 in trunk ectoderm extended the Notch-induced FoxE3 expression posteriorly. These data provide the first direct evidence of involvementof Notch signaling in lens induction. The obligate integration of inputs of a field-selector (Otx2) and localized signaling (Notch) within target cis-regulatory elements may be a general mechanism of organ-field specification in vertebrates (as in Drosophila). This concept is also consistent with classical embryological studies of many organ systems involving a “multiple-step induction”. PMID:18057103

  20. Determination of fungicides in white grape bagasse by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Celeiro, Maria; Llompart, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Dagnac, Thierry

    2014-05-23

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC TQ-MS) were used for the rapid determination of 11 fungicides (metalaxyl, cyprodinil, procymidone, iprovalicarb, myclobutanyl, kresoxim-methyl, benalaxyl, fenhexamide, tebuconazole, iprodione and dimethomorph) in white grape bagasse. The extractions were optimized on real non-spiked samples by means of experimental design and the optimal conditions were selected to achieve the method validation. The PLE procedure showed much higher efficiency than UAE for the target fungicides. Under the selected extraction conditions, PLE showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. Recoveries for the majority of studied fungicides were higher than 80% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) for GC TQ-MS were very low, at the sub ngg(-1) for the majority of the target fungicides, well below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine and table grapes, and vine leaves. Eighteen white grape bagasse samples were analyzed and nine out of eleven targets were detected in the samples. Seven of them were detected in more than 50% of the samples and most samples contained at least four of the target analytes. The most frequently found compounds were tebuconazole and dimethomorph with concentrations between 1.6-130 and 2.0-1788ngg(-1), respectively. Some samples showed high levels of many of the studied fungicides (high ngg(-1), even μgg(-1) for cyprodinil, fenhexamide, iprodione and dimethomorph), but all of them below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine grapes.

  1. Multi-class analysis of new psychoactive substances and metabolites in hair by pressurized liquid extraction coupled to HPLC-HRMS.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Camilla; Vannutelli, Gabriele; Massa, Maristella; Simeoni, Maria Chiara; Gregori, Adolfo; Ripani, Luigi; Compagnone, Dario; Curini, Roberta; Sergi, Manuel

    2016-07-23

    In this paper, an analytical method has been developed and validated for the analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and metabolites in hair samples. The method was based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) analysis. To evaluate extraction efficiency and the applicability of the method, hair samples were fortified by soaking in order to obtain a good surrogate for drug users' hair; the amount of incorporated drugs related to their lipophilicity, similarly to in vivo drug incorporation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that allowed for the analysis of both cathinones (5) and synthetic cannabinoids (7) in hair with a single extraction procedure and chromatographic run. A phenethylamine (2C-T-4), 4- fluorophenylpiperazine and methoxetamine were also included showing that PLE coupled to SPE clean-up was suitable for a multi-class analysis of NPS in hair. In addition, the use of PLE significantly reduced hair analysis time: decontamination, incubation, clean-up, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis were carried out in approximately 45 min. The method was fully validated according to Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) and Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) guidelines. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values ranged from 8 to 50 pg mg(-1) for cathinones, phenetylamines and piperazines, and from 9 to 40 pg mg(-1) for synthetic cannabinoids (10 pg mg(-1) for methoxetamine). Matrix effects were below 15% for all the analytes, demonstrating the effectiveness of the clean-up step. Inaccuracy was lower than 9% in terms of bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. JETCAL 2000R Analyzer H337PA-603 Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) on H-53 E/J Aircraft and H46 D/E Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-28

    ost s W hen C O SS I is Im ple m en ted 19 ,517 17 ,580 15 ,161 14 ,639 14 ,018 13 ,597 13 ,188 12...n t V a l u e ( $ K ) C. Ma rg in al I n vestm en t D. Mar gina l Savin gs Cost Com p ar ison -- Sho w ing Do D I n vestm en t s a nd Savin...copies GE AIRCRAFT ENgINES, 1000 WESTERN AVE., LYNN, MA 01910 Attention: Mr. William Meyer, T64 engines and Mr. Gordon Gissel , T58 engines A-1

  3. High-Redundancy Draft Sequencing of 15 Clinical and Environmental Burkholderia Strains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    after a near-drowning incident (5). B. ubonensis strain Bu was isolated from a rhizosphere sam- ple from a mine site in northern Australia ( 12...species formerly known as the Oklahoma s1rain of Pseudomonas pseudoma- llei. lnt. J. Syst. Evol. Microhiol. 56:217l-217!i. 8. Howard. K .. and T. J. Inglis... Pseudomonas pseudoma- llei-lik.: organism isolated from the soil: case report and epidemiol(lgJc study J. Infect. Dis. l.lS:l03-l07. 15. Nussbaum, J. J

  4. SDSS Spectroscopic Survey of Stars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    correlation with the position of a star in the g − r vs. u − g color- color diagram , thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for...sharply to ∼25 kms−1 for stars with g = 20. Using a sam- ple of multiply-observed stars, Pourbaix et al. (2005) estimate that these errors may be under...color, described by Ivezić et al. (2004), is per- pendicular to the locus in the g − r vs. u − g color-color diagram (c.f. Fig. 2). We estimate

  5. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  6. Projectile, 155MM, XM982, Excalibur, Packed One (1) per PA179 Container, Unitized Up to Three (3) per 40 in. x 48 in. Wooden Pallet, MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    TO BE RETURNED, PROCEDURES DEPICTED IN AMC DRAWING 19-48-4231155-20PM1006 2. DETERIORATION DUE TO A MINOR AMOUNT OF RUST WILL NOT NECESSAR- SHALL BE... NAILS MUST BE APPLIED NEXT TO THE STRAPPING SUCH THAT THE NAIL HEADS(CONTINUED AT RIGHT) OVERLAP THE STRAPPING. APPLY TWO NAILS IN PAIRS (TO REPLACE...ONE STA- PLE) ON EITHER SIDE OF THE STRAP, WITH THE SECOND NAIL APPLIED AP- PROXIMATELY 180 DEGREES FROM THE FIRST NAIL . K. UNIT LOAD MARKING WILL BE

  7. Workshop on Planning and Learning in Multi- Agent Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-31

    to win the game but to win vigne @es from the game •  Finally we need to look at different domains in which to study intelligent adversaries – •  In...agents to win the game but to win vigne @es from the game 21 Predic5ng/recognizing plans •  One important ques5on is how do we predict adversarial...agents to win the game but to win vigne @es from the game Challenge Problems •  Mul5ple domains •  Strategic Games –  incorporate effects of alliances

  8. Single-Molecule and Superresolution Imaging in Live Bacteria Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biteen, Julie S.; Moerner, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Single-molecule imaging enables biophysical measurements devoid of ensemble averaging, gives enhanced spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit, and permits superresolution reconstructions. Here, single-molecule and superresolution imaging are applied to the study of proteins in live Caulobacter crescentus cells to illustrate the power of these methods in bacterial imaging. Based on these techniques, the diffusion coefficient and dynamics of the histidine protein kinase PleC, the localization behavior of the polar protein PopZ, and the treadmilling behavior and protein superstructure of the structural protein MreB are investigated with sub-40-nm spatial resolution, all in live cells. PMID:20300204

