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Sample records for pleomorphic lobular carcinoma

  1. Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: a comparison of cytopathological features with other lobular carcinoma variants.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, R; Matsubara, M; Watarai, Y; Yanagihara, K; Yamashita, K; Tsuchiya, S-I; Takei, H; Naito, Z

    2017-04-01

    Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (PLC) is a subtype of breast cancer with unique morphological features, but it remains controversial whether PLC should be considered an independent disease entity. The aim of this study was to illustrate cytopathological characteristics of PLC in comparison with other lobular carcinoma variants. We investigated clinicopathological features of PLC (n = 11) compared with those of other variants of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, non-PLC) (n = 32). Histological variants of the non-PLC group consisted of classic (n = 25), solid (n = 2), alveolar (n = 1) and a tubulolobular type (n = 4). A review of cytological reports and fine needle aspiration (FNA) smear samples was performed for the PLC (n = 9) and non-PLC (n = 27) groups. Patients with PLC were older, and had a higher nuclear grade and a higher incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis and triple negative phenotype than non-PLC patients (P = 0.007, P < 0.001, P = 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively). Cytological findings in PLC included medium- to large-sized nuclei, prominent nucleoli, a moderate-to-severe degree of pleomorphism, apocrine change and background necrosis, none of which were evident in the smears of the non-PLC group (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.03, respectively). Despite these differences, patients with PLC and non-PLC showed similar clinical outcomes in our follow-up period. Based on our results, a cytological diagnosis of PLC should be proposed if there are moderate- to large-sized nuclei, prominent nucleoli, a moderate-to severe degree of nuclear pleomorphism, apocrine change and necrosis in the background in FNA biopsy samples. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. IRS2 mutations linked to invasion in pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Sha; Ward, B. Marie; Yu, Jun; Matthew-Onabanjo, Asia N.; Janusis, Jenny; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Zhu, Lihua Julie; Kandil, Dina; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2018-01-01

    Pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma (PILC) is an aggressive variant of invasive lobular breast cancer that is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Limited molecular data are available to explain the mechanistic basis for PILC behavior. To address this issue, targeted sequencing was performed to identify molecular alterations that define PILC. This sequencing analysis identified genes that distinguish PILC from classic ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma by the incidence of their genomic changes. In particular, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is recurrently mutated in PILC, and pathway analysis reveals a role for the insulin receptor (IR)/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R)/IRS2 signaling pathway in PILC. IRS2 mutations identified in PILC enhance invasion, revealing a role for this signaling adaptor in the aggressive nature of PILC. PMID:29669935

  3. Uroplakin II Expression in Breast Carcinomas Showing Apocrine Differentiation: Putting Some Emphasis on Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma as a Potential Mimic of Urothelial Carcinoma at Metastatic Sites.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen. Immunohistochemistry was performed for uroplakin II, GATA3, CK7, CK20, and other representative markers positive for urothelial carcinoma. All cases of IPLC, AC, and AM, except those of cILC, showed immunoreactivity for uroplakin II. Poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma sometimes shows similar morphology to IPLC with the following immunophenotype: CK7+, CK20-, GATA3+, and uroplakin II+. In the present study, this immunophenotype was observed in all the cases of IPLC and AC. Therefore, when studying metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma showing the aforementioned immunophenotype, we should consider the possibility of it being IPLC in addition to metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  4. Clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in pleomorphic lobular breast carcinoma of the breast: a SEER population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Peng; Sun, He-Fen; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Meng-Ting; Zhang, Nong; Jin, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the clinicopathological features and survival outcome of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (PLC) of breast, we identified 131 PLC patients and 460,109 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database. PLCs presented with increased lymph node involvement, older age, higher AJCC stage and grade, and lower median survival months (PLC 84 ± 51.03 vs. IDC 105.2 ± 64.39 P < 0.01). Compared to IDC patients, PLC patients were more inclined to be treated with mastectomy. In univariate analysis, PLC patients showed a worse disease-specific survival (DSS) than that of IDC patients (hazard ratio = 0.691, 95% confidence interval 0.534-0.893, P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, we took into account other prognostic factors and found that the histology types were no longer an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.120). DSS have no difference between matched IDC and PLC groups (P = 0.615). This result may be due to PLCs presenting higher tumor stage, higher tumor grade, and higher rate of LN metastasis than IDCs. Our conclusion is that PLC and IDC have many different characteristics, but there is not enough difference on the DSS. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluating agreement, histological features and relevance of separating pleomorphic and florid lobular carcinoma-in-situ subtypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamaljeet; Paquette, Cherie; Kalife, Elizabeth T; Wang, Yihong; Mangray, Shamlal; MPhil, M Ruhul Quddus Md; Steinhoff, Margaret M

    2018-05-09

    Morphological variants of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) include classical- (CLCIS), pleomorphic- (PLCIS) and florid-type (FLCIS). Treatment guidelines suggest managing PLCIS and FLCIS like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); therefore accurate identification of LCIS subtypes is critical. However significance of separating PLCIS from FLCIS is not clear. Also inter-observer agreement in identifying LCIS subtypes, using contemporary criteria, is not known. We aimed to evaluate inter-observer agreement amongst breast pathologists in diagnosing LCIS subtypes and use the agreement data to justify LCIS classification for management purposes. Six breast pathologists independently reviewed 50 hematoxylin and eosin stained slides comprised of a mix of LCIS subtypes. After reviewing published criteria participants diagnosed PLCIS, CLCIS and apocrine change in a marked region of interest and FLCIS based on entire section. PLCIS was identified in 8-37 slides with overall moderate agreement (Fleiss' κ =0.565) and pairwise κ (Cohen's) ranging from -.008 to 0.492. FLCIS was diagnosed in 15-26 slides with overall substantial agreement (Fleiss' κ =0.687) and pairwise κ ranging from -.068 to 0.706. Both FLCIS and PLCIS coexisted in 45% of slides with consensus on non-classical LCIS. Comedo-type necrosis (Odds ratio=5.5) and apoptosis (Odds ratio=1.8) predicted FLCIS. We found moderate and substantial agreement in diagnosing PLCIS and FLCIS respectively. Objective histological features linked with aggressive behavior were more frequent with FLCIS. PLCIS and FLCIS patterns frequently coexist, contain similar molecular aberrations, and are managed similarly (like DCIS); therefore combining FLCIS and PLCIS into one category (non-classical LCIS) should be considered. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Seven-year survey of classical and pleomorphic invasive lobular breast carcinomas in women from southeastern Serbia: Differences in clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.

    PubMed

    Ilic, Ivan R; Djordjevic, Nebojsa P; Randjelovic, Pavle J; Stojanovic, Nikola M; Radulovic, Niko S; Ilic, Ratko S

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of different variants of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast is variable. For example, the pleomorphic variant of ILC has an incidence of around 5%; however, the number of analyzed cases of ILC is shadowed by the number of ductal type carcinoma (IDC). Thus, we aimed to analyze the classical and pleomorphic ILCs in women from southeastern Serbia. Analyzed were 296 cases (11.91%) diagnosed with ILC, out of 2486 cases of all breast cancers (BCs), during a 7-year period (2005-2011) from southeastern Serbia. The differences in clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features (estrogen receptor/ER, progesterone receptor/ PR, HER-2, Ki-67, BRCA-1, p53 and E-cadherin) of these cases of ILCs were assessed and compared. Pleomorphic ILC occurred relatively rarely compared to other variants, however almost one fifth of the ILC cases were pleomorphic. No statistically significant correlation was found between patient age, tumor stage and the presence/absence of multifocality (MFC), multicentricity (MCC) and bilaterality (BL) on one side, and ILC variant on the other. Only the expression of two prognostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers, important for endocrine therapy, ER and PR, showed significant correlation with the ILC variant. Although higher tumor stage, incidence of multicentricity, overexpression of HER2 and higher p53 positivity were deemed to be characteristic of pleomorphic ILC, in our study that included a much larger number of cases than previous studies did, such correlations were not observed. Thus, it appears that the only two features of pleomorphic ILCs is absence of ER and PR positivity.

  7. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Derksen, Patrick W B; Braumuller, Tanya M; van der Burg, Eline; Hornsveld, Marten; Mesman, Elly; Wesseling, Jelle; Krimpenfort, Paul; Jonkers, Jos

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30-40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which accounts for 10-15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  8. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)

    MedlinePlus

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) Overview Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition in which abnormal cells form in the ... of developing invasive breast cancer. Symptoms Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) doesn't cause signs or symptoms. Rather, ...

  9. Genomic features of lobular breast carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified molecular characteristics of a type of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), that distinguishes it from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common invasive breast cancer subtype.

  10. Genomic features of lobular breast carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified molecular characteristics of a type of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), that distinguishes it from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common invasive breast cancer subtype.

  11. Pleomorphic liposarcoma following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbabi, L.; Warhol, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    A pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a site previously irradiated as a treatment for breast carcinoma is described. This case fulfills the criteria for a tumor to be radiation-induced. The tumor is localized with an irradiated area, there is a clear histologic distinction between the previous and current tumor, and there is a long latent interval.

  12. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, with particular emphasis on early lesions.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Silvana

    2013-07-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a broad category of carcinomas of the salivary glands which includes at least 2 clinically relevant categories; one is referred here as early CXPA (ECXPA), the other as widely invasive CXPA. The former includes several histological patterns ranging from non-invasive/in situ/intraductal/intratubular, early invasive/extratubular/intracapsular and extracapsular (up to 6 mm). The latter includes any CXPA with invasion of >6 mm. The clinical behaviour of ECXPA is not aggressive and tends to overlap that of a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) which makes the histological report of carcinoma contradictory. These early malignant changes in PA are known since the 1970s but it has been the use of immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis for HER-2 and TP53 gene in the last decade that has clarified the genuine malignant nature of the cells. HER-2 and TP53 gene and protein are involved in the early stages of malignant transformation of PA. Moreover the immunohistochemical over-expression HER-2, p53 protein and Mib-1 proliferation marker may be useful markers to identify malignant areas in PA.

  13. Mixed ductal‐lobular carcinomas: evidence for progression from ductal to lobular morphology

    PubMed Central

    McCart Reed, Amy E; Kutasovic, Jamie R; Nones, Katia; Saunus, Jodi M; Da Silva, Leonard; Newell, Felicity; Kazakoff, Stephen; Melville, Lewis; Jayanthan, Janani; Vargas, Ana Cristina; Reid, Lynne E; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Patch, Anne-Marie; Clouston, David; Porter, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth; Pearson, John V; Chenevix‐Trench, Georgia; Cummings, Margaret C; Waddell, Nicola; Lakhani, Sunil R

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Mixed ductal–lobular carcinomas (MDLs) show both ductal and lobular morphology, and constitute an archetypal example of intratumoural morphological heterogeneity. The mechanisms underlying the coexistence of these different morphological entities are poorly understood, although theories include that these components either represent ‘collision’ of independent tumours or evolve from a common ancestor. We performed comprehensive clinicopathological analysis of a cohort of 82 MDLs, and found that: (1) MDLs more frequently coexist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) than with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); (2) the E‐cadherin–catenin complex was normal in the ductal component in 77.6% of tumours; and (3) in the lobular component, E‐cadherin was almost always aberrantly located in the cytoplasm, in contrast to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), where E‐cadherin is typically absent. Comparative genomic hybridization and multiregion whole exome sequencing of four representative cases revealed that all morphologically distinct components within an individual case were clonally related. The mutations identified varied between cases; those associated with a common clonal ancestry included BRCA2, TBX3, and TP53, whereas those associated with clonal divergence included CDH1 and ESR1. Together, these data support a model in which separate morphological components of MDLs arise from a common ancestor, and lobular morphology can arise via a ductal pathway of tumour progression. In MDLs that present with LCIS and DCIS, the clonal divergence probably occurs early, and is frequently associated with complete loss of E‐cadherin expression, as in ILC, whereas, in the majority of MDLs, which present with DCIS but not LCIS, direct clonal divergence from the ductal to the lobular phenotype occurs late in tumour evolution, and is associated with aberrant expression of E‐cadherin. The mechanisms driving the phenotypic change may involve E

  14. Is There a Role for Oncotype Dx Testing in Invasive Lobular Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Conlon, Niamh; Ross, Dara S; Howard, Jane; Catalano, Jeffrey P; Dickler, Maura N; Tan, Lee K

    2015-01-01

    Oncotype Dx Breast Cancer Assay is a 21-gene assay used in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer to predict benefit from chemotherapy (CT). Tumors are placed into one of three risk categories based on their recurrence score (RS). This paper explores the impact of tumor histopathologic features and Oncotype Dx RS on the treatment plan for invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Invasive lobular carcinoma cases submitted for Oncotype Dx testing were identified from a clinical data base. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features and RS subcategory of each tumor, and treatment regimen and medical oncologic assessments of each patient were reviewed. A total of 135 cases of ILC had RS testing, which represented 15% of all ILC diagnosed at the institution over the time period. 80% of ILC was of the classical subtype and all tumors were ER positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative by immunohistochemistry. Sixty three percent of cases were low risk (LR), 35.5% were intermediate risk (IR) and 1.5% were high risk (HR). Both HR cases were pleomorphic ILC. Sixty eight percent of classical ILC had a LR score, while 70% of pleomorphic ILC had an IR score. Patients in the IR category were significantly more likely to undergo CT than patients in the LR category (54% versus 18%; p < 0.0001). In the LR category, those undergoing CT were significantly younger and more likely to have positive lymph nodes (p < 0.05). Qualitative analysis of medical oncologic assessments showed that RS played a role in decision-making on CT in 74% of cases overall. At our institution, Oncotype Dx RS currently plays a role in the management of a proportion of ILC and impacts on treatment decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Invasive lobular breast carcinoma metastasising to the rectum.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Nishant; Qureshi, Nafees Ahmad; Cairncross, Callum; Solkar, Mamoon

    2017-08-03

    Gastrointestinal (GI) metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma is uncommon, with the rectum being one of the least reported sites in the literature. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who underwent treatment for an infiltrative lobular carcinoma of the right breast with nodal involvement, and 10 years later developed recurrence in the form of rectal metastasis. Spread to the GI tract is most commonly seen with lobular breast carcinomas. Any patient with a history of breast cancer presenting typically or atypically with abdominal symptoms or altered bowel habit should raise a high index of suspicion for recurrent or metastatic disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. A case of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma with detection of the primary tumor after ten years.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Adachi, Shiro; Matsuda, Yasuki; Tominaga, Syusei

    2007-01-01

    Lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to metastasize to unusual sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, and gynecologic organs. We report a patient with intraperitoneal metastases from lobular carcinoma who was originally treated for an unknown primary cancer. Ten years later, a tumor was found in her left breast and the diagnosis was changed to peritoneal metastases from invasive lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the metastases were high molecular weight cytokeratin (CK34betaE12) and estrogen receptor-positive, but were E-cadherin-negative. These results assisted in diagnosis. Surgeons should be aware of the characteristics of metastasis lobular carcinoma.

  17. UK national survey of management of breast lobular carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Chester, R; Bokinni, O; Ahmed, I; Kasem, A

    2015-11-01

    There is no national standard treatment for patients with breast lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Association of Breast Surgery guidelines for the management of breast cancer suggest that lesions containing LCIS should be excised for definitive diagnosis and recommend close surveillance after excision biopsy. The aim of this study was to form a picture of the current management of LCIS by UK breast surgeons. A questionnaire about the management of LCIS was sent to 490 UK breast surgeons. Of 490 questionnaires sent out, 173 (35%) were returned. When LCIS is present in a core biopsy, 61% of breast surgeons perform surgical excision, 22% would not excise but would continue follow-up and the remainder perform neither or set no clear management plan. Over half (54%) follow patients up with five years of annual mammography. If classic LCIS were found at the margins of wide local excision, 92% would not re-excise. Conversely, if pleomorphic LCIS were found, 71% would achieve clear margins. Respondents were split evenly regarding management of classic LCIS with a family history as 54% would not alter management whereas 43% would treat the disease more aggressively. Our survey has shown that in cases where LCIS is found at core biopsy, most surgeons follow Association of Breast Surgery guidance, obtaining further histological samples to exclude pleomorphic LCIS, ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer, whereas others opt for annual surveillance and some discharge the patient. This study highlighted the huge variability in LCIS management, and the need for randomised controlled trials and input into national audits such as the Sloane Project to establish evidence-based national standard guidelines.

  18. A Case Report of Rare Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of Submandibular Gland and its Detailed Description

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Ajinkya Amritrao; Deshmukh, Atul A.

    2017-01-01

    A 65-year-old female patient reported with a chief complaint of swelling in the left lower region of the jaw since two years. On clinical examination, the swelling was present on the mandibular left posterior region and measuring approximately 6.2 cm antero-posteriorly × 6.2 cm mediolaterally × 8.7 cm superioinferiorly. Initially, it was non tender but eventually it became tender. Fine needle aspiration was done to rule out any salivary gland pathology and report obtained was carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Then, excisional biopsy was taken and tissue sent for histopathology. Histopathological diagnosis was benign adenoma with carcinoma. Later serial sections of tissue were studied and came to the conclusion of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma which was non invasive type and showed bizarre cells with neoplastic changes. Benign part was composed of myxomatous area with partial capsule. Neoplastic cells showed invasion into capsule and few necrotic areas were also present. Overall interpretation was favoured Non invasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. So here, we reported a case of Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma (CAEXPA) which is a deadly and rare variant of salivary gland malignancy. PMID:28658924

  19. The Successful Treatment of Pulmonary Pleomorphic Carcinoma with Pembrolizumab: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoko; Miura, Tamaki; Horiuchi, Hajime; Usui, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinomas are rare malignant tumors, and no standard treatments have been established. We herein report the successful treatment of a patient with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma with pembrolizumab. A 51-year-old man who was a current smoker presented to our hospital due to dyspnea and hemosputum. Chest X-ray showed right-sided pneumothorax with pleural effusion; chest tube drainage was therefore performed. Computed tomography after chest tube drainage showed a cavitary nodule in the right upper lobe and right hilar and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Surgery was performed for the diagnosis and treatment. He was eventually diagnosed with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma corresponding to clinical stage IVB (cT2aN2M1c [PLE, ADR, HEP]). The giant cells strongly expressed programmed death ligand-1, and the tumor proportion score was more than 50%. Therefore, pembrolizumab was introduced as the first-line therapy. After 3 cycles of pembrolizumab, his right hilar and bilateral mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pleural dissemination notably decreased. Pembrolizumab might be an effective therapy for pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma. PMID:28878661

  20. Metastasis of lobular breast carcinoma to the uterus in a patient under anastrozole therapy.

    PubMed

    Ustaalioglu, Basak B O; Bilici, Ahmet; Seker, Mesut; Salman, Tarik; Gumus, Mahmut; Barisik, Nagehan O; Salepci, Taflan; Yaylaci, Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    Metastasis of extragenital neoplasms to the uterus are rarely encountered, and usually occur as a manifestation of advanced disease. Lobular carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer that metastasizes to the uterus. We report on a 56-year-old woman who 3 years previously was diagnosed with invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast and was treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. While the patient was on adjuvant anastrozole therapy for 2 years, she complained of vaginal bleeding. Because of endometrial thickening and a uterine leiomyoma detected during abdominal ultrasonographic ex-amination, a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination of the specimens revealed carcinoma infiltration of the myometrium, endometrium, cervix, uterine tube, and left ovary. Immunohistochemical staining of tumoral cells with pancytokeratin and gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) proved the diagnosis of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma to the uterus. To our knowledge, this is the second case of lobular breast carcinoma metastasized to the uterus under anastrozole therapy. In women with lobular breast cancer under adjuvant anastrozole therapy, who present with vaginal bleeding, uterine metastasis of lobular carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Gastrointestinal Metastasis From Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Bathmapriya; Shaik, Sufiya; Burman-Solovyeva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We present an unusual case of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma. Typical areas of metastasis include bone, gynecological organs, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in order of frequency. With regard to GI metastasis, extrahepatic represents a rare site. Case. Two years after being diagnosed with invasive lobular breast carcinoma, a 61-year-old female complained of 3 months of nonspecific abdominal pain and diarrhea. A colonoscopy revealed 5 tubular adenomatous polyps in the ascending and transverse colon. Contrast computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was done 7 months after the colonoscopy to further evaluate persistent diarrhea. The CT results were consistent with infectious or inflammatory enterocolitis. Despite conservative management, symptoms failed to improve and a repeat diagnostic colonoscopy was obtained. Random colonic biopsies revealed metastatic high-grade adenocarcinoma of the colon. Discussion. Metastatic lobular breast carcinoma to the GI tract can distort initial interpretation of endoscopic evaluation with lesions mimicking inflammation. The interval between discovery of GI metastasis and diagnosis of lobular breast cancer can vary widely from synchronous to 30 years; however, progression is most often much sooner. Nonspecific symptoms and subtle appearance of metastatic lesions may confound the diagnosis. A high index of suspicion is needed for possible metastatic spread to the GI tract in patients with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma. Perhaps, patients with nonspecific GI symptoms should have an endoscopic examination with multiple random biopsies as invasive lobular carcinoma typically mimics macroscopic changes consistent with colitis.

  2. The role of postoperative radiation therapy in carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, M. Kara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of postoperative radiation therapy on the clinical course of patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 63 patients were treated with definitive surgery for carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. Forty patients (63%) received postoperative radiation therapy to a median dose of 60 Gy (range, 45-71 Gy). Adenocarcinoma (29 patients), salivary duct carcinoma (16 patients), and adenoid cystic carcinoma (9 patients) were the most common malignant subtypes. Pathologic T -stage was: 16% T1, 33% T2, 32% T3, and 19% T4. Twenty-one patients (33%)more » had microscopically positive margins and 39 (62%) had perineural invasion. Median follow-up was 50 months (range, 2-96 months). Results: The use of postoperative therapy significantly improved 5-year local control from 49% to 75% (p = 0.005) and was associated with an improvement in survival among patients without evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (p = 0.01). A Cox proportional hazard model identified pathologic involvement of cervical lymph nodes as an independent predictor of overall survival. Overall survival was 16% for patients with pathologic N-positive disease compared with 67% for those whose lymph node status was negative or unknown (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Surgery followed by postoperative radiation should be considered the standard of care for patients with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.« less

  3. Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Palate Composed of Invasive Micropapillary Salivary Duct Carcinoma and Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Components

    PubMed Central

    Sedassari, Bruno T.; da Silva Lascane, Nelise A.; Tobouti, Priscila L.; Pigatti, Fernanda M.; Franco, Maria I.F.; de Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an unusual epithelial malignancy that develops from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common tumor of salivary glands, and constitutes about 11.5% of all carcinomas that affect these glands. Intraoral minor salivary glands and seromucous glands of the oropharynx are uncommon locations of CXPA. On histopathological examination, the tumor comprises a wide morphological spectrum with a variable proportion between the benign and malignant components with the latter often predominating and overlapping the PA, which may cause misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of palatal minor salivary gland CXPA composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components with multiple nodal metastases in a 74-year-old woman. Neoplastic cells showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical profile with both luminal and myoepithelial differentiation. The invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma component demonstrated overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This feature should be considered and evaluated as a possible target for adjuvant therapy in case of metastatic disease. PMID:25501054

  4. High frequency of coexistence of columnar cell lesions, lobular neoplasia, and low grade ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive tubular carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Powe, Desmond G; Hodi, Zsolt; Lee, Andrew H S; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Ellis, Ian O

    2007-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the morphologic features and frequency of putative precursor lesions involved in the development of some pure forms of special types and low grade breast carcinoma. We reviewed 147 successive tumor cases, comprising tubular carcinoma (TC); pure type (n=56) and mixed type (n=20), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC); classic type (n=57), and tubulolobular carcinoma (TLC; n=14). The presence of preinvasive lesions including columnar cell lesions (CCLs), usual epithelial hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and lobular neoplasia (LN) was determined. Estrogen receptor and E-cadherin immunohistochemistry was performed. Ninety-five percent (95%) of pure TCs had associated CCLs with the majority showing flat epithelial atypia. Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)/DCIS was present in 89% patients. Colocalization of CCL, ADH/DCIS, and TC was seen in 85% patients, all displaying the same cytologic-nuclear morphology in most cases. LN was seen in 16%. In ILC, 91% cases showed LN. CCL and ADH/DCIS were seen in 60% and 42% cases, respectively. E-cadherin was positive in TLC but reduced in TC and completely absent in ILC. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that CCLs are associated with pure and mixed forms of TC, and that LN is involved in ILC development. Our observations suggest that these lesions represent family members of low grade precursor, in situ and invasive neoplastic lesions of the breast. Molecular studies are being performed to substantiate the hypothesis that tubular and lobular carcinomas have direct evolutionary links to CCLs and flat epithelial atypia.

  5. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions.

  6. Gastric metastasis 14 years after mastectomy for breast lobular carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aurello, Paolo; D'Angelo, Francesco; Cosenza, Giulia; Petrocca, Sergio; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Ramacciato, Giovanni; Ziparo, Vincenzo

    2006-05-01

    In planning treatment of a gastric neoplasm in a patient previously treated for lobular breast carcinoma, it is important to differentiate a primary gastrointestinal tract tumor from a metastatic form. We report a case of a breast lobular carcinoma metastatic to the stomach. The patient underwent a subtotal gastrectomy for symptomatic disease. Although gastric symptoms appeared 14 years after the breast carcinoma, immunohistochemical analysis of the surgical specimen helped to establish that the gastric lesion, thought to be primary, was effectively a metastatic repetition of the breast neoplasm. To better define treatment in a gastric neoplasm patient previously treated for breast carcinoma, the preoperative diagnosis should rule out a metastatic disease. The patient described received an adjuvant chemotherapy according to breast cancer protocol after gastric resection for symptomatic disease. The patient is still alive and undergoing chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinosis.

  7. Rectal metastasis from lobular breast carcinoma 15 years after primary diagnosis.

    PubMed

    López Deogracias, Maite; Flores Jaime, Laura; Arias-Camisón, Iñaki; Zamacola, Ilde; Murillo Guibert, Jesús; Suescun García, Rosa; Querejeta Usabiaga, Juan; Martínez García, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Lobular breast carcinoma represents 2-20% of infiltrative carcinomas of the breast. The incidence of extrahepatic gastrointestinal (GI) tract metastases observed in necropsy studies varies from 6% to 18% and the most commonly affected organ is the stomach, followed by colon and rectum [1-4]. Reported herein is the case of a 67-year-old woman who was primarily diagnosed and surgically treated for a lobular carcinoma of the breast 15 years ago and is now referred with back pain and right hydronephrosis caused by a metastasis in rectum. Frequently, the absence of specific symptoms of digestive metastases of breast cancer leads to a misdiagnosis of this pathology [5-7]. The treatment will be based on a detailed clinical history and histopathological findings. Metastases from breast cancer in GI tract tumours must be excluded in a patient with previous history of breast carcinoma, as in the case reported herein.

  8. Coexistence of lobular granulomatous mastitis and ductal carcinoma: a fortuitous association?

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Khadhar, A; Hassan, F; Bouraoui, S; Lahmar, A; Mzabi, S

    2013-12-01

    A 77-year-old female patient with a medical history significant for hypertension and epilepsy presented with right breast pain of 6-months duration. Examination revealed a hard sub-areola tender mass with irregular borders associated with mild right nipple retraction. Mammography showed a 2.2 x 2.4 cm stellate mass of the right breast. Ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the tumour were performed. Pathological examination revealed a grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent right radical mastectomy with homolateral axillary lymphadenectomy. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed grade II infiltrating ductal carcinoma concomitant with granulomatous lobular mastitis. To the best of our knowledge, the coexistence of granulomatous lobular mastitis and ductal carcinoma has been described only twice in the English language literature. The theory that chronic inflammation leads to cancer is well documented. Whether our patient had developed cancer from granulomatous lobular mastitis or otherwise is a matter of debate until more cases are encountered and more research is done in the area of breast cancer pathogenesis with regards to it arising from granulomatous lobular mastitis.

  9. Concomitant endometrial and gallbladder metastasis in advanced multiple metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bezpalko, Kseniya; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Mercer, Leo; McCann, Michael; Elghawy, Karim; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    At time of presentation, fewer than 10% of patients have metastatic breast cancer. The most common sites of metastasis in order of frequency are bone, lung, pleura, soft tissue, and liver. Breast cancer metastasis to the uterus or gallbladder is rare and has infrequently been reported in the English literature. A 47 year old female with a recent history of thrombocytopenia presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasound revealed multiple uterine fibroids and endometrial curettings revealed cells consistent with lobular carcinoma of the breast. Breast examination revealed edema and induration of the lower half of the right breast. Biopsy of the right breast revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Bone marrow aspiration obtained at a previous outpatient visit revealed extensive involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma. Shortly after discharge, the patient presented with acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder revealed metastatic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The final diagnosis was invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast with metastasis to the bone marrow, endometrium, gallbladder, regional lymph nodes, and peritoneum. The growth pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is unique and poses a challenge in diagnosing the cancer at an early stage. Unlike other types of breast cancer, it tends to metastasize more to the peritoneum, ovary, and gastrointestinal tract. Metastasis to the endometrium or gallbladder is rare. Metastatic spread should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with invasive lobular breast carcinoma presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding or acute cholecystitis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N.; Nowinski, Salpie; Papouli, Efterpi; Fletcher, Olivia; Pinder, Sarah; Hanby, Andrew; Kohut, Kelly; Gorman, Patricia; Caneppele, Michele; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Katherine-Anne; Gillett, Cheryl; Houlston, Richard; Ross, Gillian; De Ieso, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Wesseling, Jelle; Cornelissen, Sten; Keeman, Renske; Fasching, Peter A.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Kerin, Michael J.; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Benitez, Javier; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Lochmann, Magdalena; Brauch, Hiltrud; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Investigators, kConFab; Lambrechts, Diether; Weltens, Caroline; Van Limbergen, Erik; Hatse, Sigrid; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Volorio, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devillee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Kriege, Mieke; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Sherman, Mark E.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Shah, Mitul; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Couch, Fergus J.; Hallberg, Emily; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dunning, Alison M.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug; Pharoah, Paul; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tomlinson, Ian; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10–15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09–1.18), P = 6.0×10−10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8×10−4). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there

  11. Comparison of sentinel lymph node biopsy between invasive lobular carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Yayoi; Sawaki, Masataka; Hattori, Masaya; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Gondo, Noami; Kotani, Haruru; Iwase, Madoka; Kataoka, Ayumi; Onishi, Sakura; Sugino, Kayoko; Terada, Mitsuo; Horisawa, Nanae; Mori, Makiko; Oze, Isao; Iwata, Hiroji

    2018-03-13

    Recent studies suggested that ALND (axillary lymph node dissection) can be avoided in breast cancer patients with limited SLN (sentinel lymph node) metastasis. However, these trials included only several invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) cases, and the validity of omitting ALND for ILC remains controversial. Here, we examined whether omitting ALND is feasible in ILC treatment. A total of 3771 breast cancer patients underwent surgery for breast cancer at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. We excluded patients with neoadjuvant therapy or without axillary management, and identified 184 ILC patients and 2402 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients. We compared SLN and non-SLN metastasis rates and the number of total ALN metastases between the ILC and IDC cohorts, and we examined the factors that influenced non-SLN metastasis in the SLN micrometastasis group. SLN biopsies were performed in 171 (93%) ILC and 2168 (90%) IDC cases, and 31 (18%) ILC and 457 (21%) IDC cases were SLN micrometastasis and macrometastasis (p = 0.36). Among SLN macrometastasis patients, 17 (68%) ILC cases and 163 (46%) IDC cases showed non-SLN metastasis (p = 0.03). The number of non-SLN metastases was greater in ILC cases compared with IDC cases. Multivariate analysis showed that ILC was the influential factor predicting non-SLN metastasis in patients with SLN macrometastasis. ILC cases had more non-SLN metastasis than IDC cases among SLN-positive cases, and ILC was an important factor for the prediction of non-SLN positivity in SLN macrometastasis cases. Omitting ALND for ILC with positive SLNs requires more consideration.

  12. Inter-observer variability between general pathologists and a specialist in breast pathology in the diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, columnar cell lesions, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Douglas S; Porto, Simone S; Balabram, Débora; Gobbi, Helenice

    2014-06-19

    This study aimed to assess inter-observer variability between the original diagnostic reports and later review by a specialist in breast pathology considering lobular neoplasias (LN), columnar cell lesions (CCL), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 610 breast specimens that had been formally sent for consultation and/or second opinions to the Breast Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Minas Gerais were analysed between January 2005 and December 2010. The inter-observer variability between the original report and later review was compared regarding the diagnoses of LN, CCL, ADH, and DCIS. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Kappa index. Weak correlations were observed for the diagnoses of columnar cell change (CCC; Kappa=0.38), columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH; Kappa=0.32), while a moderate agreement (Kappa=0.47) was observed for the diagnoses of flat epithelial atypia (FEA). Good agreement was observed in the diagnoses of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH; Kappa=0.62) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; Kappa=0.66). However, poor agreement was observed for the diagnoses of pleomorphic LCIS (Kappa=0.22). Moderate agreement was observed for the diagnoses of ADH (Kappa=0.44), low-grade DCIS (Kappa=0.47), intermediate-grade DCIS (Kappa=0.45), and DCIS with microinvasion (Kappa=0.56). Good agreement was observed between the diagnoses of high-grade DCIS (Kappa=0.68). According to our data, the best diagnostic agreements were observed for high-grade DCIS, ALH, and LCIS. CCL without atypia and pleomorphic LCIS had the worst agreement indices. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1640072350119725.

  13. Immunoexpression of GLUT-1 and angiogenic index in pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Lélia Batista; de Oliveira, Lucileide Castro; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the immunoexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and angiogenic index between pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the salivary glands, and establish associations with the respective subtype/histological grade. Twenty PAs, 20 ACCs, and 10 MECs were submitted to morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. GLUT-1 expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and angiogenic index was assessed by microvessel counts using anti-CD34 antibody. Higher GLUT-1 immunoexpression was observed in the MECs compared to PAs and ACCs (p = 0.022). Mean number of microvessels was 66.5 in MECs, 40.4 in PAs, and 21.2 in ACCs (p < 0.001). GLUT-1 expression and angiogenic index showed no significant correlation in the tumors studied. Results suggest that differences in biological behavior of the studied tumors are related to GLUT-1. Benign and malignant salivary gland tumors differ in the angiogenic index; however, angiogenesis may be independent of the tumor cell's metabolic demand.

