Science.gov

Sample records for pleisto-holocenic natural perturbations

  1. The natural and perturbed troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Pinto, J.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the chemical and climatic effects of industrial emissions into the atmosphere requires an understanding of the complex interactions of species within the atmosphere and of the atmosphere with other physical systems such as the oceans, lithosphere, and biosphere. The concentration of a particular species is determined by competition between various production and loss processes. The abundances of tropospheric gases are examined. The reactions of the members of the oxygen group are considered along with the models which have been developed to describe the involved relationships. Attention is also given to the natural carbon cycle, perturbations to the carbon cycle, the natural nitrogen cycle, perturbations to the nitrogen cycle, the hydrogen group, the sulfur group, and the halogen group.

  2. Talking while chewing: speaker response to natural perturbation of speech.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Connor; Gick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at how the conflicting goals of chewing and speech production are reconciled by examining the acoustic and articulatory output of talking while chewing. We consider chewing to be a type of perturbation with regard to speech production, but with some important differences. Ultrasound and acoustic measurements were made while participants chewed gum and produced various utterances containing the sounds /s/, /ʃ/, and /r/. Results show a great deal of individual variation in articulation and acoustics between speakers, but consistent productions and maintenance of relative acoustic distances within speakers. Although chewing interfered with speech production, and this interference manifested itself in a variety of ways across speakers, the objectives of speech production were indirectly achieved within the constraints and variability introduced by individual chewing strategies.

  3. Dispersive mixing dynamics of dense miscible plumes: natural perturbation initiation by local-scale heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schincariol, Robert A.

    1998-10-01

    Two-dimensional, coupled variable-density flow and transport simulations with heterogeneous media advance understanding of how local-scale non-idealities create and control instabilities. Dense plumes (5000 mg l -1 NaCl) are introduced into a domain (1.50×0.56 m) with synthetically generated permeability fields. Simulations with the first set of realizations [mean permeability ( k)=5.7×10 -11 m 2, ln( k) variance=0.25, longitudinal correlation length ( τx)=0.10 m, transverse correlation length ( τz)=0.02 m] illustrate how the lower plume boundary is naturally perturbed by local-scale heterogeneities. Some of these perturbations are stable, some are highly bounded or pseudostable in certain portions of the field, while others rapidly destabilize the lower plume boundary. Even with similar macroscopic field statistics, widely varying degrees of density-induced mixing occur among different realizations. Unstable perturbations result in complex mixing features, such as coalescing of instability lobes as different portions of the plume sample various regions of the permeability field. Such mixing greatly enhances and controls the dispersion process. Based on the control that local field characteristics exhibit on instability growth and decay, the applicability of stability criteria to plume-type displacements in natural heterogeneous media is likely inappropriate. Additional simulations employing fields of lower variance and lower densities illustrate the delicate balance between these variables and the ability of the field to propagate unstable perturbations.

  4. Long-term Dynamical Behavior of Highly Perturbed Natural and Artificial Celestial Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.

    This thesis explores the dynamical evolution of celestial bodies, both natural and artificial, which are strongly perturbed by solar radiation pressure---a non-gravitational force that has played an increasingly important role in celestial mechanics since the early 1900s. The particular focus is on the high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) space debris discovered in near geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) through optical observations in 2004, and on micron-sized circumplanetary dust particles in the outer Saturnian system. The formalism developed can also be applied to---and, indeed, was unquestionably influenced by---the orbital motion of spacecraft about small bodies (asteroids and comets). The chief difficulties which arise in getting an accurate understanding of the motion of such bodies in highly perturbed dynamical environments come, in part, from the nonlinearity of the dynamical system, but more so from the inadequacy of the classical approaches and methods. While modern formulations based on numerical integrations can give "precise" solutions for specific initial conditions, these afford little insight into the nature of the problem or the essential dependence of the perturbed motion on the system parameters. The predominant perturbations acting on HAMR objects and circumplanetary dust grains are solar radiation pressure, planetary oblateness, and third-body gravitational interactions induced by the Sun and nearby natural satellites. We developed first-order averaged models, based on the Milankovitch formulation of perturbation theory, which govern the long-term evolution of orbits subject to these perturbing forces. The unexpectedly rich results obtained by the use of this vector formalism are due to certain important circumstances in celestial and quantum mechanics which gave rise to its origin and development. An attempt has been made to trace these historical developments and to put them into the perspective of the present. The averaged equations of motion hold

  5. Recent Progress in Understanding Natural-Hazards-Generated TEC Perturbations: Measurements and Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, A.; Yang, Y. M.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Langley, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, have been significant threats to humans throughout recorded history. The Global Positioning System satellites have become primary sensors to measure signatures associated with such natural hazards. These signatures typically include GPS-derived seismic deformation measurements, co-seismic vertical displacements, and real-time GPS-derived ocean buoy positioning estimates. Another way to use GPS observables is to compute the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) to measure and monitor post-seismic ionospheric disturbances caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Research at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) laid the foundations to model the three-dimensional ionosphere at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory by ingesting ground- and space-based GPS measurements into the state-of-the-art Global Assimilative Ionosphere Modeling (GAIM) software. As an outcome of the UNB and NASA research, new and innovative GPS applications have been invented including the use of ionospheric measurements to detect tiny fluctuations in the GPS signals between the spacecraft and GPS receivers caused by natural hazards occurring on or near the Earth's surface.We will show examples for early detection of natural hazards generated ionospheric signatures using ground-based and space-borne GPS receivers. We will also discuss recent results from the U.S. Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation Network (READI) exercises utilizing our algorithms. By studying the propagation properties of ionospheric perturbations generated by natural hazards along with applying sophisticated first-principles physics-based modeling, we are on track to develop new technologies that can potentially save human lives and minimize property damage. It is also expected that ionospheric monitoring of TEC perturbations might become an integral part of existing natural hazards warning systems.

  6. Review and perspectives: Understanding natural-hazards-generated ionospheric perturbations using GPS measurements and coupled modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Yang, Yu-Ming; Meng, Xing; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Langley, Richard B.

    2016-07-01

    Natural hazards including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis have been significant threats to humans throughout recorded history. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS; including the Global Positioning System (GPS)) receivers have become primary sensors to measure signatures associated with natural hazards. These signatures typically include GPS-derived seismic deformation measurements, coseismic vertical displacements, and real-time GPS-derived ocean buoy positioning estimates. Another way to use GPS observables is to compute the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) to measure, model, and monitor postseismic ionospheric disturbances caused by, e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. In this paper, we review research progress at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and elsewhere using examples of ground-based and spaceborne observation of natural hazards that generated TEC perturbations. We present results for state-of-the-art imaging using ground-based and spaceborne ionospheric measurements and coupled atmosphere-ionosphere modeling of ionospheric TEC perturbations. We also report advancements and chart future directions in modeling and inversion techniques to estimate tsunami wave heights and ground surface displacements using TEC measurements and error estimates. Our initial retrievals strongly suggest that both ground-based and spaceborne GPS remote sensing techniques could play a critical role in detection and imaging of the upper atmosphere signatures of natural hazards including earthquakes and tsunamis. We found that combining ground-based and spaceborne measurements may be crucial in estimating critical geophysical parameters such as tsunami wave heights and ground surface displacements using TEC observations. The GNSS-based remote sensing of natural-hazard-induced ionospheric disturbances could be applied to and used in operational tsunami and earthquake early warning systems.

  7. The distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in the natural and perturbed stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Katz, A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to quantitatively illustrate the effects of quasi-horizontal transport of certain gases and of the reactions influencing their concentrations, a vertical-meridional pole-to-pole stratospheric model is presented which explicitly predicts concentrations of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen compounds in the natural stratosphere and also in a perturbed stratosphere incorporating artificial injection of nitrogen oxides by an SST fleet. The northern hemisphere SST operations clearly have a very large local effect on the nitrogen oxide distribution and also have a significant effect on the southern hemisphere. The largest changes are seen at the point of injection of the nitrogen oxides. Results are in agreement with previous one-dimensional models.

  8. Vision and photoentrainment in fishes: the effects of natural and anthropogenic perturbation.

    PubMed

    Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    Vision and photoentrainment in fishes are vital for feeding, avoiding predation, spatial orientation, navigation, social communication and the synchronization of many homeostatic functions such as activity patterns and sleep. The camera-like (image-forming) eyes of fishes are optimized to provide a clear view of their preferred ecological niche, while non-visual photoreceptors provide irradiance detection that mediates circadian photoentrainment, an endogenous time-keeping mechanism (biological clock) to respond to predictable changes in environmental conditions. Fish and fisheries are under pressure from both natural and anthropogenic perturbation, which in many cases alters the intensity and spectral composition of the light environment on which they depend for their survival. This review examines the effects of a changing light environment and turbidity on the health of fishes within a developmental and ecological context. Understanding the sensory environment of fishes is vital to predicting their responses and, ultimately, their resilience to environmental change and the potential for maintaining sustainable levels of biodiversity.

  9. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  10. Testing for the Gaussian nature of cosmological density perturbations through the three-point temperature correlation function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the crucial aspects of density perturbations that are produced by the standard inflation scenario is that they are Gaussian where seeds produced by topological defects tend to be non-Gaussian. The three-point correlation function of the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) provides a sensitive test of this aspect of the primordial density field. In this paper, this function is calculated in the general context of various allowed non-Gaussian models. It is shown that the Cosmic Background Explorer and the forthcoming South Pole and balloon CBR anisotropy data may be able to provide a crucial test of the Gaussian nature of the perturbations.

  11. The nature and energetics of AGN-driven perturbations in the hot gas in the Perseus Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Forman, W. R.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, cores of relaxed galaxy clusters are often disturbed by AGN. Their Chandra observations revealed a wealth of structures induced by shocks, subsonic gas motions, bubbles of relativistic plasma, etc. In this paper, we determine the nature and energy content of gas fluctuations in the Perseus core by probing statistical properties of emissivity fluctuations imprinted in the soft- and hard-band X-ray images. About 80 per cent of the total variance of perturbations on ~8–70 kpc scales in the core have an isobaric nature, i.e. are consistent with subsonic displacements of the gas in pressure equilibrium with the ambient medium. The observed variance translates to the ratio of energy in perturbations to thermal energy of ~13 per cent. In the region dominated by weak ‘ripples’, about half of the total variance is associated with isobaric perturbations on scales of a few tens of kpc. If these isobaric perturbations are induced by buoyantly rising bubbles, then these results suggest that most of the AGN-injected energy should first go into bubbles rather than into shocks. Using simulations of a shock propagating through the Perseus atmosphere, we found that models reproducing the observed features of a central shock have more than 50 per cent of the AGN-injected energy associated with the bubble enthalpy and only about 20 per cent is carried away with the shock. Such energy partition is consistent with the AGN-feedback model, mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma, and supports the importance of turbulence in the cooling–heating balance.

  12. The nature and energetics of AGN-driven perturbations in the hot gas in the Perseus Cluster

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; ...

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, cores of relaxed galaxy clusters are often disturbed by AGN. Their Chandra observations revealed a wealth of structures induced by shocks, subsonic gas motions, bubbles of relativistic plasma, etc. In this paper, we determine the nature and energy content of gas fluctuations in the Perseus core by probing statistical properties of emissivity fluctuations imprinted in the soft- and hard-band X-ray images. About 80 per cent of the total variance of perturbations on ~8–70 kpc scales in the core have an isobaric nature, i.e. are consistent with subsonic displacements of the gas in pressure equilibrium with the ambientmore » medium. The observed variance translates to the ratio of energy in perturbations to thermal energy of ~13 per cent. In the region dominated by weak ‘ripples’, about half of the total variance is associated with isobaric perturbations on scales of a few tens of kpc. If these isobaric perturbations are induced by buoyantly rising bubbles, then these results suggest that most of the AGN-injected energy should first go into bubbles rather than into shocks. Using simulations of a shock propagating through the Perseus atmosphere, we found that models reproducing the observed features of a central shock have more than 50 per cent of the AGN-injected energy associated with the bubble enthalpy and only about 20 per cent is carried away with the shock. Such energy partition is consistent with the AGN-feedback model, mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma, and supports the importance of turbulence in the cooling–heating balance.« less

  13. The nature and energetics of AGN-driven perturbations in the hot gas in the Perseus Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Arévalo, P.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Forman, W. R.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Werner, N.

    2016-05-01

    Cores of relaxed galaxy clusters are often disturbed by AGN. Their Chandra observations revealed a wealth of structures induced by shocks, subsonic gas motions, bubbles of relativistic plasma, etc. In this paper, we determine the nature and energy content of gas fluctuations in the Perseus core by probing statistical properties of emissivity fluctuations imprinted in the soft- and hard-band X-ray images. About 80 per cent of the total variance of perturbations on ˜8-70 kpc scales in the core have an isobaric nature, i.e. are consistent with subsonic displacements of the gas in pressure equilibrium with the ambient medium. The observed variance translates to the ratio of energy in perturbations to thermal energy of ˜13 per cent. In the region dominated by weak `ripples', about half of the total variance is associated with isobaric perturbations on scales of a few tens of kpc. If these isobaric perturbations are induced by buoyantly rising bubbles, then these results suggest that most of the AGN-injected energy should first go into bubbles rather than into shocks. Using simulations of a shock propagating through the Perseus atmosphere, we found that models reproducing the observed features of a central shock have more than 50 per cent of the AGN-injected energy associated with the bubble enthalpy and only about 20 per cent is carried away with the shock. Such energy partition is consistent with the AGN-feedback model, mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma, and supports the importance of turbulence in the cooling-heating balance.

  14. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-01

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  15. Statistical nature of non-Gaussianity from cubic order primordial perturbations: CMB map simulations and genus statistic

    SciTech Connect

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2009-12-01

    We simulate CMB maps including non-Gaussianity arising from cubic order perturbations of the primordial gravitational potential, characterized by the non-linearity parameter g{sub NL}. The maps are used to study the characteristic nature of the resulting non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations. We measure the genus and investigate how it deviates from Gaussian shape as a function of g{sub NL} and smoothing scale. We find that the deviation of the non-Gaussian genus curve from the Gaussian one has an antisymmetric, sine function like shape, implying more hot and more cold spots for g{sub NL} > 0 and less of both for g{sub NL} < 0. The deviation increases linearly with g{sub NL} and also exhibits mild increase as the smoothing scale increases. We further study other statistics derived from the genus, namely, the number of hot spots, the number of cold spots, combined number of hot and cold spots and the slope of the genus curve at mean temperature fluctuation. We find that these observables carry signatures of g{sub NL} that are clearly distinct from the quadratic order perturbations, encoded in the parameter f{sub NL}. Hence they can be very useful tools for distinguishing not only between non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations and Gaussian ones but also between g{sub NL} and f{sub NL} type non-Gaussianities.

  16. Perturbative triples correction for local pair natural orbital based explicitly correlated CCSD(F12*) using Laplace transformation techniques.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gunnar; Hättig, Christof

    2016-12-21

    We present an implementation of pair natural orbital coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, PNO-CCSD(T), which avoids the quasi-canonical triples approximation (T0) where couplings due to off-diagonal Fock matrix elements are neglected. A numerical Laplace transformation of the canonical expression for the perturbative (T) triples correction is used to avoid an I/O and storage bottleneck for the triples amplitudes. Results for a test set of reaction energies show that only very few Laplace grid points are needed to obtain converged energy differences and that PNO-CCSD(T) is a more robust approximation than PNO-CCSD(T0) with a reduced mean absolute deviation from canonical CCSD(T) results. We combine the PNO-based (T) triples correction with the explicitly correlated PNO-CCSD(F12*) method and investigate the use of specialized F12-PNOs in the conventional triples correction. We find that no significant additional errors are introduced and that PNO-CCSD(F12*)(T) can be applied in a black box manner.

  17. Biogeochemical responses of the carbon cycle to natural and human perturbations: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Ver, L.M.B.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Lerman, A.

    1999-07-01

    In the past three centuries, human perturbations of the environment have affected the biogeochemical behavior of the global carbon cycle and that of the other three nutrient elements closely coupled to carbon: nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. The partitioning of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} among its various sinks in the past, for the present, and for projections into the near future is controlled by the interactions of these four elemental cycles within the major environmental domains of the land, atmosphere, coastal oceanic zone, and open ocean. The authors analyze the past, present, and future behavior of the global carbon cycle using the Terrestrial-Ocean-aTmosphere Ecosystem Model (TOTEM), a unique process-based model of the four global coupled biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. They find that during the past 300 yrs, anthropogenic CO{sub 2} was mainly stored in the atmosphere and in the open ocean. Human activities on land caused an enhanced loss of mass from the terrestrial organic matter reservoirs (phytomass and humus) mainly through deforestation and consequently increased humus remineralization, erosion, and transport to the coastal margins by rivers and runoff. Photosynthetic uptake by the terrestrial phytomass was enhanced owing to fertilization by increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations and supported by nutrients remineralized from organic matter. TOTEM results indicate that through most of the past 300 yrs, the loss of C from deforestation and other land-use activities was greater than the gain from the enhanced photosynthetic uptake. Since pre-industrial time (since 1700), the net flux of CO{sub 2} from the coastal waters has decreased by 40%, from 0.20 Gt C/yr to 0.12 Gt C/yr. TOTEM analyses of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations for the 21st century were based on the fossil-fuel emission projections of IPCC (business as usual scenario) and of the more restrictive UN 1997 Kyoto Protocol. By the mid-21st century

  18. Local explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with pair natural orbitals.

    PubMed

    Tew, David P; Helmich, Benjamin; Hättig, Christof

    2011-08-21

    We explore using a pair natural orbital analysis of approximate first-order pair functions as means to truncate the space of both virtual and complementary auxiliary orbitals in the context of explicitly correlated F12 methods using localised occupied orbitals. We demonstrate that this offers an attractive procedure and that only 10-40 virtual orbitals per significant pair are required to obtain second-order valence correlation energies to within 1-2% of the basis set limit. Moreover, for this level of virtual truncation, only 10-40 complementary auxiliary orbitals per pair are required for an accurate resolution of the identity in the computation of the three- and four-electron integrals that arise in explicitly correlated methods.

  19. Intralimb compensation strategy depends on the nature of joint perturbation in human hopping.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Hui; Roiz, Ronald A; Auyang, Arick G

    2008-01-01

    Due to the well-described spring-mass dynamics of bouncing gaits, human hopping is a tractable model for elucidating basic neuromuscular compensation principles. We tested whether subjects would employ a multi-joint or single-joint response to stabilize leg stiffness while wearing a spring-loaded ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) that applied localized resistive and assistive torques to the ankle. We analyzed kinematics and kinetics data from nine subjects hopping in place on one leg, at three frequencies (2.2, 2.4, and 2.8Hz) and three orthosis conditions (freely articulating AFO, AFO with plantarflexion resistance, and AFO with plantarflexion assistance). Leg stiffness was invariant across AFO conditions, however, compensation strategy depended upon the nature of the applied load. Biological ankle stiffness increased in response to a resistive load at twice the rate that it decreased with an assitive load. Ankle adjustments alone fully compensated for an assistive load with no net change in combined (biological plus applied) total ankle stiffness (p > or =0.133). In contrast, a resistive load resulted in a 7.4-9.0% increase in total ankle stiffness across frequencies and a concomitant 10-15% increase in knee joint stiffness at each frequency (p< or =0.037). The increased knee joint stiffness in response to resistive ankle load allowed subjects to maintain a more flexed knee at mid-stance, which attenuated the effect of the increased total ankle joint stiffness to preserve leg stiffness and whole limb biomechanical performance. Our findings suggest humans maintain invariant leg stiffness in bouncing gaits through different intralimb compensation strategies that are specific to the nature of the joint loading.

  20. Cigarette smoke-mediated perturbations of the immune response: A new therapeutic approach with natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2016-09-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) accounts for the outcome of several pathologies, even including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Under healthy conditions, lung immune system becomes tolerant in response to various external stimuli. CS exposure alters the pulmonary immune equilibrium, thus leading to a condition of hyper activation of the local innate and adaptive immunity. COPD is one of the major complications of chronic CS exposure where a pro-inflammatory profile of the pulmonary and systemic immunity is predominant. In this review, alternative treatments with natural products to mitigate CS-mediated pulmonary inflammation are proposed. In particular, polyphenols, a class of natural compounds largely present in fruits and vegetables, have been shown to act as anti-inflammatory agents. Accordingly, recent experimental and clinical evidences support polyphenol-mediated potential health benefits in smokers. For instance, pomegranate juice is able to attenuate the damage provoked by CS on cultured human alveolar macrophages. In addition, maqui beery extract has been proven to normalize H2O2 and interleukin-6 levels in exhaled breath condensate in healthy smokers. However, some limitations of alternative treatments are represented by a better knowledge of the mechanism(s) of action exerted by polyphenols and by the lack of animal models of COPD. In any case, the potential targets of polyphenols in the course of COPD will be outlined with special reference to the activation of T regulatory cells as well as to the inhibition of the polymorphonuclear cell and monocyte respiratory burst and of the NF-kB pathway, respectively.

  1. Recent Advances in Remote Sensing of Natural Hazards-Induced Atmospheric and Ionospheric Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. M.; Komjathy, A.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Langley, R. B.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) induced by acoustic-gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere have significant impact on trans-ionospheric radio waves such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, including Global Position System (GPS)) measurements. Natural hazards and solid Earth events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are actual sources that may trigger acoustic and gravity waves resulting in traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) in the upper atmosphere. Trans-ionospheric radio wave measurements sense the total electron content (TEC) along the signal propagation path. In this research, we introduce a novel GPS-based detection and estimation technique for remote sensing of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs including space weather phenomena induced by major natural hazard events, using TEC time series collected from worldwide ground-based dual-frequency GNSS (including GPS) receiver networks. We demonstrate the ability of using ground- and space-based dual-frequency GPS measurements to detect and monitor tsunami wave propagation from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami. Major wave trains with different propagation speeds and wavelengths were identified through analysis of the GPS remote sensing observations. Dominant physical characteristics of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs are found to be associated with specific tsunami propagations and oceanic Rayleigh waves. In this research, we compared GPS-based observations, corresponding model simulations and tsunami wave propagation. Results are shown to lead to a better understanding of the tsunami-induced ionosphere responses. Based on current distribution of Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations, the results indicate that tsunami-induced TIDs may be detected about 60 minutes prior to tsunamis arriving at the U.S. west coast. It is expected that this GNSS-based technology will become an integral part of future early-warning systems.

  2. Local complete active space second-order perturbation theory using pair natural orbitals (PNO-CASPT2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Filipe; Kats, Daniel; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-01

    We present a CASPT2 method which exploits local approximations to achieve linear scaling of the computational effort with the molecular size, provided the active space is small and local. The inactive orbitals are localized, and the virtual space for each electron pair is spanned by a domain of pair-natural orbitals (PNOs). The configuration space is internally contracted, and the PNOs are defined for uniquely defined orthogonal pairs. Distant pair energies are obtained by multipole approximations, so that the number of configurations that are explicitly treated in the CASPT2 scales linearly with molecular size (assuming a constant active space). The PNOs are generated using approximate amplitudes obtained in a pair-specific semi-canonical basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs). The evaluation and transformation of the two-electron integrals use the same parallel local density fitting techniques as recently described for linear-scaling PNO-LMP2 (local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory). The implementation of the amplitude equations, which are solved iteratively, employs the local integrated tensor framework. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are tested for excitation energies and correlation energies. It is demonstrated that the errors introduced by the local approximations are very small. They can be well controlled by few parameters for the distant pair approximation, initial PAO domains, and the PNO domains.

  3. Local complete active space second-order perturbation theory using pair natural orbitals (PNO-CASPT2).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Filipe; Kats, Daniel; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2016-09-28

    We present a CASPT2 method which exploits local approximations to achieve linear scaling of the computational effort with the molecular size, provided the active space is small and local. The inactive orbitals are localized, and the virtual space for each electron pair is spanned by a domain of pair-natural orbitals (PNOs). The configuration space is internally contracted, and the PNOs are defined for uniquely defined orthogonal pairs. Distant pair energies are obtained by multipole approximations, so that the number of configurations that are explicitly treated in the CASPT2 scales linearly with molecular size (assuming a constant active space). The PNOs are generated using approximate amplitudes obtained in a pair-specific semi-canonical basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs). The evaluation and transformation of the two-electron integrals use the same parallel local density fitting techniques as recently described for linear-scaling PNO-LMP2 (local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory). The implementation of the amplitude equations, which are solved iteratively, employs the local integrated tensor framework. The efficiency and accuracy of the method are tested for excitation energies and correlation energies. It is demonstrated that the errors introduced by the local approximations are very small. They can be well controlled by few parameters for the distant pair approximation, initial PAO domains, and the PNO domains.

  4. Exploring a Detonation Nature of Mesoscopic Perturbations and Ejecta Formation from the Mesoscale Probing of the PBX-driven Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaksin, Igor; Guiruis, Raafat; Rodrigues, Luis; Mendes, Ricardo; Plaksin, Svyatoslav; Fernandes, Eduardo; Ferreira, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Ejecting debris from free surface of liner is of considerable interest at optimization of explosive devices, in which the PBX-driven liner effects shock compression of gaseous matter. Following factors were historically considered as main drivers of material ejection: granular microstructure of liner material, roughness and surface defects of liner, and shock pressure time history in PBX-driven liner. In contrast to existing models, we are considering the small scale fluctuations of detonation flow as probable dominating factor of surface jetting in the PBX-driven collapsing liners. Obtained experimental evidence is indicative that jetting from the liners is caused by meso-scale perturbations of PBX detonations, which are identified as (1) ejecta of overdriven detonation products through detonation front, (2) ejecta-driven detonation cells, and (3) galloping detonation front motion. Spatially resolved scenarios of each of phenomena (1-3) were obtained in experiments with copper-liners and HMX-based PBXs fabricated on maximum packing density of crystalline constituents. Both the DRZ-induced perturbations translated to a PBX-driven liner and the ejected debris were recorded and quantitatively measured in the mesoscale range with application of the 96-channel optical analyzer MCOA-UC. Work was supported by the ONR and ONR Global Grants N00014-12-1-0477 and N62909-12-1-7131 with Drs. Clifford Bedford and John Zimmerman Program Managers.

  5. [Study of thermal perturbation of natural bamboo fiber by two dimensional correlation analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Huang, An-min; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Qun; Liu, Jun-liang; Sun, Su-qin

    2008-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis was applied to study the mini-heating process of natural bamboo fiber. The absorption peaks of natural bamboo fiber and bamboo in the FTIR spectra were different, which showed the contents of lignin and hemicelluloses of natural bamboo fiber was lower than those of bamboo. The changes in absorption peaks of natural bamboo fiber in the FTIR spectra at different temperatures were inconspicuous during heating up from 50 to 120 degrees C, which showed that there was not oxidation reaction in natural bamboo fiber during the process. With the help of 2D correlation analysis, the changes of different groups of natural bamboo fiber and bamboo during heating process were reflected. The strongest autopeak of them was all aroused at 1 665 cm1 in synchronous spectrum. The difference was that there were several weak auto-peaks and cross peaks in the natural bamboo fiber, but in the bamboo, one stronger 5 x 5 group was aroused in the 833-1230 cm(-1). Region the reason was the difference in chemistry composition and the change degree during heating process. In conclusion, the 2D correlation analysis of FTIR can be a new method to analyze the microcosmic dynamic change in the structure of natural bamboo fiber and bamboo during the mini-heating process and also offers an important theory gist for the study of oxidation mechanism of them.

  6. Freezing injury to montane Picea rubens; the potential role of and mechanisms for natural and anthropogenic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Dehayes, D. )

    1994-06-01

    Winter injury occurs frequently to current-year needles of red spruce in the northern Appalachians and appears to be caused by subfreezing temperatures rather than foliar desiccation. Under ambient conditions, the maximum depth of cold tolerance achieved by red spruce needles in midwinter is barely sufficient to avoid freezing injury at common winter temperatures. Therefore, any perturbation that would decrease midwinter cold tolerance by just a few degrees substantially increases the probability of freezing injury. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that extended winter thaws and exposure to ambient and simulated acidic cloud water increase the freezing sensitivity of red spruce. Repeated experiments have been unable to demonstrate a consistent negative influence of ambient or elevated ozone concentrations or elevated N on cold tolerance or freezing injury susceptibility. Rapid freezing, especially following solar heating of needles, has also resulted in some injury to both current-year and year-old needles, under laboratory conditions. Visible freezing injury and winter cold tolerance appear to be associated with relatively low foliar Ca concentrations. It is hypothesized that Ca leaching by acidic cloud water could increase freezing susceptibility by modifying membrane structure and/or permeability.

  7. Ground and Space-Based Natural Hazard Remote Sensing of Thermosphere-Ionosphere Perturbations Using Gnss Measuremnents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Komjathy, A.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) induced by acoustic-gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere have significant impact on trans-ionospheric Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, tsunamis and volcano eruptions are actual sources that may trigger acoustic and gravity waves resulting in disturbances in the upper atmosphere. GNSS measurements sense the integrated electron content (IEC) along the signal propagation path. Methods from the previous space weather related research may be applied to detect disturbances in IEC time series. In our work, we use wavelet-based detection and a novel estimation technique for remote sensing of atmospheric wave-induced TIDs including space weather phenomenon using dual frequency IEC time series collected form worldwide GNSS networks of ground and space-based GNSS measurements corresponding to major natural hazard events. Through the analysis from the GNSS sounding, we are able to find major wave trains that may be observable in the measurements using ground networks and spaceborne GNSS receivers. The dominant frequencies are seen to be associated with the selected nature hazard events. Furthermore, a comparison of space and ground-based GNSS observations, corresponding model simulations and other geophysical measurements will be shown to get a better understanding of the atmosphere-ionosphere responses due to major natural hazards. We anticipate that observations from GNSS remote sensing of thermosphere-ionosphere disturbances will become cornerstones for future applications in natural hazard monitoring and it is expected to become integral part of existing early-warning systems.

  8. X-ray natural linear dichroism of graphitic materials across the carbon K-edge: Correction for perturbing high-order harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansing, C.; Mertins, H. C.; Gaupp, A.; Sokolov, A.; Gilbert, M. C.; Wahab, H.; Timmers, H.

    2016-05-01

    Reflectivity measurements on graphitic materials such as graphene at energies across the carbon K-edge are frustrated by significant intensity loss due to adventitious carbon on beamline mirrors. Such intensity reduction enhances effects due to perturbing high-order harmonics in the beam. These effects distort the actual structure of the reflectance curve. In order to overcome this limitation, a correction technique has been developed and demonstrated first with measurements for highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. The same approach may be applied to other graphitic materials such as graphene and it may be used with other synchrotron beamlines. The fraction of high-order harmonics was determined by passing the incident beam through a 87 nm thin silicon nitride absorber that can be well modeled. Using the corrected measurements the x-ray natural linear dichroism of the sample has been determined.

  9. Local explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with pair natural orbitals.

    PubMed

    Hättig, Christof; Tew, David P; Helmich, Benjamin

    2012-05-28

    We present an algorithm for computing explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset energies near the basis set limit for large molecules with a cost that scales formally as N(4) with system size N. This is achieved through a hybrid approach where locality is exploited first through orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) and subsequently through pair natural orbitals (PNOs) and integrals are approximated using density fitting. Our method combines the low orbital transformation costs of the OSVs with the compactness of the PNO representation of the doubles amplitude vector. The N(4) scaling does not rely upon the a priori definition of domains, enforced truncation of pair lists, or even screening and the energies converge smoothly to the canonical values with decreasing occupation number thresholds, used in the selection of the PNO basis. For MP2.5 intermolecular interaction energies, we find that 99% of benchmark basis set limit correlation energy contributions are recovered using an aug-cc-pVTZ basis and that on average only 50 PNOs are required to correlate the significant orbital pairs.

  10. Local explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with pair natural orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hättig, Christof; Tew, David P.; Helmich, Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    We present an algorithm for computing explicitly correlated second- and third-order Møller-Plesset energies near the basis set limit for large molecules with a cost that scales formally as N^4 with system size N. This is achieved through a hybrid approach where locality is exploited first through orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) and subsequently through pair natural orbitals (PNOs) and integrals are approximated using density fitting. Our method combines the low orbital transformation costs of the OSVs with the compactness of the PNO representation of the doubles amplitude vector. The N^4 scaling does not rely upon the a priori definition of domains, enforced truncation of pair lists, or even screening and the energies converge smoothly to the canonical values with decreasing occupation number thresholds, used in the selection of the PNO basis. For MP2.5 intermolecular interaction energies, we find that 99% of benchmark basis set limit correlation energy contributions are recovered using an aug-cc-pVTZ basis and that on average only 50 PNOs are required to correlate the significant orbital pairs.

  11. The nature of interactions between clusters of Mg and Zn with HCN from symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based of DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Desirée N.; Szcześniak, Małgorzata M.; Chałasiński, Grzegorz

    2009-06-01

    The donor-acceptor complexes HCN-Mgn and HCN-Znn (n =1,…,4), which were recently detected in helium nanodroplet infrared spectroscopy experiments by Miller and co-workers [Science 292, 481 (2001); J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5620 (2006)] are investigated by the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on the density functional monomer description [SAPT(DFT)]. The interaction energy components, such as the electrostatic, exchange, induction, and dispersion, are calculated as a function of the metal cluster size. We find that the donor-acceptor interactions manifest themselves by the large induction and dispersion interactions, which counteract the unusually large exchange repulsion. The dependence of the components on the clusters size n follows different patterns in the complexes of magnesium and zinc. In HCN-Mgn the induction effect increases in magnitude much faster than the dispersion effect. In HCN-Znn there is a slight decrease in both dispersion and induction terms between n =2 and n =3. Then dispersion rises faster than induction between n =3 and n =4. The exchange effects are also much different in both types of complexes. The first-order exchange energy rises much faster with n in the magnesium complexes than in the zinc complexes. Furthermore, in the latter there is a significant drop in the exchange energy between n =2 and n =3. The second-order exchange effects tend to quench a larger percentage of the induction and dispersion contributions in the Mgn complexes than in Znn. These different patterns of the interaction energy variations with n are related to the different nature of nonadditive effects in the neat metal clusters.

  12. Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Stebbins, Albert

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe.

  13. Exploring the nature of low-lying excited-states in molecular crystals from many-body perturbation theory beyond the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel, Tonatiuh; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Rinn, Andre; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Shao, Meiyue; Witte, Gregor; Yang, Chao; Louie, Steven G.; Chatterjee, Sangaam; Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    Organic semiconductors have attracted attention due to their potential for optoelectronics and novel phenomena, such as singlet fission. Here, we use many-body perturbation theory to simulate neutral excitations in acene and perylene crystals. By diagonalizing the full Bethe-Salpether (BSE) Hamiltonian beyond the Tamm Dancoff approximation (TDA), we find that both low-lying excitation energies and oscillator strengths are in improved agreement with experiments relative to the TDA. We characterize the low-lying excitons, focusing in the degree of charge-transfer and spatial delocalization, connecting their relevance to singlet fission. For perylene, we find overall good agreement with absorption measurements, and we see evidence for the formation of an ``exciton-polariton'' band in β-perylene. This work is supported by the DOE.

  14. Density perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2015-07-28

    Despite the fundamental importance of electron density in density functional theory, perturbations are still usually dealt with using Hartree-Fock-like orbital equations known as coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS). As an alternative, we develop a perturbation theory that solves for the perturbed density directly, removing the need for CPKS. This replaces CPKS with a true Hohenberg-Kohn density perturbation theory. In CPKS, the perturbed density is found in the basis of products of occupied and virtual orbitals, which becomes ever more over-complete as the size of the orbital basis set increases. In our method, the perturbation to the density is expanded in terms of a series of density basis functions and found directly. It is possible to solve for the density in such a way that it makes the total energy stationary even if the density basis is incomplete.

  15. A simultaneous estimation of the mass of Mars and its natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, from the orbital perturbations on the Mariner 9, Viking 1, and Viking 2 orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Fricke, S. K.; Mccarthy, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, caused perturbations on the orbits of the Mariner 9, and the Viking spacecraft that were used to estimate the satellite masses. The Viking spacecraft were specifically targeted to make close flybys (within a few hundred kilometers) of Phobos in February 1977 and of Deimos in October 1977. These close encounters were used to estimate the moon's gravitational constant, GM (the universal constant of gravitation multiplied by the satellite mass). However, the Viking and Mariner 9 spacecraft made numerous flybys of Phobos and Deimos at distances of a few thousand kilometers. The tracking data from these more 'distant' encounters were processed to estimate the masses of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos.

  16. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  17. Density matrix perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt

    2004-05-14

    An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.

  18. Perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2013-09-01

    The perturbative stability of catenoidal soap films formed between parallel, equal radii, coaxial rings is studied using analytical and semi-analytical methods. Using a theorem on the nature of eigenvalues for a class of Sturm-Liouville operators, we show that, for the given boundary conditions, azimuthally asymmetric perturbations are stable, while symmetric perturbations lead to an instability --a result demonstrated in Ben Amar et al. (Eur. Phys. J. B 3, 197 (1998)) using numerics and experiment. Further, we show how to obtain the lowest real eigenvalue of perturbations, using the semi-analytical Asymptotic Iteration Method (AIM). Conclusions using AIM support the analytically obtained result as well as the results by Ben Amar et al.. Finally, we compute the eigenfunctions and show, pictorially, how the perturbed soap film evolves in time.

  19. Asymptotic stability of singularly perturbed differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artstein, Zvi

    2017-02-01

    Asymptotic stability is examined for singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations that may not possess a natural split into fast and slow motions. Rather, the right hand side of the equation is comprised of a singularly perturbed component and a regular one. The limit dynamics consists then of Young measures, with values being invariant measures of the fast contribution, drifted by the slow one. Relations between the asymptotic stability of the perturbed system and the limit dynamics are examined, and a Lyapunov functions criterion, based on averaging, is established.

  20. SparseMaps—A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. III. Linear-scaling multireference domain-based pair natural orbital N-electron valence perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yang; Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Valeev, Edward F.; Neese, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Multi-reference (MR) electronic structure methods, such as MR configuration interaction or MR perturbation theory, can provide reliable energies and properties for many molecular phenomena like bond breaking, excited states, transition states or magnetic properties of transition metal complexes and clusters. However, owing to their inherent complexity, most MR methods are still too computationally expensive for large systems. Therefore the development of more computationally attractive MR approaches is necessary to enable routine application for large-scale chemical systems. Among the state-of-the-art MR methods, second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient, size-consistent, and intruder-state-free method. However, there are still two important bottlenecks in practical applications of NEVPT2 to large systems: (a) the high computational cost of NEVPT2 for large molecules, even with moderate active spaces and (b) the prohibitive cost for treating large active spaces. In this work, we address problem (a) by developing a linear scaling "partially contracted" NEVPT2 method. This development uses the idea of domain-based local pair natural orbitals (DLPNOs) to form a highly efficient algorithm. As shown previously in the framework of single-reference methods, the DLPNO concept leads to an enormous reduction in computational effort while at the same time providing high accuracy (approaching 99.9% of the correlation energy), robustness, and black-box character. In the DLPNO approach, the virtual space is spanned by pair natural orbitals that are expanded in terms of projected atomic orbitals in large orbital domains, while the inactive space is spanned by localized orbitals. The active orbitals are left untouched. Our implementation features a highly efficient "electron pair prescreening" that skips the negligible inactive pairs. The surviving pairs are treated using the partially contracted NEVPT2 formalism. A detailed comparison

  1. SparseMaps--A systematic infrastructure for reduced-scaling electronic structure methods. III. Linear-scaling multireference domain-based pair natural orbital N-electron valence perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Sivalingam, Kantharuban; Valeev, Edward F; Neese, Frank

    2016-03-07

    Multi-reference (MR) electronic structure methods, such as MR configuration interaction or MR perturbation theory, can provide reliable energies and properties for many molecular phenomena like bond breaking, excited states, transition states or magnetic properties of transition metal complexes and clusters. However, owing to their inherent complexity, most MR methods are still too computationally expensive for large systems. Therefore the development of more computationally attractive MR approaches is necessary to enable routine application for large-scale chemical systems. Among the state-of-the-art MR methods, second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) is an efficient, size-consistent, and intruder-state-free method. However, there are still two important bottlenecks in practical applications of NEVPT2 to large systems: (a) the high computational cost of NEVPT2 for large molecules, even with moderate active spaces and (b) the prohibitive cost for treating large active spaces. In this work, we address problem (a) by developing a linear scaling "partially contracted" NEVPT2 method. This development uses the idea of domain-based local pair natural orbitals (DLPNOs) to form a highly efficient algorithm. As shown previously in the framework of single-reference methods, the DLPNO concept leads to an enormous reduction in computational effort while at the same time providing high accuracy (approaching 99.9% of the correlation energy), robustness, and black-box character. In the DLPNO approach, the virtual space is spanned by pair natural orbitals that are expanded in terms of projected atomic orbitals in large orbital domains, while the inactive space is spanned by localized orbitals. The active orbitals are left untouched. Our implementation features a highly efficient "electron pair prescreening" that skips the negligible inactive pairs. The surviving pairs are treated using the partially contracted NEVPT2 formalism. A detailed comparison

  2. The Perturbed Puma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Shu-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Yu

    2012-04-01

    The puma model on the basis of the Lorentz and CPT violation may bring an economical interpretation to the conventional neutrinos oscillation and part of the anomalous oscillations. We study the effect of the perturbation to the puma model. In the case of the first-order perturbation which keeps the (23) interchange symmetry, the mixing matrix element Ue3 is always zero. The nonzero mixing matrix element Ue3 is obtained in the second-order perturbation that breaks the (23) interchange symmetry.

  3. Perturbed nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    For perturbed nonlinear systems, a norm, other than the supremum norm, is introduced on some spaces of continuous functions. This makes possible the study of new types of behavior. A study is presented on a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas developed are applied to the study of integral manifolds, and examples are given.

  4. Vortex perturbation dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criminale, W. O.; Lasseigne, D. G.; Jackson, T. L.

    1995-01-01

    An initial value approach is used to examine the dynamics of perturbations introduced into a vortex under strain. Both the basic vortex considered and the perturbations are taken as fully three-dimensional. An explicit solution for the time evolution of the vorticity perturbations is given for arbitrary initial vorticity. Analytical solutions for the resulting velocity components are found when the initial vorticity is assumed to be localized. For more general initial vorticity distributions, the velocity components are determined numerically. It is found that the variation in the radial direction of the initial vorticity disturbance is the most important factor influencing the qualitative behavior of the solutions. Transient growth in the magnitude of the velocity components is found to be directly attributable to the compactness of the initial vorticity.

  5. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ΛCDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  6. Perturbed nonlinear differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, T. G.

    1972-01-01

    The existence of a solution defined for all t and possessing a type of boundedness property is established for the perturbed nonlinear system y = f(t,y) + F(t,y). The unperturbed system x = f(t,x) has a dichotomy in which some solutions exist and are well behaved as t increases to infinity, and some solution exists and are well behaved as t decreases to minus infinity. A similar study is made for a perturbed nonlinear differential equation defined on a half line, R+, and the existence of a family of solutions with special boundedness properties is established. The ideas are applied to integral manifolds.

  7. Perturbing turbulence beyond collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnen, Jakob; Scarselli, Davide; Hof, Björn; Nonlinear Dynamics; Turbulence Group Team

    2016-11-01

    Wall-bounded turbulent flows are considered to be in principle stable against perturbations and persist as long as the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. We show for the example of pipe flow that a specific perturbation of the turbulent flow field disrupts the genesis of new turbulence at the wall. This leads to an immediate collapse of the turbulent flow and causes complete relaminarisation further downstream. The annihilation of turbulence is effected by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component only, greatly simplifying control efforts which usually require knowledge of the highly complex three dimensional and time dependent velocity fields. We present several different control schemes from laboratory experiments which achieve the required perturbation of the flow for total relaminarisation. Transient growth, a linear amplification mechanism measuring the efficiency of eddies in redistributing shear that quantifies the maximum perturbation energy amplification achievable over a finite time in a linearized framework, is shown to set a clear-cut threshold below which turbulence is impeded in its formation and thus permanently annihilated.

  8. Cosmological perturbations in antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert

    2014-10-01

    We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.

  9. Renormalized Lie perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another.

  10. Covariant Bardeen perturbation formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitenti, S. D. P.; Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.

    2014-05-01

    In a previous work we obtained a set of necessary conditions for the linear approximation in cosmology. Here we discuss the relations of this approach with the so-called covariant perturbations. It is often argued in the literature that one of the main advantages of the covariant approach to describe cosmological perturbations is that the Bardeen formalism is coordinate dependent. In this paper we will reformulate the Bardeen approach in a completely covariant manner. For that, we introduce the notion of pure and mixed tensors, which yields an adequate language to treat both perturbative approaches in a common framework. We then stress that in the referred covariant approach, one necessarily introduces an additional hypersurface choice to the problem. Using our mixed and pure tensors approach, we are able to construct a one-to-one map relating the usual gauge dependence of the Bardeen formalism with the hypersurface dependence inherent to the covariant approach. Finally, through the use of this map, we define full nonlinear tensors that at first order correspond to the three known gauge invariant variables Φ, Ψ and Ξ, which are simultaneously foliation and gauge invariant. We then stress that the use of the proposed mixed tensors allows one to construct simultaneously gauge and hypersurface invariant variables at any order.

  11. Amplitudes of Spiral Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosbol, P.; Patsis, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    It has proven very difficult to estimate the amplitudes of spiral perturbations in disk galaxies from observations due to the variation of mass-to-light ratio and extinction across spiral arms. Deep, near-infrared images of grand-design spiral galaxies obtained with HAWK-I/VLT were used to analyze the azimuthal amplitude and shape of arms, which, even in the K-band may, be significantly biased by the presence of young stellar populations. Several techniques were applied to evaluate the relative importance of young stars across the arms, such as surface brightness of the disk with light from clusters subtracted, number density of clusters detected, and texture of the disk. The modulation of the texture measurement, which correlates with the number density of faint clusters, yields amplitudes of the spiral perturbation in the range 0.1-0.2. This estimate gives a better estimate of the mass perturbation in the spiral arms, since it is dominated by old clusters.

  12. Converting entropy to curvature perturbations after a cosmic bounce

    SciTech Connect

    Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno; Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2016-10-04

    We study two-field bouncing cosmologies in which primordial perturbations are created in either an ekpyrotic or a matter-dominated contraction phase. We use a non-singular ghost condensate bounce model to follow the perturbations through the bounce into the expanding phase of the universe. In contrast to the adiabatic perturbations, which on large scales are conserved across the bounce, entropy perturbations can grow significantly during the bounce phase. If they are converted into adiabatic/curvature perturbations after the bounce, they typically form the dominant contribution to the observed temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, which can have several beneficial implications. For ekpyrotic models, this mechanism loosens the constraints on the amplitude of the ekpyrotic potential while naturally suppressing the intrinsic amount of non-Gaussianity. For matter bounce models, the mechanism amplifies the scalar perturbations compared to the associated primordial gravitational waves.

  13. A chiral perturbation expansion for gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Zeid, Mohab; Hull, Christopher M.

    2006-02-01

    A formulation of Einstein gravity, analogous to that for gauge theory arising from the Chalmers-Siegel action, leads to a perturbation theory about an asymmetric weak coupling limit that treats positive and negative helicities differently. We find power counting rules for amplitudes that suggest the theory could find a natural interpretation in terms of a twistor-string theory for gravity with amplitudes supported on holomorphic curves in twistor space.

  14. Perturbed effects at radiation physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi

    2013-09-01

    Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.