  9. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Related Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-15

    Related Method*, edited by Behm, Garcia, and Rohrer, dis - topography ocopr am~ple. have been simultaneously ctieas recent developmients in the theory and...probed on Rh(Ill) has been obtained (CIS). Joachim has also dis - methods. The literature is organized by the nature of the cussed the conductance of...images (C18, C19). and growth of Ag in the monolayer regime on Auw 1111 ’ DI . Kariotis and Lagally have modeled various terrace-edge T same group found

  10. Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease, an Imminent Military Epidemic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    the TZD rosiglitazone and the non-TZD PPAR ligands and agonists azelaoyl PAF (AzPAF) and GW1929.28,29 Enhance- ment of FC-induced apoptosis was...observed with rosiglita- zone but not with either AzPAF or GW1929 (Figure 3A). To verify that AzPAF in particular was acting as a PPAR agonist in our system...the mechanism is undoubtedly more complex. For exam- ple, the fact that non-TZD PPAR agonists do not enhance apoptosis (Figure 3A) but probably still

  11. A Screening Criterion for Delivered Source in Military Software. Volume 2. Appendices A through H

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-14

    79163-50 APPENDIX A SA14PLE CHANGE REQUEST 77I NADC-79163-50 DSCP CHANGE REQUEST - 45 Originator’s Name: Norma Stopyra Page 1 of 1 Module: DUBOOINS (SDG...1 o ISO a I a a 0 1 a a - 0 2 a a a a a a ~ 0 0 0 a 3i 1 0 a 00 0 a 0 0 2 a a0 a L0 a 0 0 0 0 9 a , a0 0 0 a u n * ~ a 0 0 ’ 0 0 0 _ 0 __0 0 * 1 i

  12. Development of Sizing Systems for Navy Women’s Uniforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    29 iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Fjgure PagL, 1 Plot of Waist Circumference and Hip Circumference of N avy sam ple...0.60229260 0.58186722 0.44058998 Chest Circumference below Bust 1.55192098 0.87502620 1.19586235 Waist Circumference -4.78386455 -4.62581619...14 16 18 Bust Circumference 311 32" 3131 341 36 371/" 39 41 43 Waist Circumference 23112 2• 4 25’ 26`2 28 29`2 31 33 35 Scve Circumference 13 1/4 13 3

  13. West Europe Report, Science and Technology, No. 514.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    been artificially inflated, as we can not be sure that the future does not hold more unpleasant surprises in store for Thomson, considering the...Mechanics] is a good exam- ple of this. However, because of the high costs facing busines - ses today and the cost of research, the firm’s real profits grew...and learning-based intelligent systems. The total expenditure over 5 years will be $549.5 million, the additional 235.5 being provided by industry. The

  14. Modeling Magnetic Core Loss for Sinusoidal Waveforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Manganese Zinc (MnZn) Power Ferrites between 100 kHz to 500 kHz CPL data is empirically fit to the PLE given in Equation 3, the values of the curve...calculation. The frequency range used in this experiment was 100 to 700 kHz and the material used was 3F3. 3F3 is a Manganese Zinc power ferrite ...reported that compares these models to actual Power Ferrite data. In addition, three components used in several of CPL empirical equations have been

  15. Hydroxychloroquine in polymorphic light eruption: a controlled trial with drug and visual sensitivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G M; Hawk, J L; Magnus, I A

    1987-03-01

    A double-blind controlled trial of oral hydroxychloroquine (HC) treatment in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) was completed in 13 patients on active treatment and 15 on placebo during June, July and August 1982. HC dose was 400 mg daily for the first month and 200 mg daily thereafter. Exposure to ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was monitored throughout the trial by polysulphone film lapel badges. Patients scored their symptoms on a visual analogue scale. Drug concentration was monitored in plasma and hair, and oculotoxicity was assessed by visual contrast sensitivity. Moderate clinical improvement occurred, associated with a statistically significant improvement in skin rash (P less than 0.01).

  16. Plano Entrópico de galaxias tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. G.; Alonso, M. V.; García Lambas, D.

    Early-type galaxies are systems in quasi-equilibrium and we can assume that their specific entropy is constant. This property is reflected in the ob- served correlations among photometric parameters describing the galaxy profiles. We discuss preliminary results of computing the specific entropy in several clusters and groups of galaxies. The galaxy sample is a subsam- ple of the spectro-photometric ENEAR survey (da Costa et al. 2000) of early-type galaxies in the local Universe. The Entropic Plane would allow us to understand the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies in dynamical terms and the processes involved in such relationships. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Microcomputer-Assisted Flow-Through ASV System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    flexibility have also been introduced recently, an exam - ple being Environmental Science Association’s Model 3040. However, there is one trait common to...A ANDA #$0q 005 8B 60 A ADDA 4~01100000 PEN UP,CRART OFF 00)? B7 0000 A STAA P2BP ELECT. OFF,SCAN OFF 00)A 7E 0000 A imp RPOL XREF PlIP, P1 P, PlAC...FXVAL AND LPTNO,LXVAL *RETURN I-TRUE 0-FALSE IN ACCA *T VALUE ON LINE IS LEFT IN Y 0390 FE 0033 D AELINE LDX FPTNO /GET Ti 0393 09 DIX 1ST Y VALUE 0394

  18. Strain tuning of topological band order in cubic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, wanxiang; Zhu, Wenguang; Weitering, Hanno; Stocks, George Malcolm; Yao, yugui; Xiao, Di

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of tuning the topological order of cubic diamond/zinc-blende semi- conductors with external strain. Based on a simple tight-binding model, we analyze the evolution of the cubic semiconductor band structure under hydrostatic or biaxial lattice expansion, by which a generic guiding princi- ple is established that biaxial lattice expansion can induce a topological phase transition of small band-gap cubic semiconductors via a band inversion and symmetry breaking at point. Using density functional theory cal- culations, we demonstrate that a prototype topological trivial semiconductor, InSb, is converted to a nontrivial topological semiconductor with a 2% 3% biaxial lattice expansion.

  19. Return Wave Analysis in a Thermally Bloomed Medium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Diffraction of the Self-induced Thermal Distortion of a Laser Beam in a Crosswind," A pled Optcs, II, 244-248 (February 1972). 3. Hecht, Eugene and Alfred ...irrc:HAFIs *,fr 4𔃺 *(14t 0 *044 -0 0* RE FilI 21:Pl.E’ IiEqAHEq PETRAl ICEP’fl1. + PETAMl FAHrE >PArH;F *OlvERFILL ID LOOP FOP FPOPA𔃽AiTIOh IH:FPEHEHT:7<, A I

  20. Delineation of Methyl-DNA Binding Protein Interactions in the Prostate Cancer Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Sites  in  Malignant  Prostate  Tissue Chromosome Region 1 202609920 A022 synaptotagmin -­‐2 mul-ple  Txn  Fac  ChIPs 2 133028450 A023 same...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12- 1 -0123 TITLE: Delineation of Methyl-DNA Binding...DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per

  1. Phagosome-lysosome fusions in macrophages infected by Mycobacterium avium: role of mycosides-C and other cells surface components.