  14. Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma has a consistent p63+/p40- immunophenotype that helps distinguish it from adenoid cystic carcinoma and cellular pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rooper, Lisa; Sharma, Rajni; Bishop, Justin A

    2015-03-01

    Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is a tumor of minor salivary glands that exhibits considerable morphologic overlap with adenoid cystic carcinoma and cellular pleomorphic adenoma, especially in small biopsy specimens. Unlike these other tumor types. PLGAs do not harbor a myoepithelial component, yet their frequent positivity for p63 diminishes the usefulness of this particular myoepithelial marker as a discriminating immunostain. p40 is an antibody that recognizes ΔNp63, a p63 isoform that is more specific for true myoepithelial differentiation. As such, p40 immunostaining could help distinguish PLGAs from adenoid cystic carcinomas and pleomorphic adenomas. In this study, p63 and p40 immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin embedded, formalin fixed tissue from 11 PLGAs, 101 adenoid cystic carcinomas, and 31 pleomorphic adenomas. All 11 PLGAs (100 %) were positive for p63 but completely negative for p40. Among adenoid cystic carcinomas, 91 of 101 (90 %) were positive for p63 and 90/101 (89 %) were positive for p40. The single discordant p63+/p40- adenoid cystic carcinoma exhibited solid architecture and high grade features not typically seen in PLGA. Among pleomorphic adenomas, 21/31 (68 %) were positive for p63 and 13/31 (42 %) were positive for p40. For the pleomorphic adenomas, the discordant p63+/p40- staining pattern was seen only in the overtly mesenchymal chondromyxoid stroma. The cellular epithelial component of the pleomorphic adenomas demonstrated concordant p63+/p40+ or p63-/p40- immunophenotypes. PLGA consistently exhibits a p63+/p40- immunophenotype that can help distinguish it from adenoid cystic carcinoma and cellular pleomorphic adenoma, tumors that characteristically demonstrate concordant p63 and p40 immunostaining patterns. A p63/p40 immunohistochemical panel can provide a valuable tool for making the distinction between these morphologically similar but clinically divergent entities.

  15. The pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma in the patients diagnosed with breast cancer from Balochistan.

    PubMed

    Baloch, A H; Khosa, A N; Bangulzai, N; Sadia, H; Ahmed, M; Khan, F; Jan, M; Tareen, M; Kakar, M H; Shuja, J; Naseeb, H K; Ahmad, J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of breast cancer accounting for 5%-15% of all the breast cancer cases. The present study was performed on 171 breast cancer patients from Balochistan registered in CENAR (Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy), Quetta. Written consent was obtained from the patients. The history of the disease was taken from the patients, and the patients' enrollment files were retrieved. Of the 171 patients, 5 (2.96%) were diagnosed with ILC with tumor Grade II, and stage of the cancer reported was Grade III in all the 5 patients affected with ILC. ILC is the second most common type of breast cancer diagnosed with comparatively lower grade but almost reported infiltrating.

  16. Infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: tumor characteristics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Grazia; Bardou, Valerie J; Clark, Gary M; Elledge, Richard M

    2004-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) comprises approximately 10% of breast cancers and appears to have a distinct biology. Because it is less common than infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), few data have been reported that address the biologic features of ILC in the context of their clinical outcome. In the present study we undertook an extensive comparison of ILC and IDC using a large database to provide a more complete and reliable assessment of their biologic phenotypes and clinical behaviors. The clinical and biological features of 4140 patients with ILC were compared with those of 45,169 patients with IDC (not otherwise specified). The median follow-up period was 87 months. In comparison with IDC, ILC was significantly more likely to occur in older patients, to be larger in size, to be estrogen and progesterone receptor positive, to have lower S-phase fraction, to be diploid, and to be HER-2, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptor negative. It was more common for ILC than for IDC to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract and ovary. The incidence of contralateral breast cancer was higher for ILC patients than for IDC patients (20.9% versus 11.2%; P < 0.0001). Breast preservation was modestly less frequent in ILC patients than in IDC patients. The 5-year disease-free survival was 85.7% for ILC and 83.5% for IDC (P = 0.13). The 5-year overall survival was 85.6% for ILC and 84.1% for IDC (P = 0.64). Despite the fact that the biologic phenotype of ILC is quite favorable, these patients do not have better clinical outcomes than do patients with IDC. At present, management decisions should be based on individual patient and tumor biologic characteristics, and not on lobular histology.

  17. Inter-observer variability between general pathologists and a specialist in breast pathology in the diagnosis of lobular neoplasia, columnar cell lesions, atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess inter-observer variability between the original diagnostic reports and later review by a specialist in breast pathology considering lobular neoplasias (LN), columnar cell lesions (CCL), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods A retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 610 breast specimens that had been formally sent for consultation and/or second opinions to the Breast Pathology Laboratory of Federal University of Minas Gerais were analysed between January 2005 and December 2010. The inter-observer variability between the original report and later review was compared regarding the diagnoses of LN, CCL, ADH, and DCIS. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Kappa index. Results Weak correlations were observed for the diagnoses of columnar cell change (CCC; Kappa = 0.38), columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH; Kappa = 0.32), while a moderate agreement (Kappa = 0.47) was observed for the diagnoses of flat epithelial atypia (FEA). Good agreement was observed in the diagnoses of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH; Kappa = 0.62) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; Kappa = 0.66). However, poor agreement was observed for the diagnoses of pleomorphic LCIS (Kappa = 0.22). Moderate agreement was observed for the diagnoses of ADH (Kappa = 0.44), low-grade DCIS (Kappa = 0.47), intermediate-grade DCIS (Kappa = 0.45), and DCIS with microinvasion (Kappa = 0.56). Good agreement was observed between the diagnoses of high-grade DCIS (Kappa = 0.68). Conclusions According to our data, the best diagnostic agreements were observed for high-grade DCIS, ALH, and LCIS. CCL without atypia and pleomorphic LCIS had the worst agreement indices. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1640072350119725. PMID:24948027

  18. [Lobular breast cancer in males].

    PubMed

    Akimov, O V

    1992-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma occurs in males about 100 times more seldom than in females. 1/30 of all mammary carcinoma in males is lobular cancer. One such observation of lobular carcinoma in a male of 58 developing against the background of fibroadenomatosis is described.

  19. Synchronous gastric and colonic metastases of invasive lobular breast carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Adam Charles; Harvey, James; Carr, Michael; Iwuchukwu, Obi

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the main cause of cancer death in the UK. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract metastasis and carcinomatosis from primary breast cancer are rare but breast cancer is the second most common primary malignancy to metastasise to the GI tract after malignant melanoma. The metastatic patterns of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) have been shown to differ considerably. Liver, lung and brain metastases are more common in IDC. Most series report a greater prediliction for lobular carcinoma to metastasise to the GI tract, gynaecological organs or peritoneum. The presentation of GI metastasis due to breast cancer is typically vague and the clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histopathologic findings are often difficult to distinguish from primary gastric carcinoma. Such a patient is more likely to present to a luminal surgeon or gastroenterologist than a breast surgeon. Therefore a high index of clinical suspicion with early endoscopy in those with non-specific symptoms and a past history of breast cancer, particularly ILC, are recommended. It is imperative to differentiate between metastatic breast cancer and primary gastric carcinoma as treatment strategies differ hugely. Therefore, correlation of endoscopic biopsy histology with the primary breast cancer histology is essential. Treatment modalities are limited to appropriate systemic therapy, which may have a palliative effect in up to 50%. Surgical intervention is nearly always limited to palliative bypass only. Prognosis is consistent with the median survival of all women with metastatic disease secondary to breast cancer.

  20. Case report of metastatic invasive breast lobular carcinoma to the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women except skin cancer. The common metastatic sites include lymph node, lung, liver and bone. However, metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case of breast cancer metastasis to urinary bladder in Jordan which is reported. Nine years after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, the patient suffered from left side leg edema; Ultrasonography and Computed tomography scanning showed thickening of posterior bladder wall and bilateral hydronephrosis. The biopsy of the bladder confirmed metastatic lesion from the breast. In contrast to the primary tumor, bladder metastasis showed negative expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. However, Her2neu test was negative in both. The reported case confirms that bladder metastasis from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Furthermore, bladder metastasis can be asymptomatic and heterogeneous in ER and PR expression in comparison with the primary tumor. This report supports the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. This report supports further evaluation of receptor status at time of metastasis.

  1. Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial.

    PubMed

    Metzger Filho, Otto; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Mallon, Elizabeth; Gusterson, Barry; Viale, Giuseppe; Winer, Eric P; Thürlimann, Beat; Gelber, Richard D; Colleoni, Marco; Ejlertsen, Bent; Debled, Marc; Price, Karen N; Regan, Meredith M; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the relative effectiveness of letrozole compared with tamoxifen for patients with invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma. Patients diagnosed with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) or classic invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) who were randomly assigned onto the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial and who had centrally reviewed pathology data were included (N = 2,923). HER2-negative IDC and ILC were additionally classified as hormone receptor-positive with high (luminal B [LB] -like) or low (luminal A [LA] -like) proliferative activity by Ki-67 labeling index. Survival analyses were performed with weighted Cox models that used inverse probability of censoring weighted modeling. The median follow-up time was 8.1 years. In multivariable models for disease-free survival (DFS), significant interactions between treatment and histology (ILC or IDC; P = .006) and treatment and subgroup (LB like or LA like; P = .01) were observed. In the ILC subset, there was a 66% reduction in the hazard of a DFS event with letrozole for LB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.55) and a 50% reduction for LA subtypes (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.78). In the IDC subset, there was a significant 35% reduction in the hazard of a DFS event with letrozole for the LB subtype (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79), but no difference between treatments was noted for IDC and the LA subtype (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.20). The magnitude of benefit of adjuvant letrozole is greater for patients diagnosed with lobular carcinoma versus ductal carcinoma. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Metzger Filho, Otto; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Mallon, Elizabeth; Gusterson, Barry; Viale, Giuseppe; Winer, Eric P.; Thürlimann, Beat; Gelber, Richard D.; Colleoni, Marco; Ejlertsen, Bent; Debled, Marc; Price, Karen N.; Regan, Meredith M.; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative effectiveness of letrozole compared with tamoxifen for patients with invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma. Patients and Methods Patients diagnosed with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) or classic invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) who were randomly assigned onto the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial and who had centrally reviewed pathology data were included (N = 2,923). HER2-negative IDC and ILC were additionally classified as hormone receptor–positive with high (luminal B [LB] –like) or low (luminal A [LA] –like) proliferative activity by Ki-67 labeling index. Survival analyses were performed with weighted Cox models that used inverse probability of censoring weighted modeling. Results The median follow-up time was 8.1 years. In multivariable models for disease-free survival (DFS), significant interactions between treatment and histology (ILC or IDC; P = .006) and treatment and subgroup (LB like or LA like; P = .01) were observed. In the ILC subset, there was a 66% reduction in the hazard of a DFS event with letrozole for LB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.55) and a 50% reduction for LA subtypes (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.78). In the IDC subset, there was a significant 35% reduction in the hazard of a DFS event with letrozole for the LB subtype (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79), but no difference between treatments was noted for IDC and the LA subtype (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.20). Conclusion The magnitude of benefit of adjuvant letrozole is greater for patients diagnosed with lobular carcinoma versus ductal carcinoma. PMID:26215945

  3. Medical and surgical treatment of idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis: a benign inflammatory disease mimicking invasive carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gurleyik, Gunay; Aktekin, Ali; Aker, Fugen; Karagulle, Hikmet; Saglamc, Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with obscure etiology that mimics invasive carcinoma both clinically and radiologically. The treatment of IGLM remains controversial. The aim of proper management is to use a combination of medical and surgical treatment of this benign condition to achieve a good cosmetic result and low recurrence rate. A retrospective analysis of 19 patients with IGLM is performed based on the findings of clinical, radiological, and pathological examinations. The results of two treatments are presented: medical treatment with oral corticosteroids, and consecutive surgical excision after a follow-up period of 20 months (range, 6-75 months). The majority of patients treated in this paper were young (mean, 34 years) parous women with a history of hormonal medication use. The main clinical finding is large, irregular, and painful mass. Hypoechoic lobulated, irregular tubular or oval shaped masses had been imaged by ultrasound. Mammographic findings were an ill-defined mass, enlarged axillary lymph nodes, asymmetric density, and architectural distortion. Diagnoses of IGLM had been established by cytological or histological examination. Symptoms subside and inflammatory changes regressed with medical treatment. The remaining lesions were excised by consecutive breast conserving surgery. The disease recurred in one patient during the follow-up period. IGLM is an inflammatory breast disease found in young women who present with a large painful irregular mass, which mimics carcinoma, as a physical change. Breast imaging modalities are not helpful to differentiate IGLM from invasive cancer. The correct diagnosis is established by cytological or histological examination. Medical treatment with corticosteroids provides significant regression of the inflammatory disease, allowing more conservative surgery. Consecutive surgical excision of the remaining lesions with good cosmetic results

  4. Medical and Surgical Treatment of Idiopathic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis: A Benign Inflammatory Disease Mimicking Invasive Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aktekin, Ali; Aker, Fugen; Karagulle, Hikmet; Saglamc, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with obscure etiology that mimics invasive carcinoma both clinically and radiologically. The treatment of IGLM remains controversial. The aim of proper management is to use a combination of medical and surgical treatment of this benign condition to achieve a good cosmetic result and low recurrence rate. Methods A retrospective analysis of 19 patients with IGLM is performed based on the findings of clinical, radiological, and pathological examinations. The results of two treatments are presented: medical treatment with oral corticosteroids, and consecutive surgical excision after a follow-up period of 20 months (range, 6-75 months). Results The majority of patients treated in this paper were young (mean, 34 years) parous women with a history of hormonal medication use. The main clinical finding is large, irregular, and painful mass. Hypoechoic lobulated, irregular tubular or oval shaped masses had been imaged by ultrasound. Mammographic findings were an ill-defined mass, enlarged axillary lymph nodes, asymmetric density, and architectural distortion. Diagnoses of IGLM had been established by cytological or histological examination. Symptoms subside and inflammatory changes regressed with medical treatment. The remaining lesions were excised by consecutive breast conserving surgery. The disease recurred in one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion IGLM is an inflammatory breast disease found in young women who present with a large painful irregular mass, which mimics carcinoma, as a physical change. Breast imaging modalities are not helpful to differentiate IGLM from invasive cancer. The correct diagnosis is established by cytological or histological examination. Medical treatment with corticosteroids provides significant regression of the inflammatory disease, allowing more conservative surgery. Consecutive surgical excision of the remaining

  5. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P < .01) among those who received endocrine therapy plus chemotherapy. For patients with ILC, the 10-year OS rate was 94% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 92% (P < .01) among those who received endocrine therapy plus chemotherapy. After adjusting for patient and treatment factors, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decreased 10-year hazard of death for patients with IDC (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.92). In contrast, adjuvant chemotherapy was not independently associated with the adjusted 10-year hazard of death for patients with ILC (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.46). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS for patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative, stage I/II ILC. Avoidance of ineffective chemotherapy will markedly reduce the adverse effects and economic burden of breast cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017

  6. Unexpected metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast with intraabdominal spread and subsequent port-site metastasis after diagnostic laparoscopy for exclusion of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Ioannis; Janni, Wolfgang; Friese, Klaus; Gerber, Bernd

    2004-11-01

    Although lobular carcinomas metastasize primarily to lymph nodes, bone, lung and liver, they can also spread to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum and gynecologic organs. We report a case of intraperitoneal carcinomatosis of a lobular breast carcinoma that metastasized primarily to the peritoneum, with a subsequent abdominal wall invasion at the trocar site following laparoscopic surgery for the exclusion of an ovarian carcinoma. Port-site metastases (PSM) have occurred after laparoscopic surgery for endometrial, fallopian tube, ovarian, and cervical cancers. This is the first report of PSM of a lobular breast carcinoma primarily metastasized to the abdominal cavity. Every surgeon should be aware of the metastatic pattern of breast cancer, especially in relation to its histological subtypes. This case report emphasizes that PSM can occur in various kinds of gynecologic tumors, including breast cancer.

  7. Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, SmCC, large cell carcinoma (LCC), and pleomorphic carcinoma (PC). The UC component showed plasmacytoid, spindle, nested, clear cell, acantholytic variants. The AC element showed tubular adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (Sig). Immunohistochemically, all of these subtypes were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, p63, CA19-9, p53 (positive 45%), MUC1, NSE, NCAM, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 (87%). They were negative for vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, S100 protein, CD34, CD14, α-smooth muscle actin, CD31, caldesmon, CD138, CD45, κ-chain, λ-chain, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed mucins in AC element including Sig. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The carcinoma was highly aggressive and invaded into muscular layer. The nuclear grade was very high, and there were numerous lymphovascular permeations were seen. The surface showed carcinoma in situ involving von-Brunn's nests. This case shows that carcinoma of UB can show diverse differentiations into numerous histological types and variants, and can express KIT and PDGFRA. The both genes showed no mutations in the present case.

  8. JOURNAL CLUB: The Warthin Tumor Score: A Simple and Reliable Method to Distinguish Warthin Tumors From Pleomorphic Adenomas and Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Chiu, Deng-Yiv; Shin, Nieh; Hsu, Hsian-He; Lee, Jih-Chin; Juan, Chun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a Warthin tumor (WT) score to distinguish WTs from other parotid tumors. The study included 78 patients with 92 histologically proven parotid tumors, including 42 WTs, 30 pleomorphic adenomas (PMAs), and 20 carcinomas. Echo-planar DW images were acquired. The WT score, which comprised the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC M ) and the SD of the ADC (ADC SD ) of tumors, patient age, and patient sex, was used to predict WTs. The diagnostic performance of the WT score was evaluated using ROC analyses. Statistical significance was denoted by p < 0.05. With the use of optimized criteria, including an ADC M less than or equal to 1.016 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s (WT score, 1), an ADC SD less than or equal to 0.1171 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s (WT score, 1), patient age older than 49 years (WT score, 1), and male sex (WT score, 1), a WT score greater than 2 had a sensitivity, specificity, positive negative value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 85.7%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 89.3%, and 93.4%, respectively. The WT score allows parotid WTs to be distinguished from PMAs and carcinomas with high accuracy.

  9. Screening breast magnetic resonance imaging in women with atypia or lobular carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Theresa; Cyr, Amy; Margenthaler, Julie

    2015-02-01

    Atypical lesions and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) are associated with an increased risk of breast malignancy. The utility of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in this cohort of women after excision of a high-risk lesion has not been previously established. The objective of this study was to investigate outcomes of breast MRI surveillance in this subgroup of high-risk patients. We performed a retrospective review of women who required excision of an atypical lesion or LCIS who underwent at least one screening breast MRI from April 2005-December 2011. We collected information on demographics, number of second-look imaging studies recommended, number of biopsies performed and pathologic outcomes. A total of 179 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 131 (73%) with atypical lesions and 48 (27%) with LCIS. Second-look imaging was recommended for 31 of 131 (23.7%) patients with atypical lesions and 8 of 48 (16.7%) with LCIS. Ten biopsies were performed in the atypical cohort (7.6%) with two revealing a malignancy (Positive Predictive Value [PPV] of 20%). In the LCIS cohort, five biopsies were performed (10.4%) with one revealing a malignancy (PPV of 20%). The benefit of breast MRI surveillance in patients after excision of atypical lesions or LCIS has not been clearly delineated previously. Our data demonstrate that the use of screening breast MRI in this cohort results in additional work-up in one-fifth of patients, but a PPV of only 20%. Large, prospective studies would be needed to determine whether breast cancer outcomes differ between patients undergoing conventional breast screening and those undergoing conventional breast screening plus breast MRI surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Impact of Strain Elastography on BI-RADS classification in small invasive lobular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chiorean, Angelica Rita; Szep, Mădălina Brîndușa; Feier, Diana Sorina; Duma, Magdalena; Chiorean, Marco Andrei; Strilciuc, Ștefan

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of strain elastography (SE) on the Breast Imaging Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) classification depending on invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) lesion size. We performed a retrospective analysis on a sample of 152 female subjects examined between January 2010 - January 2017. SE was performed on all patients and ILC was subsequently diagnosed by surgical or ultrasound-guided biopsy. BI-RADS 1, 2, 6 and Tsukuba BGR cases were omitted. BI-RADS scores were recorded before and after the use of SE. The differences between scores were compared to the ILC tumor size using nonparametric tests and logistic binary regression. We controlled for age, focality, clinical assessment, heredo-collateral antecedents, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound examination. An ROC curve was used to identify the optimal cut-off point for size in relationship to BI-RADS classificationdifference using Youden's index. The histological subtypes of ILC lesions (n=180) included in the sample were luminal A (70%, n=126), luminal B (27.78%, n=50), triple negative (1.67%, n=3) and HER2+ (0.56%, n=1). The BI-RADS classification was higher when SE was performed (Z=- 6.629, p<0.000). The ROC curve identified a cut-off point of 13 mm for size in relationship to BI-RADS classification difference (J=0.670, p<0.000). Small ILC tumors were 17.92% more likely to influence BI-RADS classification (p<0.000). SE offers enhanced BI-RADS classification in small ILC tumors (<13 mm). Sonoelastography brings added value to B-mode breast ultrasound as an adjacent to mammography in breast cancer screening.

  12. [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung with high serum granulocyte colony stimulating factor, suggested of pulmonary abscess by preoperative radiology; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mikoto; Miyoshi, Tatsu; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Akinori; Shirakusa, Takaho

    2006-08-01

    A 52-year-old man with a history of heavy smoking was hospitalized for evaluation of fever. Pulmonary abscess was initially suspected by computed tomography (CT) showing an ovoid, well-demarcated nodule of 61 mm in diameter with coarse calcification in S2a of the right lung. The patient was treated with antibiotics, but no improvement was seen in inflammatory reactions or lesion size. Marked leukocytosis and high level of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was shown by laboratory examination. To improve patient condition and ensure correct diagnosis, right upper lobectomy of the lung was performed. Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung was subsequently diagnosed. G-CSF producing tumor was suspected, since the normalization of serum G-CSF level followed by the improvement of both fever and inflammatory reaction was observed postoperatively. We also present herein a review of 22 Japanese cases of pleomorphic carcinoma producing G-CSF of the lung, characterized by leukocytosis.

  13. C-kit-positive gastric metastasis of lobular carcinoma of the breast masquerading as gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Vennapusa, Bharathi; Oman, Sarah A; Parasher, Gulshan; Cerilli, Lisa A

    2010-10-01

    A 61-year-old woman with no significant past history underwent gastric biopsies demonstrating a strongly c-kit-positive epithelioid malignancy, initially thought to represent gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Subsequent clinical and immunohistochemical evaluation proved the neoplasm to represent metastatic lobular carcinoma. This case illustrates that although c-kit is highly specific and sensitive for GIST, its expression may occur in a variety of other neoplasms, some of which morphologically resemble GIST and may present in the gastrointestinal tract as metastases. Therefore, a review of other c-kit-positive lesions is also highlighted.

  14. Reproductive risk factor associations with lobular and ductal carcinoma in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay A; Nichols, Hazel B; Hoadley, Katherine A; Tse, Chiu Kit; Geradts, Joseph; Bell, Mary Elizabeth; Perou, Charles M; Love, Michael I; Olshan, Andrew F; Troester, Melissa A

    2018-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast tumors display unique reproductive risk factor profiles. Lobular tumors are predominantly Luminal A subtype, and it is unclear whether reported risk factor associations are independent of molecular subtype. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations between risk factors and histologic subtype [ductal (n = 2,856), lobular (n = 326), and mixed ductal-lobular (n = 473)] in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (1993-2013). Three-marker immunohistochemical clinical subtypes were defined as Luminal A (ER+ or PR+/HER2-), Luminal B (ER+ or PR+/HER2+), Triple Negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), and HER2+ (ER-/PR-/HER2+). In case-case analyses compared to ductal, lobular tumors were significantly associated with lactation duration > 12 months [OR 1.86, 95% CI (1.33-2.60)], age at first birth ≥ 26 years [OR: 1.35, 95% CI: (1.03-1.78)], and current oral contraceptive use [OR: 1.86, 95% CI: (1.08-3.20)]. Differences in risk factor associations between ductal and lobular tumors persisted after restricting to Luminal A subtype. Lobular tumors were associated with older age at first birth, increased lactation duration, and current oral contraceptive use. Etiologic heterogeneity by histology persisted after restricting to Luminal A subtype, suggesting both tumor histology and intrinsic subtype play integral parts in breast cancer risk.

  15. MET exon 14 skipping mutation in triple-negative pulmonary adenocarcinomas and pleomorphic carcinomas: An analysis of intratumoral MET status heterogeneity and clinicopathological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dohee; Koh, Jaemoon; Kim, Sehui; Go, Heounjeong; Kim, Young A; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2017-04-01

    MET mutations leading to exon 14 skipping rarely occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, small molecule inhibitors targeting MET mutations showed clinical benefit. However, the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC harboring MET mutations, and the correlation among mutations, protein expression, and gene copy number of MET in NSCLC remain unclear. Therefore, we address these issues. MET exon 14 skipping mutations were evaluated using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in 102 triple-negative (i.e., EGFR mutation (-)/ALK translocation (-)/KRAS mutation (-)) pulmonary adenocarcinomas, and 45 pleomorphic carcinomas. MET mutation and gene copy were also examined in microdissected tissues obtained from tumor areas with heterogeneous MET immunohistochemical expression. MET mutations were detected in 8.8% (9/102) of triple-negative adenocarcinomas and 20% (9/45) of pleomorphic carcinomas of the lung. Patients with MET-mutated adenocarcinomas was significantly older than those without MET mutations (P=0.015). The male to female and ever-to never-smoker ratios were 3:6 and 2:7, respectively, among patients with MET-mutated adenocarcinomas. All (9/9) of the MET-mutated adenocarcinomas showed acinar predominant histology with associated lepidic patterns. In contrast, the male to female and ever- to never-smoker ratios were 8:1 and 7:1, respectively, among patients with MET-mutated pleomorphic carcinomas. The carcinoma component of MET-mutated pleomorphic carcinomas was mostly adenocarcinoma of acinar pattern (8/9). MET mutation was detected by qRT-PCR in all samples with heterogeneous MET expression microdissected from five cases with MET-mutated adenocarcinoma, while MET gene amplification was detected in tumor areas expressing high MET protein levels among MET-mutated adenocarcinomas. MET-mutated NSCLC is characterized by older age in patients with adenocarcinoma and by an acinar histology and variable MET expression in patients

  16. The role of cytokeratins 20 and 7 and estrogen receptor analysis in separation of metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast and metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Tot, T

    2000-06-01

    Metastatic signet ring cell carcinomas of unknown primary site can represent a clinical problem. Gastrointestinal signet ring cell carcinomas and invasive lobular carcinomas of the breast are the most common sources of these metastases. Immunohistochemical algorithms have been successfully used in the search for the unknown primary adenocarcinomas. In the present study a series of primary invasive lobular breast carcinomas (79 cases) and their metastases and a series of gastrointestinal signet ring cell carcinomas (22 primary and 13 metastases) were stained with monoclonal antibodies for cytokeratin (CK) 20 and CK7 and for estrogen receptors (ER). The staining was evaluated as negative (no staining), focally (less than 10% of the tumor cells stained) or diffusely positive. All the primary and metastatic gastrointestinal signet ring cell carcinomas proved to be CK20 positive, while only 2/79 (3%) of the primary and 1/21 metastatic lobular carcinomas (5%) stained positively for this CK. None of the gastrointestinal carcinomas and the majority of the lobular carcinomas expressed ER. The majority of the tumors were CK7+. Using CK20 alone, 33 of 34 metastases could be properly classified as gastrointestinal (CK20+) or mammary (CK20-). ER identified 31/34 of breast cancer metastases. By combining the results of CK20 and ER staining all the metastases could be properly classified as the CK20+/ER- pattern identified all the gastrointestinal tumors.

  17. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subsets of salivary duct carcinoma defined by morphologic evidence of pleomorphic adenoma, PLAG1 or HMGA2 rearrangements, and common genetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Chiosea, Simion I; Thompson, Lester D R; Weinreb, Ilan; Bauman, Julie E; Mahaffey, Alyssa M; Miller, Caitlyn; Ferris, Robert L; Gooding, William E

    2016-10-15

    The authors hypothesized that histogenetic classification of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) could account for de novo tumors and those with morphologic or molecular evidence (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 [PLAG1], high-mobility group AT hook 2 [HMGA2] rearrangement, amplification) of pleomorphic adenoma (PA). SDCs (n = 66) were reviewed for morphologic evidence of PA. PLAG1 and HMGA2 alterations were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PLAG1-positive tumors were tested by FISH for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) rearrangement. Thirty-nine tumors were analyzed using a commercial panel for mutations and copy number variations in 50 cancer-related genes. On the basis of combined morphologic and molecular evidence of PA, 4 subsets of SDC emerged: 1) carcinomas with morphologic evidence of PA but intact PLAG1 and HMGA2 (n = 22); 2) carcinomas with PLAG1 alteration (n = 18) or 3) HMGA2 alteration (n = 12); and 4) de novo carcinomas, without morphologic or molecular evidence of PA (n = 14). The median disease-free survival was 37 months (95% confidence interval, 28.4-45.6 months). Disease-free survival and other clinicopathologic parameters did not differ for the subsets defined above. Combined Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit α (HRAS/PIK3CA) mutations were observed predominantly in de novo carcinomas (5 of 8 vs 2 of 31 tumors; P = .035). Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) copy number gain was not observed in de novo carcinomas (0 of 8 vs 12 of 31 tumors; P = .08). Tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutations were more common in SDC ex pleomorphic adenomas than in de novo carcinomas (17 of 31 vs 1 of 8 tumors; P = .033). The genetic profile of SDC varies with the absence or presence of pre-existing PA and its cytogenetic signature. Most de novo SDCs harbor combined HRAS/PIK3CA mutations and no ERBB2 amplification. Cancer 2016;122:3136-44. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast which can mimic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, G; Breucq, C; Sacre, R; Bourgain, C; Lamote, J

    2006-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast. The differential diagnosis with malign breast disease is often not easy. In most cases a surgical biopsy is needed for correct diagnosis. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is an exclusion diagnosis, based on the demonstration of a characteristic histological pattern, combined with the exclusion of other possible causes of granulomatous breast lesions. There is still no generally accepted optimal treatment. If surgery forms part of the treatment, a conservative approach seems to be adequate in most cases. Another option is a long-term steroid treatment. It is mandatory to exclude infectious causes of granulomatous mastitis before corticoid therapy is started.

  20. Is there an association between invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast and a family history of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Chikman, Bar; Davidson, Tima; Kais, Hasan; Jeroukhimov, Igor; Leshno, Ari; Sandbank, Judith; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron

    2016-01-01

    CDH1 gene mutations have been found to be associated with diffuse type gastric cancer and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study relating a family history of gastric cancer to ILC of the breast. We conducted a retrospective study comparing the family history of malignancies in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and ILC treated in our Medical Center. The comparison was evaluated in both types of breast cancer groups, dividing the patients into two age groups, <50 and ≥50 years. One thousand one hundred and sixty-seven patients with IDC and ILC entered the study. A family history of malignancies was reported in 21.6 % of patients with IDC as opposed to 37.8 % of patients with ILC (P < 0.001). A history of gastric cancer was reported in 7.2 % in the ILC group as compared to 2.3 % in the IDC group, P < 0.008. A family history of breast cancer was more common in the ILC group as opposed to the IDC group, 18 versus 8.1 % respectively, P = 0.002 and persisted in both age groups. We conclude that a family history of malignancies in first degree relatives is more common in patients with ILC than IDC and that there is a significant association between a family history of gastric cancer and ILC.

  1. The sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging in breast cancer: comparison of invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Topps, A; Clay, V; Absar, M; Howe, M; Lim, Y; Johnson, R; Bundred, N

    2014-07-01

    Axillary ultrasound (AUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of abnormal lymph nodes is important for pre-operative staging and planning the surgical management of the axilla. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) metastases are thought to be difficult to detect because the cells are small and on cytology resemble lymphocytes. To investigate this we directly compared the sensitivity of pre-operative axillary staging between ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Consecutive patients that presented in a single breast unit with pure IDC between April 2005 and December 2006 and pure ILC between January 2008 and December 2012 were retrospectively identified from pathology records. Pre-operative axillary ultrasound and FNA biopsy results were compared with post-operative histopathology from the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). A total of 275 and 142 axillae were identified in the IDC and ILC groups respectively. In the node positive patients there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of AUS (IDC vs. ILC; 58.7% vs. 52.8%). However, there was a significant difference in the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy of abnormal nodes (IDC vs. ILC; 98.4% vs. 53.6%; p < 0.001). AUS has comparative sensitivities between IDC and ILC populations. In contrast, FNA biopsy of abnormal axillary nodes is clearly less sensitive in the ILC group. In these patients, who have abnormal AUS, we suggest that a core biopsy is required to improve the pre-operative staging and prevent unnecessary surgical procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Invasive Lobular and Ductal Carcinomas in Patients Receiving Partial Breast Irradiation With Intraoperative Electrons.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Mastropasqua, Mauro Giuseppe; Cattani, Federica; Fanetti, Giuseppe; Morra, Anna; Lazzari, Roberta; Bazzani, Federica; Caputo, Mariangela; Rotmensz, Nicole; Gerardi, Marianna Alessandra; Ricotti, Rosalinda; Enrica Galimberti, Viviana; Veronesi, Paolo; Dicuonzo, Samantha; Viale, Giuseppe; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Orecchia, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the local outcome of patients after accelerated partial breast irradiation with intraoperative electrons (IORT) for invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). From 1999 to 2007, 2173 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery and IORT (21 Gy/1 fraction) as the sole local treatment: 252 patients with ILC (11.6%) were compared with 1921 patients with IDC in terms of local control. Compared with the IDC subgroup, patients with ILC had a low-risk profile and were more hormone responsive. The 5- and 10-year in-breast tumor reappearance (IBTR) rates were 5.5% and 14.4%, respectively, for the IDC group and 7.5% and 21.8%, respectively, for the ILC group (log-rank P=.03). The excess risk of IBTR associated with ILC was particularly high for small tumors (≤1 cm: hazard ratio [HR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.85), elderly patients (60-69 years: HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.11-4.63; ≥70 years: HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.08-10.0), low-grade tumors (grade 1: HR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.05-11.7), and luminal A molecular subtype (HR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.49-6.77). Among the ILC histologic variants, no difference between classic and nonclassic subgroups was observed, although the signet ring cell and solid variants had the worst local control. Despite a favorable tumor profile, accelerated partial breast irradiation with IORT led to a higher incidence of IBTRs in patients with ILC compared with those with IDC. Our institutional experience emphasized the importance of the size of the irradiation field, pointing to the use of larger collimators, even when dealing with small tumors, to improve local control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Miliauskas, J R; Pieterse, A S; Williams, R S

    1995-02-01

    Two cases of benign lobular granulomatous mastitis, both clinically felt to be carcinoma, are reported. One patient was cured by local excision of the mass while the other was cured by oral prednisolone, demonstrating the variable ways to treat this entity. The clinical and histological features were similar to those noted in previous reports. Immunological studies revealed predominantly stromal T lymphocytes and only duct intra-epithelial T lymphocytes.