  15. On the divergences of inflationary superhorizon perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, K; Nurmi, S; Podolsky, D; Rigopoulos, G I E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi E-mail: gerasimos.rigopoulos@helsinki.fi

    2008-04-15

    We discuss the infrared divergences that appear to plague cosmological perturbation theory. We show that, within the stochastic framework, they are regulated by eternal inflation so that the theory predicts finite fluctuations. Using the {Delta}N formalism to one loop, we demonstrate that the infrared modes can be absorbed into additive constants and the coefficients of the diagrammatic expansion for the connected parts of two-and three-point functions of the curvature perturbation. As a result, the use of any infrared cutoff below the scale of eternal inflation is permitted, provided that the background fields are appropriately redefined. The natural choice for the infrared cutoff would, of course, be the present horizon; other choices manifest themselves in the running of the correlators. We also demonstrate that it is possible to define observables that are renormalization-group-invariant. As an example, we derive a non-perturbative, infrared finite and renormalization point-independent relation between the two-point correlators of the curvature perturbation for the case of the free single field.

  16. Controlling chaos in low and high dimensional systems with periodic parametric perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Mirus, K.A.; Sprott, J.C.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of applying a periodic perturbation to an accessible parameter of various chaotic systems is examined. Numerical results indicate that perturbation frequencies near the natural frequencies of the unstable periodic orbits of the chaotic systems can result in limit cycles for relatively small perturbations. Such perturbations can also control or significantly reduce the dimension of high-dimensional systems. Initial application to the control of fluctuations in a prototypical magnetic fusion plasma device will be reviewed.

  17. Perturbation theory in electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, L. N.; Marthinsen, K.; Hoeier, R.

    1992-12-01

    The Bloch-wave approach is used for discussing multiple inelastic electron scattering and higher-order perturbation theory in inelastic high-energy electron diffraction. In contrast to previous work, the present work describes three-dimensional diffraction so that higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) effects are incorporated. Absorption is included and eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated from a structure matrix with the inclusion of an absorptive potential. Centrosymmetric as well as non-centrosymmetric crystal structures are allowed. An iteration method with a defined generalized propagation function for solving the inelastic coupling equations is described. It is shown that a similar iteration method with the same propagation function can be used for obtaining higher-order perturbation terms for the wave-function when a perturbation is added to the crystal potential. Finally, perturbation theory by matrix calculations when a general perturbation is added to the structure matrix is considered.

  18. Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Kadota, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Otsuka, Hajime E-mail: kobayashi@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp

    2016-01-01

    We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.

  19. Axion inflation with cross-correlated axion isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Kadota, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Otsuka, Hajime

    2016-01-25

    We study the inflation scenarios, in the framework of superstring theory, where the inflaton is an axion producing the adiabatic curvature perturbations while there exists another light axion producing the isocurvature perturbations. We discuss how the non-trivial couplings among string axions can generically arise, and calculate the consequent cross-correlations between the adiabatic and isocurvature modes through concrete examples. Based on the Planck analysis on the generally correlated isocurvature perturbations, we show that there is a preference for the existence of the correlated isocurvature modes for the axion monodromy inflation while the natural inflation disfavors such isocurvature modes.

  20. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-04-04

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.

  1. Perturbative gadgets at arbitrary orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Stephen P.; Farhi, Edward

    2008-06-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are often most easily formulated using many-body interactions. However, experimentally available interactions are generally two-body. In 2004, Kempe, Kitaev, and Regev introduced perturbative gadgets, by which arbitrary three-body effective interactions can be obtained using Hamiltonians consisting only of two-body interactions. These three-body effective interactions arise from the third order in perturbation theory. Since their introduction, perturbative gadgets have become a standard tool in the theory of quantum computation. Here we construct generalized gadgets so that one can directly obtain arbitrary k -body effective interactions from two-body Hamiltonians. These effective interactions arise from the k th order in perturbation theory.

  2. Inflationary perturbations in bimetric gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cusin, Giulia; Durrer, Ruth; Guarato, Pietro; Motta, Mariele E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch E-mail: mariele.motta@unige.ch

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we study the generation of primordial perturbations in a cosmological setting of bigravity during inflation. We consider a model of bigravity which can reproduce the ΛCDM background and large scale structure and a simple model of inflation with a single scalar field and a quadratic potential. Reheating is implemented with a toy-model in which the energy density of the inflaton is entirely dissipated into radiation. We present analytic and numerical results for the evolution of primordial perturbations in this cosmological setting. We find that the amplitude of tensor perturbations generated during inflation is sufficiently suppressed to avoid the effects of the tensor instability discovered in refs. [1,2] which develops during the cosmological evolution in the physical sector. We argue that from a pure analysis of the tensor perturbations this bigravity model is compatible with present observations. However, we derive rather stringent limits on inflation from the vector and scalar sectors.

  3. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  4. Using Lagrangian perturbation theory for precision cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) at one-loop order with Gaussian initial conditions. We present an expansion method to approximately compute the power spectrum LPT. Our approximate solution has good convergence in the series expansion and enables us to compute the power spectrum in LPT accurately and quickly. Non-linear corrections in this theory naturally satisfy the law of conservation of mass because the relation between matter density and the displacement vector of dark matter corresponds to the conservation of mass. By matching the one-loop solution in LPT to the two-loop solution in standard perturbation theory, we present an approximate solution of the power spectrum which has higher order corrections than the two-loop order in standard perturbation theory with the conservation of mass satisfied. With this approximation, we can use LPT to compute a non-linear power spectrum without any free parameters, and this solution agrees with numerical simulations at k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup –1} and z = 0.35 to better than 2%.

  5. Boundary Layer Instabilities Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled, laser-generated, freestream perturbation was created in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT). The freestream perturbation convected downstream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The geometry of the flared cone is a body of revolution bounded by a circular arc with a 3-meter radius. Fourteen PCB 132A31 pressure transducers were used to measure a wave packet generated in the cone boundary layer by the freestream perturbation. This wave packet grew large and became nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. Breakdown of this wave packet occurred when the amplitude of the pressure fluctuations was approximately 10% of the surface pressure for a nominally sharp nosetip. The initial amplitude of the second mode instability on the blunt flared cone is estimated to be on the order of 10 -6 times the freestream static pressure. The freestream laser-generated perturbation was positioned upstream of the model in three different configurations: on the centerline, offset from the centerline by 1.5 mm, and offset from the centerline by 3.0 mm. When the perturbation was offset from the centerline of a blunt flared cone, a larger wave packet was generated on the side toward which the perturbation was offset. The offset perturbation did not show as much of an effect on the wave packet on a sharp flared cone as it did on a blunt flared cone.

  6. Evolution equation for non-linear cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Brustein, Ram; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-11-01

    We present a novel approach, based entirely on the gravitational potential, for studying the evolution of non-linear cosmological matter perturbations. Starting from the perturbed Einstein equations, we integrate out the non-relativistic degrees of freedom of the cosmic fluid and obtain a single closed equation for the gravitational potential. We then verify the validity of the new equation by comparing its approximate solutions to known results in the theory of non-linear cosmological perturbations. First, we show explicitly that the perturbative solution of our equation matches the standard perturbative solutions. Next, using the mean field approximation to the equation, we show that its solution reproduces in a simple way the exponential suppression of the non-linear propagator on small scales due to the velocity dispersion. Our approach can therefore reproduce the main features of the renormalized perturbation theory and (time)-renormalization group approaches to the study of non-linear cosmological perturbations, with some possibly important differences. We conclude by a preliminary discussion of the nature of the full solutions of the equation and their significance.

  7. Bonding charge density from atomic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, William Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-05-15

    Charge transfer among individual atoms is the key concept in modern electronic theory of chemical bonding. In this work, we present a first-principles approach to calculating the charge transfer. Based on the effects of perturbations of an individual atom or a group of atoms on the electron charge density, we determine unambiguously the amount of electron charge associated with a particular atom or a group of atoms. We computed the topological electron loss versus gain using ethylene, graphene, MgO, and SrTiO3 as examples. Our results verify the nature of chemical bonds in these materials at the atomic level.

  8. Generating ekpyrotic curvature perturbations before the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Turok, Neil; McFadden, Paul; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-11-15

    We analyze a general mechanism for producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological curvature perturbations during a contracting phase preceding a big bang, which can be entirely described using 4D effective field theory. The mechanism, based on first producing entropic perturbations and then converting them to curvature perturbations, can be naturally incorporated in cyclic and ekpyrotic models in which the big bang is modeled as a brane collision, as well as other types of cosmological models with a pre-big bang phase. We show that the correct perturbation amplitude can be obtained and that the spectral tilt n{sub s} tends to range from slightly blue to red, with 0.97

  9. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  10. Jet Perturbation by HE target

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P; Kuklo, R M

    2001-03-01

    We have previously reported the degree of attenuation and perturbation by a Cu jet passing through Comp B explosive. Similar tests have now been performed with high explosive (HE) targets having CJ pressures higher than and lower than the CJ pressure of Comp B. The explosives were LX-14 and TNT, respectively. We found that the measured exit velocity of the jet where it transitions from perturbed to solid did not vary significantly as a function of HE type for each HE thickness. The radial momentum imparted to the perturbed jet segment did vary as a function of HE type, however, and we report the radial spreading of the jet and the penetration of a downstream target as a function of HE type and thickness.

  11. Multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    We provide a concise review on multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations. We discuss convenient and physically meaningful bases in terms of which perturbations can be systematically studied. We give formal accounts on the gauge fixing conditions and present the perturbation action in two gauges. We also briefly review nonlinear perturbations.

  12. Thermal perturbation of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twigg, L. W.; Endal, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of thermal perturbations of the solar convective zone via changes in the mixing length parameter were carried out, with a view toward understanding the possible solar radius and luminosity changes cited in the literature. The results show that: (a) a single perturbation of alpha is probably not the cause of the solar radius change and (b) the parameter W = d lambda nR./d lambda nL. can not be characterized by a single value, as implied in recent work.

  13. Geometric Perturbation Theory and Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omohundro, Stephen Malvern

    1985-12-01

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure in five different ways. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a long-standing question posed by Kruskal about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements, which is then applied to gyromotion. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A theory motivated by free electron lasers gives new restrictions on the change of area of projected parallelepipeds under canonical transformations. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem

  14. CMB hemispherical asymmetry from non-linear isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2015-04-01

    We investigate whether non-adiabatic perturbations from inflation could produce an asymmetric distribution of temperature anisotropies on large angular scales in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We use a generalised non-linear δ N formalism to calculate the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density and isocurvature perturbations due to the presence of non-adiabatic, but approximately scale-invariant field fluctuations during multi-field inflation. This local-type non-Gaussianity leads to a correlation between very long wavelength inhomogeneities, larger than our observable horizon, and smaller scale fluctuations in the radiation and matter density. Matter isocurvature perturbations contribute primarily to low CMB multipoles and hence can lead to a hemispherical asymmetry on large angular scales, with negligible asymmetry on smaller scales. In curvaton models, where the matter isocurvature perturbation is partly correlated with the primordial density perturbation, we are unable to obtain a significant asymmetry on large angular scales while respecting current observational constraints on the observed quadrupole. However in the axion model, where the matter isocurvature and primordial density perturbations are uncorrelated, we find it may be possible to obtain a significant asymmetry due to isocurvature modes on large angular scales. Such an isocurvature origin for the hemispherical asymmetry would naturally give rise to a distinctive asymmetry in the CMB polarisation on large scales.

  15. Inevitable ambiguity in perturbation around flat space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinose, S. ); Kaminaga, Y. )

    1989-12-15

    Perturbation of general-relativistic predictions around flat geometry, in general, introduces inevitable ambiguity. The ambiguity reflects the geometrical nature of general relativity and is never a difficulty of it. We explain it by taking a concrete example of the radar-echo experiment.

  16. VHS Movies: Perturbations for Morphogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Danny L.

    This paper discusses the concept of a family system in terms of an interactive system of interrelated, interdependent parts and suggests that VHS movies can act as perturbations, i.e., change promoting agents, for certain dysfunctional family systems. Several distinct characteristics of a family system are defined with particular emphasis on…

  17. Recent Developments in Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC

    2005-07-11

    I review recent progress in perturbative QCD on two fronts: extending next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections to a broader range of collider processes, and applying twistor-space methods (and related spinoffs) to computations of multi-parton scattering amplitudes.

  18. Adaptation Strategies in Perturbed /s/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jana; Hoole, Phil; Perrier, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the role of three articulatory parameters (tongue position, jaw position and tongue grooving) in the production of /s/. Six normal speakers' speech was perturbed by a palatal prosthesis. The fricative was recorded acoustically and through electromagnetic articulography in four conditions: (1) unperturbed,…

  19. Disformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Motohashi, Hayato; White, Jonathan E-mail: jwhite@post.kek.jp

    2016-02-01

    We show that under a general disformal transformation the linear comoving curvature perturbation is not identically invariant, but is invariant on superhorizon scales for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's theory. The difference between disformally related curvature perturbations is found to be given in terms of the comoving density perturbation associated with a single canonical scalar field. In General Relativity it is well-known that this quantity vanishes on superhorizon scales through the Poisson equation that is obtained on combining the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints, and we confirm that a similar result holds for any theory that is disformally related to Horndeski's scalar-tensor theory so long as the invertibility condition for the disformal transformation is satisfied. We also consider the curvature perturbation at full nonlinear order in the unitary gauge, and find that it is invariant under a general disformal transformation if we assume that an attractor regime has been reached. Finally, we also discuss the counting of degrees of freedom in theories disformally related to Horndeski's.

  20. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  1. New results in perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.K.

    1985-11-01

    Three topics in perturbative QCD important for Super-collider physics are reviewed. The topics are: (2 2) jet phenomena calculated in O( sT); new techniques for the calculation of tree graphs; and colour coherence in jet phenomena. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Horst, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.

  3. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates.

  4. Gas hydrate inhibition by perturbation of liquid water structure.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2015-06-17

    Natural gas hydrates are icy crystalline materials that contain hydrocarbons, which are the primary energy source for this civilization. The abundance of naturally occurring gas hydrates leads to a growing interest in exploitation. Despite their potential as energy resources and in industrial applications, there is insufficient understanding of hydrate kinetics, which hinders the utilization of these invaluable resources. Perturbation of liquid water structure by solutes has been proposed to be a key process in hydrate inhibition, but this hypothesis remains unproven. Here, we report the direct observation of the perturbation of the liquid water structure induced by amino acids using polarized Raman spectroscopy, and its influence on gas hydrate nucleation and growth kinetics. Amino acids with hydrophilic and/or electrically charged side chains disrupted the water structure and thus provided effective hydrate inhibition. The strong correlation between the extent of perturbation by amino acids and their inhibition performance constitutes convincing evidence for the perturbation inhibition mechanism. The present findings bring the practical applications of gas hydrates significantly closer, and provide a new perspective on the freezing and melting phenomena of naturally occurring gas hydrates.

  5. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Şengör, Gizem

    2016-11-01

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  6. Cosmological perturbations in unimodular gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Caixia; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yifu; Chen, Pisin E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. This non-vanishing shift variable affects the propagation of photons throughout the cosmological evolution and therefore modifies the Sachs-Wolfe relation between the relativistic gravitational potential and the microwave temperature anisotropies. However, for adiabatic fluctuations the difference between the result in General Relativity and unimodular gravity is suppressed on large angular scales. Thus, no strong constraints on the theory can be derived.

  7. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Şengör, Gizem

    2016-11-08

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  8. R evolution: Improving perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Jain, Ambar; Stewart, Iain W.; Scimemi, Ignazio

    2010-07-01

    Perturbative QCD results in the MS scheme can be dramatically improved by switching to a scheme that accounts for the dominant power law dependence on the factorization scale in the operator product expansion. We introduce the ''MSR scheme'' which achieves this in a Lorentz and gauge invariant way and has a very simple relation to MS. Results in MSR depend on a cutoff parameter R, in addition to the {mu} of MS. R variations can be used to independently estimate (i.) the size of power corrections, and (ii.) higher-order perturbative corrections (much like {mu} in MS). We give two examples at three-loop order, the ratio of mass splittings in the B*-B and D*-D systems, and the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule as a function of momentum transfer Q in deep inelastic scattering. Comparing to data, the perturbative MSR results work well even for Q{approx}1 GeV, and power corrections are reduced compared to MS.

  9. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  10. Classical Perturbation Theory for Monte Carlo Studies of System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewins, Jeffrey D.

    2001-03-15

    A variational principle for a Markov system allows the derivation of perturbation theory for models of system reliability, with prospects of extension to generalized Markov processes of a wide nature. It is envisaged that Monte Carlo or stochastic simulation will supply the trial functions for such a treatment, which obviates the standard difficulties of direct analog Monte Carlo perturbation studies. The development is given in the specific mode for first- and second-order theory, using an example with known analytical solutions. The adjoint equation is identified with the importance function and a discussion given as to how both the forward and backward (adjoint) fields can be obtained from a single Monte Carlo study, with similar interpretations for the additional functions required by second-order theory. Generalized Markov models with age-dependence are identified as coming into the scope of this perturbation theory.

  11. Estimation of velocity perturbations in satellite fragmentation events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Arjun

    1989-01-01

    The magnitude, variance and directionality of the velocity perturbations of the fragments of a satellite can shed valuable information regarding the nature and intensity of the fragmentation. Up until now, the only method used to calculate the three orthogonal components of the velocity change consisted of inverting the process of evaluating the changes in the orbital elements of the fragments due to velocity perturbing forces. But the traditional method failed in five different cases: (1) when the parent satellite's orbit was circular; (2) and (3) when the true anomaly of the parent was either 0 deg or 180 deg; and (4) and (5) when the argument of latitude of the parent was 90 deg or 270 deg. Described here is a new method of calculating the velocity perturbations which is free from the shortcomings of the traditional method and could be used in all occasions, provided the fragmentation data and the orbital elements data are consistent with one another.

  12. The bispectrum of matter perturbations from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Donough; Hindmarsh, Mark E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-03-01

    We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings.

  13. Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, S.

    1984-08-01

    We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF HALO FORMATION IN CONTINUOUS BEAMS USING WEIGHTED POLYNOMIAL EXPANSIONS AND PERTURBATIONAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    C. ALLEN

    2000-08-01

    We consider halo formation in continuous beams oscillating at natural modes by inspecting particle trajectories. Trajectory equations containing field nonlinearities are derived from a weighted polynomial expansion. We then use perturbational techniques to further analyze particle motion.

  15. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed—having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341

  16. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  17. Natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the stratospheric ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews potential causes for reduction in the ozone abundance. The response of stratospheric ozone to solar activity is discussed. Ozone changes are simulated in relation with the potential development of a fleet of high-speed stratospheric aircraft and the release in the atmosphere of chlorofluorocarbons. The calculations are performed by a two-dimensional chemical-radiative-dynamical model. The importance of heterogeneous chemistry in polar stratospheric clouds and in the Junge layer (sulfate aerosol) is emphasized. The recently reported ozone trend over the last decade is shown to have been largely caused by the simultaneous effects of increasing concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry. The possibility for a reduction in stratospheric ozone following a large volcanic eruption such as that of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is discussed.

  18. "Phonon" scattering beyond perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, WuJie; Ke, XueZhi; Xi, LiLi; Wu, LiHua; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, WenQing

    2016-02-01

    Searching and designing materials with intrinsically low lattice thermal conductivity (LTC) have attracted extensive consideration in thermoelectrics and thermal management community. The concept of part-crystalline part-liquid state, or even part-crystalline part-amorphous state, has recently been proposed to describe the exotic structure of materials with chemical- bond hierarchy, in which a set of atoms is weakly bonded to the rest species while the other sublattices retain relatively strong rigidity. The whole system inherently manifests the coexistence of rigid crystalline sublattices and fluctuating noncrystalline substructures. Representative materials in the unusual state can be classified into two categories, i.e., caged and non-caged ones. LTCs in both systems deviate from the traditional T -1 relationship ( T, the absolute temperature), which can hardly be described by small-parameter-based perturbation approaches. Beyond the classical perturbation theory, an extra rattling-like scattering should be considered to interpret the liquid-like and sublattice-amorphization-induced heat transport. Such a kind of compounds could be promising high-performance thermoelectric materials, due to the extremely low LTCs. Other physical properties for these part-crystalline substances should also exhibit certain novelty and deserve further exploration.

  19. Perturbative Methods in Path Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theodore Paul

    This dissertation addresses a number of related questions concerning perturbative "path" integrals. Perturbative methods are one of the few successful ways physicists have worked with (or even defined) these infinite-dimensional integrals, and it is important as mathematicians to check that they are correct. Chapter 0 provides a detailed introduction. We take a classical approach to path integrals in Chapter 1. Following standard arguments, we posit a Feynman-diagrammatic description of the asymptotics of the time-evolution operator for the quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving nonrelativistically through a curved manifold under the influence of an external electromagnetic field. We check that our sum of Feynman diagrams has all desired properties: it is coordinate-independent and well-defined without ultraviolet divergences, it satisfies the correct composition law, and it satisfies Schrodinger's equation thought of as a boundary-value problem in PDE. Path integrals in quantum mechanics and elsewhere in quantum field theory are almost always of the shape ∫ f es for some functions f (the "observable") and s (the "action"). In Chapter 2 we step back to analyze integrals of this type more generally. Integration by parts provides algebraic relations between the values of ∫ (-) es for different inputs, which can be packaged into a Batalin--Vilkovisky-type chain complex. Using some simple homological perturbation theory, we study the version of this complex that arises when f and s are taken to be polynomial functions, and power series are banished. We find that in such cases, the entire scheme-theoretic critical locus (complex points included) of s plays an important role, and that one can uniformly (but noncanonically) integrate out in a purely algebraic way the contributions to the integral from all "higher modes," reducing ∫ f es to an integral over the critical locus. This may help explain the presence of analytic continuation in questions like the

  20. Accuracy of perturbative master equations.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C H; Cummings, N I

    2011-03-01

    We consider open quantum systems with dynamics described by master equations that have perturbative expansions in the system-environment interaction. We show that, contrary to intuition, full-time solutions of order-2n accuracy require an order-(2n+2) master equation. We give two examples of such inaccuracies in the solutions to an order-2n master equation: order-2n inaccuracies in the steady state of the system and order-2n positivity violations. We show how these arise in a specific example for which exact solutions are available. This result has a wide-ranging impact on the validity of coupling (or friction) sensitive results derived from second-order convolutionless, Nakajima-Zwanzig, Redfield, and Born-Markov master equations.

  1. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  2. Robust control with structured perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Leehyun

    1988-01-01

    Two important problems in the area of control systems design and analysis are discussed. The first is the robust stability using characteristic polynomial, which is treated first in characteristic polynomial coefficient space with respect to perturbations in the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial, and then for a control system containing perturbed parameters in the transfer function description of the plant. In coefficient space, a simple expression is first given for the l(sup 2) stability margin for both monic and non-monic cases. Following this, a method is extended to reveal much larger stability region. This result has been extended to the parameter space so that one can determine the stability margin, in terms of ranges of parameter variations, of the closed loop system when the nominal stabilizing controller is given. The stability margin can be enlarged by a choice of better stabilizing controller. The second problem describes the lower order stabilization problem, the motivation of the problem is as follows. Even though the wide range of stabilizing controller design methodologies is available in both the state space and transfer function domains, all of these methods produce unnecessarily high order controllers. In practice, the stabilization is only one of many requirements to be satisfied. Therefore, if the order of a stabilizing controller is excessively high, one can normally expect to have a even higher order controller on the completion of design such as inclusion of dynamic response requirements, etc. Therefore, it is reasonable to have a lowest possible order stabilizing controller first and then adjust the controller to meet additional requirements. The algorithm for designing a lower order stabilizing controller is given. The algorithm does not necessarily produce the minimum order controller; however, the algorithm is theoretically logical and some simulation results show that the algorithm works in general.

  3. Perturbed Radius of Geosynchronous-Satellite Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Sei-Ichiro

    We analyze theoretically how the radius of geosynchronous orbits would vary owing to the perturbations due to the sun/moon gravity, solar radiation pressure, and the oblate earth. The analysis is simple, as it uses a diagrammatic method to solve near-circular orbital motions. Results are obtained in seven terms of corrections to the radius of non-perturbed ideal orbits. Each correction term is derived, with clear physical meaning, from each component of the perturbing forces.

  4. Singularity perturbed zero dynamics of nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isidori, A.; Sastry, S. S.; Kokotovic, P. V.; Byrnes, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    Stability properties of zero dynamics are among the crucial input-output properties of both linear and nonlinear systems. Unstable, or 'nonminimum phase', zero dynamics are a major obstacle to input-output linearization and high-gain designs. An analysis of the effects of regular perturbations in system equations on zero dynamics shows that whenever a perturbation decreases the system's relative degree, it manifests itself as a singular perturbation of zero dynamics. Conditions are given under which the zero dynamics evolve in two timescales characteristic of a standard singular perturbation form that allows a separate analysis of slow and fast parts of the zero dynamics.

  5. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  6. Simple Theory of Geosynchronous-Orbit Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Sei-Ichiro

    A simple perturbation theory is introduced for modeling geosynchronous orbits. The theory uses diagrammatic representations of orbits, and derives the perturbations in a direct manner without using differential equations. Perturbations of major importance are derived, including satellite-longitude changes due to the earth’s asymmetric shape, orbital eccentricity increase due to the sun-radiation pressure, and orbital plane inclination due to the sun/moon attraction. The theory clarifies the physical/geometrical meaning of the perturbations while using minimal mathematical analysis.

  7. Generic perturbations of linear integrable Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounemoura, Abed

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate perturbations of linear integrable Hamiltonian systems, with the aim of establishing results in the spirit of the KAM theorem (preservation of invariant tori), the Nekhoroshev theorem (stability of the action variables for a finite but long interval of time) and Arnold diffusion (instability of the action variables). Whether the frequency of the integrable system is resonant or not, it is known that the KAM theorem does not hold true for all perturbations; when the frequency is resonant, it is the Nekhoroshev theorem that does not hold true for all perturbations. Our first result deals with the resonant case: we prove a result of instability for a generic perturbation, which implies that the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem do not hold true even for a generic perturbation. The case where the frequency is nonresonant is more subtle. Our second result shows that for a generic perturbation the KAM theorem holds true. Concerning the Nekhrosohev theorem, it is known that one has stability over an exponentially long (with respect to some function of ɛ -1) interval of time and that this cannot be improved for all perturbations. Our third result shows that for a generic perturbation one has stability for a doubly exponentially long interval of time. The only question left unanswered is whether one has instability for a generic perturbation (necessarily after this very long interval of time).

  8. Scalar perturbations in a Friedmann-like metric with non-null Weyl tensor

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, G.B.; Bittencourt, E.; Salim, J.M. E-mail: eduardo.bittencourt@icranet.org

    2015-06-01

    In a previous work the authors have solved the Einstein equations of General Relativity for a class of metrics with constant spatial curvature, where it was found a non vanishing Weyl tensor in the presence of a primordial magnetic field with an anisotropic pressure component. Here, we perform the perturbative analysis of this model in order to study the gravitational stability under linear scalar perturbations. For this purpose, we take the Quasi-Maxwellian formalism of General Relativity as our framework, which offers a naturally covariant and gauge-invariant approach to deal with perturbations that are directly linked to observational quantities. We then compare this scenario with the perturbed dust-dominated Friedmann model emphasizing how the growth of density perturbations are enhanced in our case.

  9. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  10. Non-perturbative approach for curvature perturbations in stochastic δ N formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-10-01

    In our previous paper [1], we have proposed a new algorithm to calculate the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations generated in inflationary universe with use of the stochastic approach. Since this algorithm does not need the perturbative expansion with respect to the inflaton fields on super-horizon scale, it works even in highly stochastic cases. For example, when the curvature perturbations are very large or the non-Gaussianities of the curvature perturbations are sizable, the perturbative expansion may break down but our algorithm enables to calculate the curvature perturbations. We apply it to two well-known inflation models, chaotic and hybrid inflation, in this paper. Especially for hybrid inflation, while the potential is very flat around the critical point and the standard perturbative computation is problematic, we successfully calculate the curvature perturbations.

  11. Computation of solar perturbations with Poisson series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of a project for computing first-order perturbations of natural or artificial satellites by integrating the equations of motion on a computer with automatic Poisson series expansions. A basic feature of the method of solution is that the classical variation-of-parameters formulation is used rather than rectangular coordinates. However, the variation-of-parameters formulation uses the three rectangular components of the disturbing force rather than the classical disturbing function, so that there is no problem in expanding the disturbing function in series. Another characteristic of the variation-of-parameters formulation employed is that six rather unusual variables are used in order to avoid singularities at the zero eccentricity and zero (or 90 deg) inclination. The integration process starts by assuming that all the orbit elements present on the right-hand sides of the equations of motion are constants. These right-hand sides are then simple Poisson series which can be obtained with the use of the Bessel expansions of the two-body problem in conjunction with certain interation methods. These Poisson series can then be integrated term by term, and a first-order solution is obtained.

  12. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2017-03-01

    Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.

  13. Phase perturbation measurements through a heated ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, A.; Gordon, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    High frequency radiowaves incident on an overdense (i.e., HF-frequency penetration frequency) ionosphere produce electron density irregularities. The effect of such ionospheric irregularities on the phase of UHF-radiowaves was determined. For that purpose the phase of radiowaves originating from celestial radio sources was observed with two antennas. The radiosources were chosen such that the line of sight to at least one of the antennas (usually both) passed through the modified volume of the ionosphere. Observations at 430 MHz and at 2380 MHz indicate that natural irregularities have a much stronger effect on the UHF phase fluctuations than the HF-induced irregularities for presently achieved HF-power densities of 20-80 uW/sq m. It is not clear whether some of the effects observed are the result of HF-modification of the ionosphere. Upper limits on the phase perturbations produced by HF-modification are 10 deg at 2380 MHz and 80 deg at 430 MHz.

  14. Cosmological perturbations across an S-brane

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Kounnas, Costas; Partouche, Hervé; Patil, Subodh P.; Toumbas, Nicolaos E-mail: kounnas@lpt.ens.fr E-mail: subodh.patil@cern.ch

    2014-03-01

    Space-filling S-branes can mediate a transition between a contracting and an expanding universe in the Einstein frame. Following up on previous work that uncovered such bouncing solutions in the context of weakly coupled thermal configurations of a certain class of type II superstrings, we set up here the formalism in which we can study the evolution of metric fluctuations across such an S-brane. Our work shows that the specific nature of the S-brane, which is sourced by non-trivial massless thermal string states and appears when the universe reaches a maximal critical temperature, allows for a scale invariant spectrum of curvature fluctuations to manifest at late times via a stringy realization of the matter bounce scenario. The finite energy density at the transition from contraction to expansion provides calculational control over the propagation of the curvature perturbations through the bounce, furnishing a working proof of concept that such a stringy universe can result in viable late time cosmology.

  15. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.

  16. Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyses, Henrique W.; Bauer, Ross O.; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.

    2015-06-01

    Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.

  17. Perturbative theory for Brownian vortexes.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Henrique W; Bauer, Ross O; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Grier, David G

    2015-06-01

    Brownian vortexes are stochastic machines that use static nonconservative force fields to bias random thermal fluctuations into steadily circulating currents. The archetype for this class of systems is a colloidal sphere in an optical tweezer. Trapped near the focus of a strongly converging beam of light, the particle is displaced by random thermal kicks into the nonconservative part of the optical force field arising from radiation pressure, which then biases its diffusion. Assuming the particle remains localized within the trap, its time-averaged trajectory traces out a toroidal vortex. Unlike trivial Brownian vortexes, such as the biased Brownian pendulum, which circulate preferentially in the direction of the bias, the general Brownian vortex can change direction and even topology in response to temperature changes. Here we introduce a theory based on a perturbative expansion of the Fokker-Planck equation for weak nonconservative driving. The first-order solution takes the form of a modified Boltzmann relation and accounts for the rich phenomenology observed in experiments on micrometer-scale colloidal spheres in optical tweezers.

  18. Lensing signals from spin-2 perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch

    2016-01-01

    We compute the angular power spectra of the E-type and B-type lensing potentials for gravitational waves from inflation and for tensor perturbations induced by scalar perturbations. We derive the tensor-lensed CMB power spectra for both cases. We also apply our formalism to determine the linear lensing potential for a Bianchi I spacetime with small anisotropy.

  19. Scalar Quantum Electrodynamics: Perturbation Theory and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.

    2006-09-25

    In this article, we calculate scalar propagator in arbitrary dimensions and gauge and the three-point scalar-photon vertex in arbitrary dimensions and Feynman gauge, both at the one loop level. We also discuss constraints on their non perturbative structure imposed by requirements of gauge invariance and perturbation theory.

  20. The consistency of a species' response to press perturbations with high food web uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Tunney, Tyler D; Carpenter, Stephen R; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2017-04-12

    Predicting species responses to perturbations is a fundamental challenge in ecology. Decision makers must often identify management perturbations that are the most likely to deliver a desirable management outcome despite incomplete information on the pattern and strength of food web links. Motivated by a current fishery decline in inland lakes of the Midwestern United States, we evaluate consistency of the responses of a target species (walleye (Sander vitreus)) to press perturbations. We represented food web uncertainty with 196 plausible topological models and applied four perturbations to each one. Frequently the direction of the focal predator response to the same perturbation is not consistent across food web topologies. Simultaneous application of management perturbations led to less consistent outcomes compared to the best single perturbation. However, direct manipulation of the adult focal predator produced a desirable outcome in 78% of 196 plausible topologies. Identifying perturbations that produce consistent outcomes in the face of food web uncertainty can have important implications for natural resource conservation and management efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. The recursion relation in Lagrangian perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rampf, Cornelius

    2012-12-01

    We derive a recursion relation in the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory, appropriate for studying the inhomogeneities of the large scale structure of the universe. We use the fact that the perturbative expansion of the matter density contrast is in one-to-one correspondence with standard perturbation theory (SPT) at any order. This correspondence has been recently shown to be valid up to fourth order for a non-relativistic, irrotational and dust-like component. Assuming it to be valid at arbitrary (higher) order, we express the Lagrangian displacement field in terms of the perturbative kernels of SPT, which are itself given by their own and well-known recursion relation. We argue that the Lagrangian solution always contains more non-linear information in comparison with the SPT solution, (mainly) if the non-perturbative density contrast is restored after the displacement field is obtained.

  2. Covariant generalization of cosmological perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Hoegdahl, Janne; Nurmi, Sami; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2007-01-15

    We present an approach to cosmological perturbations based on a covariant perturbative expansion between two worldlines in the real inhomogeneous universe. As an application, at an arbitrary order we define an exact scalar quantity which describes the inhomogeneities in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and which is conserved on all scales for a barotropic ideal fluid. We derive a compact form for its conservation equation at all orders and assign it a simple physical interpretation. To make a comparison with the standard perturbation theory, we develop a method to construct gauge-invariant quantities in a coordinate system at arbitrary order, which we apply to derive the form of the nth order perturbation in the number of e-folds on uniform density hypersurfaces and its exact evolution equation. On large scales, this provides the gauge-invariant expression for the curvature perturbation on uniform density hypersurfaces and its evolution equation at any order.

  3. Analysis of seismo-ionospheric perturbations using modified covariance algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathi, R.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Koteswara Rao, S.; Ramesh, K. S.; Kiran, K. Uday

    2016-05-01

    Earthquakes are the most vulnerable disasters in nature and are inevitable. Electromagnetic detection of earthquakes using Global Positioning System (GPS) has lead to better understanding of our planet earth and related atmospheric systems. In the present work an attempt is made to analyze seismo-ionospheric perturbations for an earthquake which has occurred in Indonesia on 15th January 2014 with a magnitude of 4.5 on Richter scale. Modified covariance algorithm is applied on the GPS vertical total electron content data taken from the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service station named BAKO It is clearly observed that there is an enhancement of energy in the ionosphere for every 15 minutes from the starting of perturbations.

  4. The perturbative approach to path integrals: A succinct mathematical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    We study finite-dimensional integrals in a way that elucidates the mathematical meaning behind the formal manipulations of path integrals occurring in quantum field theory. This involves a proper understanding of how Wick's theorem allows one to evaluate integrals perturbatively, i.e., as a series expansion in a formal parameter irrespective of convergence properties. We establish invariance properties of such a Wick expansion under coordinate changes and the action of a Lie group of symmetries, and we use this to study essential features of path integral manipulations, including coordinate changes, Ward identities, Schwinger-Dyson equations, Faddeev-Popov gauge-fixing, and eliminating fields by their equation of motion. We also discuss the asymptotic nature of the Wick expansion and the implications this has for defining path integrals perturbatively and nonperturbatively.

  5. Inverse scattering problems for perturbed bi-harmonic operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Valery; Tyni, Teemu

    2016-10-01

    Some inverse scattering problems for operator of order 4 which is the perturbation (in smaller terms) of the biharmonic operator in one and three dimensions are considered. The coefficients of this perturbation are assumed to be from some Sobolev spaces (they might be singular). The classical (as for the Schrödinger operator) scattering theory is developed for this operator of order 4. The classical inverse scattering problems are considered and their uniqueness is proved. The method of inverse scattering Born approximation and an analogue of Saito's formula are justified for this operator of order 4. Using this approximate method the reconstruction of the singularities of the unknown coefficients is proved in the scale of Sobolev spaces. The results have natural generalization for any dimensions.

  6. Building a non-perturbative quark-gluon vertex from a perturbative one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, Rocio

    2016-10-01

    The quark-gluon vertex describes the electromagnetic and the strong interaction among these particles. The description of this interaction at high precision in both regimes, perturbative and non-perturbative, continues being a matter of interest in the context of QCD and Hadron Physics. There exist very helpful models in the literature that explain perturbative aspects of the theory but they fail describing non-perturbative phenomena, as confinement and dynamic chiral symmetry breaking. In this work we study the structure of the quark-gluon vertex in a non-perturbative regime examining QCD, checking results with QED, and working in the Schwinger-Dyson formalism.

  7. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  8. Quantifying Human Mobility Perturbation and Resilience in Hurricane Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss. PMID:25409009

  9. Vector perturbations in a contracting Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, T.J.; Brandenberger, R.

    2004-12-15

    In this note we show that vector perturbations exhibit growing mode solutions in a contracting Universe, such as the contracting phase of the pre big bang or the cyclic/ekpyrotic models of the Universe. This is not a gauge artifact and will in general lead to the breakdown of perturbation theory--a severe problem that has to be addressed in any bouncing model. We also comment on the possibility of explaining, by means of primordial vector perturbations, the existence of the observed large-scale magnetic fields. This is possible since they can be seeded by vorticity.

  10. Perturbation calculation of thermodynamic density of states

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Greg; Schulthess, Thomas C; Nicholson, Don M; Eisenbach, Markus; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The density of states g( ) is frequently used to calculate the temperature-dependent properties of a thermodynamic system. Here a derivation is given for calculating the warped density of states g ( ) resulting from the addition of a perturbation. The method is validated for a classical Heisenberg model of bcc Fe and the errors in the free energy are shown to be second order in the perturbation. Taking the perturbation to be the difference between a first-principles quantum-mechanical energy and a corresponding classical energy, this method can significantly reduce the computational effort required to calculate g( ) for quantum systems using the Wang-Landau approach.

  11. Cosmological perturbations and the Weinberg theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Akhshik, Mohammad; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Jazayeri, Sadra E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir

    2015-12-01

    The celebrated Weinberg theorem in cosmological perturbation theory states that there always exist two adiabatic scalar modes in which the comoving curvature perturbation is conserved on super-horizon scales. In particular, when the perturbations are generated from a single source, such as in single field models of inflation, both of the two allowed independent solutions are adiabatic and conserved on super-horizon scales. There are few known examples in literature which violate this theorem. We revisit the theorem and specify the loopholes in some technical assumptions which violate the theorem in models of non-attractor inflation, fluid inflation, solid inflation and in the model of pseudo conformal universe.

  12. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  13. Quantitative methods in classical perturbation theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgilli, A.

    Poincaré proved that the series commonly used in Celestial mechanics are typically non convergent, although their usefulness is generally evident. Recent work in perturbation theory has enlightened this conjecture of Poincaré, bringing into evidence that the series of perturbation theory, although non convergent in general, furnish nevertheless valuable approximations to the true orbits for a very large time, which in some practical cases could be comparable with the age of the universe. The aim of the author's paper is to introduce the quantitative methods of perturbation theory which allow to obtain such powerful results.

  14. Detector dose response in megavoltage small photon beams. II. Pencil beam perturbation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Hugo Duane, Simon; Kamio, Yuji; Palmans, Hugo; Seuntjens, Jan

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: To quantify detector perturbation effects in megavoltage small photon fields and support the theoretical explanation on the nature of quality correction factors in these conditions. Methods: In this second paper, a modern approach to radiation dosimetry is defined for any detector and applied to small photon fields. Fano’s theorem is adapted in the form of a cavity theory and applied in the context of nonstandard beams to express four main effects in the form of perturbation factors. The pencil-beam decomposition method is detailed and adapted to the calculation of perturbation factors and quality correction factors. The approach defines a perturbation function which, for a given field size or beam modulation, entirely determines these dosimetric factors. Monte Carlo calculations are performed in different cavity sizes for different detection materials, electron densities, and extracameral components. Results: Perturbation effects are detailed with calculated perturbation functions, showing the relative magnitude of the effects as well as the geometrical extent to which collimating or modulating the beam impacts the dosimetric factors. The existence of a perturbation zone around the detector cavity is demonstrated and the approach is discussed and linked to previous approaches in the literature to determine critical field sizes. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations are valuable to describe pencil beam perturbation effects and detail the nature of dosimetric factors in megavoltage small photon fields. In practice, it is shown that dosimetric factors could be avoided if the field size remains larger than the detector perturbation zone. However, given a detector and beam quality, a full account for the detector geometry is necessary to determine critical field sizes.

  15. Mechanical picture of the linear transient growth of vortical perturbations in incompressible smooth shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagelishvili, George; Hau, Jan-Niklas; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The linear dynamics of perturbations in smooth shear flows covers the transient exchange of energies between (1) the perturbations and the basic flow and (2) different perturbations modes. Canonically, the linear exchange of energies between the perturbations and the basic flow can be described in terms of the Orr and the lift-up mechanisms, correspondingly for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) perturbations. In this paper the mechanical basis of the linear transient dynamics is introduced and analyzed for incompressible plane constant shear flows, where we consider the dynamics of virtual fluid particles in the framework of plane perturbations (i.e., perturbations with plane surfaces of constant phase) for the 2D and 3D case. It is shown that (1) the formation of a pressure perturbation field is the result of countermoving neighboring sets of incompressible fluid particles in the flow, (2) the keystone of the energy exchange mechanism between the basic flow and perturbations is the collision of fluid particles with the planes of constant pressure in accordance with the classical theory of elastic collision of particles with a rigid wall, making the pressure field the key player in this process, (3) the interplay of the collision process and the shear flow kinematics describes the transient growth of plane perturbations and captures the physics of the growth, and (4) the proposed mechanical picture allows us to reconstruct the linearized Euler equations in spectral space with a time-dependent shearwise wave number, the linearized Euler equations for Kelvin modes. This confirms the rigor of the presented analysis, which, moreover, yields a natural generalization of the proposed mechanical picture of the transient growth to the well-established linear phenomenon of vortex-wave-mode coupling.

  16. Perturbations of black p-branes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, Elcio; Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel; Oliveira, Jeferson de; Molina, C.

    2010-03-15

    We consider black p-brane solutions of the low-energy string action, computing scalar perturbations. Using standard methods, we derive the wave equations obeyed by the perturbations and treat them analytically and numerically. We have found that tensorial perturbations obtained via a gauge-invariant formalism leads to the same results as scalar perturbations. No instability has been found. Asymptotically, these solutions typically reduce to a AdS{sub (p+2)}xS{sup (8-p)} space which, in the framework of Maldacena's conjecture, can be regarded as a gravitational dual to a conformal field theory defined in a (p+1)-dimensional flat space-time. The results presented open the possibility of a better understanding the AdS/CFT correspondence, as originally formulated in terms of the relation among brane structures and gauge theories.

  17. The Perturbational MO Method for Saturated Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes a theoretical approach using nonbonding MO's and perturbation theory to correlate properties of saturated hydrocarbons. Discussion is limited to correctly predicted using this method. Suggests calculations can be carried out quickly in organic chemistry. (Author/SA)

  18. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  19. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional–integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650

  20. Singular Perturbation for Discontinuous Ordinary Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, M. A.; da Silva, P. R.

    In this article some qualitative aspects of non-smooth systems on ℝn are studied through methods of Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory (GSP-Theory). We present some results that generalize some settings in low dimension, that bridge the space between such systems and singularly perturbed smooth systems. We analyze the local behavior around typical singularities and prove that the dynamics of the so called Sliding Vector Field is determined by the reduced problem on the center manifold.

  1. Local gravitomagnetic perturbations of the lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1992-01-01

    Using the metric in the local inertial frame of the Earth, we calculate relativistic effects on the lunar orbit with the synodic month period. It is shown that such perturbations arise entirely from the gravitomagnetic components of the local metric which exist because of the relative motion of the sun with respect to the Earth. In the case of general relativity, the net perturbation has an amplitude of 3 cm for the lunar range.

  2. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A.; Beisner, Beatrix E.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation. PMID:26311667

  3. Rapid eco-evolutionary responses in perturbed phytoplankton communities.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Geneviève; Walsh, David A; Beisner, Beatrix E

    2015-09-07

    Biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats owing to species extinctions. Ecologically, compensatory dynamics can ensure stable community biomass following perturbation. However, whether there is a contribution of genetic diversity to community responses is an outstanding question. To date, the contribution of evolutionary processes through genotype shifts has not been assessed in naturally co-occurring multi-species communities in the field. We examined the mechanisms contributing to the response of a lake phytoplankton community exposed to either a press or pulse acidification perturbation in lake mesocosms. To assess community shifts in the ecological response of morphospecies, we identified taxa microscopically. We also assessed genotype shifts by sequencing the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. We observed ecological and genetic contributions to community responses. The ecological response was attributed to compensatory morphospecies dynamics and occurred primarily in the Pulse perturbation treatment. In the Press treatments, in addition to compensatory dynamics, we observed evidence for genotype selection in two species of chlorophytes, Desmodesmus cuneatus and an unidentified Chlamydomonas. Our study demonstrates that while genotype selection may be rare, it is detectable and occurs especially when new environmental conditions are maintained for long enough to force selection processes on standing variation.

  4. Brevity of haptic force perturbations induces heightened adaptive sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wanda, Paul A; Fine, Michael S; Weeks, Heidi M; Gross, Andrew M; Macy, Jenny L; Thoroughman, Kurt A

    2013-05-01

    We have exposed human participants to both full-movement and pulsatile viscous force perturbations to study the effect of force duration on the incremental transformation of sensation into adaptation. Traditional views of movement biomechanics could suggest that pulsatile forces would largely be attenuated as stiffness and viscosity act as a natural low-pass filter. Sensory transduction, however, tends to react to changes in stimuli and therefore could underlie heightened sensitivity to briefer, pulsatile forces. Here, participants adapted within perturbation duration conditions in a manner proportionate to sensed force and positional errors. Across perturbation conditions, we found participants had greater adaptive sensitivity when experiencing pulsatile forces rather than full-movement forces. In a follow-up experiment, we employed error-clamped, force channel trials to determine changes in predictive force generation. We found that while participants learned to closely compensate for the amplitude and breadth of full-movement forces, they exhibited a persistent mismatch in amplitude and breadth between adapted motor output and experienced pulsatile forces. This mismatch could generate higher salience of error signals that contribute to heightened sensitivity to pulsatile forces.

  5. Finite element structural redesign by large admissible perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernitsas, Michael M.; Beyko, E.; Rim, C. W.; Alzahabi, B.