    PubMed

    Fréhel, C; Rastogi, N

    1989-01-01

    The phagosome-lysosome fusions (PLE) were assessed in case of bone-marrow macrophages infected by the opportunistic species Mycobacterium avium, employing the acid-phosphatase (AcPase) electron-cytochemistry. The role of surface components was evaluated by coating the bacteria prior to phagocytosis by specific M. avium antiserum or the anti-mycosides-C serum raised in rabbit. PLF was evaluated under the electron microscope during (2, 4 hours), or after (24 hours) phagocytosis. The preliminary results suggest that although M. avium surface components intervene in PLF inhibition, the role of mycosides-C among these surface components (effectively intervening in PLF inhibition) is questionable.

  2. A unique case of collagenous colitis presenting as protein-losing enteropathy successfully treated with prednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Soichi; Yamagami, Keiko; Tanaka, Ayako; Nishio, Minako; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Yuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Ueda, Wataru; Okawa, Kiyotaka; Yoshioka, Katsunobu

    2008-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman with a 5-mo history of recurrent diarrhea and generalized edema was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy revealed edematous mucosa, and histopathological examination was compatible with collagenous colitis. Protein leakage from the colon, particularly in the ascending portion, was identified on 99mTc-human serum albumin scintigraphy. Collagenous colitis associated with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) without small bowel disease was diagnosed. Prednisolone treatment ameliorated diarrhea and hypoproteinemia. Collagenous colitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea with hypoproteinemia for appropriate management. PMID:18932290

  3. ADST Software Design Document for the BDS-D VIDS-equipped M1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-23

    idVA220U402. uAoi 1* klime !’=e - MWWPmemiANd Budgut Pojecs(004MW15S1oa WuhpmC 205W. t. AGENCY USE ONLY PLe.am ) RPORT DATE 3.RE’OR TYPE ANDo DATES COVERED...CSCs and CSUs, as well as changes to and reuse of existing MI Simulator CSCs and CSUs. Diagrams and narratives are used to explain how the new VIDS...been depressed or released. Specific button actions may generate brief user alert messages to appear on the display panel. Changed button values or

  4. Static and dynamic superheated water extraction of essential oil components from Thymus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Rado, Ewelina; Wianowska, Dorota

    2009-09-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) performed in both static and dynamic condition (S-SWE and D-SWE, respectively) was applied for the extraction of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L. The influence of extraction pressure, temperature, time, and flow rate on the total yield of essential oil and the influence of extraction temperature on the extraction of some chosen components are discussed in the paper. The SWE extracts are related to PLE extracts with n-hexane and essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The superheated water extraction in dynamic condition seems to be a feasible option for the extraction of essential oil components from T. vulgaris L.

  5. Local/Global Control Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    but when a given situation demanud it, larger numbers o( premor can be migned to the overloaded clam. For m ple, a dasm S proceso when idle, Coes to the...inherent in the fork- join job. The better pedormance exhibited by FCFS is due to the fact that TS-ps penalize larger jobs, while no such penalty...would give each job 1/2 of the processor. So on a single processor, TS-PS penalizes jobs with a small number of tasks. In a multiprocessor, there exists

  6. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  7. Effects of Pressure on Optically Active Deep Levels in Phosphorus Doped ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, B. A.; Iota, V.

    1998-03-01

    We report high pressure photoluminescence (PL) and PL-excitation (PLE) studies at 8K of the 'midgap' emission in P-doped ZnSe using a diamond-cell with He medium. The dominant emission at low pressure is due to donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) transitions between shallow donors and deep trigonally relaxed P_Se acceptors.(J. Davies, et al., J. Luminescence 18/19, 322 (1979)) Its PL and PLE peaks shift by 8.2meV/kbar and 5.9meV/kbar, respectively -- Stokes shift decreasing with pressure. At 35kbar a new PL band, shifting to lower energy (-5.4meV/kbar), emerges from above the absorption edge, and concurrently the original DAP PL quenches. This shows that a resonant level, a deep donor or possibly a P_Se antibonding state,(R. Watts, et al., Phys. Rev. B3), 404 (1971) crosses the conduction edge into the gap. A third PL band is seen only with internse UV excitation. It occurs initially as a high energy shoulder of the original DAP peak, but shifts more rapidly upward (9.4meV/kbar) until it crosses the edge and quenches at 40kbar. We discuss candidates for this band, including donor-P_Se complexes, and we compare our results to similar work on the Zn vacancy in ZnSe. (figures)

  8. Simultaneous determination of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in fish by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aili; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Min; Hou, Lijun; Zhou, Jun Liang

    2013-02-22

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneously determining the steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish. The most effective extraction of the target EDCs is achieved by using PLE with on-line purification and the parameters have been optimized as follows: extraction solvent - methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v), on-line purification material - 5 g alumina (5% water), extraction - 3 cycles, static extraction time - 5 min and extraction temperature - 60°C. Compared to the Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid phase extraction (SPE), freezing-lipid filtration combined with n-hexane defatting clean-up obtains much better recoveries of the target compounds and provide cleaner extracts. The matrix effect (ME) is generally eliminated by using an internal standard method. At spiking levels of 5, 50, and 100 ng/g, the mean recoveries vary from 71.2% to 108% for the target EDCs with a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 16%. The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.04-0.08 ng/gdw and 0.07-0.27 ng/gdw, respectively. The established method has been successfully applied to fish samples from the local market to determine the target EDCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid method for simultaneous determination of flavonoid, saponins and polyacetylenes in folium ginseng and radix ginseng by pressurized liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Z M; Lu, J; Gao, Q P; Li, S P

    2009-05-01

    A rapid pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of one flavonoid (panasenoside), nine saponins (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3 and Rd) and two polyacetylenes (panaxydol and panaxynol) in folium ginseng and radix ginseng was developed. A Prevail C(18) rocket column (33 mm x 7 mm, 3.0 microm) and gradient elution were used during the analysis. Flavonoid was quantified at 355 nm, and saponins and polyacetylenes were determined at 203 nm. The chromatographic peaks of 12 investigated compounds in samples were unambiguously identified by compared their UV spectra and/or MS data with the related reference compounds. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.999) within the test ranges. The intra- and inter-day variations for 12 analytes were less than 1.17% and 2.17%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to determine the investigated compounds in 10 samples of radix ginseng and folium ginseng, respectively. The result showed that PLE combined with rocket column HPLC analysis could provide a rapid method for analysis of compounds in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which is helpful to comprehensive evaluation of quality of radix ginseng and folium ginseng.