  4. Perfusion MR imaging detection of carcinoma arising from preexisting salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma by computer-assisted analysis of time-signal intensity maps

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Ikuo; Eida, Sato; Fujita, Shuichi; Hotokezaka, Yuka; Sumi, Misa

    2017-01-01

    Tumor perfusion can be evaluated by analyzing the time-signal intensity curve (TIC) after dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging. Accordingly, TIC profiles are characteristic of some benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. A carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) arises from a long-standing pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and has a distinctive prognostic risk depending on the tumor growth potential such as invasion beyond the preexisting capsule. Differentiating CXPA from PA can be very challenging. In this study, we have attempted to discriminate CXPA from PA based on a two-dimensional TIC mapping algorithm. TIC mapping analysis was performed on 8 patients with CXPA and 20 patients with PA after dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging using a 1.5-T MR system. The TIC profiles obtained were automatically categorized into 5 types based on the enhancement ratio, maximum time, and washout ratio (Type 1 TIC with flat profile, Type 2 TIC with slow uptake, Type 3 TIC with rapid uptake and a low washout ratio, Type 4 TIC with rapid uptake and a high washout ratio, and Type 5 TIC not otherwise specific). The percentage tumor areas with each of the 5 TIC types were compared between CXPAs and PAs. Stepwise differentiation and cluster analysis using multiple TIC cut-off thresholds distinguished CXPAs from PAs with 75% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 86% accuracy, and 86% positive and 90% negative predictive values, when tumors with ≤1.1% Type 1 and ≥15% Type 4, or those with ≤1.1% Type 1, ≥78.1% Type 2, ≥16.1% Type 3, and <15% Type 4, or those with >1.1% Type 1, ≥78.1% Type 2, and ≥16.1% Type 3 areas were diagnosed as CXPAs. The overall TIC profiles predicted some aggressive CXPA growth patterns. These results suggest that stepwise differentiation based on TIC mapping is helpful in differentiating CXPAs from PAs. PMID:28531213

  5. Effectiveness of Breast MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the Preoperative Staging of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma versus Ductal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na Young; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sung Hun; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Choi, Hyun Su; You, Won Jong

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) for the preoperative staging of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast and compared the results with those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The study included pathologically proven 32 ILCs and 73 IDCs. We compared clinical and histopathological characteristics and the diagnostic performances of MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the primary mass, additional ipsilateral and/or contralateral lesion(s), and axillary lymph node metastasis between the ILC and IDC groups. Primary ILCs were greater in size, but demonstrated lower maximum standardized uptake values than IDCs. All primary masses were detected on MRI. The detection rate for ILCs (75.0%) was lower than that for IDCs (83.6%) on (18)F-FDG PET/CT, but the difference was not significant. For additional ipsilateral lesion(s), the sensitivities and specificities of MRI were 87.5% and 58.3% for ILC and 100.0% and 66.7% for IDC, respectively; whereas the sensitivities and specificities of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were 0% and 91.7% for ILC and 37.5% and 94.7% for IDC, respectively. The sensitivity of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for ipsilateral lesion(s) was significantly lower in the ILC group than the IDC group. The sensitivity for ipsilateral lesion(s) was significantly higher with MRI; however, specificity was higher with (18)F-FDG PET/CT in both tumor groups. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic performance for additional contralateral lesion(s) or axillary lymph node metastasis on MRI or (18)F-FDG PET/CT for ILC versus IDC. The MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT detection rates for the primary cancer do not differ between the ILC and IDC groups. Although (18)F-FDG PET/CT demonstrates lower sensitivity for primary and additional ipsilateral lesions, it shows higher specificity for additional ipsilateral lesions, and could play a complementary role in the staging of

  6. The radiological features, diagnosis and management of screen-detected lobular neoplasia of the breast: Findings from the Sloane Project.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Anthony J; Clements, Karen; Dodwell, David J; Evans, Andrew J; Francis, Adele; Hussain, Monuwar; Morris, Julie; Pinder, Sarah E; Sawyer, Elinor J; Thomas, Jeremy; Thompson, Alastair

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the radiological features, diagnosis and management of screen-detected lobular neoplasia (LN) of the breast. 392 women with pure LN alone were identified within the prospective UK cohort study of screen-detected non-invasive breast neoplasia (the Sloane Project). Demography, radiological features and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analysed. Non-pleomorphic LN (369/392) was most frequently diagnosed among women aged 50-54 and in 53.5% was at the first screen. It occurred most commonly on the left (58.0%; p = 0.003), in the upper outer quadrant and confined to one site (single quadrant or retroareolar region). No bilateral cases were found. The predominant radiological feature was microcalcification (most commonly granular) which increased in frequency with increasing breast density. Casting microcalcification as a predominant feature had a significantly higher lesion size compared to granular and punctate patterns (p = 0.034). 326/369 (88.3%) women underwent surgery, including 17 who underwent >1 operation, six who had mastectomy and six who had axillary surgery. Two patients had radiotherapy and 15 had endocrine treatment. Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (23/392) presented as granular microcalcification in 12; four women had mastectomy and six had radiotherapy. Screen-detected LN occurs in relatively young women and is predominantly non-pleomorphic and unilateral. It is typically associated with granular or punctate microcalcification in the left upper outer quadrant. Management, including surgical resection, is highly variable and requires evidence-based guideline development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Asher, Ilan; Allweis, Tanir; Diment, Judith; Sthoeger, Zev M; Mavor, Eliezer

    2015-08-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare disorder that can clinically mimic breast carcinoma. The recommendation for diagnosis and treatment of GLM has not yet been established. To assess a series of GLM patients, including their clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and treatment of 17 female patients with biopsy-proven GLM. Breast tissue was obtained by a core needle biopsy (15 patients) or open biopsy (2 patients). Images were reviewed by an experienced radiologist. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 44.6 ± 12.6 years. Five patients (29%) presented with bilateral disease, and seven (41%) presented with a mass, suggesting the initial diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Treatment comprised observation alone (23%), antibiotics (58.8%) and/or corticosteroids (with or without methotrexate) (35%). At the end of the study 70.6% of the patients demonstrated complete remission. None of the patients developed any systemic (granulomatous) disease or breast carcinoma during the follow-up period (4.7 ± 3.8 years). Core needle biopsy is mandatory for the diagnosis of GLM and the exclusion of breast carcinoma. The recommended treatment modalities are observation alone or corticosteroids; surgery should be avoided. GLM is a benign disease with a high rate of resolution and complete remission.

  8. Significance of lobular intraepithelial neoplasia at margins of breast conservation specimens: a report of 38 cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Presence of lobular intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN) is not routinely reported as part of margin assessment in breast conservation therapy (BCT) as in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). With new emerging evidence of LIN as possible precursor lesion, the hypothesis is that LIN at the margin may increase the risk of local recurrence with BCT. The aim is to determine whether there is an increase incidence of recurrence when LIN is found at surgical margins on BCT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1,334 BCT at a single institution in a 10 year period. Inclusion criteria are positive margin with LIN from primary BCT containing invasive and/or in situ carcinoma with comparison to the negative control group who had similar diseases with negative margin for LIN. Results We identified 38 cases (2.8%) with LIN either lobular carcinoma in situ/atypical lobular hyperplasia (LCIS/ALH) at a margin on initial BCT with 36% recurrence rate. Of the 38 cases: 5 (13%) were lost to follow-up, 12 (32%) had no further procedures performed and 21 (55%) had re-excision. Out of 21 patients who had re-excisions, 12 (57%) had residual invasive carcinoma or DCIS, three (14%) had pleomorphic LCIS and 4 (19%) showed residual classic type LCIS. 71% had significant residual disease (local recurrence) and 29% had no residual disease. A negative control group consisted of 38 cases. We found two patients with bone or brain metastasis and one local recurrence. Clinical follow up periods range from 1 to 109 months. Conclusions LIN found at a margin on BCT showed a significant recurrent ipsilateral disease. Our study supports the view that LIN seen at the margin may play a role in recurrence. PMID:20727142

  9. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Investigation and Management of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma-A 3-Year Retrospective Study in Two District General Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Derias, Mina; Subramanian, Ashok; Allan, Simon; Shah, Elizabeth; Teraifi, Hassan El; Howlett, David

    2016-07-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 5-15% of breast cancers. In comparison to other types of breast cancer, ILC is more likely to be associated with multifocal and contralateral breast involvement as well as a tendency to a diffuse infiltrative growth pattern which can represent a diagnostic challenge. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines in 2009 recommended the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative assessment of ILC. This study aims to assess compliance with the guidelines in two District General Hospitals and the utility of MRI in the investigation of ILC. All cases of ILC between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified from the pathology database and their breast imaging findings, pathology report, and operative intervention were reviewed. A total of 126 patients were identified with ILC, of these 46 had MRI preoperatively (36.5%). MRI upgraded mammography/ultrasound diagnoses in 10 patients (21.7%). MRI showed multicentric unilateral disease in 17 patients (37.0%) occult on ultrasound/mammogram, with these patients undergoing mastectomy and 16/17 (94.1%) confirmed multifocality on pathology. MRI showed a contralateral lesion in 9 patients (19.6%), four (8.7%) of which were malignant and had bilateral surgery, and five (10.9%) were benign on further imaging/biopsy. MRI also downgraded three patients (6.5%) to unifocal disease with reported multifocal appearances on mammography/ultrasound, and these patients underwent breast-conserving surgery. MRI adds significant additional information to mammograms/ultrasound in ILC and should be undertaken in all such cases preoperatively assuming no contraindication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The lipid-reactive oxygen species phenotype of breast cancer. Raman spectroscopy and mapping, PCA and PLSDA for invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Molecular tumorigenic mechanisms beyond Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Surmacki, Jakub; Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Kordek, Radzislaw; Abramczyk, Halina

    2015-04-07

    Vibrational signatures of human breast tissue (invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma) were used to identify, characterize and discriminate structures in normal (noncancerous) and cancerous tissues by confocal Raman imaging, Raman spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The most important differences between normal and cancerous tissues were found in regions characteristic for vibrations of carotenoids, fatty acids, proteins, and interfacial water. Particular attention was paid to the role played by unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives. K-means clustering and basis analysis followed by PCA and PLSDA is employed to analyze Raman spectroscopic maps of human breast tissue and for a statistical analysis of the samples (82 patients, 164 samples). Raman maps successfully identify regions of carotenoids, fatty acids, and proteins. The intensities, frequencies and profiles of the average Raman spectra differentiate the biochemical composition of normal and cancerous tissues. The paper demonstrates that Raman imaging has reached a clinically relevant level in regard to breast cancer diagnosis applications. The sensitivity and specificity obtained directly from PLSLD and cross validation are equal to 90.5% and 84.8% for calibration and 84.7% and 71.9% for cross-validation respectively.

  11. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Ma, Zhong-Bing; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-03-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is an unusual breast benign inflammatory disorder with unknown aetiology. It is generally emerged with the clinical symptoms of breast mass, abscess, inflammation and mammary duct fistula. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with a chronic non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in lobules of the breast tissue as the microscopic feature. Therapy of granulomatous lobular mastitis consists of surgical, medication treatment or combination of both, but now researches suggest that observational management is an acceptable treatment.

  12. Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Breast Mimicking Granulomatous Mastitis- Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed

    Abouelfad, Dalia M; Yassen, Noha N; Amin, Hebat Allah A; Shabana, Marwa E

    2017-07-27

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the breast is an exceedingly rare variant of mammary cancer. To our knowledge, only twenty - one cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis of this type of mammary carcinoma may be challenging, owing to its rarity and the histopathological similarity to common inflammatory and malignant lesions of the breast mainly granulomatous mastitis, medullary carcinoma, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma, lymphoma and other hematological malignancies. Our case is the 22nd case of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma reported in the breast, presenting with a palpable tender mass in a post-menopausal female. Her clinical picture had been mistaken for inflammatory disease. We present our case, with its detailed clinical history, radiological findings, histopathological and immune-histochemical findings along with a review of the literature. Highlighting this type of tumors may help in appropriate diagnosis. Moreover, studying the behavior of these rare neoplasms is essential to expedite treatment for this tumor type. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Evolving concepts in the management of lobular neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin O; Calhoun, Kristine E; Rosen, Eric L

    2006-05-01

    Lobular neoplasia broadly defines the spectrum of changes within the lobule, ranging from atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) to lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). This continuum of lesions is associated with an increased risk for developing subsequent invasive breast cancer, with the magnitude of that risk corresponding to the degree of proliferative change. The associated risk for developing invasive breast cancer after a diagnosis of lobular neoplasia is multicentric, bilateral, and equal in both breasts. Lobular neoplasia itself may transform into invasive carcinoma, although the frequency of this occurrence is unknown. Thus, lobular neoplasia is a risk factor for invasive breast cancer and may be a precursor lesion in unusual circumstances. The management of ALH and LCIS depends on the setting in which they are encountered. When ALH and LCIS are diagnosed after core needle breast biopsy, wire localization for surgical excision is required for definitive diagnosis because rates of histologic underestimation approach those of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). When diagnosed on surgical biopsy, ALH and LCIS generally do not require further intervention, even when present at a surgical margin. However, bilateral breast cancer risk must be considered, especially when patients have a family history of breast cancer. In selected situations, bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with or without reconstruction may be considered when atypical hyperplasia or LCIS is diagnosed. Although this reduces risk for developing subsequent breast carcinoma by 90%, patients selected for prophylactic mastectomy represent a small subgroup of lobular neoplasia patients and generally have other risk factors, such as strong family history or evidence of genetic predisposition.

  14. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Galea, M H; Robertson, J F; Ellis, I O; Elston, C W; Blamey, R W

    1989-07-01

    The clinical and histological features of six cases of granulomatous lobular mastitis are presented. All six patients were parous. 1-6 years after their last pregnancy with a mean age of 34 years; all had unilateral disease and presented with an extra-areolar breast lump. Histologically, all demonstrated a non-caseating granulomatous inflammatory condition centered on breast lobules; in four women there was an acute inflammatory process with micro-abscess formation. Five of the six cases had persistent or recurrent disease despite wide local excision: surgery might not be the best treatment for recurrent disease.

  15. Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Macias, Edgar S; Karsif, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare breast condition with prominent skin findings. It is typically seen in young parous women. Painful breast masses, draining sinuses, scarring, and breast atrophy are the main clinical manifestations. IGLM can resemble a variety of other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the breast. It is thought to result from obstruction and rupture of breast lobules. Extravasated breast secretions then induce an inflammatory reaction. Corynebacteria have also been implicated in the pathogenesis. Treatment is surgical, but systemic corticosteroids, methotrexate, and antibiotics also play a role. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: difficulty of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, S; Nagae, T; Fukuda, K; Katsu, I; Mukai, N; Sugihara, Y; Otani, H; Higami, Y; Tsunoda, T

    2000-02-01

    We report a case of a rare inflammatory disease, granulomatous lobular mastitis. Two weeks prior to admission the patient, a 43 year-old woman, (gravida 1, para 1) had noticed a left breast mass associated with tenderness. Palpation, gross inspection, and clinical examination, as well as the rapid growth of the mass lesion led us to believe that it was highly suspicious of malignant neoplasm. Mammography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography did not differentiate it from a malignant neoplasm. Aspiration cytology revealed an inflammatory lesion with a few clusters of epithelial cells it was diagnosed as borderline malignancy(class III) by a prudent pathologist, and thus mastectomy was performed. However, the final histologi-cal diagnosis was granulomatous lobular mastitis with no evidence of malignancy. As the clinical manifestations of granulomatous mastitis are similar to those of mammary carcinoma and, as it is an inflammatory lesion of uncertain etiology and pathogenesis, it has often been mistaken clinically for carcinoma and treated as such. Our review of the literature indicated that granulomatous mastitis most often occurs in young patients with a history of childbirth or oral contraceptive usage. Recurrence was documented in 38% of patients, and, accordingly long-term follow-up by aspiration cytology, complete resection, and adequate drug treatment with corticosteroids are recommended.

  17. Intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Aver-De-Araujo, L M; Chaves-Tarquinio, S B; Neuzling-Gomes, A P; Etges, A

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the salivary glands, affecting mainly the parotid gland. The preferential intraoral site of this tumor is the palate. A case of a 31-year-old woman with an intraosseous pleomorphic adenoma located in the maxilla (left paramedian region), showing an approximate evolution of one year is reported. The present intraosseous case represents a rare location, with the tumor probably originating from glandular epithelial remnants captured during embryogenesis. In a review of the literature of 142 cases of intragnathic localization (24% in the maxilla) are identified. A slight predominance of women was observed (56%), with 55% of the patients being affected during the 5th to 7th decade of life. The tumors were malignant in 94% of the cases, with special predominance of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (65%). Intraosseous pleomorphic adenomas are rare, with the present patient being the 6th case reported in the literature and the second found in the maxilla. Mean age of the 5 previously reported cases was 58.8 years.

  18. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Going, J J; Anderson, T J; Wilkinson, S; Chetty, U

    1987-05-01

    The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a strong tendency for persistence or recurrence. Our cases of granulomatous mastitis all occurred in parous women, five of them within three years of pregnancy. Awareness of this condition is important, because surgery does not offer the best treatment of recurrent disease, and trials of adequate drug treatment, including corticosteroids, are required.

  19. Granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed Central

    Going, J J; Anderson, T J; Wilkinson, S; Chetty, U

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and pathological features of nine cases of granulomatous mastitis were compared with those of 10 cases of duct ectasia/periductal mastitis (DE/PM), all of which were associated with active granulomatous inflammation. Granulomatous mastitis affects a younger age group, and although there is some overlap with DE/PM, it has distinctive pathological features, particularly a lobule centred distribution, for which the term "granulomatous lobular mastitis" is recommended. There is a strong tendency for persistence or recurrence. Our cases of granulomatous mastitis all occurred in parous women, five of them within three years of pregnancy. Awareness of this condition is important, because surgery does not offer the best treatment of recurrent disease, and trials of adequate drug treatment, including corticosteroids, are required. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:3584506

  20. Lobular breast cancer metastasis to the colon, the appendix and the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Molina-Barea, Rocio; Rios-Peregrina, Rosa M; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P; Hernández-García, Maria D; Jimenez-Rios, José A

    2014-12-01

    Metastases of lobular breast cancer are commonly encountered at the level of lungs, bones, brain and liver, whereas lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are rarely seen. A case of a patient with metastases in the right colon and gallbladder originating from an invasive lobular carcinoma is described. Adequate diagnostic procedures should be performed in patients with a history of breast cancer and who show gastrointestinal symptoms to rule out the potential presence of gastrointestinal metastases.

  1. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a complex diagnostic and therapeutic problem.

    PubMed

    Akcan, Alper; Akyildiz, Hizir; Deneme, Mehmet Ali; Akgun, Hulya; Aritas, Yucel

    2006-08-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast. Clinical and radiological features may mimic breast carcinoma. Since this entity was first described, several clinical and pathologic features of the disease have been reported, but diagnostic features and treatment alternatives are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate diagnostic difficulties and discuss the outcome of surgical treatment in a series of 21 patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis. A retrospective review of 21 patients with histologically confirmed granulomatous lobular mastitis treated in our center between January 1995 and May 2005 was analyzed to identify issues in the diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. The most common presenting symptoms were a mass in the breast and pain. Four patients had no significant mammographic findings (MMG), but on ultrasound (US), 2 had irregular hypoechoic mass, and 2 hypoechoic nodular structures had abnormalities-one parenchymal distortion and 1 mass formation in 2 of these 4 patients' magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recurrent cases, limited excision under local anesthesia was performed, as the clinical examination suggested carcinoma. Although some findings on MMG and US are suggestive of benign breast disease, these modalities do not rule out malignancy. MRI may be helpful in patients who do not have significant pathology at MMG or US. Fine-needle aspiration cytology may be useful in some cases but diagnosis is potentially difficult because of its cytologic characteristics. Wide excision, particularly under general anesthesia, can be therapeutic as well as useful in providing an exact diagnosis.

  2. [Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a benign abnormality that mimics malignancy].

    PubMed

    Vingerhoedt, N M; Janssen, S; Mravunac, M; Wauters, C A P; Strobbe, L J A

    2008-05-03

    A palpable abnormality of the breast was found in three women, one aged 57 and two aged 41. The first two patients predominantly showed the characteristics of a purulent inflammation, and on mammogram the third patient appeared to have mastitis carcinomatosa. Histopathological investigation revealed a lobular, non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. They were treated with prednisone and the first and third patients also received azathioprine. After some time, the condition recurred in the contralateral breast in the second and third patients. Once again, medicinal treatment was given. When a palpable tumour of the breast is found the primary goal is to exclude malignancy. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare and benign tumour of the breast that clinically mimics carcinoma. Often, conventional imaging does not lead to the diagnosis. A histological needle biopsy is the best way to reach a diagnosis. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective and is preferred over surgery.

  3. Pleomorphic lipoma: A gentle giant of pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sakhadeo, Uma; Mundhe, Rajesh; DeSouza, Maria A; Chinoy, Roshan F

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic lipoma is a relatively rare adipocytic neoplasm, occurring predominantly in elderly males in the subcutaneous tissues of the neck or shoulder. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases have been reported in which the lesion was intramuscular. We hereby report a case of a 60-year-old female patient, presenting with an intramuscular, posterior shoulder mass. The aspirate showed a giant cell-rich lesion, admixed with short, plump-looking, spindly cells. There was no overt evidence of malignancy; however, the cell cytology was sufficiently atypical to warrant concern. Subsequent excision revealed a classical pleomorphic lipoma on histology with no evidence of malignancy. CD34 staining by immunohistochemistry further supported the diagnosis. Differential diagnosis and the cytological diagnostic pitfalls of pleomorphic lipomas have been discussed with a review of the literature. PMID:26729985

  4. Pleomorphic lipoma: A gentle giant of pathology.

    PubMed

    Sakhadeo, Uma; Mundhe, Rajesh; DeSouza, Maria A; Chinoy, Roshan F

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic lipoma is a relatively rare adipocytic neoplasm, occurring predominantly in elderly males in the subcutaneous tissues of the neck or shoulder. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases have been reported in which the lesion was intramuscular. We hereby report a case of a 60-year-old female patient, presenting with an intramuscular, posterior shoulder mass. The aspirate showed a giant cell-rich lesion, admixed with short, plump-looking, spindly cells. There was no overt evidence of malignancy; however, the cell cytology was sufficiently atypical to warrant concern. Subsequent excision revealed a classical pleomorphic lipoma on histology with no evidence of malignancy. CD34 staining by immunohistochemistry further supported the diagnosis. Differential diagnosis and the cytological diagnostic pitfalls of pleomorphic lipomas have been discussed with a review of the literature.

  5. Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia arising within breast fibroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibroadenomas are the second most common breast pathology occurring in young women under the age of 35 years old. Fibroadenomas can be classified as simple or complex according to histological features. Complex fibroadenomas differ from simple fibroadenomas because of the presence of cysts (3 mm), sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications, or papillary apocrine changes. Most fibroadenomas are clinically identifiable. In 25% of cases, fibroadenomas are non-palpable and are diagnosed with mammography and ultrasound. Differential diagnosis with well differentiated breast cancer is often necessary, particularly with medullary or mucinous tumors. Calcification findings within fibroadenomas by mammogram have to be investigated. The age of a lump is usually reflected by calcifications. Microcalcification can hide foci of carcinoma in situ when they are small, branching type, and heterogeneous. However, many morphological possibilities may not be reliable for deciding whether a certain calcification is the product of a malignant or a benign process. From a radiological point of view, fibroadenomas containing foci of carcinoma in situ can be indistinguishable from benign lesions, even if the incidence of carcinoma within fibroadenomas is estimated as 0.1–0.3%, and it could be a long-term risk factor for invasive breast cancer. Case presentation A 44-year-old woman presented with a 1.5-cm palpable, smooth, mobile lump in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. Standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammograms showed a cluster of eccentric popcorn-like calcifications within the fibroadenoma. After lumpectomy, a definitive histological examination confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis of a benign mass. However, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia foci were found, surrounded by atypical lobular hyperplasia. Conclusions The possibility of an old benign breast lump might be supported by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy before initiating

  6. An unusual case of gastric cancer presenting with breast metastasis with pleomorphic microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Luk, Yiu Shiobhon; Ka, Solomon Yig Joon; Lo, Sherwin Shing Wai; Chu, Chi Yeung; Ma, Ming Wai

    2012-09-01

    Breast metastasis from gastric carcinoma is rare. We present a case of right breast mass with microcalcification in which the diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma from the stomach was made after a biopsy. Pleomorphic microcalcification was noted in the ill-defined breast mass, which is a rare feature in breast metastasis. Since breast metastasis usually signifies advanced metastatic disease, differentiating primary breast cancer from metastasis is important for appropriate treatment.

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland with therapeutic misadventure: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagdeep S; Mohindroo, Narinder K; Mohindroo, Shobha; Sharma, Dev R; Thakur, Anamika

    2010-01-08

    The benign tumors of nasopharynx are least encountered tumors in otolaryngology, as nasopharynx is considered one of notorious anatomical site for the malignant tumors. Pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary gland of nasopharynx and parapharyngeal space is rare. We present a pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland which was mismanaged. An adult male presented with left nostril obstruction for five months. The examination found big mass extending from nasopharynx to oropharynx. On CT scan, this tumor was quite big and extending to the parapharyngeal space. The FNAB found it a carcinoma but it did not respond to radiotherapy. The excision biopsy of tumor revealed it as pleomorphic adenoma. We found only five published reports on this tumor arising from nasopharynx. Although, in this case report exact origin of the tumor could not be ascertained as it also appeared to be a parapharyngeal tumor but we kept the possibility of a nasopharyngeal tumor on the basis of clinical features. The pleomorphic adenoma of nasopharynx is rare. It can be misdiagnosed as malignant epithelial tumor on histopathology. The differentiation from its malignant variant is also difficult. A possibility of benign tumor should always be kept in nasopharyngeal growth with no evidence of metastasis, and histopathological diagnosis of growth should be available before any definitive treatment.

  8. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: A clinicopathological study of 112 cases.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, H; Al Bhlal, L

    1997-01-01

    We report 12 cases of granulomatous lobular mastitis occurring in young women, between ages 30 and 47 years, diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC) from 1987 to 1995. The disease was unilateral in 10 cases, while there was a history of involvement of the contralateral breast in two patients. At the time of diagnosis, two patients were lactating, two were pregnant, and two were pregnant and lactating. Histopathological examination in all cases revealed centrilobular granulomas and microabscess formation. Immunohistochemical staining in seven cases for T and B cell markers showed a predominance of T cells in the infiltrate in all cases. The treatment comprised surgical removal of the mass, debridement and antibiotics in some of the cases. In one patient referred from another institution, mastectomy had been performed on the basis of an erroneous histopathologic diagnosis of carcinoma. Preoperative diagnosis was carcinoma in seven cases and benign disease in the remaining five cases. Follow-up of the patients was uneventful in all cases. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast, which may clinically and pathologically mimic carcinoma, sometimes leading to misdiagnosis resulting in unnecessary surgery.

  9. Primary Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma of the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyung Sun; Satti, Suma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Primary penile sarcoma is a rare disease that affects men of all ages. Different subtypes of primary penile sarcoma exist, with the rarest being pleomorphic sarcoma. Delays in presentation and diagnosis of primary penile sarcoma have been reported because of its benign-appearing presenting features and rarity. If penile sarcoma is left untreated, the clinical consequence is metastasis that is fatal in most cases. Case Report: We report an extremely rare case of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the penis in a 59-year-old patient who initially presented with a slow-growing penile nodule. The tumor was surgically excised, but the patient experienced local recurrence and, despite receiving chemotherapy and surgery, died of metastatic disease 15 months after initial presentation. Conclusion: Vigilance regarding biopsy and intervention for penile nodules may lead to early diagnosis and improved clinical outcomes. PMID:29230132

  10. Immunohistochemichal Assessment of the CrkII Proto-oncogene Expression in Common Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors and Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Askari, Mitra; Darabi, Masoud; Jahanzad, Esa; Mostakhdemian Hosseini, Zahra; Musavi Chavoshi, Marjan; Darabi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various morphologies are seen in different salivary gland tumorsor within an individual tumor, and the lesions show divers biological behaviors. Experimental results support the hypothesis that increased CrkII proto-oncogene is associated with cytokine-induced tumor initiation and progression by altering cell motility signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to assess the CrkII expression in common malignant salivary gland tumors and pleomorphic ade-noma. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical analysis of CrkII expression was performed on paraffin blocks of 64 car-cinomas of salivary glands, 10 pleomorphic adenomas, and 10 normal salivary glands. Biopsies were subjected to immu-nostaining with EnVision detection system using monoclonal anti-CrkII. Evaluation of immunoreactivity of CrkII was based on the immunoreaction intensity and percentage of stained tumor cells which were scored semi-quantitatively on a scale with four grades 0 to 3. Kruskal-wallis test and additional Mann-Whitney statistical test were used for analysis of CrkII expression levels. Results. Increased expression of CrkII was seen (P=0.005) in malignant tumors including: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, but CrkII expression in acinic cell carcinoma was weak. CrkII expression in pleomorphic adenoma was weak or negative. A weak staining was sparsely seen in normal acinar serous cell. Conclusion. Increased expression of CrkII and its higher intensity of staining in tumors with more aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas of salivary gland is consistent with a role for this proto-oncogene in salivary gland tumorigenesis and cancer progression.

  11. [Practical problems in breast screening. Columnar cell lesions including flat epithelial atypia and lobular neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Nährig, J

    2008-11-01

    Columnar cell lesions (CCL) and lobular neoplasia (LN) are encountered with increasing frequency in breast screening biopsies. CCLs are frequently associated with microcalcifications, whereas LN is an incidental finding in most cases. Flat epithelia atypia (FEA) the atypical variant of CLL, LN and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) are frequently associated lesions. Molecular genetic studies of CCL, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and low grade invasive carcinomas revealed similar chromosomal alterations supporting the assumption that CCLs are neoplastic proliferations. The frequent association of FEA together with well differentiated invasive carcinomas provides further evidence of this concept. There is no internationally accepted classification of CCLs at present. CDH1-gene mutations are the cardinal feature of LN and invasive lobular carcinoma. In immunohistochemically CDH1-positive cases, alternative genetic alterations of the CDH1 pathway can lead to functional loss of CDH1. In our opinion morphologically and immunohistochemically hybrid lesions may represent this group of lobular lesions. Recent follow-up data suggest a higher rate of ipsilateral carcinomas in patients with previously diagnosed LN. It is currently an open question whether FEA and LN are members of a common family of intralobular proliferations, which are non-obligatory precursors of a low nuclear grade breast neoplasia family.

  12. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: imaging, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hovanessian Larsen, Linda J; Peyvandi, Banafsheh; Klipfel, Nancy; Grant, Edward; Iyengar, Geeta

    2009-08-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory disease that has clinical and radiologic findings similar to those of breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical, imaging, and treatment findings in 54 women diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis between January 2000 and April 2008. The imaging findings of granulomatous lobular mastitis overlap with those of malignancy. The most common presentation is a focal asymmetric density on mammography and an irregular hypoechoic mass with tubular extensions on ultrasound. Core biopsy is typically diagnostic. Once the diagnosis is established by tissue sampling, corticosteroids are the first line of treatment.

  13. Pleomorphic adenoma of the palate in a child.

    PubMed

    Bovino, Brian F; Sohn, Andy; Winston, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Presented is a pleomorphic adenoma of the palate in a 12-year-old boy. Pleomorphic adenoma is usually found in adults and is rarely found in patients under 20 years of age. We present initial exam, diagnosis, treatment and a review of literature.

  14. A preclinical mouse model of invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Doornebal, Chris W; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Braumuller, Tanya M; Klijn, Christiaan N; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Hollmann, Markus W; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths, but the development of effective antimetastatic agents has been hampered by the paucity of clinically relevant preclinical models of human metastatic disease. Here, we report the development of a mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis, which recapitulates key events in its formation and clinical course. Specifically, using the conditional K14cre;Cdh1(F/F);Trp53(F/F) model of de novo mammary tumor formation, we orthotopically transplanted invasive lobular carcinoma (mILC) fragments into mammary glands of wild-type syngeneic hosts. Once primary tumors were established in recipient mice, we mimicked the clinical course of treatment by conducting a mastectomy. After surgery, recipient mice succumbed to widespread overt metastatic disease in lymph nodes, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. Genomic profiling of paired mammary tumors and distant metastases showed that our model provides a unique tool to further explore the biology of metastatic disease. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant intervention studies using standard-of-care chemotherapeutics showed the value of this model in determining therapeutic agents that can target early- and late-stage metastatic disease. In obtaining a more accurate preclinical model of metastatic lobular breast cancer, our work offers advances supporting the development of more effective treatment strategies for metastatic disease.

  15. Effective apatinib treatment of pleomorphic liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Peng; Sun, Mei-Li; Sun, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chuan-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLS) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor, and both radiation and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remain controversial for metastatic or unresectable disease. Patient Concerns: We presented an 81-year-old Chinese woman with advanced PLS who received apatinib after failure chemotherapy. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed as having PLS by biopsy. Interventions: After a failed chemotherapy, apatinib started to be taken orally 425 mg per day. Outcomes: This patient achieved 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) and a higher quality of life. Meanwhile, this patient suffered grade 2 hypertension and grade 3 hand–foot syndrome (HFS). Lessons: In this case, apatinib presented good efficacy and safety to treat PLS. Randomized clinical studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the treatment of PLS. PMID:28816958

  16. Lobular Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients With Gastrointestinal Involvement: Features and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Emilia; Pirola, Sara; Maisonneuve, Patrick; De Roberto, Giuseppe; Cancello, Giuseppe; Palazzo, Antonella; Viale, Giuseppe; Colleoni, Marco

    2017-07-10

    Metastatic breast cancer typically involves the lungs, bones, brain, and liver and only occasionally affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The relevant published data have been limited to case reports and small series of patients. The present study focused on the treatment and outcomes of breast cancer patients with GI involvement diagnosed at the European Institute of Oncology. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features of the GI metastases and compared them with those of the primary tumors according to their histologic type (ductal or lobular carcinoma). From the database of the Department of Pathology, 40 patients who had undergone endoscopy or GI surgery with a final diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer from 2000 to 2014 were identified. The greatest proportion of patients (75%) had had primary invasive lobular carcinoma. Of the 40 patients, 82% had hormone receptor-positive disease in the metastatic lesion; 34 patients were candidates for systemic therapy. The median length of observation after GI metastasis was 18 months (range, 0.6-79 months). The overall survival from the diagnosis of GI involvement was 33 months (95% confidence interval, 16.8-38.3 months). Lobular breast carcinoma has a greater propensity to metastasize to the GI tract compared with other breast cancer subtypes. In the presence of GI symptoms, even if nonspecific, the GI tract should be thoroughly studied. Systemic treatment, including hormonal therapy, should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Granulomatous lobular mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Armin

    2016-12-16

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few weeks later she deteriorated and was found to have multiple breast abscesses. She underwent operative drainage and cultures grew Mycobacterium fortuitum . Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. The definitive diagnose entails a biopsy. Other causes of chronic or granulomatous mastitis should be ruled out, including atypical or rare bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum . This is the first reported case of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum . With pathologic confirmation of granulomatous mastitis, an infectious etiology must be ruled out. Atypical bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum may not readily grow on cultures, as with our case. Medical management is appropriate, with surgical excision reserved for refractory cases or for drainage of abscesses.