    1991-01-01

    In structural redesign, two structural states are involved; the baseline (known) State S1 with unacceptable performance, and the objective (unknown) State S2 with given performance specifications. The difference between the two states in performance and design variables may be as high as 100 percent or more depending on the scale of the structure. A Perturbation Approach to Redesign (PAR) is presented to relate any two structural states S1 and S2 that are modeled by the same finite element model and represented by different values of the design variables. General perturbation equations are derived expressing implicitly the natural frequencies, dynamic modes, static deflections, static stresses, Euler buckling loads, and buckling modes of the objective S2 in terms of its performance specifications, and S1 data and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results. Large Admissible Perturbation (LEAP) algorithms are implemented in code RESTRUCT to define the objective S2 incrementally without trial and error by postprocessing FEA results of S1 with no additional FEAs. Systematic numerical applications in redesign of a 10 element 48 degree of freedom (dof) beam, a 104 element 192 dof offshore tower, a 64 element 216 dof plate, and a 144 element 896 dof cylindrical shell show the accuracy, efficiency, and potential of PAR to find an objective state that may differ 100 percent from the baseline design.

  6. Modeling of Perturbations in Mid-Ocean Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems are complex fluid circulation systems straddling the locations of formation of oceanic crust. Due to the dynamic nature of the crust building process, these systems are episodically subject to magmatic and seismic perturbations. Magma may be emplaced deep or shallow in the oceanic crust thereby changing the thermal structure and permeability of the system. Such events would enhance hydrothermal venting resulting in an increase in vent temperature and heat output along with a decrease in vent salinity in a phase separating system. Event plumes, which may be associated with dike intrusions into the shallow crust, are an important class of such perturbations. In this case, the formation of low salinity vapor may add to the thermal buoyancy flux and allow the plume to rise rapidly to a considerable height above the seafloor. Additionally, seismic or tectonic disturbances may occur both deep and shallow in the crust, changing the fluid-flow structure in the system. Upon knowledge of a major magmatic or seismotectonic event, temporary surveillance at the respective mid ocean ridge site is often increased as a result of rapid response cruises. One of the most common observations made after such events is the temperature of vent fluids, which is then correlated to time of observed activity and used to estimate the residence time of fluids in the system. However, our numerical results indicate that for deep-seated perturbations, surface salinity may show quicker response than temperature. This result serves as our motivation to seek better understanding of propagation mechanism of perturbations through hydrothermal systems. We construct analytical models for fluid flow, heat and salt transfer in both single cracks and through porous media to investigate how perturbations affect both heat and salt transfer to the surface. Our preliminary results for simplified fluid circulation systems tend to support the results from numerical modeling

  7. Perturbative Renormalisation for Not-Quite-Connected Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, Joachim

    2015-10-01

    We observe that the Connes-Kreimer Hopf-algebraic approach to perturbative renormalisation works not just for Hopf algebras but more generally for filtered bialgebras B with the property that B 0 is spanned by group-like elements (e.g. pointed bialgebras with the coradical filtration). Such bialgebras occur naturally both in quantum field theory, where they have some attractive features, and elsewhere in combinatorics, where they cover a comprehensive class of incidence bialgebras. In particular, the setting allows us to interpret Möbius inversion as an instance of renormalisation.

  8. Dark and singular optical solitons perturbation with fractional temporal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Muhammad; ur Rehman, Hamood; Rizvi, Syed Tahir Raza; Mahmood, Syed Amer

    2017-04-01

    The article studies the dynamics of dark, singular, combined optical solitons and many other periodic solutions to fractional temporal perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation in nonlinear optics. The fractional extended Fan sub-equation method is first time used for any fractional temporal nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The solutions are of qualitatively different nature, depending on the five parameters. The constraint conditions, for the existence of the solitons, are also listed. Moreover a couple of other solutions known as combined soliton and combined periodic solution, fall out as a by product in limiting cases.

  9. Perturbations of the Robertson-Walker space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai Chan

    This dissertation contains three parts consisting of thirteen chapters. Each chapter is self-contained, and can be read independently. In chapter 1, we have presented a complete set of cosmological perturbation equations using the covariant equations. We also present an explicit solution for the evolution of large scale cosmological density perturbations assuming a perfect fluid. In chapter 2, two independent gauge-invariant variables are derived which are continuous at any transition where there is a discontinuous change in pressure. In chapter 3, we present a Newtonian counterpart to the general relativistic covariant approach to cosmological perturbations. In chapter 4, we present a simple way of deriving cosmological perturbation equations in generalized gravity theories which accounts for metric perturbations in gauge-invariant way. We apply this approach to the f(phi,R)-omega(phi)phi, cphi;c Lagrangian. In chapter 5, we have derived second order differential equations for cosmological perturbations in a Robertson-Walker space, for each of the following gravity theories: f(R) gravity, generalized scalar-tensor gravity, gravity with non-minimally coupled scalar field, and induced gravity. Asymptotic solutions are derived for the large and small scale limits. In chapter 6, classical evolution of density perturbations in the large scale limit is clarified in the generalized gravity theories. In chapter 7, we apply our method to a theory with the Lagrangian L approximately f(R) + gamma RR;c;c. In chapter 8, T(M)ab;b equals 0 is shown in a general ground. In chapter 9, the origin of the Friedmann-like behavior of the perturbed model in the large scale limit is clarified in a comoving gauge. Thus, when the imperfect fluid contributions are negligible, the large scale perturbations in a nearly flat background evolve like separate Friedmann models. In chapter 10, we generalize the perturbation equations applicable to a class of generalized gravity theories with multi

  10. Perturbations of ultralight vector field dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.; Núñez Jareño, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    We study the dynamics of cosmological perturbations in models of dark matter based on ultralight coherent vector fields. Very much as for scalar field dark matter, we find two different regimes in the evolution: for modes with {k}^2≪ Hma, we have a particle-like behaviour indistinguishable from cold dark matter, whereas for modes with {k}^2≫ Hma, we get a wave-like behaviour in which the sound speed is non-vanishing and of order c s 2 ≃ k 2/ m 2 a 2. This implies that, also in these models, structure formation could be suppressed on small scales. However, unlike the scalar case, the fact that the background evolution contains a non-vanishing homogeneous vector field implies that, in general, the evolution of the three kinds of perturbations (scalar, vector and tensor) can no longer be decoupled at the linear level. More specifically, in the particle regime, the three types of perturbations are actually decoupled, whereas in the wave regime, the three vector field perturbations generate one scalar-tensor and two vector-tensor perturbations in the metric. Also in the wave regime, we find that a non-vanishing anisotropic stress is present in the perturbed energy-momentum tensor giving rise to a gravitational slip of order ( Φ - Ψ)/ Φ ˜ c s 2 . Moreover in this regime the amplitude of the tensor to scalar ratio of the scalar-tensor modes is also h/ Φ ˜ c s 2 . This implies that small-scale density perturbations are necessarily associated to the presence of gravity waves in this model. We compare their spectrum with the sensitivity of present and future gravity waves detectors.

  11. Mathematical inference and control of molecular networks from perturbation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed-Rasheed, Mohammed

    One of the main challenges facing biologists and mathematicians in the post genomic era is to understand the behavior of molecular networks and harness this understanding into an educated intervention of the cell. The cell maintains its function via an elaborate network of interconnecting positive and negative feedback loops of genes, RNA and proteins that send different signals to a large number of pathways and molecules. These structures are referred to as genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) or molecular networks. GRNs can be viewed as dynamical systems with inherent properties and mechanisms, such as steady-state equilibriums and stability, that determine the behavior of the cell. The biological relevance of the mathematical concepts are important as they may predict the differentiation of a stem cell, the maintenance of a normal cell, the development of cancer and its aberrant behavior, and the design of drugs and response to therapy. Uncovering the underlying GRN structure from gene/protein expression data, e.g., microarrays or perturbation experiments, is called inference or reverse engineering of the molecular network. Because of the high cost and time consuming nature of biological experiments, the number of available measurements or experiments is very small compared to the number of molecules (genes, RNA and proteins). In addition, the observations are noisy, where the noise is due to the measurements imperfections as well as the inherent stochasticity of genetic expression levels. Intra-cellular activities and extra-cellular environmental attributes are also another source of variability. Thus, the inference of GRNs is, in general, an under-determined problem with a highly noisy set of observations. The ultimate goal of GRN inference and analysis is to be able to intervene within the network, in order to force it away from undesirable cellular states and into desirable ones. However, it remains a major challenge to design optimal intervention strategies

  12. Consistent perturbations in an imperfect fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicki, Ignacy; Amendola, Luca; Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin E-mail: i.saltas@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch

    2013-01-01

    We present a new prescription for analysing cosmological perturbations in a more-general class of scalar-field dark-energy models where the energy-momentum tensor has an imperfect-fluid form. This class includes Brans-Dicke models, f(R) gravity, theories with kinetic gravity braiding and generalised galileons. We employ the intuitive language of fluids, allowing us to explicitly maintain a dependence on physical and potentially measurable properties. We demonstrate that hydrodynamics is not always a valid description for describing cosmological perturbations in general scalar-field theories and present a consistent alternative that nonetheless utilises the fluid language. We apply this approach explicitly to a worked example: k-essence non-minimally coupled to gravity. This is the simplest case which captures the essential new features of these imperfect-fluid models. We demonstrate the generic existence of a new scale separating regimes where the fluid is perfect and imperfect. We obtain the equations for the evolution of dark-energy density perturbations in both these regimes. The model also features two other known scales: the Compton scale related to the breaking of shift symmetry and the Jeans scale which we show is determined by the speed of propagation of small scalar-field perturbations, i.e. causality, as opposed to the frequently used definition of the ratio of the pressure and energy-density perturbations.

  13. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, W. Schütz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  14. Compensation to whole body active rotation perturbation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Gazzellini, S; Petrarca, M; Patanè, F; Salfa, I; Castelli, E; Cappa, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the exploration of the compensation mechanisms in healthy adults elicited by superimposing a horizontal perturbation, through a rotation of the support base, during a whole body active rotation around the participant's own vertical body axis. Eight healthy participants stood on a rotating platform while executing 90° whole body rotations under three conditions: no concurrent platform rotation (NP), support surface rotation of ± 45° in the same (45-S) and opposite (45-O) directions. Participants' kinematics and CoP displacements were analyzed with an optoelectronic system and a force platform. In both 45-S and 45-O conditions, there was a tendency for the head to be affected by the external perturbation and to be the last and least perturbed segment while the pelvis was the most perturbed. The observed reduced head perturbation in 45-S and 45-O trials is consistent with a goal-oriented strategy mediated by vision and vestibular information, whereas the tuning of lumbar rotation is consistent with control mechanisms mediated by somato-sensory information.

  15. Second order density perturbations for dust cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John

    2014-08-01

    We present simple expressions for the relativistic first and second order fractional density perturbations for Friedmann-Lemaître cosmologies with dust, in four different gauges: the Poisson, uniform curvature, total matter and synchronous-comoving gauges. We include a cosmological constant and arbitrary spatial curvature in the background. A distinctive feature of our approach is our description of the spatial dependence of the perturbations using a canonical set of quadratic differential expressions involving an arbitrary spatial function that arises as a conserved quantity. This enables us to unify, simplify and extend previous seemingly disparate results. We use the primordial matter and metric perturbations that emerge at the end of the inflationary epoch to determine the additional arbitrary spatial function that arises when integrating the second order perturbation equations. This introduces a non-Gaussianity parameter into the expressions for the second order density perturbation. In the special case of zero spatial curvature we show that the time evolution simplifies significantly, and requires the use of only two nonelementary functions, the so-called growth suppression factor at the linear level, and one new function at the second order level. We expect that the results will be useful in applications, for example, studying the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the large scale structure of the Universe.

  16. Perturbed kernel approximation on homogeneous manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesley, J.; Sun, X.

    2007-02-01

    Current methods for interpolation and approximation within a native space rely heavily on the strict positive-definiteness of the underlying kernels. If the domains of approximation are the unit spheres in euclidean spaces, then zonal kernels (kernels that are invariant under the orthogonal group action) are strongly favored. In the implementation of these methods to handle real world problems, however, some or all of the symmetries and positive-definiteness may be lost in digitalization due to small random errors that occur unpredictably during various stages of the execution. Perturbation analysis is therefore needed to address the stability problem encountered. In this paper we study two kinds of perturbations of positive-definite kernels: small random perturbations and perturbations by Dunkl's intertwining operators [C. Dunkl, Y. Xu, Orthogonal polynomials of several variables, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications, vol. 81, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001]. We show that with some reasonable assumptions, a small random perturbation of a strictly positive-definite kernel can still provide vehicles for interpolation and enjoy the same error estimates. We examine the actions of the Dunkl intertwining operators on zonal (strictly) positive-definite kernels on spheres. We show that the resulted kernels are (strictly) positive-definite on spheres of lower dimensions.

  17. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martín-García, José M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (ℓ=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (ℓ=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that—in contrast to previous predictions in the literature—the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  18. Dynamic response of ramjet inlets to downstream perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajben, M.; Bogar, T. J.; Kroutil, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    An external-compression inlet with high-aspect-ratio, rectangular cross sections was investigated in a semi-freejet arrangement at M(infinity) = 1.84 and zero incidence, over a wide range of super- and subcritical conditions. The response of the inlet flows to periodic perturbations imposed at the downstream end was determined. The perturbations were created by mechanical modulation of the choked exhaust area at frequencies from 20 to 360 Hz. The amplitude of the pressure fluctuations induced at the downstream end of the inlet was varied up to 8% of the time-mean static pressure at the same location. The observed oscillations were categorized according to position ranges associated with the shock motion. In supercritical oscillations, the pressure fluctuation amplitudes within the inlet were found to be linearly proportional to the fluctuation intensity at the exit station, establishing the latter as the appropriate quantity for normalization. In subcritical conditions, the inlet displays a large-amplitude natural oscillation (buzz). Superimposed excitation may couple with the natural oscillations in two distinctly different ways, both strongly nonlinear. Combinations of mean flow condition, excitation amplitude, and frequency that cause the terminal shock to move upstream of the cowl or the ramp were determined.

  19. An Aircraft Separation Algorithm with Feedback and Perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2010-01-01

    A separation algorithm is a set of rules that tell aircraft how to maneuver in order to maintain a minimum distance between them. This paper investigates demonstrating that separation algorithms satisfy the FAA requirement for the occurrence of incidents by means of simulation. Any demonstration that a separation algorithm, or any other aspect of flight, satisfies the FAA requirement is a challenge because of the stringent nature of the requirement and the complexity of airspace operations. The paper begins with a probability and statistical analysis of both the FAA requirement and demonstrating meeting it by a Monte Carlo approach. It considers the geometry of maintaining separation when one plane must change its flight path. It then develops a simple feedback control law that guides the planes on their paths. The presence of feedback control permits the introduction of perturbations, and the stochastic nature of the chosen perturbation is examined. The simulation program is described. This paper is an early effort in the realistic demonstration of a stringent requirement. Much remains to be done.

  20. Perturbation analysis of electromagnetic geodesic acoustic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-06-15

    Lagrangian displacement and magnetic field perturbation response to the geodesic acoustic mode is analyzed by using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak. δB{sub θ}, the poloidal component of magnetic field perturbation, has poloidal wave number m = 2 created by the poloidal displacement ξ{sub θ}. The parallel perturbation of magnetic field, δB{sub ∥}, has a poloidally asymmetric structure with m = 1 and is on the same order of magnitude with δB{sub θ} to the leading order. The radial displacement ξ{sub r} is of order O(βϵξ{sub θ}) but plays a significant role in determining δB{sub ∥}, where β is the plasma/magnetic pressure ratio and ϵ is the inverse aspect ratio.

  1. Note on the semiclassicality of cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino

    2016-12-01

    Moving from the consideration that matter fields must be treated in terms of their fundamental quantum counterparts, we show straightforward arguments, within the framework of ordinary quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, in order to convince readers that cosmological perturbations must be addressed in term of the semiclassical limit of the expectation value of quantum fields. We first take into account cosmological perturbations originated by a quantum scalar field, and then extend our treatment in order to account for the expectation values of bilinears of Dirac fermion fields. The latter can indeed transform as scalar quantities under diffeomorphisms, as well as all the other bilinear of the Dirac fields that belong to the Clifford algebra. This is the first of a series of works that is intended to prove that cosmological quantum perturbations can actually be accounted for in terms of Dirac fermion fields, which must be treated as fundamental quantum objects, and their dynamics.

  2. Perturbations in a regular bouncing universe

    SciTech Connect

    Battefeld, T.J.; Geshnizjani, G.

    2006-03-15

    We consider a simple toy model of a regular bouncing universe. The bounce is caused by an extra timelike dimension, which leads to a sign flip of the {rho}{sup 2} term in the effective four dimensional Randall Sundrum-like description. We find a wide class of possible bounces: big bang avoiding ones for regular matter content, and big rip avoiding ones for phantom matter. Focusing on radiation as the matter content, we discuss the evolution of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations. We compute a spectral index of n{sub s}=-1 for scalar perturbations and a deep blue index for tensor perturbations after invoking vacuum initial conditions, ruling out such a model as a realistic one. We also find that the spectrum (evaluated at Hubble crossing) is sensitive to the bounce. We conclude that it is challenging, but not impossible, for cyclic/ekpyrotic models to succeed, if one can find a regularized version.

  3. The non-perturbative unquenched quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entern, D. R.; Ortega, P. G.; Fernández, F.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years states in the quarkonium spectrum not expected in the naive quark model have appeared and created a lot of interest. In the theoretical side the study of the effect of meson-meson thresholds in the spectrum have been performed in different approximations. In a quark model framework, and in the spirit of the Cornell model, when a meson-meson threshold is included, the coupling to all the quark-antiquark states have to be considered. In practice only the closest states are included perturbatively. In this contribution we will present a framework in which we couple quark-antiquark states with meson-meson states non-perturbatively, taking into account effectively the coupling to all quark-antiquark states. The method will be applied to the study of the X(3872) and a comparison with the perturbative calculation will be performed.

  4. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  5. Non-gravitational perturbations and satellite geodesy

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, A.; Nobill, A.M.; Farinella, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the basic ideas of the physics of non-gravitational perturbations and the mathematics required to compute their orbital effects. It conveys the relevance of the different problems that must be solved to achieve a given level of accuracy in orbit determination and in recovery of geophysically significant parameters. Selected Contents are: Orders of Magnitude of the Perturbing Forces, Tides and Apparent Forces, Tools from Celestial Mechanics, Solar Radiation Pressure-Direct Effects: Satellite-Solar Radiation Interaction, Long-Term Effects on Semi-Major Axis, Radiation Pressure-Indirect Effects: Earth-Reflected Radiation Pressure, Anisotropic Thermal Emission, Drag: Orbital Perturbations by a Drag-Like Force, and Charged Particle Drag.

  6. Instability of charged Lovelock black holes: Vector perturbations and scalar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the stability of charged Lovelock black hole solutions under vector-type and scalar-type perturbations. We find suitable master variables for the stability analysis; the equations for these variables are Schrödinger-type equations with two components, and these Schrödinger operators are symmetric. By these master equations, we show that charged Lovelock black holes are stable under vector-type perturbations. For scalar-type perturbations, we show the criteria for instability and check these numerically. In our previous paper [T. Takahashi, Prog. Theor. Phys. 125, 1289 (2011)], we have shown that nearly extreme black holes show instability under tensor-type perturbations. In this paper, we find that black holes with a small charge show instability under scalar-type perturbations even if they have a relatively large mass.

  7. A perturbative DFT approach for magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Khoong Hong; Laskowski, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We develop a perturbative formalism for computing magnetocrystalline anisotropy within density functional theory and the magnetic force theorem. Instead of computing eigenvalues of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian for selected spin polarizations, as in the conventional ;force theorem; approach, we show that the effect can be cast into a redefined form of the spin-orbit operator. This allows to separate the large eigenvalue shift due to spin-orbit interaction common for both polarizations from the much smaller magnetic anisotropy splitting. As a consequence the anisotropy splitting may by considered as a perturbation.

  8. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    SciTech Connect

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F.

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  9. Evolution of perturbations in an inflationary universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, J. A.; Will, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of inhomogeneous density perturbations in a model of the very early universe that is dominated for a time by a constant energy density of a false quantum-mechanical vacuum is analyzed. During this period, the universe inflates exponentially and supercools exponentially, until a phase transition back to the true vacuum reheats the matter and radiation. Focus is on the physically measurable, coordinate-independent modes of inhomogeneous perturbations of this model and it is found that all modes either are constant or are exponentially damped during the inflationary era.

  10. Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented.

  11. Bayesian model selection and isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, María; García-Bellido, Juan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liddle, Andrew R.; Slosar, Anže

    2005-03-01

    Present cosmological data are well explained assuming purely adiabatic perturbations, but an admixture of isocurvature perturbations is also permitted. We use a Bayesian framework to compare the performance of cosmological models including isocurvature modes with the purely adiabatic case; this framework automatically and consistently penalizes models which use more parameters to fit the data. We compute the Bayesian evidence for fits to a data set comprised of WMAP and other microwave anisotropy data, the galaxy power spectrum from 2dFGRS and SDSS, and Type Ia supernovae luminosity distances. We find that Bayesian model selection favors the purely adiabatic models, but so far only at low significance.

  12. Continuum methods in lattice perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, Thomas G

    2002-11-15

    We show how methods of continuum perturbation theory can be used to simplify perturbative lattice calculations. We use the technique of asymptotic expansions to expand lattice loop integrals around the continuum limit. After the expansion, all nontrivial dependence on momenta and masses is encoded in continuum loop integrals and the only genuine lattice integrals left are tadpole integrals. Using integration-by-parts relations all of these can be expressed in terms of a small number of master integrals. Four master integrals are needed for bosonic one loop integrals, sixteen in QCD with Wilson or staggered fermions.

  13. Conservative perturbation theory for nonconservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Tirth; Chattopadhyay, Rohitashwa; Vaidya, Kedar; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we show how to use canonical perturbation theory for dissipative dynamical systems capable of showing limit-cycle oscillations. Thus, our work surmounts the hitherto perceived barrier for canonical perturbation theory that it can be applied only to a class of conservative systems, viz., Hamiltonian systems. In the process, we also find Hamiltonian structure for an important subset of Liénard system—a paradigmatic system for modeling isolated and asymptotic oscillatory state. We discuss the possibility of extending our method to encompass an even wider range of nonconservative systems.

  14. Poynting-Robertson effect. II - Perturbation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.

    1992-12-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the complete set of perturbation equations of celestial mechanics as applied to the Poynting-Robertson effect. Differential equations and initial conditions for them are justified. The sudden beginning of the operation of the Poynting-Robertson effect (e.g., sudden release of dust particles from a comet) is taken into account. Two sets of differential equations and initial conditions for them are obtained. Both of them are completely equivalent to Newton's equation of motion. It is stressed that the transformation mu yields mu(1-beta) must be made in perturbation equations of celestial mechanics.

  15. Galilean invariant resummation schemes of cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Many of the methods proposed so far to go beyond Standard Perturbation Theory break invariance under time-dependent boosts (denoted here as extended Galilean Invariance, or GI). This gives rise to spurious large scale effects which spoil the small scale predictions of these approximation schemes. By using consistency relations we derive fully non-perturbative constraints that GI imposes on correlation functions. We then introduce a method to quantify the amount of GI breaking of a given scheme, and to correct it by properly tailored counterterms. Finally, we formulate resummation schemes which are manifestly GI, discuss their general features, and implement them in the so called Time-Flow, or TRG, equations.

  16. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Andy C. Y.; Petruccione, F.; Koch, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical. PMID:24811607

  17. Plume Diagnostics of the RSRM Static Firings for the Pressure Perturbation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathias, Edward C.; Sambamurthi, Jay K.; Alvarado, Alexis

    1995-01-01

    During the STS-54 launch (RSRM-29), the right hand solid rocket motor experienced a 13.9 psi chamber pressure perturbation at 67 seconds into the motor operation. This pressure augmentation equated to a thrust change of 51 klb. Concerns were raised regarding the adverse effects of this thrust imbalance on the shuttle system and the overall thrust into the external tank structural elements. Pressure perturbations have been observed in solid rocket motors due to expulsion of igniter or insulation materials; the motor thrust during such events drop abruptly before rising. However, the RSRM motors do not exhibit such behavior during the large chamber pressure perturbation events. Several scenarios were investigated to explain these pressure perturbations in the RSRM motors based on a fault tree developed after STS-54. Of these, the expulsion of the slag accumulated in the submerged nozzle region appeared to be the most plausible scenario to explain the observations. Slag is a natural combustion product of aluminized solid rocket motors. The RSRM propellant contains 16% by weight of aluminum. Any ejection of this slag mass during nozzle vectoring or other side loads on the motor will result in the chamber pressure perturbation. Two RSRM static firings were instrumented extensively to further understand the slag expulsion phenomenon in the RSRM and the associated pressure perturbations.

  18. The General Necessary Condition for the Validity of Dirac's Transition Perturbation Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quang, Nguyen Vinh

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, from the natural requirements for the successive approximation the general necessary condition of validity of the Dirac's method is explicitly established. It is proved that the conception of 'the transition probability per unit time' is not valid. The 'super-platinium rules' for calculating the transition probability are derived for the arbitrarily strong time-independent perturbation case.

  19. On-Shell Methods in Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.

    2007-04-25

    We review on-shell methods for computing multi-parton scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD, utilizing their unitarity and factorization properties. We focus on aspects which are useful for the construction of one-loop amplitudes needed for phenomenological studies at the Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Staggered heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Jon A.

    2008-03-01

    Although taste violations significantly affect the results of staggered calculations of pseudoscalar and heavy-light mesonic quantities, those entering staggered calculations of baryonic quantities have not been quantified. Here I develop staggered chiral perturbation theory in the light-quark baryon sector by mapping the Symanzik action into heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. For 2+1 dynamical quark flavors, the masses of flavor-symmetric nucleons are calculated to third order in partially quenched and fully dynamical staggered chiral perturbation theory. To this order the expansion includes the leading chiral logarithms, which come from loops with virtual decuplet-like states, as well as terms of O(m{sub {pi}}{sup 3}), which come from loops with virtual octet-like states. Taste violations enter through the meson propagators in loops and tree-level terms of O(a{sup 2}). The pattern of taste symmetry breaking and the resulting degeneracies and mixings are discussed in detail. The resulting chiral forms are appropriate to lattice results obtained with operators already in use and could be used to study the restoration of taste symmetry in the continuum limit. I assume that the fourth root of the fermion determinant can be incorporated in staggered chiral perturbation theory using the replica method.

  1. Revealing global regulatory perturbations across human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Hani; Elemento, Olivier; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of pathways and regulatory networks whose perturbation contributes to neoplastic transformation remains a fundamental challenge for cancer biology. We show that such pathway perturbations, and the cis-regulatory elements through which they operate, can be efficiently extracted from global gene-expression profiles. Our approach utilizes information-theoretic analysis of expression levels, pathways, and genomic sequences. Analysis across a diverse set of human cancers reveals the majority of previously known cancer pathways. Through de novo motif discovery we associate these pathways with transcription-factor binding sites and miRNA targets, including those of E2F, NF-Y, p53, and let-7. Follow-up experiments confirmed that these predictions correspond to functional in vivo regulatory interactions. Strikingly, the majority of the perturbations, associated with putative cis-regulatory elements, fall outside of known cancer pathways. Our study provides a systems-level dissection of regulatory perturbations in cancer—an essential component of a rational strategy for therapeutic intervention and drug-target discovery. PMID:20005852

  2. What Perturbs the ggrdgr Rings of Uranus?

    PubMed

    French, R G; Kangas, J A; Elliot, J L

    1986-01-31

    The gamma and delta rings have by far the largest radial perturbations of any of the nine known Uranian rings. These two rings deviate from Keplerian orbits, having typical root-mean-square residuals of about 3 kilometers (compared to a few hundred meters for the other seven known rings). Possible causes for the perturbations include nearby shepherd satellites and Lindblad resonances. If shepherd satellites are responsible, they could be as large as several tens of kilometers in diameter. The perturbation patterns of the gamma and delta rings have been examined for evidence of Lindblad resonances of azimuthal wave number m = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. The beta ring radial residuals are well matched by a 2:1 Lindblad resonance. If this represents a real physical phenomenon and is not an artifact of undersampling, then the most plausible interpretation is that there is an undiscovered satellite orbiting 76,522 +/- 8 kilometers from Uranus, with an orbital period of 15.3595 +/- 0.0001 hours and a radius of 75 to 100 kilometers. Such a satellite would be easily detected by the Voyager spacecraft when it encounters Uranus. The 2:1 resonance location is 41 +/- 9 kilometers inside the delta ring, which makes it unlikely that the resonance is due to a viscous instability within the ring. In contrast, no low-order Lindblad resonance matches the gamma ring perturbations, which are probably caused by one or more shepherd satellites large enough to be clearly visible in Voyager images.

  3. Cosmological perturbations and classical change of signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jérôme

    1995-12-01

    Cosmological perturbations on a manifold admitting signature change are studied. The background solution consists in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe filled by a constant scalar field playing the role of a cosmological constant. It is shown that no regular solution exists satisfying the junction conditions at the surface of change. The comparison with similar studies in quantum cosmology is made.

  4. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Perturbation Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Kay M.; Henneberger, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    The Aharonov-Bohn effect is obtained in first-order perturbation theory. It is shown that the effect occurs only when the initial state is a superposition of eigenstates of Lz corresponding to eigenvalues having opposite sign. (Author/GA)

  5. Privacy Is Become with, Data Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Er. Niranjan; Singhai, Niky

    2011-06-01

    Privacy is becoming an increasingly important issue in many data mining applications that deal with health care, security, finance, behavior and other types of sensitive data. Is particularly becoming important in counterterrorism and homeland security-related applications. We touch upon several techniques of masking the data, namely random distortion, including the uniform and Gaussian noise, applied to the data in order to protect it. These perturbation schemes are equivalent to additive perturbation after the logarithmic Transformation. Due to the large volume of research in deriving private information from the additive noise perturbed data, the security of these perturbation schemes is questionable Many artificial intelligence and statistical methods exist for data analysis interpretation, Identifying and measuring the interestingness of patterns and rules discovered, or to be discovered is essential for the evaluation of the mined knowledge and the KDD process as a whole. While some concrete measurements exist, assessing the interestingness of discovered knowledge is still an important research issue. As the tool for the algorithm implementations we chose the language of choice in industrial world MATLAB.

  6. Doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lanying; Ren, Yong

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution to a class of doubly perturbed neutral stochastic functional equations (DPNSFEs in short) under some non-Lipschitz conditions. The solution is constructed by successive approximation. Furthermore, we give the continuous dependence of the solution on the initial value by means of the corollary of Bihari inequality.

  7. Characterization of the Head Stabilization Response to a Lateral Perturbation During Walking in Older Adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    A main contributor of fractures in older adults is from a lateral fall. The decline in sensory systems results in difficulty maintaining balance stability. Head stabilization contributes to postural control by serving as a stable platform for the sensory systems. The purpose of this study was to characterize the head stabilization response to a lateral perturbation while walking. A total of 16 healthy older adults, aged 66-81 years, walked across a foam pathway 6 times. One piece of the foam pathway covered a movable platform that translated to the left when the subject stepped on the foam. Three trials were randomized in which the platform shifted. Angular rate sensors placed on the center of mass of the head and trunk collected head and trunk movement in all three planes of motion. The roll plane was analyzed to examine motion in the plane of the perturbation. Subjects stepped onto the platform with the right foot. Recovery step time and distance were recorded. The first trial was analyzed to capture the novelty of the perturbation. Results indicate a significant difference in footfall distance t=0.004, p<0.05, as well as the speed of foot recovery t=0.001, p<0.05, between natural and perturbed walking. Results indicate that the head t=0.005, p<0.05, and trunk t=0.0001, p<0.05, velocities increase during perturbed compared to natural walking. Older adults place their recovery foot down faster when perturbed to re-establish their base of support. Head and trunk segments are less stable and move with greater velocities to reestablish stability when perturbed.

  8. Using in silico models to simulate dual perturbation experiments: procedure development and interpretation of outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Neema; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2009-01-01

    Background A growing number of realistic in silico models of metabolic functions are being formulated and can serve as 'dry lab' platforms to prototype and simulate experiments before they are performed. For example, dual perturbation experiments that vary both genetic and environmental parameters can readily be simulated in silico. Genetic and environmental perturbations were applied to a cell-scale model of the human erythrocyte and subsequently investigated. Results The resulting steady state fluxes and concentrations, as well as dynamic responses to the perturbations were analyzed, yielding two important conclusions: 1) that transporters are informative about the internal states (fluxes and concentrations) of a cell and, 2) that genetic variations can disrupt the natural sequence of dynamic interactions between network components. The former arises from adjustments in energy and redox states, while the latter is a result of shifting time scales in aggregate pool formation of metabolites. These two concepts are illustrated for glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the human red blood cell. Conclusion Dual perturbation experiments in silico are much more informative for the characterization of functional states than single perturbations. Predictions from an experimentally validated cellular model of metabolism indicate that the measurement of cofactor precursor transport rates can inform the internal state of the cell when the external demands are altered or a causal genetic variation is introduced. Finally, genetic mutations that alter the clinical phenotype may also disrupt the 'natural' time scale hierarchy of interactions in the network. PMID:19405968

  9. Transverse, propagating velocity perturbations in solar coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Moortel, I.; Pascoe, D. J.; Wright, A. N.; Hood, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    As waves and oscillations carry both energy and information, they have enormous potential as a plasma heating mechanism and, through seismology, to provide estimates of local plasma properties which are hard to obtain from direct measurements. Being sufficiently near to allow high-resolution observations, the atmosphere of the Sun forms a natural plasma laboratory. Recent observations have revealed that an abundance of waves and oscillations is present in the solar atmosphere, leading to a renewed interest in wave heating mechanisms. This short review paper gives an overview of recently observed transverse, propagating velocity perturbations in coronal loops. These ubiquitous perturbations are observed to undergo strong damping as they propagate. Using 3D numerical simulations of footpoint-driven transverse waves propagating in a coronal plasma with a cylindrical density structure, in combination with analytical modelling, it is demonstrated that the observed velocity perturbations can be understood in terms of coupling of different wave modes in the inhomogeneous boundaries of the loops. Mode coupling in the inhomogeneous boundary layers of the loops leads to the coupling of the transversal (kink) mode to the azimuthal (Alfvén) mode, observed as the decay of the transverse kink oscillations. Both the numerical and analytical results show the spatial profile of the damped wave has a Gaussian shape to begin with, before switching to exponential decay at large heights. In addition, recent analysis of CoMP (Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter) Doppler shift observations of large, off-limb, trans-equatorial loops shows that Fourier power at the apex appears to be higher in the high-frequency part of the spectrum than expected from theoretical models. This excess high-frequency FFT power could be tentative evidence for the onset of a cascade of the low-to-mid frequency waves into (Alfvénic) turbulence.

  10. Non-perturbative effects of primordial curvature perturbations on the apparent value of a cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea Romano, Antonio; Sanes Negrete, Sergio; Sasaki, Misao; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2014-06-01

    We study effects on the luminosity distance of a local inhomogeneity seeded by primordial curvature perturbations of the type predicted by the inflationary scenario and constrained by the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find that a local underdensity originated from a one, two or three standard deviations peaks of the primordial curvature perturbations field can induce corrections to the value of a cosmological constant of the order of 0.6{%},1{%},1.5{%} , respectively. These effects cannot be neglected in the precision cosmology era in which we are entering. Our results can be considered an upper bound for the effect of the monopole component of the local non-linear structure which can arise from primordial curvature perturbations and requires a fully non-perturbative relativistic treatment.

  11. Head perturbations during walking while viewing a head-fixed target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Vallabh E.; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.; Discenna, Alfred O.; Leigh, R. John

    1995-01-01

    Inexpensive, head-fixed computer displays are now available that subjects can wear during locomotion. Our hypothesis is that viewing a head-fixed visual display will change the character- istics of rotational head perturbations during natural walking. Using a 3-axis angular rate sensor, we measured head rotations during natural or treadmill walking, in 10 normal subjects and 2 patients with deficient vestibular function, as they attempted to view (1) a stationary target at optical infinity; and (2) a target at a distance of 20 cm rigidly attached to the head. Normal subjects and patients showed no significant change in the predominant frequency of head rotations in any plane (ranging 0.7-5.7 Hz) during the two different viewing tasks. Mean peak head velocities also showed no difference during the two viewing conditions except in the yaw plane, in which values were greater while viewing the near target. Predominant frequencies of head rotations were similar in the pitch plane during natural or treadmill walking; however, peak velocities of pitch head rotations were substantially greater during natural walking. One vestibular patient showed modest increases of head velocity during natural walking compared with normal subjects. Rotational head perturbations that occur during natural walking are largely unaffected when subjects view a head-fixed target. There is need to study how such perturbations, which induce vestibular eye movements, affect vision of head-fixed displays.

  12. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion by perturbation of endosomal trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lučin, Pero; Mahmutefendić, Hana; Blagojević Zagorac, Gordana; Ilić Tomaš, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), members of the herpesvirus family, have evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune response to survive in infected hosts and to establish latent infection. They effectively hide infected cells from the effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity by eliminating cellular proteins (major histocompatibility Class I and Class II molecules) from the cell surface that display viral antigens to CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes. CMVs also successfully escape recognition and elimination of infected cells by natural killer (NK) cells, effector cells of innate immunity, either by mimicking NK cell inhibitory ligands or by downregulating NK cell-activating ligands. To accomplish these immunoevasion functions, CMVs encode several proteins that function in the biosynthetic pathway by inhibiting the assembly and trafficking of cellular proteins that participate in immune recognition and thereby, block their appearance at the cell surface. However, elimination of these proteins from the cell surface can also be achieved by perturbation of their endosomal route and subsequent relocation from the cell surface into intracellular compartments. Namely, the physiological route of every cellular protein, including immune recognition molecules, is characterized by specific features that determine its residence time at the cell surface. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of endocytic trafficking of immune recognition molecules and perturbations of the endosomal system during infection with CMVs and other members of the herpesvirus family that contribute to their immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:25263490

  13. On the Milankovitch orbital elements for perturbed Keplerian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-03-01

    We consider sets of natural vectorial orbital elements of the Milankovitch type for perturbed Keplerian motion. These elements are closely related to the two vectorial first integrals of the unperturbed two-body problem; namely, the angular momentum vector and the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector. After a detailed historical discussion of the origin and development of such elements, nonsingular equations for the time variations of these sets of elements under perturbations are established, both in Lagrangian and Gaussian form. After averaging, a compact, elegant, and symmetrical form of secular Milankovitch-like equations is obtained, which reminds of the structure of canonical systems of equations in Hamiltonian mechanics. As an application of this vectorial formulation, we analyze the motion of an object orbiting about a planet (idealized as a point mass moving in a heliocentric elliptical orbit) and subject to solar radiation pressure acceleration (obeying an inverse-square law). We show that the corresponding secular problem is integrable and we give an explicit closed-form solution.

  14. Conformal invariant cosmological perturbations via the covariant approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mingzhe; Mou, Yicen E-mail: moinch@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    It is known that some cosmological perturbations are conformal invariant. This facilitates the studies of perturbations within some gravitational theories alternative to general relativity, for example the scalar-tensor theory, because it is possible to do equivalent analysis in a certain frame in which the perturbation equations are simpler. In this paper we revisit the problem of conformal invariances of cosmological perturbations in terms of the covariant approach in which the perturbation variables have clear geometric and physical meanings. We show that with this approach the conformal invariant perturbations are easily identified.

  15. A numerical-perturbation method for the nonlinear analysis of structural vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Mook, D. T.; Lobitz, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    A numerical-perturbation method is proposed for the determination of the nonlinear forced response of structural elements. Purely analytical techniques are capable of determining the response of structural elements having simple geometries and simple variations in thickness and properties, but they are not applicable to elements with complicated structure and boundaries. Numerical techniques are effective in determining the linear response of complicated structures, but they are not optimal for determining the nonlinear response of even simple elements when modal interactions take place due to the complicated nature of the response. Therefore, the optimum is a combined numerical and perturbation technique. The present technique is applied to beams with varying cross sections.

  16. Encke's special perturbation technique associated with the KS regularized variables. I - Satellite motions in the earth's gravitational field with axial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Mervat El-Sayed

    1988-10-01

    A special perturbation technique of Encke type associated with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) regularized variables is developed for satellite motions in the earth's gravitational field with axial symmetry. Its computational algorithm is of recursive nature and could be applied to any perturbed conic motion, whatever the number of the zonal harmonic coefficients may be. Applications of the algorithm are also included.

  17. Tangles of the ideal separatrix from low mn perturbation in the DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Talisa; Crank, Willie; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-11-01

    The equilibrium EFIT data for the DIII-D shot 115467 at 3000 ms is used to construct the equilibrium generating function for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak in natural canonical coordinates [A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 122502 (2008); A. Punjabi, Nucl. Fusion 49, 115020 (2009)]. The generating function represents the axisymmetric magnetic geometry and the topology of the DIII-D shot very accurately. A symplectic map for field line trajectories in the natural canonical coordinates in the DIII-D is constructed. We call this map the DIII-D map. The natural canonical coordinates can be readily inverted to physical coordinates (R,φ,Z). Low mn magnetic perturbation with mode numbers (m,n)=(1,1)+(1,-1) is added to the generating function of the map. The amplitude for the low mn perturbation is chosen to be 6X10-4, which is the expected value of the amplitude in tokamaks. The forward and backward DIII-D maps with low mn perturbation are used to calculate the tangles of the ideal separatrix from low mn perturbation in the DIII-D. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  18. Uniqueness of static photon surfaces: Perturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Hirotaka

    2017-02-01

    A photon surface S is defined as a three-dimensional timelike hypersurface such that any null geodesic initially tangent to S continues to be included in S , like r =3 M of the Schwarzschild spacetime. Using analytic solutions to static perturbations of a Schwarzschild spacetime, we examine whether a nonspherical spacetime can possess a distorted static photon surface. It is shown that if the region outside of r =3 M is vacuum, no distorted photon surface can be present. Therefore, we establish the perturbative uniqueness for an asymptotically flat vacuum spacetime with a static photon surface. It is also pointed out that if matter is present in the outside region, there is a possibility that a distorted photon surface could form.

  19. Control of asymmetric magnetic perturbations in tokamaks.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Schaffer, Michael J; Menard, Jonathan E; Boozer, Allen H

    2007-11-09

    The sensitivity of tokamak plasmas to very small deviations from the axisymmetry of the magnetic field |deltaB/B| approximately 10{-4} is well known. What was not understood until very recently is the importance of the perturbation to the plasma equilibrium in assessing the effects of externally produced asymmetries in the magnetic field, even far from a stability limit. DIII-D and NSTX experiments find that when the deleterious effects of asymmetries are mitigated, the external asymmetric field was often made stronger and had an increased interaction with the magnetic field of the unperturbed equilibrium. This Letter explains these counterintuitive results. The explanation using ideal perturbed equilibria has important implications for the control of field errors in all toroidal plasmas.

  20. Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-04-01

    In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.

  1. Four-loop screened perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Kyllingstad, Lars

    2008-10-01

    We study the thermodynamics of massless ϕ4-theory using screened perturbation theory. In this method, the perturbative expansion is reorganized by adding and subtracting a thermal mass term in the Lagrangian. We calculate the free energy through four loops expanding in a double power expansion in m/T and g2, where m is the thermal mass and g is the coupling constant. The expansion is truncated at order g7 and the loop expansion is shown to have better convergence properties than the weak-coupling expansion. The free energy at order g6 involves the four-loop triangle sum-integral evaluated by Gynther, Laine, Schröder, Torrero, and Vuorinen using the methods developed by Arnold and Zhai. The evaluation of the free energy at order g7 requires the evaluation of a nontrivial three-loop sum-integral, which we calculate by the same methods.

  2. Perturbation theory for asymmetric deformed microdisk cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullig, Julius; Wiersig, Jan

    2016-10-01

    In an article by Dubertrand et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77, 013804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.013804] the perturbation theory for slightly deformed optical microcavities with a mirror-reflection symmetry was developed. However, in real experiments such a mirror-reflection symmetry is often not present either intended or unintended via production tolerances. In this paper we therefore extended the perturbation theory to asymmetric boundary deformations. Consequently, we are able to describe interesting non-Hermitian phenomena like copropagation of optical modes in the (counter-)clockwise direction inside the cavity. The derived analytic formulas are demonstrated at two generic boundary shapes, the spiral and the double-notched circle where a good agreement to the numerical boundary element method is observed.

  3. Random matter density perturbations and LMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reggiani, N.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.

    There are reasons to believe that mechanisms exist in the solar interior which lead to random density perturbations in the resonant region of the Large Mixing Angle solution to the solar neutrino problem. We find that, in the presence of these density perturbations, the best fit point in the (sin 2 2θ , Δ m2) parameter space moves to smaller values, compared with the values obtained for the standard LMA solution. Combining solar data with KamLAND results, we find a new compatibility region, which we call VERY-LOW LMA, where sin 2 2θ ~ 0.6 and Δm2 2× 10-5 eV2, for random density fluctuations of order 5% < ξ < 8%. We argue that such values of density fluctuations are still allowed by helioseismological observations at small scales of order 10 - 1000 km deep inside the solar core. PACS: 26.65 - 90.60J - 96.60.H

  4. Confinement with Perturbation Theory, After All?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    I call attention to the possibility that QCD bound states (hadrons) could be derived using rigorous Hamiltonian, perturbative methods. Solving Gauss' law for A 0 with a non-vanishing boundary condition at spatial infinity gives an linear potential for color singlet and qqq states. These states are Poincaré and gauge covariant and thus can serve as initial states of a perturbative expansion, replacing the conventional free in and out states. The coupling freezes at , allowing reasonable convergence. The bound states have a sea of pairs, while transverse gluons contribute only at . Pair creation in the linear A 0 potential leads to string breaking and hadron loop corrections. These corrections give finite widths to excited states, as required by unitarity. Several of these features have been verified analytically in D = 1 + 1 dimensions, and some in D = 3 + 1.

  5. Cosmological perturbations in transient phantom inflation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richarte, Martín G.; Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a model of inflation where the inflaton is accommodated as a phantom field which exhibits an initial transient pole behavior and then decays into a quintessence field which is responsible for a radiation era. We must stress that the present unified model only deals with a single field and that the transition between the two eras is achieved in a smooth way, so the model does not suffer from the eternal inflation issue. We explore the conditions for the crossing of the phantom divide line within the inflationary era along with the structural stability of several critical points. We study the behavior of the phantom field within the slow-climb approximation along with the necessary conditions to have sufficient inflation. We also examine the model at the level of classical perturbations within the Newtonian gauge and determine the behavior of the gravitational potential, contrast density and perturbed field near the inflation stage and the subsequent radiation era.

  6. Stability of gradient semigroups under perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragão-Costa, E. R.; Caraballo, T.; Carvalho, A. N.; Langa, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we prove that gradient-like semigroups (in the sense of Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646-68)) are gradient semigroups (possess a Lyapunov function). This is primarily done to provide conditions under which gradient semigroups, in a general metric space, are stable under perturbation exploiting the known fact (see Carvalho and Langa (2009 J. Diff. Eqns 246 2646-68)) that gradient-like semigroups are stable under perturbation. The results presented here were motivated by the work carried out in Conley (1978 Isolated Invariant Sets and the Morse Index (CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics vol 38) (RI: American Mathematical Society Providence)) for groups in compact metric spaces (see also Rybakowski (1987 The Homotopy Index and Partial Differential Equations (Universitext) (Berlin: Springer)) for the Morse decomposition of an invariant set for a semigroup on a compact metric space).