  10. Microstructure and optical properties of Pr3+-doped hafnium silicate films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report on the evolution of the microstructure and photoluminescence properties of Pr3+-doped hafnium silicate thin films as a function of annealing temperature (TA). The composition and microstructure of the films were characterized by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and X-ray diffraction, while the emission properties have been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopies. It was observed that a post-annealing treatment favors the phase separation in hafnium silicate matrix being more evident at 950°C. The HfO2 phase demonstrates a pronounced crystallization in tetragonal phase upon 950°C annealing. Pr3+ emission appeared at TA = 950°C, and the highest efficiency of Pr3+ ion emission was detected upon a thermal treatment at 1,000°C. Analysis of the PLE spectra reveals an efficient energy transfer from matrix defects towards Pr3+ ions. It is considered that oxygen vacancies act as effective Pr3+ sensitizer. Finally, a PL study of undoped HfO2 and HfSiOx matrices is performed to evidence the energy transfer. PMID:23336520

  11. Determination of carbohydrates in tobacco by pressurized liquid extraction combined with a novel ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Hu, Deyu; Lei, Bo; Zhao, Huina; Pan, Wenjie; Song, Baoan

    2015-07-02

    A novel derivatization-ultrasonic assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 main carbohydrates in tobacco has been developed. The combined method involves pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), derivatization, and UA-DLLME, followed by the analysis of the main carbohydrates with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). First, the PLE conditions were optimized using a univariate approach. Then, the derivatization methods were properly compared and optimized. The aldononitrile acetate method combined with the O-methoxyoxime-trimethylsilyl method was used for derivatization. Finally, the critical variables affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency were searched using fractional factorial design (FFD) and further optimized using Doehlert design (DD) of the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were found to be 44 μL for CHCl3, 2.3 mL for H2O, 11% w/v for NaCl, 5 min for the extraction time and 5 min for the centrifugation time. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limit of the method (LODs) and linear correlation coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.06-0.90 μg mL(-1) and 0.9987-0.9999. The proposed method was successfully employed to analyze three flue-cured tobacco cultivars, among which the main carbohydrate concentrations were found to be very different.

  12. Relevance of the Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) for the biometrical differentiation of the essential-oil composition from conifers.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2013-02-01

    Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM) is a simple and cheap sample-preparation procedure allowing the reduction of organic solvent consumption, exclusion of sample component degradation, improvement of extraction efficiency and selectivity, and elimination of additional sample clean-up and pre-concentration step before chromatographic analysis. This article deals with the possibility of SSDM application for the differentiation of essential-oils components occurring in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.) needles from Madrid (Spain), Laganas (Zakhyntos, Greece), Cala Morell (Menorca, Spain), Lublin (Poland), Helsinki (Finland), and Oradea (Romania). The SSDM results are related to the analogous - obtained applying two other sample preparation methods - steam distillation and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The results presented established that the total amount and the composition of essential-oil components revealed by SSDM are equivalent or higher than those obtained by one of the most effective extraction technique, PLE. Moreover, SSDM seems to provide the most representative profile of all essential-oil components as no heat is applied. Thus, this environmentally friendly method is suggested to be used as the main extraction procedure for the differentiation of essential-oil components in conifers for scientific and industrial purposes.

  13. Male recombination in Brazilian populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2016-07-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous crossing over does not normally occur in male Drosophila. Drosophila ananassae males show considerable amounts of crossing over. In wild males of D. ananassae from Asian (2008) and Brazilian populations (1986 and 2007) variable frequencies of meiotic crossing over, estimated from chiasmata counts, suggested the existence of factors controlling male crossing over in these populations. To corroborate for such prediction, we present data on spontaneous recombination in F1 males of D. ananassae heterozygous for chromosomes of the same Brazilian populations (1986) and marker chromosomes using three testers stocks. Mean recombination value was low, although high variability existed between individual frequencies. Recombination frequencies between lines in each tester stock were not significantly different, excepting when the 3ple-px and 3ple-cy testers were compared (p < 0.05). These two testers differ in respect to the regional distribution of crossovers. The occurrence of recombination in chromosomes 2 and 3 in F1 males tested with e(65) se; bri ru was not related, suggesting they are under independent genetic control. Our data are consistent with proposed genetic factors controlling male crossing over in the tester stocks and to the presence of enhancers and suppressors of male crossing over segregating in the Brazilian populations (1986).

  14. Instrumentation and action spectra in light-associated diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Cripps, D.J.

    1981-07-01

    Instrumentation for studying action spectra in controls and various light-associated diseases is described. This study summarizes tests performed with a prism grating monochromator during the last 10 yr. There were 68 photodermatoses studied: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) (1), lupus erythematosus (LE) (12), polymorphous light eruption (PLE) (23), solar urticaria (4), actinic reticuloid (2), halogenated salicylanilide photosensitivity and persistent light reactors (11), psoralen photosensitivity (6), and porphyria (9). A normal minimal erythema dose in the UVB (below 320 nm) was generally observed in polymorphous light eruption and lupus erythematosus. The most exquisite photosensitivity for delayed erythema was observed in actinic reticuloid, which in one case was 25-35 times more sensitive in the UVB range which was also observed but to a lesser extent in XP and in persistent light reactors. Persistence of erythema and edema at test sites was observed in XP, PLE, LE, and actinic reticuloid. A delay in development of erythema reaching a maximum at 72 hr was observed in XP and psoralen phototoxicity. Maximum photosensitivity occurred in solar urticaria. Three patients had peak sensitivity in the range of 310-313 nm and the 4th at 460 nm. Photosensitivity in the visible range was detected in 2 patients with solar urticaria, one with actinic reticuloid, and confirmed in 9 patients with porphyria (405 nm). Photosensitivity in the UVA (above 320 nm) occurred to some degree in all groups.

  15. The interplay between different forms of CAI and students' preferences of learning environment in the secondary science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-09-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student preferences of learning environment (PLE). A total of 347 10th-grade senior high school students participated in this nonequivalent control group quasiexperiment. During a one-week period, one group of students (n = 216) were taught by a teacher-centered CAI (TCCAI) model whereas the other group of students (n = 131) were subject to a student-centered CAI (SCCAI) method. Results showed that (a) no statistically significant difference on students' earth science achievement was found for either group; (b) TCCAI group had significantly better attitudes toward earth science than did the SCCAI group; furthermore (c) a significant PLE-treatment interaction was found on student attitudes toward the subject matter, where the teacher-centered instructional approach seemed to enhance more positive attitudes of less constructivist-oriented learning preferences students, whereas the student-centered method was more beneficial to more constructivist-oriented learning preferences students on their attitudes toward earth science in a computer-assisted learning environment.