  18. Granulomatous lobular mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum

    PubMed Central

    Kamyab, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast of unknown etiology. Most present as breast masses in women of child-bearing age. A 29-year-old female presented with a swollen, firm and tender right breast, initially misdiagnosed as mastitis. Core needle biopsy revealed findings consistent with granulomatous lobular mastitis, and cultures were all negative for an infectious etiology. She was started on steroid therapy to which she initially responded well. A few weeks later she deteriorated and was found to have multiple breast abscesses. She underwent operative drainage and cultures grew Mycobacterium fortuitum. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. The definitive diagnose entails a biopsy. Other causes of chronic or granulomatous mastitis should be ruled out, including atypical or rare bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum. This is the first reported case of granulomatous mastitis secondary to Mycobacterium fortuitum. With pathologic confirmation of granulomatous mastitis, an infectious etiology must be ruled out. Atypical bacteria such as Mycobacterium fortuitum may not readily grow on cultures, as with our case. Medical management is appropriate, with surgical excision reserved for refractory cases or for drainage of abscesses. PMID:28035314

  19. [Clinico-pathology of lobular breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Langmár, Z; Orosz, Z

    1999-05-16

    997 operations were performed because of malignant breast lesions at the National Institute of Oncology during a two-years period (1990-1991). Histologically 94 tumours proved to be invasive lobular cancer. Comparable data were available for 89 patients; a questionnaire was used for data collection. Analysing these cases, the authors discuss the clinicopathology of lobular cancer and current practice in its treatment. The mean age of the patients was 57.1 years, which in accordance with the literature. No synchronous contralateral tumour was observed in the studied patient group. 4.9% of the cases proved to be multifocal, what is considerably less than that reported in the literature. It is a frequent matter of debate in many papers whether mastectomy should be indicated if the multicentricity of the tumour is only suspected. The features of the studied group may also emphasise this question, and further investigation is needed for moderating the surgical radicality. The rate of large tumours and the mean tumour diameter was lower than suggested by the literature. The rate of positive axillary lymph nodes was higher than in reports of other centres. The authors underline the necessity of axillary block-dissection even in case of operations with decreased radicality. Beside lymph node metastases, invasive lobular cancer produces haematogenous metastases with a higher probabilty than other breast cancers. This observation is supported by our study, too.

  20. IgG4-related tumour-forming mastitis with histological appearances of granulomatous lobular mastitis: comparison with other types of tumour-forming mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Kanako; Matsumoto, Toshiharu; Aoki, Yuji; Kitabatake, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Minoru; Kojima, Kuniaki

    2010-07-01

    Sometimes, mastitis needs to be differentiated from carcinoma because of its association with induration and with ultrasound findings (such as low-echo lesions) that resemble those in carcinoma. The aim was to define this type of mastitis and to examine 18 cases to clarify its clinicopathological features. All cases were categorized into three types: non-specific mastitis with neutrophilic infiltration (n = 7); non-specific mastitis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration (n = 9); and granulomatous lobular mastitis (n = 2). The three types of mastitis presented similar ultrasound findings and shared certain histological features including fibrosis and diffuse or lobulocentric inflammation. Granulomatous lobular mastitis showed specific clinicopathological features including lobulocentric inflammation with giant cells, diffuse IgG4+ plasma cells, and also a high level of serum IgG4. Granulomatous lobular mastitis could be categorized into IgG4-related and non-IgG4-related granulomatous lobular mastitis. IgG4 immunohistochemistry serum IgG4 might be useful for diagnosis of IgG4-related granulomatous lobular mastitis and could help to avoid overtreatment such as wide excision.

  1. Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer, mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer is relatively rare, commonly presented among multiple metastases, several years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Importantly, gastric cancer that is synchronously presented with lobular breast cancer can be misdiagnosed as primary gastric cancer; therefore, accurate differential diagnosis is required. A 39-year-old woman was visited to our hospital because of right breast mass and progressive dyspepsia. Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast was diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Gastroscopy revealed a diffuse scirrhous mass at the prepyloric antrum and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Synchronous double primary breast and gastric cancers were considered. Detailed pathological analysis focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies, including those of estrogen receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2, were studied. As a result, gastric lesion was diagnosed as metastatic gastric cancer originating from breast. Right breast conserving surgery was performed, and duodenal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance to relieve the patient's symptoms. Systemic chemotherapy with combined administration of paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. Forty-one months after the diagnosis, the patient is still undergoing the same therapy. No recurrent lesion has been identified in the breast and evidence of a partial remission of gastric wall thickening has been observed on follow-up studies without new metastatic lesions. Clinical suspicion, repeat endoscopic biopsy, and detailed histological analysis, including immunohistochemistry, are necessary for diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer from the breast.

  2. Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms

    PubMed Central

    Herranen, Anni; Schwarzbach, Armin; Gilbert, Leona

    2015-01-01

    The spirochaete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the northern hemisphere. There is a long-standing debate regarding the role of pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis, while very little is known about the characteristics of these morphological variants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic formation in different culturing conditions at physiological temperature. Interestingly, human serum induced the bacterium to change its morphology to round bodies (RBs). In addition, biofilm-like colonies in suspension were found to be part of B. burgdorferi’s normal in vitro growth. Further studies provided evidence that spherical RBs had an intact and flexible cell envelope, demonstrating that they are not cell wall deficient, or degenerative as previously implied. However, the RBs displayed lower metabolic activity compared with spirochaetes. Furthermore, our results indicated that the different pleomorphic variants were distinguishable by having unique biochemical signatures. Consequently, pleomorphic B. burgdorferi should be taken into consideration as being clinically relevant and influence the development of novel diagnostics and treatment protocols. PMID:25564498

  3. Gut metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammed S

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in women. Common sites of metastases include the liver, lung, bone, and the brain. Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are rare with patients presenting with small-bowel perforation, intestinal obstruction, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Here we report a case of a Saudi female presenting with invasive lobular carcinoma and ileo-cecal junction metastasis.

  4. Disseminated pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Mete, A; Woods, L; Famini, D; Anderson, M

    2012-01-01

    The pathological and diagnostic features of a widely disseminated pleomorphic high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma are described in a 23-year-old male brown bear (Ursus arctos horribilis). Firm, solid, white to tan neoplastic nodules, often with cavitated or soft grey-red necrotic centres, were observed throughout most internal organs, subcutaneous tissues and skeletal muscles on gross examination. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of pleomorphic spindle cells forming interlacing fascicles with a focal storiform pattern with large numbers of bizarre polygonal multinucleate cells, frequently within a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome stain and transmission electron microscopy designated the myofibroblast as the cell of origin. This is the first case of a high-grade myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. [A rare primary tumor of the mediastinum: pleomorphic liposarcoma].

    PubMed

    Msaad, S; Yangui, I; Ayedi, L; Ketata, W; Sellami, T; Ayoub, A; Jlidi, R

    2007-12-01

    Liposarcoma of the mediastinum is a rare tumor with various histologic features. We report a case of mediatinal pleomorphic liposarcoma in a 37-year-old man who complained of chest pain. Computed tomography showed an anterior expansive process within the mediastinum. Histological diagnosis was established by a trans-thoracic computed tomography guided core-needle biopsy. Despite a first cure of chemotherapy with gemcitabin/cisplatin, disease progression led to death 3 months after diagnosis. Mediastinal pleomorphic liposarcoma is an exceptional invading tumor affecting the middle-aged adult. This tumor, usually giant, becomes symptomatic by compression of mediastinal structures. Surgery is the best treatment when possible. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed. Prognosis depends both on the quality of resection and the grade malignancy.

  6. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC Uptake in Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Laurens, S Tom; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Aarntzen, Erik J H G

    2018-07-01

    A 56-year-old man who was recently diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor of the os petrosum was referred for a Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT scan. Besides the moderately increased Ga-DOTA-TOC accumulation in the carcinoid tumor, the scan showed strongly increased and focal Ga-DOTA-TOC uptake in an additional lesion in the right parotid gland. The markedly different Ga-DOTA-TOC avidity suggested a different etiology, and histological examination demonstrated a pleomorphic adenoma.

  7. Cell Pleomorphism and Cytoskeleton Disorganization in Human Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Chao, Wei-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, You-Yin; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    Nucleoskeleton maintains the framework of a cell nucleus that is required for a variety of nuclear functions. However, the nature of nucleoskeleton structure has not been yet clearly elucidated due to microscopy visualization limitations. Plectin, a nuclear pore-permeable component of cytoskeleton, exhibits a role of cross-linking between cytoplasmic intermediate filaments and nuclear lamins. Presumably, plectin is also a part of nucleoskeleton. Previously, we demonstrated that pleomorphism of hepatoma cells is the consequence of cytoskeletal changes mediated by plectin deficiency. In this study, we applied a variety of technologies to detect the cytoskeletons in liver cells. The images of confocal microscopy did not show the existence of plectin, intermediate filaments, microfilaments and microtubules in hepatic nuclei. However, in the isolated nuclear preparation, immunohistochemical staining revealed positive results for plectin and cytoskeletal proteins that may contribute to the contamination derived from cytoplasmic residues. Therefore, confocal microscopy provides a simple and effective technology to observe the framework of nucleoskeleton. Accordingly, we verified that cytoskeletons are not found in hepatic cell nuclei. Furthermore, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of plectin in liver cells leads to collapsed cytoskeleton, cell transformation and pleomorphic nuclei. Plectin and cytoskeletons were not detected in the nuclei of liver cells compared to the results of confocal microscopy. Despite the absence of nuclear plectin and cytoskeletal filaments, the evidence provided support that nuclear pleomorphism of cancer cells is correlated with the cytoplasmic disorganization of cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma with a dedifferentiation-like appearance in the kidney: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Waki, Michihiko; Fukuyama, Masashi

    2016-12-01

    Although primary leiomyosarcoma of the kidney is extremely rare, it is the most common sarcoma of the kidney. Leiomyosarcoma with a large pleomorphic component is designated as pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. The pleomorphic component is usually similar to undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma, although it variably expresses smooth muscle markers on immunohistochemistry. In the few reported cases of pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the kidney, cases with the pleomorphic component showing distinct nodularity similar to dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma have not been described, to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we present a case of a 49-year-old woman with pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma in the kidney showing distinct nodularity of smooth muscle marker-expressing pleomorphic cells within a background of classic leiomyosarcoma. Along with the classification as a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma, suggesting aggressive clinical behavior, the renal origin itself might also be a predictor of poor prognosis, as shown in a previous study. This case also involved concomitant distant metastases, already present during the initial detection of the renal tumor.

  9. Use of menopausal hormone therapy and risk of ductal and lobular breast cancer among women 55-74 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Christopher I; Daling, Janet R; Haugen, Kara L; Tang, Mei Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L; Malone, Kathleen E

    2014-06-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trials found that use of combined estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (CHT) increases breast cancer risk, but use of unopposed estrogen hormone therapy (EHT) does not. However, several questions regarding the impact of hormone use on risk of different types of breast cancer and what thresholds of use confer elevations in risk remain. We conducted a population-based case-control study among women 55-74 years of age to assess the association between menopausal hormone use and risk of invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast carcinomas. Associations were evaluated using polytomous logistic regression and analyses included 880 ductal cases, 1,027 lobular cases, and 856 controls. Current EHT and CHT use were associated with 1.6-fold [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.2] and 2.3-fold (95 % CI: 1.7-3.2) increased risks of lobular breast cancer, respectively, but neither was associated with risk of ductal cancer. Lobular cancer risk was increased after 9 years of EHT use, but after only 3 years of CHT use. Evidence across more than a dozen studies indicates that lobular carcinoma is the type of breast cancer most strongly influenced by menopausal hormones. Here, we characterize what thresholds of duration of use of both EHT and CHT that confer elevations in risk. Despite the rapid decline in hormone therapy use the WHI results were published, study of the hazards associated with these medications remains relevant given the estimated 38 million hormone therapy prescriptions that are still filled in the United States annually.

  10. ["Chronic mastitis" and carcinoma of the breast seen from the viewpoint of Soviet-russian pathologist (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hamperl, H

    1975-06-01

    The group around Prof. D. I. Golowin (Leningrad) distinguishes between the solid epithelial hyperplasia belonging to fibroadenomatosis of the breast and the solid form of lobular carcinoma in situ. The morphological details permitting the differential diagnosis are stressed (see table).

  11. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix with bizarre cytological appearances ('pleomorphic HSIL'): a review of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R

    2017-08-01

    Cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) are typically characterised by a proliferation of immature basaloid cells with relatively uniform hyperchromatic nuclei. In this report we describe 19 cases of HSIL exhibiting focal but very marked nuclear atypia often associated with multinucleation ('pleomorphic HSIL'). The bizarre cytological changes mainly involved the basal epithelium particularly in endocervical crypts where the neoplastic cells undermined the native glandular epithelial cells. Superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SISCCA) was present in three cases (16%) and while this was more common than in a comparative series of 40 'conventional' HSIL excision specimens (5%), the difference was not statistically significant. All three invasive cases demonstrated additional histological features that have been associated with increased risk of SISCAA (expansile crypt involvement by HSIL, luminal necrosis, and/or intraepithelial squamous maturation), and the invasive foci were associated microanatomically with conventional-type rather than pleomorphic HSIL. The bizarre cells expressed p16 and p63 proteins but usually lacked mitotic activity and showed less Ki-67 labelling than adjacent conventional HSIL. These findings suggest that pleomorphic epithelial changes in HSIL do not necessarily indicate more aggressive biological behaviour and may, in some cases, represent a degenerative phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma: a more aggressive neoplasm than previously estimated.

    PubMed

    Tardío, Juan C; Pinedo, Fernando; Aramburu, José A; Suárez-Massa, Dolores; Pampín, Ana; Requena, Luis; Santonja, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) is a rare neoplasm sharing pathological features with atypical fibroxanthoma, but adding tumor necrosis, invasion beyond superficial subcutis or vascular or perineural infiltration. Although its metastatic risk has been estimated to be less than 5%, its real outcome is presently uncertain because of its rarity and to the lack of homogeneous criteria used in reported cases. Retrospective clinicopathological study of 18 cases of PDS. The lesions presented as tumors or plaques (size: 7-70 mm) on the head of elderly patients (median: 81 years), without a gender predominance. Histopathologically, they consisted of spindle cells arranged in a fascicular pattern, containing pleomorphic epithelioid and giant multinucleated cells in varying proportions, and usually exhibiting numerous mitotic figures and infiltrative tumor margins. No immunoexpression for cytokeratins, S100 protein, desmin or CD34 was observed. Necrosis and venous invasion were found in three tumors each (17%). Follow-up was available in 15 cases (median: 33 months). Three patients (20%) had local recurrences, all with incomplete primary surgical resections. Three patients (20%) developed distant metastases in the skin, regional lymph nodes and/or lungs and died from the disease. Our data suggest that PDS may be a more aggressive neoplasm than previously estimated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma after Pirfenidone Use: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Christine A; Kapila, Aaysha

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Pirfenidone was approved in 2014 for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Pirfenidone inhibits several factors such as tissue growth factor-β and platelet-derived growth factor, leading to decreased epithelial and fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. The drug improves progression-free survival and is well tolerated, with minimal side effects. However, data on its long-term effects are lacking. Case Presentation We present a rare case in which an undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma developed in a 59-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who was treated with pirfenidone for more than a year. Discussion Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, also known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is a soft-tissue sarcoma arising from fibroblasts. The disease presents in the extremities and the trunk of elderly patients, and rarely in the retroperitoneum. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment; however, recurrence is common in the form of lung and lymph node metastases. In this report we review this rare malignancy and highlight the need for postmarketing longitudinal studies to determine additional adverse effects in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who are on pirfenidone therapy. PMID:29702057

  14. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date.

  15. A rare case of atypical pleomorphic adenoma arising from periocular ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Wajda, Brynn N; Mancini, Ronald; Evers, Bret; Nick Hogan, R

    2018-06-23

    To describe features of atypical pleomorphic adenoma, a rare clinical entity, particularly when found in ectopic periocular lacrimal gland tissue. Case report of biopsy-confirmed periocular atypical pleomorphic adenoma. A 35-year-old female presented with a unique orbital lesion found to be ectopic lacrimal gland demonstrating atypical pleomorphic adenoma on formal histopathologic review. Pleomorphic adenoma is pathologically characterized as an epithelial lesion intermixed with mesenchymal elements. It is further classified as atypical with the presence of features such as hypercellularity, regions of necrosis or hyalinization, cellular dysplasia, capsular violation, and malignant characteristics without frank local extension or distant metastases. Due to its rarity, the natural history and prognosis of atypical pleomorphic adenoma is unclear. Physicians need to recognize this entity, and complete surgical excision with strict follow-up regimens are likely warranted.

  16. Idiopath=ic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Masquerading as a Breast Tumor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Raman R, Thulasi; Manimaran, D

    2016-05-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is an inflammatory disease of the breast with an obscure etiology. It occurs mainly in women of reproductive age, and the lesion mimics carcinoma of the breast both clinically and radiologically. We present the case of a 29-year-old female who visited our hospital in Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, with a 4 × 3 cm lump in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast. The clinical and radiological findings were indicative of a malignant lesion; however, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed features of granulomatous mastitis, and the subsequent histology of the excised lump confirmed the diagnosis of IGLM. IGLM should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses when granulomas are encountered in breast FNAC and biopsy. A definitive diagnosis of IGLM can be made by identifying its characteristic histomorphology and ruling out other causes for granulomatous inflammation. An exact diagnosis is essential since the treatment for different granulomatous conditions of the breast varies.

  17. Oncocytic change in pleomorphic adenoma: molecular evidence in support of an origin in neoplastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Silvana Di; Lambros, Maryou B K; Savage, Kay; Jones, Chris; Mackay, Alan; Dexter, Tim; Iravani, Marjan; Fenwick, Kerry; Ashworth, Alan; Reis‐Filho, Jorge S

    2007-01-01

    Background Cells with oncocytic change (OC) are a common finding in salivary glands (SGs) and in SG tumours. When found within pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), cells with OC may be perceived as evidence of malignancy, and lead to a misdiagnosis of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CaExPa). Aim To describe a case of PA with atypical OC, resembling a CaExPa. A genomewide molecular analysis was carried out to compare the molecular genetic features of the two components and to determine whether the oncocytic cells originated from PA cells, entrapped normal cells, or whether these cells constitute an independent tumour. Materials and methods Representative blocks were immunohistochemically analysed with antibodies raised against cytokeratin (Ck) 5/6, Ck8/18, Ck14, vimentin, p63, α‐smooth muscle actin (ASMA), S100 protein, anti‐mitochondria antibody, β‐catenin, HER2, Ki67, p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor. Typical areas of PA and OC were microdissected and subjected to microarray‐based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) was performed with in‐house generated probes to validate the aCGH findings. Results PA cells showed the typical immunohistochemical profile, including positivity for Ck5/6, Ck8/18, Ck14, vimentin, ASMA, S100 protein, p63, epidermal growth factor receptor and β‐catenin, whereas oncocytic cells showed a luminal phenotype, expression of anti‐mitochondria antibody and reduced β‐catenin staining. Both components showed low proliferation rates and lacked p53 reactivity. aCGH revealed a similar amplification in both components, mapping to 12q13.3–q21.1, which was further validated by CISH. No HER2 gene amplification or overexpression was observed. The foci of oncocytic metaplasia showed an additional low‐level gain of 6p25.2–p21.31. Conclusion The present data demonstrate that the bizarre atypical cells of the present case show evidence of clonality but no features of malignancy. In

  18. Dual pathology of the submandibular gland: plasmacytoma and pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shalini; Pujary, Kailesh; Valiathan, Manna

    2014-03-03

    Synchronous tumours of different histological types involving the salivary gland are very rare. There have been cases reported in the literature of such tumours occurring in the parotid gland. A 52-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of gradually increasing painless swelling in the right submandibular region. The ultrasound scan of the neck showed features suggestive of a submandibular sialadenitis. The right submandibular gland was then surgically excised and sent for histopathological examination. The features showed a unique dual pathology of the submandibular gland, that is, a plasmacytoma and a pleomorphic adenoma. Such a synchronous double pathology involving the submandibular gland has not been reported in the literature. A review of the literature suggests a good prognosis for the extramedullary plasmacytoma, provided multiple myeloma is ruled out. In 18 months of follow-up, the patient has been asymptomatic with a negative myeloma workup.

  19. Dual pathology of the submandibular gland: plasmacytoma and pleomorphic adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Shalini; Pujary, Kailesh; Valiathan, Manna

    2014-01-01

    Synchronous tumours of different histological types involving the salivary gland are very rare. There have been cases reported in the literature of such tumours occurring in the parotid gland. A 52-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of gradually increasing painless swelling in the right submandibular region. The ultrasound scan of the neck showed features suggestive of a submandibular sialadenitis. The right submandibular gland was then surgically excised and sent for histopathological examination. The features showed a unique dual pathology of the submandibular gland, that is, a plasmacytoma and a pleomorphic adenoma. Such a synchronous double pathology involving the submandibular gland has not been reported in the literature. A review of the literature suggests a good prognosis for the extramedullary plasmacytoma, provided multiple myeloma is ruled out. In 18 months of follow-up, the patient has been asymptomatic with a negative myeloma workup. PMID:24591383

  20. Effective apatinib treatment of pleomorphic liposarcoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Sun, Mei-Li; Sun, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chuan-Yong

    2017-08-01

    Pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLS) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor, and both radiation and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy remain controversial for metastatic or unresectable disease. We presented an 81-year-old Chinese woman with advanced PLS who received apatinib after failure chemotherapy. The patient was diagnosed as having PLS by biopsy. After a failed chemotherapy, apatinib started to be taken orally 425 mg per day. This patient achieved 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) and a higher quality of life. Meanwhile, this patient suffered grade 2 hypertension and grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this case, apatinib presented good efficacy and safety to treat PLS. Randomized clinical studies are required to confirm the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the treatment of PLS.

  1. Correlation of E-cadherin expression with differentiation grade and histological type in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gamallo, C.; Palacios, J.; Suarez, A.; Pizarro, A.; Navarro, P.; Quintanilla, M.; Cano, A.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a correlation has been suggested between a loss of E-cadherin (E-CD) and increased invasiveness of neoplastic cells. In this study, E-CD expression in breast cancer was investigated using an affinity-purified antibody (ECCD-2) in an immunoenzymatic (avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase) test. Intensity and extension of E-CD immunoreactivity were evaluated in 61 breast carcinomas and correlated with their histological type and grade, nodal involvement, and hormonal receptor status. Histological types were infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no special type (n = 54) and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n = 7). All infiltrating ductal carcinomas of no special type except two grade 3 carcinomas showed positive immunoreactivity that was variable among different cases. Grade 1 breast carcinomas (n = 10) showed greater immunoreactivity than grade 2 (n = 25) and grade 3 (n = 19) carcinomas. E-CD immunoreactivity correlated positively with the degree of tubular formation and inversely with the mitoses number. None of the infiltrating lobular carcinomas expressed E-CD in their infiltrating cells, whereas they showed only weak immunostains in areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. These results indicate that E-CD expression correlates with histological type and grade in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7682767

  2. Detection of lobular structures in normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Apou, Grégory; Schaadt, Nadine S; Naegel, Benoît; Forestier, Germain; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Wemmert, Cédric; Grote, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing research into inflammatory conditions raises an increasing need to evaluate immune cells in histological sections in biologically relevant regions of interest (ROIs). Herein, we compare different approaches to automatically detect lobular structures in human normal breast tissue in digitized whole slide images (WSIs). This automation is required to perform objective and consistent quantitative studies on large data sets. In normal breast tissue from nine healthy patients immunohistochemically stained for different markers, we evaluated and compared three different image analysis methods to automatically detect lobular structures in WSIs: (1) a bottom-up approach using the cell-based data for subsequent tissue level classification, (2) a top-down method starting with texture classification at tissue level analysis of cell densities in specific ROIs, and (3) a direct texture classification using deep learning technology. All three methods result in comparable overall quality allowing automated detection of lobular structures with minor advantage in sensitivity (approach 3), specificity (approach 2), or processing time (approach 1). Combining the outputs of the approaches further improved the precision. Different approaches of automated ROI detection are feasible and should be selected according to the individual needs of biomarker research. Additionally, detected ROIs could be used as a basis for quantification of immune infiltration in lobular structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Myoepithelial cells are the main component in pleomorphic adenomas?

    PubMed

    Ponce Bravo, Santa; Ledesma Montes, Constantino; López Becerril, Uriel; Morales Sánchez, Israel

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify by immunohistochemistry the number of myoepithelial cells (MyECs) in pleomorphic adenomas (PAs). We retrieved the paraffin cubes of 27 PAs, new slides were done and they were stained with anti-S100 protein antibody. The amount of S-100 protein positive cells was quantified, their morphology was recorded and comparison among MyEC number with age, gender and involved gland were also done. With S-100 protein, MyECs in normal salivary gland tissue were seen surrounding the ductual structures only. In the analysed PAs a mean of 27.4% of the neoplastic cells were positive to the antibody. With the exception of one PA, in all the analysed cases the plasmacytoid cells were the most commonly identified cells (48,6%). Results of this study suggest that MyECs do not constitute the main cellular component of the neoplastic compartment in PAs and corroborate the previously reported evidence by different authors, who studying the PAs suggested that MyECs does not comprise the main cellular neoplastic component of these entities.

  4. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Low-fat and fat-free pleomorphic lipomas: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mandi P; Goldblum, John R; Rubin, Brian P; Billings, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Pleomorphic lipomas are benign tumors that most commonly present as subcutaneous masses in the head and neck, shoulder, or back region of middle-aged to elderly men. They are related to spindle cell lipomas based on shared cytogenetic aberrations and histologic features. When little or no fat is present, the diagnosis can be challenging. A review of 38 pleomorphic lipomas seen in consultation revealed 7 cases in which fat was present in reduced (<5%) amounts (n = 5) or absent (n = 2). Six of 7 cases were from men with a mean age of 59 years. Excluding 1 case where the site was not specified, they all presented as solitary well-circumscribed subcutaneous masses in the head and neck (n = 3) or shoulder (n = 2) region. The seventh case was an intradermal tumor from the nose of a 48-year-old woman. All displayed pleomorphic and multinucleated floret cells interspersed among bland spindle cells and ropey collagen. They were diffusely immunoreactive for CD34. Referring diagnoses, when provided, included myxofibrosarcoma, giant cell fibroblastoma, and granulomatous rosacea for the tumor from the nose; none considered pleomorphic lipomas. When fat is absent or present in reduced amounts, clinical context and identification of classic nonlipogenic components are essential for the diagnosis of pleomorphic lipomas.

  6. Atypical pleomorphic neoplasms of the pineal gland: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Praver, M; D'Amico, R; Arraez, C; Zacharia, B E; Varma, H; Goldman, J E; Bruce, J N; Canoll, P

    2015-01-01

    Pineal region tumors are rare and diverse. Among them exist reports of pleomorphic xanthroastrocytoma (PXA) and pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma (PGCA) of the pineal gland. These related tumors are remarkably similar sharing pleomorphic histologic features with only minor immunohistochemical and ultrastructural differences. We present a case of a 42-year old right-handed woman presented with a longstanding history of migraine headaches which had worsened over the two months leading up to her hospitalization. MRI revealed a 1.7 × 1.3 × 1.6 cm intensely enhancing lesion originating in the pineal gland. The tumor closely resembled PGCA but did not strictly fit the diagnostic requirements of either PGCA or PXA. The present case highlights the exotic nature of pineal region tumors with pleomorphic cell histology. Given the diverse range of tumors encountered in the pineal region, pathological confirmation is mandatory. Favorable clinical outcomes demonstrate that surgical resection alone can yield excellent long-term results for tumors falling within the spectrum of pleomorphic lesions of the pineal gland.

  7. [Esophageal sarcomatoid carcinoma: report of a case with morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular study].

    PubMed

    Regragui, Asmaa; Lakhdar, Hind; Abderrahman Alaoui Belabbas, Moulay; Amrani, Meryem; Gamra, Lamia; Alaoui Belabbas, Mohamed

    2004-05-01

    Sarcomatoïd carcinoma is a rare tumor of the esophagus, characterized macroscopically by a polypoid aspect and histologically by the association of spindle cell carcinoma with sarcomatous pleomorphic component. We report here a case of esophagus sarcomatoïd carcinoma. Diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical analysis of tIssue samples. Human papillomavirus (HVP) detection by PCR amplification of DNA extracted from tumoral tIssue was negative, ruling out the role of HPV infection in this tumor.

  8. Electrical stimulation treatment for facial palsy after revision pleomorphic adenoma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Goldie, Simon; Sandeman, Jack; Cole, Richard; Dennis, Simon; Swain, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Surgery for pleomorphic adenoma recurrence presents a significant risk of facial nerve damage that can result in facial weakness effecting patients’ ability to communicate, mental health and self-image. We report two case studies that had marked facial weakness after resection of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and their progress with electrical stimulation. Subjects received electrical stimulation twice daily for 24 weeks during which photographs of expressions, facial measurements and Sunnybrook scores were recorded. Both subjects recovered good facial function demonstrating Sunnybrook scores of 54 and 64 that improved to 88 and 96, respectively. Neither subjects demonstrated adverse effects of treatment. We conclude that electrical stimulation is a safe treatment and may improve facial palsy in patients after resection of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Larger studies would be difficult to pursue due to the low incidence of cases. PMID:27106613

  9. Electrical stimulation treatment for facial palsy after revision pleomorphic adenoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Simon; Sandeman, Jack; Cole, Richard; Dennis, Simon; Swain, Ian

    2016-04-22

    Surgery for pleomorphic adenoma recurrence presents a significant risk of facial nerve damage that can result in facial weakness effecting patients' ability to communicate, mental health and self-image. We report two case studies that had marked facial weakness after resection of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma and their progress with electrical stimulation. Subjects received electrical stimulation twice daily for 24 weeks during which photographs of expressions, facial measurements and Sunnybrook scores were recorded. Both subjects recovered good facial function demonstrating Sunnybrook scores of 54 and 64 that improved to 88 and 96, respectively. Neither subjects demonstrated adverse effects of treatment. We conclude that electrical stimulation is a safe treatment and may improve facial palsy in patients after resection of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Larger studies would be difficult to pursue due to the low incidence of cases. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  10. Clinical implications of a rare renal entity: Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor (PHAT).

    PubMed

    Scalici Gesolfo, Cristina; Serretta, Vincenzo; Di Maida, Fabrizio; Giannone, Giulio; Barresi, Elisabetta; Franco, Vito; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2017-02-01

    Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor (PHAT) is a rare benign lesion characterized by slow growth, infiltrative behavior and high rate of local recurrences. Only one case has been described in retroperitoneum, at renal hilum, but not involving pelvis or parenchyma. Here we present the first case of PHAT arising in the renal parenchyma. A nodular lesion in right kidney lower pole was diagnosed to a 61 year old woman. The patient underwent right nephrectomy. Microscopically, the lesion showed solid and pseudo-cystic components with hemorrhagic areas characterized by aggregates of ectatic blood vessels. Pleomorphic cells were characterized by large eosinophilic cytoplasm with irregular and hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemistry was performed and the lesion was classified as a Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor (PHAT). Due to the clinical behavior of this tumor, in spite of its benign nature, review of the surgical margins and close follow up after partial nephrectomy are mandatory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. [Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the larynx--a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Prgomet, Drago; Males, Josip; Manojlović, Spomenka; Bumber, Zeljko

    2006-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a very rare malignant tumor of the larynx which can present in a number of histologic variants. The pleomorphic variant of the tumor has been described in 16 patients to date. Being a rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma is as a rule managed according to the principle of treatment for malignant mesenchymal tumors of the head and neck, and includes radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. A case is presented of a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the vocal cord. Successfully treated by endoscopic CO2 laser cordectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy and 6-year uneventful follow up.

  12. [Lobular breast cancer in man - case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Navrátil, J; Petráková, K; Nenutil, R; Vyzula, R; Svoboda, M

    2014-01-01

    Herein we report a case of a man with a B- cell non-Hodgkin lymfoma, primarily diagnosed by topographic and morfology tokens as lobular breast carcinoma and, as such, it was treated by chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. The treatment resulted in complete remission for 3,5 years. However, the subsequent relapses that arised in retrocrural and left axilary area did not respond adequately to breast cancer targeted chemotherapy. Therefore the patient underwent re-exstirpation of axillary lymph node yielding a surprising histology finding of folicular lymphoma. The primary biopsy specimen was histologicaly reevaluated and the initial dia-gnosis was reclassified as folicular lymphoma. The patient was given an adequate chemotherapy and targeted treatment that established a complete remission. Six months afterwards there was a relapse detected in the retrocrural area. The patient underwent palliative radiotherapy that brought about complete remission and, so far, he is in good condition. It has been eight years since the cancer dia-gnosis was established. This case report is appended by review of literature dealing with diagnostic confusion of these two malignancies. Re -biopsy plays a significant role in case of treatment strategy controversies, predominantly on condition of atypical course of malignant disease. It should always be considered in case of cancer relapse, especially if the phenotype specfication could affect the treatment decision.

  13. Idiopath=ic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Masquerading as a Breast Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Raman R, Thulasi; Manimaran, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is an inflammatory disease of the breast with an obscure etiology. It occurs mainly in women of reproductive age, and the lesion mimics carcinoma of the breast both clinically and radiologically Case Presentation We present the case of a 29-year-old female who visited our hospital in Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, with a 4 × 3 cm lump in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast. The clinical and radiological findings were indicative of a malignant lesion; however, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed features of granulomatous mastitis, and the subsequent histology of the excised lump confirmed the diagnosis of IGLM. Conclusions IGLM should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses when granulomas are encountered in breast FNAC and biopsy. A definitive diagnosis of IGLM can be made by identifying its characteristic histomorphology and ruling out other causes for granulomatous inflammation. An exact diagnosis is essential since the treatment for different granulomatous conditions of the breast varies. PMID:27437133

  14. Granulomatous mastitis caused by histoplasma and mimicking inflammatory breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Osborne, B M

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of a lobular, necrotizing granulomatous process causing a unilateral painful breast mass mimicking carcinoma are presented for comparison. While the morphologic appearance in each case was that of lobular granulomatous mastitis, the etiologic agent in one case appeared to be Histoplasma capsulatum, based on Grocott methenamine silver staining, and represents the second reported case of histoplasmosis involving only breast parenchyma. Awareness of the rare entity, granulomatous mastitis, is important for the pathologist because the definitive diagnosis is made microscopically. Thorough evaluation of the breast tissue is essential for its management and should eventually contribute to the clarification of its etiology.

  15. Idiopathic granulomatus lobular mastitis. A forgotten clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Al Nazer, Mona A

    2003-12-01

    To review clinicopathological features of all cases diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) in our hospital and compare them with other data from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Reports of all breast specimens received in histopathology laboratory in Qatif Central Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a 14 year period (1988 through to 2002) were collected and those diagnosed as IGLM were selected for analysis of both pathological material and clinical data. Eleven patients representing 1.6% of all breast specimens were diagnosed as IGLM. The mean age was 35 years (range 25-50). Both breasts were equally affected. The most frequent presenting symptom was a breast mass of 2-22 weeks duration. The most common clinical diagnosis was chronic abscess (5 patients). Relation to pregnancy, lactation or oral contraceptives pills was elicited in 4 patients. Recurrence at different time intervals occurred in 3 patients. Microscopically there was an evident granulomatous inflammation mostly in lobular distribution. Ductal inflammation with epithelial changes was noted in most cases. Staining and cultures were negative for both mycobacterium and fungal organisms. Granulomatous mastitis is not unheard of and clinicians should keep it in their list of differential diagnosis of breast lumps so appropriate handling of breast specimens including microbiological studies can be pursued. Utility of fine needle aspiration biopsy as a diagnostic tool is to be considered.