  7. Thermostat-Like Perturbations of an Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidlin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We consider an oscillator with one degree of freedom perturbed by a deterministic thermostat-like perturbation and another system, in particular, another oscillator, coupled with the first one. If the Hamiltonian of the first system has saddle points, the whole system has, in a sense, a stochastic behavior on long time intervals. Under certain conditions, one can introduce the relative entropy and describe metastability and other large deviation effects in this deterministic system. If the coupled system is also an oscillator, the long time evolution of the energy of this oscillator has a diffusion approximation. To get these results one has to regularize the system. But the results are, to some extent, independent of the regularization: the stochasticity is due to instabilities at saddle points of the original system.

  8. Intelligent perturbation algorithms for space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of space operations is examined in the light of optimization heuristics for computer algorithms and iterative search techniques. Specific attention is given to the search concepts known collectively as intelligent perturbation algorithms (IPAs) and their application to crew/resource allocation problems. IPAs iteratively examine successive schedules which become progressively more efficient, and the characteristics of good perturbation operators are listed. IPAs can be applied to aerospace systems to efficiently utilize crews, payloads, and resources in the context of systems such as Space-Station scheduling. A program is presented called the MFIVE Space Station Scheduling Worksheet which generates task assignments and resource usage structures. The IPAs can be used to develop flexible manifesting and scheduling for the Industrial Space Facility.

  9. Constraining compensated isocurvature perturbations using the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tristan L.; Rhiannon Smith, Kyle Yee, Julian Munoz, Daniel Grin

    2017-01-01

    Compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIPs) are variations in the cosmic baryon fraction which leave the total non-relativistic matter (and radiation) density unchanged. They are predicted by models of inflation which involve more than one scalar field, such as the curvaton scenario. At linear order, they leave the CMB two-point correlation function nearly unchanged: this is why existing constraints to CIPs are so much more permissive than constraints to typical isocurvature perturbations. Recent work articulated an efficient way to calculate the second order CIP effects on the CMB two-point correlation. We have implemented this method in order to explore constraints to the CIP amplitude using current Planck temperature and polarization data. In addition, we have computed the contribution of CIPs to the CMB lensing estimator which provides us with a novel method to use CMB data to place constraints on CIPs. We find that Planck data places a constraint to the CIP amplitude which is competitive with other methods.

  10. Perturbational analysis of plasmon decay in jellium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Macke, Wilhelm; Miesenböck, Helga M.; Schinner, Andreas

    1991-02-01

    Plasmon damping in the three-dimensional homogeneous electron gas is investigated within second order perturbation theory for the density-density response function. The equivalence of several existing approaches that take into account lowest order two-pair excitations is shown explicitly. Finally, a complete Monte-Carlo analysis of the multi-dimensional integrals for the dielectric function is made for arbitrary densities.

  11. Multiple scattering by deep perturbed gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Knotts, M.E.; O`Donnell, K.A.

    1994-11-01

    We present measurements of the far-field scattered intensity for gratings consisting of uniform, regularly spaced, wavelength-scale grooves that have randomly fluctuating depths. The complete polarization dependence of the scattering is determined, and particular attention is given to measurements that isolate multiple scattering. For both perturbed and unperturbed gratings, effects similar to backscattering enhancement seen for randomly rough surfaces are observed, and these effects are linked to the coherent interference of reciprocal pairs of waves multiply scattered within the grooves.

  12. Intelligent perturbation algorithms to space scheduling optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtzman, Clifford R.

    1991-01-01

    The limited availability and high cost of crew time and scarce resources make optimization of space operations critical. Advances in computer technology coupled with new iterative search techniques permit the near optimization of complex scheduling problems that were previously considered computationally intractable. Described here is a class of search techniques called Intelligent Perturbation Algorithms. Several scheduling systems which use these algorithms to optimize the scheduling of space crew, payload, and resource operations are also discussed.

  13. Study of the spectrum of inflaton perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenz, Matthew M.; Parker, Leonard

    2009-09-01

    We examine the spectrum of inflaton fluctuations resulting from any given long period of exponential inflation. Infrared and ultraviolet divergences in the inflaton dispersion summed over all modes do not appear in our approach. We show how the scale invariance of the perturbation spectrum arises. We also examine the spectrum of scalar perturbations of the metric that is created by the inflaton fluctuations that have left the Hubble sphere during inflation and the spectrum of density perturbations that they produce at reentry after inflation has ended. When the inflaton dispersion spectrum is renormalized during the expansion, we show (for the case of the quadratic inflaton potential) that the density perturbation spectrum approaches a mass-independent limit as the inflaton mass approaches zero, and remains near that limiting value for masses less than about 1/4 of the inflationary Hubble constant. We show that this limiting behavior does not occur if one only makes the Minkowski space subtraction, without the further adiabatic subtractions that involve time derivatives of the expansion scale factor a(t). We also find a parametrized expression for the energy density produced by the change in a(t) as inflation ends. If the end of inflation were sufficiently abrupt, then the temperature corresponding to this energy density could be very significant. We also show that fluctuations of the inflaton field that are present before inflation starts are not dissipated during inflation and could have a significant observational effect today. The mechanism for this is caused by the initial fluctuations through stimulated emission from the vacuum.

  14. Study of the spectrum of inflaton perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenz, Matthew M.; Parker, Leonard

    2009-09-15

    We examine the spectrum of inflaton fluctuations resulting from any given long period of exponential inflation. Infrared and ultraviolet divergences in the inflaton dispersion summed over all modes do not appear in our approach. We show how the scale invariance of the perturbation spectrum arises. We also examine the spectrum of scalar perturbations of the metric that is created by the inflaton fluctuations that have left the Hubble sphere during inflation and the spectrum of density perturbations that they produce at reentry after inflation has ended. When the inflaton dispersion spectrum is renormalized during the expansion, we show (for the case of the quadratic inflaton potential) that the density perturbation spectrum approaches a mass-independent limit as the inflaton mass approaches zero, and remains near that limiting value for masses less than about 1/4 of the inflationary Hubble constant. We show that this limiting behavior does not occur if one only makes the Minkowski space subtraction, without the further adiabatic subtractions that involve time derivatives of the expansion scale factor a(t). We also find a parametrized expression for the energy density produced by the change in a(t) as inflation ends. If the end of inflation were sufficiently abrupt, then the temperature corresponding to this energy density could be very significant. We also show that fluctuations of the inflaton field that are present before inflation starts are not dissipated during inflation and could have a significant observational effect today. The mechanism for this is caused by the initial fluctuations through stimulated emission from the vacuum.

  15. (Perturbed angular correlations in zirconia ceramics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This is the progress report for the first year of the currently-approved three year funding cycle. We have carried on a vigorous program of experimental and theoretical research on microscopic properties of zirconia and ceria using the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experimental technique. The experimental method was described in the original proposal and in a number of references as well as several of the technical reports that accompany this progress report.

  16. Perturbations of nested branes with induced gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sbisà, Fulvio; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We study the behaviour of weak gravitational fields in models where a 4D brane is embedded inside a 5D brane equipped with induced gravity, which in turn is embedded in a 6D spacetime. We consider a specific regularization of the branes internal structures where the 5D brane can be considered thin with respect to the 4D one. We find exact solutions corresponding to pure tension source configurations on the thick 4D brane, and study perturbations at first order around these background solutions. To perform the perturbative analysis, we adopt a bulk-based approach and we express the equations in terms of gauge invariant and master variables using a 4D scalar-vector-tensor decomposition. We then propose an ansatz on the behaviour of the perturbation fields when the thickness of the 4D brane goes to zero, which corresponds to configurations where gravity remains finite everywhere in the thin limit of the 4D brane. We study the equations of motion using this ansatz, and show that they give rise to a consistent set of differential equations in the thin limit, from which the details of the internal structure of the 4D brane disappear. We conclude that the thin limit of the ''ribbon'' 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined (at least when considering first order perturbations around pure tension configurations), and that the gravitational field on the 4D brane remains finite in the thin limit. We comment on the crucial role of the induced gravity term on the 5D brane.

  17. Hamiltonian formalism for Perturbed Black Hole Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, Deyan; Gair, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Present and future gravitational wave observations provide a new mechanism to probe the predictions of general relativity. Observations of extreme mass ratio inspirals with millihertz gravitational wave detectors such as LISA will provide exquisite constraints on the spacetime structure outside astrophysical black holes, enabling tests of the no-hair property that all general relativistic black holes are described by the Kerr metric. Previous work to understand what constraints LISA observations will be able to place has focussed on specific alternative theories of gravity, or generic deviations that preserve geodesic separability. We describe an alternative approach to this problem--a technique that employs canonical perturbations of the Hamiltonian function describing motion in the Kerr metric. We derive this new approach and demonstrate its application to the cases of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole which is viewed as a perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole, of coupled perturbations of black holes in the second-order Chern-Simons modified gravity theory, and several more indicative scenarios. Deyan Mihaylov is funded by STFC.

  18. Perturbative gravity in the causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum theory of the gravitation in the causal approach is studied up to the second order of perturbation theory in the causal approach. We emphasize the use of cohomology methods in this framework. After describing in detail the mathematical structure of the cohomology method we apply it in three different situations: (a) the determination of the most general expression of the interaction Lagrangian; (b) the proof of gauge invariance in the second order of perturbation theory for the pure gravity system—massless and massive; (c) the investigation of the arbitrariness of the second-order chronological products compatible with renormalization principles and gauge invariance (i.e. the renormalization problem in the second order of perturbation theory). In case (a) we investigate pure gravity systems and the interaction of massless gravity with matter (described by scalars and spinors) and massless Yang-Mills fields. We obtain a difference with respect to the classical field theory due to the fact that in quantum field theory one cannot enforce the divergenceless property on the vector potential and this spoils the divergenceless property of the usual energy-momentum tensor. To correct this one needs a supplementary ghost term in the interaction Lagrangian. In all three case, the computations are more simple than by the usual methods.

  19. Noninflationary model with scale invariant cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, Patrick; Pinho, Emanuel J. C.; Pinto-Neto, Nelson

    2007-01-15

    We show that a contracting universe which bounces due to quantum cosmological effects and connects to the hot big-bang expansion phase, can produce an almost scale invariant spectrum of perturbations provided the perturbations are produced during an almost matter dominated era in the contraction phase. This is achieved using Bohmian solutions of the canonical Wheeler-DeWitt equation, thus treating both the background and the perturbations in a fully quantum manner. We find a very slightly blue spectrum (n{sub S}-1>0). Taking into account the spectral index constraint as well as the cosmic microwave background normalization measure yields an equation of state that should be less than {omega} < or approx. 8x10{sup -4}, implying n{sub S}-1{approx}O(10{sup -4}), and that the characteristic curvature scale of the Universe at the bounce is L{sub 0}{approx}10{sup 3}l{sub Pl}, a region where one expects that the Wheeler-DeWitt equation should be valid without being spoiled by string or loop quantum gravity effects. We have also obtained a consistency relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio T/S and the scalar spectral index as T/S{approx}4.6x10{sup -2}{radical}(n{sub S}-1), leading to potentially measurable differences with inflationary predictions.

  20. Quantum inflaton, primordial perturbations, and CMB fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, F.J.; Vega, H.J. de; Sanchez, N.G.

    2004-10-15

    We compute the primordial scalar, vector and tensor metric perturbations arising from quantum field inflation. Quantum field inflation takes into account the nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the inflaton consistently coupled to the dynamics of the (classical) cosmological metric. For chaotic inflation, the quantum treatment avoids the unnatural requirements of an initial state with all the energy in the zero mode. For new inflation it allows a consistent treatment of the explosive particle production due to spinodal instabilities. Quantum field inflation (under conditions that are the quantum analog of slow-roll) leads, upon evolution, to the formation of a condensate starting a regime of effective classical inflation. We compute the primordial perturbations taking the dominant quantum effects into account. The results for the scalar, vector and tensor primordial perturbations are expressed in terms of the classical inflation results. For a N-component field in a O(N) symmetric model, adiabatic fluctuations dominate while isocurvature or entropy fluctuations are negligible. The results agree with the current Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations and predict corrections to the power spectrum in classical inflation. Such corrections are estimated to be of the order of (m{sup 2}/NH{sup 2}), where m is the inflaton mass and H the Hubble constant at the moment of horizon crossing. An upper estimate turns to be about 4% for the cosmologically relevant scales. This quantum field treatment of inflation provides the foundations to the classical inflation and permits to compute quantum corrections to it.

  1. Non-perturbative effects in spin glasses

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Michele; Parisi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study of an Ising spin glass with hierarchical interactions—the hierarchical Edwards-Anderson model with an external magnetic field (HEA). We study the model with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the mean-field (MF) and non-mean-field (NMF) regions corresponding to d ≥ 4 and d < 4 for the d-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model respectively. We compare the MC results with those of a renormalization-group (RG) study where the critical fixed point is treated as a perturbation of the MF one, along the same lines as in the -expansion for the Ising model. The MC and the RG method agree in the MF region, predicting the existence of a transition and compatible values of the critical exponents. Conversely, the two approaches markedly disagree in the NMF case, where the MC data indicates a transition, while the RG analysis predicts that no perturbative critical fixed point exists. Also, the MC estimate of the critical exponent ν in the NMF region is about twice as large as its classical value, even if the analog of the system dimension is within only ~2% from its upper-critical-dimension value. Taken together, these results indicate that the transition in the NMF region is governed by strong non-perturbative effects. PMID:25733337

  2. Cosmic perturbations through the cyclic ages

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Joel K.; Gratton, Steven; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-06-15

    We analyze the evolution of cosmological perturbations in the cyclic model, paying particular attention to their behavior and interplay over multiple cycles. Our key results are: (1) galaxies and large scale structure present in one cycle are generated by the quantum fluctuations in the preceding cycle without interference from perturbations or structure generated in earlier cycles and without interfering with structure generated in later cycles; (2) the ekpyrotic phase, an epoch of gentle contraction with equation of state w>>1 preceding the hot big bang, makes the universe homogeneous, isotropic and flat within any given observer's horizon; and (3) although the universe is uniform within each observer's horizon, the structure of the cyclic universe on very large scales is more complex, owing to the effects of superhorizon length perturbations, and cannot be described globally as a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. In particular, we show that the ekpyrotic contraction phase is so effective in smoothing, flattening and isotropizing the universe within the horizon that this phase alone suffices to solve the horizon and flatness problems even without an extended period of dark energy domination (a kind of low energy inflation). Instead, the cyclic model rests on a genuinely novel, noninflationary mechanism (ekpyrotic contraction) for resolving the classic cosmological conundrums.

  3. Topological quantum order: Stability under local perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergey; Hastings, Matthew B.; Michalakis, Spyridon

    2010-09-15

    We study zero-temperature stability of topological phases of matter under weak time-independent perturbations. Our results apply to quantum spin Hamiltonians that can be written as a sum of geometrically local commuting projectors on a D-dimensional lattice with certain topological order conditions. Given such a Hamiltonian H{sub 0}, we prove that there exists a constant threshold {epsilon}>0 such that for any perturbation V representable as a sum of short-range bounded-norm interactions, the perturbed Hamiltonian H=H{sub 0}+{epsilon}V has well-defined spectral bands originating from low-lying eigenvalues of H{sub 0}. These bands are separated from the rest of the spectra and from each other by a constant gap. The band originating from the smallest eigenvalue of H{sub 0} has exponentially small width (as a function of the lattice size). Our proof exploits a discrete version of Hamiltonian flow equations, the theory of relatively bounded operators, and the Lieb-Robinson bound.

  4. Relativistic Positioning System in perturbed spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostić, Uroš; Horvat, Martin; Gomboc, Andreja

    2015-11-01

    We present a variant of a Global Navigation Satellite System called a Relativistic Positioning System (RPS), which is based on emission coordinates. We modelled the RPS dynamics in a spacetime around Earth, described by a perturbed Schwarzschild metric, where we included the perturbations due to Earth multipoles (up to the 6th), the Moon, the Sun, Venus, Jupiter, solid tide, ocean tide, and Kerr rotation effect. The exchange of signals between the satellites and a user was calculated using a ray-tracing method in the Schwarzschild spacetime. We find that positioning in a perturbed spacetime is feasible and is highly accurate already with standard numerical procedures: the positioning algorithms used to transform between the emission and the Schwarzschild coordinates of the user are very accurate and time efficient—on a laptop it takes 0.04 s to determine the user’s spatial and time coordinates with a relative accuracy of {10}-28-{10}-26 and {10}-32-{10}-30, respectively.

  5. Perturbative Critical Behavior from Spacetime Dependent Couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2012-08-03

    We find novel perturbative fixed points by introducing mildly spacetime-dependent couplings into otherwise marginal terms. In four-dimensional QFT, these are physical analogues of the small-{epsilon} Wilson-Fisher fixed point. Rather than considering 4-{epsilon} dimensions, we stay in four dimensions but introduce couplings whose leading spacetime dependence is of the form {lambda}x{sup {kappa}}{mu}{sup {kappa}}, with a small parameter {kappa} playing a role analogous to {epsilon}. We show, in {phi}{sup 4} theory and in QED and QCD with massless flavors, that this leads to a critical theory under perturbative control over an exponentially wide window of spacetime positions x. The exact fixed point coupling {lambda}{sub *}(x) in our theory is identical to the running coupling of the translationally invariant theory, with the scale replaced by 1/x. Similar statements hold for three-dimensional {phi}{sup 6} theories and two-dimensional sigma models with curved target spaces. We also describe strongly coupled examples using conformal perturbation theory.

  6. Multifrequency perturbations in matter-wave interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, A.; Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Stibor, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-contrast matter-wave interferometry is essential in various fundamental quantum mechanical experiments as well as for technical applications. Thereby, contrast and sensitivity are typically reduced by decoherence and dephasing effects. While decoherence accounts for a general loss of quantum information in a system due to entanglement with the environment, dephasing is due to collective time-dependent external phase shifts, which can be related to temperature drifts, mechanical vibrations, and electromagnetic oscillations. In contrast to decoherence, dephasing can, in principle, be reversed. Here, we demonstrate in experiment and theory a method for the analysis and reduction of the influence of dephasing noise and perturbations consisting of several external frequencies in an electron interferometer. This technique uses the high spatial and temporal resolution of a delay-line detector to reveal and remove dephasing perturbations by second-order correlation analysis. It allows matter-wave experiments under perturbing laboratory conditions and can be applied, in principle, to electron, atom, ion, neutron, and molecule interferometers.

  7. Non-perturbative effects in spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellana, Michele; Parisi, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    We present a numerical study of an Ising spin glass with hierarchical interactions--the hierarchical Edwards-Anderson model with an external magnetic field (HEA). We study the model with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the mean-field (MF) and non-mean-field (NMF) regions corresponding to d >= 4 and d < 4 for the d-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model respectively. We compare the MC results with those of a renormalization-group (RG) study where the critical fixed point is treated as a perturbation of the MF one, along the same lines as in the -expansion for the Ising model. The MC and the RG method agree in the MF region, predicting the existence of a transition and compatible values of the critical exponents. Conversely, the two approaches markedly disagree in the NMF case, where the MC data indicates a transition, while the RG analysis predicts that no perturbative critical fixed point exists. Also, the MC estimate of the critical exponent ν in the NMF region is about twice as large as its classical value, even if the analog of the system dimension is within only ~2% from its upper-critical-dimension value. Taken together, these results indicate that the transition in the NMF region is governed by strong non-perturbative effects.

  8. Baryonic matter perturbations in decaying vacuum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Marttens, R.F. vom; Zimdahl, W.; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W.S. E-mail: wiliam.ricaldi@ufes.br

    2014-08-01

    We consider the perturbation dynamics for the cosmic baryon fluid and determine the corresponding power spectrum for a Λ(t)CDM model in which a cosmological term decays into dark matter linearly with the Hubble rate. The model is tested by a joint analysis of data from supernovae of type Ia (SNIa) (Constitution and Union 2.1), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO), the position of the first peak of the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large-scale-structure (LSS) data (SDSS DR7). While the homogeneous and isotropic background dynamics is only marginally influenced by the baryons, there are modifications on the perturbative level if a separately conserved baryon fluid is included. Considering the present baryon fraction as a free parameter, we reproduce the observed abundance of the order of 5% independently of the dark-matter abundance which is of the order of 32% for this model. Generally, the concordance between background and perturbation dynamics is improved if baryons are explicitly taken into account.

  9. Convergence of coupled cluster perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Kristensen, Kasper; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe

    2016-12-01

    The convergence of a recently proposed coupled cluster (CC) family of perturbation series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)], in which the energetic difference between two CC models—a low-level parent and a high-level target model—is expanded in orders of the Møller-Plesset (MP) fluctuation potential, is investigated for four prototypical closed-shell systems (Ne, singlet CH2, distorted HF, and F-) in standard and augmented basis sets. In these investigations, energy corrections of the various series have been calculated to high orders and their convergence radii have been determined by probing for possible front- and back-door intruder states, the existence of which would make the series divergent. In summary, we conclude how it is primarily the choice of the target state, and not the choice of the parent state, which ultimately governs the convergence behavior of a given series. For example, restricting the target state to, say, triple or quadruple excitations might remove intruders present in series which target the full configuration interaction limit, such as the standard MP series. Furthermore, we find that whereas a CC perturbation series might converge within standard correlation consistent basis sets, it may start to diverge whenever these become augmented by diffuse functions, similar to the MP case. However, unlike for the MP case, such potential divergences are not found to invalidate the practical use of the low-order corrections of the CC perturbation series.

  10. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-05-15

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a){ne}-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c{sub s{ne}}1), and early presence of dark energy [{Omega}{sub de}(a<<1){ne}0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  11. Local density approximation for a perturbative equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Astrakharchik, G. E.

    2005-12-15

    Knowledge of a series expansion of the equation of state provides a deep insight into the physical nature of a quantum system. Starting from a generic 'perturbative' equation of state of a homogeneous ultracold gas we make predictions for the properties of the gas in the presence of harmonic confinement. The local density approximation is used to obtain the chemical potential, total and release energies, Thomas-Fermi size, and density profile of a trapped system in three-, two-, and one-dimensional geometries. The frequencies of the lowest breathing modes are calculated using scaling and sum-rule approaches and could be used in an experiment as a high-precision tool for obtaining the expansion terms of the equation of state. The derived formalism is applied to dilute Bose and Fermi gases in different dimensions and to integrable one-dimensional models. The physical meaning of the expansion terms in a number of systems is discussed.

  12. Determination of the sediment carrying capacity based on perturbed theory.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhi-hui; Zeng, Qiang; Li-chun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    According to the previous studies of sediment carrying capacity, a new method of sediment carrying capacity on perturbed theory was proposed. By taking into account the average water depth, average flow velocity, settling velocity, and other influencing factors and introducing the median grain size as one main influencing factor in deriving the new formula, we established a new sediment carrying capacity formula. The coefficients were determined by the principle of dimensional analysis, multiple linear regression method, and the least square method. After that, the new formula was verified through measuring data of natural rivers and flume tests and comparing the verified results calculated by Cao Formula, Zhang Formula, Li Formula, Engelung-Hansen Formula, Ackers-White Formula, and Yang Formula. According to the compared results, it can be seen that the new method is of high accuracy. It could be a useful reference for the determination of sediment carrying capacity.

  13. Development of a vortex generator to perturb fish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Seth, Deeksha; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Tangorra, James L

    2017-03-15

    Knowledge about the stiffness of fish fins, and whether stiffness is modulated during swimming, is important for understanding the mechanics of a fin's force production. However, the mechanical properties of fins have not been studied during natural swimming, in part because of a lack of instrumentation. To remedy this, a vortex generator was developed that produces traveling vortices of adjustable strength which can be used to perturb the fins of swimming fish. Experiments were conducted to understand how the generator's settings affected the resulting vortex rings. A variety of vortices (14-32 mm diameter traveling at 371-2155 mm s(-1)) were produced that elicited adequate responses from the fish fins to help us to understand the fin's mechanical properties at various swimming speeds (0-350 mm s(-1)).

  14. Influence of rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on particle confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiming; Yu, Q.; Wang, Nengchao; Shi, Peng; Yi, Bin; Ding, Yonghua; Rao, Bo; Chen, Zhipeng; Gao, Li; Hu, Xiwei; Jin, Hai; Li, Mao; Li, Jianchao; Yu, Kexun; Zhuang, Ge; the J-TEXT Team

    2014-12-01

    The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on particle confinement is studied in J-TEXT tokamak by using externally applied rotating RMPs. It is found that RMPs cause improved (degraded) particle confinement when its frequency is higher (lower) than the natural m/n = 2/1 tearing mode frequency, and the amount of change in electron density is proportional to the difference between these two frequencies, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode number, respectively. These results reveal the important role of the relative rotation between RMPs and the electron fluid in affecting the particle confinement. The experimental results are compared to numerical ones based on nonlinear two-fluid equations, and quantitative agreement is found.

  15. Nanosecond-pulse-controlled higher-order sideband comb in a GaAs optomechanical disk resonator in the non-perturbative regime

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Lü, Xin-You; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2014-10-15

    We propose an interesting scheme for tunable high-order sideband comb generation by utilizing ultrastrong optomechanical interaction in a GaAs optomechanical disk resonator beyond the perturbative approximation. We analyze the nonlinear nature of the optomechanical interaction, and give a full description of the non-perturbative effects. It is shown, within the non-perturbative regime, that high-order sideband comb with large intensities can be realized and controlled in a GaAs optomechanical disk resonator with experimentally achievable system parameters, and the non-perturbative regime leads to rich and nontrivial behavior.

  16. Non-Gaussian density fluctuations from entropically generated curvature perturbations in ekpyrotic models

    SciTech Connect

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2008-03-15

    We analyze the non-Gaussian density perturbations generated in ekpyrotic/cyclic models based on heterotic M theory. In this picture, two scalar fields produce nearly scale-invariant entropic perturbations during an ekpyrotic phase that are converted into curvature modes after the ekpyrotic phase is complete and just before the big bang. Both intrinsic nonlinearity in the entropy perturbation and the conversion process contribute to non-Gaussianity. The range of the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} depends on how gradual the conversion process is and the steepness of the scalar field potential during the ekpyrotic phase. Although a wider range is possible, in principle, natural values of the ekpyrotic parameters combined with a gradual conversion process lead to values of -50 < or approx. f{sub NL} < or approx. +200, typically much greater than slow-roll inflation but within the current observational bounds.

  17. Analytic description of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati perturbations on all scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seahra, Sanjeev S.; Hu, Wayne

    2010-12-01

    We develop analytic solutions for the linear evolution of metric perturbations in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld modified gravity scenario including near-horizon and superhorizon modes where solutions in the bulk are required. These solutions apply to both the self-accelerating and normal branch and elucidate the nature of coordinate singularities and initial data in the bulk as well as their effect on perturbation evolution on the brane. Even on superhorizon scales, the evolution of metric perturbations is no longer necessarily scale free due to multiple resonances in the bulk. Based on these analytic solutions, we devise convenient fitting functions for the evolutions that bridge the various spatial and temporal regimes. Compared with a direct numerical integration of the bulk equations, the fits are accurate at the percent level and are sufficient for current and upcoming observational tests.

  18. Fully non-linear cosmological perturbations of multicomponent fluid and field systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-09-01

    We present fully non-linear and exact cosmological perturbation equations in the presence of multiple components of fluids and minimally coupled scalar fields. We ignore the tensor-type perturbation. The equations are presented without taking the temporal gauge condition in the Friedmann background with general curvature and the cosmological constant. We include the anisotropic stress. Even in the absence of anisotropic stress of individual component, the multiple component nature introduces the anisotropic stress in the collective fluid quantities. We prove the Newtonian limit of multiple fluids in the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge conditions, present the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations in the presence of general relativistic pressure in the zero-shear gauge, and present the fully non-linear equations and the third-order perturbation equations of the non-relativistic pressure fluids in the CDM-comoving gauge.

  19. Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonlinear Electrostatic Perturbations in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolas C. Logan and Ronald C. Davidson

    2012-07-18

    This paper places a lowest upper bound on the field energy in electrostatic perturbations in single-species charged particle beams with initial temperature anisotropy (TllT⊥ < 1). The result applies to all electrostatic perturbations driven by the natural anisotropies that develop in accelerated particle beams, including Harris-type electrostatic instabilities, known to limit the luminosity and minimum spot size attainable in experiments. The thermodynamic bound on the field perturbation energy of the instabilities is obtained from the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations for an arbitrary initial distribution function, including the effects of intense self-fields, finite geometry and nonlinear processes. This paper also includes analytical estimates of the nonlinear bounds for space-charge-dominated and emittance-dominated anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distributions.

  20. Helical temperature perturbations associated with tearing modes in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-06-01

    An investigation is made into the electron temperature perturbations associated with tearing modes in tokamak plasmas, with a view to determining the mode structure using Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) data. It is found that there is a critical magnetic island width below which the conventional picture where the temperature is flattened inside the separatrix is invalid. This effect comes about because of the stagnation of magnetic field lines in the vicinity of the rational surface and the finite parallel thermal conductivity of the plasma. For islands whose widths lie below the critical value there is no flattening of the electron temperature inside the separatrix. Such islands have quite different ECE signatures to conventional magnetic islands. In fact the two island types could, in principle, be differentiated experimentally. It should also be possible to map out the outer ideal magnetohydrodynamical eigenfunctions using ECE data. Islands whose widths are much less than the critical value are not destabilized by the perturbed bootstrap current, unlike conventional magnetic islands. This effect is found to have a number of very interesting consequences and may, indeed, provide an explanation for some puzzling experimental results regarding error field induced magnetic reconnection. All islands whose widths are much greater than the critical width possess a boundary layer on the separatrix which enables heat to be transported from one side of the island to the other via the X-point region. The structure of this boundary layer is described in some detail. Finally, the critical island width is found to be fairly substantial in conventional tokamak plasmas, provided that the long mean free path nature of parallel heat transport and the anomalous nature of perpendicular heat transport are taken into account in the calculation.

  1. Impact of Parkinson's disease and dopaminergic medication on adaptation to explicit and implicit visuomotor perturbations.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, David; Blanchet, Pierre; Messier, Julie

    2013-03-01

    The capacity to learn new visuomotor associations is fundamental to adaptive motor behavior. Evidence suggests visuomotor learning deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact nature of these deficits and the ability of dopamine medication to improve them are under-explored. Previous studies suggested that learning driven by large and small movement errors engaged distinct neural mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether PD patients have a generalized impairment in visuomotor learning or selective deficits in learning from large explicit errors which engages cognitive strategies or small imperceptible movement errors involving primarily implicit learning processes. Visuomotor learning skills of non-medicated and medicated patients were assessed in two reaching tasks in which the size of visuospatial errors experienced during learning was manipulated using a novel three-dimensional virtual reality environment. In the explicit perturbation task, the visuomotor perturbation was applied suddenly resulting in large consciously detected initial spatial errors, whereas in the implicit perturbation task, the perturbation was gradually introduced in small undetectable steps such that subjects never experienced large movement errors. A major finding of this study was that PD patients in non-medicated and medicated conditions displayed slower learning rates and smaller adaptation magnitudes than healthy subjects in the explicit perturbation task, but performance similar to healthy controls in the implicit perturbation task. Also, non-medicated patients showed an average reduced deadaptation relative to healthy controls when exposed to the large errors produced by the sudden removal of the perturbation in both the explicit and implicit perturbation tasks. Although dopaminergic medication consistently improved motor signs, it produced a variable impact on learning the explicit perturbation and deadaptation and unexpectedly worsened performance in some patients

  2. New implementation of the configuration-based multi-reference second order perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yibo; Wang, Yubin; Han, Huixian; Song, Qi; Suo, Bingbing; Wen, Zhenyi

    2012-10-01

    We present an improved version of the configuration-based multi-reference second-order perturbation approach (CB-MRPT2) according to the formulation of Lindgren on perturbation theory of a degenerate model space. This version involves a reclassification of the perturbation functions and new algorithms to calculate matrix elements in the perturber energy expressions utilizing the graphical unitary group approach and the hole-particle symmetry. The diagonalize-then-perturb (DP), including Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner, and diagonalize-then-perturb-then-diagonalize (DPD) modes have been implemented. The new CB-MRPT2 method is applied to several typical and interesting systems: (1) the vertical excitation energies for several states of CO and N2, (2) energy comparison and timing of the ground state of C4H6, (3) the quasi-degeneracy of states in LiF, (4) the intruder state problems of AgH, and (5) the relative energies of di-copper-oxygen-ammonia complex isomers. The results indicate that the computational accuracy and efficiency of the presented methods are competitive and intruder-free. It should be emphasized that the DPD method rectifies naturally the shortcomings of LiF potential energy curves constructed by the original second order complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2), without having to recourse to the so-called state mixture. Unlike CASPT2, the new methods give the same energy ordering for the two di-copper-oxygen-ammonia isomers as the previous multi-reference configuration interaction with single and double excitations methods. The new CB-MRPT2 method is shown to be a useful tool to study small to medium-sized systems.

  3. Perturbative and gauge invariant treatment of gravitational wave memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David

    2014-04-01

    We present a perturbative treatment of gravitational wave memory. The coordinate invariance of Einstein's equations leads to a type of gauge invariance in perturbation theory. As with any gauge invariant theory, results are more clear when expressed in terms of manifestly gauge invariant quantities. Therefore we derive all our results from the perturbed Weyl tensor rather than the perturbed metric. We derive gravitational wave memory for the Einstein equations coupled to a general energy-momentum tensor that reaches null infinity.

  4. Measurements of effective delayed neutron fraction in a fast neutron reactor using the perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao-Jun; Yin, Yan-Peng; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Hong; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2016-06-01

    A perturbation method is proposed to obtain the effective delayed neutron fraction β eff of a cylindrical highly enriched uranium reactor. Based on reactivity measurements with and without a sample at a specified position using the positive period technique, the reactor reactivity perturbation Δρ of the sample in β eff units is measured. Simulations of the perturbation experiments are performed using the MCNP program. The PERT card is used to provide the difference dk of effective neutron multiplication factors with and without the sample inside the reactor. Based on the relationship between the effective multiplication factor and the reactivity, the equation β eff = dk/Δρ is derived. In this paper, the reactivity perturbations of 13 metal samples at the designable position of the reactor are measured and calculated. The average β eff value of the reactor is given as 0.00645, and the standard uncertainty is 3.0%. Additionally, the perturbation experiments for β eff can be used to evaluate the reliabilities of the delayed neutron parameters. This work shows that the delayed neutron data of 235U and 238U from G.R. Keepin’s publication are more reliable than those from ENDF-B6.0, ENDF-B7.0, JENDL3.3 and CENDL2.2. Supported by Foundation of Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (2012AA01, 2014AA01), National Natural Science Foundation (11375158, 91326104)

  5. On spectral perturbation caused by bounded variation of potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismagilov, R. S.

    2014-01-01

    The harmonic oscillator operator is perturbed by an arbitrary bounded continuous term. This results in the perturbation of the spectrum. The map sending the first of these perturbations into the second is examined. Its approximation by a linear map is studied. Bibliography: 2 titles.

  6. On spectral perturbation caused by bounded variation of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ismagilov, R S

    2014-01-31

    The harmonic oscillator operator is perturbed by an arbitrary bounded continuous term. This results in the perturbation of the spectrum. The map sending the first of these perturbations into the second is examined. Its approximation by a linear map is studied. Bibliography: 2 titles.

  7. Exact Controllability and Perturbation Analysis for Elastic Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Moreles, Miguel Angel

    2004-05-15

    The Rayleigh beam is a perturbation of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. We establish convergence of the solution of the Exact Controllability Problem for the Rayleigh beam to the corresponding solution of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. Convergence is related to a Singular Perturbation Problem. The main tool in solving this perturbation problem is a weak version of a lower bound for hyperbolic polynomials.

  8. Perturbations of matter fields in the second-order gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kouji

    2009-12-01

    To show that the general framework of the second-order gauge-invariant perturbation theory developed by K. Nakamura [Prog. Theor. Phys. 110, 723 (2003)PTPKAV0033-068X10.1143/PTP.110.723; Prog. Theor. Phys. 113, 481 (2005)PTPKAV0033-068X10.1143/PTP.113.481] is applicable to a wide class of cosmological situations, some formulas for the perturbations of the matter fields are summarized within the framework of the second-order gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory in a four-dimensional homogeneous isotropic universe, which is developed in Prog. Theor. Phys. 117, 17 (2007)PTPKAV0033-068X10.1143/PTP.117.17. We derive the formulas for the perturbations of the energy-momentum tensors and equations of motion for a perfect fluid, an imperfect fluid, and a single scalar field, and show that all equations are derived in terms of gauge-invariant variables without any gauge fixing. Through these formulas, we may say that the decomposition formulas for the perturbations of any tensor field into gauge-invariant and gauge-variant parts, which are proposed in the above papers, are universal.

  9. Application of functional analysis to perturbation theory of differential equations. [nonlinear perturbation of the harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, V. M.; Bond, V. B.

    1980-01-01

    The deviation of the solution of the differential equation y' = f(t, y), y(O) = y sub O from the solution of the perturbed system z' = f(t, z) + g(t, z), z(O) = z sub O was investigated for the case where f and g are continuous functions on I x R sup n into R sup n, where I = (o, a) or I = (o, infinity). These functions are assumed to satisfy the Lipschitz condition in the variable z. The space Lip(I) of all such functions with suitable norms forms a Banach space. By introducing a suitable norm in the space of continuous functions C(I), introducing the problem can be reduced to an equivalent problem in terminology of operators in such spaces. A theorem on existence and uniqueness of the solution is presented by means of Banach space technique. Norm estimates on the rate of growth of such solutions are found. As a consequence, estimates of deviation of a solution due to perturbation are obtained. Continuity of the solution on the initial data and on the perturbation is established. A nonlinear perturbation of the harmonic oscillator is considered a perturbation of equations of the restricted three body problem linearized at libration point.

  10. Dynamics of a single ion in a perturbed Penning trap: octupolar perturbation.

    PubMed

    Lara, Martín; Salas, J Pablo

    2004-09-01

    Imperfections in the design or implementation of Penning traps may give rise to electrostatic perturbations that introduce nonlinearities in the dynamics. In this paper we investigate, from the point of view of classical mechanics, the dynamics of a single ion trapped in a Penning trap perturbed by an octupolar perturbation. Because of the axial symmetry of the problem, the system has two degrees of freedom. Hence, this model is ideal to be managed by numerical techniques like continuation of families of periodic orbits and Poincaré surfaces of section. We find that, through the variation of the two parameters controlling the dynamics, several periodic orbits emanate from two fundamental periodic orbits. This process produces important changes (bifurcations) in the phase space structure leading to chaotic behavior.

  11. Anomaly freedom in perturbative loop quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bojowald, Martin; Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Kagan, Mikhail; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2008-09-15

    A fully consistent linear perturbation theory for cosmology is derived in the presence of quantum corrections as they are suggested by properties of inverse volume operators in loop quantum gravity. The underlying constraints present a consistent deformation of the classical system, which shows that the discreteness in loop quantum gravity can be implemented in effective equations without spoiling space-time covariance. Nevertheless, nontrivial quantum corrections do arise in the constraint algebra. Since correction terms must appear in tightly controlled forms to avoid anomalies, detailed insights for the correct implementation of constraint operators can be gained. The procedures of this article thus provide a clear link between fundamental quantum gravity and phenomenology.

  12. Sidelobe Sector Nulling with Minimized Phase Perturbations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Sciences Division FOR THE COMMANDER: ~t~4iq JOHN A. RITZ Acting Chief, Plans Office If your address has changed or if you wish to be removed from the...Perturbations for Arrays of 11, 21, and 41 Elements W~41 z~ 21 7N II -2. 4.0 -J.0 -2.0 -11.6 0.0 1.!0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 LOGI 0 (42141) Figure 3. Look...Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-20:432 -436. 4. Baird , C. A., and Rassweiler, G. G. (1976) Adaptive sidelobe nulling using digitally controlled phase

  13. Cosmological explosions from cold dark matter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmological-explosion model is examined for a universe dominated by cold dark matter in which explosion seeds are produced from the growth of initial density perturbations of a given form. Fragmentation of the exploding shells is dominated by the dark-matter potential wells rather than the self-gravity of the shells, and particular conditions are required for the explosions to bootstrap up to very large scales. The final distribution of dark matter is strongly correlated with the baryons on small scales, but uncorrelated on large scales.

  14. Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, N.J.L.

    1996-03-01

    By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to transport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Importantly, off-diagonal elements in the transport matrix appear to be important. This has also implications for the interpretation of the so-called `power balance` diffusivity, determined from the steady state fluxes and gradients. Experimental techniques, analysis techniques, basic formulas, etc., are briefly reviewed. Experimental results are summarized. The fundamental question whether the fluxes are linear functions of the gradients or not is discussed. 31 refs.

  15. Exciton dynamics in perturbed vibronic molecular aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Brüning, C.; Wehner, J.; Hausner, J.; Wenzel, M.; Engel, V.

    2015-01-01

    A site specific perturbation of a photo-excited molecular aggregate can lead to a localization of excitonic energy. We investigate this localization dynamics for laser-prepared excited states. Changing the parameters of the electric field significantly influences the exciton localization which offers the possibility for a selective control of this process. This is demonstrated for aggregates possessing a single vibrational degree of freedom per monomer unit. It is shown that the effects identified for the molecular dimer can be generalized to larger aggregates with a high density of vibronic states. PMID:26798840

  16. Light-Front Perturbation Without Spurious Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeszowski, Jerzy A.; Dzimida-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Żochowski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    A new form of the light front Feynman propagators is proposed. It contains no energy denominators. Instead the dependence on the longitudinal subinterval x^2_L = 2 x+ x- is explicit and a new formalism for doing the perturbative calculations is invented. These novel propagators are implemented for the one-loop effective potential and various 1-loop 2-point functions for a massive scalar field. The consistency with results for the standard covariant Feynman diagrams is obtained and no spurious singularities are encountered at all. Some remarks on the calculations with fermion and gauge fields in QED and QCD are added.

  17. Growth rate, population entropy, and perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1989-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the connection between two classes of population variables: measures of population growth rate--the Malthusian parameter, the net reproduction rate, the gross reproduction rate, and the mean life expectancy; and measures of demographic heterogeneity--population entropy. It is shown that the entropy functions predict the response of the growth rate parameters to perturbations in the age-specific fecundity and mortality schedule. These results are invoked to introduce the notion of environmental intensity. The intensity function, expressed in terms of the entropy parameters, is applied to give a comparative study of the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of Swedish and French populations.

  18. Control of nonlinear systems using periodic parametric perturbations with application to a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirus, Kevin Andrew

    In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Rossler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high- dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.

  19. Structural Perturbations to Population Skeletons: Transient Dynamics, Coexistence of Attractors and the Rarity of Chaos

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brajendra K.; Parham, Paul E.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Background Simple models of insect populations with non-overlapping generations have been instrumental in understanding the mechanisms behind population cycles, including wild (chaotic) fluctuations. The presence of deterministic chaos in natural populations, however, has never been unequivocally accepted. Recently, it has been proposed that the application of chaos control theory can be useful in unravelling the complexity observed in real population data. This approach is based on structural perturbations to simple population models (population skeletons). The mechanism behind such perturbations to control chaotic dynamics thus far is model dependent and constant (in size and direction) through time. In addition, the outcome of such structurally perturbed models is [almost] always equilibrium type, which fails to commensurate with the patterns observed in population data. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a proportional feedback mechanism that is independent of model formulation and capable of perturbing population skeletons in an evolutionary way, as opposed to requiring constant feedbacks. We observe the same repertoire of patterns, from equilibrium states to non-chaotic aperiodic oscillations to chaotic behaviour, across different population models, in agreement with observations in real population data. Model outputs also indicate the existence of multiple attractors in some parameter regimes and this coexistence is found to depend on initial population densities or the duration of transient dynamics. Our results suggest that such a feedback mechanism may enable a better understanding of the regulatory processes in natural populations. PMID:21980342

  20. Control of nonlinear systems using periodic parametric perturbations with application to a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Mirus, Kevin A.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibility of controlling low- and high-dimensional chaotic systems by periodically driving an accessible system parameter is examined. This method has been carried out on several numerical systems and the MST Reversed Field Pinch. The numerical systems investigated include the logistic equation, the Lorenz equations, the Roessler equations, a coupled lattice of logistic equations, a coupled lattice of Lorenz equations, the Yoshida equations, which model tearing mode fluctuations in a plasma, and a neural net model for magnetic fluctuations on MST. This method was tested on the MST by sinusoidally driving a magnetic flux through the toroidal gap of the device. Numerically, periodic drives were found to be most effective at producing limit cycle behavior or significantly reducing the dimension of the system when the perturbation frequency was near natural frequencies of unstable periodic orbits embedded in the attractor of the unperturbed system. Several different unstable periodic orbits have been stabilized in this way for the low-dimensional numerical systems, sometimes with perturbation amplitudes that were less than 5% of the nominal value of the parameter being perturbed. In high-dimensional systems, limit cycle behavior and significant decreases in the system dimension were also achieved using perturbations with frequencies near the natural unstable periodic orbit frequencies. Results for the MST were not this encouraging, most likely because of an insufficient drive amplitude, the extremely high dimension of the plasma behavior, large amounts of noise, and a lack of stationarity in the transient plasma pulses.

  1. Comparison of electroglottographic and acoustic analysis of pitch perturbation.

    PubMed

    LaBlance, G R; Maves, M D; Scialfa, T M; Eitnier, C M; Steckol, K F

    1992-11-01

    Pitch perturbation is a measure of the cycle-to-cycle variation in vocal fold vibration. Perturbation can be assessed by means of electroglottographic or acoustic signals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these two analysis techniques are equivalent measures. The Laryngograph, an electroglottograph, and the Visi-Pitch, an acoustic analyzer, were used to measure pitch perturbation in 80 dysphonic subjects. Both instruments use Koike's formula to calculate relative average perturbation. While intra-subject variability appeared erratic, statistical analysis of intersubject data indicated that the two instruments provided an equivalent measure of pitch perturbation.

  2. The spectrum of density perturbations in an expanding universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1974-01-01

    The basic dynamic equations that govern the evolution of perturbations in a Friedmann-Lemaitre universe are derived. General solutions describing the evolution of adiabatic perturbations in the density of matter are obtained, and the choice of the appropriate initial conditions is examined. The various perturbation modes are compared, and the effects of decoupling on the perturbation spectrum are studied. The scheme used to follow the evolution of density perturbations through decoupling is based on an extension of the Eddington approximation to the radiative transfer equation, and is strictly valid in both optically thick and thin limits.

  3. Time-Frequency Analysis of Boundary-Layer Instabilites Generated by Freestream Laser Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    A controlled disturbance is generated in the freestream of the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel (BAM6QT) by focusing a high-powered Nd:YAG laser to create a laser-induced breakdown plasma. The plasma then cools, creating a freestream thermal disturbance that can be used to study receptivity. The freestream disturbance convects down-stream in the Mach-6 wind tunnel to interact with a flared cone model. The adverse pressure gradient created by the flare of the model is capable of generating second-mode instability waves that grow large and become nonlinear before experiencing natural transition in quiet flow. The freestream laser perturbation generates a wave packet in the boundary layer at the same frequency as the natural second mode, complicating time-independent analyses of the effect of the laser perturbation. The data show that the laser perturbation creates an instability wave packet that is larger than the natural waves on the sharp flared cone. The wave packet is still difficult to distinguish from the natural instabilities on the blunt flared cone.