  16. Assessment of the Therapeutic Potential of Persimmon Leaf Extract on Prediabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd M.; Tran, Bao Quoc; Jang, Yoon-Jin; Park, Soo-Hyun; Fondrie, William E.; Chowdhury, Khadiza; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Goodlett, David R.; Chae, Soo-Wan; Chae, Han-Jung; Seo, Seung-Young; Goo, Young Ah

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplements have exhibited myriads of positive health effects on human health conditions and with the advent of new technological advances, including in the fields of proteomics, genomics, and metabolomics, biological and pharmacological activities of dietary supplements are being evaluated for their ameliorative effects in human ailments. Recent interests in understanding and discovering the molecular targets of phytochemical-gene-protein-metabolite dynamics resulted in discovery of a few protein signature candidates that could potentially be used to assess the effects of dietary supplements on human health. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a folk medicine, commonly used as dietary supplement in China, Japan, and South Korea, owing to its different beneficial health effects including anti-diabetic implications. However, neither mechanism of action nor molecular biomarkers have been discovered that could either validate or be used to evaluate effects of persimmon on human health. In present study, Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic studies were accomplished to discover proteomic molecular signatures that could be used to understand therapeutic potentials of persimmon leaf extract (PLE) in diabetes amelioration. Saliva, serum, and urine samples were analyzed and we propose that salivary proteins can be used for evaluating treatment effectiveness and in improving patient compliance. The present discovery proteomics study demonstrates that salivary proteomic profile changes were found as a result of PLE treatment in prediabetic subjects that could specifically be used as potential protein signature candidates. PMID:28681595

  17. Assessment of the Therapeutic Potential of Persimmon Leaf Extract on Prediabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd M; Tran, Bao Quoc; Jang, Yoon-Jin; Park, Soo-Hyun; Fondrie, William E; Chowdhury, Khadiza; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Goodlett, David R; Chae, Soo-Wan; Chae, Han-Jung; Seo, Seung-Young; Goo, Young Ah

    2017-07-31

    Dietary supplements have exhibited myriads of positive health effects on human health conditions and with the advent of new technological advances, including in the fields of proteomics, genomics, and metabolomics, biological and pharmacological activities of dietary supplements are being evaluated for their ameliorative effects in human ailments. Recent interests in understanding and discovering the molecular targets of phytochemical-gene-protein-metabolite dynamics resulted in discovery of a few protein signature candidates that could potentially be used to assess the effects of dietary supplements on human health. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a folk medicine, commonly used as dietary supplement in China, Japan, and South Korea, owing to its different beneficial health effects including anti-diabetic implications. However, neither mechanism of action nor molecular biomarkers have been discovered that could either validate or be used to evaluate effects of persimmon on human health. In present study, Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic studies were accomplished to discover proteomic molecular signatures that could be used to understand therapeutic potentials of persimmon leaf extract (PLE) in diabetes amelioration. Saliva, serum, and urine samples were analyzed and we propose that salivary proteins can be used for evaluating treatment effectiveness and in improving patient compliance. The present discovery proteomics study demonstrates that salivary proteomic profile changes were found as a result of PLE treatment in prediabetic subjects that could specifically be used as potential protein signature candidates.

  18. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of α-terpineol thioacetate and thiol derivatives and their use as flavouring compounds.

    PubMed

    Bel-Rhlid, Rachid; Fleury Rey, Yvette; Welti, Dieter; Fumeaux, René; Moine, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Reaction of (R,S)-α-terpineol with thioacetic acid in food-grade n-hexane resulted into two α-terpineol thioacetate derivatives with the same molecular weight. After 5 h of reaction time, (R,S)-α-terpineol was completely transformed and the mixture analysed by different chromatographic techniques. The aroma character of the α-terpineol thioacetates was described as exotic, sweet, blackcurrant, roasted and sulphury. Of eight lipases and two esterases assayed, only non-immobilized pig liver esterase (PLE) hydrolysed α-terpineol thioacetates into the corresponding α-terpineol thiols. When reactions were performed in 0.2 m phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 and 30 °C with non-immobilized PLE, α-terpineol thiols were produced in an optimal yield of 88% after 24 h of reaction time. The aroma character of α-terpineol thiols was described as green, exotic and fresh grapefruit. Flavouring powders were prepared by freeze-drying the α-terpineol thioacetates and α-terpineol thiols in the presence of maltodextrine. Preliminary applications showed that these flavouring preparations could be used to improve the flavour quality of lighter cooked notes and tropical fruit aromas.

  19. Analysis of photoconductive mechanisms of organic-on-inorganic photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Dere, A.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Soylu, M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, it is shown that choosing an organic-on-inorganic Schottky diode for photoconductive sensing by a using a power law exponent (PLE or γ) determined at a single bias point is a limited approach. The standard literature approach does not highlight any bias voltage effects on the distribution of interface state density and other operationally important parameters. In this paper we suggest a new empirical method that holistically highlights the variation of γ with voltage, irradiance and temperature to reach a more informed choice of photosensor for real applications. We obtain a simple, plausible relation of the variation of barrier height, Φ, with voltage, irradiance and temperature. The method is evaluated with data collected previously for Schottky diodes of structure Al/p-Si/organic-semiconductor (OSC)/Au, where OSC is Coumarin-doped with graphene oxide (GO), Cobalt Phthacyanine (CoPC) doped with GO or PCBM doped with GO, respectively. The method reproduces published data for the three diodes reported at specific bias and provides for the first time some qualitative evidence of barrier height variation with light intensity, for which a possible physical basis is also given. Typically, Schottky barrier height is characterized using dark current leading to an under reporting of the effect of illumination on barrier height. Finally, since recombination mechanisms are gauged on the basis of the magnitude of PLE, the method facilitates the identification of the recombination mechanism at a given bias.

  20. Product limit estimation for capturing of pressure distribution dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of contact pressures at the wheelchair-seating interface is a critically important approach for laboratory research and clinical application in monitoring risk for pressure ulceration. As yet, measures obtained from pressure mapping are static in nature: there is no accounting for changes in pressure distribution over time, despite the well-known interaction between time and pressure in risk estimation. Here, we introduce the first dynamic analysis for distribution of pressure data, based on the Kaplan-Meier (KM) Product Limit Estimator (PLE) a ubiquitous tool encountered in clinical trials and survival analysis. In this approach, the pressure array-over-time data set is sub-sampled two frames at a time (random pairing), and their similarity of pressure distribution is quantified via a correlation coefficient. A large number (here: 100) of these frame pairs is then sorted into descending order of correlation value, and visualized as a KM curve; we build confidence limits via a bootstrap computed over 1000 replications. PLEs and the KM have robust statistical support and extensive development: the opportunities for extended application are substantial. We propose that the KM-PLE in particular, and dynamic analysis in general, may provide key leverage on future development of seating technology, and valuable new insight into extant datasets.

  1. Enhanced metallic properties of SrRuO3 thin films via kinetically controlled pulsed laser epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Nichols, J.; Lee, S.; Ryee, S.; Gruenewald, J. H.; Connell, J. G.; Souri, M.; Johnson, J. M.; Hwang, J.; Han, M. J.; Lee, H. N.; Kim, D.-W.; Seo, S. S. A.