  16. Genome Sequence of Rough and Smooth Variants of Pleomorphic Strain Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699

    PubMed Central

    Tareb, R.; Bernardeau, M.

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699 is a pleomorphic strain exhibiting smooth and rough variants. We report their complete genomes consisting of a chromosome of 2, 4 Mb and a plasmid of 6,417 bp. The smooth variant differs by the presence of an additional plasmid of 35,418 bp. PMID:26383668

  17. Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour: A Rare Case Report and Discussion of Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chalmeti, Ambica; Arakeri, Surekha U; Javalgi, Anita P; Goyal, Shefali

    2017-08-01

    Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour (PHAT) is one of the rare soft tissue tumour which is non-metastasizing. The origin of this tumour is yet uncertain. It occurs in adults as a slow growing subcutaneous mass mimicking clinically and histologically to various benign and malignant soft tissue tumours such as schwannoma, haemangioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The microscopic features of this tumour include clusters of ectatic, fibrin containing, hyalinized blood vessels with pleomorphic and spindle shaped tumour cells showing intranuclear inclusions, stromal haemosiderin pigment and a variable inflammatory infiltrate. Despite marked pleomorphism, the lesion behaves as a low grade neoplasm, with frequent recurrences, but no metastases. The incidence of this tumour is very rare with less than 100 cases being published. Hence, awareness of this entity is must for proper management of the patient and to avoid misdiagnosis of the lesion. We report a case of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumour in a 50-year-old man who presented with a slow growing mass in the left calf region since two years.

  18. Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour: A Rare Case Report and Discussion of Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Arakeri, Surekha U; Javalgi, Anita P; Goyal, Shefali

    2017-01-01

    Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour (PHAT) is one of the rare soft tissue tumour which is non-metastasizing. The origin of this tumour is yet uncertain. It occurs in adults as a slow growing subcutaneous mass mimicking clinically and histologically to various benign and malignant soft tissue tumours such as schwannoma, haemangioma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The microscopic features of this tumour include clusters of ectatic, fibrin containing, hyalinized blood vessels with pleomorphic and spindle shaped tumour cells showing intranuclear inclusions, stromal haemosiderin pigment and a variable inflammatory infiltrate. Despite marked pleomorphism, the lesion behaves as a low grade neoplasm, with frequent recurrences, but no metastases. The incidence of this tumour is very rare with less than 100 cases being published. Hence, awareness of this entity is must for proper management of the patient and to avoid misdiagnosis of the lesion. We report a case of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumour in a 50-year-old man who presented with a slow growing mass in the left calf region since two years. PMID:28969147

  19. Pleomorphic Malignant Mesothelioma in a Broiler Breeder Infected with Avian Leucosis Virus Subgroup J.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Sassa, Y

    2018-04-01

    Avian leucosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus that induces tumours including lymphoid leucosis and myeloid leucosis. Pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma, which were thought to be induced by ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) infection, were identified in a 432-day-old broiler breeder. The bird showed no clinical signs; however, at necropsy examination there were multiple nodules in the alimentary tract. Microscopical analysis showed that these consisted of pleomorphic cells and myelocyte-like cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the pleomorphic cells were atypical and expressed cytokeratin, vimentin, c-kit, calretinin and ALV. The myelocyte-like cells were also positive for ALV. Retroviral type C particles were observed by electron microscopy. ALV-E and ALV-J nucleotide sequences were detected in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded small intestinal tissue. Based on these results, the tumours were diagnosed as pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma and were thought to have been induced by ALV-J infection. This is the first report of malignant mesothelioma associated with naturally acquired ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Recurrence of Bilateral Diffuse Sclerosing Lobular Hyperplasia of Breast: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Elfituri, Osama; Sonawane, Snehal; Xu, Haoliang; Warso, Michael A; Wiley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign fibroproliferative lesion of adolescent and young women, often of African American heritage with an incidence of ~3%. Patients generally complain of a palpable, painless, or slightly tender and well-defined lump in breast. Very rarely, this lesion may be bilateral and diffuse. The definitive diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia requires histopathologic evaluation. Here, we describe a case of diffuse sclerosing lobular hyperplasia in a 29-year-old African American woman that required bilateral mastectomy and recurred bilaterally requiring second resections. This appears to be the first report of this phenomenon.

  1. [Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a clinicopathologic study of 68 cases].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Juan; Du, Yu-tang; Ding, Hua-ye

    2010-10-01

    To study the clinical and pathologic features of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM). Sixty-eight cases of GLM were retrieved from the archival file. The clinical data and histologic features were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-eight patients presented with breast mass. Ulceration in overlying breast skin was seen in 9 cases. Most of the patients had history of breast feeding. None of them had evidence of specific infections involving the breast. The clinical and radiologic features mimicked malignancy. Histologically, GLM was characterized by the presence of non-necrotizing granulomas, usually admixed with neutrophils and associated with benign ductolobular units. The ductolobular architecture was still preserved. The duration of follow up ranged from 6 to 36 months. Four patients suffered from disease recurrence. GLM shows clinical and radiologic features reminiscent of breast cancer. Correct diagnosis requires histologic examination of the biopsy specimens.

  2. Integration of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data identifies two biologically distinct subtypes of invasive lobular breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michaut, Magali; Chin, Suet-Feung; Majewski, Ian; Severson, Tesa M.; Bismeijer, Tycho; de Koning, Leanne; Peeters, Justine K.; Schouten, Philip C.; Rueda, Oscar M.; Bosma, Astrid J.; Tarrant, Finbarr; Fan, Yue; He, Beilei; Xue, Zheng; Mittempergher, Lorenza; Kluin, Roelof J.C.; Heijmans, Jeroen; Snel, Mireille; Pereira, Bernard; Schlicker, Andreas; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Gaber, Alexander; O’Hurley, Gillian; Lehn, Sophie; Muris, Jettie J.F.; Wesseling, Jelle; Kay, Elaine; Sammut, Stephen John; Bardwell, Helen A.; Barbet, Aurélie S.; Bard, Floriane; Lecerf, Caroline; O’Connor, Darran P.; Vis, Daniël J.; Benes, Cyril H.; McDermott, Ultan; Garnett, Mathew J.; Simon, Iris M.; Jirström, Karin; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine C.; Gallagher, William M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F.A.; Caldas, Carlos; Bernards, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most frequently occurring histological breast cancer subtype after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), accounting for around 10% of all breast cancers. The molecular processes that drive the development of ILC are still largely unknown. We have performed a comprehensive genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of a large ILC patient cohort and present here an integrated molecular portrait of ILC. Mutations in CDH1 and in the PI3K pathway are the most frequent molecular alterations in ILC. We identified two main subtypes of ILCs: (i) an immune related subtype with mRNA up-regulation of PD-L1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 and greater sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in representative cell line models; (ii) a hormone related subtype, associated with Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), and gain of chromosomes 1q and 8q and loss of chromosome 11q. Using the somatic mutation rate and eIF4B protein level, we identified three groups with different clinical outcomes, including a group with extremely good prognosis. We provide a comprehensive overview of the molecular alterations driving ILC and have explored links with therapy response. This molecular characterization may help to tailor treatment of ILC through the application of specific targeted, chemo- and/or immune-therapies. PMID:26729235

  3. Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma Arising from True Vocal Fold of Larynx: Report of a Rare Case and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Sevdegül; Arslan, Selçuk; Küçüktülü, Eda; Ersöz, Şafak; Çobanoğlu, Bengü

    2016-01-01

    We present an extremely rare case of a pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the true vocal fold. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient was treated with radical surgery including total laryngectomy and radical neck dissection followed by postoperative radiotherapy. The clinicopathologic features of this rare malignancy are discussed together with a review of the literature. This case report and literature review highlights the more favorable prognosis of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in the larynx than in other locations.

  4. Pleomorphic Adenoma of Base of Tongue: Is Midline Mandibulotomy Necessary for Approaching Benign Base Tongue Lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sandeep; Kalsotra, Gopika; Mohammed, Abdul Wadood; Bahl, Amanjit; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To report a rare presentation of pleomorphic adenoma, at base tongue, excised surgically by a transoral midline glossotomy technique without mandibulotomy. Case Report. Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign tumor of the salivary gland found rarely in the base of tongue. Surgery is the definitive treatment for this tumor, and different approaches have been mentioned in the literature. In our case we surgically excised the tumor by a transoral midline glossotomy technique without mandibulotomy where we combined the cosmetic advantage of transoral technique and the exposure advantage of a glossotomy technique. Discussion. We discuss the different approaches to oropharynx, their advantages and disadvantages. Primary transoral approach provides better cosmesis but less exposure whereas median labiomandibuloglossotomy approach provides more exposure but is cosmetically unacceptable. Conclusion. A transoral midline glossotomy approach without mandibulotomy provides wide exposure with acceptable cosmesis. PMID:22953125

  5. Recurrent sebaceous carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Yong-Baek; Park, Jun-Won; Oh, Won-Seok; Kim, Eun-Ok; Lim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2010-07-01

    A 1.5-year-old intact male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was presented with a firm, non-movable subcutaneous mass on ventral chest area. Microscopically, the tumor was un-encapsulated, invasive up to the muscle layer, and composed of highly pleomorphic polygonal cells arranged in variably-sized lobules. The neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasm with vacuolation and a large pleomorphic nucleus with prominent nucleoli. Mitotic figures were frequently observed with atypical mitoses. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin, but negative for vimentin. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma was made. Three months after the surgery, a recurrent mass was found at the surgical site. On necropsy, the mass has penetrated the underlying intercostal musculature, without metastasis to distant organs. This is the first report of a sebaceous carcinoma in an African hedgehog.

  6. Genome Sequence of Rough and Smooth Variants of Pleomorphic Strain Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699.

    PubMed

    Tareb, R; Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J P

    2015-09-17

    The probiotic Lactobacillus farciminis CNCM-I-3699 is a pleomorphic strain exhibiting smooth and rough variants. We report their complete genomes consisting of a chromosome of 2, 4 Mb and a plasmid of 6,417 bp. The smooth variant differs by the presence of an additional plasmid of 35,418 bp. Copyright © 2015 Tareb et al.

  7. Radiologic and clinical features of idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis mimicking advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jei Hee; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun-kyung; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Lee, Han Kyung

    2006-02-28

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM), also known as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to describe the radiological imaging and clinical features of IGLM in order to better differentiate this disorder from breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of 11 women with a total of 12 IGLM lesions. The ages of these women ranged between 29 and 42 years, with a mean age of 34.8 years. Ten patients were examined by both mammography and sonography and one by sonography alone. The sites that were the most frequently involved were the peripheral (6/12), diffuse, (3/12), and subareolar (3/12) regions of the breast. The patient mammograms showed irregular ill-defined masses (7/11), diffuse increased densities (3/11), and one oval obscured mass. In addition, patient sonograms showed irregular tubular lesions (7/12) or lobulated masses with minimal parenchymal distortion (2/12), parenchymal distortion without definite mass lesions (2/12), and one oval mass. Subcutaneous fat obliteration (12/12) and skin thickening (11/12) were also observed in these patients. Contrary to previous reports, skin changes and subareolar involvement were not rare occurrences in IGLM. In conclusion, the sonographic features of IGLM show irregular or tubular hypoechoic masses with minimal parenchymal distortion. Both clinical information and the description of radiographic features of IGLM may aid in the differentiation between IGLM and breast cancer, however histological confirmation is still required for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the disorder.

  8. Radiologic and Clinical Features of Idiopathic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Mimicking Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jei Hee; Kim, Eun-kyung; Kwack, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Lee, Han Kyung

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM), also known as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis, is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to describe the radiological imaging and clinical features of IGLM in order to better differentiate this disorder from breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical and radiographic features of 11 women with a total of 12 IGLM lesions. The ages of these women ranged between 29 and 42 years, with a mean age of 34.8 years. Ten patients were examined by both mammography and sonography and one by sonography alone. The sites that were the most frequently involved were the peripheral (6/12), diffuse, (3/12), and subareolar (3/12) regions of the breast. The patient mammograms showed irregular ill-defined masses (7/11), diffuse increased densities (3/11), and one oval obscured mass. In addition, patient sonograms showed irregular tubular lesions (7/12) or lobulated masses with minimal parenchymal distortion (2/12), parenchymal distortion without definite mass lesions (2/12), and one oval mass. Subcutaneous fat obliteration (12/12) and skin thickening (11/12) were also observed in these patients. Contrary to previous reports, skin changes and subareolar involvement were not rare occurrences in IGLM. In conclusion, the sonographic features of IGLM show irregular or tubular hypoechoic masses with minimal parenchymal distortion. Both clinical information and the description of radiographic features of IGLM may aid in the differentiation between IGLM and breast cancer, however histological confirmation is still required for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. PMID:16502488

  9. Long-term recurrence rate of pleomorphic adenoma and postoperative facial nerve paresis (in parotid surgery).

    PubMed

    Zernial, Oliver; Springer, Ingo N; Warnke, Patrick; Härle, Franz; Risick, Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate recurrence rates and comorbidity in patients with pleomorphic adenomas of patients after superficial and total conservative parotidectomy. Localization of pleomorphic adenomas, age, sex distribution and facial nerve function of 73 patients were examined in this retrospective study. The recurrence rate could be determined in 43 of these patients. The interval between surgery and last recall varied between 2 and 20 years (median: 8.1 years). Most of the patients were female (67%) with a parotid pleomorphic adenoma. No recurrence was found regard less of whether a superficial or total conservative parotidectomy had been performed. Our data did show that the total conservative parotidectomy is associated with a higher incidence of temporary impaired facial nerve function, which was seen in 42% of this group. Temporary decreased nerve function after superficial parotidectomy was rare being apparent in only 16% of this group. A more radical procedure does not significantly lower the recurrence rate. We suggest that the indication for a total conservative parotidectomy in cases of superficial adenomas should be considered carefully.

  10. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V; Dillard, Rebecca S; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Stephens, David; Roback, John D; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators.

  11. Salivary duct carcinoma with rhabdoid features: Report of 2 cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kusafuka, Kimihide; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Muramatsu, Koji; Miki, Tomoko; Murai, Chika; Suda, Toshihito; Fuke, Tomohito; Kamijo, Tomoyuki; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Nakajima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Background Salivary duct carcinoma with rhabdoid features is extremely rare. Methods We report 2 cases of salivary duct carcinoma with rhabdoid features treated at our institution. Results Case 1 was a 44-year-old Japanese man who had swelling in the left parotid region. This tumor consisted of residual pleomorphic adenoma and widely invasive carcinoma, which showed a diffuse growth pattern by atypical rhabdoid cells. Case 2 was a 66-year-old Japanese man who had swelling of the right cervical region. This submandibular tumor was also composed of both residual pleomorphic adenoma region and invasive adenocarcinoma components, whereas some metastatic lesions were purely composed of rhabdoid cells. Such cells were strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratins (CKs), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP), and androgen receptor (AR). Case 1 was also positive for Her-2 and p53. Conclusion Both patients were diagnosed with carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and their carcinomatous components were composed of salivary duct carcinoma with rhabdoid features, which is a highly aggressive tumor, similar to salivary duct carcinoma. © 2013 The Authors. Head & Neck published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 36: E28–E35, 2014 PMID:24038506

  12. Selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in invasive lobular breast cancer based on mammographic density: does it lead to an appropriate change in surgical treatment?

    PubMed

    Bansal, Gaurav J; Santosh, Divya; Davies, Eleri L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high mammographic density can be used as one of the selection criteria for MRI in invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). In our institute, high breast density has been used as one of the indications for performing MRI scan in patients with ILC. We divided the patients in two groups, one with MRI performed pre-operatively and other without MRI. We compared their surgical procedures and analyzed whether surgical plan was altered after MRI. In case of alteration of plan, we analyzed whether the change was adequate by comparing post-operative histological findings. Between 2011 and 2015, there were a total of 1601 breast cancers with 97 lobular cancers, out of which 36 had pre-operative MRI and 61 had no MRI scan. 12 (33.3%) had mastectomy following MRI, out of which 9 (25%) had change in surgical plan from conservation to mastectomy following MRI. There were no unnecessary mastectomies in the MRI group. However, utilization of MRI in this cohort of patients did not reduce reoperation rate (19.3%). Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) was identified in 60% of reoperations on post-surgical histology. Patients in the "No MRI" group had higher mastectomy rate 26 (42.6%), which was again appropriate. High mammographic density is a useful risk stratification criterion for selective MRI in ILC within a multidisciplinary team meeting setting. Provided additional lesions identified on MRI are confirmed with biopsy, pre-operative MRI does not cause unnecessary mastectomies. Used in this selective manner, reoperation rates were not eliminated, albeit reduced when compared to literature. High mammographic breast density can be used as one of the selection criteria for pre-operative MRI in ILC without an increase in inappropriate mastectomies with potential time and cost savings. In this cohort, re-excisions were not reduced markedly with pre-operative MRI.

  13. [Sonoelastography, B-mode sonography, and color Doppler sonography findings of pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors of parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Yerli, Hasan; Eşki, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the sonoelastography (SE), B-mode sonography, and color Doppler sonography findings of the pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors of the parotid gland. A total of 84 parotid masses (23 pleomorphic adenomas, 25 Warthin tumors) in 72 patients (37 males, 35 females; mean age 59 years; range 30 to 79 years) were retrospectively analyzed. For each lesion, B-mode sonography, color Doppler sonography, and SE images were evaluated. Vascularity and elasticity scores of the tumors during color Doppler sonography and SE examinations were calculated by 4-scoring method. Lobulated contour and cystic areas were more common in the pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors during the B-mode sonography examination (p<0.05). Peripheral vascularity was common in more than half of the pleomorphic adenoma patients, whereas central or mixed vascularity was seen in a large group of the Warthin tumor patients (p<0.05). The mean scores on color Doppler sonography examination were 1.13±0.81 for pleomorphic adenomas and 1.96±0.97 for Warthin tumors (p<0.05). The mean scores on SE examination were 2.69±0.70 for pleomorphic adenomas and 1.83±0.63 for Warthin tumors (p<0.05). Score 1 on SE examination was found in three of five Warthin tumor patients with peripheral vascularity on color Doppler sonography. B-mode, color Doppler and elastography examinations by sonography provide some helpful findings in the differentiation of pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors.

  14. Experience of treatment of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sung Mo; Cho, Dong Hui; Lee, Se Kyung; Choi, Min-Young; Bae, Soo Youn; Koo, Min Young; Kim, Sangmin; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo; Nam, Seok-Jin; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2013-07-01

    To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM. Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively. Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%). The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study.

  15. Experience of treatment of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sung Mo; Cho, Dong Hui; Lee, Se Kyung; Choi, Min-Young; Bae, Soo Youn; Koo, Min Young; Kim, Sangmin; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo; Nam, Seok-Jin; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To present the author's experience with various treatment methods of granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) and to determine effective treatment methods of GLM. Methods Fifty patients who were diagnosed with GLM were classified into five groups based on the initial treatment methods they underwent, which included observation (n = 8), antibiotics (n = 3), steroid (n = 13), drainage (n = 14), and surgical excision (n = 12). The treatment processes in each group were examined and their clinical characteristics, treatment processes, and results were analyzed respectively. Results Success rates with each initial treatment were observation, 87.5%; antibiotics, 33.3%; steroids, 30.8%; drainage, 28.6%; and surgical excision, 91.7%. In most cases of observation, the lesions were small and the symptoms were mild. A total of 23 patients underwent surgical excision during treatment. Surgical excision showed particularly fast recovery, high success rate (90.3%) and low recurrence rate (8.7%). Conclusion The clinical course of GLM is complex and the outcome of each treatment type are variable. Surgery may play an important role when a lesion is determined to be mass-forming or appears localized as an abscess pocket during breast examination or imaging study. PMID:23833753

  16. Choroidal metastasis of mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, I; Abecia, E; Oliván, J M; Honrubia, F M

    1997-08-01

    A case of mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland (an epidermoid carcinoma located in a pleomorphic adenoma) metastatic to the choroid is presented. The histopathology of the tumor is discussed. A 65-year-old man was admitted complaining of blurred vision in his right eye for 1 day. He underwent parotidectomy for mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland (an epidermoid carcinoma located in a pleomorphic adenoma that was completely excised) 6 months before. Funduscopic examination showed a nasal retinal detachment, with gray-whitish, minimally elevated nodular choroidal lesions. Fluorescein angiography and contact B-scan ultrasonography confirmed the presence of an underlying mass. The right eye was enucleated and an epidermoid infiltrating carcinoma was identified. Metastatic tumors are the most common intraocular malignancies, and the choroid is by far the most common location for intraocular metastases. There are few cases reported of parotid tumors metastatic to the orbit. To the best of our knowledge, no histological examination of an ocular metastatic mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland has yet been reported.

  17. [Diagnostic value of MYB protein expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma and status of MYB gene copy number].

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhen; Zeng, Xuan; Wu, Shafei; Wu, Huanwen; Meng, Yunxiao; Liu, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yufeng; Cao, Jinling; Liang, Zhiyong

    2015-08-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of MYB protein expression for adenoid cystic carcinoma and its differential diagnosis from other salivary gland tumors, and to further investigate the status of MYB gene copy number. MYB expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in 34 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 55 non-adenoid cystic carcinomas (other salivary gland tumors) including 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 basal cell adenomas, 10 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 9 basal cell adenocarcinomas, 8 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 4 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas, and 4 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. MYB gene copy number status was detected by FISH in MYB protein-positive cases. 82.4% (28/34) of adenoid cystic carcinomas were MYB protein-positive, compared with 9.1% (5/55) of non-adenoid cystic carcinomas, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01). 2/18 of adenoid cystic carcinomas had duplication of MYB gene by FISH, and all non-adenoid cystic carcinomas were negative although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.435). MYB protein expression is a useful diagnostic marker for adenoid cystic carcinomas in its separation from other salivary gland tumors. In addition, duplication of MYB gene is no a major mechanism for the MYB protein overexpression.

  18. "Atypical" Pleomorphic Lipomatous Tumor: A Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study of 21 Cases, Emphasizing its Relationship to Atypical Spindle Cell Lipomatous Tumor and Suggesting a Morphologic Spectrum (Atypical Spindle Cell/Pleomorphic Lipomatous Tumor).

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; Mentzel, Thomas; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Lecoutere, Evelyne; van Gorp, Joost; Atanesyan, Lilit; de Groot, Karel; Savola, Suvi; Van Roy, Nadine; Van Dorpe, Jo; Flucke, Uta

    2017-11-01

    The classification of the until recently poorly explored group of atypical adipocytic neoplasms with spindle cell features, for which recently the term atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumor (ASLT) has been proposed, remains challenging. Recent studies have proposed ASLT as a unique entity with (in at least a significant subset of cases) a specific genetic background, namely deletions/losses of 13q14, including RB1 and its flanking genes RCBTB2, DLEU1, and ITM2B. Similar genetic aberrations have been reported in pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLSs). This prompted us to investigate a series of 21 low-grade adipocytic neoplasms with a pleomorphic lipoma-like appearance, but with atypical morphologic features (including atypical spindle cells, pleomorphic [multinucleated] cells, pleomorphic lipoblasts and poor circumscription), for which we propose the term "atypical" pleomorphic lipomatous tumor (APLT). Five cases of PLS were also included in this study. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to evaluate genetic changes of 13q14. In addition, array-based comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 4 APLTs and all PLSs. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed consistent loss of RB1 and its flanking gene RCBTB2 in all cases of APLT. This genetic alteration was also present in all PLSs, suggesting genetic overlap, in addition to morphologic overlap, with APLTs. However, array-based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated more complex genetic alterations with more losses and gains in PLSs compared with APLTs. APLTs arose in the subcutis (67%) more frequently than in the deep (subfascial) soft tissues (33%). With a median follow-up of 42 months, recurrences were documented in 2 of 12 APLTs for which a long follow-up was available. Herein, we also demonstrate that APLTs share obvious overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, genetic and clinical characteristics with the recently defined ASLT, suggesting that they are related

  19. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: report of a case with previously undescribed histopathological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Axelsen, R A; Reasbeck, P

    1988-10-01

    A 41-yr-old multiparous woman presented with a discrete breast lump which proved histologically to be an example of granulomatous lobular mastitis. The clinical and histological features were similar to those noted in previous reports. Additional histological features in the present case were an intense mononuclear cell infiltration of lobular and ductal epithelium, associated with nuclear fragments morphologically suggestive of apoptosis. These appearances, which have not previously been described, are illustrated, together with the more classical features of the condition well demonstrated by the present case. The novel histological features noted here suggest that the development of granulomatous lobular mastitis may be at least in part immunologically mediated, and that the cellular infiltrates seen may be a manifestation of cell-mediated destruction of mammary epithelium.

  20. Histomolecular interpretation of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging and spatial segmentation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Günther; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Hauberg-Lotte, Lena; Trede, Dennis; Becker, Michael; Alexandrov, Theodore; von Eggeling, Ferdinand

    2015-07-01

    Despite efforts in localization of key proteins using immunohistochemistry, the complex proteomic composition of pleomorphic adenomas has not yet been characterized. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI imaging) allows label-free and spatially resolved detection of hundreds of proteins directly from tissue sections and of histomorphological regions by finding colocalized molecular signals. Spatial segmentation of MALDI imaging data is an algorithmic method for finding regions of similar proteomic composition as functionally similar regions. We investigated 2 pleomorphic adenomas by applying spatial segmentation to the MALDI imaging data of tissue sections. The spatial segmentation subdivided the tissue in a good accordance with the tissue histology. Numerous molecular signals colocalized with histologically defined tissue regions were found. Our study highlights the cellular transdifferentiation within the pleomorphic adenoma. It could be shown that spatial segmentation of MALDI imaging data is a promising approach in the emerging field of digital histological analysis and characterization of tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the pathology of pleomorphic adenoma in parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, Agnieszka; Kowalczyk, Robert; Lipski, Mariusz; Łapczuk, Joanna; Urasinska, Elzbieta; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) is one of the most common salivary gland tumors. However, molecular mechanisms implicated in its development are not entirely defined. Therefore, the study aimed at definition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) involvement in pleomorphic adenoma pathology, as the AhR controlled gene system was documented to play a role in development of various human tumors. The study was carried out in pleomorphic adenoma and control parotid gland tissues where gene expression of AHR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AhR repressor (AHRR), as well as AhR controlled genes: CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, at mRNA and protein (immunohistochemistry) levels were studied. Functional evaluation of AhR system was evaluated in HSY cells (human parotid gland adenocarcinoma cells) using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as AhR specific inducer. Pleomorphic adenoma specimens showed cytoplasmic and nuclear AhR expression in epithelial cells as well as in mesenchymal cells. In parotid gland AhR was expressed in cytoplasm of duct cells. Quantitative expression at mRNA level showed significantly higher expression of AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1, and comparable levels of CYP1A1 in pleomorphic adenoma tissue in comparison to healthy parotid gland. The HSY cell study revealed significantly higher expression level of AHRR in HSY as compared with MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line used as reference). Upon TCDD stimulation a drop in AHRR level in HSY cells and an increase in MCF-7 cells were observed. The HSY and MCF-7 cell proliferation rate (measured by WST-1 test) was not affected by TCDD. Summarizing both in vitro and in vivo observations it can be stated that AhR system may play a role in the pathology of pleomorphic adenoma. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Primary dermal pleomorphic liposarcoma: utility of adipophilin and MDM2/CDK4 immunostainings.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bellver, Jose L; López, Joaquín; Macías, Elena; Alegría-Landa, Victoria; Gimeno, Ignacio; Pérez-Plaza, Alejandra; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Liposarcoma, usually arises in deep soft tissues and pleomorphic liposarcoma (PL), is the rarest histopathologic variant. However, 15 cases of entirely dermal PL have been reported. We describe a case of a 79-year-old man who developed a rapidly growing nodule on his thorax. Excisional biopsy was performed and immunohistochemical studies were carried. The lesion was a well-circumscribed dermal nodule composed of multivacuolated pleomorphic lipoblasts and atypical mitotic figures. Neoplastic cells expressed CD10 and resulted negative S100 protein, Melan-A, MITF-1, AE1/AE3, CD4, CD68 (PGM1), retinoblastoma gene family protein, pericentrine and lysozyme. Adipophilin stain showed the lipid contents in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. MDM2 and CDK4 resulted both negative. A diagnosis of primary dermal PL was made. This case shows the utility of adipophilin immunostaining to prove the lipid contents in neoplastic cells, which has the advantage of using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and making needless frozen sections and ultrastructural studies to show these findings. Negative MDM2/CDK4 staining in our case argues against the possibility of dedifferentiated liposarcoma and further supports the diagnosis of true PL. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Chronic administration of phenytoin and pleomorphic adenoma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Maharshi, Vikas; Nagar, Pravesh

    2017-01-01

    Adverse drug effects that are uncommon or appear only on chronic administration of a drug may not be detected in clinical trials. This explains the need of strict post-marketing vigilance on drug use. Phenytoin administration has been shown in the literature to be associated with development of neoplasia (benign/malignant). In our knowledge current work represents the first case of pleomorphic-adenoma of sub-mandibular salivary gland developed following chronic phenytoin use. A 40 year old male having a history of head trauma twenty years back, had been on tablet phenytoin 100 mg thrice daily since then. One year back he noticed a small swelling in left sub-mandibular region and gradually increasing in size. FNAC and CECT revealed the diagnosis of pleomorphic-adenoma of sub-mandibular salivary gland. Other causes were ruled out. Surgical excision was performed successfully and continuing follow-up with no recurrence at the end of 6 months. Histo-pathogical examination of the tissue did not show any malignant changes.

  4. Scoring nuclear pleomorphism using a visual BoF modulated by a graph structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncayo-Martínez, Ricardo; Romo-Bucheli, David; Arias, Viviana; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear pleomorphism has been recognized as a key histological criterium in breast cancer grading systems (such as Bloom Richardson and Nothingham grading systems). However, the nuclear pleomorphism assessment is subjective and presents high inter-reader variability. Automatic algorithms might facilitate quantitative estimation of nuclear variations in shape and size. Nevertheless, the automatic segmentation of the nuclei is difficult and still and open research problem. This paper presents a method using a bag of multi-scale visual features, modulated by a graph structure, to grade nuclei in breast cancer microscopical fields. This strategy constructs hematoxylin-eosin image patches, each containing a nucleus that is represented by a set of visual words in the BoF. The contribution of each visual word is computed by examining the visual words in an associated graph built when projecting the multi-dimensional BoF to a bi-dimensional plane where local relationships are conserved. The methodology was evaluated using 14 breast cancer cases of the Cancer Genome Atlas database. From these cases, a set of 134 microscopical fields was extracted, and under a leave-one-out validation scheme, an average F-score of 0.68 was obtained.

  5. Occult bilateral invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presenting as gastroduodenal metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zuhair, Abu-Rahmeh; Maron, Abu-Rahmeh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, after malignant melanoma, is the most common cancer metastasizing to the gastrointestinal tract [1,4]. Isolated gastrointestinal metastasis from breast cancer is a quite rare finding. We describe a female patient with a gastric metastasis from an undiagnosed breast cancer who presented to gastroenterology department with a symptoms of abdominal pain.

  6. Vacuum-assisted biopsy and steroid therapy for granulomatous lobular mastitis: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Sayaka; Yamaguchi, Junzo; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Maeda, Shigeto; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We report the cases of three patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM), who were treated successfully with low-dose steroid therapy. Furthermore, the findings of our review of 271 patients reported in the literature suggest that steroid therapy is the treatment of choice for GLM.

  7. Vascular Pattern Analysis on Microvascular Sonography for Differentiation of Pleomorphic Adenomas and Warthin Tumors of Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Inseon; Suh, Sangil; Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk; Seol, Hae Young; Woo, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Soo Chin

    2018-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors are the most common salivary gland tumors. It is important to differentiate between them because at least a partial parotidectomy is necessary for pleomorphic adenomas, whereas enucleation is sufficient for Warthin tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of vascular pattern analysis using microvascular sonography to differentiate between the tumors. Sixty-two patients with pathologically proven pleomorphic adenomas (n = 38) and Warthin tumors (n = 24) were included. For all tumors, grayscale, power Doppler, and microvascular sonographic examinations were performed. Differences in vascular patterns (vascular distribution and internal vascularity) on power Doppler and microvascular sonography as well as grayscale sonographic features (size, shape, border, echogenicity, heterogeneity, and cystic change) between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumors were evaluated. A comparison of diagnostic performances of grayscale sonography with power Doppler sonography and grayscale sonography with microvascular sonography was performed. The level of interobserver agreement between 2 reviewers in diagnosing tumors was evaluated. No grayscale sonographic features showed a significant difference between the tumors. Vascular distributions and internal vascularity on power Doppler sonography (P = .01 and .002) and microvascular sonography (both P < .001) were all significantly different. The diagnostic accuracy of grayscale sonography with microvascular sonography (79.0%) was higher than that of grayscale sonography with power Doppler sonography (72.6%). This difference was significant according to the McNemar test (P = .004). Interobserver agreement was excellent in diagnosing tumors on both grayscale sonography with power Doppler sonography (κ = 0.83) and grayscale sonography with microvascular sonography (κ = 0.94). Vascular pattern analysis using microvascular sonography with other sonographic

  8. MFH classification: differentiating undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Matushansky, Igor; Charytonowicz, Elizabeth; Mills, Joslyn; Siddiqi, Sara; Hricik, Todd; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The essence and origin of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) have been debated for now close to five decades. Originally characterized as a morphologically unique soft-tissue sarcoma subtype of unclear etiology in 1963, with a following 15 years of research only to conclude that "the issue of histogenesis [of MFH] is largely unresolvable"; it is "now regarded as synonymous with [high grade] undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and essentially represents a diagnosis of exclusion". Yet despite this apparent lack of progress, the first decade of the 21st century has seen some significant progress in terms of defining the origins of MFH. Perhaps more importantly these origins might also pave the way for novel therapies. This manuscript will highlight MFH's troubled history, discuss recent advances, and comment as to what the coming years may promise and what further needs to be done to make sure that progress continues.

  9. Transnasal endoscopic resection of a nasopharyngeal pleomorphic adenoma: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Capoccioni, Gabriel; Martín-Martín, Carlos; Espinosa-Restrepo, Federico

    2012-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, but rarely found in the nasopharynx. A PA originating from the left lateral wall of the nasopharynx was found in a 52-year-old female who presented with nasal obstruction, left-side otalgia, aural fullness, tinnitus and subjective hearing loss. It was successfully removed by transnasal endoscopic surgery (TES) and navigator system assessed our location, due to the proximity of critical anatomic structures such as the left internal carotid. We believe that the TES for primary and recurrent nasopharyngeal benign tumors is feasible and safe in properly selected patients, due to superior functional and cosmetic results and a low complication rate. Tumor characteristics and location should be taken into account when selecting cases for the right procedure for this lesions; transnasal endoscopic surgery is safe and preferable, carrying less potential morbidity compared to open procedures.