  4. Evolution of dark energy perturbations in scalar-tensor cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Sanchez, J. C.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2010-05-15

    We solve analytically and numerically the generalized Einstein equations in scalar-tensor cosmologies to obtain the evolution of dark energy and matter linear perturbations. We compare our results with the corresponding results for minimally coupled quintessence perturbations. We find that scalar-tensor dark energy density perturbations are amplified by a factor of about 10{sup 4} compared to minimally coupled quintessence perturbations on scales less than about 1000 h{sup -1} Mpc (sub-Hubble scales). On these scales dark energy perturbations constitute a fraction of about 10% compared to matter density perturbations. Scalar-tensor dark energy density perturbations are anticorrelated with matter linear perturbations on sub-Hubble scales. This anticorrelation of matter with negative pressure perturbations induces a mild amplification of matter perturbations by about 10% on sub-Hubble scales. The evolution of scalar field perturbations on sub-Hubble scales is scale independent and therefore corresponds to a vanishing effective speed of sound (c{sub s{Phi}=}0). We briefly discuss the observational implications of our results, which may include predictions for galaxy and cluster halo profiles that are modified compared to {Lambda}CDM. The observed properties of these profiles are known to be in some tension with the predictions of {Lambda}CDM.

  5. H(infinity) filtering for fuzzy singularly perturbed systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Hong; Dong, Jiuxiang

    2008-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing H(infinity) filters for fuzzy singularly perturbed systems with the consideration of improving the bound of singular-perturbation parameter epsilon. First, a linear-matrix-inequality (LMI)-based approach is presented for simultaneously designing the bound of the singularly perturbed parameter epsilon, and H(infinity) filters for a fuzzy singularly perturbed system. When the bound of singularly perturbed parameter epsilon is not under consideration, the result reduces to an LMI-based design method for H(infinity) filtering of fuzzy singularly perturbed systems. Furthermore, a method is given for evaluating the upper bound of singularly perturbed parameter subject to the constraint that the considered system is to be with a prescribed H(infinity) performance bound, and the upper bound can be obtained by solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  6. Perturbation Theory for Parent Hamiltonians of Matrix Product States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szehr, Oleg; Wolf, Michael M.

    2015-05-01

    This article investigates the stability of the ground state subspace of a canonical parent Hamiltonian of a Matrix product state against local perturbations. We prove that the spectral gap of such a Hamiltonian remains stable under weak local perturbations even in the thermodynamic limit, where the entire perturbation might not be bounded. Our discussion is based on preceding work by Yarotsky that develops a perturbation theory for relatively bounded quantum perturbations of classical Hamiltonians. We exploit a renormalization procedure, which on large scale transforms the parent Hamiltonian of a Matrix product state into a classical Hamiltonian plus some perturbation. We can thus extend Yarotsky's results to provide a perturbation theory for parent Hamiltonians of Matrix product states and recover some of the findings of the independent contributions (Cirac et al in Phys Rev B 8(11):115108, 2013) and (Michalakis and Pytel in Comm Math Phys 322(2):277-302, 2013).

  7. Inferring propagation paths for sparsely observed perturbations on complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Wheeler, Jonathan; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Joven, Jorge; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Guimerà, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In a complex system, perturbations propagate by following paths on the network of interactions among the system’s units. In contrast to what happens with the spreading of epidemics, observations of general perturbations are often very sparse in time (there is a single observation of the perturbed system) and in “space” (only a few perturbed and unperturbed units are observed). A major challenge in many areas, from biology to the social sciences, is to infer the propagation paths from observations of the effects of perturbation under these sparsity conditions. We address this problem and show that it is possible to go beyond the usual approach of using the shortest paths connecting the known perturbed nodes. Specifically, we show that a simple and general probabilistic model, which we solved using belief propagation, provides fast and accurate estimates of the probabilities of nodes being perturbed. PMID:27819038

  8. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  9. Newtonian perturbations on models with matter creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, J. F.; Oliveira, F. A.; Basilakos, S.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2011-09-01

    Creation of cold dark matter (CCDM) can macroscopically be described by a negative pressure, and, therefore, the mechanism is capable to accelerate the Universe, without the need of an additional dark energy component. In this framework, we discuss the evolution of perturbations by considering a Neo-Newtonian approach where, unlike in the standard Newtonian cosmology, the fluid pressure is taken into account even in the homogeneous and isotropic background equations (Lima, Zanchin, and Brandenberger, MNRAS 291, L1, 1997). The evolution of the density contrast is calculated in the linear approximation and compared to the one predicted by the ΛCDM model. The difference between the CCDM and ΛCDM predictions at the perturbative level is quantified by using three different statistical methods, namely: a simple χ2-analysis in the relevant space parameter, a Bayesian statistical inference, and, finally, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We find that under certain circumstances, the CCDM scenario analyzed here predicts an overall dynamics (including Hubble flow and matter fluctuation field) which fully recovers that of the traditional cosmic concordance model. Our basic conclusion is that such a reduction of the dark sector provides a viable alternative description to the accelerating ΛCDM cosmology.

  10. Consonantal perturbations of pitch in Halkomelem Salish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jason; Thompson, James J.

    2005-04-01

    It has long been noted that consonants have an effect on the pitch of a following vowel: voiceless stops tend to raise F0, while voiced stops lower it. It has also been suggested that the duration of such perturbations is shorter in tone languages than in non-tone languages [Hombert, Studies in African Linguistics (1977)]. This study compares the effects that consonants have on F0 in two closely related Salish languages: Island Halkomelem, a non-tone language, and Upriver Halkomelem, a language that has reportedly undergone some limited tonogenesis but offers no clear prosodic clues regarding tonality. The effects of the voiceless and ejective stop series were observed, and measurements of F0 were taken at the onset of voicing for the vowel, then at 20 msec. intervals up to 100 msec. Preliminary results indicate that i) Island Halkomelem shows a greater magnitude of difference in F0 at vowel onset between the voiceless and ejective stops than Upriver Halkomelem, and ii) Island Halkomelem shows greater durations of consonantal perturbations of F0 than does Upriver Halkomelem. This suggests that Upriver Halkomelem may have become more sensitive to pitch than the Island dialect, supporting the interpretation of this language as tonal. [Work supported by Phillips Fund.

  11. Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weikang; Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very early universe physics and the laws of gravity. We study the changes to tensor-mode perturbations that can arise in various modified gravity theories. These include a modified friction and a nonstandard dispersion relation. We introduce a physically motivated parametrization of these effects and use current data to obtain excluded parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor-mode modified-gravity parameters as constrained by future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=0.01, we find the minimum detectible modified-gravity effects. In particular, the minimum detectable graviton mass is about 7.8˜9.7×10-33 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as the graviton mass that allows massive gravity to produce late-time cosmic acceleration. Finally, we study the tensor-mode perturbations in modified gravity during inflation. We find that, the tensor spectral index would be additionally related to the friction parameter ν0 by nT=-3ν0-r/8. In some cases, the future experiments will be able to distinguish this relation from the standard one. In sum, primordial gravitational waves provide a complementary avenue to test gravity theories.

  12. Membrane Perturbation Induced by Interfacially Adsorbed Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Assaf; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam; May, Sylvio

    2004-01-01

    The structural and energetic characteristics of the interaction between interfacially adsorbed (partially inserted) α-helical, amphipathic peptides and the lipid bilayer substrate are studied using a molecular level theory of lipid chain packing in membranes. The peptides are modeled as “amphipathic cylinders” characterized by a well-defined polar angle. Assuming two-dimensional nematic order of the adsorbed peptides, the membrane perturbation free energy is evaluated using a cell-like model; the peptide axes are parallel to the membrane plane. The elastic and interfacial contributions to the perturbation free energy of the “peptide-dressed” membrane are evaluated as a function of: the peptide penetration depth into the bilayer's hydrophobic core, the membrane thickness, the polar angle, and the lipid/peptide ratio. The structural properties calculated include the shape and extent of the distorted (stretched and bent) lipid chains surrounding the adsorbed peptide, and their orientational (C-H) bond order parameter profiles. The changes in bond order parameters attendant upon peptide adsorption are in good agreement with magnetic resonance measurements. Also consistent with experiment, our model predicts that peptide adsorption results in membrane thinning. Our calculations reveal pronounced, membrane-mediated, attractive interactions between the adsorbed peptides, suggesting a possible mechanism for lateral aggregation of membrane-bound peptides. As a special case of interest, we have also investigated completely hydrophobic peptides, for which we find a strong energetic preference for the transmembrane (inserted) orientation over the horizontal (adsorbed) orientation. PMID:15189858

  13. Perturbation of physiological systems by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Yuhong; Jia, Jianbo; Gao, Ningning; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruinan; Jiang, Guibin; Yan, Bing

    2014-05-21

    Nanotechnology is having a tremendous impact on our society. However, societal concerns about human safety under nanoparticle exposure may derail the broad application of this promising technology. Nanoparticles may enter the human body via various routes, including respiratory pathways, the digestive tract, skin contact, intravenous injection, and implantation. After absorption, nanoparticles are carried to distal organs by the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. During this process, they interact with biological molecules and perturb physiological systems. Although some ingested or absorbed nanoparticles are eliminated, others remain in the body for a long time. The human body is composed of multiple systems that work together to maintain physiological homeostasis. The unexpected invasion of these systems by nanoparticles disturbs normal cell signaling, impairs cell and organ functions, and may even cause pathological disorders. This review examines the comprehensive health risks of exposure to nanoparticles by discussing how nanoparticles perturb various physiological systems as revealed by animal studies. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to each physiological system and the implications of disrupting the balance among systems are emphasized.

  14. Approaches to the Treatment of Equilibrium Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2003-10-01

    Perturbations from equilibrium are treated in the textbooks by a combination of Le Châtelier's principle, the comparison of the equilibrium constant K with the reaction quotient Q,and the kinetic approach. Each of these methods is briefly reviewed. This is followed by derivations of the variation of the equilibrium value of the extent of reaction, ξeq, with various parameters on which it depends. Near equilibrium this relationship can be represented by a straight line. The equilibrium system can be regarded as moving on this line as the parameter is varied. The slope of the line depends on quantities like enthalpy of reaction, volume of reaction and so forth. The derivation shows that these quantities pertain to the equilibrium system, not the standard state. Also, the derivation makes clear what kind of assumptions underlie our conclusions. The derivation of these relations involves knowledge of thermodynamics that is well within the grasp of junior level physical chemistry students. The conclusions that follow from the derived relations are given as subsidiary rules in the form of the slope of ξeq, with T, p, et cetera. The rules are used to develop a visual way of predicting the direction of shift of a perturbed system. This method can be used to supplement one of the other methods even at the introductory level.

  15. Shock wave perturbation decay in granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, Tracy J.

    2015-11-05

    A technique in which the evolution of a perturbation in a shock wave front is monitored as it travels through a sample is applied to granular materials. Although the approach was originally conceived as a way to measure the viscosity of the sample, here it is utilized as a means to probe the deviatoric strength of the material. Initial results for a tungsten carbide powder are presented that demonstrate the approach is viable. Simulations of the experiments using continuum and mesoscale modeling approaches are used to better understand the experiments. The best agreement with the limited experimental data is obtained for the mesoscale model, which has previously been shown to give good agreement with planar impact results. The continuum simulations indicate that the decay of the perturbation is controlled by material strength but is insensitive to the compaction response. Other sensitivities are assessed using the two modeling approaches. The simulations indicate that the configuration used in the preliminary experiments suffers from certain artifacts and should be modified to remove them. As a result, the limitations of the current instrumentation are discussed, and possible approaches to improve it are suggested.

  16. Shock wave perturbation decay in granular materials

    DOE PAGES

    Vogler, Tracy J.

    2015-11-05

    A technique in which the evolution of a perturbation in a shock wave front is monitored as it travels through a sample is applied to granular materials. Although the approach was originally conceived as a way to measure the viscosity of the sample, here it is utilized as a means to probe the deviatoric strength of the material. Initial results for a tungsten carbide powder are presented that demonstrate the approach is viable. Simulations of the experiments using continuum and mesoscale modeling approaches are used to better understand the experiments. The best agreement with the limited experimental data is obtainedmore » for the mesoscale model, which has previously been shown to give good agreement with planar impact results. The continuum simulations indicate that the decay of the perturbation is controlled by material strength but is insensitive to the compaction response. Other sensitivities are assessed using the two modeling approaches. The simulations indicate that the configuration used in the preliminary experiments suffers from certain artifacts and should be modified to remove them. As a result, the limitations of the current instrumentation are discussed, and possible approaches to improve it are suggested.« less

  17. BICEP2, the curvature perturbation and supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lyth, David H.

    2014-11-01

    The tensor fraction r ≅ 0.16 found by BICEP2 corresponds to a Hubble parameter H ≅ 1.0 × 10{sup 14} GeV during inflation. This has two implications for the (single-field) slow-roll inflation hypothesis. First, the inflaton perturbation must account for much more than 10% of the curvature perturbation ζ, which barring fine-tuning means that it accounts for practically all of it. It follows that a curvaton-like mechanism for generating ζ requires an alternative to slow roll such as k-inflation. Second, accepting slow-roll inflation, the excursion of the inflaton field is at least of order Planck scale. As a result, the flatness of the inflaton presumably requires a shift symmetry. I point out that if such is the case, the resulting potential is likely to have at least approximately the quadratic form suggested in 1983 by Linde, which is known to be compatible with the observed r as well as the observed spectral index n{sub s}. The shift symmetry does not require supersymmetry. Also, the big H may rule out a GUT by restoring the symmetry and producing fatal cosmic strings. The absence of a GUT would correspond to the absence of superpartners for the Standard Model particles, which indeed have yet to be found at the LHC.

  18. Covariant perturbations in a multifluid cosmological medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Bruni, Marco; Ellis, George F. R.

    1992-08-01

    In a series of recent papers, a new covariant formalism was introduced to treat inhomogeneities in any spacetime. The variables introduced in these papers are gauge-invariant with respect to a Robertson-Walker background spacetime because they vanish identically in such models, and they have a transparent physical meaning. Exact evolution equations were found for these variables, and the linearized form of these equations were obtained, showing that they give the standard results for a barotropic perfect fluid. In this paper we extend this formalism to the general case of multicomponent fluid sources with interactions between them. We show, using the tilted formalism of King and Ellis, (1973) that choosing either the energy frame or the particle frame gives rise to a set of physically well-defined covariant and gauge-invariant variables which describe density and velocity perturbations, both for the total fluid and its constituent components. We then derive a complete set of equations for these variables and show, through harmonic analysis, that they are equivalent to those of Bardeen (1980) and of Kodama and Sasaki (1984). We discuss a number of interesting applications, including the case where the universe is filled with a mixture of baryons and radiation, coupled through Thomson scattering, and we derive solutions for the density and velocity perturbations in the large-scale limit. We also correct a number of errors in the previous literature.

  19. Localized Perturbations in Saturn's C Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    2016-10-01

    Years of high-resolution imaging of Saturn's rings have revealed many examples of perturbations arising from local causes. For example, the presence of 100-m-scale and smaller moonlets is inferred in the A ring based on the propeller-shaped disturbances that they create (Tiscareno et al. 2006, 2010); the F ring is shaped by regular collisions with its shepherd Prometheus, as well as with other smaller bodies orbiting in the vicinity (Murray et al. 2005, 2008); the "wisps" on the outer edge of the Keeler gap (Porco et al. 2005) may mark the locations of small moonlets that have emerged from the A ring (Tiscareno and Arnault 2015); wakes in the Huygens ringlet imply the presence of two multi-km bodies, and the irregular shape of its inner edge suggests the presence of many smaller bodies (Spitale and Hahn 2016); based on shadow measurements, the B ring contains an embedded 300-m object that produces a small propeller-shaped disturbance (Spitale and Porco 2010; Spitale and Tiscareno 2012).Here, we present evidence for localized perturbations in the C ring. The ringlet embedded in the Bond gap, near 1.470 Saturn radii, shows discrete clumps orbiting at the Keplerian rate in images spanning about eight years. The clumps are not detected in all image sequences at the expected longitudes. The Dawes ringlet, near 1.495 Saturn radii, has an irregular edge that does not appear as a simple superposition of low-wavenumber normal modes.

  20. Perceived timing of a postural perturbation.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Julian; Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2017-02-03

    Falling down is a common event that threatens the survival of an organism. Simple, yet sophisticated neural mechanisms allow for rapid detection of a fall as well as the generation of compensatory reflexes designed to prevent a fall. Fall awareness and preventative alerting devices could potentially mitigate the likelihood of a fall, however, relatively little is known about the perceived timing of a fall. Common anecdotal reports suggest that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time with very little recollection of what occurred during the fall. Previous research has also found that the vestibular system is perceptually slow compared to the other senses (45-160ms delay), indicating that vestibular stimuli must occur prior to other sensory stimuli in order for it to be perceived as synchronous. Here we examine whether fall perception is similarly slow. Participants made temporal order judgments identifying whether fall or sound onset came first to measure the point of subjective simultaneity. Results show that fall perception is slow, where the onset of a perturbation has to precede an auditory stimulus by ∼44 ms to appear coincident with the fall. We suggest that the central nervous system's rapid detection and response capabilities are restricted to reflexive behaviour, with conscious awareness of a fall being prioritized less. The additional lead times for detecting perturbation onset constrain possible fall detection and alert systems that have been proposed to inform a user to prevent falls and may also help explain the increased likelihood for fall incidence in the elderly.

  1. Density perturbations in general modified gravitational theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2010-07-15

    We derive the equations of linear cosmological perturbations for the general Lagrangian density f(R,{phi},X)/2+L{sub c}, where R is a Ricci scalar, {phi} is a scalar field, and X=-{partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}/}2 is a field kinetic energy. We take into account a nonlinear self-interaction term L{sub c}={xi}({phi}) {open_square}{phi}({partial_derivative}{sup {mu}{phi}{partial_derivative}}{sub {mu}{phi}}) recently studied in the context of ''Galileon'' cosmology, which keeps the field equations at second order. Taking into account a scalar-field mass explicitly, the equations of matter density perturbations and gravitational potentials are obtained under a quasistatic approximation on subhorizon scales. We also derive conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities associated with propagation speeds. Our analysis includes most of modified gravity models of dark energy proposed in literature; and thus it is convenient to test the viability of such models from both theoretical and observational points of view.

  2. Quantum cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Patrick; Pinto-Neto, N.; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.

    2016-01-01

    The formalism to treat quantization and evolution of cosmological perturbations of multiple fluids is described. We first construct the Lagrangian for both the gravitational and matter parts, providing the necessary relevant variables and momenta leading to the quadratic Hamiltonian describing linear perturbations. The final Hamiltonian is obtained without assuming any equations of motions for the background variables. This general formalism is applied to the special case of two fluids, having in mind the usual radiation and matter mix which made most of our current Universe history. Quantization is achieved using an adiabatic expansion of the basis functions. This allows for an unambiguous definition of a vacuum state up to the given adiabatic order. Using this basis, we show that particle creation is well defined for a suitable choice of vacuum and canonical variables, so that the time evolution of the corresponding quantum fields is unitary. This provides constraints for setting initial conditions for an arbitrary number of fluids and background time evolution. We also show that the common choice of variables for quantization can lead to an ill-defined vacuum definition. Our formalism is not restricted to the case where the coupling between fields is small, but is only required to vary adiabatically with respect to the ultraviolet modes, thus paving the way to consistent descriptions of general models not restricted to single-field (or fluid).

  3. Aircraft Range Optimization Using Singular Perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, Joseph Taffe

    1973-01-01

    An approximate analytic solution is developed for the problem of maximizing the range of an aircraft for a fixed end state. The problem is formulated as a singular perturbation and solved by matched inner and outer asymptotic expansions and the minimum principle of Pontryagin. Cruise in the stratosphere, and on transition to and from cruise at constant Mach number are discussed. The state vector includes altitude, flight path angle, and mass. Specific fuel consumption becomes a linear function of power approximating that of the cruise values. Cruise represents the outer solution; altitude and flight path angle are constants, and only mass changes. Transitions between cruise and the specified initial and final conditions correspond to the inner solutions. The mass is constant and altitude and velocity vary. A solution is developed which is valid for cruise but which is not for the initial and final conditions. Transforming of the independent variable near the initial and final conditions result in solutions which are valid for the two inner solutions but not for cruise. The inner solutions can not be obtained without simplifying the state equations. The singular perturbation approach overcomes this difficulty. A quadratic approximation of the state equations is made. The resulting problem is solved analytically, and the two inner solutions are matched to the outer solution.

  4. Gradient expansion, curvature perturbations, and magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo; Rezaei, Zahra

    2011-04-15

    The properties of magnetized plasmas are always investigated under the hypothesis that the relativistic inhomogeneities stemming from the fluid sources and from the geometry itself are sufficiently small to allow for a perturbative description prior to photon decoupling. The latter assumption is hereby relaxed and predecoupling plasmas are described within a suitable expansion where the inhomogeneities are treated to a given order in the spatial gradients. It is argued that the (general relativistic) gradient expansion shares the same features of the drift approximation, customarily employed in the description of cold plasmas, so that the two schemes are physically complementary in the large-scale limit and for the low-frequency branch of the spectrum of plasma modes. The two-fluid description, as well as the magnetohydrodynamical reduction, is derived and studied in the presence of the spatial gradients of the geometry. Various solutions of the coupled system of evolution equations in the anti-Newtonian regime and in the quasi-isotropic approximation are presented. The relation of this analysis to the so-called separate universe paradigm is outlined. The evolution of the magnetized curvature perturbations in the nonlinear regime is addressed for the magnetized adiabatic mode in the plasma frame.

  5. A stochastic perturbation theory for non-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Woosok; Wettlaufer, John

    2014-05-01

    We develop a perturbation theory for a class of first order nonlinear non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equations that arise in climate physics. The perturbative procedure produces moments in terms of integral delay equations, whose order by order decay is characterized in a Floquet-like sense. Both additive and multiplicative sources of noise are discussed and the question of how the nature of the noise influences the results is addressed theoretically and numerically. By invoking the Martingale property, we rationalize the transformation of the underlying Stratonovich form of the model to an Ito form, independent of whether the noise is additive or multiplicative. The generality of the analysis is demonstrated by developing it both for a Brownian particle moving in a periodically forced quartic potential, which acts as a simple model of stochastic resonance, as well as for our more complex climate physics model. The validity of the approach is shown by comparison with numerical solutions. The particular climate dynamics problem upon which we focus involves a low-order model for the evolution of Arctic sea ice under the influence of increasing greenhouse gas forcing ΔF0. The deterministic model, developed by Eisenman and Wettlaufer EW09 exhibits several transitions as ΔF0 increases and the stochastic analysis is used to understand the manner in which noise influences these transitions and the stability of the system. Eisenman, I., and J. S. Wettlaufer, 'Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 28-32, 2009.

  6. A stochastic perturbation theory for non-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    We develop a perturbation theory for a class of first order nonlinear non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equations that arise in climate physics. The perturbative procedure produces moments in terms of integral delay equations, whose order by order decay is characterized in a Floquet-like sense. Both additive and multiplicative sources of noise are discussed and the question of how the nature of the noise influences the results is addressed theoretically and numerically. By invoking the Martingale property, we rationalize the transformation of the underlying Stratonovich form of the model to an Ithat{o} form, independent of whether the noise is additive or multiplicative. The generality of the analysis is demonstrated by developing it both for a Brownian particle moving in a periodically forced quartic potential, which acts as a simple model of stochastic resonance, as well as for our more complex climate physics model. The validity of the approach is shown by comparison with numerical solutions. The particular climate dynamics problem upon which we focus involves a low-order model for the evolution of Arctic sea ice under the influence of increasing greenhouse gas forcing ΔF0. The deterministic model, developed by Eisenman and Wettlaufer ["Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(1), 28-32 (2009)] exhibits several transitions as ΔF0 increases and the stochastic analysis is used to understand the manner in which noise influences these transitions and the stability of the system.

  7. A stochastic perturbation theory for non-autonomous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2013-12-15

    We develop a perturbation theory for a class of first order nonlinear non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equations that arise in climate physics. The perturbative procedure produces moments in terms of integral delay equations, whose order by order decay is characterized in a Floquet-like sense. Both additive and multiplicative sources of noise are discussed and the question of how the nature of the noise influences the results is addressed theoretically and numerically. By invoking the Martingale property, we rationalize the transformation of the underlying Stratonovich form of the model to an Ito form, independent of whether the noise is additive or multiplicative. The generality of the analysis is demonstrated by developing it both for a Brownian particle moving in a periodically forced quartic potential, which acts as a simple model of stochastic resonance, as well as for our more complex climate physics model. The validity of the approach is shown by comparison with numerical solutions. The particular climate dynamics problem upon which we focus involves a low-order model for the evolution of Arctic sea ice under the influence of increasing greenhouse gas forcing ΔF{sub 0}. The deterministic model, developed by Eisenman and Wettlaufer [“Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(1), 28–32 (2009)] exhibits several transitions as ΔF{sub 0} increases and the stochastic analysis is used to understand the manner in which noise influences these transitions and the stability of the system.

  8. Approximating frustration scores in complex networks via perturbed Laplacian spectra

    PubMed Central

    Savol, Andrej J.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2016-01-01

    Systems of many interacting components, as found in physics, biology, infrastructure, and the social sciences, are often modeled by simple networks of nodes and edges. The real-world systems frequently confront outside intervention or internal damage whose impact must be predicted or minimized, and such perturbations are then mimicked in the models by altering nodes or edges. This leads to the broad issue of how to best quantify changes in a model network after some type of perturbation. In the case of node removal there are many centrality metrics which associate a scalar quantity with the removed node, but it can be difficult to associate the quantities with some intuitive aspect of physical behavior in the network. This presents a serious hurdle to the application of network theory: real-world utility networks are rarely altered according to theoretic principles unless the kinetic impact on the network’s users are fully appreciated beforehand. In pursuit of a kinetically-interpretable centrality score, we discuss the f-score, or frustration score. Each f-score quantifies whether a selected node accelerates or inhibits global mean first passage times to a second, independently-selected target node. We show that this is a natural way of revealing the dynamical importance of a node in some networks. After discussing merits of the f-score metric, we combine spectral and Laplacian matrix theory in order to quickly approximate the exact f-score values, which can otherwise be expensive to compute. Following tests on both synthetic and real medium-sized networks, we report f-score runtime improvements over exact brute force approaches in the range of 0 to 400% with low error (< 3%). PMID:26764743

  9. Approximating frustration scores in complex networks via perturbed Laplacian spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savol, Andrej J.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2015-12-01

    Systems of many interacting components, as found in physics, biology, infrastructure, and the social sciences, are often modeled by simple networks of nodes and edges. The real-world systems frequently confront outside intervention or internal damage whose impact must be predicted or minimized, and such perturbations are then mimicked in the models by altering nodes or edges. This leads to the broad issue of how to best quantify changes in a model network after some type of perturbation. In the case of node removal there are many centrality metrics which associate a scalar quantity with the removed node, but it can be difficult to associate the quantities with some intuitive aspect of physical behavior in the network. This presents a serious hurdle to the application of network theory: real-world utility networks are rarely altered according to theoretic principles unless the kinetic impact on the network's users are fully appreciated beforehand. In pursuit of a kinetically interpretable centrality score, we discuss the f-score, or frustration score. Each f-score quantifies whether a selected node accelerates or inhibits global mean first passage times to a second, independently selected target node. We show that this is a natural way of revealing the dynamical importance of a node in some networks. After discussing merits of the f-score metric, we combine spectral and Laplacian matrix theory in order to quickly approximate the exact f-score values, which can otherwise be expensive to compute. Following tests on both synthetic and real medium-sized networks, we report f-score runtime improvements over exact brute force approaches in the range of 0 to 400 % with low error (<3 % ).

  10. A geometric singular perturbation approach for planar stationary shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuopu; Zhang, Jiazhong; Ren, Junheng; Aslam, Muhammad Nauman

    2015-08-01

    The non-linear non-equilibrium nature of shock waves in gas dynamics is investigated for the planar case. Along each streamline, the Euler equations with non-equilibrium pressure are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations defining a slow-fast system, and geometric singular perturbation theory is applied. The proposed theory shows that an orbit on the slow manifold corresponds to the smooth part of the solution to the Euler equation, where non-equilibrium effects are negligible; and a relaxation motion from the unsteady to the steady branch of the slow manifold corresponds to a shock wave, where the flow relaxes from non-equilibrium to equilibrium. Recognizing the shock wave as a fast motion is found to be especially useful for shock wave detection when post-processing experimental measured or numerical calculated flow fields. Various existing shock detection methods can be derived from the proposed theory in a rigorous mathematical manner. The proposed theory provides a new shock detection method based on its non-linear non-equilibrium nature, and may also serve as the theoretical foundation for many popular shock wave detection techniques.

  11. Dynamic of ion density perturbations observed in a microwave-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal-Al-Hassan, Md.; Ito, Hiroaki; Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi

    2005-11-15

    The dynamical behavior of ion density perturbations propagated at low-frequency wave nature is experimentally observed in microwave-plasma interaction. An unmagnetized, inhomogeneous laboratory plasma irradiated by an obliquely incident microwave with maximum power P=10 kW and pulse width approximately ion plasma period ({tau}{sub pi}{approx_equal}2{pi}/{omega}{sub pi}) is studied. The p-polarized electric-field component of the interacted microwave of frequency {omega}{sub 0} leads to a nonlinear phenomenon driven by the ponderomotive force by the process of resonance absorption at the critical layer where {omega}{sub 0}={omega}{sub p} is satisfied. The nonlinear ion density perturbations are created from the resonant layer and propagated to an underdense plasma as an electrostatic wave nature.

  12. Difference equation for tracking perturbations in systems of Boolean nested canalyzing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Elena S.; Yordanov, Oleg I.; Matache, Mihaela T.

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the spread of perturbations through networks composed of Boolean functions with special canalyzing properties. Canalyzing functions have the property that at least for one value of one of the inputs the output is fixed, irrespective of the values of the other inputs. In this paper the focus is on partially nested canalyzing functions, in which multiple, but not all inputs have this property in a cascading fashion. They naturally describe many relationships in real networks. For example, in a gene regulatory network, the statement "if gene A is expressed, then gene B is not expressed regardless of the states of other genes" implies that A is canalyzing. On the other hand, the additional statement "if gene A is not expressed, and gene C is expressed, then gene B is automatically expressed; otherwise gene B 's state is determined by some other type of rule" implies that gene B is expressed by a partially nested canalyzing function with more than two variables, but with two canalyzing variables. In this paper a difference equation model of the probability that a network node's value is affected by an initial perturbation over time is developed, analyzed, and validated numerically. It is shown that the effect of a perturbation decreases towards zero over time if the Boolean functions are canalyzing in sufficiently many variables. The maximum dynamical impact of a perturbation is shown to be comparable to the average impact for a wide range of values of the average sensitivity of the network. Percolation limits are also explored; these are parameter values which generate a transition of the expected perturbation effect to zero as other parameters are varied, so that the initial perturbation does not scale up with the parameters once the percolation limits are reached.

  13. A hybrid-perturbation-Galerkin technique which combines multiple expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1989-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation-Galerkin method for the solution of a variety of differential equations type problems is found to give better results when multiple perturbation expansions are employed. The method assumes that there is parameter in the problem formulation and that a perturbation method can be sued to construct one or more expansions in this perturbation coefficient functions multiplied by computed amplitudes. In step one, regular and/or singular perturbation methods are used to determine the perturbation coefficient functions. The results of step one are in the form of one or more expansions each expressed as a sum of perturbation coefficient functions multiplied by a priori known gauge functions. In step two the classical Bubnov-Galerkin method uses the perturbation coefficient functions computed in step one to determine a set of amplitudes which replace and improve upon the gauge functions. The hybrid method has the potential of overcoming some of the drawbacks of the perturbation and Galerkin methods as applied separately, while combining some of their better features. The proposed method is applied, with two perturbation expansions in each case, to a variety of model ordinary differential equations problems including: a family of linear two-boundary-value problems, a nonlinear two-point boundary-value problem, a quantum mechanical eigenvalue problem and a nonlinear free oscillation problem. The results obtained from the hybrid methods are compared with approximate solutions obtained by other methods, and the applicability of the hybrid method to broader problem areas is discussed.

  14. Testing gravity theories using tensor perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha

    2016-12-01

    Primordial gravitational waves constitute a promising probe of the very early Universe and the laws of gravity. We study in this work changes to tensor-mode perturbations that can arise in various proposed modified gravity theories. These include additional friction effects, nonstandard dispersion relations involving a massive graviton, a modified speed, and a small-scale modification. We introduce a physically motivated parametrization of these effects and use current available data to obtain exclusion regions in the parameter spaces. Taking into account the foreground subtraction, we then perform a forecast analysis focusing on the tensor-mode modified-gravity parameters as constrained by the future experiments COrE, Stage-IV and PIXIE. For a fiducial value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r =0.01 , we find that an additional friction of 3.5-4.5% compared to GR will be detected at 3 -σ by these experiments, while a decrease in friction will be more difficult to detect. The speed of gravitational waves needs to be by 5-15% different from the speed of light for detection. We find that the minimum detectable graviton mass is about 7.8 - 9.7 ×10-33 eV , which is of the same order of magnitude as the graviton mass that allows massive gravity theories to produce late-time cosmic acceleration. Finally, we study the tensor-mode perturbations in modified gravity during inflation using our parametrization. We find that, in addition to being related to r , the tensor spectral index would be related to the friction parameter ν0 by nT=-3 ν0-r /8 . Assuming that the friction parameter is unchanged throughout the history of the Universe, and that ν0 is much larger than r , the future experiments considered here will be able to distinguish this modified-gravity consistency relation from the standard inflation consistency relation, and thus can be used as a further test of modified gravity. In summary, tensor-mode perturbations and cosmic-microwave-background B

  15. Ergodicity in randomly perturbed quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardini, Stefano; Lovecchio, Cosimo; Müller, Matthias M.; Lombardi, Pietro; Caruso, Filippo; Saverio Cataliotti, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    The theoretical cornerstone of statistical mechanics is the ergodic assumption, i.e. the assumption that the time average of an observable equals its ensemble average. Here, we show how such a property is present when an open quantum system is continuously perturbed by an external environment effectively observing the system at random times while the system dynamics approaches the quantum Zeno regime. In this context, by large deviation theory we analytically show how the most probable value of the probability for the system to be in a given state eventually deviates from the non-stochastic case when the Zeno condition is not satisfied. We experimentally test our results with ultra-cold atoms prepared on an atom chip.

  16. Perturbative High Harmonic Wave Front Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Kong, Fanqi; Arissian, Ladan; Corkum, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    We pattern the wave front of a high harmonic beam by intersecting the intense driving laser pulse that generates the high harmonic with a weak control pulse. To illustrate the potential of wave-front control, we imprint a Fresnel zone plate pattern on a harmonic beam, causing the harmonics to focus and defocus. The quality of the focus that we achieve is measured using the spectral wave-front optical reconstruction by diffraction method. We will show that it is possible to enhance the peak intensity by orders of magnitude without a physical optical element in the path of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beam. Through perturbative wave-front control, XUV beams can be created with a flexibility approaching what technology allows for visible and infrared light.

  17. Profiling DNA damage response following mitotic perturbations

    PubMed Central

    S. Pedersen, Ronni; Karemore, Gopal; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Rask, Maj-Britt; Neumann, Beate; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Pepperkok, Rainer; Ellenberg, Jan; Gerlich, Daniel W.; Lukas, Jiri; Lukas, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Genome integrity relies on precise coordination between DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Whereas replication stress attracted much attention, the consequences of mitotic perturbations for genome integrity are less understood. Here, we knockdown 47 validated mitotic regulators to show that a broad spectrum of mitotic errors correlates with increased DNA breakage in daughter cells. Unexpectedly, we find that only a subset of these correlations are functionally linked. We identify the genuine mitosis-born DNA damage events and sub-classify them according to penetrance of the observed phenotypes. To demonstrate the potential of this resource, we show that DNA breakage after cytokinesis failure is preceded by replication stress, which mounts during consecutive cell cycles and coincides with decreased proliferation. Together, our results provide a resource to gauge the magnitude and dynamics of DNA breakage associated with mitotic aberrations and suggest that replication stress might limit propagation of cells with abnormal karyotypes. PMID:27976684

  18. Systematic analysis of endocytosis by cellular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Lena; Schelhaas, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process of eukaryotic cells that facilitates numerous cellular and organismal functions. The formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane serves the internalization of ligands and receptors and leads to their degradation or recycling. A number of distinct mechanisms have been described over the years, several of which are only partially characterized in terms of mechanism and function. These are often referred to as novel endocytic pathways. The pathways differ in their mode of uptake and in their intracellular destination. Here, an overview of the set of cellular proteins that facilitate the different pathways is provided. Further, the approaches to distinguish between the pathways by different modes of perturbation are critically discussed, emphasizing the use of genetic tools such as dominant negative mutant proteins.

  19. Pressure perturbation calorimetry of unfolded proteins.

    PubMed

    Tsamaloukas, Alekos D; Pyzocha, Neena K; Makhatadze, George I

    2010-12-16

    We report the application of pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) to study unfolded proteins. Using PPC we have measured the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient, α(T), in the unfolded state of apocytochrome C and reduced BPTI. We have shown that α(T) is a nonlinear function and decreases with increasing temperature. The decrease is most significant in the low (2-55 °C) temperature range. We have also tested an empirical additivity approach to predict α(T) of unfolded state from the amino acid sequence using α(T) values for individual amino acids. A comparison of the experimental and calculated functions shows a very good agreement, both in absolute values of α(T) and in its temperature dependence. Such an agreement suggests the applicability of using empirical calculations to predict α(T) of any unfolded protein.

  20. Degenerate R-S perturbation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schrodinger energies and wave functions of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n+1)st order is expressed in terms of the partially determined wave function through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the wave functions (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the wave functions are expressed in terms of infinite order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth order functions.

  1. Plasma Braking Due to External Magnetic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, Kejo; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The RFP EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a comprehensive active feedback system (128 active saddle coils in the full-coverage array) and active control of both resonant and non-resonant MHD modes has been demonstrated. The feedback algorithms, based on modern control methodology such as reference mode tracking (both amplitude and phase), are a useful tool to improve the ``state of the art'' of the MHD mode control. But this tool can be used also to improve the understanding and the characterization of other phenomena such as the ELM mitigation with a resonant magnetic perturbation or the plasma viscosity. The present work studies plasma and mode braking due to static RMPs. Results show that a static RMP produces a global braking of the flow profile. The study of the effect of RMPs characterized by different helicities will also give information on the plasma viscosity profile. Experimental results are finally compared to theoretical models.

  2. Modified contour-improved perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetic, Gorazd; Loewe, Marcelo; Martinez, Cristian; Valenzuela, Cristian

    2010-11-01

    The semihadronic tau decay width allows a clean extraction of the strong coupling constant at low energies. We present a modification of the standard ''contour-improved'' method based on a derivative expansion of the Adler function. The new approach has some advantages compared to contour-improved perturbation theory. The renormalization scale dependence is weaker by more than a factor of 2 and the last term of the expansion is reduced by about 10%, while the renormalization scheme dependence remains approximately equal. The extracted QCD coupling at the tau mass scale is by 2% lower than the contour-improved value. We find {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1211{+-}0.0010.

  3. Applications of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Golterman, M.F.; Leung, K.C.

    1998-05-01

    Partially quenched theories are theories in which the valence- and sea-quark masses are different. In this paper we calculate the nonanalytic one-loop corrections of some physical quantities: the chiral condensate, weak decay constants, Goldstone boson masses, B{sub K}, and the K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} decay amplitude, using partially quenched chiral perturbation theory. Our results for weak decay constants and masses agree with, and generalize, results of previous work by Sharpe. We compare B{sub K} and the K{sup +} decay amplitude with their real-world values in some examples. For the latter quantity, two other systematic effects that plague lattice computations, namely, finite-volume effects and unphysical values of the quark masses and pion external momenta, are also considered. We find that typical one-loop corrections can be substantial. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Chiral nontopological solitons with perturbative quantum pions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. G.; Dodd, L. R.

    1988-04-01

    We investigate chiral extensions of a broad class of nontopological soliton bag models. Chiral symmetry is restored in a nonlinear realization through the introduction of an elementary pion field. We show in particular that it is consistent to treat the pions as a perturbative quantum field, as is done in the cloudy-bag model. The cloudy-bag model is recovered as a limiting case. A careful comparison is made between predictions of chiral extensions of the Friedberg-Lee and the Nielsen-Patkos color-dielectric nontopological soliton models and the cloudy-bag model. Once the overall distance scale is fixed we find relative insensitivity to the detailed choice of nontopological soliton parameters. We investigate two versions of chiral nontopological solitons, analogous to the surface- and volume-coupled cloudy-bag model, and discuss their relation to current algebra.

  5. Singular perturbations in the state regulator problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the results of singular perturbation theory have been concerned with initial value problems whereas optimal control problems are of two-point boundary value type. The portions of this theory applicable to the open loop state regulator problem are reviewed. For obtaining approximate solutions to the state regulator problem the method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed. This method has been developed in connection with certain fluid mechanics problems and is applicable to nonlinear as well as linear problems. It has been found in the past to be advantageous not to formulate this method generally but to apply it to each individual problem and this approach is adopted here. A general recipe for the method is given and its application is illustrated by using the method to obtain an approximate solution to a simple, specific state regulator problem.

  6. Perturbative analysis in higher-spin theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, V. E.; Misuna, N. G.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A new scheme of the perturbative analysis of the nonlinear HS equations is developed giving directly the final result for the successive application of the homotopy integrations which appear in the standard approach. It drastically simplifies the analysis and results from the application of the standard spectral sequence approach to the higherspin covariant derivatives, allowing us in particular to reduce multiple homotopy integrals resulting from the successive application of the homotopy trick to a single integral. Efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by various examples. In particular, it is shown how the Central on-shell theorem of the free theory immediately results from the nonlinear HS field equations with no intermediate computations.

  7. Formation of Voids from Negative Density Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, J. C. N.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se estudia la formaci6n de huecos a partir de un espectro negativo de perturbaciones, tomando en cuenta la expansi6n del Universo, arrastre por fotones, enfriamiento por fotones, fotoionizaci6n, ioniza- ci6n colisional, enfriamiento Lyman a y la formaci6n y enfriamiento de moleculas H2. Nuestros resultados predicen la existencia de regiones 1/10 de Ia densidad promedio para regiones de masa lO - 1O10M . ABSTRACT. In the present paer we study the formation of voids from a negative spectrum of perturbations taking into account the expansion of the Universe, photon-drag, photon-cooling, photoionization, collisional ionization, Lyman a cooling and the formation and cooling of 112 molecules. Our results predict the existence of regions 1/10 the average density for regions of mass 1O - 1O10M@ : CLUSTERS-GALAXIES - COSMOLOGY

  8. Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampf, Cornelius; Wiegand, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the basic Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully nonperturbative approach based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the nonperturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve the gravitational wave equation in the relativistic analysis, otherwise the corresponding Newtonian limit will necessarily contain spurious nonpropagating tensor artifacts at second order in the Eulerian frame. We also derive the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor in the Lagrangian frame, and find that it is not only excited by gravitational waves but also by tensor perturbations which are induced through the nonlinear frame dragging. We apply our findings to calculate for the first time the relativistic displacement field, up to second order, for a Λ CDM Universe in the presence of a local primordial non-Gaussian component. Finally, we also comment on recent claims about whether mass conservation in the Lagrangian frame is violated.

  9. Non-perturbative String Theory from Water Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V.; Pennington, Jeffrey S.; /SLAC

    2012-06-14

    We use a combination of a 't Hooft limit and numerical methods to find non-perturbative solutions of exactly solvable string theories, showing that perturbative solutions in different asymptotic regimes are connected by smooth interpolating functions. Our earlier perturbative work showed that a large class of minimal string theories arise as special limits of a Painleve IV hierarchy of string equations that can be derived by a similarity reduction of the dispersive water wave hierarchy of differential equations. The hierarchy of string equations contains new perturbative solutions, some of which were conjectured to be the type IIA and IIB string theories coupled to (4, 4k ? 2) superconformal minimal models of type (A, D). Our present paper shows that these new theories have smooth non-perturbative extensions. We also find evidence for putative new string theories that were not apparent in the perturbative analysis.

  10. Adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation projections in multi-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Chris; Saffin, Paul M. E-mail: Paul.Saffin@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-08-01

    Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry, seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the isocurvature perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic perturbation in the flat field space limit.

  11. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-15

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations.

  12. Delta-Measure Perturbations of a Contact Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baty, Roy

    2012-11-01

    In this presentation, nonstandard analysis is applied to study generalized function perturbations of contact discontinuities in compressible, inviscid fluids. Nonstandard analysis is an area of modern mathematics that studies extensions of the real number system to nonstandard number systems that contain infinitely large and infinitely small numbers. Perturbations of a contact discontinuity are considered that represent one-dimensional analogs of the two-dimensional perturbations observed in the initial evolution of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability on a density interface. Nonstandard predistributions of the Dirac delta measure and its derivatives are applied as the perturbations of a contact discontinuity. The one-dimensional Euler equations are used to model the flow field of a fluid containing a perturbed density interface and generalized solutions are constructed for the perturbed flow field.

  13. Investigations of Probe Induced Perturbations in a Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    D. Staack; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2002-08-12

    An electrostatic probe used to measure spatial plasma parameters in a Hall thruster generates perturbations of the plasma. These perturbations are examined by varying the probe material, penetration distance, residence time, and the nominal thruster conditions. The study leads us to recommendations for probe design and thruster operating conditions to reduce discharge perturbations, including metal shielding of the probe insulator and operation of the thruster at lower densities.

  14. Anomaly-free cosmological perturbations in effective canonical quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Barrau, Aurelien; Calcagni, Gianluca; Grain, Julien E-mail: bojowald@gravity.psu.edu E-mail: julien.grain@ias.u-psud.fr

    2015-05-01

    This article lays out a complete framework for an effective theory of cosmological perturbations with corrections from canonical quantum gravity. Since several examples exist for quantum-gravity effects that change the structure of space-time, the classical perturbative treatment must be rethought carefully. The present discussion provides a unified picture of several previous works, together with new treatments of higher-order perturbations and the specification of initial states.

  15. Quark Matter Equation of State from Perturbative QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2017-03-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we discuss recent developments in the perturbative determination of the Equation of State of dense quark matter, relevant for the microscopic description of neutron star cores. First, we introduce the current state of the art in the problem, both at zero and small temperatures, and then present results from two recent perturbative studies that pave the way towards extending the EoS to higher orders in perturbation theory.

  16. Density Perturbations in the Universe from Massive Vector Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, K.

    2007-11-20

    I discuss the possibility of using a massive vector field to generate the density perturbation in the Universe. I find that a scale-invariant superhorizon spectrum of vector field perturbations is possible to generate during inflation. The associated curvature perturbation is imprinted onto the Universe following the curvaton scenario. The mechanism does not generate a long-range anisotropy because an oscillating massive vector field behaves as a pressureless isotropic fluid.

  17. Equation-of-motion coupled cluster perturbation theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Janus J; Jørgensen, Poul; Olsen, Jeppe; Gauss, Jürgen

    2014-05-07

    The equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) framework has been used for deriving a novel series of perturbative corrections to the coupled cluster singles and doubles energy that formally converges towards the full configuration interaction energy limit. The series is based on a Møller-Plesset partitioning of the Hamiltonian and thus size extensive at any order in the perturbation, thereby remedying the major deficiency inherent to previous perturbation series based on the EOM-CC ansatz.

  18. Constraints on primordial density perturbations from induced gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David

    2010-01-15

    We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced during the radiation-dominated hot big bang as a constraint on the primordial density perturbation on comoving length scales much smaller than those directly probed by the cosmic microwave background or large-scale structure. We place weak upper bounds on the primordial density perturbation from current data. Future detectors such as BBO and DECIGO will place much stronger constraints on the primordial density perturbation on small scales.