    2016-10-01

    Metal electrodes are a universal element of all electronic devices. Conducting SrRuO3 (SRO) epitaxial thin films have been extensively used as electrodes in complex-oxide heterostructures due to good lattice mismatches with perovskite substrates. However, when compared to SRO single crystals, SRO thin films have shown reduced conductivity and Curie temperatures (TC), which can lead to higher Joule heating and energy loss in the devices. Here, we report that high-quality SRO thin films can be synthesized by controlling the plume dynamics and growth rate of pulsed laser epitaxy (PLE) with real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring. The SRO thin films grown under the kinetically controlled conditions, down to ca. 16 nm in thickness, exhibit both enhanced conductivity and TC as compared to bulk values, due to their improved stoichiometry and a strain-mediated increase of the bandwidth of Ru 4d electrons. This result provides a direction for enhancing the physical properties of PLE-grown thin films and paves a way to improved device applications.

  2. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for multi-residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in soil.

    PubMed

    Hussen, Ahmed; Westbom, Rikard; Megersa, Negussie; Mathiasson, Lennart; Björklund, Erland

    2007-06-08

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) procedure capable of performing simultaneous extraction and clean-up has been demonstrated for multi-residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil. The final method was performed at 100 degrees C for 3 x 10 min using acetone/n-heptane (1:1, v/v). Florisil was placed inside the extraction cell downstream the sample to remove interfering compounds. Extraction of two soil samples by SPLE gave a recovery which was over 80% for beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE compared to PLE with off-line clean-up. The same trend was observed when applying the SPLE method to a certified reference soil sample (CRM 811-050) containing 13 OCPs, where the SPLE method gave 80-90% recovery vis-à-vis the PLE method with off-line clean-up. Feasibility of the SPLE method was further demonstrated by applying it to five real soil samples collected in Ethiopia.

  3. Structural and Population Polymorphism of RT-Like Sequences in Avian Schistosomes Trichobilharzia szidati (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Schistosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Semyenova, S. K.; Chrisanfova, G. G.; Guliaev, A. S.; Yesakova, A. P.; Ryskov, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we developed the genus-specific markers of the avian schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia, the causative agents of human cercarial dermatitis. The 7 novel genome sequences of T. franki, T. regenti, and T. szidati revealed similarity with genome repeat region of African schistosome Schistosoma mansoni. In the present work we analyzed the 37 new T. szidati sequences to study intragenome variability and host specificity for the parasite from three localities of East Europe. DNAs were isolated from cercariae or single sporocysts obtained from 6 lymnaeid snails Lymnaea stagnalis and L. palustris from Belarus and Russia. All sequences formed three diverged groups, one of which consists of the sequences with multiple deletions; other groups involved two paralogous copies with stop codons and frameshift mutations. Strong association between geographical distribution and snail host specificity cannot be established. All studied sequences have homology with the reverse transcriptase domain (RT) of Penelope-like elements (PLE) of S. mansoni and S. japonicum and new members of RT family were identified. We proposed that three diverged groups RT sequences of T. szidati are results of duplication or transposition of PLE during parasite evolution. Implications of the retroelement dynamics in the life history of avian schistosomes are discussed. PMID:26114104

  4. N-Acetylglucosamine-dependent biofilm formation in Pectobacterium atrosepticum is cryptic and activated by elevated c-di-GMP levels.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Sanjuán, Juan; Salmond, George P C

    2011-12-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba) strain SCRI1043 does not exhibit appreciable biofilm formation under standard laboratory conditions. Here we show that a biofilm-forming phenotype in this strain could be activated from a cryptic state by increasing intracellular levels of c-di-GMP, through overexpression of a constitutively active diguanylate cyclase (PleD*) from Caulobacter crescentus. Randomly obtained Pba transposon mutants defective in the pga operon, involved in synthesis and translocation of poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PGA), were all impaired in this biofilm formation. The presence of the PGA-degrading enzyme dispersin B in the growth media prevented biofilm formation by Pba overexpressing PleD*, further supporting the importance of PGA for biofilm formation by Pba. Importantly, a pga mutant exhibited a reduction in root binding to the host plant under conditions of high intracellular c-di-GMP levels. A modest but consistent increase in pga transcript levels was associated with high intracellular levels of c-di-GMP. Our results indicate tight control of PGA-dependent biofilm formation by c-di-GMP in Pba.

  5. Off-line coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and LC/ED for the determination of retinyl acetate and tocopherols in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Zamarreño, M M; Bustamante-Rangel, M; García-Jiménez, M; Sánchez-Pérez, A; Carabias-Martínez, R

    2006-12-15

    An analytical methodology including pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) as sample treatment to isolate retinyl acetate and tocopherols from infant formulas has been developed. The milk extracts were kept at -18 degrees C for 30min and after filtration could be injected directly into the chromatographic system. Thus, a rapid and simple routine control method of these products is possible. The parameters affecting both the extraction process and the liquid chromatography (LC) system were optimized. PLE was performed using one cycle of extraction during a static time of 5min. Methanol was chosen as the extraction solvent for a temperature of 50 degrees C. Chromatographic separation was accomplished using a RP-18 column; the mobile phase used was methanol-water (94:6, v/v) containing 2.5mM acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer. Electrochemical detection in amperometric mode with a glassy carbon electrode at +1100mV was applied. The proposed methodology was successfully used for the determination of retinyl acetate, delta-tocopherol, (beta+gamma)-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol in different infant formulas. The analytes were evaluated in the same chemical form present in the samples. Recoveries were between 92 and 106%. A certified reference material of milk powder was also analyzed.

  6. Anharmonicity effects in impurity-vacancy centers in diamond revealed by isotopic shifts and optical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekimov, E. A.; Krivobok, V. S.; Lyapin, S. G.; Sherin, P. S.; Gavva, V. A.; Kondrin, M. V.

    2017-03-01

    We studied isotopically enriched nano- and microdiamonds with optically active GeV- centers synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures in nonmetallic growth systems. The influence of isotopic composition on optical properties has been thoroughly investigated by photoluminescence-excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to get insight into the nature and electronic structure of this color center. We have demonstrated that the large frequency defect (difference between oscillation frequencies in the ground and excited electronic states) does bring about large discrepancy between PLE and PL spectra and comparatively high isotopic shift of the zero phonon line. Both effects seem to be rather common to split-vacancy centers (for example SiV-), where the frequency defect reaches record high values. Isotopic substitution of carbon atoms in the diamond lattice results in even larger shifts, which are only partially accounted for by a redistribution of electron density caused by the volume change of the diamond lattice. It was shown that the vibronic frequency in this case does not depend on the mass of carbon atoms. The greatest part of this isotopic shift is due to anharmonicity effects, which constitute a substantial part of vibronic frequency observed in this center. The exact physical mechanism, which leads to significant enhancement of anharmonicity on substitution of 12C to 13C, is yet to be clarified.