  10. Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov., a radiation-resistant pleomorphic bacterium isolated from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2006-01-01

    A radiation-resistant, Gram-negative and pleomorphic bacterium (CON-1) was isolated from a contaminated tryptone glucose yeast extract agar plate in the laboratory. It was red pigmented, nonmotile, nonsporulating, and aerobic, and contained MK-8 as respiratory quinone. The cell wall of this bacterium contained ornithine. The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:1 and iso C18:0. The DNA of CON-1 had a G+C content of 70 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that CON-1 exhibited a maximum similarity (94.72%) with Deinococcus grandis. Based on the genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the bacterium CON-1 was identified as a new species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus mumbaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of D. mumbaiensis is CON-1 (MTCC 7297(T)=DSM 17424(T)).

  11. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and loss of ATRX are frequent events in pleomorphic and dedifferentiated liposarcomas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

    2015-08-01

    Telomerase activation and alternative lengthening of telomeres are two major mechanisms of telomere length maintenance. Soft tissue sarcomas appear to use the alternative lengthening of telomeres more frequently. Loss of α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated protein 6 (DAXX) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alternative telomere lengthening in pancreatic endocrine neoplasm and glioma. The mechanism leading to the alternative lengthening of telomeres in liposarcoma remains unknown. Whereas alternative telomere lengthening was determined to be an indicator of poor prognosis in liposarcomas as a whole, its prognostic power has not been verified in any subtype of liposarcoma. In this study, we characterized the status of alternative telomere lengthening and expression of ATRX and DAXX in 111 liposarcomas (28 well-differentiated, 52 dedifferentiated, 20 myxoid or round cell, and 11 pleomorphic liposarcomas) by telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Alternative lengthening of telomere was observed in 0% (0/16) of well-differentiated, 30% (14/46) of dedifferentiated, 5% (1/19) of myxoid or round cell, and 80% (8/10) of pleomorphic liposarcomas. Eighteen (16%) and one (1%) tumors were negative for ATRX and DAXX immunostaining, respectively. Remarkably, all cases with loss of either ATRX or DAXX expression had alternative lengthening of telomeres, and 83% (19/23) of tumors that had alternative lengthening of telomeres showed loss of either protein. The correlation between loss of either ATRX or DAXX and alternative telomere lengthening was 100% in dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The presence of alternative telomere lengthening in dedifferentiated liposarcoma suggested poor overall survival (hazard ratio=1.954, P=0.077) and was the most significant indicator of short progression-free survival (hazard ratio=3.119, P=0.003). In conclusion, we found that ATRX loss was

  12. Atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma harbor frequent NOTCH1/2 and FAT1 mutations and similar DNA copy number alteration profiles.

    PubMed

    Griewank, Klaus G; Wiesner, Thomas; Murali, Rajmohan; Pischler, Carina; Müller, Hansgeorg; Koelsche, Christian; Möller, Inga; Franklin, Cindy; Cosgarea, Ioana; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schaller, Jörg; Horn, Susanne; Brenn, Thomas; Mentzel, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas are tumors arising in sun-damaged skin of elderly patients. They have differing prognoses and are currently distinguished using histological criteria, such as invasion of deeper tissue structures, necrosis and lymphovascular or perineural invasion. To investigate the as-yet poorly understood genetics of these tumors, 41 atypical fibroxanthomas and 40 pleomorphic dermal sarcomas were subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing approaches as well as DNA copy number analysis by comparative genomic hybridization. In an analysis of the entire coding region of 341 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in 13 atypical fibroxanthomas using an established hybridization-based next-generation sequencing approach, we found that these tumors harbor a large number of mutations. Gene alterations were identified in more than half of the analyzed samples in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter. The presence of these alterations was verified in 26 atypical fibroxanthoma and 35 pleomorphic dermal sarcoma samples by targeted amplicon-based next-generation sequencing. Similar mutation profiles in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter were identified in both atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. Activating RAS mutations (G12 and G13) identified in 3 pleomorphic dermal sarcoma were not found in atypical fibroxanthoma. Comprehensive DNA copy number analysis demonstrated a wide array of different copy number gains and losses, with similar profiles in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma. In summary, atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma are highly mutated tumors with recurrent mutations in FAT1, NOTCH1/2, CDKN2A, TP53, and the TERT promoter, and a range of DNA copy number alterations. These findings suggest that atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas are genetically related, potentially representing two ends of a common tumor spectrum

  13. Granulomatous lobular mastitis. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Newnham, M S; Shirley, S E; McDonald, A H

    2001-09-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare, benign, inflammatory breast condition of unknown aetiology that can clinically mimic breast cancer. Awareness of this condition is important, as the appropriate specimens must be taken to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out an infectious aetiology. While surgical excision has been the traditional therapeutic modality, the most appropriate therapy seems to involve the use of corticosteroids, even in the case of recurrence.

  14. Is surgical excision necessary for the treatment of Granulomatous lobular mastitis?

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Duck; Park, Sung Su; Song, Young Jin; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-07-24

    We aimed to investigate the role of surgical excision in treating granulomatous lobular mastitis. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with granulomatous lobular mastitis treated from March 2008 to March 2014. We analyzed clinical features and therapeutic modalities and compared the patient outcomes based on treatment. During the study period, a total of 34 patients were diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis and treated. Initial treatments included wide excision (18), oral steroids after incision and drainage (14), and antibiotic therapy (2). The patients receiving only antibiotic therapy showed no improvement after 1 month and wide excision was then performed. Wide excision resulted in nine case of delayed wound healing with fistula. These patients were treated with oral steroids for 1.5-5 months, with subsequent improvement. Overall, 11 out of 20 patients who had underwent wide excision showed improvement without additional treatment. Fourteen patients who had initially received oral steroids for 1 to 6 months (average, 2.8 months) after incision and drainage showed complete remission. During the median follow-up period with 45.5 months (range, 22-98 months), six patients (17.6%) experienced recurrence. Wide excision group experienced recurrence in five (25%) and steroid and drainage group experienced recurrence in one (7.1%). All six recurrences responded to additional steroid therapy for average 3.5 months. Most wide excision group left extensive breast scarring with deformation that was not in steroid and drainage group. Wide excision resulted high recurrence than steroid and drainage group and left extensive scarring. Steroid therapy with or without abscess drainage may be the first choice of treatment for majority cases with granulomatous lobular mastitis.

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma of the accessory parotid gland: case report and reappraisal of intraoral extracapsular dissection for management.

    PubMed

    Tsegga, Tibebu M; Britt, Jennifer D; Ellwanger, Aragon R

    2015-03-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumor of the major and minor salivary glands. Rarely is it found evolving from an ectopic location of major salivary glandular tissue in the mid cheek. A healthy 56-year-old woman presented to our institution with a 20-year duration of a slowly growing right cheek soft tissue mass that was causing facial asymmetry. No significant functional or neurosensory dysfunction was appreciated. Radiologic examination showed a heterogeneous, hyperintense, well-delineated mass within the region of the right buccal fat pad. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy showed benign salivary gland elements consistent with pleomorphic adenoma. The decision was made to perform intraoral extracapsular dissection for removal. Discussion of the clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with an emphasis on intraoral extracapsular dissection for definitive surgical therapy of longstanding benign salivary gland tumors is emphasized. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated atypical lobular hyperplasia: a previously unrecognized association with management implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Huo, Lei; Arribas, Elsa; Middleton, Lavinia P

    2015-02-01

    Adenomyoepitheliomas of breast are rare tumors. We report for the first time a case of an adenomyoepithelioma of the breast with associated lobular neoplasia. A 53-year-old woman had an annual screening mammogram, which identified areas of asymmetry in her left breast at 4-5-o'clock position. Resection of the masses revealed a well-circumscribed, gray-white, firm discrete nodule (0.8 × 0.4 × 0.3 cm). The tumor was composed of both adenomyoepithelial cell hyperplasia and focal atypical lobular hyperplasia. The 2 cell populations had some overlapping histologic features. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a biphasic proliferation with approximately equal parts of luminal epithelial cells with clear and rounded appearance and myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial component of the proliferation expressed myosin, p63, CK5/6, S-100, and dimly expressed E-cadherin. The epithelial component of the proliferation strongly expressed E-cadherin. In the areas of atypical lobular hyperplasia, there was distinct loss E-cadherin expression. Awareness of this association is highly important to provide these patients adequate follow-up and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel method for morphological pleomorphism and heterogeneity quantitative measurement: Named cell feature level co-occurrence matrix.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Numata, Yasushi; Hamada, Takuya; Horisawa, Tomoyoshi; Cosatto, Eric; Graf, Hans-Peter; Kuroda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular pathology and genetic/epigenetic analysis of cancer tissue have resulted in a marked increase in objective and measurable data. In comparison, the traditional morphological analysis approach to pathology diagnosis, which can connect these molecular data and clinical diagnosis, is still mostly subjective. Even though the advent and popularization of digital pathology has provided a boost to computer-aided diagnosis, some important pathological concepts still remain largely non-quantitative and their associated data measurements depend on the pathologist's sense and experience. Such features include pleomorphism and heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a method for the objective measurement of pleomorphism and heterogeneity, using the cell-level co-occurrence matrix. Our method is based on the widely used Gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), where relations between neighboring pixel intensity levels are captured into a co-occurrence matrix, followed by the application of analysis functions such as Haralick features. In the pathological tissue image, through image processing techniques, each nucleus can be measured and each nucleus has its own measureable features like nucleus size, roundness, contour length, intra-nucleus texture data (GLCM is one of the methods). In GLCM each nucleus in the tissue image corresponds to one pixel. In this approach the most important point is how to define the neighborhood of each nucleus. We define three types of neighborhoods of a nucleus, then create the co-occurrence matrix and apply Haralick feature functions. In each image pleomorphism and heterogeneity are then determined quantitatively. For our method, one pixel corresponds to one nucleus feature, and we therefore named our method Cell Feature Level Co-occurrence Matrix (CFLCM). We tested this method for several nucleus features. CFLCM is showed as a useful quantitative method for pleomorphism and heterogeneity on histopathological image

  18. CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusions were not detected in metaplastic Warthin tumor and metaplastic pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Vanecek, Tomas; Simpson, Roderick H W; Vazmitsel, Marina A; Majewska, Hanna; Mukensnabl, Petr; Hauer, Lukas; Andrle, Pavel; Hosticka, Lubor; Grossmann, Petr; Michal, Michal

    2013-11-01

    The recurrent translocations t(11;19) and t(11;15) resulting in CRTC1-MAML2 or CRTC3-MAML2 fusion oncogenes, respectively, are identified in a large proportion of mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the salivary gland and have impact on prognosis. However, there are conflicting data on the specificity of this translocation, in particular, on its putative occurrence in Warthin tumor (WT) of the parotid gland as reported in few previous cases. It was speculated that extensive squamous metaplasia could explain the presence of t(11;19) translocation in a subset of WTs. We evaluated 76 salivary gland tumors, including 16 cases of metaplastic WT and 8 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) with squamous and/or mucinous metaplasia, extensive enough morphologically to mimic MEC. Detection of CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts and MAML2 gene break was performed using nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively. None of 16 analyzed metaplastic WTs showed positivity for fusion transcripts CRTC1-MAML2 or CRTC3-MAML2, and none showed rearrangement of the MAML2 gene by FISH. Similarly, we did not detect these transcripts or break of MAML2 gene in any case of PA with extensive squamous/mucinous metaplasia. For comparison, 40 cases of low-grade MEC were also evaluated. CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts were detected in 17 and 5 cases, respectively. The FISH method using break-apart probe demonstrated the MAML2 gene rearrangement in 25 cases of low-grade MEC. In contrast to low-grade MEC, neither metaplastic WTs nor metaplastic PAs harbored translocations t(11;19) and anticipated t(11;15) resulting in CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 fusion transcripts, respectively, and/or MAML2 gene rearrangement.

  19. Adrenocortical neoplasia: evolving concepts in tumorigenesis with an emphasis on adrenal cortical carcinoma variants.

    PubMed

    de Krijger, Ronald R; Papathomas, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, heterogeneous malignancy with a poor prognosis. According to WHO classification 2004, ACC variants include oncocytic ACCs, myxoid ACCs and ACCs with sarcomatous areas. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of these rare subtypes of adrenocortical malignancy and emphasize their clinicopathological features with the aim of elucidating aspects of diagnostic categorization, differential diagnostics and biological behavior. The issue of current terminology, applied to biphasic tumors with pleomorphic, sarcomatous or sarcomatoid elements arising in adrenal cortex, is also discussed. We additionally present emerging evidence concerning the adrenal cortical tumorigenesis and the putative adenoma-carcinoma sequence as well.

  20. Basaloid large cell lung carcinoma presenting as cutaneous metastasis at the colostomy site after abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Marco, Vicente; García-García, José Angel; Roig-Vila, José Vicente

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of a tumor at the colostomy site after abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma is rare and it may be related to a previously resected carcinoma or another primary tumor. We report a 61-year-old man who developed an ulcerated skin nodule at her colostomy site 6 years after resection of a rectal adenocarcinoma. Histopathologically, the skin nodule was composed of atypical large and pleomorphic cells with high mitotic rate and they were arranged in nests and within lymphatic channels in the dermis. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK7, CK34ßE12, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin while detection of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA was negative. A diagnosis of basaloid large cell carcinoma of pulmonary origin was suggested and it was confirmed by computed tomography-guided fine needle aspiration of a right subpleural mass. A metastatic tumor at the colostomy site is an exceptional finding and may be the first manifestation of lung cancer, especially if it consist of pleomorphic large cells with high mitotic rate and basaloid immunophenotype. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The evolution of the histology in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas in children: a study of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangru; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Ng, Jessica; Ashley, David; Chow, C W

    2011-01-01

    To review the clinicopathological spectrum and evolution of the histology of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) seen at a single children's hospital. PXAs were selected from the Royal Children's Hospital archives over 30 years. The clinical features and pathology were reviewed, specifically checking the histological variation between areas, and the changes between biopsies. Fifteen patients were identified. Ten had repeat biopsies. Eleven patients did not show histological features of anaplasia. Of these eleven, three did not show the characteristic histological features, which developed 3 and 11 years later in repeat biopsies in two. Seven showed uncommon potentially confusing histology. One died, one had stable disease and one had progressive disease. Three with incomplete initial surgery remained in complete remission following more surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy when the tumours progressed, up to 11 years later. Four patients did show anaplasia, with abrupt change from typical PXA in two, and years following initial biopsy in one. Of these four patients, three died, one with extensive metastasis. PXA should be considered in superficial cerebral tumours composed only of compact bundles of glial fibrillary acidic protein positive spindle cells with inconspicuous mitosis, even when the highly characteristic features of this tumour are not seen. The prominent variation in histology makes small biopsies difficult for diagnosis and assessing anaplasia. Patients with non-anaplastic tumours can often be salvaged by more treatment for tumour progression.

  2. MYC gene amplification is a rare event in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Marisa; Kind, Peter; Helbig, Doris; Quaas, Alexander; Utikal, Jochen; Marx, Alexander; Gaiser, Maria Rita

    2018-01-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) are rare malignancies typically occurring in elderly patients and predominantly located in skin regions exposed to UV-light. Thus, a role of UV-radiation-induced damage for AFX and PDS tumorigenesis has been postulated. MYC gene amplification has been demonstrated as a distinctive feature of radiation-induced angiosarcoma. In order to investigate whether chronic exposure to UV-light might also lead to MYC copy number changes, 51 AFX and 24 PDS samples were retrospectively analyzed for MYC amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a MYC and a CEP8 gene probe. Of the 44 analyzable AFX samples, one case showed MYC amplification (defined as a MYC/CEP8 ratio ≥2.0), whereas 13 cases demonstrated low level copy number gains (defined as MYC/CEP8 ratio ≥ 1.2−< 2.0). MYC amplification was seen in an AFX sample of extraordinary tumor thickness of 17.5 mm (vs. median 3.25 mm for all samples). Of the 24 PDS cases, five specimen demonstrated MYC low level copy number gains. Immunohistochemically, neither the AFX nor the PDS cases showed MYC protein expression. In summary, these findings rule out that MYC amplification is a major genetic driver in the process of AFX or PDS tumorigenesis. However, MYC amplification may occur as a late event during AFX development and hence might only be detectable in advanced, thick lesions. PMID:29765529

  3. MYC gene amplification is a rare event in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Timo; Hirsch, Daniela; Orouji, Azadeh; Bach, Marisa; Kind, Peter; Helbig, Doris; Quaas, Alexander; Utikal, Jochen; Marx, Alexander; Gaiser, Maria Rita

    2018-04-20

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) are rare malignancies typically occurring in elderly patients and predominantly located in skin regions exposed to UV-light. Thus, a role of UV-radiation-induced damage for AFX and PDS tumorigenesis has been postulated. MYC gene amplification has been demonstrated as a distinctive feature of radiation-induced angiosarcoma. In order to investigate whether chronic exposure to UV-light might also lead to MYC copy number changes, 51 AFX and 24 PDS samples were retrospectively analyzed for MYC amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a MYC and a CEP8 gene probe. Of the 44 analyzable AFX samples, one case showed MYC amplification (defined as a MYC /CEP8 ratio ≥2.0), whereas 13 cases demonstrated low level copy number gains (defined as MYC /CEP8 ratio ≥ 1.2-< 2.0). MYC amplification was seen in an AFX sample of extraordinary tumor thickness of 17.5 mm (vs. median 3.25 mm for all samples). Of the 24 PDS cases, five specimen demonstrated MYC low level copy number gains. Immunohistochemically, neither the AFX nor the PDS cases showed MYC protein expression. In summary, these findings rule out that MYC amplification is a major genetic driver in the process of AFX or PDS tumorigenesis. However, MYC amplification may occur as a late event during AFX development and hence might only be detectable in advanced, thick lesions.

  4. Non-lethal Clostridium sordellii bacteraemia in an immunocompromised patient with pleomorphic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bonnecaze, Alex K; Stephens, Sarah Ellen Elza; Miller, Peter John

    2016-08-03

    Clostridium sordellii is a spore-forming anaerobic Gram-positive rod that has rarely been reported to cause disease in humans. Resultant mortality from infection is estimated at nearly 70% and is most often correlated with gynaecological procedures, intravenous drug abuse or trauma. C. sordellii infection often presents similarly to toxic shock syndrome (TSS); notable features of infection include refractory hypotension, haemoconcentration and marked leucocytosis. Although clinically similar to TSS, a notable difference is C. sordellii infections rarely involve fever. The organism's major toxins include haemorrhagic (TcsH) and lethal factor (TcsL), which function to disrupt cytoskeletal integrity. Current literature suggests treating C. sordelli infection with a broad-spectrum penicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin. We present a case of C. sordellii bacteraemia and septic shock in an immunocompromised patient who was recently diagnosed with pleomorphic gluteal sarcoma. Despite presenting in critical condition, the patient improved after aggressive hemodynamic resuscitation, source control and intravenous antibiotic therapy. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Primary Culture of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma: Molecular Characterization and Response to Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Recine, Federica; Mercatali, Laura; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Spadazzi, Chiara; Liverani, Chiara; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Pieri, Federica; Casadei, Roberto; Riva, Nada; Fausti, Valentina; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is an aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm with no specific line of differentiation. Eribulin, a novel synthetic microtubule inhibitor, has shown anticancer activity in several tumors, including soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We investigated the molecular biology of UPS, and the mechanisms of action of this innovative microtubule-depolymerizing drug. A primary culture from a patient with UPS was established and characterized in terms of gene expression. The activity of eribulin was also compared with that of other drugs currently used for STS treatment, including trabectedin. Finally, Western blot analysis was performed to better elucidate the activity of eribulin. Our results showed an upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related genes, and a downregulation of epithelial markers. Furthermore, genes involved in chemoresistance were upregulated. Pharmacological analysis confirmed limited sensitivity to chemotherapy. Interestingly, eribulin exhibited a similar activity to that of standard treatments. Molecular analysis revealed the expression of cell cycle arrest-related and pro-apoptotic-related proteins. These findings are suggestive of aggressive behavior in UPS. Furthermore, the identification of chemoresistance-related genes could facilitate the development of innovative drugs to improve patient outcome. Overall, the results from the present study furnish a rationale for elucidating the role of eribulin for the treatment of UPS. PMID:29292724

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma cells vary in their susceptibility to SV40 transformation depending on the initial karyotype.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Thode, B; Bartnitzke, S; Bullerdiek, J; Schloot, W

    1992-07-01

    Chromosomal aberrations involving 8q12 or 12q13-15 characterize two cytogenetic subgroups of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. As the tumors of the two groups differ in their clinical and histologic characteristics, we decided to determine their susceptibility to SV40 transformation. We transfected cell cultures from 13 adenomas with aberrations involving 8q12 and from seven adenomas with involvement of 12q13-15 using an SV40 plasmid coding for the early region of the viral genome. Whereas all cultures with aberrations of 12q13-15 showed transformed foci, only 4 of the 13 cultures with 8q12 abnormalities showed foci of transformed cells. We also observed a much higher immortalization rate in the first group (3/7 vs. 1/13). All successfully transformed tumor cell cultures showed a relatively stable karyotype in the pre-crisis stage and a high mitotic index, were T-antigen positive, and had an extended life span in vitro.

  7. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    PubMed

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p < 0.001) and to have marked intensity than were ILC foci (63% IDC vs 32% ILC; p < 0.001). Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging correctly revealed all pathology-proven foci of invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p < 0.0001). Overall, direct-conversion molecular breast imaging showed all known invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular

  8. Colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Kazuma; Teruya, Tsuyoshi; Kiyuna, Masaya; Higa, Kuniki; Higa, Junko; Iha, Kouji; Chinen, Kiyoshi; Asato, Masaya; Takushi, Yasukatsu; Ota, Morihito; Dakeshita, Eijirou; Nakachi, Atsushi; Gakiya, Akira; Shiroma, Hiroshi

    2017-07-05

    Colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma is very rare. Here, we report a case of colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma. The patient was a 51-year-old woman. She had upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, repeatedly. We performed abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) to investigate these symptoms. The CT scan revealed a tumor in the ascending colon with contrast enhancement and showed an expanded small intestine. For further investigation of this tumor, we performed whole positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). The PET-CT scan revealed fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the ascending colon, mesentery, left breast, and left axillary region. Analysis of biopsy samples obtained during colonoscopy revealed signet ring cell-like carcinoma. Moreover, biopsy of the breast tumor revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Therefore, the preoperative diagnosis was colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma. Open ileocecal resection was performed. The final diagnosis was multiple metastatic breast carcinomas, and the TNM classification was T2N1M1 Stage IV. We presented a rare case of colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma. PET-CT may be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer. When analysis of biopsy samples obtained during colonoscopy reveals signet ring cell-like carcinoma, the possibility of breast cancer as the primary tumor should be considered.

  9. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gong; Laskin, William B; Chou, Pauline M; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2015-05-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm, characterized by complete or partial composition by undifferentiated cells. We report a case of ATC with rhabdoid features in a 68-year-old male, who presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid mass showed discohesive, pleomorphic round to polygonal rhabdoid cells with one to multiple eccentric, large, rounded nuclei with a prominent nucleolus, moderate to abundant, globoid cytoplasm which oftentimes harbor a pale para-nuclear inclusion. The cytoplasm of some cells contained variously sized, eosinophilic granules. Rare cells contained neutrophils in their cytoplasm. Mitoses including atypical mitotic figures and necrosis were readily seen. Histologic examination of needle core biopsy (NCB) revealed individual dispersed and sheets of pleomorphic neoplastic cells with similar cytomorphologic features as described above. The tumor extensively infiltrated a myxocollagenous stroma containing lymphocytes and neutrophils, and demonstrated foci of necrosis. Tumor cells were immunoreactive for keratins AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, and CK19; PAX-8, and p63, but negative for S-100, HMB-45, calcitonin, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, CD56, HBME-1, glypican-3, PAX-5, myogenin, CD31, and INI-1. The differential diagnosis of this malignant rhabdoid tumor is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Primary pure spindle cell carcinoma (sarcomatoid carcinoma) of the ovary: A case report with immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Giovanna; Berretta, Roberto; Silini, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In the ovary, sarcomatoid carcinoma has been reported only as mural nodules in epithelial malignant or borderline serous or mucinous cystic neoplasms, and in teratomas. In this paper we report a rare case of a solid sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ovary, without accompanying component of giant cells, pleomorphic cells, or glandular and other epithelial structures. This case report refers to a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ovary in in a 57 year-old woman with abdominal pain. Macroscopically, the neoplasm was a 15x10x5 cm ovarian mass that featured gray white solid fleshy areas, interspersed with areas of necrosis, hemorrhage and cystic spaces filled with thick fluid. The epithelial differentiation of the tumor was demonstrated by strong and diffuse reactivity to CAM5.2 and focal immunoreactivity to EMA. A diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal tumor was excluded due to negativity for desmin, smooth muscle actin, caldesmon, CD34, CD10, and myoglobin. Neural, neuroendocrine neoplasm, melanoma and Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor (PEComa) were excluded because of negativity for S100, chromogranin, synaptophysin and HMB45. Primary ovarian spindle cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid ovarian mass with spindle cell appearance. This case adds to our knowledge of the biological behavior of these rare neoplasms. The distinction from true sarcomas and carcinosarcomas is important because of the more favorable prognosis of the spindle cell carcinomas. However their diagnosis necessitates a careful tissue sampling and immunohistochemical staining.

  11. Usefulness of a Novel Ultrasonographic Classification Based on Anechoic Area Patterns for Differentiating Warthin Tumors from Pleomorphic Adenomas of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Eriko; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Donishi, Ryohei; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2018-01-01

    Background Ultrasonographic homogeneity is an important differential finding between Warthin tumor and pleomorphic adenoma, two types of benign parotid gland tumors, with the former likely to be heterogeneous and the latter homogeneous. However, differences in the performance of ultrasound machines or the homogeneity cut-off level affect the judgment of ultrasonographic homogeneity. Therefore, in this study, we adopted a novel system for classifying the composition of tumors via ultrasonography, using anechoic area as a substitute for differences in homogeneity to differentiate between Warthin tumors and pleomorphic adenomas. Methods We evaluated 68 tumors that were histopathologically diagnosed as Warthin tumor or pleomorphic adenoma between July 2009 and November 2015. Ultrasonographic images of the tumors were evaluated on the basis of key differentiating features, including features on B-mode imaging and color Doppler imaging. Additionally, the tumors were classified into four groups based on anechoic area, and findings were compared between Warthin tumors and pleomorphic adenomas. Results While 38 of the tumors were pleomorphic adenomas, 30 were Warthin tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy for detection of Warthin tumors using our novel classification system were 73.3%, 76.3%, 71.0%, 78.4% and 75.0%, respectively. Compared to pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin tumors showed large or sponge-like anechoic areas, rich vascularization and an oval shape even at large tumor sizes, and the difference was significant. On defining Warthin tumor as a tumor demonstrating two or more of the findings noted above, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for its detection were 73.3%, 84.2%, 78.6%, 80.0% and 79.4%, respectively. Conclusion Our novel classification system based on anechoic area patterns demonstrated by the tumors had high

  12. Usefulness of a Novel Ultrasonographic Classification Based on Anechoic Area Patterns for Differentiating Warthin Tumors from Pleomorphic Adenomas of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Eriko; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Donishi, Ryohei; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki; Hirooka, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonographic homogeneity is an important differential finding between Warthin tumor and pleomorphic adenoma, two types of benign parotid gland tumors, with the former likely to be heterogeneous and the latter homogeneous. However, differences in the performance of ultrasound machines or the homogeneity cut-off level affect the judgment of ultrasonographic homogeneity. Therefore, in this study, we adopted a novel system for classifying the composition of tumors via ultrasonography, using anechoic area as a substitute for differences in homogeneity to differentiate between Warthin tumors and pleomorphic adenomas. We evaluated 68 tumors that were histopathologically diagnosed as Warthin tumor or pleomorphic adenoma between July 2009 and November 2015. Ultrasonographic images of the tumors were evaluated on the basis of key differentiating features, including features on B-mode imaging and color Doppler imaging. Additionally, the tumors were classified into four groups based on anechoic area, and findings were compared between Warthin tumors and pleomorphic adenomas. While 38 of the tumors were pleomorphic adenomas, 30 were Warthin tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy for detection of Warthin tumors using our novel classification system were 73.3%, 76.3%, 71.0%, 78.4% and 75.0%, respectively. Compared to pleomorphic adenomas, Warthin tumors showed large or sponge-like anechoic areas, rich vascularization and an oval shape even at large tumor sizes, and the difference was significant. On defining Warthin tumor as a tumor demonstrating two or more of the findings noted above, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy for its detection were 73.3%, 84.2%, 78.6%, 80.0% and 79.4%, respectively. Our novel classification system based on anechoic area patterns demonstrated by the tumors had high sensitivity, specificity and

  13. [Metastatic breast cancer to the stomach: An uncommon evolution of breast carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hild, C; Talha-Vautravers, A; Hoefler, P; Zirabe, S; Bellocq, J-P; Mathelin, C

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma exceptionally leads to metastatic linitis plastica. Distinguishing a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical and radiological signs is very challenging. Thanks to being cognizant of the previous history of invasive lobular carcinoma and the gastric biopsy followed by immunohistochemical analysis, gastric metastasis can be diagnosed. Despite the use of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, gastric metastasis remains often associated with poor prognosis. We present a case where gastric biopsy allowed a metastatic breast cancer to the stomach to be diagnosed and we discuss its clinical, diagnostic, pathological and therapeutic particularities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: Natural History and Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Ida, Cristiane M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Burger, Peter C; Caron, Alissa A; Jenkins, Sarah M; Spears, Grant M; Aranguren, Dawn L; Lachance, Daniel H; Giannini, Caterina

    2015-09-01

    Prognostic significance of histological anaplasia and BRAF V600E mutation were retrospectively evaluated in 74 patients with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). Median age at diagnosis was 21.5 years (31 pediatric, 43 adult) and median follow-up 7.6 years. Anaplasia (PXA-AF), defined as mitotic index ≥ 5/10 HPF and/or presence of necrosis, was present in 33 cases. BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 39 (of 60) cases by immunohistochemical and/or molecular analysis, all negative for IDH1 (R132H). Mitotic index ≥ 5/10 HPF and necrosis were associated with decreased overall survival (OS; P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0002, respectively). In all cases except two, necrosis was associated with mitotic index ≥ 5/10 HPF. Patients with BRAF V600E mutant tumors had significantly longer OS compared with those without BRAF V600E mutation (P = 0.02). PXA-AF patients, regardless of age, had significantly shorter OS compared with those without (P = 0.0003). Recurrence-free survival was significantly shorter for adult PXA-AF patients (P = 0.047) only. Patients who either recurred or died ≤ 3 years from diagnosis were more likely to have had either PXA-AF at first diagnosis (P = 0.008) or undergone a non-gross total resection procedure (P = 0.004) as compared with patients who did not. This study provides further evidence that PXA-AF behaves more aggressively than PXA and may qualify for WHO grade III "anaplastic" designation. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  15. Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: Natural History and Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Cristiane M.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Burger, Peter C.; Caron, Alissa A.; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Spears, Grant M.; Aranguren, Dawn L.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Giannini, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic significance of histological anaplasia and BRAF V600E mutation were retrospectively evaluated in 74 patients with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). Median age at diagnosis was 21.5 years (31 pediatric, 43 adult) and median follow-up 7.6 years. Anaplasia (PXA-AF), defined as mitotic index ≥ 5/10HPF and/or presence of necrosis, was present in 33 cases. BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 39 (of 60) cases by immunohistochemical and/or molecular analysis, all negative for IDH1 (R132H). Mitotic index ≥ 5/ 10HPF and necrosis were associated with decreased overall survival (OS; P = 0.0005 and P = 0.0002, respectively). In all cases except two, necrosis was associated with mitotic index ≥ 5/10HPF. Patients with BRAF V600E mutant tumors had significantly longer OS compared with those without BRAF V600E mutation (P = 0.02). PXA-AF patients, regardless of age, had significantly shorter OS compared with those without (P = 0.0003). Recurrence-free survival was significantly shorter for adult PXA-AF patients (P = 0.047) only. Patients who either recurred or died ≤3 years from diagnosis were more likely to have had either PXA-AF at first diagnosis (P = 0.008) or undergone a non-gross total resection procedure (P = 0.004) as compared with patients who did not. This study provides further evidence that PXA-AF behaves more aggressively than PXA and may qualify for WHO grade III “anaplastic” designation. PMID:25318587

  16. Nuclear p120-catenin regulates the anoikis resistance of mouse lobular breast cancer cells through Kaiso-dependent Wnt11 expression

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Robert A. H.; Tenhagen, Milou; Meuleman, Wouter; van Riel, Jeske J. G.; Schackmann, Ron C. J.; Derksen, Patrick W. B.

    2015-01-01

    E-cadherin inactivation underpins the progression of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC). In ILC, p120-catenin (p120) translocates to the cytosol where it controls anchorage independence through the Rho-Rock signaling pathway, a key mechanism driving tumor growth and metastasis. We now demonstrate that anchorage-independent ILC cells show an increase in nuclear p120, which results in relief of transcriptional repression by Kaiso. To identify the Kaiso target genes that control anchorage independence we performed genome-wide mRNA profiling on anoikis-resistant mouse ILC cells, and identified 29 candidate target genes, including the established Kaiso target Wnt11. Our data indicate that anchorage-independent upregulation of Wnt11 in ILC cells is controlled by nuclear p120 through inhibition of Kaiso-mediated transcriptional repression. Finally, we show that Wnt11 promotes activation of RhoA, which causes ILC anoikis resistance. Our findings thereby establish a mechanistic link between E-cadherin loss and subsequent control of Rho-driven anoikis resistance through p120- and Kaiso-dependent expression of Wnt11. PMID:25713299

  17. Integrated molecular analysis of Tamoxifen-resistant invasive lobular breast cancer cells identifies MAPK and GRM/mGluR signaling as therapeutic vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Stires, Hillary; Heckler, Mary M; Fu, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhao; Grasso, Catherine S; Quist, Michael J; Lewis, Joseph A; Klimach, Uwe; Zwart, Alan; Mahajan, Akanksha; Győrffy, Balázs; Cavalli, Luciane R; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2018-08-15

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is an understudied malignancy with distinct clinical, pathological, and molecular features that distinguish it from the more common invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Mounting evidence suggests that estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER+) ILC has a poor response to Tamoxifen (TAM), but the mechanistic drivers of this are undefined. In the current work, we comprehensively characterize the SUM44/LCCTam ILC cell model system through integrated analysis of gene expression, copy number, and mutation, with the goal of identifying actionable alterations relevant to clinical ILC that can be co-targeted along with ER to improve treatment outcomes. We show that TAM has several distinct effects on the transcriptome of LCCTam cells, that this resistant cell model has acquired copy number alterations and mutations that impinge on MAPK and metabotropic glutamate receptor (GRM/mGluR) signaling networks, and that pharmacological inhibition of either improves or restores the growth-inhibitory actions of endocrine therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic decidua and metastatic squamous carcinoma: presentation in a single pelvic lymph node.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C J

    1988-06-01

    The presence of ectopic decidua in pelvic lymph nodes from patients with squamous carcinoma of the cervix makes evaluation for metastatic disease difficult due to the light microscopic similarity between decidua and sheets of squamous epithelial cells. A patient is present in whom decidualized endometriosis was intimately associated with metastatic moderately differentiate squamous carcinoma in a single pelvic lymph node. This phenomenon afforded an excellent opportunity to study the unique morphologic features that distinguish these two entities. A prior report of this kind was not found. In the absence of obvious squamous differentiation (i.e., intercellular bridges, dyskeratosis, and keratin "pearl" formation), as is frequently the case with squamous carcinoma of the cervix, the light microscopic features that are most useful in distinguishing squamous carcinoma from decidua include the presence of well-defined nests of cohesive cells, nuclear hyperchromasia, and cellular pleomorphism.