  19. Experimental Assessment of the Sensitiveness of an Electrochemical Oscillator towards Chemical Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Graziela C. A.; Batista, Bruno C.; Varela, Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    In this study we address the problem of the response of a (electro)chemical oscillator towards chemical perturbations of different magnitudes. The chemical perturbation was achieved by addition of distinct amounts of trifluoromethanesulfonate (TFMSA), a rather stable and non-specifically adsorbing anion, and the system under investigation was the methanol electro-oxidation reaction under both stationary and oscillatory regimes. Increasing the anion concentration resulted in a decrease in the reaction rates of methanol oxidation and a general decrease in the parameter window where oscillations occurred. Furthermore, the addition of TFMSA was found to decrease the induction period and the total duration of oscillations. The mechanism underlying these observations was derived mathematically and revealed that inhibition in the methanol oxidation through blockage of active sites was found to further accelerate the intrinsic non-stationarity of the unperturbed system. Altogether, the presented results are among the few concerning the experimental assessment of the sensitiveness of an oscillator towards chemical perturbations. The universal nature of the complex chemical oscillator investigated here might be used for reference when studying the dynamics of other less accessible perturbed networks of (bio)chemical reactions. PMID:23185559

  20. Perturbation analysis of the Kuramoto phase-diffusion equation subject to quenched frequency disorder.

    PubMed

    Tönjes, Ralf; Blasius, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The Kuramoto phase-diffusion equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation which describes the spatiotemporal evolution of a phase variable in an oscillatory reaction-diffusion system. Synchronization manifests itself in a stationary phase gradient where all phases throughout a system evolve with the same velocity, the synchronization frequency. The formation of concentric waves can be explained by local impurities of higher frequency which can entrain their surroundings. Concentric waves in synchronization also occur in heterogeneous systems, where the local frequencies are distributed randomly. We present a perturbation analysis of the synchronization frequency where the perturbation is given by the heterogeneity of natural frequencies in the system. The nonlinearity in the form of dispersion leads to an overall acceleration of the oscillation for which the expected value can be calculated from the second-order perturbation terms. We apply the theory to simple topologies, like a line or sphere, and deduce the dependence of the synchronization frequency on the size and the dimension of the oscillatory medium. We show that our theory can be extended to include rotating waves in a medium with periodic boundary conditions. By changing a system parameter, the synchronized state may become quasidegenerate. We demonstrate how perturbation theory fails at such a critical point.

  1. Simulations of long-term community dynamics in coral reefs--how perturbations shape trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kubicek, Andreas; Muhando, Christopher; Reuter, Hauke

    2012-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs feature extraordinary biodiversity and high productivity rates in oligotrophic waters. Due to increasing frequencies of perturbations--anthropogenic and natural--many reefs are under threat. Such perturbations often have devastating effects on these unique ecosystems and especially if they occur simultaneously and amplify each other's impact, they might trigger a phase shift and create irreversible conditions.We developed a generic, spatially explicit, individual-based model in which competition drives the dynamics of a virtual benthic reef community--comprised of scleractinian corals and algae--under different environmental settings. Higher system properties, like population dynamics or community composition arise through self-organization as emergent properties. The model was parameterized for a typical coral reef site at Zanzibar, Tanzania and features coral bleaching and physical disturbance regimes as major sources of perturbations. Our results show that various types and modes (intensities and frequencies) of perturbations create diverse outcomes and that the switch from high diversity to single species dominance can be evoked by small changes in a key parameter. Here we extend the understanding of coral reef resilience and the identification of key processes, drivers and respective thresholds, responsible for changes in local situations. One future goal is to provide a tool which may aid decision making processes in management of coral reefs.

  2. Simulations of Long-Term Community Dynamics in Coral Reefs - How Perturbations Shape Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Andreas; Muhando, Christopher; Reuter, Hauke

    2012-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs feature extraordinary biodiversity and high productivity rates in oligotrophic waters. Due to increasing frequencies of perturbations – anthropogenic and natural – many reefs are under threat. Such perturbations often have devastating effects on these unique ecosystems and especially if they occur simultaneously and amplify each other's impact, they might trigger a phase shift and create irreversible conditions. We developed a generic, spatially explicit, individual-based model in which competition drives the dynamics of a virtual benthic reef community – comprised of scleractinian corals and algae – under different environmental settings. Higher system properties, like population dynamics or community composition arise through self-organization as emergent properties. The model was parameterized for a typical coral reef site at Zanzibar, Tanzania and features coral bleaching and physical disturbance regimes as major sources of perturbations. Our results show that various types and modes (intensities and frequencies) of perturbations create diverse outcomes and that the switch from high diversity to single species dominance can be evoked by small changes in a key parameter. Here we extend the understanding of coral reef resilience and the identification of key processes, drivers and respective thresholds, responsible for changes in local situations. One future goal is to provide a tool which may aid decision making processes in management of coral reefs. PMID:23209397

  3. A Study of Early/Slow VLF Perturbations Observed at Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Birbal; Saraswat, Vibhav K.

    2016-06-01

    We present here the results of sub-ionospheric VLF perturbations observed on NWC (19.8 kHz) transmitter signal propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, monitored at our low latitude station Agra. During the period of observation (June-December 2011), we found 89 cases of VLF perturbation, while only 73 cases showing early character associated with strong lightning discharges. Out of 73 events, 64 ( 84%) of the early VLF perturbations are found to be early/slow in nature; the remaining 9 events are early/fast. The onset duration of these early/slow VLF perturbations is up to 5 s. A total of 54 observed early events show amplitude change lying between ± 3.0 dB, and phase change ± 12 degree, respectively, and found to occur mainly during nighttime. One of the interesting results we found is that the events with larger recovery time lie far away from the VLF propagation path, while events with smaller duration of recovery are within the ± 50-100 km of signal path. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data is analysed to find the location of causative lightning and temporal variation. The lightning discharge and associated processes that lead to early VLF events are discussed.

  4. Weak lensing generated by vector perturbations and detectability of cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Namikawa, Toshiya; Taruya, Atsushi E-mail: namikawa@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2012-10-01

    We study the observational signature of vector metric perturbations through the effect of weak gravitational lensing. In the presence of vector perturbations, the non-vanishing signals for B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode deflection angle, which have never appeared in the case of scalar metric perturbations, naturally arise. Solving the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations, we drive the full-sky formulas for angular power spectra of weak lensing signals, and give the explicit expressions for E-/B-mode cosmic shear and gradient-/curl-mode deflection angle. As a possible source for seeding vector perturbations, we then consider a cosmic string network, and discuss its detectability from upcoming weak lensing and CMB measurements. Based on the formulas and a simple model for cosmic string network, we calculate the angular power spectra and expected signal-to-noise ratios for the B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode deflection angle. We find that the weak lensing signals are enhanced for a smaller intercommuting probability of the string network, P, and they are potentially detectable from the upcoming cosmic shear and CMB lensing observations. For P ∼ 10{sup −1}, the minimum detectable tension of the cosmic string will be down to Gμ ∼ 5 × 10{sup −8}. With a theoretically inferred smallest value P ∼ 10{sup −3}, we could even detect the string with Gμ ∼ 5 × 10{sup −10}.

  5. Cosmological perturbations and the physical meaning of gauge-invariant variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, Marco; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Ellis, George F. R.

    1992-08-01

    This paper concerns gauge-invariant perturbations of Robertson-Walker spacetimes, with the aim of (1) giving a complete set of perturbation equations and (2) comparing the coordinate-based method of Bardeen with the covariant approach of Ellis and Bruni (1989). To this end, we first consider covariantly defined quantities which are gauge-invariant in a perturbed Robertson-Walker universe: for these variables we derive a complete set of covariant linearized equations as they follow from the Bianchi and Ricci identities, and we show various possible ways of obtaining a second-order linear equation for the density perturbation variables. Then we systematically expand the covariant and gauge-invariant variables, recovering Bardeen's variables as first-order terms in this expansion: thus the two sets of variables are equivalent to first order. Through this comparison Bardeen's variables are shown to have a natural physical and geometrical meaning, which can be determined without the need of a gauge specification, and Bardeen's equations follow directly.

  6. Second-order perturbation theory using correlated orbitals. I. Full-valence reference functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisel, O.; Ellinger, Y.

    1994-11-01

    Recent developments of performant perturbation treatments on multiconfiguration wave functions have renewed interest in the coupling of variational and perturbative methods. In this communication it is shown that the choice of both the orbitals and the perturbation Hamiltonian to be used is as crucial as the choice of the reference space for obtaining accurate results. Møller-Plesset and Epstein-Nesbet perturbation series are applied to full-valence configuration interaction (FVCI) wave functions built on MCSCF (multi-configurational self-consistent field), FOCI (first-order configuration interaction) and SOCI (second-order configuration interaction) natural orbitals. Applications are presented for the following well-known systems: CH 2 (X 3B 1-a 1A 1), CH 2+ (X 2A 1, 1 2B 1, 1 2A 2, 1 2B 2), SiH 2 (X 1A 1, a 3B 1, A 1B 1) and NH 2 (X 2A 1, A 2B 1). The results are compared to the corresponding full configuration interaction (FCI) when available.

  7. Second-order perturbation theory using correlated orbitals. 1: Full-valence reference functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisel, O.; Ellinger, Y.

    1994-11-01

    Recent developments of performant perturbation treatments on multiconfiguration wave functions have renewed interest in the coupling of variational and perturbative methods. In this communication it is shown that the choice of both the orbitals and the perturbation Hamiltonian to be used is as crucial as the choice of the reference space for obtaining accurate results. Moller-Plesset and Epstein-Nesbet perturbation series are applied to full-valence configuration interaction (FVCI) wave functions built on MCSCF (multi-configurational self-consistent field), FOCI (first-order configuration interaction) and SOCI (second-order configuration interaction) natural orbitals. Applications are presented for the following well-known systems: CH2(X(sup 3)B(sub 1) -a(sup 1)A(sub 1), CH2(+)(X(sup 2)A(sub 1), 1(sup 2)B(sub 1), 1(sup 2)A(sub 2), 1(sup 2)B(sub 2)), SiH2(X(sub 1)A(sub 1), a(sup 3)B(sub 1), A(sup 1)B(sub 1) and NH2(X(sup 2)A(sub 1), A(sup 2)B(sub 1)). The results are compared to the corresponding full configuration interaction (FCI) when available.

  8. Nondimensional forms for singular perturbation analyses of aircraft energy climbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Markopoulos, N.; Corban, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic approach for identifying the perturbation parameter in singular perturbation analysis of aircraft optimal guidance, and in particular considers a family of problems related to aircraft energy climbs. The approach, which is based on a nondimensionalization of the equations of motion, is used to evaluatae the appropriateness of forced singular perturbation formulations used in the past for transport and fighter aircraft, and to assess the applicability of energy state approximations and singular perturbation analysis for airbreathing transatmospheric vehicles with hypersonic cruise and orbital capabilities.

  9. Perturbation Monte Carlo methods for tissue structure alterations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer; Hayakawa, Carole K; Mourant, Judith R; Spanier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an extension of the perturbation Monte Carlo method to model light transport when the phase function is arbitrarily perturbed. Current perturbation Monte Carlo methods allow perturbation of both the scattering and absorption coefficients, however, the phase function can not be varied. The more complex method we develop and test here is not limited in this way. We derive a rigorous perturbation Monte Carlo extension that can be applied to a large family of important biomedical light transport problems and demonstrate its greater computational efficiency compared with using conventional Monte Carlo simulations to produce forward transport problem solutions. The gains of the perturbation method occur because only a single baseline Monte Carlo simulation is needed to obtain forward solutions to other closely related problems whose input is described by perturbing one or more parameters from the input of the baseline problem. The new perturbation Monte Carlo methods are tested using tissue light scattering parameters relevant to epithelia where many tumors originate. The tissue model has parameters for the number density and average size of three classes of scatterers; whole nuclei, organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria, and small particles such as ribosomes or large protein complexes. When these parameters or the wavelength is varied the scattering coefficient and the phase function vary. Perturbation calculations give accurate results over variations of ∼15-25% of the scattering parameters.

  10. The study of effects of small perturbations on chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grebogi, C. . Lab. for Plasma Research); Yorke, J.A. . Inst. for Physical Science and Technology)

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics on small perturbations on chaotic systems: controlling chaos; shadowing and noise reduction; chaotic scattering; random maps; magnetic dynamo; and aids transmission. (LSP)

  11. On the singular perturbations for fractional differential equation.

    PubMed

    Atangana, Abdon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the possible extension of the singular perturbation differential equation to the concept of fractional order derivative. To achieve this, we presented a review of the concept of fractional calculus. We make use of the Laplace transform operator to derive exact solution of singular perturbation fractional linear differential equations. We make use of the methodology of three analytical methods to present exact and approximate solution of the singular perturbation fractional, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. These methods are including the regular perturbation method, the new development of the variational iteration method, and the homotopy decomposition method.

  12. Non-linear isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo; Wands, David E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2008-12-15

    We study non-linear primordial adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations and their non-Gaussianity. After giving a general formulation in the context of an extended {delta}N formalism, we analyse in detail two illustrative examples. The first is a mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario in which fluctuations of both the inflaton and a curvaton (a light isocurvature field during inflation) contribute to the primordial density perturbation. The second example is that of double inflation involving two decoupled massive scalar fields during inflation. In the mixed curvaton-inflaton scenario we find that the bispectrum of primordial isocurvature perturbations may be large and comparable to the bispectrum of adiabatic curvature perturbations.

  13. A new method to compute lunisolar perturbations in satellite motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozai, Y.

    1973-01-01

    A new method to compute lunisolar perturbations in satellite motion is proposed. The disturbing function is expressed by the orbital elements of the satellite and the geocentric polar coordinates of the moon and the sun. The secular and long periodic perturbations are derived by numerical integrations, and the short periodic perturbations are derived analytically. The perturbations due to the tides can be included in the same way. In the Appendix, the motion of the orbital plane for a synchronous satellite is discussed; it is concluded that the inclination cannot stay below 7 deg.

  14. Some topics on scale-invariant perturbations from noninflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhe

    In this paper, we review some topics on generations of scale-invariant primordial scalar and tensor perturbations in the early universe models different from inflation. The content includes generation of scale-invariant and Gaussian scalar perturbation in the ekpyrotic/cyclic universe, and production scale-invariant tensor perturbation in contracting universe. The main property of the models reviewed in this paper is the nonminimal couplings, include nonminimal couplings between the scalar fields and those to the gravity. By introducing these couplings, it is not difficult to achieve scale-invariances for the perturbations in the early universe models alternative to inflation.

  15. Multifield cosmological perturbations at third order and the ekpyrotic trispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Renaux-Petel, Sebastien

    2009-09-15

    Using the covariant formalism, we derive the equations of motion for adiabatic and entropy perturbations at third order in perturbation theory for cosmological models involving two scalar fields. We use these equations to calculate the trispectrum of ekpyrotic and cyclic models in which the density perturbations are generated via the entropic mechanism. In these models, the conversion of entropy into curvature perturbations occurs just before the big bang, either during the ekpyrotic phase or during the subsequent kinetic energy dominated phase. In both cases, we find that the nonlinearity parameters f{sub NL} and g{sub NL} combine to leave a very distinct observational imprint.

  16. Quaternion regularization and stabilization of perturbed central motion. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelnokov, Yu. N.

    1993-04-01

    Generalized regular quaternion equations for the three-dimensional two-body problem in terms of Kustaanheimo-Stiefel variables are obtained within the framework of the quaternion theory of regularizing and stabilizing transformations of the Newtonian equations for perturbed central motion. Regular quaternion equations for perturbed central motion of a material point in a central field with a certain potential Pi are also derived in oscillatory and normal forms. In addition, systems of perturbed central motion equations are obtained which include quaternion equations of perturbed orbit orientations in oscillatory or normal form, and a generalized Binet equation is derived. A comparative analysis of the equations is carried out.

  17. Effects of abdominal stabilization maneuvers on the control of spine motion and stability against sudden trunk perturbations.

    PubMed

    Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; Elvira, José L L; Brown, Stephen H M; McGill, Stuart M

    2007-10-01

    Much discussion exists about which is the most effective technique to improve spine stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of abdominal bracing and abdominal hollowing maneuvers to control spine motion and stability against rapid perturbations. Eleven healthy males were posteriorly loaded in different experimental conditions: resting with no knowledge of the perturbation timing; performing each of the stabilization maneuvers at 10%, 15% and 20% of internal oblique maximum voluntary contraction with no knowledge of the perturbation timing; and naturally coactivating the trunk muscles when perturbation timing was known. An EMG biofeedback system was used to control the pattern and intensity of abdominal coactivation. The muscular preactivation of seven trunk muscles (bilaterally registered), the applied force, and the torso muscular and kinematic responses to loading were measured; and the spine stability and compression were modeled. The hollowing maneuver was not effective for reducing the kinematic response to sudden perturbation. On the contrary, the bracing maneuver fostered torso cocontraction, reduced lumbar displacement, and increased trunk stability, but at the cost of increasing spinal compression. When the timing of the perturbation was known, the participants were able to stabilize the trunk while imposing smaller spine compressive loads.

  18. Perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of the two-dimensional string/Yang-Mills correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Simone; Maggiore, Michele; Rissone, Anna

    2003-04-01

    It is known that YM 2 with gauge group SU( N) is equivalent to a string theory with coupling gs=1/ N, order by order in the 1/ N expansion. We show how this result can be obtained from the bosonization of the fermionic formulation of YM 2, improving on results in the literature, and we examine a number of non-perturbative aspects of this string/YM correspondence. We find contributions to the YM 2 partition function of order exp{- kA/( πα' gs)} with k an integer and A the area of the target space, which would correspond, in the string interpretation, to D1-branes. Effects which could be interpreted as D0-branes are instead strictly absent, suggesting a non-perturbative structure typical of type 0B string theories. We discuss effects from the YM side that are interpreted in terms of the stringy exclusion principle of Maldacena and Strominger. We also find numerically an interesting phase structure, with a region where YM 2 is described by a perturbative string theory separated from a region where it is described by a topological string theory.

  19. Solitary magnetic perturbations at the ELM onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R. P.; Zohm, H.; Boom, J. E.; Burckhart, A.; Dunne, M. G.; Dux, R.; Eich, T.; Fischer, R.; Fuchs, C.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Igochine, V.; Hölzl, M.; Luhmann N., C., Jr.; Lunt, T.; Maraschek, M.; Müller, H. W.; Park, H. K.; Schneider, P. A.; Sommer, F.; Suttrop, W.; Viezzer, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2012-11-01

    Tokamak H-mode plasmas frequently exhibit edge-localized modes (ELMs). ELMs allow maintaining sufficient plasma purity and thus enable stationary H-mode. On the other hand in a future device ELMs may cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. The size of the energy loss per ELM is determined by saturation effects in the non-linear phase of the ELM, which at present is hardly understood. ASDEX Upgrade is now equipped with a set of fast sampling diagnostics, which is well suited to investigate the chain of events around the ELM crash with appropriate temporal resolution (⩽10 µs). Solitary magnetic perturbations (SMPs) are identified as dominant features in the radial magnetic fluctuations below 100 kHz. They are typically observed close (±100 µs) to the onset of pedestal erosion. SMPs are field aligned structures rotating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with perpendicular velocities of about 10 km s-1. A comparison of perpendicular velocities suggests that the perturbation evoking SMPs is located at or inside the separatrix. Analysis of very pronounced examples showed that the number of peaks per toroidal turn is 1 or 2, which is clearly lower than the corresponding numbers in linear stability calculations. In combination with strong peaking of the magnetic signals this results in a solitary appearance resembling modes like palm tree modes, edge snakes or outer modes. This behaviour has been quantified as solitariness and correlated with main plasma parameters. SMPs may be considered as a signature of the non-linear ELM phase originating at the separatrix or further inside. Thus they provide a handle to investigate the transition from linear to non-linear ELM phase. By comparison with data from gas puff imaging processes in the non-linear phase at or inside the separatrix and in the scrape-off layer (SOL) can be correlated. A connection between the passing of an SMP and the onset of radial filament propagation has

  20. Nonlinear network dynamics under perturbations of the underlying graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, Anca; Verduzco-Flores, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Many natural systems are organized as networks, in which the nodes (be they cells, individuals or populations) interact in a time-dependent fashion. The dynamic behavior of these networks depends on how these nodes are connected, which can be understood in terms of an adjacency matrix and connection strengths. The object of our study is to relate connectivity to temporal behavior in networks of coupled nonlinear oscillators. We investigate the relationship between classes of system architectures and classes of their possible dynamics, when the nodes are coupled according to a connectivity scheme that obeys certain constrains, but also incorporates random aspects. We illustrate how the phase space dynamics and bifurcations of the system change when perturbing the underlying adjacency graph. We differentiate between the effects on dynamics of the following operations that directly modulate network connectivity: (1) increasing/decreasing edge weights, (2) increasing/decreasing edge density, (3) altering edge configuration by adding, deleting, or moving edges. We discuss the significance of our results in the context of real life networks. Some interpretations lead us to draw conclusions that may apply to brain networks, synaptic restructuring, and neural dynamics.

  1. Quantitative epigenetics through epigenomic perturbation of isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Frank; Colomé-Tatché, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Interindividual differences in chromatin states at a locus (epialleles) can result in gene expression changes that are sometimes transmitted across generations. In this way, they can contribute to heritable phenotypic variation in natural and experimental populations independent of DNA sequence. Recent molecular evidence shows that epialleles often display high levels of transgenerational instability. This property gives rise to a dynamic dimension in phenotypic inheritance. To be able to incorporate these non-Mendelian features into quantitative genetic models, it is necessary to study the induction and the transgenerational behavior of epialleles in controlled settings. Here we outline a general experimental approach for achieving this using crosses of epigenomically perturbed isogenic lines in mammalian and plant species. We develop a theoretical description of such crosses and model the relationship between epiallelic instability, recombination, parent-of-origin effects, as well as transgressive segregation and their joint impact on phenotypic variation across generations. In the limiting case of fully stable epialleles our approach reduces to the classical theory of experimental line crosses and thus illustrates a fundamental continuity between genetic and epigenetic inheritance. We consider data from a panel of Arabidopsis epigenetic recombinant inbred lines and explore estimates of the number of quantitative trait loci for plant height that resulted from a manipulation of DNA methylation levels in one of the two isogenic founder strains.

  2. Quark-gluon vertex: A perturbation theory primer and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, R.; Albino, L.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.; Bashir, A.

    2017-02-01

    There has been growing evidence that the infrared enhancement of the form factors defining the full quark-gluon vertex plays an important role in realizing a dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry in quantum chromodynamics, leading to the observed spectrum and properties of hadrons. Both the lattice and the Schwinger-Dyson communities have begun to calculate these form factors in various kinematical regimes of momenta involved. A natural consistency check for these studies is that they should match onto the perturbative predictions in the ultraviolet, where nonperturbative effects mellow down. In this article, we carry out a numerical analysis of the one-loop result for all the form factors of the quark-gluon vertex. Interestingly, even the one-loop results qualitatively encode most of the infrared enhancement features expected of their nonperturbative counter parts. We analyze various kinematical configurations of momenta: symmetric, on shell, and asymptotic. The on-shell limit enables us to compute anomalous chromomagnetic moment of quarks. The asymptotic results have implications for the multiplicative renormalizability of the quark propagator and its connection with the Landau-Khalatnikov-Fradkin transformations, allowing us to analyze and compare various Ansätze proposed so far.

  3. Atmospheric bromine and ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Pinto, J. P.; Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    The role of bromine compounds in the photochemistry of the natural and perturbed stratosphere has been reexamined using an expanded reaction scheme and the results of recent laboratory studies of several key reactions. The most important finding is that through the reaction BrO + ClO yielding Br + Cl + O2 there is a synergistic effect between bromine and chlorine which results in an efficient catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. One-dimensional photochemical model results indicate that BrO is the major bromine species throughout the stratosphere, followed by BrONO2, HBr, HOBr and Br. It is shown from the foregoing that bromine is more efficient than chlorine as a catalyst for destroying ozone, and the implications for stratospheric ozone of possible future growth in the industrial and agricultural use of bromine are discussed. Bromine concentrations of 20 pptv (2 x 10 to the -11th power), as suggested by recent observations, can decrease the present-day integrated ozone column density by 2.4%, and can enhance ozone depletion from steady-state chlorofluoromethane release at 1973 rates by a factor of 1.1-1.2.

  4. Press perturbations and indirect effects in real food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, José M; Woodward, Guy; Emmerson, Mark C; Solé, Ricard V

    2009-09-01

    The prediction of the effects of disturbances in natural systems is limited by the general lack of knowledge on the strength of species interactions, i.e., the effect of one species on the population growth rate of another, and by the uncertainty of the effects that may be manifested via indirect pathways within the food web. Here we explored the consequences of changes in species populations for the remaining species within nine exceptionally well-characterized empirical food webs, for which, unlike the vast majority of other published webs, feeding links have been fully quantified. Using the inverse of the Jacobian matrix, we found that perturbations to species with few connections have larger net effects (considering both direct and indirect pathways between two species) on the rest of the food web than do disturbances to species that are highly connected. For 40% of predator-prey links, predators had positive net effects on prey populations, due to the predominance of indirect interactions. Our results highlight the fundamental, but often counterintuitive, role of indirect effects for the maintenance of food web complexity and biodiversity.

  5. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets.

  6. Perturbing Streaming in Dictyostelium discoidium Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rericha, Erin; Garcia, Gene; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The ability of cells to move towards environmental cues is a critical process allowing the destruction of intruders by the immune system, the formation of the vascular system and the whole scale remodeling of tissues during embryo development. We examine the initial transition from single cell to group migration in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Upon starvation, D. discoidium cells enter into a developmental program that triggers solitary cells to aggregate into a multicellular structure. The aggregation is mediated by the small molecule, cyclic-AMP, that cells sense, synthesize, secrete and migrate towards often in a head-to-tail fashion called a stream. Using experiment and numerical simulation, we study the sensitivity of streams to perturbations in the cyclic-AMP concentration field. We find the stability of the streams requires cells to shape the cyclic-AMP field through localized secretion and degradation. In addition, we find the streaming phenotype is sensitive to changes in the substrate properties, with slicker surfaces leading to longer more branched streams that yield large initial aggregates.

  7. Perturbation theory for multipolar discrete fluids.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Ana L; Gámez, Francisco

    2011-10-07

    An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy of discrete multipolar potentials as a function of density, temperature, and intermolecular parameters is obtained as an extension of the multipolar square-well perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides, Y. Guevara, and F. del Río, Physica A 202, 420 (1994)]. The presented procedure is suitable for the description of a more general intermolecular potential model taking into account the overlap and dispersion forces through a discrete potential represented by a sequence of square-shoulders and wells, as well as electrostatic interactions. The main advantage of this approach is that since the Helmholtz free energy is given as an explicit expression in terms of the intermolecular parameters characterizing the interaction, the properties of interest can be easily obtained through usual thermodynamic relations. Besides, since a great variety of discretized potentials can be used with this equation of state, its applicability is very vast. By varying the intermolecular parameters, some illustrative cases are considered, and their phase diagrams are tested against available simulation data. It is found that this theoretical approach is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively well the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the chosen potentials with different multipole moment of varied strengths, except in the critical region.

  8. Perturbative quantum gravity with the Immirzi parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Dario; Speziale, Simone

    2011-06-01

    We study perturbative quantum gravity in the first-order tetrad formalism. The lowest order action corresponds to Einstein-Cartan plus a parity-odd term, and is known in the literature as the Holst action. The coupling constant of the parity-odd term can be identified with the Immirzi parameter γ of loop quantum gravity. We compute the quantum effective action in the one-loop expansion. As in the metric second-order formulation, we find that in the case of pure gravity the theory is on-shell finite, and the running of Newton's constant and the Immirzi parameter is inessential. In the presence of fermions, the situation changes in two fundamental aspects. First, non-renormalizable logarithmic divergences appear, as usual. Second, the Immirzi parameter becomes a priori observable, and we find that it is renormalized by a four-fermion interaction generated by radiative corrections. We compute its beta function and discuss possible implications. The sign of the beta function depends on whether the Immirzi parameter is larger or smaller than one in absolute value, and γ2 = 1 is a UV fixed-point (we work in Euclidean signature). Finally, we find that the Holst action is stable with respect to radiative corrections in the case of minimal coupling, up to higher order non-renormalizable interactions.

  9. A perturbative framework for jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapp, Korinna C.; Krauss, Frank; Wiedemann, Urs A.

    2013-03-01

    We present a conceptually new framework for describing jet evolution in the dense medium produced in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions using perturbative QCD and its implementation into the Monte Carlo event generator Jewel. The rescattering of hard partons in the medium is modelled by infrared continued pQCD matrix elements supplemented with parton showers. The latter approximate higher order real-emission matrix elements and thus generate medium-induced gluon emissions. The interplay between different emissions is governed by their formation times. The destructive interference between subsequent scattering processes, the non-Abelian version of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, is also taken into account. In this way the complete radiation pattern is consistently treated in a uniform way. Results obtained within this minimal and theoretically well constrained framework are compared with a variety of experimental data susceptible to jet-quenching effects at both RHIC and the LHC. Overall, a good agreement between data and simulation is found. This new framework also allows to identify and quantify the dominant uncertainties in the simulation, and we show some relevant examples for this.

  10. Perturbation theory for multipolar discrete fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Ana L.; Gámez, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    An analytical expression for the Helmholtz free energy of discrete multipolar potentials as a function of density, temperature, and intermolecular parameters is obtained as an extension of the multipolar square-well perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides, Y. Guevara, and F. del Río, Physica A 202, 420 (1994), 10.1016/0378-4371(94)90469-3]. The presented procedure is suitable for the description of a more general intermolecular potential model taking into account the overlap and dispersion forces through a discrete potential represented by a sequence of square-shoulders and wells, as well as electrostatic interactions. The main advantage of this approach is that since the Helmholtz free energy is given as an explicit expression in terms of the intermolecular parameters characterizing the interaction, the properties of interest can be easily obtained through usual thermodynamic relations. Besides, since a great variety of discretized potentials can be used with this equation of state, its applicability is very vast. By varying the intermolecular parameters, some illustrative cases are considered, and their phase diagrams are tested against available simulation data. It is found that this theoretical approach is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively well the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the chosen potentials with different multipole moment of varied strengths, except in the critical region.

  11. Carbon content on perturbed wetlands of Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ojeda, S. M.; Orellana, R.; Herrera Silveira, J.

    2013-05-01

    The north coast of Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic scenario where the water flows mainly underground through the so called "cenotes"-ring system ("sink holes") toward the coast. This underground water system enhances the connection between watershed condition and coastal ecosystem health. Inland activities such as livestock, agriculture and urban development produce changes in the landscape, hydrological connectivity and in the water quality that can decrease wetland coverage specially mangroves and seagrasses. We conducted studies on the description of structure, biomass and carbon content of the soil, above and below ground of four different types of wetland in a perturbed region. The wetland ecological types were freshwater (Typha domingensis), dwarf mangroves (Avicenia germinans), grassland (Cyperacea) and Seagrasses. Due to the area is mainly covered by mangroves, they represent the most important carbon storage nevertheless the condition of the structure determine the carbon content in soil. Through GIS tools we explore the relationships between land use and costal condition in order to determine priority areas for conservation within the watershed that could be efficient to preserve the carbon storage of this area.

  12. Previrialization: Perturbative and N-Body Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokas, E. L.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Hivon, E.

    1996-08-01

    We present a series of N-body experiments which confirm the reality of the previrialization effect. We use also a weakly nonlinear perturbative approach to study the phenomenon. These two approaches agree when the rms density contrast, σ, is small; more surprisingly, they remain in agreement when σ ~ 1. When the slope of the initial power spectrum is n > -1, nonlinear tidal interactions slow down the growth of density fluctuations, and the magnitude of the suppression increases when n (i.e., the relative amount of small-scale power) is increased. For n < -1, we see an opposite effect: the fluctuations grow more rapidly than in linear theory. The transition occurs at n = -1 when the weakly nonlinear correction to σ is close to zero and the growth rate is close to linear. Our results resolve recent controversy between two N- body studies of previrialization. Peebles assumed n = 0 and found strong evidence in support of previrialization, while Evrard & Crone, who assumed n = -1, reached opposite conclusions. As we show here, the initial conditions with n = -1 are rather special because the nonlinear effects nearly cancel out for that particular spectrum. In addition to our calculations for scale-free initial spectra, we show results for a more realistic spectrum of Peacock & Dodds. Its slope near the scale usually adopted for normalization is close to -1, so σ is close to linear. Our results retroactively justify linear normalization at 8 h^-1^ Mpc while also demonstrating the danger and limitations of this practice.

  13. ELF/VLF Perturbations Above the Haarp Transmitter Recorded by the Demeter Satellite in the Upper Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, E. E.; Demekhov, A. G.; Mochalov, A. A.; Gvozdevsky, B. B.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Parrot, M.

    2015-08-01

    In the studies of the data received from DEMETER (orbit altitude above the Earth is about 700 km), we detected for the first time electromagnetic perturbations, which are due to the ionospheric modification by HAARP, a high-power high-frequency transmitter, simultaneously in the extremely low-frequency (ELF, below 1200 Hz) and very low-frequency (VLF, below 20 kHz) ranges. Of the thirteen analyzed flybys of the satellite above the heated area, the ELF/VLF signals were detected in three cases in the daytime (LT = 11-12 h), when the minimum distance between the geomagnetic projections of the satellite and the heated area center on the Earth's surface did not exceed 31 km. During the nighttime flybys, the ELF/VLF perturbations were not detected. The size of the perturbed region was about 100 km. The amplitude, spectrum, and polarization of the ELF perturbations were analyzed, and their comparison with the characteristics of natural ELF noise above the HAARP transmitter was performed. In particular, it was shown that in the daytime the ELF perturbation amplitude above the heated area can exceed by a factor of 3 to 8 the amplitude of natural ELF noise. The absence of the nighttime records of artificial ELF/VLF perturbations above the heated area can be due to both the lower frequency of the heating signal, at which the heating occurs in the lower ionosphere, and the higher level of natural noise. The spectrum of the VLF signals related to the HAARP transmitter operation had two peaks at frequencies of 8 to 10 kHz and 15 to 18 kHz, which are close to the first and second harmonics of the lower-hybrid resonance in the heated area. The effect of the whistler wave propagation near the lower-hybrid resonance region on the perturbation spectrum recorded in the upper ionosphere for these signals has been demonstrated. In particular, some of the spectrum features can be explained by assuming that the VLF signals propagate in quasiresonance, rather than quasilongitudinal, regime

  14. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  15. Density perturbations in a finite scale factor singularity universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerzak, Adam; Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2012-07-01

    We discuss evolution of density perturbations in cosmological models which admit finite scale factor singularities. After solving the matter perturbations equations we find that there exists a set of parameters which admits a finite scale factor singularity in future and instantaneously recover matter density evolution history which is indistinguishable from the standard ΛCDM scenario.

  16. Investigation of Fano resonance in planar metamaterial with perturbed periodicity.

    PubMed

    Pu, Mingbo; Hu, Chenggang; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Changtao; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Yanqin; Luo, Xiangang

    2013-01-14

    In this paper, we report the formation of sharp Fano resonance in planar metamaterial array with perturbed periodicity. Rigorous sheet impedance theory is given to analyze the electric-magnetic and magnetic-magnetic coupling effects. It is found that periodicity perturbation can provide a general approach for Fano resonance with ultra-strong local field enhancement.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: A concise introduction to perturbation theory in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Karim A.; Matravers, David R.

    2008-10-01

    We give a concise, self-contained introduction to perturbation theory in cosmology at linear and second orders, striking a balance between mathematical rigour and usability. In particular, we discuss gauge issues and the active and passive approaches to calculating gauge transformations. We also construct gauge-invariant variables, including the second-order tensor perturbation on uniform curvature hypersurfaces.

  18. Plasma-satellite interaction driven magnetic field perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed-ur-Rehman; Marchand, Richard

    2014-09-15

    We report the first fully kinetic quantitative estimate of magnetic field perturbations caused by the interaction of a spacecraft with space environment. Such perturbations could affect measurements of geophysical magnetic fields made with very sensitive magnetometers on-board satellites. Our approach is illustrated with a calculation of perturbed magnetic fields near the recently launched Swarm satellites. In this case, magnetic field perturbations do not exceed 20 pT, and they are below the sensitivity threshold of the on-board magnetometers. Anticipating future missions in which satellites and instruments would be subject to more intense solar UV radiation, however, it appears that magnetic field perturbations associated with satellite interaction with space environment, might approach or exceed instruments' sensitivity thresholds.

  19. A new model for realistic random perturbations of stochastic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieci, Luca; Li, Wuchen; Zhou, Haomin

    2016-08-01

    Classical theories predict that solutions of differential equations will leave any neighborhood of a stable limit cycle, if white noise is added to the system. In reality, many engineering systems modeled by second order differential equations, like the van der Pol oscillator, show incredible robustness against noise perturbations, and the perturbed trajectories remain in the neighborhood of a stable limit cycle for all times of practical interest. In this paper, we propose a new model of noise to bridge this apparent discrepancy between theory and practice. Restricting to perturbations from within this new class of noise, we consider stochastic perturbations of second order differential systems that -in the unperturbed case- admit asymptotically stable limit cycles. We show that the perturbed solutions are globally bounded and remain in a tubular neighborhood of the underlying deterministic periodic orbit. We also define stochastic Poincaré map(s), and further derive partial differential equations for the transition density function.

  20. Reducing Plasma Perturbations with Segmented Metal Shielding on Electrostatic Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch N.J.

    2002-10-02

    Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters in the quasi-neutral plasma created in Hall thrusters and similar E x B electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In an attempt to reduce these perturbations in Hall thrusters, the perturbations were examined by varying the component material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. This study leads us to a conclusion that secondary electron emission from insulator ceramic tubes of the probe can affect local changes of the plasma parameters causing plasma perturbations. A probe design, which consists of a segmented metal shielding of the probe insulator, is suggested to reduce these perturbations. This new probe design can be useful for plasma applications in which the electron temperature is sufficient to produce secondary electron emission by interaction of plasma electrons with dielectric materials.

  1. A hybrid variational-perturbational nuclear motion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fábri, Csaba; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.

    2014-09-01

    A hybrid variational-perturbational nuclear motion algorithm based on the perturbative treatment of the Coriolis coupling terms of the Eckart-Watson kinetic energy operator following a variational treatment of the rest of the operator is described. The algorithm has been implemented in the quantum chemical code DEWE. Performance of the hybrid treatment is assessed by comparing selected numerically exact variational vibration-only and rovibrational energy levels of the C2H4, C2D4, and CH4 molecules with their perturbatively corrected counterparts. For many of the rotational-vibrational states examined, numerical tests reveal excellent agreement between the variational and even the first-order perturbative energy levels, whilst the perturbative approach is able to reduce the computational cost of the matrix-vector product evaluations, needed by the iterative Lanczos eigensolver, by almost an order of magnitude.

  2. Arithmetic with X-ray images of galaxy clusters: effective equation of state for small-scale perturbations in the ICM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churazov, E.; Arevalo, P.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Schekochihin, A.; Vikhlinin, A.; Zhuravleva, I.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a novel technique of manipulating X-ray images of galaxy clusters to reveal the nature of small-scale density/temperature perturbations in the intracluster medium (ICM). As we show, this technique can be used to differentiate between sound waves and isobaric perturbations in Chandra images of the Perseus and M87/Virgo clusters. The comparison of the manipulated images with the radio data and with the results of detailed spectral analysis shows that this approach successfully classifies the types of perturbations and helps to reveal their nature. For the central regions (5-100 kpc) of the M87 and Perseus clusters, this analysis suggests that observed images are dominated by isobaric perturbations, followed by perturbations caused by bubbles of relativistic plasma and weak shocks. Such a hierarchy is best explained in a `slow' active galactic nuclei feedback scenario, when much of the mechanical energy output of a central black hole is captured by the bubble enthalpy that is gradually released during buoyant rise of the bubbles. The `image arithmetic' works best for prominent structure and for data sets with excellent statistics, visualizing the perturbations with a given effective equation of state. The same approach can be extended to faint perturbations via cross-spectrum analysis of surface brightness fluctuations in X-ray images in different energy bands.

  3. CMB constraint on non-Gaussianity in isocurvature perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Hikage, Chiaki; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2013-07-01

    We study the CMB constraints on non-Gaussianity in CDM isocurvature perturbations. Non-Gaussian isocurvature perturbations can be produced in various models at the very early stage of the Universe. Since the isocurvature perturbations little affect the structure formation at late times, CMB is the best probe of isocurvature non-Gaussianity at least in the near future. In this paper, we focus on non-Gaussian curvature and isocurvature perturbations of the local-type, which are uncorrelated and in the form ζ = ζ{sub G}+(3/5)f{sub NL}(ζ{sub G}{sup 2}−(ζ{sub G}{sup 2})) and S = S{sub G}+f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)}(S{sub G}−(S{sub G}{sup 2})), and constrain the non-linearity parameter of isocurvature perturbations, f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)}, as well as the curvature one f{sub NL}. For this purpose, we employ several state-of-art techniques for the analysis of CMB data and simulation. Assuming that isocurvature perturbations are subdominant, we apply our method to the WMAP 7-year data of temperature anisotropy and obtain constraints on a combination α{sup 2}f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)}, where α is the ratio of the power spectrum of isocurvature perturbations to that of the adiabatic ones. When the adiabatic perturbations are assumed to be Gaussian, we obtained a constraint α{sup 2}f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)} = 40±66 assuming the power spectrum of isocurvature perturbations is scale-invariant. When we assume that the adiabatic perturbations can also be non-Gaussian, we obtain f{sub NL} = 38±24 and α{sup 2}f{sub NL}{sup (ISO)} = −8±72. We also discuss implications of our results for the axion CDM isocurvature model.

  4. Chemical Approaches To Perturb, Profile, and Perceive Glycans

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Glycosylation is an essential form of post-translational modification that regulates intracellular and extracellular processes. Regrettably, conventional biochemical and genetic methods often fall short for the study of glycans, because their structures are often not precisely defined at the genetic level. To address this deficiency, chemists have developed technologies to perturb glycan biosynthesis, profile their presentation at the systems level, and perceive their spatial distribution. These tools have identified potential disease biomarkers and ways to monitor dynamic changes to the glycome in living organisms. Still, glycosylation remains the underexplored frontier of many biological systems. In this Account, we focus on research in our laboratory that seeks to transform the study of glycan function from a challenge to routine practice. In studies of proteins and nucleic acids, functional studies have often relied on genetic manipulations to perturb structure. Though not directly subject to mutation, we can determine glycan structure−function relationships by synthesizing defined glycoconjugates or by altering natural glycosylation pathways. Chemical syntheses of uniform glycoproteins and polymeric glycoprotein mimics have facilitated the study of individual glycoconjugates in the absence of glycan microheterogeneity. Alternatively, selective inhibition or activation of glycosyltransferases or glycosidases can define the biological roles of the corresponding glycans. Investigators have developed tools including small molecule inhibitors, decoy substrates, and engineered proteins to modify cellular glycans. Current approaches offer a precision approaching that of genetic control. Genomic and proteomic profiling form a basis for biological discovery. Glycans also present a rich matrix of information that adapts rapidly to changing environs. Glycomic and glycoproteomic analyses via microarrays and mass spectrometry are beginning to characterize alterations in

  5. The rat mammary gland: morphologic changes as an indicator of systemic hormonal perturbations induced by xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Julia N; Rudmann, Daniel G; Credille, Kelly M; Irizarry, Armando R; Peter, Augustine; Snyder, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The development and morphology of the rat mammary gland are dependent upon several hormones including estrogens, androgens, progesterone, growth hormone and prolactin. In toxicology studies, treatment with xenobiotics may alter these hormones resulting in changes in the morphology of reproductive tissues such as the mammary gland. In the rat, male and female mammary glands exhibit striking morphologic differences that can be altered secondary to hormonal perturbations. Recognizing these morphologic changes can help the pathologist predict potential xenobiotic-induced perturbations in the systemic hormonal milieu. This review examines the development of the rat mammary gland and the influence of sex hormones on the morphology of the adult male and female rat mammary gland. Specific case examples from the literature and data from our laboratory highlight the dynamic nature of the rat mammary gland in response to hormonal changes.

  6. Scale-invariant perturbations from null-energy-condition violation: A new variant of Galilean genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2017-03-01

    We propose a novel branch of the Galilean genesis scenario as an alternative to inflation, in which the Universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past with a gross violation of the null energy condition (NEC). This variant, described by several functions and parameters within the Horndeski scalar-tensor theory, shares the same background dynamics with the existing genesis models, but the nature of primordial quantum fluctuations is quite distinct. In some cases, tensor perturbations grow on superhorizon scales. The tensor power spectrum can be red, blue, or scale invariant, depending on the model, while scalar perturbations are nearly scale invariant. This is in sharp contrast to typical NEC-violating cosmologies, in which a blue tensor tilt is generated. Though the primordial tensor and scalar spectra are both nearly scale invariant as in the inflationary scenario, the consistency relation in our variant of Galilean genesis is nonstandard.

  7. Challenges in the extraction of TMDs from SIDIS data: perturbative vs non-perturbative aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Boglione, Mariaelena; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jose O.; Melis, Stefano; Prokudin, Alexey

    2015-09-01

    We present our recent results on the study of the Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) cross section as a function of the transverse momentum, qT. Using the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism, we study the matching between the region where fixed-order perturbative QCD can successfully be applied and the region where soft gluon resummation is necessary. We find that the commonly used prescription of matching through the so-called Y-factor cannot be applied in the SIDIS kinematical configurations we examine. We comment on the impact that the nonperturbative component has even at relatively high energies.

  8. Nonexplicit Singular Perturbations and Interconnected Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Network Systems," Proc. of IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 206-214, 1981. 30. C. A. Desoer and M. J. Shensa, "Networks with Very Small and...Very Large Parasitics: Natural Frequencies and Stability," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 58, pp. 1933-1938, 1970. 31. S. S. Sastry and C. A. Desoer , "Jump Behavior

  9. Transport of energetic ions by low-n magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1992-10-01

    The stochastic transport of MeV ions induced by low-n magnetic perturbations is studied, focussing chiefly on the stochastic mechanism operative for passing particles in low frequency perturbations. Beginning with a single-harmonic form for the perturbing field, it iii first shown numerically and analytically that the stochastic threshold of energetic particles can be much lower than that of the magnetic field, contrary to earlier expectations, so that MHD perturbations could cause appreciable loss of energetic ions without destroying the bulk confinement. The analytic theory is then extended in a number of directions, to darity the relation of the present stochaistic mechanism to instances already found, to allow for more complex perturbations, and to consider the more general relationship between the stochasticity of magnetic fields, and that of particles of differing energies (and pitch angles) moving in those fields. It is shown that the stochastic threshold is in general a nonmonotonic function of energy, whose form can to some extent be tailored to achieve desired goals (e.g., burn control or ash removal) by a judicious choice of the perturbation. Illustrative perturbations are exhibited which are stochastic for low but not for high-energy ions, for high but not for low-energy ions, and for intermediate-energy ions, but not for low or high energy. The second possibility is the behavior needed for burn control; the third provides a possible mechanism for ash removal.

  10. Transient responses to spatial perturbations in advective systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kurt E; Nisbet, Roger M; McCauley, Edward

    2008-07-01

    We study the transient dynamics, following a spatially-extended perturbation of models describing populations residing in advective media such as streams and rivers. Our analyses emphasize metrics that are independent of initial perturbations-resilience, reactivity, and the amplification envelope-and relate them to component spatial wavelengths of the perturbation using spatial Fourier transforms of the state variables. This approach offers a powerful way of understanding the influence of spatial scale on the initial dynamics of a population following a spatially variable environmental perturbation, an important property in determining the ecological implications of transient dynamics in advective systems. We find that asymptotically stable systems may exhibit transient amplification of perturbations (i.e., have positive reactivity) for some spatial wavelengths and not others. Furthermore, the degree and duration of amplification varies strongly with spatial wavelength. For two single-population models, there is a relationship between transient dynamics and the response length that characterizes the steady state response to spatial perturbations: a long response length implies that peak amplification of perturbations is small and occurs fast. This relationship holds less generally in a specialist consumer-resource model, likely due to the model's tendency for flow-induced instabilities at an alternative characteristic spatial scale.