  7. Optical and vibrational properties of YBO3:Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+ microstructures for light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohal, Sandeep; Nazari, Mohammad; Zhang, X.; Hassan-Zadeh, E.; Kuryatkov, V. V.; Chaudhuri, J.; Hope-Weeks, L.; Huang, Juyang; Holtz, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Structural and optical properties of yttrium orthoborate YBO3:Eu3+, Ce3+, Tb3+ microstructures, focusing on the role of terbium concentration, are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) ~ 363.8 nm excitation wavelength, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and Raman spectroscopies. For constant cerium and europium concentrations, the PL bands belong to Ce3+ and Tb3+ color centers are diminished with increasing concentration of Tb3+. Simultaneously, the intensities of PLE bands related to both Ce3+ and Tb3+, for red emission from the Eu3+, are increased. The results are consistent with a Ce3+ --> (Tb3+)n --> Eu3+ energy transfer scheme, where n denotes a chain of terbium ions. Raman spectroscopy shows a systematic change, with Tb3+ concentration, in the terminal oxygen bending mode of B3O9 ring structure related to the host lattice. The terminal oxygen atoms of the ring structure are coordinated to yttrium sites where dopant ions substitute. The structural changes are interpreted as variations in the local neighborhood of these sites in the YBO3:Ce3+,Tb3+,Eu3+ crystal structure.

  8. The association between sleep dysfunction and psychosis-like experiences among college students.

    PubMed

    Andorko, Nicole D; Mittal, Vijay; Thompson, Elizabeth; Denenny, Danielle; Epstein, Gregory; Demro, Caroline; Wilson, Camille; Sun, Shuyan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; DeVylder, Jordan; Oh, Hans; Postolache, Teodor T; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2017-02-01

    Sleep problems are prominent and pervasive clinical issues experienced by many people with psychotic disorders, often causing distress and functional impairment. Sleep problems are also related to psychosis-like experiences (PLE; non-diagnosable phenomenon such as transient perceptual disturbances, unusual thoughts, periodic suspiciousness) in epidemiological studies. Prior studies in this field have used brief measures that precluded the ability to test (1) whether risk for psychosis-like experiences are related to specific sub-types of sleep disturbance, and (2) whether sleep disturbance is specifically related to clinically significant (i.e., distressing) psychosis-like experiences. The current project examined the relation between specific sleep issues, and PLEs and distress associated with PLEs, in a college sample. Participants (N=420) completed the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief (PQ-B), which assesses PLEs and associated distress, and the Iowa Sleep Disturbances Inventory - extended version (ISDI-E), which assesses thirteen separate disturbed sleep domains. Symptoms of fragmented sleep, sleep hallucinations, and night anxiety significantly correlated with PLEs, and several sleep domains were significantly associated with PLE-related distress.

  9. The role of ion exchange in the passivation of In(Zn)P nanocrystals with ZnS

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Deok-Yong; Xi, Lifei; Boothroyd, Chris; Kardynal, Beata; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the chemical state of In(Zn)P/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs) for color conversion applications using hard X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE). Analyses of the edge energies as well as the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) reveal that the Zn2+ ions from ZnS remain in the shell while the S2− ions penetrate into the core at an early stage of the ZnS deposition. It is further demonstrated that for short growth times, the ZnS shell coverage on the core was incomplete, whereas the coverage improved gradually as the shell deposition time increased. Together with evidence from PLE spectra, where there is a strong indication of the presence of P vacancies, this suggests that the core-shell interface in the In(Zn)P/ZnS NCs are subject to substantial atomic exchanges and detailed models for the shell structure beyond simple layer coverage are needed. This substantial atomic exchange is very likely to be the reason for the improved photoluminescence behavior of the core-shell particles compare to In(Zn)P-only NCs as S can passivate the NCs surfaces. PMID:26972936

  10. Characterization of the endogenous enzymatic hydrolyses of Petroselinum crispum glycosides: determined by chromatography upon their sugar and flavonoid products.

    PubMed

    Boldizsár, Imre; Füzfai, Zsófia; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya

    2013-06-07

    The behavior of the flavonoid diglycosides, relevant constituents of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) fruit (PFr) and leaf (PLe) samples was characterized upon their enzymatic hydrolyses applying complementary liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) and gas chromatography mass selective (GC-MS) detections. Analyses were performed in quantitative manner, from the same extracts as a function of hydrolysis times. Both in fruit and leaf tissue extracts, in intact and in enzyme hydrolyzed ones, apigenin, chrysoeriol, their glycosides, sugars, sugar alcohols, carboxylic acids and phytosterols, in total 17 constituents were identified and quantified. Based primarily on the selective mass fragmentation properties of the trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives of constituents, we confirmed several novelties to the field. (i) It was shown for the first time that in parsley tissues different types of glycosidase enzyme are active. In PFr samples, both the stepwise and disaccharide specific endogenous mechanisms were certified, quantifying simultaneously the continuous release of apigenin, chrysoeriol, 2-O-apiosyl-apiose, apiose and glucose. (ii) 2-O-Apiosyl-glucose was demonstrated as disaccharide due to its formation under derivatization conditions from parsley glycosides. (iii) Both in PFr and in PLe samples even the invertase enzyme activity was attainable: sucrose decomposition in both tissues was going on with the same intensity. Three different types of enzymatic glycosidase processes were followed with their specific hydrolysis products by means of HPLC-UV and GC-MS, simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of sample treatment steps for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground coffee.

    PubMed

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Delteil, Corine; Camel, Valérie

    2006-10-04

    Sample treatment procedures were tested for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ground coffee. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), under different conditions, was combined with several cleanup methods, namely in situ purification, C18-silica solid-phase extraction (SPE), silica SPE, acid digestion, and alkaline saponification. Soxhlet extraction and direct alkaline saponification were also tested. Best results were obtained using PLE with hexane/acetone 50:50 (v/v) under 150 degrees C. Alkaline saponification followed by cyclohexane extraction and silica SPE was required to eliminate interferent compounds. Finally, 11 PAHs could be quantified in ground coffee with limits of detection in the range of 0.11-0.18 microg kg(-1). Application to ground Arabica coffee lots from Colombia revealed the presence of several PAHs, giving an overall toxicity equivalence in the range of 0.16-0.87 microg kg(-1). PAH identification was performed using both high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  12. Rapid quantification of four major bioactive alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by pressurised liquid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Jiang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Xiujin; Zhu, Zhenou; Lei, Xinxiang

    2011-05-30

    A new method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTrap-MS) analysis has been developed for the identification and quantification of four major alkaloids in extracts of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. PLE extractions were performed using 90% ethanol; temperature was set at 100°C and pressure at 1500 psi. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge™ C(18) column (150 mm × 2.1mm i.d., 3.5 μm) eluted by a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.2% acetic acid. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions (MRMs) mode, monitoring two MRM transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus (EPI) of the linear ion trap. The novel LC-QTrap-MS platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of the four alkaloids in C. decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. and fulfils the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  13. Phenotypic alterations of petal and sepal by ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Noh, Y S; Chung, Y Y; Costa, M A; An, K; An, G

    1995-10-01

    Floral organ development is controlled by a group of regulatory factors containing the MADS domain. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone from rice, OsMADS3, which encodes a MADS-domain containing protein. The OsMADS3 amino acid sequence shows over 60% identity to AG of Arabidopsis, PLE of Antirrhinum majus, and AG/PLE homologues of petunia, tobacco, tomato, Brassica napus, and maize. Homology in the MADS box region is most conserved. RNA blot analysis indicated that the rice MADS gene was preferentially expressed in reproductive organs, especially in stamen and carpel. In situ localization studies showed that the transcript was present primarily in stamen and carpel. The function of the rice OsMADS3 was elucidated by ectopic expression of the gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in a heterologous tobacco plant system. Transgenic plants exhibited an altered morphology and coloration of the perianth organs. Sepals were pale green and elongated. Limbs of the corolla were split into sections which in some plants became antheroid structures attached to tubes that resembled filaments. The phenotypes mimic the results of ectopic expression of dicot AG gene or AG homologues. These results indicate that the OsMADS3 gene is possibly an AG homologue and that the AG genes appear to be structurally and functionally conserved between dicot and monocot.