  20. Heterogeneity, histological features and DNA ploidy in oral carcinoma by image-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, N; Sperandio, M; Sherriff, M; Brown, A; Odell, E W

    2005-04-01

    Oral squamous carcinomas appear heterogeneous on DNA ploidy analysis. However, this may be partly a result of sample dilution or the detection limit of techniques. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral squamous carcinomas are heterogeneous for ploidy status using image-based ploidy analysis and to determine whether ploidy status correlates with histological parameters. Multiple samples from 42 oral squamous carcinomas were analysed for DNA ploidy using an image-based system and scored for histological parameters. 22 were uniformly aneuploid, 1 uniformly tetraploid and 3 uniformly diploid. 16 appeared heterogeneous but only 8 appeared to be genuinely heterogeneous when minor ploidy histogram peaks were taken into account. Ploidy was closely related to nuclear pleomorphism but not differentiation. Sample variation, detection limits and diagnostic criteria account for much of the ploidy heterogeneity observed. Confident diagnosis of diploid status in an oral squamous cell carcinoma requires a minimum of 5 samples.

  1. Novel p53 tumour suppressor mutations in cases of spindle cell sarcoma, pleomorphic sarcoma and fibrosarcoma in cats.

    PubMed

    Mayr, B; Reifinger, M; Alton, K; Schaffner, G

    1998-06-01

    Twenty feline neoplasms were sequenced in the region from exons 5 to 8 for the presence of tumour suppressor gene p53 mutations. In a spindle cell sarcoma of the bladder, a missense mutation (codon 164 AAG-->GAG, lysine-->glutamic acid) in exon 5 was detected. In a pleomorphic sarcoma, a 23 bp deletion involving the splicing junction between intron 5 and exon 6 was observed. In a fibrosarcoma, a 6 bp deletion of p53 covering 2 bp of exon 7 and 4 bp of intron 7, including the splicing junction, was found. The study demonstrates three new p53 mutations in different types of sarcomas in cats.

  2. Influence of semi-quantitative oestrogen receptor expression on adjuvant endocrine therapy efficacy in ductal and lobular breast cancer - a TEAM study analysis.

    PubMed

    van de Water, Willemien; Fontein, Duveken B Y; van Nes, Johanna G H; Bartlett, John M S; Hille, Elysée T M; Putter, Hein; Robson, Tammy; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Roumen, Rudi M H; Seynaeve, Caroline; Dirix, Luc Y; Paridaens, Robert; Kranenbarg, Elma Meershoek-Klein; Nortier, Johan W R; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest better efficacy of chemotherapy in invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) than invasive lobular breast carcinomas (ILC). However, data on efficacy of adjuvant endocrine therapy regimens and histological subtypes are sparse. This study assessed endocrine therapy efficacy in IDC and ILC. The influence of semi-quantitative oestrogen receptor (ER) expression by Allred score was also investigated. Dutch and Belgian patients enrolled in the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial were randomized to exemestane (25mg daily) alone or following tamoxifen (20mg daily) for 5 years. Inclusion was restricted to IDC and ILC patients. Histological subtype was assessed locally; ER expression was centrally reviewed according to Allred score (ER-poor (<7; n=235); ER-rich (7; n=1789)). Primary end-point was relapse-free survival (RFS), which was the time from randomization to disease relapse. Overall, 2140 (82%) IDC and 463 (18%) ILC patients were included. RFS was similar for both endocrine treatment regimens in IDC (hazard ratio (HR) for exemestane was 0.83 (95%confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.03)), and ILC (HR 0.69 (95%CI 0.45-1.06)). Irrespective of histological subtype, patients with ER-rich Allred scores allocated to exemestane alone had an improved RFS (multivariable HR 0.71 (95%CI 0.56-0.89)). In contrast, patients with ER-poor Allred scores allocated to exemestane had a worse RFS (multivariable HR 2.33 (95%CI 1.32-4.11)). Significant effect modification by ER-Allred score was confirmed (multivariable p=0.003). Efficacy of endocrine therapy regimens was similar for IDC and ILC. However, ER-rich patients showed superior efficacy to upfront exemestane, while ER-poor patients had better outcomes with sequential therapy, irrespective of histological subtype, emphasising the relevance of quantification of ER expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment modalities and outcomes of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rush, A J; Patel, P D; Shemesh, S; Subhawong, T K; Pretell-Mazzini, J

    2018-02-01

    A systematic review of the cases documented in the literature regarding Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts (PHAT) was performed in order to identify (1) location on presentation (2) surgical treatment modality (3) recurrence rate (4) any associations between location, age, histology, surgery type on recurrence. A systematic review of medical literature listed on PubMed was conducted identifying any prior case report and/or case series of diagnosed PHAT, with no exclusion based on language or time. Twenty-nine articles were identified removing any articles with duplicated cases yielding a total of 93 cases. Cases were broken down by gender, presenting location (UE/LE/axial), surgery type [wide local resection, non-wide local, wide local with radiation therapy (RT), non-wide local with RT], recurrence, and time to recurrence. The mean age at presentation was 54.5 ± 17.1 (range 10-89) with the 76% of cases appearing in the lower extremity (15% UE, 9% Axial). Of the 93 patients, 74 had a known surgical procedure, 31% WL, 40% NWL, 8% WL + RT, 1% NWL + RT. Of those treated surgically, 63 pts had documented follow-up and 18 (29%) had recurrence. A strong association was observed between surgery type and recurrence. Local recurrence was more common within the group undergoing NWLE in 52% (16/41) of cases (p = 0.002). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed an estimate mean time for recurrence of 43.87 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 24.52-63.22; and standard error (SE) 7.59] for the entire population. A trend was also seen toward males having a shorter disease-free survival than females (29.4 mos. vs. 69.5 mos.). No significant association seen between size, location, histology type and recurrence. PHAT has a characteristic presentation in the LE with a relatively high rate of local recurrence and slow-growing potential. Wide local excision appears to be superior in decreasing recurrence rates and a long-term follow-up period is needed.

  4. Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Following Drug-Induced Galactorrhea and Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Szajki, Károly

    1999-11-01

    We report a single case of chronic granulomatous lobular mastitis following metoclopramide-related galactorrhea and a blunt trauma in a young parous woman who underwent two conservative operations before becoming symptom-free. We have found only two other literature cases associated with hyperprolactinemia, and our case could be another of this etiologic group. The absence of well-formed granulomas in the first histology specimen in the present case was misleading; it was reinterpreted as granulomatous mastitis only after the second specimen was examined. Reinterpretation was based on the lobular distribution of a lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate (nonspecific chronic lobulitis) and the presence of epithelioid cell sheets and neutrophils in the absence of well-formed granulomas. The case lends further support to the theory of a local immune response initiated by the secreted material or by one of its components in the formation of granulomas. However, contributory factors such as the trauma in this case (a blow from a shovel handle) or systemic disease in others may play a role in the development of the disease, which in some instances may represent a pattern of tissue reactions to different noxious agents.

  5. Imaging findings in Idiopathic lobular granulomattous mastitis, case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Boarki, K; Labib, M

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastititis is a rare inflammatory disease of the breast. Since the clinical manifestations simulate those of mammary malignancy, it is often misdiagnosed. We report a case in a 25 yrs old Egyptian woman who had presented with complaint of a painful mass in her right breast of 3 months duration. Clinical and radiological examinations were indeterminate of its nature and the diagnosis was established by histopathogical, microbiological and serological tests. Review of relevant literature mention the features of Idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastititis, which impose significant challenge on clinical, radiological and even histopathological diagnosis. These correlate well with our case scenario also. Complete resection of the lesions and/or administration of steroids are usually the recommended treatment, however about 38% patients may experience recurrence. Hence proper post treatment follow up is mandatory. Awareness among the clinicians, radiologists and pathologists about this disease entity is required and multi disciplinary approach is imperative to establish the diagnosis. We hope to convey these facts through this article with the review of relevant literature.

  6. [Shall all lobular intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosed on image-guided biopsy require a surgical management?].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Hunsinger, Maeva; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; Lasry, Serge; Langer, Adriana; Berment, Hélène; Nekka, Ibtissem; Nodiot, Philippe; Cherel, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN) diagnosed on image-guided biopsy may be associated with an undiagnosed cancer. This is called under-diagnosis. The consequence is that management of these lesions is often surgical. But many surgeries finally are unnecessary. The aim of our study was to define criteria to avoid unnecessary surgery. This is a single-center, retrospective after a database collected prospectively study. Fourteen thousand biopsies were analyzed, including 456 diagnosed NLI. Under-diagnosis rates were analyzed according to many criteria. The average duration of following was 45 months. For atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), we obtained 7.6% under-diagnosis and combining several criteria, we got a low risk of cancer (2%). For LCIS, this rate was 23% and any low-risk group could be identified. ALH with calcifications≤20 mm, without any atypical lesion associated, histologically focal and whose removal is representative may be safely observed. For other LIN, surgery remains indicated. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiajie G; Farukhi, M Aabid; Mayeda, Donna; French, Samuel W

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, where tumor cells stain for both hepatocellular and neuroendocrine markers, is extremely rare. We report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a 14-cm rapidly growing mass in the right lobe of his liver with local extension into the gallbladder and portal vein. Serum AFP was 4625ng/mL. Liver biopsy showed a poorly differentiated neoplasm with cells showing nuclear pleomorphism, high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, and numerous mitoses. The tumor cells stain for AFP, glutamine synthase, arginase, and glypican-3. The same tumor regions also stain positively for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. Given this histological pattern, this tumor was ultimately diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: two case reports with focus on radiologic and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Khamapirad, Tuenchit; Hennan, Kimberly; Leonard, Morton; Eltorky, Mahmoud; Qiu, Suimin

    2007-04-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare, benign condition with an unknown etiology that can appear as cancer on mammogram, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. The terminology of GLM was first named by Going et al (J Clin Pathol 1987;40:535-540) in 1987 after he noted the lobule centered distribution on histologic exam. We present 2 case reports of GLM that clinically and radiographically appeared as malignant lesions. The first case was a 31-year-old woman with a 1-month history of breast mass, and the second case was a 33-year-old woman with a 2-week history of breast mass. Both cases were histologically diagnosed as GLM. Retrospectively, we identified ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics that may be used in the future to classify the breast mass before biopsy.

  9. Chronic granulomatous mastitis: review of 26 cases with special reference to chronic lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, C S; Prasad, K R; Rao, G; Kameshwari, R; Saheb, D A; Aruna, C A

    1992-01-01

    Twenty six cases of chronic granulomatous mastitis are reported in a 5 year period and the slides are reviewed. They are sub-classified into Chronic lobular mastitis (CLM), Plasma cell mastitis and subareolar granuloma. There are 10 cases each of CLM and plasma cell mastitis and one of subareolar granuloma. All the three conditions are associated with duct ectasia. Fat necrosis and infective granulomas were 2 each and one of foreign body granuloma. These lesions can be easily differentiated by histology. While most of the CLM occurred in younger age group, plasma cell mastitis is seen in older women. Histologically, there is a florid inflammatory cell reaction of the stroma with dilatation and destruction of some ducts, with microabscess formation. In plasma cell mastitis, the lesion is more chronic with predominance of plasma cells and involutionary changes of the ducts are seen.

  10. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  11. Cerebellar gray matter and lobular volumes correlate with core autism symptoms

    PubMed Central

    D'Mello, Anila M.; Crocetti, Deana; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Stoodley, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroanatomical differences in the cerebellum are among the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but little is known about the relationship between cerebellar dysfunction and core ASD symptoms. The newly-emerging existence of cerebellar sensorimotor and cognitive subregions provides a new framework for interpreting the functional significance of cerebellar findings in ASD. Here we use two complementary analyses — whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the SUIT cerebellar atlas — to investigate cerebellar regional gray matter (GM) and volumetric lobular measurements in 35 children with ASD and 35 typically-developing (TD) children (mean age 10.4 ± 1.6 years; range 8–13 years). To examine the relationships between cerebellar structure and core ASD symptoms, correlations were calculated between scores on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the VBM and volumetric data. Both VBM and the SUIT analyses revealed reduced GM in ASD children in cerebellar lobule VII (Crus I/II). The degree of regional and lobular gray matter reductions in different cerebellar subregions correlated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Structural differences and behavioral correlations converged on right cerebellar Crus I/II, a region which shows structural and functional connectivity with fronto-parietal and default mode networks. These results emphasize the importance of the location within the cerebellum to the potential functional impact of structural differences in ASD, and suggest that GM differences in cerebellar right Crus I/II are associated with the core ASD profile. PMID:25844317

  12. Canine lobular orbital adenoma: a report of 15 cases with distinctive features.

    PubMed

    Headrick, Jason F; Bentley, Ellison; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2004-01-01

    To describe a unique orbital neoplasm in dogs, of lacrimal or salivary gland origin. Fifteen dogs with lesions consistent with a diagnosis of lobular adenomas involving the orbit were identified from the Comparative Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin from 1994 to 2001. The neoplasm occurred in nine females and six males. Affected dogs ranged in age from 7 to 17 years (mean = 9.7 years). Follow-up information was available for 13 of the 15 cases. The clinical presentation included swollen/hyperemic eyelids (4/15), third eyelid protrusion (3/15), conjunctival mass (6/15), exophthalmos (4/15), resistance to retropulsion (2/15), or strabismus (1/15). In 13 cases the masses were composed of nodular, friable tissue and they were solid in two cases. Histologically, the tissue was found in encapsulated lobules resembling well differentiated lacrimal or salivary glands but completely lacking ducts. Granular PAS-positive material was found within the cytoplasm. There was recurrence in 10 of the 13 cases available for follow-up. Of those cases in which enucleation or exenteration was performed (3/15), there was recurrence of disease in one case. In three cases the dogs were euthanized before recurrence at 3 months, 5 months and 3 years post surgery. None of the deaths was related to the tumor. In the 15 cases reviewed, lobular adenomas of the orbit presented clinically and histologically as a benign neoplasm of lacrimal or salivary gland origin. Recurrence was likely unless the mass was completely excised, at times requiring orbital exenteration.

  13. Collision of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Anogenital Mammary-like Glands and Vulvar Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tien A N; Deavers, Michael T; Carlson, J Andrew; Malpica, Anais

    2015-09-01

    A spectrum of invasive adenocarcinomas presumably arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands of the vulva has been reported. Even rarer are the cases of pure ductal carcinoma in situ that originated from these unique glandular structures. Herein, we report an 81-yr-old woman presented with an invasive well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Unexpectedly, the underlying dermis demonstrated a cystically dilated structure that displayed a layer of malignant squamous cells in the periphery, and a second centrally located population of neoplastic cells exhibiting glandular differentiation. In addition, a spindle and pleomorphic malignant cell population consistent with a sarcomatoid carcinoma was identified around the cystic structure. Scattered benign anogenital mammary-like glands were present in the adjacent dermis. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with those of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone sarcomatoid transformation after spreading in a pagetoid fashion into an underlying focus of ductal carcinoma in situ of anogenital mammary-like gland origin.

  14. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Gidley, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy. PMID:25083397

  15. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy.

  16. The incidence of Warthin tumours and pleomorphic adenomas in the parotid gland over a 25-year period.

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Klussmann, J P; Küsgen, C; Beutner, D; Grosheva, M

    2016-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is reported to be the most common benign parotid tumour followed by Warthin tumour (WT), but the proportion of these two entities might have changed. Retrospective file analysis. Tertiary referral head and neck centre. Patients who underwent a parotidectomy within a period of 25 years (1990-2014). Rate of occurrence of PA and WT as well as the development of the PA/WT ratio over the years. Overall, 1818 patients with WT (707, 38.9%) and PA (1111, 61.1%) were identified. There was a dominance of PA over WT in all years. An increase in percentage of WT, from 24% in 1990 to 48% in 2014, in comparison with PA was evident. In our single-institution hospital-based material of parotidectomies, the percentage of WT in comparison with PA has significantly increased over the last 25 years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression is associated with breast atypia-to-carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao-Yun; Fan, Chui-Feng; Wei, Jing; Liu, Cong; Zheng, Hua-Chuan; Yao, Fan; Jin, Feng

    2011-12-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) has been identified as a protein involved in the differentiation of epithelial cells. As a newly metastasis suppressor gene, whether it contributes to carcinogenesis of breast cancer is still unknown. This study aimed to clarify the possible role of NDRG1 for breast cancer carcinogenesis, and further to investigate its clinicopathological significance in invasive breast cancer. We examined the expression of NDRG1 in normal epithelium of breast (n = 35), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 22), atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 33), atypical lobular hyperplasia (n = 8), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 16), lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 6), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 50), and invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 45) by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the correlation between NDRG expression and clinicopathological features of invasive breast cancer. Western blot analysis was carried out to investigate the expression of NDRG1 in 20 invasive ductal breast cancer and the paired non-tumor portion of the same case. NDRG1 expression in invasive breast cancer (70/95, 73.7%) was higher than that in noninvasive breast lesions (29/85, 34.1%; p < 0.05) which was higher than that in normal breast epithelium (5/35, 14.3%; p < 0.05). Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between NDRG1 expression with tumor stage in invasive breast cancer, and its expression in invasive ductal carcinoma is significantly higher than invasive lobular carcinoma (p < 0.05). It was not associated with age, menopausal status, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 protein levels were significantly higher in invasive ductal breast cancer compared to the paired non-tumor portion of the same case by Western blot analysis (p < 0.05). Increased NDRG-1 expression is associated with breast atypia-to-carcinoma progression. NDRG1 expression might participate in the carcinogenesis and progression of invasive

  18. "Sarcomatoid" carcinomas of the lung: a clinicopathological study of 86 cases with a new perspective on tumor classification.

    PubMed

    Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Correa, Arlene M; Moran, Cesar A

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma includes a heterogenous group of tumors difficult to diagnose and treat. We report the clinicopathological features of 86 such tumors, including 74 pleomorphic and 12 spindle cell carcinomas, and propose a novel approach to the classification of these neoplasms in an attempt to better guide patient management. The patients were 47 men and 39 women aged 36 to 87 years (mean, 63 years) who primarily presented with shortness of breath, cough, and chest pain. Eighty-six percent of patients had a smoking history. Histologically, the pleomorphic carcinomas consisted of spindle and/or giant cells with varying proportions of conventional non-small cell carcinoma in the form of adenocarcinoma (n=29), squamous cell carcinoma (n=10), or large cell carcinoma (n=18); 17 cases contained a mix of spindle and giant cells only. The 12 spindle cell carcinomas consisted of spindle cells only. Based on the combined histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of these tumors, we were able to reanalyze the spectrum of these lesions and reclassify them accordingly. Statistical analysis revealed an overall survival at 3, 5, and 10 years of 42.9%, 34.6%, and 23.5%, respectively, and a median survival of 15 months. Log-rank test showed that in multivariate analysis, only pathological T stage was a factor associated with prognosis. The current classification of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas precludes optimal triaging of these tumors with the risk of denying patients access to novel treatment. Our proposal for a reclassification of these tumors would more accurately guide patient management and facilitate targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative clinicopathological and cytomorphological analyses of peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with metastatic breast carcinoma and primary peritoneal/ovarian carcinoma in patients with a history of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Na, Kiyong; Lee, Jung-Yun; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Gun Min; Koo, Ja Seung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2018-06-20

    Causes of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in patients with a history of breast carcinoma include both metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) and primary peritoneal/ovarian carcinoma (PPOC). The origin of PC is important to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid (PF), which may be the first diagnostic approach to PC, is of distinct value in confirming the presence of malignant cells and determining the origin of PC. We analyzed the clinicopathological and cytomorphological characteristics of 33 patients with a history of breast carcinoma whose PF cytology contained malignant cells. Cases showing positive immunoreactivity for PAX8 and a lack of GATA3 expression were considered as PPOC. Sixteen patients developed PC caused by PPOC. PPOC patients were characterized by early-stage primary breast carcinoma, absence of non-peritoneal MBC before PC, and normal serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. Fourteen PPOC patients had pathogenic germline BRCA mutations. Cytological examination revealed that most of the PPOC cases had a dominant papillary arrangement of the tumor cells with severe nuclear pleomorphism, occasional bizarre nuclei, and atypical mitotic figures. Patients with PPOC who underwent cytoreductive surgery had a significantly longer survival time compared to those who did not, or MBC patients. In patients with a history of breast carcinoma presenting with PC, the presence of early-stage primary breast carcinoma, no prior non-peritoneal MBC, and a dominant papillary cellular arrangement pattern in the PF cytology were independent predictors of PPOC. Cytoreductive surgery significantly improved survival for patients with PPOC.

  20. Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis of Ki67 assay according to histology: prognostic relevance for resected early stage 'pure' and 'mixed' lobular breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Brunelli, Matteo; Marcolini, Lisa; Nortilli, Rolando; Pilotto, Sara; Zampiva, Ilaria; Merler, Sara; Fiorio, Elena; Filippi, Elisa; Manfrin, Erminia; Pellini, Francesca; Bonetti, Franco; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this analysis was to investigate the potential impact of Ki67 assay in a series of patients affected by early stage invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) undergone surgery. Clinical-pathological data were correlated with disease-free and overall survival (DFS/OS). The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to the Ki67 continuous variable to estimate appropriate cut-offs. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed to assess the interaction between 'pure' or 'mixed' histology ILC and Ki67. At a median follow-up of 67 months, 10-years DFS and OS of 405 patients were 67.8 and 79.8%, respectively. Standardized Log-Rank statistics identified 2 optimal cut-offs (6 and 21%); 10-years DFS and OS were 75.1, 66.5, and 30.2% (p = 0.01) and 84.3, 76.4 and 59% (p = 0.003), for patients with a Ki67 < 6%, between 6 and 21%, and >21%, respectively. Ki67 and lymph-node status were independent predictor for longer DFS and OS at the multivariate analysis, with radiotherapy (for DFS) and age (for OS). Ki67 highly replicated at the internal cross-validation analysis (DFS 85%, OS 100%). The STEPP analysis showed that DFS rate decreases as Ki67 increases and those patients with 'pure' ILC performed worse than 'mixed' histology. Despite the retrospective and exploratory nature of the study, Ki67 was able to significantly discriminate the prognosis of patients with ILC, and the effect was more pronounced for patients with 'pure' ILC.

  1. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma with "homologous" lipoblastic (pleomorphic liposarcoma-like) differentiation: clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of a series suggesting revised diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Mariño-Enríquez, Adrián; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Dal Cin, Paola; Hornick, Jason L

    2010-08-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (LPS) is a malignant adipocytic neoplasm defined as the transition from well-differentiated LPS to a nonlipogenic sarcoma. Heterologous differentiation is seen in 5% to 10% of dedifferentiated LPS, usually with myogenic or osteo/chondrosarcomatous elements. Adipocytic differentiation in the dedifferentiated component is incompatible with the current definition of dedifferentiated LPS. Pleomorphic LPS is a high-grade sarcoma containing lipoblasts. At least in areas, pleomorphic LPS can be indistinguishable from dedifferentiated LPS, except for the presence of lipoblasts in pleomorphic LPS and well-differentiated LPS areas in dedifferentiated LPS. We evaluated 12 unusual liposarcomas: 11 cases with pleomorphic LPS-like morphology affecting patients with concomitant or previous well-differentiated/dedifferentiated LPS, and 1 case resembling inflammatory "MFH" with scattered lipoblasts. Clinical and histologic features were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry for MDM2 and CDK4 was carried out. Amplification of 12q13 to q15 was studied by FISH analysis of the HMGA2 locus. The tumors arose in the retroperitoneum (7), proximal lower extremity (3), chest wall (1), and neck (1) of 9 males and 3 females (median age 66 y; range 49 to 76). Size ranged from 9 to 32 cm (median 23 cm). In 3 cases, there was an abrupt transition between well-differentiated LPS and sheets of pleomorphic lipoblasts, indistinguishable from pleomorphic LPS. Four cases consisted of otherwise typical dedifferentiated LPS (with adjacent well-differentiated LPS), except for the presence of lipoblasts in the high-grade component. One case contained both nonlipogenic spindle cell areas and an inflammatory "MFH"-like component with numerous admixed lipoblasts. Four cases were composed exclusively of pleomorphic LPS-like areas developing in 1 of the recurrences or metastases of a prior typical dedifferentiated LPS. Two cases also showed heterologous smooth muscle differentiation. MDM2

  2. Ductal Breast Carcinoma Metastatic to the Stomach Resembling Primary Linitis Plastica in a Male Patient.

    PubMed

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Leonardi, Giulia Costanza; Ravaioli, Noemi; De Giglio, Andrea; Brambilla, Marta; Prosperi, Enrico; Ribacchi, Franca; Meacci, Marialuisa; Crinò, Lucio; Maiettini, Daniele; Chiari, Rita; Metro, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are very rare occurrences. Among the histological subtypes of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinomas have a high capacity of metastasis to uncommon sites including the stomach. Conversely, there has not been sufficient evidence supporting the gastric metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma. Herein, we report a unique case of metastatic ductal breast carcinoma mimicking primary linitis plastica in a male patient, particularly focusing on the clinical and pathological features of presentation. Moreover, we propose a immunohistochemical panel of selected antibodies including those for cytokeratin 20, cytokeratin 7, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, E-cadherin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, and GATA binding protein 3 for an accurate differential diagnosis.

  3. Association between local inflammation and breast tissue age-related lobular involution among premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Mirette; Dumas, Isabelle; Orain, Michèle; Jacob, Simon; Têtu, Bernard; Sanschagrin, François; Bureau, Alexandre; Poirier, Brigitte; Diorio, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Increased levels of pro-inflammatory markers and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory markers in the breast tissue can result in local inflammation. We aimed to investigate whether local inflammation in the breast tissue is associated with age-related lobular involution, a process inversely related to breast cancer risk. Levels of eleven pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal breast tissue obtained from 164 pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Involution status of the breast (degree of lobular involution and the predominant lobule type) was microscopically assessed in normal breast tissue on hematoxylin-eosin stained mastectomy slides. Multivariate generalized linear models were used to assess the associations. In age-adjusted analyses, higher levels of pro-inflammatory markers IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, COX-2, leptin, SAA1 and IL-8; and anti-inflammatory marker IL-10, were inversely associated with the prevalence of complete lobular involution (all P≤0.04). Higher levels of the pro-inflammatory marker COX-2 were also associated with lower prevalence of predominant type 1/no type 3 lobules in the breast, an indicator of complete involution, in age-adjusted analysis (P = 0.017). Higher tissue levels of inflammatory markers, mainly the pro-inflammatory ones, are associated with less involuted breasts and may consequently be associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. PMID:28846716

  4. [Granulomatous lobular mastitis associated with mammary duct ectasia: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases with review of literature].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Juan; Ding, Hua-ye; DU, Yu-tang

    2013-10-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features of granulomatous lobular mastitis and mammary duct ectasia. The clinicopathologic data from August 2005 to May 2013 of 32 cases of granulomatous lobular mastitis and mammary duct ectasia were retrospectively reviewed. The age of patients ranged from 26 to 45 years. Two patients had no history of delivery. Fourteen patients had no history of lactation or lactational disorder in the lesional side. Most of the remaining patients had history of breast feeding. Gross examination showed that the lesions were poorly circumscribed and varied from 3 to 12 cm in greatest dimension. Tiny abscess cavities, ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter and containing light yellowish to greyish secretion, were demonstrated. Histologic examination showed granuloma formation and ductal dilatation. Eleven patients had received antibiotic treatment. Twelve cases were complicated by sinus formation related to skin incision and drainage. The duration of follow-up ranged from 5 to 90 months. Three cases showed ipsilateral recurrence and 3 cases had similar pathology in the contralateral breast. Four patients defaulted follow-up. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is associated with mammary duct ectasia. Accurate pathologic diagnosis is prudent for clinical management and control of local recurrence.

  5. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung -  a case report.

    PubMed

    Szkorupa, M; Bohanes, T; Neoral, C; Vomackova, K; Chudacek, J

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SARC) of the lung is a very rare and aggressive type of nonsmall cell lung cancer. It belongs to a group of poorly differentiated carcinomas with partial sarcomatoid differentiation or with a direct sarcoma component. Characteristic findings include a large tumor with an invasive tendency, early recurrence and systemic metastases. The authors present a case of SARC in the 77-year-old patient. Preoperative staging confirmed sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lower lobe of the left lung without generalization on PET/CT. However, an infiltration of more than 2/3 of the diaphragm was ascertained. A resection was performed -  a left lower lobectomy with resection of the diaphragm and its replacement by a muscle flap made from the latissimus dorsi muscle with vascular pedicle. Histological findings confirmed the dia-gnosis of sarcomatoid (pleomorphic) carcinoma pT3N0M0. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy; recurrence and systemic dissemination of the disease occurred after 20 months; the patient died 21 months after the surgery.

  6. [The WHO/ISUP grading system for renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moch, H

    2016-07-01

    Histological tumor grading is an accepted prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2012, the International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) proposed a novel grading system for RCC, mainly based on the evaluation of nucleoli: grade 1 tumors have nucleoli that are inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2 tumors have nucleoli that are clearly visible at ×400 magnification and eosinophilic; grade 3 tumors have clearly visible nucleoli at ×100 magnification; and grade 4 tumors have extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology. This grading system was validated for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, the ISUP proposed not grading chromophobe renal cell carcinomas according to this system. At a consensus conference in Zurich the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the ISUP grading system; thus, the WHO/ISUP grading system is now going to be implemented internationally. The ISUP/WHO grading system has not been validated as a prognostic parameter for other tumor subtypes, but can be used for descriptive purposes.

  7. Physical mapping of chromosome 12q breakpoints in lipoma, pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma, uterine leiomyoma, and myxoid liposarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Kools, P.F.J.; Mols, R.

    1994-03-15

    The authors report here the physical mapping of recurrent chromosome 12q13-q15 breakpoints in cell lines derived from primary myxoid liposarcoma, lipoma, uterine leiomyoma, and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments, they first mapped the position of the chromosome 12 translocation breakpoint in uterine leiomyoma cell line LM-30.1/SV40 relative to loci COL2A1, D12S4, D12S17, D12S6, D12S19, D12S8, and D12S7. It mapped between linkage probes CRI-C86 (D12S19) and p7G11 (D12S8). They then isolated YAC clones using CRI-C86- and p7G11-derived sequence-tagged sites, constructed corresponding YAC contigs of 310 and 800 kb, respectively, and a mixture ofmore » them was used to routinely study the various tumor cell lines by FISH analysis. The chromosome 12 breakpoints of all tumor cell lines tested mapped between cosmids LLNL12NCO1-98C10 and LLNL12NCO1-113D12. None of the breakpoints appeared to map within any of the isolated YAC clones. Furthermore, FISH analysis using cosmid LLNL12-NCO1-144G3, which maps at the CHOP locus, revealed that the chromosome 12 breakpoints in all cell lines of the three benign solid tumors that were tested were located distal to the chromosome 12 translocation breakpoint with the CHOP gene in myxoid liposarcoma cells with t(12;16). In conclusion, the studies seem to indicate that the chromosome 12 breakpoints of myxoid liposarcoma, lipoma, uterine leiomyoma, and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands are all clustered within the 7-cM interval between D12S19 and D12S8, with those of the benign solid tumors distal to CHOP. Finally, the MYF5 gene mapped telomeric to LLNL12NCO1-113D12, and the MIP gene mapped centromeric to the chromosome 12 translocation breakpoint in myxoid liposarcoma cells. 56 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  8. Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis - report of 43 cases from iran; introducing a preliminary clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Omranipour, Ramesh; Mohammadi, S-Farzad; Samimi, Parisa

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to report a large series of idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) from Iran and sketch preliminary clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for approaching an inflammatory breast mass. In a retrospective records review, 43 consecutive IGLM cases were studied. Data on baseline, clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics were collected. The mean age of the women was 33.5 years. All but 1 were married and had given birth. 16% had a cancer-like presentation. Inflammatory signs, architectural distortion, and a nodular pattern were the most common findings clinically, mammographically and ultrasonographically, respectively. 29.5% of the pathological reports indicated necrosis which was more common in younger subjects (p = 0.016); microabscesses were associated with a shorter lactation course (p = 0.006). Corticosteroids had been used as the initial treatment modality in 51%, immunosuppressive agents had not been administered, and a 16% relapse rate was recorded. We recognized the need for a multidisciplinary approach covering radiology, oncology, and surgery to best handle diagnostic and therapeutic issues and manage relevant infections as well as the major differential diagnosis, i.e. malignancy. We hypothesized that a shorter lactation period may cause more milk stasis and extravasation and be contributory to IGLM. CPGs are needed to incorporate the needed multidisciplinary approach and to standardize IGLM care. We present one such guideline.

  9. THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY FOR GRANULOMATOUS LOBULAR MASTITIS: A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 12 PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    AKAHANE, KAZUHISA; TSUNODA, NOBUYUKI; KATO, MASAMICHI; NODA, SUMIYO; SHIMOYAMA, YOSHIE; ISHIGAKI, SATOKO; SATAKE, HIROKO; NAKAMURA, SHIGEO; NAGINO, MASATO

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare inflammatory pseudotumor. No therapeutic modality for this disease has been established because of its rarity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment strategies of GLM. Twelve women who met the histological criteria for GLM were retrospectively studied. The clinical data and the presentation, histopathology, and management of the disease were analyzed by reviewing the patients’ medical records. The diagnosis of GLM was confirmed histologically by core needle biopsy in 9 cases, by vacuum-assisted biopsy in 2 cases, and by excisional biopsy in 1 case. Ten patients received corticosteroid treatment and another two patients were treated with local excision or incision and drainage. The median initial dosage of corticosteroid (Prednisolone) was 30 mg/day (range: 15–60 mg/day), and the dosages were tapered according to improvement. The median duration of corticosteroid treatment was 5 months (range: 1–12 months). The median follow-up period was 22 months (range: 6–104 months), and no patient treated with corticosteroid demonstrated recurrence. However, patients treated with excision or incision and drainage had recurrences. These results suggest that steroid treatment may be the first choice in treatment strategies for GLM. PMID:24640175

  10. Therapeutic strategy for granulomatous lobular mastitis: a clinicopathological study of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Akahane, Kazuhisa; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masamichi; Noda, Sumiyo; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Ishigakis, Satoko; Satake, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Nagino, Masato

    2013-08-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare inflammatory pseudotumor. No therapeutic modality for this disease has been established because of its rarity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment strategies of GLM. Twelve women who met the histological criteria for GLM were retrospectively studied. The clinical data and the presentation, histopathology, and management of the disease were analyzed by reviewing the patients' medical records. The diagnosis of GLM was confirmed histologically by core needle biopsy in 9 cases, by vacuum-assisted biopsy in 2 cases, and by excisional biopsy in 1 case. Ten patients received corticosteroid treatment and another two patients were treated with local excision or incision and drainage. The median initial dosage of corticosteroid (Prednisolone) was 30 mg/day (range: 15-60 mg/day), and the dosages were tapered according to improvement. The median duration of corticosteroid treatment was 5 months (range: 1-12 months). The median follow-up period was 22 months (range: 6-104 months), and no patient treated with corticosteroid demonstrated recurrence. However, patients treated with excision or incision and drainage had recurrences. These results suggest that steroid treatment may be the first choice in treatment strategies for GLM.