  11. Perturbation solution of the shape of a nonaxisymmetric sessile drop.

    PubMed

    Prabhala, Bharadwaj; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Subramanian, Venkat R; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2010-07-06

    We develop an approximate analytical solution for the shape of a nonaxisymmetric sessile drop using regular perturbation methods and ignoring gravity. We assume that the pinned, contorted triple-line shape is known and is a small perturbation of the circular footprint of a spherical cap. We obtain an analytical solution using regular perturbation methods that we validate by comparing to the numerical solution of the Young-Laplace equation obtained using publicly available Surface Evolver software. In this process, we also show that the pressure inside the perturbed drop is unchanged and relate this to the curvature of the drop using the Young-Laplace equation. The rms error between the perturbation and Evolver solutions is calculated for a range of contact angles and amplitudes of triple-line perturbations. We show that the perturbation solution matches the numerical results well for a wide range of contact angles. In addition, we calculate the extent to which the drop surface is affected by triple-line contortions. We discuss the applicability of this solution to the possibility of real time hybrid experimental/computational characterization of the 3D sessile drop shapes, including obtaining local contact angle information.

  12. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  13. Development of a perturbation generator for vortex stability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, J. E.; Ash, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Theory predicts vortex instability when subjected to certain types of disturbances. It was desired to build a device which could introduce controlled velocity perturbations into a trailing line vortex in order to study the effects on stability. A perturbation generator was designed and manufactured which can be attached to the centerbody of an airfoil type vortex generator. Details of design tests and manufacturing of the perturbation generator are presented. The device produced controlled perturbation with frequencies in excess of 250 Hz. Preliminary testing and evaluation of the perturbation generator performance was conducted in a 4 inch cylindrical pipe. Observations of vortex shedding frequencies from a centerbody were measured. Further evaluation with the perturbation generator attached to the vortex generator in a 2 x 3 foot wind tunnel were also conducted. Hot-wire anemometry was used to confirm the perturbation generator's ability to introduce controlled frequency fluctuations. Comparison of the energy levels of the disturbances in the vortex core was made between locations 42 chord lengths and 15 chord lengths downstream.

  14. Black hole perturbation theory in a light cone gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Brent

    The metric of a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field is studied using black hole perturbation theory in a light crone coordinate system that penetrates the event horizon and possesses a clear geometrical meaning. The magnetic field, which is distorted due to the presence of the black hole, has strength B which is assumed to be small compared to the curvature of the spacetime which allows the perturbed metric to be calculated to order B 2 only. The coordinates allow for an easy identification of the event horizon and the properties of the perturbed black hole are studied. To interpret this perturbed metric, the advanced coordinates are decomposed into irreducible parts which yields the metric of a perturbed black hole in the limit r >> 2 M . Finally we compare our perturbed solution to an exact solution. We show that our perturbed solution is able to match the exact solution but has the freedom to describe a larger class of physically relevant solutions.

  15. Cosmological perturbations in a family of deformations of general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua

    2010-06-01

    We study linear cosmological perturbations in a previously introduced family of deformations of general relativity characterized by the absence of new degrees of freedom. The homogeneous and isotropic background in this class of theories is unmodified and is described by the usual Friedmann equations. The theory of cosmological perturbations is modified and the relevant deformation parameter has the dimension of length. Gravitational perturbations of the scalar type can be described by a certain relativistic potential related to the matter perturbations just as in general relativity. A system of differential equations describing the evolution of this potential and of the stress-energy density perturbations is obtained. We find that the evolution of scalar perturbations proceeds with a modified effective time-dependent speed of sound, which, contrary to the case of general relativity, does not vanish even at the matter-dominated stage. In a broad range of values of the length parameter controlling the deformation, a specific transition from the regime of modified gravity to the regime of general relativity in the evolution of scalar perturbations takes place during the radiation domination. In this case, the resulting power spectrum of perturbations in radiation and dark matter is suppressed on the comoving spatial scales that enter the Hubble radius before this transition. We estimate the bounds on the deformation parameter for which this suppression does not lead to observable consequences. Evolution of scalar perturbations at the inflationary stage is modified but very slightly and the primordial spectrum generated during inflation is not noticeably different from the one obtained in general relativity.

  16. Instability of triangular libration points in the perturbed photogravitational R3BP with Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagadish; Aminu, Abdulkarim

    2014-06-01

    We consider the primaries of the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) to be luminous and investigate the influences of small perturbations in the Coriolis and centrifugal forces together with Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag from both primaries on the triangular points. It is seen, both analytically and numerically, that the positions of triangular points are affected by the radiation pressures, P-R drag and a small perturbation in the centrifugal force. This has been shown for the binary systems Luyten 726-8 and Kruger 60.1. These perturbing forces do not influence the nature of the stability of triangular points in the presence of P-R drag. They remain unstable in the linear sense.

  17. Dynamics of strongly perturbed planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mark Christopher

    2001-08-01

    This thesis looks at the dynamics of regions of rings that are located close to a small moon so that they receive a significant eccentricity from every pass by that moon. All investigations were performed with highly optimized, large N-body numerical simulations that use new boundary conditions specifically designed for this type of system. The first system explored is the Encke gap region where the small moon Pan has cleared out a 325 km region of Saturn's rings. Simulations indicate that the behavior of this system is significantly more complex than what is found by standard fluid models of ring dynamics due largely to the fact that the particles epicyclic phases are aligned. The wake peaks decline exponentially at the end of the simulations and the dependence of this rate of this decline was examined as a function of optical depth, particle size, and coefficient of restitution. The variations are non-monotonical with optical depth and coefficient of restitution. The alignment of epicyclic phases in the wakes enables the guiding centers of the particles to undergo efficient radial migration. This process allows the particle guiding centers to group at the edges of the simulation region and in some cases is seen to result in ringlet formation. For regions more distant from the perturber than the edge of the Encke gap, the synodic periods are shorter and as a result, the forced eccentricities do not damp out completely in a synodic period. When this occurs, the presence of Lindblad resonances is seen. These resonances are observed to induce periodic structures in regions far from the Encke gap and speed narrow ringlet formation in systems resembling Saturn's F-ring. However, the narrow rings do not have to be located in resonances to be maintained, as the standard theory of shepherding would imply. Simulations including size distributions exhibited a buildup of small particles at the boundaries, in agreement with Voyager observations. Simulations involving self

  18. Second-order perturbation on a SDCI calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynau, Daniel; Heully, Jean-Louis

    1993-08-01

    Starting from a SDCI calculation the SD eigenvector is perturbed by all triply and quadruply excited determinants. Efficiency is promoted through direct CI techniques, however, some flexibility has been kept, making possible the use of various perturbational schemes (here: Epstein—Nesbet and M∅ller—Plesset). The SDCI starting point avoids divergence problems posed by CCSD(T) and also by purely perturbative methods such as MP4. Several calculations on the potential curves of some molecules (H 2O, N 2, F 2, Ne 2) show that the present method is at least as good as the MP4 or CCSD(T) methods at comparable computational cost.

  19. Characterizing regulatory path motifs in integrated networks using perturbational data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We introduce Pathicular http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/software/details/Pathicular, a Cytoscape plugin for studying the cellular response to perturbations of transcription factors by integrating perturbational expression data with transcriptional, protein-protein and phosphorylation networks. Pathicular searches for 'regulatory path motifs', short paths in the integrated physical networks which occur significantly more often than expected between transcription factors and their targets in the perturbational data. A case study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies eight regulatory path motifs and demonstrates their biological significance. PMID:20230615

  20. Stability of coflowing capillary jets under nonaxisymmetric perturbations.

    PubMed

    Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, linear hydrodynamic stability analysis is used to study the response of a capillary jet and a coflowing fluid to both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations. The temporal analysis revealed that nonaxisymmetric perturbations were damped (or overdamped) within the region of parameter space explored, which involved equal velocities for the jet and focusing fluid. It is explained how an extension to a spatiotemporal analysis implies that those perturbations can yield no transition from convective (jetting) to absolute (whipping) instability for that parameter region. This result provides a theoretical explanation for the absence of that kind of transition in most experimental results in the literature.

  1. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    SciTech Connect

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

    2010-10-10

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  2. Gauge invariant perturbations of Petrov type D space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, Bernard; Shah, Abhay

    2016-03-01

    The Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations are satisfied by gauge invariant perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole geometry. Both the perturbation of the imaginary part of Ψ2 (a component of the Weyl curvature), and its time derivative, are gauge invariant and solve the Regge-Wheeler equation with different sources. The Ψ0 and Ψ4 perturbations of the Weyl curvature are not only gauge, but also tetrad, invariant. We explore the framework in which these results hold, and consider what generalizations may extend to the Kerr geometry, and presumably to Petrov type D space-times in general. NSF Grants PHY 1205906 and 1314529, ERC (EU) FP7 Grant 304978.

  3. Secular perturbations of the Uranian satellites - Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, R.; Fox, K.; Murray, C. D.; Nicholson, P. D.

    1989-09-01

    A simple revised secular perturbation theory which incorporates the averaged secular effect of first-order near-resonances is derived. By including the effects of these near-resonances, the largest error in the secular frequencies is reduced from 16 percent to less than 3 percent. It is concluded that the revised secular perturbation theory is adequate for the quantitative modeling of the long-term perturbations in the Uranian satellite system. If incorporated within the general theory of Laskar (1986), this theory would lead to completely analytic theory.

  4. Cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid and noncommutative variables

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Gerard, Jean-Marc; Suyama, Teruaki

    2010-03-15

    We describe the linear cosmological perturbations of a perfect fluid at the level of an action, providing thus an alternative to the standard approach based only on the equations of motion. This action is suited not only to perfect fluids with a barotropic equation of state, but also to those for which the pressure depends on two thermodynamical variables. By quantizing the system we find that (1) some perturbation fields exhibit a noncommutativity quite analogous to the one observed for a charged particle moving in a strong magnetic field, (2) local curvature and pressure perturbations cannot be measured simultaneously, (3) ghosts appear if the null energy condition is violated.

  5. Extreme Value Analysis of Tidal Stream Velocity Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Samuel; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Bryden, Ian

    2011-04-26

    This paper presents a statistical extreme value analysis of maximum velocity perturbations from the mean flow speed in a tidal stream. This study was performed using tidal velocity data measured using both an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the same location which allows for direct comparison of predictions. The extreme value analysis implements of a Peak-Over-Threshold method to explore the effect of perturbation length and time scale on the magnitude of a 50-year perturbation.

  6. Natural Xanthones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova-Dyatlova, O. A.; Glyzin, V. I.

    1982-10-01

    The available information on the abundance of natural xanthones in nature and the methods for the determination of their structure, biogenesis, and pharmacological properties is surveyed and described systematically. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  7. Anticipation of direction and time of perturbation modulates the onset latency of trunk muscle responses during sitting perturbations.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Matija; Shinya, Masahiro; Masani, Kei; Patel, Kramay; McConville, Kristiina M V; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R

    2016-02-01

    Trunk muscles are responsible for maintaining trunk stability during sitting. However, the effects of anticipation of perturbation on trunk muscle responses are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to identify the responses of trunk muscles to sudden support surface translations and quantify the effects of anticipation of direction and time of perturbation on the trunk neuromuscular responses. Twelve able-bodied individuals participated in the study. Participants were seated on a kneeling chair and support surface translations were applied in the forward and backward directions with and without direction and time of perturbation cues. The trunk started moving on average approximately 40ms after the perturbation. During unanticipated perturbations, average latencies of the trunk muscle contractions were in the range between 103.4 and 117.4ms. When participants anticipated the perturbations, trunk muscle latencies were reduced by 16.8±10.0ms and the time it took the trunk to reach maximum velocity was also reduced, suggesting a biomechanical advantage caused by faster muscle responses. These results suggested that trunk muscles have medium latency responses and use reflexive mechanisms. Moreover, anticipation of perturbation decreased trunk muscles latencies, suggesting that the central nervous system modulated readiness of the trunk based on anticipatory information.

  8. Effect of perturbations on magnetic fields as a possible problem for implementing toroidal magnetic configurations with a zero rotational transform

    SciTech Connect

    Danilkin, I. S.

    2007-10-15

    Approved reliable methods and a unified quasi-resonant approach are used to reproduce the results characterizing the effect of dangerous perturbations on three particular types of toroidal magnetic configurations with a zero rotational transform ({iota}/2{pi} = 0). An analysis is made of the perturbations whose geometry and amplitudes correspond to imperfections and defects in the assembly of the actual magnetic systems of conventional stellarators. The effect of perturbations on magnetic configurations with {iota}/2{pi} = 0 is of the same quasi-resonant nature as that for systems with {iota}/2{pi} {ne} 0 and a zero magnetic shear. However, in contrast to shearless configurations with a nonzero rotational transform, the most dangerous perturbations are those with n = 0 and m = 1, 2, 3, ? (where m is the poloidal mode number and n is the toroidal mode number) and the effect of harmonics with the smallest poloidal and toroidal numbers is more destructive and nonlocal even for the amplitudes corresponding to imperfections and defects in the assembly of conventional stellarators. Such an extremely high sensitivity of magnetic systems with {iota}/2{pi} = 0 to the perturbations under consideration may be a serious obstacle for their practical implementation.

  9. Harnessing the Power of Chiral Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isgur, Nathan

    2001-12-01

    I have enjoyed noticing the puzzled looks around the conference this week as some participants carefully labelled themselves High Energy Physicists, taking some offense if they are called Nuclear Physicists, and vice versa. This is partly a trivial issue associated with US funding sources, but it also reflects some very deeply-held feelings about Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD): a High Energy Physicist finds the strong interactions a nuisance and is studying QCD to be able to eliminate them, while a Nuclear Physicist believes that the nature and origin of the strong interactions is one of the most important unsolved problems in the Standard Model and studies QCD to be able to explain them...

  10. Development of perturbations in the boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovgal, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Kozlov, V. V.; Levchenko, V. Y.; Maksimov, V. P.

    1986-01-01

    The transition of laminar flows into turbulent flows in a boundary layer is discussed. The individual aspects of the transition process, observed under controllable model conditions are examined. The aspect of this problem, namely the development or excitation of the natural oscillations in the boundary layer, the so-called Tollmin-Schlichting waves is covered. Three types of excitation of these waves are considered: (1) distributed generation throughout the boundary layer; (2) generation in the vicinity of the forward edge of a model, having either a sharp edge or an edge with a large radius or curvature, and (3) generation in a developed boundary layer by means of a focused effect.

  11. Tracking perturbations in Boolean networks with spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseli, Juha; Rämö, Pauli; Yli-Harja, Olli

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we present a method for predicting the spread of perturbations in Boolean networks. The method is applicable to networks that have no regular topology. The prediction of perturbations can be performed easily by using a presented result which enables the efficient computation of the required iterative formulas. This result is based on abstract Fourier transform of the functions in the network. In this paper the method is applied to show the spread of perturbations in networks containing a distribution of functions found from biological data. The advances in the study of the spread of perturbations can directly be applied to enable ways of quantifying chaos in Boolean networks. Derrida plots over an arbitrary number of time steps can be computed and thus distributions of functions compared with each other with respect to the amount of order they create in random networks.

  12. Cosmological perturbations from a spectator field during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingfei; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we will discuss analytically the perturbations created from a slowly rolling subdominant spectator field which decays much before the end of inflation. The quantum fluctuations of such a spectator field can seed perturbations on very large scales and explain the temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation with moderate non-Gaussianity, provided the relevant modes leave the Hubble patch while the spectator is slowly rolling. Furthermore, the perturbations are purely adiabatic since the inflaton decay dominates and creates all the Standard Model degrees of freedom. We will provide two examples for the spectator field potential, one with a step function profile, and the other with an inflection point. In both the cases we will compute higher order curvature perturbations, i.e. local bispectrum and trispectrum, which can be constrained by the forthcoming Planck data.

  13. Cosmological perturbations of axion with a dynamical decay constant

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2016-08-25

    A QCD axion with a time-dependent decay constant has been known to be able to accommodate high-scale inflation without producing topological defects or too large isocurvature perturbations on CMB scales. We point out that a dynamical decay constant also has the effect of enhancing the small-scale axion isocurvature perturbations. The enhanced axion perturbations can even exceed the periodicity of the axion potential, and thus lead to the formation of axionic domain walls. Unlike the well-studied axionic walls, the walls produced from the enhanced perturbations are not bounded by cosmic strings, and thus would overclose the universe independently of the number of degenerate vacua along the axion potential.

  14. Gyroscope test of gravitation: An analysis of the important perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Two perturbations, the earth's quadrupole moment and the earth's revolution around the sun, are discussed. Schiff's proposed gyroscope test of gravitation is analyzed, along with the capability of deciphering each separate contribution to the angular velocity of spin precession.

  15. Detection of nerve agent via perturbation of supramolecular gel formation.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Jennifer R; Piana, Francesca; Sambrook, Mark R; Wells, Neil J; Clark, Alistair J; Vincent, Jack C; Busschaert, Nathalie; Brown, Richard C D; Gale, Philip A

    2013-10-14

    The formation of tren-based tris-urea supramolecular gels in organic solvents is perturbed by the presence of the nerve agent soman providing a new method of sensing the presence of organophosphorus warfare agents.

  16. Renormalization-scheme-invariant perturbation theory: Miracle or mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Chyla, J.

    1985-05-15

    A recently proposed solution to the renormalization-scheme ambiguity in perturbation theory is critically analyzed and shown to possess another kind of ambiguity closely related to the one it is supposed to cure.

  17. Approach to exact solutions of cosmological perturbations: Tachyon field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón; Pérez, Roberto G.

    2016-03-01

    An inflationary universe scenario in the context of a tachyon field is studied. This study is carried out using an ansatz for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations U (η ). We describe in great detail the analytical solutions of the scalar and tensor perturbations for two different Ansätze for the effective potential of cosmological perturbations: Easther's model and an effective potential similar to power-law inflation. Also, we find from the background equations that the effective tachyonic potentials V (φ ) in both models satisfy the properties of a tachyonic potential. We consider the recent data from the Planck to constrain the parameters in our effective potential generating the cosmological perturbations.

  18. Does perturbative quantum chromodynamics imply a Regge singularity above unity

    SciTech Connect

    Bishari, M.

    1982-07-15

    It is investigated whether perturbative quantum chromodynamics can have some implications on Regge behavior of deep-inelastic structure functions. The possible indirect but important role of unitarity, in constraining the theory, is pointed out.

  19. Some methods for calculation of perturbations in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abramov, B. D.

    2015-12-15

    Some methods for calculation of local perturbations of neutron fields and reactivity effects accompanying them are considered. Existence, uniqueness, properties and methods for finding solutions to the considered problems are discussed.

  20. Perturbative thermodynamics at nonzero isospin density for cold QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Thorben; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Fraga, Eduardo S.

    2016-04-01

    We use next-to-leading order in perturbation theory to investigate the effects of a finite isospin density on the thermodynamics of cold strongly interacting matter. Our results include nonzero quark masses and are compared to lattice data.

  1. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  2. Capillary-mediated interface perturbations: Deterministic pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.

    2016-09-01

    Leibniz-Reynolds analysis identifies a 4th-order capillary-mediated energy field that is responsible for shape changes observed during melting, and for interface speed perturbations during crystal growth. Field-theoretic principles also show that capillary-mediated energy distributions cancel over large length scales, but modulate the interface shape on smaller mesoscopic scales. Speed perturbations reverse direction at specific locations where they initiate inflection and branching on unstable interfaces, thereby enhancing pattern complexity. Simulations of pattern formation by several independent groups of investigators using a variety of numerical techniques confirm that shape changes during both melting and growth initiate at locations predicted from interface field theory. Finally, limit cycles occur as an interface and its capillary energy field co-evolve, leading to synchronized branching. Synchronous perturbations produce classical dendritic structures, whereas asynchronous perturbations observed in isotropic and weakly anisotropic systems lead to chaotic-looking patterns that remain nevertheless deterministic.

  3. Scalar perturbations on Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Zibin, J. P.

    2008-08-15

    In recent years there has been growing interest in verifying the horizon-scale homogeneity of the Universe that follows from applying the Copernican principle to the observed isotropy. This program has been stimulated by the discovery that a very large void, centered near us, can explain supernova luminosity distance measurements without dark energy. It is crucial to confront such models with as wide a variety of data as possible. With this application in mind, we develop the relativistic theory of linear scalar perturbations on spherically symmetric dust (Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi) spacetimes, using the covariant 1+1+2 formalism. We show that the evolution of perturbations is determined by a small set of new linear transfer functions. If decaying modes are ignored (to be consistent with the standard inflationary paradigm), the standard techniques of perturbation theory on homogeneous backgrounds, such as harmonic expansion, can be applied, and results closely paralleling those of familiar cosmological perturbation theory can be obtained.

  4. Revised Perturbation Statistics for the Global Scale Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1975-01-01

    Magnitudes and scales of atmospheric perturbations about the monthly mean for the thermodynamic variables and wind components are presented by month at various latitudes. These perturbation statistics are a revision of the random perturbation data required for the global scale atmospheric model program and are from meteorological rocket network statistical summaries in the 22 to 65 km height range and NASA grenade and pitot tube data summaries in the region up to 90 km. The observed perturbations in the thermodynamic variables were adjusted to make them consistent with constraints required by the perfect gas law and the hydrostatic equation. Vertical scales were evaluated by Buell's depth of pressure system equation and from vertical structure function analysis. Tables of magnitudes and vertical scales are presented for each month at latitude 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 degrees.

  5. Cosmic-string-induced hot dark matter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dalen, Anthony

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of initially relativistic matter, radiation, and baryons around cosmic string seed perturbations. A detailed analysis of the linear evolution of spherical perturbations in a universe is carried out, and this formalism is used to study the evolution of perturbations around a sphere of uniform density and fixed radius, approximating a loop of cosmic string. It was found that, on scales less than a few megaparsec, the results agree with the nonrelativistic calculation of previous authors. On greater scales, there is a deviation approaching a factor of 2-3 in the perturbation mass. It is shown that a scenario with cosmic strings, hot dark matter, and a Hubble constant greater than 75 km/sec per Mpc can generally produce structure on the observed mass scales and at the appropriate time: 1 + z = about 4 for galaxies and 1 + z = about 1.5 for Abell clusters.

  6. Noise Reduction in High-Throughput Gene Perturbation Screens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motivation: Accurate interpretation of perturbation screens is essential for a successful functional investigation. However, the screened phenotypes are often distorted by noise, and their analysis requires specialized statistical analysis tools. The number and scope of statistical methods available...

  7. Measurement of rotor system dynamic stiffness by perturbation testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bently, D. E.; Muszynska, A.

    1985-01-01

    Specific aspects of the application of Modal Analysis to rotating machines are discussed. For lowest mode analysis, the circular force perturbation testing gives the best results. Examples of application are presented.

  8. Perturbations of unitary representations of finite dimensional Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasekara, S.

    2009-12-15

    In quantum physical theories, interactions in a system of particles are commonly understood as perturbations to certain observables, including the Hamiltonian, of the corresponding interaction-free system. The manner in which observables undergo perturbations is subject to constraints imposed by the overall symmetries that the interacting system is expected to obey. Primary among these are the spacetime symmetries encoded by the unitary representations of the Galilei group and Poincare group for the non-relativistic and relativistic systems, respectively. In this light, interactions can be more generally viewed as perturbations to unitary representations of connected Lie groups, including the non-compact groups of spacetime symmetry transformations. In this paper, we present a simple systematic procedure for introducing perturbations to (infinite dimensional) unitary representations of finite dimensional connected Lie groups. We discuss applications to relativistic and non-relativistic particle systems.

  9. Trapped energetic ion dynamics affected by localized electric field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    Trapped energetic ion orbits in helical systems are numerically simulated using the Lorentz model. Simulation results of precession drift frequencies of trapped energetic ions are benchmarked by those of analytic solutions. The effects of the electric field perturbation localized at the rational surface on trapped energetic ions are examined, where the perturbation has an arbitrary rotation frequency and an amplitude fixed in time. It is found that the trapped energetic ions resonantly interact with the perturbation, when the rotation frequency of the perturbation is comparable to the precession drift frequencies of trapped energetic ions. The simulation results are suggestive to a mechanism of the energetic-ion-induced interchange mode, which might be associated with the fishbone mode observed in helical systems.

  10. Effects of core perturbations on the structure of the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Sweigart, A.V.

    1983-10-15

    A number of numerical experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the sensivity of the solar luminosity and radius to perturbations within the radiative core. In these experiments the core was perturbed by suddenly mixing various parts of the composition profile during evolutionary sequences for the present Sun. The hydrostatic readjustment caused by these ''mixing events'' induced an immediate change in the surface luminosity and radius on both the hydrodynamic time scale (approx.15 minutes) and the thermal time scale of the superadiabatic layers (approx.1 day). The subsequent evolution of the luminosity and radius perturbations was followed for 5 x 10/sup 5/ yr after each mixing event. The time-dependent behavior of these perturbations was found to depend on where the mixing event occurred. In all cases, however, the ratio W(t) = ..delta.. log R/..delta.. log L had an initial value of 0.71 and showed only a mild time dependence during the first several thousand years. Two other relationships between the luminosity and radius perturbations are also discussed. One of these, V(t) = (d log R/dd)/(d log L/dt), has a fairly constant value of 0.3 +- 0.1. Both perturbations in the mixing-length ratio ..cap alpha.. and perturbations in the magnetic pressure within the solar convective envelope yield the same value for V/(t). During the normal unperturbed evolution of the present Sun, V(t) = 0.4. Our results show that core perturbations such as the present mixing events cannot explain the decrease in the solar radius indicated by the solar eclipse data between 1925 and 1980.

  11. Quasi-closed orbit in a harmonically perturbed magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.V. )

    1992-11-01

    The paper generalizes a notion of the closed orbit for the case when the accelertor lattice is perturbed by a time-dependent harmonic dipole field. The problem is motivated by effects of current ripple in a proton accelerator. Our result allows to estimate the amplitude of the beam excursions as a function of the amplitude and the frequency of the perturbation. It predicts that the deviation of the beam increases as the frequency of the ripple approaches the sideband betatron frequency.

  12. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  13. Linear perturbations of a Schwarzschild blackhole by thin disc - convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čížek, P.; Semerák, O.

    2012-07-01

    In order to find the perturbation of a Schwarzschild space-time due to a rotating thin disc, we try to adjust the method used by [4] in the case of perturbation by a one-dimensional ring. This involves solution of stationary axisymmetric Einstein's equations in terms of spherical-harmonic expansions whose convergence however turned out questionable in numerical examples. Here we show, analytically, that the series are almost everywhere convergent, but in some regions the convergence is not absolute.

  14. Right-handed neutrinos as the source of density perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Creminelli, Paolo

    2006-05-15

    We study the possibility that cosmological density perturbations are generated by the inhomogeneous decay of right-handed neutrinos. This will occur if a scalar field whose fluctuations are created during inflation is coupled to the neutrino sector. Robust predictions of the model are a detectable level of non-Gaussianity and, if standard leptogenesis is the source of the baryon asymmetry, a baryon isocurvature perturbations at the level of the present experimental constraints.

  15. Matter-wave localization in a weakly perturbed optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-11-15

    By numerical solution and variational approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we studied the localization of a noninteracting and weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a weakly perturbed optical lattice in one and three dimensions. The perturbation achieved through a weak delocalizing expulsive or a linear potential as well as a weak localizing harmonic potential removes the periodicity of the optical lattice and leads to localization. We also studied some dynamics of the localized state confirming its stability.

  16. Perturbation Predictability Can Influence the Long-Latency Stretch Response

    PubMed Central

    Forgaard, Christopher J.; Franks, Ian M.; Maslovat, Dana; Chua, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations applied to the upper limbs elicit short (M1: 25–50 ms) and long-latency (M2: 50–100 ms) responses in the stretched muscle. M1 is produced by a spinal reflex loop, and M2 receives contribution from multiple spinal and supra-spinal pathways. While M1 is relatively immutable to voluntary intention, the remarkable feature of M2 is that its size can change based on intention or goal of the participant (e.g., increasing when resisting the perturbation and decreasing when asked to let-go or relax following the perturbation). While many studies have examined modulation of M2 between passive and various active conditions, through the use of constant foreperiods (interval between warning signal and a perturbation), it has also been shown that the magnitude of the M2 response in a passive condition can change based on factors such as habituation and anticipation of perturbation delivery. To prevent anticipation of a perturbation, most studies have used variable foreperiods; however, the range of possible foreperiod duration differs between experiments. The present study examined the influence of different variable foreperiods on modulation of the M2 response. Fifteen participants performed active and passive responses to a perturbation that stretched wrist flexors. Each block of trials had either a short (2.5–3.5 seconds; high predictability) or long (2.5–10.5 seconds; low predictability) variable foreperiod. As expected, no differences were found between any conditions for M1, while M2 was larger in the active rather than passive conditions. Interestingly, within the two passive conditions, the long variable foreperiods resulted in greater activity at the end of the M2 response than the trials with short foreperiods. These results suggest that perturbation predictability, even when using a variable foreperiod, can influence circuitry contributing to the long-latency stretch response. PMID:27727293

  17. Perturbations from strings don't look like strings!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A systematic analysis is challenging popular ideas about perturbation from cosmic strings. One way in which the picture has changed is reviewed. It is concluded that, while the scaling properties of cosmic strings figure significantly in the analysis, care must be taken when thinking in terms of single time snapshots. The process of seeding density perturbations is not fundamentally localized in time, and this fact can wash out many of the details which appear in a single snapshot.

  18. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  19. Gauge-invariant perturbations in hybrid quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló Gomar, Laura; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmological perturbations around homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes minimally coupled to a scalar field and present a formulation which is designed to preserve covariance. We truncate the action at quadratic perturbative order and particularize our analysis to flat compact spatial sections and a field potential given by a mass term, although the formalism can be extended to other topologies and potentials. The perturbations are described in terms of Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, linear perturbative constraints, and variables canonically conjugate to them. This set is completed into a canonical one for the entire system, including the homogeneous degrees of freedom. We find the global Hamiltonian constraint of the model, in which the contribution of the homogeneous sector is corrected with a term quadratic in the perturbations, that can be identified as the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian in our formulation. We then adopt a hybrid approach to quantize the model, combining a quantum representation of the homogeneous sector with a more standard field quantization of the perturbations. Covariance is guaranteed in this approach inasmuch as no gauge fixing is adopted. Next, we adopt a Born-Oppenheimer ansatz for physical states and show how to obtain a Schrödinger-like equation for the quantum evolution of the perturbations. This evolution is governed by the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian, with the dependence on the homogeneous geometry evaluated at quantum expectation values, and with a time parameter defined also in terms of suitable expectation values on that geometry. Finally, we derive effective equations for the dynamics of the Mukhanov-Sasaki gauge invariants, that include quantum contributions, but have the same ultraviolet limit as the classical equations. They provide the master equation to extract predictions about the power spectrum of primordial scalar perturbations.

  20. Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li

    2016-08-01

    We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to nontrivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling Geff with matter density perturbations under a quasistatic approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility for reducing Geff. In fact, within the parameter space, Geff can be even smaller than the Newton gravitational constant G at the late cosmological epoch, with a peculiar phantom dark energy equation of state (without ghosts). The modifications to the slip parameter η and the evolution of the growth rate f σ8 are discussed as well. Thus, dark energy models in the framework of generalized Proca theories can be observationally distinguished from the Λ CDM model according to both cosmic growth and expansion history. Furthermore, we study the evolution of vector perturbations and show that outside the vector sound horizon the perturbations are nearly frozen and start to decay with oscillations after the horizon entry.

  1. A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: bimetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G.

    2017-01-01

    We implement the method developed in [1] to construct the most general parametrised action for linear cosmological perturbations of bimetric theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background, and identify the complete form of the action invariant under diffeomorphism transformations, as well as the number of free parameters characterising this cosmological class of theories. We discuss, in detail, the case without derivative interactions, and compare our results with those found in massive bigravity.

  2. Newtonian limit of fully nonlinear cosmological perturbations in Einstein's gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim E-mail: hr@kasi.re.kr

    2013-04-01

    We prove that in the infinite speed-of-light limit (i.e., non-relativistic and subhorizon limits), the relativistic fully nonlinear cosmological perturbation equations in two gauge conditions, the zero-shear gauge and the uniform-expansion gauge, exactly reproduce the Newtonian hydrodynamic perturbation equations in the cosmological background; as a consequence, in the same two gauge conditions, the Newtonian hydrodynamic equations are exactly recovered in the Minkowsky background.

  3. Process for computing geometric perturbations for probabilistic analysis

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Simeon H. K. [Charlottesville, VA; Riha, David S [San Antonio, TX; Thacker, Ben H [San Antonio, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for computing geometric perturbations for probabilistic analysis. The probabilistic analysis is based on finite element modeling, in which uncertainties in the modeled system are represented by changes in the nominal geometry of the model, referred to as "perturbations". These changes are accomplished using displacement vectors, which are computed for each node of a region of interest and are based on mean-value coordinate calculations.

  4. Voluntary and reactive recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Chvatal, Stacie A; Ting, Lena H

    2012-08-29

    The modular control of muscles in groups, often referred to as muscle synergies, has been proposed to provide a motor repertoire of actions for the robust control of movement. However, it is not clear whether muscle synergies identified in one task are also recruited by different neural pathways subserving other motor behaviors. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary and reactive modifications to walking in humans result from the recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies. We recorded the activity of 16 muscles in the right leg as subjects walked a 7.5 m path at two different speeds. To elicit a second motor behavior, midway through the path we imposed ramp and hold translation perturbations of the support surface in each of four cardinal directions. Variations in the temporal recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies could account for cycle-by-cycle variations in muscle activity across strides. Locomotor muscle synergies were also recruited in atypical phases of gait, accounting for both anticipatory gait modifications before perturbations and reactive feedback responses to perturbations. Our findings are consistent with the idea that a common pool of spatially fixed locomotor muscle synergies can be recruited by different neural pathways, including the central pattern generator for walking, brainstem pathways for balance control, and cortical pathways mediating voluntary gait modifications. Together with electrophysiological studies, our work suggests that muscle synergies may provide a library of motor subtasks that can be flexibly recruited by parallel descending pathways to generate a variety of complex natural movements in the upper and lower limbs.

  5. In Situ Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Response to Geochemical Perturbations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Smith, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of in situ microbial sulfate reduction in response to geochemical perturbations were determined using Native Organism Geochemical Experimentation Enclosures (NOGEEs), a new in situ technique developed to facilitate evaluation of controls on microbial reaction rates. NOGEEs function by first trapping a native microbial community in situ and then subjecting it to geochemical perturbations through the introduction of various test solutions. On three occasions, NOGEEs were used at the Norman Landfill research site in Norman, Oklahoma, to evaluate sulfate-reduction rates in wetland sediments impacted by landfill leachate. The initial experiment, in May 2007, consisted of five introductions of a sulfate test solution over 11 d. Each test stimulated sulfate reduction with rates increasing until an apparent maximum was achieved. Two subsequent experiments, conducted in October 2007 and February 2008, evaluated the effects of concentration on sulfate-reduction rates. Results from these experiments showed that faster sulfate-reduction rates were associated with increased sulfate concentrations. Understanding variability in sulfate-reduction rates in response to perturbations may be an important factor in predicting rates of natural attenuation and bioremediation of contaminants in systems not at biogeochemical equilibrium. Copyright ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Influence of the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation on the Plasma Boundary in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, M. W.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Schmitz, O.; Wolf, R. C.; Baylor, Larry R; Boedo, J.A.; Burrell, K. H.; Frerichs, H.; DeGrassie, J. S.; Gohil, P.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R.A.; Leonard, A. W.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Schaffer, M. J.; Osborne, T. H.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Watkins, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic boundaries in fusion devices have been investigated in tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinch experiments for many years. However, since edge localized modes (ELMs) have been successfully eliminated in H-mode plasmas at the DIII-D tokamak [1,2] with small, edge resonant magnetic perturbations, they have become a widely investigated topic in tokamaks. In DIII-D stochastic boundaries are produced by coils external to the plasma. The magnetic field there consists of field lines with very different connection lengths, which produces a three dimensional, heterogenous structure of stochastic volume. The most obvious manifestation of the perturbed plasma edge is the strike line splitting observable in heat and particle fluxes, which changes with collisionality. The interaction of the magnetic perturbation and the magnetic equilibrium is of a resonant nature and the structure of the stochastic volume is a strong function of q(95). This is observed as a modulation of e.g. electron temperature as measured by ECE or Thomson scattering. In this work we summarize recent experimental findings on properties of the stochastic boundary in DIII-D. (C) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  7. On the validity of the perturbative description of axions during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ricardo Z.; Ganc, Jonathan; Noreña, Jorge; Sloth, Martin S.

    2016-04-01

    Axions play a central role in many realizations of large field models of inflation and in recent alternative mechanisms for generating primordial tensor modes in small field models. If these axions couple to gauge fields, the coupling produces a tachyonic instability that leads to an exponential enhancement of the gauge fields, which in turn can decay into observable scalar or tensor curvature perturbations. Thus, a fully self-consistent treatment of axions during inflation is important, and in this work we discuss the perturbative constraints on axions coupled to gauge fields. We show how the recent proposal of generating tensor modes through these alternative mechanisms is in tension with perturbation theory in the in-in formalism. Interestingly, we point out that the constraints are parametrically weaker than one would estimate based on naive power counting of propagators of the gauge field. In the case of non-Abelian gauge fields, we derive new constraints on the size of the gauge coupling, which apply also in certain models of natural large field inflation, such as alignment mechanisms.

  8. The energy transfer mechanism of a perturbed solid-body rotation flow in a rotating pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of a solid-body rotation superposed on a uniform axial flow entering a rotating constant-area pipe of finite length are presented. Steady in time profiles of the radial, axial, and circumferential velocities are imposed at the pipe inlet. Convective boundary conditions are imposed at the pipe outlet. The Wang and Rusak (Phys. Fluids 8:1007-1016, 1996. doi: 10.1063/1.86882) axisymmetric instability mechanism is retrieved at certain operational conditions in terms of incoming flow swirl levels and the Reynolds number. However, at other operational conditions there exists a dominant, three-dimensional spiral type of instability mode that is consistent with the linear stability theory of Wang et al. (J. Fluid Mech. 797: 284-321, 2016). The growth of this mode leads to a spiral type of flow roll-up that subsequently nonlinearly saturates on a large amplitude rotating spiral wave. The energy transfer mechanism between the bulk of the flow and the perturbations is studied by the Reynolds-Orr equation. The production or loss of the perturbation kinetic energy is combined of three components: the viscous loss, the convective loss at the pipe outlet, and the gain of energy at the outlet through the work done by the pressure perturbation. The energy transfer in the nonlinear stage is shown to be a natural extension of the linear stage with a nonlinear saturated process.

  9. Shock formation in stellar perturbations and tidal shock waves in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Carsten; Murphy, Jeremiah W.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate whether tidal forcing can result in sound waves steepening into shocks at the surface of a star. To model the sound waves and shocks, we consider adiabatic non-spherical perturbations of a Newtonian perfect fluid star. Because tidal forcing of sound waves is naturally treated with linear theory, but the formation of shocks is necessarily non-linear, we consider the perturbations in two regimes. In most of the interior, where tidal forcing dominates, we treat the perturbations as linear, while in a thin layer near the surface we treat them in full non-linearity but in the approximation of plane symmetry, fixed gravitational field and a barotropic equation of state. Using a hodograph transformation, this non-linear regime is also described by a linear equation. We show that the two regimes can be matched to give rise to a single-mode equation which is linear but models non-linearity in the outer layers. This can then be used to obtain an estimate for the critical mode amplitude at which a shock forms near the surface. As an application, we consider the tidal waves raised by the companion in an irrotational binary system in circular orbit. We find that shocks form at the same orbital separation where Roche lobe overflow occurs, and so shock formation is unlikely to occur.

  10. Time-sliced perturbation theory for large scale structure I: general formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    We present a new analytic approach to describe large scale structure formation in the mildly non-linear regime. The central object of the method is the time-dependent probability distribution function generating correlators of the cosmological observables at a given moment of time. Expanding the distribution function around the Gaussian weight we formulate a perturbative technique to calculate non-linear corrections to cosmological correlators, similar to the diagrammatic expansion in a three-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory, with time playing the role of an external parameter. For the physically relevant case of cold dark matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, the time evolution of the distribution function can be found exactly and is encapsulated by a time-dependent coupling constant controlling the perturbative expansion. We show that all building blocks of the expansion are free from spurious infrared enhanced contributions that plague the standard cosmological perturbation theory. This paves the way towards the systematic resummation of infrared effects in large scale structure formation. We also argue that the approach proposed here provides a natural framework to account for the influence of short-scale dynamics on larger scales along the lines of effective field theory.

  11. Perturbative Calculation of Quasi-Potential in Non-equilibrium Diffusions: A Mean-Field Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Gawȩdzki, Krzysztof; Nardini, Cesare

    2016-06-01

    In stochastic systems with weak noise, the logarithm of the stationary distribution becomes proportional to a large deviation rate function called the quasi-potential. The quasi-potential, and its characterization through a variational problem, lies at the core of the Freidlin-Wentzell large deviations theory (Freidlin and Wentzell, Random perturbations of dynamical systems, 2012). In many interacting particle systems, the particle density is described by fluctuating hydrodynamics governed by Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory (Bertini et al., arXiv:1404.6466 , 2014), which formally fits within Freidlin-Wentzell's framework with a weak noise proportional to 1/√{N}, where N is the number of particles. The quasi-potential then appears as a natural generalization of the equilibrium free energy to non-equilibrium particle systems. A key physical and practical issue is to actually compute quasi-potentials from their variational characterization for non-equilibrium systems for which detailed balance does not hold. We discuss how to perform such a computation perturbatively in an external parameter λ , starting from a known quasi-potential for λ =0. In a general setup, explicit iterative formulae for all terms of the power-series expansion of the quasi-potential are given for the first time. The key point is a proof of solvability conditions that assure the existence of the perturbation expansion to all orders. We apply the perturbative approach to diffusive particles interacting through a mean-field potential. For such systems, the variational characterization of the quasi-potential was proven by Dawson and Gartner (Stochastics 20:247-308, 1987; Stochastic differential systems, vol 96, pp 1-10, 1987). Our perturbative analysis provides new explicit results about the quasi-potential and about fluctuations of one-particle observables in a simple example

  12. Correlations in double parton distributions: perturbative and non-perturbative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente

    2016-10-01

    The correct description of Double Parton Scattering (DPS), which represents a background in several channels for the search of new Physics at the LHC, requires the knowledge of double parton distribution functions (dPDFs). These quantities represent also a novel tool for the study of the three-dimensional nucleon structure, complementary to the possibilities offered by electromagnetic probes. In this paper we analyze dPDFs using Poincaré covariant predictions obtained by using a Light-Front constituent quark model proposed in a recent paper, and QCD evolution. We study to what extent factorized expressions for dPDFs, which neglect, at least in part, two-parton correlations, can be used. We show that they fail in reproducing the calculated dPDFs, in particular in the valence region. Actually measurable processes at existing facilities occur at low longitudinal momenta of the interacting partons; to have contact with these processes we have analyzed correlations between pairs of partons of different kind, finding that, in some cases, they are strongly suppressed at low longitudinal momenta, while for other distributions they can be sizeable. For example, the effect of gluon-gluon correlations can be as large as 20 %. We have shown that these behaviors can be understood in terms of a delicate interference of non-perturbative correlations, generated by the dynamics of the model, and perturbative ones, generated by the model independent evolution procedure. Our analysis shows that at LHC kinematics two-parton correlations can be relevant in DPS, and therefore we address the possibility to study them experimentally.

  13. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J.; Rocha, Luis M.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  14. Finite field-dependent symmetries in perturbative quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we discuss the absolutely anticommuting nilpotent symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, we analyze the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. The FFBRST transformation changes the gauge-fixing and ghost parts of the perturbative quantum gravity within functional integration. However, the operation of such symmetry transformation on the generating functional of perturbative quantum gravity does not affect the theory on physical ground. The FFBRST transformation with appropriate choices of finite BRST parameter connects non-linear Curci–Ferrari and Landau gauges of perturbative quantum gravity. The validity of the results is also established at quantum level using Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. -- Highlights: •The perturbative quantum gravity is treated as gauge theory. •BRST and anti-BRST transformations are developed in linear and non-linear gauges. •BRST transformation is generalized by making it finite and field dependent. •Connection between linear and non-linear gauges is established. •Using BV formulation the results are established at quantum level also.

  15. Unusual Low-frequency Magnetic Perturbations in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.S. Chance

    2001-02-12

    Low-frequency magnetic perturbations (less than or equal to 30 kHz) observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tokamak do not always conform to expectations from Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modes. The discrepancy between observations and expectations arises from the existence of three classes of magnetic perturbations in TFTR: (1) 'Edge Originated Magnetic Perturbations' (EOMP's), (2) 'Kink-like Modes' (KLM's), and (3) Tearing Modes (TM's). The EOMP class has unusual magnetic phenomenon including up/down asymmetry in poloidal intensity variation that MHD modes alone cannot generate. The contributions of MHD modes in plasma edge regions are too small to explain the magnitude of observed EOMP perturbations. At least two-thirds, possibly nearly all, of magnetic perturbations in a typical EOMP originate from sources other than MHD modes. An EOMP has a unity toroidal harmonic number and a poloidal harmonic number close to a discharge's edge q-value. It produces little temperature fluctuations, except possibly in edge regions. The KLM class produces temperature fluctuations, mostly confined within the q=1 surface with an ideal-mode-like structure, but generates little external magnetic perturbations. The TM class conforms generally to expectations from MHD modes. We propose that current flowing in the Scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma is a possible origin of EOMP's.

  16. Nonperturbative Quantum Physics from Low-Order Perturbation Theory.

    PubMed

    Mera, Héctor; Pedersen, Thomas G; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2015-10-02

    The Stark effect in hydrogen and the cubic anharmonic oscillator furnish examples of quantum systems where the perturbation results in a certain ionization probability by tunneling processes. Accordingly, the perturbed ground-state energy is shifted and broadened, thus acquiring an imaginary part which is considered to be a paradigm of nonperturbative behavior. Here we demonstrate how the low order coefficients of a divergent perturbation series can be used to obtain excellent approximations to both real and imaginary parts of the perturbed ground state eigenenergy. The key is to use analytic continuation functions with a built-in singularity structure within the complex plane of the coupling constant, which is tailored by means of Bender-Wu dispersion relations. In the examples discussed the analytic continuation functions are Gauss hypergeometric functions, which take as input fourth order perturbation theory and return excellent approximations to the complex perturbed eigenvalue. These functions are Borel consistent and dramatically outperform widely used Padé and Borel-Padé approaches, even for rather large values of the coupling constant.

  17. Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti E-mail: nanodsci2523@hotmail.com

    2012-01-01

    We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included.

  18. High-order perturbations of a spherical collapsing star

    SciTech Connect

    Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2010-11-15

    A formalism to deal with high-order perturbations of a general spherical background was developed in earlier work [D. Brizuela, J. M. Martin-Garcia, and G. A. Mena Marugan, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044039 (2006); D. Brizuela, J. M. Martin-Garcia, and G. A. Mena Marugan, Phys. Rev. D 76, 024004 (2007)]. In this paper, we apply it to the particular case of a perfect fluid background. We have expressed the perturbations of the energy-momentum tensor at any order in terms of the perturbed fluid's pressure, density, and velocity. In general, these expressions are not linear and have sources depending on lower-order perturbations. For the second-order case we make the explicit decomposition of these sources in tensor spherical harmonics. Then, a general procedure is given to evolve the perturbative equations of motions of the perfect fluid for any value of the harmonic label. Finally, with the problem of a spherical collapsing star in mind, we discuss the high-order perturbative matching conditions across a timelike surface, in particular, the surface separating the perfect fluid interior from the exterior vacuum.