  14. Coccomyxa: a dominant planktic alga in two acid lakes of different origin.

    PubMed

    Barcytė, Dovilė; Nedbalová, Linda

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the dominant planktic algae in two acid metal-rich lakes of different origin (Hromnice Lake and Plešné Lake, Czech Republic) and to investigate their morphology and ultrastructure under natural and laboratory conditions. Phylogenetic analyses (18S rRNA and ITS-2) revealed that the strain isolated from Hromnice Lake belongs to the species Coccomyxa elongata, while Coccomyxa from Plešné Lake was described as a new species C. silvae-gabretae. It is the first evidence that representatives of this genus are capable of becoming the dominant primary producers in the extreme environment of acid lakes with an increased supply of phosphorus. There were clear differences in cell morphology under different growth conditions, revealing the high phenotypic plasticity of the strains. The ability to change the morphology may help the cells of Coccomyxa to survive harsh conditions in the aforementioned acid lakes.

  15. Use of advanced techniques for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Tunisian olive leaves: phenolic composition and cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taamalli, Amani; Arráez-Román, David; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Ruiz-Torres, Verónica; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Herrero, Miguel; Ibañez, Elena; Micol, Vicente; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    A comparison among different advanced extraction techniques such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), together with traditional solid-liquid extraction, was performed to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from leaves of six Tunisian olive varieties. Extractions were carried out at the best selected conditions for each technique; the obtained extracts were chemically characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(2)). As expected, higher extraction yields were obtained for PLE while phenolic profiles were mainly influenced by the solvent used as optimum in the different extraction methods. A larger number of phenolic compounds, mostly of a polar character, were found in the extracts obtained by using MAE. Best extraction yields do not correlate with highest cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells, indicating that cytotoxicity is highly dependent on the presence of certain compounds in the extracts, although not exclusively on a single compound. Therefore, a multifactorial behavior is proposed for the anticancer activity of olive leaf compounds.

  16. Influence of depressive symptoms on distress related to positive psychotic-like experiences in women.

    PubMed

    Brañas, Antía; Barrigón, María Luisa; Lahera, Guillermo; Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) is an effective instrument for detection of the presence of psychotic symptoms and associated distress in the general population. However, little research has studied distress associated with positive psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Our aim is to study PLE-related distress using the CAPE. In this study we analysed factors associated with differences in PLE-related distress in a sample of 200 non-clinical participants recruited by snowball sampling. Presence of PLEs and related psychological distress was measured using the CAPE questionnaire. The influence of age, gender, educational level and drug use was studied. In univariate analysis we found that gender and CAPE positive, depressive and negative scores, were associated with CAPE positive distress. Using multiple linear regression, we found that only the effect of gender, and the interaction between frequency of depression and gender, remained statistically significant. In our sample interaction between gender and depressive symptoms is a determining factor in distress associated with positive PLEs. The results of this study may be useful for the implementation of prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced metallic properties of SrRuO3 thin films via kinetically controlled pulsed laser epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Thompson, J.; Nichols, John A.; Lee, Shinbuhm; ...

    2016-10-17

    Metal electrodes are a universal element of all electronic devices. Conducting SrRuO3 (SRO) epitaxial thin films have been extensively used as electrodes in complex-oxide heterostructures due to good lattice mismatches with perovskite substrates. However, when compared to SRO single crystals, SRO thin films have shown reduced conductivity and Curie temperatures (TC), which can lead to higher Joule heating and energy loss in the devices. In this paper, we report that high-quality SRO thin films can be synthesized by controlling the plume dynamics and growth rate of pulsed laser epitaxy (PLE) with real-time optical spectroscopic monitoring. The SRO thin films grownmore » under the kinetically controlled conditions, down to ca. 16 nm in thickness, exhibit both enhanced conductivity and TC as compared to bulk values, due to their improved stoichiometry and a strain-mediated increase of the bandwidth of Ru 4d electrons. Finally, this result provides a direction for enhancing the physical properties of PLE-grown thin films and paves a way to improved device applications.« less

  18. Pressurized liquid extraction of anthocyanins and biflavonoids from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: A multivariate optimization.

    PubMed

    Feuereisen, Michelle M; Gamero Barraza, Mariana; Zimmermann, Benno F; Schieber, Andreas; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to investigate the effects of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) parameters on the recovery of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, biflavonoids) from Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruits. The effects of temperature, static time, and ethanol as well as acid concentration on the polyphenol yield were described well by quadratic models (p<0.0001). A significant influence of the ethanol concentration (p<0.0001) and several interactions (p<0.05) were identified. Identification of the biflavonoid I3',II8-binaringenin in drupes of S. terebinthifolius was achieved by UHPLC-MS(2). Interestingly, at high extraction temperatures (>75°C), an artifact occurred and was tentatively identified as a diastereomer of I3',II8-binaringenin. Multivariate optimization led to high yields of phenolic compounds from the exocarp/drupes at 100/75°C, 10/10min, 54.5/54.2% ethanol, and 5/0.03% acetic acid. This study demonstrates that PLE is well suited for the extraction of phenolic compounds from S. terebinthifolius and can efficiently be optimized by response surface methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-05-26

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  20. Polarized photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundys, D.; Schulz, S.; Oehler, F.; Sutherland, D.; Badcock, T. J.; Dawson, P.; Kappers, M. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-03-01

    We have performed a detailed study of the impact of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) on the optical properties of both a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) and GaN template samples grown on r-sapphire. In particular, we have used polarised photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (P-PLE) to investigate the nature of the low temperature recombination as well as extracting information on the valence band (VB) polarisation anisotropy. Our low temperature P-PLE results revealed not only excitons associated with intersubband quantum well transitions and the GaN barrier material but also a transition associated with creation of excitons in BSFs. The strength of this BSF transition varied with detection energy across the quantum well emission suggesting that there is a significant contribution to the emission line width from changes in the local electronic environment of the QWs due to interactions with BSFs. Furthermore, we observed a corresponding progressive increase in the VB splitting of the QWs as the detection energy was varied across the quantum well emission spectrum.