  19. Effects of core perturbations on the structure of the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, A. V.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of perturbing the inner part of the solar core where the hydrogen abundance has been partially depleted by nuclear burning are investigated. Small regions are mixed within the core and the evolution of the resulting luminosity and radius perturbations is followed. The sensitivity of the solar luminosity and radius to mixing events of different sizes and at different locations in the core is determined and several relationships between the luminosity and radius perturbations are examined to see if the value of one of these perturbations can be inferred from a measurement of the other. It is found that any core perturbation which alters the hydrostatic structures will immediately affect the solar luminosity and radius. The behavior of these perturbations depends on the location of the mixing event within the core. Mixing events cannot produce the decrease in the solar radius without leading to a homogeneous evolution of the solar core and/or to a prohibitively large change in the solar luminosity.

  20. Application of the perturbation method in mechanics of deformable solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaeva, N. V.

    2008-02-01

    Although the solutions of the classical problems of continuum mechanics have been studied sufficiently well, the smallest deviations, for example, of the body boundary or of the material characteristics from the traditional values prevent one from obtaining exact solutions of these problems. In this case, one has to use approximate methods, the most common of which is the perturbation method. The problems studied in [1-6] belong to classical problems in which the perturbation method is used to study the behavior of deformable bodies. A wide survey of studies analyzing the perturbations of the body boundary shape caused by variations in its stress-strain state is given in [5, 6]. In numerous studies, it was noted that the problem on the convergence of approximate solutions and hence the studies of the continuous dependence of the solution of the original problem on the characteristics of perturbations ("imperfections") play an important role. In the present paper, we analyze the forms of mathematical models of deformable bodies by studying whether the solution of the original problem continuously depends on the characteristics of the perturbed shape of the body boundary on which the boundary conditions are posed in terms of stresses and on the characteristics of the material properties. We use the results of this analysis to conclude that, when using the perturbation method, one should state the boundary conditions in terms of stresses on the boundary of the real body in stressed state.

  1. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. PMID:25609786

  2. High-order perturbations of a spherical collapsing star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, David; Martín-García, José M.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2010-11-01

    A formalism to deal with high-order perturbations of a general spherical background was developed in earlier work [D. Brizuela, J. M. Martín-García, and G. A. Mena Marugán, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 74, 044039 (2006);10.1103/PhysRevD.74.044039 D. Brizuela, J. M. Martín-García, and G. A. Mena Marugán, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 76, 024004 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevD.76.024004]. In this paper, we apply it to the particular case of a perfect fluid background. We have expressed the perturbations of the energy-momentum tensor at any order in terms of the perturbed fluid’s pressure, density, and velocity. In general, these expressions are not linear and have sources depending on lower-order perturbations. For the second-order case we make the explicit decomposition of these sources in tensor spherical harmonics. Then, a general procedure is given to evolve the perturbative equations of motions of the perfect fluid for any value of the harmonic label. Finally, with the problem of a spherical collapsing star in mind, we discuss the high-order perturbative matching conditions across a timelike surface, in particular, the surface separating the perfect fluid interior from the exterior vacuum.

  3. Perturbations of the Richardson number field by gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtele, M. G.; Sharman, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for a stratified fluid of arbitrary constant Richardson number. By computer aided analysis the perturbation fields, including that of the Richardson number can be calculated. The results of the linear analytic model were compared with nonlinear simulations, leading to the following conclusions: (1) the perturbations in the Richardson number field, when small, are produced primarily by the perturbations of the shear; (2) perturbations of in the Richardson number field, even when small, are not symmetric, the increase being significantly larger than the decrease (the linear analytic solution and the nonlinear simulations both confirm this result); (3) as the perturbations grow, this asymmetry increases, but more so in the nonlinear simulations than in the linear analysis; (4) for large perturbations of the shear flow, the static stability, as represented by N2, is the dominating mechanism, becoming zero or negative, and producing convective overturning; and (5) the convectional measure of linearity in lee wave theory, NH/U, is no longer the critical parameter (it is suggested that (H/u sub 0) (du sub 0/dz) takes on this role in a shearing flow).

  4. Even- and Odd-Parity Charmed Meson Masses in Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Roxanne Springer

    2005-03-01

    We derive mass formulae for the ground state, J{sup P} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -}, and first excited even-parity, J{sup P} = 0{sup +} and 1{sup +}, charmed mesons including one loop chiral corrections and {Omicron}(1/m{sub c}) counterterms in heavy hadron chiral perturbation theory. We show a variety of fits to the current data. We find that certain parameter relations in the parity doubling model are not renormalized at one loop, providing a natural explanation for the equality of the hyperfine splittings of ground state and excited doublets.

  5. Computer assisted expansion of 1/Delta series with Newton iteration. [for Jovian satellite perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, C. C.; Broucke, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Newton iteration method has been widely applied to the solution of various equations such as Kepler's equation. In this study it is used in planetary and satellite theory as a general procedure for Fourier series inversion. The method is used for the construction of the 1/Delta series either in literal form or in numerical form with small eccentricities and inclinations substituted in advance. This usually results in very compact series. With the Newton iteration procedure and a computerized series manipulation technique, the Fourier series of 1/Delta of the mutual perturbations among most natural satellites can be easily constructed.

  6. Effective interaction in the Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    2014-11-15

    We present a unified description of the effective interaction v in the Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory. First, we generalize the well-known bracketing expression for the energy shift ΔE in a one-dimensional model space to express the effective interaction v in a multi-dimensional model space. Second, we show that the generalized bracketing representation has a natural graphic expression in terms of folded diagrams. The present work thus gives a unified understanding of the effective interaction (i) in one- and multi-dimensional model spaces and (ii) in algebraic (bracketing) and graphic (folded diagram) representations.

  7. Possible Climatic Perturbations Produced by Impacting Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, D. A.; Melosh, H. J.; Hunten, D. M.

    1995-09-01

    evaporite deposits. Specific calculations of 17 past impact events on Earth indicate that stratospheric S was enhanced up to 10^5 times the current value; it seems likely that some of the larger events, like the 35 +/- 5 Ma Popigai impact event and the 73 +/- 3 Ma Kara and Ust-Kara impact events, produced enough S-rich aerosols to perturb the climate. In addition to S, asteroids with 0.1 to 10 km diameters inject 3 x 10^8 to 9 x 10^14 g of Cl and 2 x 10^5 to 5 x 10^12 g of Br into the stratosphere, not including any Cl and Br produced from target lithologies (like seawater), nor any Cl and Br produced from biomass burning that may have occurred after the impact. These calculations indicate that impacting asteroids with diameters of a few tenths of a kilometer or larger can inject enough Cl and Br into the stratosphere to destroy a significant portion of the stratospheric ozone [4,5]. Unfortunately, it is difficult to determine the exact magnitude and duration of these climatic perturbations because they depend in large part on the still uncertain chemistry and microphysics that occur in the vapor plume as it rises and cools, and in the stratosphere once the ejecta is deposited there. Nonetheless, it seems clear that asteroid and comet impacts are an important source of climatically-active material and that relatively small impact events (and, thus, those that occur frequently) can potentially affect the global environment. References: [1] Zahnle K. J. (1990) GSA Spec. Pap. 247, 271-288. [2] Shoemaker E. M. (1983) Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 11, 461-494. [3] Sigurdsson H. (1990) Palaeogeo., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoec. (Global and Planetary Change Section), 89, 277-289. [4] Mankin W. G. and Coffey M. T. (1984) Science, 226, 170-172. [5] McElroy M. B. et al. (1986) Nature, 321, 759-762.

  8. Linear perturbation analysis of hairy black holes in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories: Odd-parity perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazufumi; Suyama, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the mode stability of odd-parity perturbations of black holes with linearly time-dependent scalar hair in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories. We show that a large class of black hole solutions in these theories suffer from ghost or gradient instability, while there are some classes of solutions that are stable under linear odd-parity perturbations in the context of mode analysis.

  9. Constraining dark sector perturbations II: ISW and CMB lensing tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soergel, B.; Giannantonio, T.; Weller, J.; Battye, R. A.

    2015-02-01

    Any Dark Energy (DE) or Modified Gravity (MG) model that deviates from a cosmological constant requires a consistent treatment of its perturbations, which can be described in terms of an effective entropy perturbation and an anisotropic stress. We have considered a recently proposed generic parameterisation of DE/MG perturbations and compared it to data from the Planck satellite and six galaxy catalogues, including temperature-galaxy (Tg), CMB lensing-galaxy (varphi g) and galaxy-galaxy (gg) correlations. Combining these observables of structure formation with tests of the background expansion allows us to investigate the properties of DE/MG both at the background and the perturbative level. Our constraints on DE/MG are mostly in agreement with the cosmological constant paradigm, while we also find that the constraint on the equation of state w (assumed to be constant) depends on the model assumed for the perturbation evolution. We obtain w=-0.92+0.20-0.16 (95% CL; CMB+gg+Tg) in the entropy perturbation scenario; in the anisotropic stress case the result is w=-0.86+0.17-0.16. Including the lensing correlations shifts the results towards higher values of w. If we include a prior on the expansion history from recent Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) measurements, we find that the constraints tighten closely around w=-1, making it impossible to measure any DE/MG perturbation evolution parameters. If, however, upcoming observations from surveys like DES, Euclid or LSST show indications for a deviation from a cosmological constant, our formalism will be a useful tool towards model selection in the dark sector.

  10. Cosmological perturbation theory in 1+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Matthew; White, Martin E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have highlighted certain failures of the standard Eulerian-space cosmological perturbation theory (SPT). Its problems include (1) not capturing large-scale bulk flows [leading to an O( 1) error in the 1-loop SPT prediction for the baryon acoustic peak in the correlation function], (2) assuming that the Universe behaves as a pressureless, inviscid fluid, and (3) treating fluctuations on scales that are non-perturbative as if they were. Recent studies have highlighted the successes of perturbation theory in Lagrangian space or theories that solve equations for the effective dynamics of smoothed fields. Both approaches mitigate some or all of the aforementioned issues with SPT. We discuss these physical developments by specializing to the simplified 1D case of gravitationally interacting sheets, which allows us to substantially reduces the analytic overhead and still (as we show) maintain many of the same behaviors as in 3D. In 1D, linear-order Lagrangian perturbation theory ('the Zeldovich approximation') is exact up to shell crossing, and we prove that n{sup th}-order Eulerian perturbation theory converges to the Zeldovich approximation as narrow ∞. In no 1D cosmology that we consider (including a CDM-like case and power-law models) do these theories describe accurately the matter power spectrum on any mildly nonlinear scale. We find that theories based on effective equations are much more successful at describing the dynamics. Finally, we discuss many topics that have recently appeared in the perturbation theory literature such as beat coupling, the shift and smearing of the baryon acoustic oscillation feature, and the advantages of Fourier versus configuration space. Our simplified 1D case serves as an intuitive review of these perturbation theory results.

  11. Microfluidic Technologies for Temporal Perturbations of Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Most cells in the body have the ability to change their physical locations during physiologic or pathologic events such as inflammation, wound healing, or cancer. When cell migration is directed toward sources of cue chemicals, the process is known as chemotaxis, and it requires linking the sensing of chemicals through receptors on the surfaces of the cells to the directional activation of the motility apparatus inside the cells. This link is supported by complex intracellular signaling pathways, and although details regarding the nature of the molecules involved in the signal transduction are well established, far less is known about how different signaling molecules and processes are dynamically interconnected and how slower and faster signaling events take place simultaneously inside moving cells. In this context, advances in microfluidic technologies are enabling the emergence of new tools that facilitate the development of experimental protocols in which the cellular microenvironment is precisely controlled in time and space and in which signaling-associated changes inside cells can be quantitatively measured and compared. These tools could enable new insights into the intricacies of the biological systems that participate in chemotaxis processes and could have the potential to accelerate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to control cell motility and enhance our abilities for medical intervention during health and disease. PMID:20450351

  12. Microfluidic technologies for temporal perturbations of chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Daniel

    2010-08-15

    Most cells in the body have the ability to change their physical locations during physiologic or pathologic events such as inflammation, wound healing, or cancer. When cell migration is directed toward sources of cue chemicals, the process is known as chemotaxis, and it requires linking the sensing of chemicals through receptors on the surfaces of the cells to the directional activation of the motility apparatus inside the cells. This link is supported by complex intracellular signaling pathways, and although details regarding the nature of the molecules involved in the signal transduction are well established, far less is known about how different signaling molecules and processes are dynamically interconnected and how slower and faster signaling events take place simultaneously inside moving cells. In this context, advances in microfluidic technologies are enabling the emergence of new tools that facilitate the development of experimental protocols in which the cellular microenvironment is precisely controlled in time and space and in which signaling-associated changes inside cells can be quantitatively measured and compared. These tools could enable new insights into the intricacies of the biological systems that participate in chemotaxis processes and could have the potential to accelerate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to control cell motility and enhance our abilities for medical intervention during health and disease.

  13. Natural formations at the Earth-Moon triangular point in perturbed restricted problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E.; Masdemont, J. J.; Gómez, G.

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies for small formation flying dynamics about triangular libration points have determined the existence of regions of zero and Minimum Relative Radial Acceleration with respect to the nominal trajectory, that prevent from the expansion or contraction of the constellation. However, these studies only considered the gravitational force of the Earth and the Moon using the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (CRTBP) scenario. Although the CRTBP model is a good approximation for the dynamics of spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system, the nominal trajectories around equilateral libration points are strongly affected when the primary orbit eccentricity and solar gravitational force are considered. In this manner, the goal of this work is the analysis of the best regions to place a formation that is flying close a bounded solution around L4 , taking into account the Moon's eccentricity and Sun's gravity. This model is not only more realistic for practical engineering applications but permits to determine more accurately the fuel consumption to maintain the geometry of the formation.

  14. Matematica Natural.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  15. Natural Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her art class students were able to create, in just four class periods, clay relief plaques depicting nature. A lesson on texture speeds up the completion of such a project. Seeing that clay is a natural material with its own unique texture, it seemed fitting that the final product should depict a variety…

  16. Firsthand Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostev, Moses; Weiss, Francesca Michaelides

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that many school programs don't give children enough opportunity to explore the natural world--i.e., to "mess about" and to have firsthand experience with nature and animals. Not so at the Muscota New School in New York City! This innovative public elementary school actively promotes inquiry-based learning and encourages…

  17. Nature Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  18. Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds

    PubMed Central

    Oro, Daniel; Jiménez, Juan; Curcó, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    In recent centuries and above all over the last few decades, human activities have generated perturbations (from mild to very severe or catastrophes) that, when added to those of natural origin, constitute a global threat to biodiversity. Predicting the effects of anthropogenic perturbations on species and communities is a great scientific challenge given the complexity of ecosystems and the need for detailed population data from both before and after the perturbations. Here we present three cases of well-documented anthropogenic severe perturbations (different forms of habitat loss and deterioration influencing fertility and survival) that have affected three species of birds (a raptor, a scavenger and a waterbird) for which we possess long-term population time series. We tested whether the perturbations caused serious population decline or whether the study species were resilient, that is, its population dynamics were relatively unaffected. Two of the species did decline, although to a relatively small extent with no shift to a state of lower population numbers. Subsequently, these populations recovered rapidly and numbers reached similar levels to before the perturbations. Strikingly, in the third species a strong breakpoint took place towards greater population sizes, probably due to the colonization of new areas by recruits that were queuing at the destroyed habitat. Even though it is difficult to draw patterns of resilience from only three cases, the study species were all long-lived, social species with excellent dispersal and colonization abilities, capable of skipping reproduction and undergoing a phase of significant long-term population increase. The search for such patterns is crucial for optimizing the limited resources allocated to conservation and for predicting the future impact of planned anthropogenic activities on ecosystems. PMID:22936988

  19. Vicinal deuterium perturbations on hydrogen NMR chemical shifts in cyclohexanes.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel J; Allis, Damian G; Hudson, Bruce S; James, Shelly; Morgera, Katherine B; Baldwin, John E

    2008-10-15

    The substitution of a deuterium for a hydrogen is known to perturb the NMR chemical shift of a neighboring hydrogen atom. The magnitude of such a perturbation may depend on the specifics of bonding and stereochemical relationships within a molecule. For deuterium-labeled cyclohexanes held in a chair conformation at -80 degrees C or lower, all four possible perturbations of H by D as H-C-C-H is changed to D-C-C-H have been determined experimentally, and the variations seen, ranging from 6.9 to 10.4 ppb, have been calculated from theory and computational methods. The predominant physical origins of the NMR chemical shift perturbations in deuterium-labeled cyclohexanes have been identified and quantified. The trends defined by the Delta delta perturbation values obtained through spectroscopic experiments and by theory agree satisfactorily. They do not match the variations typically observed in vicinal J(H-H) coupling constants as a function of dihedral angles.

  20. Drug target prioritization by perturbed gene expression and network information

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Zerrin; Baldow, Christoph; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drugs bind to their target proteins, which interact with downstream effectors and ultimately perturb the transcriptome of a cancer cell. These perturbations reveal information about their source, i.e., drugs’ targets. Here, we investigate whether these perturbations and protein interaction networks can uncover drug targets and key pathways. We performed the first systematic analysis of over 500 drugs from the Connectivity Map. First, we show that the gene expression of drug targets is usually not significantly affected by the drug perturbation. Hence, expression changes after drug treatment on their own are not sufficient to identify drug targets. However, ranking of candidate drug targets by network topological measures prioritizes the targets. We introduce a novel measure, local radiality, which combines perturbed genes and functional interaction network information. The new measure outperforms other methods in target prioritization and proposes cancer-specific pathways from drugs to affected genes for the first time. Local radiality identifies more diverse targets with fewer neighbors and possibly less side effects. PMID:26615774

  1. Perturbation biology: inferring signaling networks in cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, Evan J; Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Miller, Martin L; Gauthier, Nicholas P; Jing, Xiaohong; Kaushik, Poorvi; He, Qin; Mills, Gordon; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Weigt, Martin; Braunstein, Alfredo; Pagnani, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Sander, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present a powerful experimental-computational technology for inferring network models that predict the response of cells to perturbations, and that may be useful in the design of combinatorial therapy against cancer. The experiments are systematic series of perturbations of cancer cell lines by targeted drugs, singly or in combination. The response to perturbation is quantified in terms of relative changes in the measured levels of proteins, phospho-proteins and cellular phenotypes such as viability. Computational network models are derived de novo, i.e., without prior knowledge of signaling pathways, and are based on simple non-linear differential equations. The prohibitively large solution space of all possible network models is explored efficiently using a probabilistic algorithm, Belief Propagation (BP), which is three orders of magnitude faster than standard Monte Carlo methods. Explicit executable models are derived for a set of perturbation experiments in SKMEL-133 melanoma cell lines, which are resistant to the therapeutically important inhibitor of RAF kinase. The resulting network models reproduce and extend known pathway biology. They empower potential discoveries of new molecular interactions and predict efficacious novel drug perturbations, such as the inhibition of PLK1, which is verified experimentally. This technology is suitable for application to larger systems in diverse areas of molecular biology.

  2. Nonspherically symmetric black string perturbations in the large dimension limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhu, Amruta; Suneeta, Vardarajan

    2016-06-01

    We consider nonspherically symmetric perturbations of the uncharged black string/flat black brane in the large dimension (D) limit of general relativity. We express the perturbations in a simplified form using variables introduced by Ishibashi and Kodama. We apply the large D limit to the equations and show that this leads to decoupling of the equations in the near-horizon and asymptotic regions. It also enables use of matched asymptotic expansions to obtain approximate analytical solutions and to analyze stability of the black string/brane. For a large class of nonspherically symmetric perturbations, we prove that there are no instabilities in the large D limit. For the rest, we provide additional matching arguments that indicate that the black string/brane is stable. In the static limit, we show that for all nonspherically symmetric perturbations, there is no instability. This is proof that the Gross-Perry-Yaffe mode for semiclassical black hole perturbations is the unique unstable mode even in the large D limit. This work is also a direct analytical indication that the only instability of the black string is the Gregory-Laflamme instability.

  3. The effect of input perturbations on swimming performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Thornycroft, Patrick J. M.; Lauder, George V.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of flexibility and fluid characteristics on the hydrodynamics of swimming has been investigated for a range of experimental systems. One investigative method is to use reduced-order physical models--pitching and heaving hydrofoils. Typically, a smooth, periodic, input signal is used to control foil motion in experiments that explore fundamental factors (aspect ratio, shape, etc.) in swimming performance. However, the significance of non-smooth input signals in undulating swimmers is non-trivial. Instead of varying external properties, we study the impact of perturbed input motions on swimming performance. A smooth sinusoid is overlaid with high frequency, low amplitude perturbations as the input signal for a heaving panel in a closed loop flow tank. Specifically, 1 cm heave amplitude base sinusoids are added to 0.1 cm heave perturbations with frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 13 Hz. Two thin foils with different stiffness are flapped with the combined input signals in addition to the individual high heave and low heave signals that were added to create the combined inputs. Results demonstrate that perturbations can increase thrust and that adding the perturbed signal to a base frequency alters wake structure.

  4. Non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Luo, Jisheng

    2008-04-01

    The direct numerical simulation method is adopted to study the non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations at the ablation front of a 200 μm planar CH ablation target. In the simulation, the classical electrical thermal conductivity is included, and NND difference scheme is used. The linear growth rates obtained from the simulation agree with the Takabe formula. The amplitude distribution of the density perturbation at the ablation front is obtained for the linear growth case. The non-linear characteristics of Rayleigh-Taylor instable perturbations are analyzed and the numerical results show that the amplitude distributions of the compulsive harmonics are very different from that of the fundamental perturbation. The characteristics of the amplitude distributions of the harmonics and their fast growth explain why spikes occur at the ablation front. The numerical results also show that non-linear effects have relations with the phase differences of double mode initial perturbations, and different phase differences lead to varied spikes.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously. PMID:27598168

  6. Nonspherical Szekeres models in the language of cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Roberto A.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Delgado Gaspar, Ismael; Germán, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We study the differences and equivalences between the nonperturbative description of the evolution of cosmic structure furnished by the Szekeres dust models (a nonspherical exact solution of Einstein's equations) and the dynamics of cosmological perturbation theory (C P T ) for dust sources in a Λ CDM background. We show how the dynamics of Szekeres models can be described by evolution equations given in terms of "exact fluctuations" that identically reduce (at all orders) to evolution equations of C P T in the comoving isochronous gauge. We explicitly show how Szekeres linearized exact fluctuations are specific (deterministic) realizations of standard linear perturbations of C P T given as random fields, but, as opposed to the latter perturbations, they can be evolved exactly into the full nonlinear regime. We prove two important results: (i) the conservation of the curvature perturbation (at all scales) also holds for the appropriate linear approximation of the exact Szekeres fluctuations in a Λ CDM background, and (ii) the different collapse morphologies of Szekeres models yields, at nonlinear order, different functional forms for the growth factor that follows from the study of redshift space distortions. The metric-based potentials used in linear C P T are computed in terms of the parameters of the linearized Szekeres models, thus allowing us to relate our results to linear C P T results in other gauges. We believe that these results provide a solid starting stage to examine the role of non-perturbative general relativity in current cosmological research.

  7. A perspective on multisensory integration and rapid perturbation responses.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Crevecoeur, Frédéric; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-05-01

    In order to perform accurate movements, the nervous system must transform sensory feedback into motor commands that compensate for errors caused by motor variability and external disturbances. Recent studies focusing on the importance of sensory feedback in motor control have illustrated that the brain generates highly flexible responses to visual perturbations (hand-cursor or target jumps), or following mechanical loads applied to the limb. These parallel approaches have emphasized sophisticated, goal-directed feedback control, but also reveal that flexible perturbation responses are expressed at different latencies depending on what sensory system is engaged by the perturbation. Across studies, goal-directed visuomotor responses consistently emerge in muscle activity ∼100ms after a perturbation, while mechanical perturbations evoke goal-directed muscle responses in as little as ∼60ms (long-latency responses). We discuss the limitation of current models of multisensory integration in light of these asynchronous processing delays, and suggest that understanding how the brain performs real-time multisensory integration is an open question for future studies.

  8. Relative perturbation theory: (II) Eigenspace and singular subspace variations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R.-C.

    1996-01-20

    The classical perturbation theory for Hermitian matrix enigenvalue and singular value problems provides bounds on invariant subspace variations that are proportional to the reciporcals of absolute gaps between subsets of spectra or subsets of singular values. These bounds may be bad news for invariant subspaces corresponding to clustered eigenvalues or clustered singular values of much smaller magnitudes than the norms of matrices under considerations when some of these clustered eigenvalues ro clustered singular values are perfectly relatively distinguishable from the rest. This paper considers how eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix A change when it is perturbed to {tilde A}= D{sup {asterisk}}AD and how singular values of a (nonsquare) matrix B change whenit is perturbed to {tilde B}=D{sub 1}{sup {asterisk}}BD{sub 2}, where D, D{sub 1}, and D{sub 2} are assumed to be close to identity matrices of suitable dimensions, or either D{sub 1} or D{sub 2} close to some unitary matrix. It is proved that under these kinds of perturbations, the change of invarient subspaces are proportional to reciprocals of relative gaps between subsets of spectra or subsets of singular values. We have been able to extend well-known Davis-Kahan sin {theta} theorems and Wedin sin {theta} theorems. As applications, we obtained bounds for perturbations of graded matrices.

  9. Plume diagnostics of SRM static firings for pressure perturbation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambamurthi, J. K.; Alvarado, Alexis; Mathias, Edward C.

    1995-01-01

    During the shuttle launches, the solid rocket motors (SRM) occasionally experience pressure perturbations (8-13 psi) between 65 and 75 seconds into the motor burn time. The magnitudes of these perturbations are very small in comparison with the operating motor chamber pressure, which is over 600 psi during this time frame. These SRM pressure perturbations are believed to be caused primarily by the expulsion of slag (aluminum oxide). Two SRM static tests, TEM-11 and FSM-4, were instrumented extensive]y for the study of the phenomenon associated with pressure perturbations. The test instrumentation used included nonintrusive optical and infrared diagnostics of the plume, such as high-speed photography, radiometers, and thermal image cameras. Results from all these nonintrusive observations strongly support the scenario that the pressure perturbation event in the shuttle SRM is caused primarily by the expulsion of molten slag. The slag was also expelled preferentially near the bottom of the nozzle due to slag accumulation at the bottom of the aft end of the horizontally oriented motor.

  10. Production of scalar and tensor perturbations in inflationary models

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S. NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 )

    1993-10-15

    Scalar (density) and tensor (gravity-wave) perturbations provide the basis for the fundamental observable consequences of inflation, including CBR anisotropy and the formation of structure in the Universe. These perturbations are nearly scale invariant (Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum), though a slight deviation from scale invariance ( tilt'') can have significant consequences for both CBR anisotropy and structure formation. In particular, a slightly tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations may improve the agreement of the cold dark matter scenario with the observational data. The amplitude and spectrum of the scalar and tensor perturbations depend upon the shape of the inflationary potential in the small interval where the scalar field responsible for inflation was between about 46 and 54 [ital e]-folds before the end of inflation. By expanding the inflationary potential in a Taylor series over this interval we show that the amplitudes of the perturbations and the power-law slopes of their spectra can be expressed in terms of the value of the potential 50 [ital e]-folds before the end of inflation, [ital V][sub 50], its steepness [ital x][sub 50][equivalent to][ital m][sub Pl][ital V50][sup [prime

  11. Resonant frequency calculations using a hybrid perturbation-Galerkin technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geer, James F.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-step hybrid perturbation Galerkin technique is applied to the problem of determining the resonant frequencies of one or several degree of freedom nonlinear systems involving a parameter. In one step, the Lindstedt-Poincare method is used to determine perturbation solutions which are formally valid about one or more special values of the parameter (e.g., for large or small values of the parameter). In step two, a subset of the perturbation coordinate functions determined in step one is used in Galerkin type approximation. The technique is illustrated for several one degree of freedom systems, including the Duffing and van der Pol oscillators, as well as for the compound pendulum. For all of the examples considered, it is shown that the frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique using only a few terms from the perturbation solutions are significantly more accurate than the perturbation results on which they are based, and they compare very well with frequencies obtained by purely numerical methods.

  12. Using perturbations to identify the brain circuits underlying active vision.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, Robert H

    2015-09-19

    The visual and oculomotor systems in the brain have been studied extensively in the primate. Together, they can be regarded as a single brain system that underlies active vision--the normal vision that begins with visual processing in the retina and extends through the brain to the generation of eye movement by the brainstem. The system is probably one of the most thoroughly studied brain systems in the primate, and it offers an ideal opportunity to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the series of perturbation techniques that have been used to study it. The perturbations have been critical in moving from correlations between neuronal activity and behaviour closer to a causal relation between neuronal activity and behaviour. The same perturbation techniques have also been used to tease out neuronal circuits that are related to active vision that in turn are driving behaviour. The evolution of perturbation techniques includes ablation of both cortical and subcortical targets, punctate chemical lesions, reversible inactivations, electrical stimulation, and finally the expanding optogenetic techniques. The evolution of perturbation techniques has supported progressively stronger conclusions about what neuronal circuits in the brain underlie active vision and how the circuits themselves might be organized.

  13. The Nature of Natural Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Joe E.

    A variety of types of evidence are examined to help determine the true nature of "deep structure" and what, if any, implications this has for linguistic theory as well as culture theory generally. The evidence accumulated over the past century on the nature of phonetic and phonemic systems is briefly discussed, and the following areas of…

  14. Calculation of the inboard magnetic footprint in the DIII-D from the low mn magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Michael; Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2010-11-01

    The equilibrium EFIT data for the DIII-D shot 115467 at 3000 ms is used to construct the equilibrium generating function for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak in natural canonical coordinates [1,2]. The generating function represents the axisymmetric magnetic geometry and the topology of the DIII-D shot very accurately [1,2]. A symplectic map for field line trajectories in the natural canonical coordinates in the DIII-D is constructed. We call this map the DIII-D map. The natural canonical coordinates can be readily inverted to physical coordinates (R,φ,Z) [1,2]. Low mn magnetic perturbation with mode numbers (m,n)=(1,1)+(1,-1) is added to the generating function of the map. The amplitude for the low mn perturbation is chosen to be 6X10-4, which is the expected value of the amplitude in tokamaks. The forward DIII-D map and its continuous analog are used to calculate the inboard magnetic footprint from the low mn perturbation in the DIII-D. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  15. Calculation of the outboard magnetic footprint in the DIII-D from the low mn magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Quentin; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-11-01

    The equilibrium EFIT data for the DIII-D shot 115467 at 3000 ms is used to construct the equilibrium generating function for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak in natural canonical coordinates [1,2]. The generating function represents the axisymmetric magnetic geometry and the topology of the DIII-D shot very accurately [1,2]. A symplectic map for field line trajectories in the natural canonical coordinates in the DIII-D is constructed. We call this map the DIII-D map. The natural canonical coordinates can be readily inverted to physical coordinates (R,φ,Z) [1,2]. Low mn magnetic perturbation with mode numbers (m,n)=(1,1)+(1,-1) is added to the generating function of the map. The amplitude for the low mn perturbation is chosen to be 6X10-4, which is the expected value of the amplitude in tokamaks. The backward DIII-D map and its continuous analog are used to calculate the outboard magnetic footprint from the low mn perturbation in the DIII-D. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  16. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-09-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation.

  17. Cosmological perturbations in non-local higher-derivative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Craps, Ben; Jonckheere, Tim De; Koshelev, Alexey S. E-mail: Tim.De.Jonckheere@vub.ac.be

    2014-11-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in a non-local higher-derivative model of gravity introduced by Biswas, Mazumdar and Siegel. We extend previous work, which had focused on classical scalar perturbations around a cosine hyperbolic bounce solution, in three ways. First, we point out the existence of a Starobinsky solution in this model, which is more attractive from a phenomenological point of view (even though it has no bounce). Second, we study classical vector and tensor pertuxsxrbations. Third, we show how to quantize scalar and tensor perturbations in a de Sitter phase (for choices of parameters such that the model is ghost-free). Our results show that the model is well-behaved at this level, and are very similar to corresponding results in local f(R) models. In particular, for the Starobinsky solution of non-local higher-derivative gravity, we find the same tensor-to-scalar ratio as for the conventional Starobinsky model.

  18. Toroidal Energy Principle (TEP) and perturbed equilibrium code STB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Hu, Di

    2016-10-01

    The MHD energy principle TEP is presented in terms of perturbations of the vector potential, rather than plasma displacement. This form makes TEP capable to discribe both the ideal plasmas stability and the perturbed equilibria. The functional is expressed in two terms. The first one represents the energy of magnetic field and is calculated using working equilibrium coordinate system. The second term, containing plasma displacement is expressed in the compact form using Hamada coordinates. This representation uses the same combinations of metric coefficients as in the equilibrium calculations. The STB code implements the TEP for both ideal MHD and perturbed equilibria. In the first case, it uses the matching conditions of the ideal MHD. In the second case, the 2-D equilibrium islands are introduced in order to resolve the singularity and match the solutions across the resonant surfaces Partially by (a) US DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466, (b) General Fusion Inc.

  19. High-order variational perturbation theory for the free energy.

    PubMed

    Weissbach, Florian; Pelster, Axel; Hamprecht, Bodo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a generalization to the algebraic Bender-Wu recursion relation for the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the anharmonic oscillator. We extend this well known formalism to the time-dependent quantum statistical Schrödinger equation, thus obtaining the imaginary-time evolution amplitude by solving a recursive set of ordinary differential equations. This approach enables us to evaluate global and local quantum statistical quantities of the anharmonic oscillator to much higher orders than by evaluating Feynman diagrams. We probe our perturbative results by deriving a perturbative expression for the free energy, which is then subject to variational perturbation theory as developed by Kleinert, yielding convergent results for the free energy for all values of the coupling strength.

  20. Petrov type of linearly perturbed type-D spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Bernardo; Dotti, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    We show that a spacetime satisfying the linearized vacuum Einstein equations around a type-D background is generically of type I, and that the splittings of the principal null directions (PNDs) and of the degenerate eigenvalue of the Weyl tensor are non-analytic functions of the perturbation parameter of the metric. This provides a gauge-invariant characterization of the effect of the perturbation on the underlying geometry, without appealing to differential curvature invariants. This is of particular interest for the Schwarzschild solution, for which there are no signatures of the even perturbations on the algebraic curvature invariants. We also show that, unlike the general case, the unstable even modes of the Schwarzschild naked singularity deform the Weyl tensor into a type-II one.

  1. Microbial community composition in sediments resists perturbation by nutrient enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Ward, Bess B; Morrison, Hilary G; Hobbie, John E; Valiela, Ivan; Deegan, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2011-01-01

    Functional redundancy in bacterial communities is expected to allow microbial assemblages to survive perturbation by allowing continuity in function despite compositional changes in communities. Recent evidence suggests, however, that microbial communities change both composition and function as a result of disturbance. We present evidence for a third response: resistance. We examined microbial community response to perturbation caused by nutrient enrichment in salt marsh sediments using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional gene microarrays targeting the nirS gene. Composition of the microbial community, as demonstrated by both genes, was unaffected by significant variations in external nutrient supply in our sampling locations, despite demonstrable and diverse nutrient-induced changes in many aspects of marsh ecology. The lack of response to external forcing demonstrates a remarkable uncoupling between microbial composition and ecosystem-level biogeochemical processes and suggests that sediment microbial communities are able to resist some forms of perturbation. PMID:21412346

  2. Evolution of density perturbations in f(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Carloni, S.; Dunsby, P. K. S.; Troisi, A.

    2008-01-15

    We give a rigorous and mathematically well defined presentation of the covariant and gauge invariant theory of scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe for fourth order gravity, where the matter is described by a perfect fluid with a barotropic equation of state. The general perturbations equations are applied to a simple background solution of R{sup n} gravity. We obtain exact solutions of the perturbations equations for scales much bigger than the Hubble radius. These solutions have a number of interesting features. In particular, we find that for all values of n there is always a growing mode for the density contrast, even if the universe undergoes an accelerated expansion. Such behavior does not occur in standard general relativity, where as soon as dark energy dominates, the density contrast experiences an unrelenting decay. This peculiarity is sufficiently novel to warrant further investigation of fourth order gravity models.

  3. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  4. Correlation of isocurvature perturbation and non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Leung, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    We explore the correlations between primordial non-Gaussianity and isocurvature perturbation. We sketch the generic relation between the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation and the cross-correlation power spectrum in the presence of explicit couplings between the inflaton and another light field which gives rise to isocurvature perturbation. Using a concrete model of a Peccei-Quinn type field with generic gravitational couplings, we illustrate explicitly how the primordial bispectrum correlates with the cross-correlation power spectrum. Assuming the resulting fNL ~ Script O(1), we find that the form of the correlation depends mostly upon the inflation model but only weakly on the axion parameters, even though fNL itself does depend heavily on the axion parameters.

  5. Efficiently Finding Trends in Macroscopic MHD Stability Using Perturbed Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, K. J.; Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Turnbull, A. D.; Cowley, S. C.

    2001-10-01

    The effects of equilibrium shaping and profiles on long wavelength ideal MHD instabilities in toroidal plasmas are traditionally studied using numerical parameter scans. Previously, we introduced a new perturbative technique to explore these dependencies: assuming small equilibrium variations, new stability properties are found using a perturbation of the energy principle rather than with a traditional stability code. With this approach, stability dependencies can be efficiently examined without numerically generating complete MHD stability results for every set of parameters (which can be time-intensive for accurate representations of several configurations). Here, we briefly expand on previous successful perturbed stability analyses for screw pinch equilibria by discussing cases where the approach fails. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using the GATO and TOQ codes, and present cases that both validate the approach and suggest caution in its application.

  6. Perturbation analysis of ionization oscillations in Hall effect thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Kentaro Sekerak, Michael J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2014-12-15

    A perturbation analysis of ionization oscillations, which cause low frequency oscillations of the discharge plasma, in Hall effect thrusters is presented including the electron energy equation in addition to heavy-species transport. Excitation and stabilization of such oscillations, often called the breathing mode, are discussed in terms of the growth rate obtained from the linear perturbation equations of the discharge plasma. The instability induced from the ionization occurs only when the perturbation in the electron energy is included while the neutral atom flow contributes to the damping of the oscillation. Effects of the electron energy loss mechanisms such as wall heat loss, inelastic collisions, and convective heat flux are discussed. It is shown that the ionization oscillations can be damped when the electron transport is reduced and the electron temperature increases so that the energy loss to the wall stabilizes the ionization instability.

  7. Variational perturbation theory and nonperturbative calculations in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Solovtsova, O. P.

    2013-10-15

    A nonperturbative approach based on the variational perturbation theory in quantum chromodynamics is developed. The variational series is different from the conventional perturbative expansion and can be used to go beyond the weak-coupling regime. The approach suggested takes into account the summation of threshold singularities and the involvement of nonperturbative light quark masses. Phenomenological applications of this approach to describe physical quantities connected with the hadronic {tau}-decay data: the R{sub {tau}} ratio, the light-quark Adler function, and the smeared R{sub {Delta}} function are presented. The description of examined quantities includes an infrared region and, therefore, they cannot be directly calculated within the standard perturbation theory. It is shown that in spite of this fact the approach suggested gives a rather good result for these quantities down to the lowest energy scale.

  8. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  9. Unified treatment of cosmological perturbations from superhorizon to small scales

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Matarrese, Sabino

    2005-02-15

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations, using a hybrid approximation scheme which upgrades the weak-field limit of Einstein's field equations to account for post-Newtonian scalar and vector metric perturbations and for leading-order source terms of gravitational waves, while including also the first- and second-order perturbative approximations. Our equations, which are derived in the Poisson gauge, provide a unified description of matter inhomogeneities in a Universe filled with a pressureless and irrotational fluid and a cosmological constant, ranging from the linear to the highly nonlinear regime. The derived expressions for scalar, vector and tensor modes may have a wide range of cosmological applications, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization effects, cosmographic relations in a inhomogeneous Universe, gravitational lensing and the stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds generated by nonlinear cosmic structures.

  10. Dark energy and dark matter perturbations in singular universes

    SciTech Connect

    Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the evolution of density perturbations of dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models which admit future singularities in a finite time. Up to now geometrical tests of the evolution of the universe do not differentiate between singular universes and ΛCDM scenario. We solve perturbation equations using the gauge invariant formalism. The analysis shows that the detailed reconstruction of the evolution of perturbations within singular cosmologies, in the dark sector, can exhibit important differences between the singular universes models and the ΛCDM cosmology. This is encouraging for further examination and gives hope for discriminating between those models with future galaxy weak lensing experiments like the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid or CMB observations like PRISM and CoRE.

  11. Perturbative stability of SFT-based cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Federico; Koshelev, Alexey S. E-mail: alexey.koshelev@vub.ac.be

    2011-05-01

    We review the appearance of multiple scalar fields in linearized SFT based cosmological models with a single non-local scalar field. Some of these local fields are canonical real scalar fields and some are complex fields with unusual coupling. These systems only admit numerical or approximate analysis. We introduce a modified potential for multiple scalar fields that makes the system exactly solvable in the cosmological context of Friedmann equations and at the same time preserves the asymptotic behavior expected from SFT. The main part of the paper consists of the analysis of inhomogeneous cosmological perturbations in this system. We show numerically that perturbations corresponding to the new type of complex fields always vanish. As an example of application of this model we consider an explicit construction of the phantom divide crossing and prove the perturbative stability of this process at the linear order. The issue of ghosts and ways to resolve it are briefly discussed.

  12. Correlation of isocurvature perturbation and non-Gaussianity

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Leung, Godfrey E-mail: godfrey.leung@apctp.org

    2015-12-01

    We explore the correlations between primordial non-Gaussianity and isocurvature perturbation. We sketch the generic relation between the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation and the cross-correlation power spectrum in the presence of explicit couplings between the inflaton and another light field which gives rise to isocurvature perturbation. Using a concrete model of a Peccei-Quinn type field with generic gravitational couplings, we illustrate explicitly how the primordial bispectrum correlates with the cross-correlation power spectrum. Assuming the resulting f{sub NL} ∼ O(1), we find that the form of the correlation depends mostly upon the inflation model but only weakly on the axion parameters, even though f{sub NL} itself does depend heavily on the axion parameters.

  13. Perturbative QCD correlations in multi-parton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, B.; Dokshitzer, Yu.; Frankfurt, L.; Strikman, M.

    2014-06-01

    We examine the role played in double-parton interactions (DPI) by the parton-parton correlations originating from perturbative QCD parton splittings. Also presented are the results of the numerical analysis of the integrated DPI cross sections at Tevatron and LHC energies. To obtain the numerical results the knowledge of the single-parton GPDs gained by the HERA experiments was used to construct the non-perturbative input for generalized double-parton distributions. The perturbative two-parton correlations induced by three-parton interactions contribute significantly to a resolution of the longstanding puzzle of an excess of multi-jet production events in the back-to-back kinematics observed at the Tevatron.

  14. Evolution of perturbations in anisotropic loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Sreenath; Agullo, Ivan; Olmedo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In loop quantum cosmology the big bang singularity is replaced by a quantum bounce. The evolution of primordial perturbations through such a bounce in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe has been studied in great detail. However, it is well known that any tiny anisotropy will grow (up to an upper bound) as the universe contracts and undergoes a bounce. Anisotropies will then decrease and eventually dilute in the expanding branch, but quantum perturbations may retain memory of the anisotropic bounce. In this talk, we present our efforts in understanding the effect of anisotropies (of Bianchi-I type) on the evolution of primordial perturbations in loop quantum cosmology, and in exploring its phenomenological implications. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY-1403943.

  15. Semidiurnal perturbations to the surge of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Valle, Alvaro

    2013-05-01

    Hurricane Sandy drove storm surges throughout the eastern seaboard of the United States, from Miami to Maine, at the end of October 2012. The surge was particularly high (>3 m) in coastal New York. In the southeastern United States, the surge was <1 m but had striking semidiurnal perturbations that reached a range of ~0.5 m in northern Florida and southern Georgia. These oscillations are typically not considered in surge forecasts and their origin needs to be understood for future forecasts. Analytical and numerical approaches indicated that semidiurnal perturbations arose from an interaction between astronomical tide and wind forcing. This combination of forcing caused phase shifts between incident and reflected tidal waves that customarily produce quasi-standing tidal conditions in the area. Atmospheric forcing of sufficient strength, which threshold remains to be established, disrupted such quasi-standing tidal behavior through Coriolis accelerations and triggered the semidiurnal perturbations.

  16. Semidiurnal perturbations to the surge of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Valle, Alvaro

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy drove storm surges throughout the eastern seaboard of the United States, from Miami to Maine, at the end of October 2012. The surge was particularly high (>3 m) in coastal New York. In the southeastern United States, the surge was <1 m but had striking semidiurnal perturbations that reached a range of ~0.5 m in northern Florida and southern Georgia. These oscillations are typically not considered in surge forecasts and therefore, it is essential to understand their origin for future forecasts. Analytical and numerical approaches indicated that semidiurnal perturbations arose from an interaction between astronomical tide and atmospheric forcing from wind and barometric pressure. This combination of forcing caused phase shifts between incident and reflected tidal waves that customarily produce quasi-standing tidal conditions in the area. Atmospheric forcing of sufficient strength, which threshold remains to be established, disrupted such quasi-standing tidal behavior and triggered the semidiurnal perturbations.

  17. Attenuated self-tickle sensation even under trajectory perturbation.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, George; Paton, Bryan; Howell, Jacqui; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    The efference copy account of the tickle effect (i.e., our inability to tickle ourselves) predicts no tickle effect (i.e., an ability to tickle ourselves) when the trajectory of a tactile stimulus is perturbed relative to the associated movement, and there is evidence in support of this. The active inference account, however, predicts the tickle effect should survive trajectory perturbation. We test these accounts of the tickle effect under the hypothesis that previous findings are due to attentional modulation, and that the tickle effect will be found in a paradigm with no conscious attention directed to the trajectory perturbation. We thus expected to find support for active inference. Our first experiment confirms this hypothesis, while our second seeks to explain previous findings in terms of the modulation of the tickle sensation when there is awareness of, and different degrees of attention to, the spatial tactile and kinesthetic trajectories.

  18. Natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Cullen, J M

    1980-09-01

    This presentation covers the various types of natural disasters which are faced by investigators throughout the world. Each geophysical substance is discussed, including earth, air and water, and secondary effects including fire. Additionally, four myths associated with disasters are reviewed.

  19. Alien calculus and non perturbative effects in Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellon, Marc P.

    2016-12-01

    In many domains of physics, methods for dealing with non-perturbative aspects are required. Here, I want to argue that a good approach for this is to work on the Borel transforms of the quantities of interest, the singularities of which give non-perturbative contributions. These singularities in many cases can be largely determined by using the alien calculus developed by Jean Écalle. My main example will be the two point function of a massless theory given as a solution of a renormalization group equation.

  20. Solution of linear systems by a singular perturbation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    An approximate solution is obtained for a singularly perturbed system of initial valued, time invariant, linear differential equations with multiple boundary layers. Conditions are stated under which the approximate solution converges uniformly to the exact solution as the perturbation parameter tends to zero. The solution is obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Use of the results for obtaining approximate solutions of general linear systems is discussed. An example is considered to illustrate the method and it is shown that the formulas derived give a readily computed uniform approximation.