  11. Broadleaf Mahonia attenuates granulomatous lobular mastitis‑associated inflammation by inhibiting CCL‑5 expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qi; Xu, Biao; Liu, Pengxi; Zhu, Huayu; Chen, Jianping; Situ, Honglin; Lin, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a type of chronic mammary inflammation with unclear etiology. Currently systematic corticosteroids and methitrexate are considered as the main drugs for GLM treatment, but a high toxicity and risk of recurrence greatly limit their application. It is therefore an urgent requirement that safe and efficient natural drugs are found to improve the GLM prognosis. Broadleaf Mahonia (BM) is a traditional Chinese herb that is believed to have anti‑inflammatory properties according to ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated this belief and demonstrated that BM significantly inhibited the expression of interleukin‑1β (IL‑1β), IL‑6, cyclooxygenase‑2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW264.7 cells, but had little influence on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the lipopolysaccharide‑induced elevation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide was also blocked following BM treatment, accompanied with decreased activity of nuclear factor‑κB and MAPK signaling. A cytokine array further validated that BM exhibited significant inhibitory effects on several chemoattractants, including chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand (CCL)‑2, CCL‑3, CCL‑5 and secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, among which CCL‑5 exhibited the highest inhibition ratio in cell and clinical GLM specimens. Collectively, the results show that BM is a novel effective anti‑inflammatory herb in vitro and ex vivo, and that CCL‑5 may be closely associated with GLM pathogenesis.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of 75 Patients with Idiopathic Lobular Granulomatous Mastitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieqing

    2018-01-30

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular matitis (IGLM) is a rare non-specific inflammatory disease of the breast. Although IGLM is completely benign, it is easily confused with cancer due to progressive breast lump with firmly unilateral and discrete mass, nipple retraction and sinus formation. Patients with IGLM are usually associated with inflammation of the overlying skin. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of IGLM, treatment options and prognosis. From January 2010 to February 2015, 75 IGLM patients in our hospital were included, with an average age of 35.9 ± 10.0 (range 21-61) years. Most of them were parous. The main clinical characteristic was the presence of a large, irregular and painful mass. Hypoechoic lobulated, irregular tubular or oval shaped masses were detected by breast gland ultrasound. Ill-defined mass, enlarged axillary lymph nodes, asymmetric density, and architectural distortion were found by breast molybdenum palladium X-ray. Diagnosis of IGLM was confirmed with histological examination. The majority (60/75) of the IGLM patients received surgical treatment, including lumpectomy, abscess drainage or mastectomy. Antibiotics were used after surgery. The disease recurred in three patients during the follow-up period. Our study suggested that IGLM diagnosis more depends on CNB and postoperative histopathological examination, and surgery and symptomatic treatment can completely remove the lesions, in order to cure the disease.

  13. Broadleaf Mahonia attenuates granulomatous lobular mastitis-associated inflammation by inhibiting CCL-5 expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Neng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Qi; Xu, Biao; Liu, Pengxi; Zhu, Huayu; Chen, Jianping; Situ, Honglin; Lin, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a type of chronic mammary inflammation with unclear etiology. Currently systematic corticosteroids and methitrexate are considered as the main drugs for GLM treatment, but a high toxicity and risk of recurrence greatly limit their application. It is therefore an urgent requirement that safe and efficient natural drugs are found to improve the GLM prognosis. Broadleaf Mahonia (BM) is a traditional Chinese herb that is believed to have anti-inflammatory properties according to ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated this belief and demonstrated that BM significantly inhibited the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW264.7 cells, but had little influence on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis. Meanwhile, the lipopolysaccharide-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide was also blocked following BM treatment, accompanied with decreased activity of nuclear factor-κB and MAPK signaling. A cytokine array further validated that BM exhibited significant inhibitory effects on several chemoattractants, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-2, CCL-3, CCL-5 and secreted tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, among which CCL-5 exhibited the highest inhibition ratio in cell and clinical GLM specimens. Collectively, the results show that BM is a novel effective anti-inflammatory herb in vitro and ex vivo, and that CCL-5 may be closely associated with GLM pathogenesis. PMID:29138800

  14. A model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with tumor microenvironment in breast carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bor-Angelier, Catherine; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Breast carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial cells of the breast, which are the cells that line the lobules and the lactiferous ducts. Breast carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and can be divided into different subtypes based on architectural features and growth patterns, recognized during a histopathological examination. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which tumor cells develop. Being composed of various cell types having different biological roles, TME is recognized as playing an important role in the progression of the disease. The architectural heterogeneity in breast carcinomas and the spatial interactions with TME are, to date, not well understood. Developing a spatial model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with TME can advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, generating histological synthetic datasets can contribute to validating, and comparing analytical methods that are used in digital pathology. In this work, we propose a modeling method that applies to different breast carcinoma subtypes and TME spatial distributions based on mathematical morphology. The model is based on a few morphological parameters that give access to a large spectrum of breast tumor architectures and are able to differentiate in-situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) and histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas such as ductal (IDC) and lobular carcinoma (ILC). In addition, a part of the parameters of the model controls the spatial distribution of TME relative to the tumor. The validation of the model has been performed by comparing morphological features between real and simulated images.

  15. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity.

  16. Aggressive behavior and anaplasia in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a plea for a revision of the current WHO classification.

    PubMed

    Kahramancetin, Nesibe; Tihan, Tarik

    2013-11-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm that commonly affects children and young adults, and presents with seizures. PXA is typically supratentorial with a predilection to the temporal lobe, and often involves the cortex and the meninges. PXAs have a favorable prognosis with a 10-year survival probability of >70%, and are WHO grade II neoplasms. Recent observations and studies demonstrate that PXAs are clinically, histologically and genetically distinct. Some PXAs recur and exhibit aggressive clinical behavior. In such cases, certain histological and clinical factors could account for the aggressive behavior. However, the histological features that predict adverse outcome are poorly defined. In the current WHO classification of CNS tumors, there is no option for a high-grade PXA, even if the tumor had numerous recurrences and poor outcome. In this review, we focus on aggressive clinical behavior and anaplasia in PXA, and discuss how our current experience suggests modifications in the current WHO classification. We also review recent discoveries on the molecular characteristics of PXA that could help us better understand their biological behavior.

  17. Diagnostic utility of IDH1/2 mutations to distinguish dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoxiong; Fritchie, Karen; Wei, Shi; Ali, Naser; Curless, Kendra; Shen, Tiansheng; Brini, Anna T; Latif, Farida; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri; Siegal, Gene P; Cheng, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Histologically, it is nearly impossible to distinguish the dedifferentiated component of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of bone when the low-grade cartilaginous component is absent. Previous studies have revealed that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations are present in a significant number of cartilaginous tumors including most conventional chondrosarcomas and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These mutations have not been studied in UPSs of bone. We sought to investigate whether an IDH1 or IDH2 mutation signature could be used as a clinically diagnostic marker for the distinction of dedifferentiated component of chondrosarcoma from UPS of bone. Sixty-eight bone tumor cases, including 31 conventional chondrosarcomas, 23 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, and 14 UPSs of bone, were collected for IDH1/2 mutation analysis either using the Qiagen IDH1/2 RGQ PCR Kit or using whole-exome sequencing. IDH1/2 mutations were detected in 87% (20/23) of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas and 30% (6/20) of conventional chondrosarcomas. No mutations were detected in the IDH1/2 codon 132 or codon 172 among 14 UPSs of bone. Identification of IDH1 or IDH2 mutations supports the diagnosis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma rather than UPS of bone while also providing some insight into the pathogenesis of these 2 lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features: A rare case report and review of literature with reference to current management

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Nayak, Madhukar; Purohit, A. K.; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Uppin, Megha; Challa, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is an uncommon tumor constitutes less than 1% of all astrocytic glial neoplasms was first reported in 1979. PXA commonly occurs in young patients and manifests itself first as seizures followed by focal neurological deficits. The role of radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not yet been established because of the relative infrequency of this disease. PXA is classified as grade II tumor in the WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. In literature 9 to 20 % PXA may undergo malignant change at recurrence or may display at the time of initial presentation. Malignant transformation is mainly associated with high mitotic activity and necrosis. The criteria for PXA with anaplastic features was five or more mitotic activity per 10 high power fields, necrosis, microvascular proliferation, marked cellular anaplasia, and high Ki-67 labeling indices. PXA with anaplastic features management is highly controversial as very sparse literature is available. We are reporting a case of PXA with anaplastic features with atypical radiology and tried to review the up to date literature regarding this rare tumor. PMID:27366280

  19. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of floor of mouth: A case report with cytological, histological and immunohistochemical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujata; Pathak, Himani

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with a 3-year-old swelling in the right floor of mouth. Clinical examination and fine needle aspiration cytology suggested a benign lesion. The mass was excised locally along with the involved sublingual and deep part of submandibular gland and duct. Post-operative histopathological examination revealed features of pleomorphic adenoma. However, on revision of histological sections, features were predominantly of a rare malignancy of the salivary glands, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), along with focal areas of adenoid cystic carcinoma (Ad CC). The tumor was p-63, s-100 and smooth muscle actin positive but C-kit was negative, which ruled out Ad CC and the possibility of a hybrid carcinoma. The aim of this article is to describe a rare case of EMC in the floor of mouth and the confusing cytological picture that it created. PMID:25937734

  20. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of floor of mouth: A case report with cytological, histological and immunohistochemical correlation.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sujata; Pathak, Himani

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with a 3-year-old swelling in the right floor of mouth. Clinical examination and fine needle aspiration cytology suggested a benign lesion. The mass was excised locally along with the involved sublingual and deep part of submandibular gland and duct. Post-operative histopathological examination revealed features of pleomorphic adenoma. However, on revision of histological sections, features were predominantly of a rare malignancy of the salivary glands, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), along with focal areas of adenoid cystic carcinoma (Ad CC). The tumor was p-63, s-100 and smooth muscle actin positive but C-kit was negative, which ruled out Ad CC and the possibility of a hybrid carcinoma. The aim of this article is to describe a rare case of EMC in the floor of mouth and the confusing cytological picture that it created.

  1. GATA3: a promising marker for metastatic breast carcinoma in serous effusion specimens.

    PubMed

    Shield, Paul W; Papadimos, David J; Walsh, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    The usefulness of GATA3 (GATA-binding protein 3 to DNA sequence [A/T]GATA[A/G]) as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma in serous effusion specimens was investigated. Cell block sections from 74 serous effusion specimens (32 ascitic, 2 pericardial, and 40 pleural fluids) were stained with an anti-GATA3 murine monoclonal antibody. The specimens included 62 confirmed metastatic carcinomas from the breast (30 specimens), female genital tract (13 specimens), gastrointestinal tract (7 specimens), lung adenocarcinoma (9 specimens), pancreas (1 specimen), kidney (1 specimen), and bladder (1 specimen). The breast carcinoma cases included 15 ductal carcinomas and 8 lobular carcinomas; the histology subtype was not available for 7 specimens. Twelve cases containing florid reactive mesothelial cells were also stained. The breast carcinoma cases were also stained for mammaglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein of 15 kilodaltons (GCDFP-15) to compare their sensitivity with GATA3. Positive nuclear staining for GATA3 was found to be present in 90% of metastatic breast carcinoma specimens (27 of 30 specimens). All nonbreast metastatic carcinomas tested were negative with the exception of the single case of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. No staining was observed in any of the benign reactive cases or in benign mesothelial cells present in the malignant cell block preparations. Two cases demonstrated weak positivity of benign lymphoid cells. Staining results were unambiguous because all positive cases demonstrated intense nuclear staining in > 50% of tumor cells. Mammaglobin (57% staining; 17 of 30 cases) and GCDFP-15 (33% staining; 10 of 30 cases) were found to be less sensitive markers of breast carcinoma. If used in a panel, mammaglobin and GCFP-15 staining would have identified only 1 additional case compared with those stained with GATA3. GATA3 may be a useful addition to immunostaining panels for serous effusion specimens when metastatic breast carcinoma is a

  2. Armc8 expression was elevated during atypia-to-carcinoma progression and associated with cancer development of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuifeng; Zhao, Yang; Mao, Xiaoyun; Miao, Yuan; Lin, Xuyong; Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Han, Qiang; Luan, Lan; Wang, Enhua

    2014-11-01

    Armadillo repeat-containing protein 8 (Armc8) is a key factor to regulate cell membrane adhesion complex through promoting α-catenin degradation. However, its expression and function in human malignant tumors are largely unknown. Here, we present our study investigating Armc8 expression in tumor and non-tumor breast tissues including 45 normal epithelia, 53 lesions of hyperplasia with or without dysplasia, 22 benign tumors, and 92 carcinomas including 28 carcinomas in situ and 64 infiltrating carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting study. Armc8 expression was detected mainly in the cytoplasm with occasional membrane immunostaining. The positive rate of Armc8 expression in normal breast epithelia (8.9%, four out of 45) was very low. No significant difference was found between Armc8 expression in usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) (11.1%, two out of 18), benign breast tumors including intraductal papilloma (10.0%, one out of 10) and fibroadenoma (8.3%, one out of 12), and normal breast epithelia (p>0.05). Elevated expression of Armc8 was found in breast epithelia with dysplasia (24.0%, six out of 25) compared to that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, and benign breast tumors (p<0.05). Armc8 expression in breast carcinoma including breast carcinoma in situ (10/28, 35.7%), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (60.7%, 34/56), and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (50.0%, 4/8) was higher than that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, benign breast tumors, and breast epithelia with dysplasia (p<0.05). The highest expression of Armc8 was found in infiltrating breast carcinoma (59.4%, 38/64) compared to all the other breast tissues. Higher Armc8 expression was found to be linked to lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages (III+IV) in infiltrating breast carcinoma (p<0.05). We further confirmed Armc8 expression in breast epithelial cell line MCF10A and breast carcinoma cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and ZR751 using Western

  3. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma and pleomorphic liposarcoma: a comparative study of cytomorphology and MDM2/CDK4 expression on fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mariño-Enríquez, Adrián; Hornick, Jason L; Dal Cin, Paola; Cibas, Edmund S; Qian, Xiaohua

    2014-02-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) and pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLPS) are distinct high-grade liposarcomas. DDLPS is a nonlipogenic sarcoma characterized by amplification of MDM2 and CDK4. PLPS is a high-grade sarcoma containing lipoblasts, characterized by a complex karyotype and a more aggressive clinical course. Rarely, DDLPS shows lipogenic differentiation, mimicking PLPS. The cytomorphologic features of DDLPS and PLPS and the utility of ancillary studies have not been systemically analyzed. Cytologic preparations of 25 DDLPS and 13 PLPS, all histologically confirmed, were retrospectively reviewed along with clinical and cytogenetic data. Sample cellularity, vascular architecture, background material, predominant cell morphology, quality of the cytoplasm, and nuclear pleomorphism were compared for both tumor types. Immunohistochemistry for MDM2 and CDK4 was performed on cell blocks and/or core needle biopsies. Fine-needle aspirate smears from both DDLPS and PLPS were variably cellular, composed of cellular clusters and noncohesive cells. Abundant myxoid stroma was present in ∼25% of DDLPS and PLPS cases, whereas branching curvilinear vessels were more common in DDLPS than in PLPS (7 of 25 versus 2 of 13). Tumors were composed of predominantly spindled (18 of 25 DDLPS versus 3 of 13 PLPS) or epithelioid cells (7 of 25 DDLPS versus 6 of 13 PLPS). Pleomorphic cells were predominant in 3 PLPS, and were frequent in both (13 of 25 DDLPS versus 10 of 13 PLPS). The cytoplasm was mostly fibrillary and often vacuolated in both entities. Other features included necrosis, mitoses, and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate. The main cytologic differences were the presence of marked pleomorphism, abundant lipoblasts, and cells with microvacuolated cytoplasm in most PLPS. A total of 24 (96%) and 20 (80%) cases of DDLPS expressed MDM2 and CDK4, respectively, whereas none of the PLPS expressed both markers. Six DDLPS tested showed ring or giant marker chromosomes and/or MDM2

  4. Rifampicin for Idiopathic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis: A Promising Alternative for Treatment.

    PubMed

    Farouk, Omar; Abdelkhalek, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ahmed; Shata, Ahmed; Senbel, Ahmed; Attia, Essam; Elghaffar, Mohamed Abd; Mesbah, Mahmoud; Soliman, Nermine; Amin, Maha; El-Tantawy, Dina

    2017-05-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a chronic, non-caseating, inflammatory breast disease of obscure aetiology characterized by multiple masses, abscesses and sinus formation. There is no standard treatment to date, but surgical procedures and systemic corticosteroids are effective in its treatment despite high recurrence rates. This prospective study including 30 patients with IGLM between November 2012 and May 2016 aimed to investigate the possibility of administration of Rifampicin (300 mg twice daily for a period of 6-9 months) as an alternative therapy for both surgery and corticosteroids in patients with IGLM. All patients were diagnosed by core needle biopsy. All patients were of reproductive age and had a history of breast feeding, which is the most important predisposing factor for IGLM. The mean age was 31.6 ± 5.8 years (range 23-42 years). Eighteen patients (60%) were treated by Rifampicin for 6 months, whereas 12 patients (40%) were treated for 9 months. Twelve months after the beginning of therapy, all patients showed complete clinical and ultrasonographic responses. No serious side effects were reported to stop the treatment course. The median follow-up after finishing the course of treatment was 15.5 months (average 3-35 months) with no episodes of disease relapse. Rifampicin is effective in the treatment of patients with IGLM with complete clinical and ultrasonographic response after 6-9 months and could be used as a solo medical therapy alternative to both surgery and corticosteroids.

  5. Circulating Sex Hormones and Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Normal Breast

    PubMed Central

    Khodr, Zeina G.; Sherman, Mark E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Brinton, Louise A.; Falk, Roni T.; Patel, Deesha A.; Linville, Laura M.; Papathomas, Daphne; Clare, Susan E.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Mies, Carolyn; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Storniolo, Anna Maria V.; Rosebrock, Adrian; Caban, Jesus J.; Figueroa, Jonine D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the predominant source of breast cancers. Lesser degrees of age-related TDLU involution have been associated with increased breast cancer risk, but factors that influence involution are largely unknown. We assessed whether circulating hormones, implicated in breast cancer risk, are associated with levels of TDLU involution using data from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (KTB) at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center (2009-2011). Methods We evaluated three highly reproducible measures of TDLU involution, using normal breast tissue samples from the KTB (n=390): TDLU counts, median TDLU span, and median acini counts per TDLU. Relative risks (RRs, for continuous measures), odds ratios (ORs, for categorical measures), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-trends were calculated to assess the association between tertiles of estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), progesterone, and prolactin with TDLU measures. All models were stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Results Among premenopausal women, higher prolactin levels were associated with higher TDLU counts (RRT3vsT1:1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31; p-trend=0.0005), but higher progesterone was associated with lower TDLU counts (RRT3vsT1: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89; p-trend<0.0001). Among postmenopausal women, higher levels of estradiol (RRT3vsT1:1.61, 95% CI: 1.32-1.97; p-trend<0.0001) and testosterone (RRT3vsT1: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; p-trend=0.0043) were associated with higher TDLU counts. Conclusions These data suggest that select hormones may influence breast cancer risk potentially through delaying TDLU involution. Impact Increased understanding of the relationship between circulating markers and TDLU involution may offer new insights into breast carcinogenesis. PMID:25472681

  6. Association between breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Bodelon, Clara; Oh, Hannah; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Palakal, Maya; Sherman, Mark E.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Geller, Berta; Vacek, Pamela; Weaver, Donald L.; Chicoine, Rachael; Papathomas, Daphne; Xiang, Jackie; Patel, Deesha A.; Khodr, Zeina G.; Linville, Laura; Clare, Susan E.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Mies, Carolyn; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Storniolo, Anna Maria V.; He, Chunyan; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the predominant source of future breast cancers, and lack of TDLU involution (higher TDLU counts, higher acini count per TDLU and the product of the two) is a breast cancer risk factor. Numerous breast cancer susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified, but whether they are associated with TDLU involution is unknown. In a pooled analysis of 872 women from two studies, we investigated 62 established breast cancer SNPs and relationships with TDLU involution. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to calculate adjusted per-allele relative risks (with the non-breast cancer risk allele as the referent) and 95% confidence intervals between TDLU measures and each SNP. All statistical tests were two-sided; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 36 SNPs (58.1%) were related to higher TDLU counts although this was not statistically significant (P=0.25). Six of the 62 SNPs (9.7%) were nominally associated with at least one TDLU measure: rs616488 (PEX14), rs11242675 (FOXQ1) and rs6001930 (MKL1) were associated with higher TDLU count (P=0.047, 0.045 and 0.031, respectively); rs1353747 (PDE4D) and rs6472903 (8q21.11) were associated with higher acini count per TDLU (P=0.007 and 0.027, respectively); and rs1353747 (PDE4D) and rs204247 (RANBP9) were associated with the product of TDLU and acini counts (P=0.024 and 0.017, respectively). Our findings suggest breast cancer SNPs may not strongly influence TDLU involution. Agnostic genome-wide association studies of TDLU involution may provide new insights on its biologic underpinnings and breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:27859137

  7. Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Normal Breast: Implications for Breast Cancer Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Patel, Deesha A.; Linville, Laura; Brinton, Louise A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Papathomas, Daphne; Visscher, Daniel; Mies, Carolyn; Degnim, Amy C.; Anderson, William F.; Hewitt, Stephen; Khodr, Zeina G.; Clare, Susan E.; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Sherman, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Greater degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution have been linked to lower breast cancer risk; however, factors that influence this process are poorly characterized. Methods To study this question, we developed three reproducible measures that are inversely associated with TDLU involution: TDLU counts, median TDLU span, and median acini counts/TDLU. We determined factors associated with TDLU involution using normal breast tissues from 1938 participants (1369 premenopausal and 569 postmenopausal) ages 18 to 75 years in the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank at the Indiana University Simon Cancer Center. Multivariable zero-inflated Poisson models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for factors associated with TDLU counts, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for factors associated with categories of median TDLU span and acini counts/TDLU. Results All TDLU measures started declining in the third age decade (all measures, two-sided P trend ≤ .001); and all metrics were statistically significantly lower among postmenopausal women. Nulliparous women demonstrated lower TDLU counts compared with uniparous women (among premenopausal women, RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.85; among postmenopausal, RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.79); however, rates of age-related TDLU decline were faster among parous women. Other factors were related to specific measures of TDLU involution. Conclusion Morphometric analysis of TDLU involution warrants further evaluation to understand the pathogenesis of breast cancer and assessing its role as a progression marker for women with benign biopsies or as an intermediate endpoint in prevention studies. PMID:25274491

  8. Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities

    PubMed Central

    Gierach, Gretchen L.; Patel, Deesha A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Johnson, Jason M.; Chicoine, Rachael E.; Herschorn, Sally D.; Shepherd, John A.; Wang, Jeff; Malkov, Serghei; Vacek, Pamela M.; Weaver, Donald L.; Fan, Bo; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Palakal, Maya; Xiang, Jackie; Oh, Hannah; Horne, Hisani N.; Sprague, Brian L.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Sherman, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated mammographic density (MD) is an established breast cancer risk factor. Reduced involution of terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), the histologic source of most breast cancers, has been associated with higher MD and breast cancer risk. We investigated relationships of TDLU involution with area and volumetric MD, measured throughout the breast and surrounding biopsy targets (peri-lesional). Three measures inversely related to TDLU involution (TDLU count/mm2, median TDLU span, median acini count/TDLU) assessed in benign diagnostic biopsies from 348 women, ages 40–65, were related to MD area (quantified with thresholding software) and volume (assessed with a density phantom) by analysis of covariance, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for confounders. Among premenopausal women, TDLU count was directly associated with percent peri-lesional MD (P-trend=0.03), but not with absolute dense area/volume. Greater TDLU span was associated with elevated percent dense area/volume (P-trend<0.05) and absolute peri-lesional MD (P=0.003). Acini count was directly associated with absolute peri-lesional MD (P=0.02). Greater TDLU involution (all metrics) was associated with increased nondense area/volume (P-trend≤0.04). Among postmenopausal women, TDLU measures were not significantly associated with MD. Among premenopausal women, reduced TDLU involution was associated with higher area and volumetric MD, particularly in peri-lesional parenchyma. Data indicating that TDLU involution and MD are correlated markers of breast cancer risk suggest that associations of MD with breast cancer may partly reflect amounts of at-risk epithelium. If confirmed, these results could suggest a prevention paradigm based on enhancing TDLU involution and monitoring efficacy by assessing MD reduction. PMID:26645278

  9. Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Associated with Mycobacterium abscessus in South China: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye-Sheng; Li, Qi-Wei; Zhou, Lin; Guan, Run-Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Ming; Wu, Ji-Hong; Rao, Nan-Yan; Zhu, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria, which are known as rapidly growing bacteria, are pathogens that are responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections that especially occur after injection, trauma, or surgery. In this report, we describe a species of Mycobacterium abscessus that was isolated from a breast abscess in a patient who was previously diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM). This current case is the first ever presented case of GLM associated with M. abscessus documented in South China. The case presentation highlights the role of M. abscessus in GLM. The association of M. abscessus and GLM is discussed and a summary of breast infection due to Mycobacteria is given.

  10. Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis Associated with Mycobacterium abscessus in South China: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi-wei; Guan, Run-feng; Zhou, Xiang-ming; Wu, Ji-hong

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria, which are known as rapidly growing bacteria, are pathogens that are responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections that especially occur after injection, trauma, or surgery. In this report, we describe a species of Mycobacterium abscessus that was isolated from a breast abscess in a patient who was previously diagnosed with granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM). This current case is the first ever presented case of GLM associated with M. abscessus documented in South China. The case presentation highlights the role of M. abscessus in GLM. The association of M. abscessus and GLM is discussed and a summary of breast infection due to Mycobacteria is given. PMID:28286681

  11. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Bin; Weng, Hong-Rui; Wang, Geng; Yang, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Ping; Li, Hua; Liu, Di-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is a rare carcinoma with distinct characteristics. No standard treatment has been established. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of esophageal BSCC. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from 26 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal BSCC who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy between January 1995 and June 2010 at the Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. Clinicopathologic data between BSCC patients and different histologic grades of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were statistically compared by means of the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were used to estimate and compare survival rates. Microscopically, BSCC was characterized by a nesting, lobular, or trabecular arrangement of small crowded cells with scant cytoplasm. None of the histologic specimens taken at preoperative esophagoscopy were diagnosed as BSCC. The median survival time (MST) of the 26 patients was 29.0 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-49.0), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 73.1, 42.7, and 36.6%, respectively. The MST for BSCC patients was significantly lower than that of well-differentiated SCC patients (P = 0.024), but there were no significant differences between the MST for BSCC patients and that of moderately or poorly differentiated SCC patients (P > 0.05). BSCC of the esophagus is a rare but distinctive disease and is prone to be misdiagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis is poorer than well-differentiated SCC, but similar to moderately or poorly differentiated SCC.

  12. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of Nasal Cavity- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Abhishek; Nagpal, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Spindle Cell Carcinoma (SpCC), also known as Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, is a rare and peculiar biphasic malignant neoplasm that occurs mainly in the upper aero-digestive tract, mostly in larynx. SCC accounts for 3% of all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the head and neck region. It is a rare variant of SCC which shows spindled or pleomorphic tumour cells simulating a true sarcoma. We present a case report of SpCC nasal cavity in a 50-year-old female patient, presented with intermittent epistaxis from left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcero-exophytic type of mass in the left nasal cavity and a smooth bulge on the left side of anterior hard palate. Patient underwent excision of nasal mass along with partial palatectomy by facial degloving approach and reconstruction of palate with naso-labial flap. The postoperative histopathological report showed SCC. Surgery forms the mainstay of treatment. Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy is warranted in order to improve treatment results. As only few cases have been reported, we report a case of this rare entity to contribute for better understanding and awareness of this rare malignancy. PMID:27190843

  13. BRAF mutation and anaplasia may be predictive factors of progression-free survival in adult pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Tabouret, E; Bequet, C; Denicolaï, E; Barrié, M; Nanni, I; Metellus, P; Dufour, Henri; Chinot, O; Figarella-Branger, D

    2015-12-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare, low-grade glioma that frequently occurs in pediatric patients. To analyze adult patients diagnosed with PXA and to search for pathological and molecular markers of diagnosis and prognosis. We retrospectively included patients older than 16 years with PXA who were referred to our institution between October 2003 and September 2013. All pathological diagnoses were reviewed by a neuropathologist. Histological characteristics and immunostaining of GFAP, OLIG2, neurofilament, CD34, Ki67, p53, p16, and IDH1 R132H were analyzed. The following molecular alterations were analyzed: mutations of IDH1/2, BRAF and the histone H3.3 and the EGFR amplification. Clinical data, treatment modalities, and patient outcome were recorded. We identified 16 adult patients with reviewed PXA diagnosis. No IDH neither histone H3.3 mutations were found; BRAF V600E mutation was recorded in six patients. Ten patients presented with anaplastic features. BRAF mutations were associated with lower Ki67, OLIG2 expression, and lack of p16 expression. Median PFS and OS were 41.5 months (95% CI: 11.4-71.6) and 71.4 months (95% CI: 15.5-127.3), respectively. BRAF mutation tended to be associated with greater PFS (p = 0.051), whereas anaplastic features were associated with minimal PFS (p = 0.042). PXA in adults PXA may present features distinct from pediatric PXA. Anaplastic features and BRAF mutation may potentially identify specific subgroups with distinct prognoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying actionable variants using next generation sequencing in patients with a historical diagnosis of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Jeremy; Garg, Swati; Lau, Beatrice Y; Dickson, Brendan C; Traub, Frank; Gokgoz, Nalan; Griffin, Anthony M; Ferguson, Peter C; Andrulis, Irene L; Sim, Hao-Wen; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Stockley, Tracy L; Siu, Lillian L; Wunder, Jay S; Razak, Albiruni R A

    2018-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the molecular characterization of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS; formerly malignant fibrous histiocytoma). This study aimed to investigate the utility of next generation sequencing (NGS) in UPS to identify subsets of patients who harbour actionable mutations. Patients diagnosed with UPS underwent pathological re-evaluation by a pathologist specializing in sarcoma. Tumor DNA was isolated from archived fresh frozen tissue samples and genotyped using NGS with the Illumina MiSeq TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel (48 genes, 212 amplicons). In total, 95 patients initially classified with UPS were identified. Following pathology re-review the histological subtypes were reclassified to include: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS, N = 44); UPS(N = 18); and Others (N = 27; including undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma (N = 15) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (N = 6)). Seven cases were excluded from further analysis for other reasons. Baseline demographics of the finalized cohort (N = 88) showed a median age of 66 years (32-95), primarily with stage I-III disease (92%) and high-grade (86%) lesions. Somatic mutations were identified in 31 cases (35%)(Total mutations = 36: solitary mutation(n = 27); two mutations( =n = 3); three mutations(n = 1)). The most commonly identified mutations were in TP53 (n = 24), ATM (n = 3) and PIK3CA (n = 2). Three of 43 patients with MFS and one of 18 patients with UPS had clinically relevant mutations, mainly related to biomarkers of prediction of response; however few had targetable driver mutations. Somatic mutation status did not influence disease free or overall survival. Based on the small number of clinically relevant mutations, these data do not support the routine use of targeted NGS panels outside of research protocols in UPS. © 2017 UICC.

  15. MUC-1 expression in pleomorphic adenomas using two human milk fat globule protein membrane antibodies (HMFG-1 and HMFG-2)

    PubMed Central

    PONCE-BRAVO, Santa; LEDESMA-MONTES, Constantino; GARCÉS-ORTÍZ, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor and its microscopic features and histogenesis are a matter of debate. Human milk fat globule protein membrane (HMFG) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) comprise a set of antibodies against the mucin 1 (MUC-1) protein detected in several salivary gland tumors. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of the PA neoplastic cells to MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs, contrasting these results with those from normal salivary gland tissue. Material and Methods Immunohistochemical detection of MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was made in 5 mm thick, paraffin embedded slides, and the avidin-biotin method was used. Results Positivity to HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was found in ductal, squamous metaplastic and neoplastic myoepithelial cells, keratin pearls and intraductal mucous material. Two kinds of myoepithelial cells were identified: classic myoepithelial cells around ducts were negative to both MoAbs, and modified myoepithelial cells were positive to both MoAbs. This last cellular group of the analyzed tumors showed similar MUC-1 immunoexpression to ductal epithelial cells using both HMFG antibodies. Intraductal mucous secretion was also HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 positive. Conclusions Our results showed there are two kinds of myoepithelial cells in PA. The first cellular group is represented by the different kinds of neoplastic myoepithelial cells and is HMFG-positive. The second one is HMFG-negative and represented by the neoplastic myoepithelial cells located around the ducts. PMID:26221920

  16. Mucin expression in pleomorphic adenoma of salivary gland: a potential role for MUC1 as a marker to predict recurrence.

    PubMed

    Hamada, T; Matsukita, S; Goto, M; Kitajima, S; Batra, S K; Irimura, T; Sueyoshi, K; Sugihara, K; Yonezawa, S

    2004-08-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland (PA) is essentially a benign neoplasm. However, patients with recurrent PA are difficult to manage. There are rare reports on useful immunohistochemical markers to detect a high risk of recurrence when the primary lesions are resected. To find a new marker to predict the recurrence of PA. Primary lesions of PA were collected from nine patients showing subsequent recurrence and from 40 patients without recurrence during at least 10 years of follow up of the disease. Paraffin wax embedded tumour samples of the two groups were examined for the expression profiles of MUC1 (differentially glycosylated forms), MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC6 using immunohistochemistry. Several clinicopathological factors were also examined. In univariate analysis of the factors examined, MUC1/DF3 high expression (more than 30% of the neoplastic cells stained) in the primary lesions was seen more frequently in patients with recurrence (four of nine) than in those without recurrence (three of 40; p = 0.011). Larger tumour size (more than 3.0 cm) of the primary PA was also a significant (p = 0.035) risk factor for the recurrence of PA. In multivariate analysis, only high expression of MUC1/DF3 was found to be a significant independent risk factor for the recurrence of PA (p = 0.021). Expression of MUC1/DF3 in PA is a useful marker to predict its recurrence. Those patients with PA showing positive MUC1/DF3 expression should be followed up carefully.

  17. Combined "Infiltrating Astrocytoma/Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma" Harboring IDH1 R132H and BRAF V600E Mutations.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Seiji; Kipp, Benjamin R; Voss, Jesse S; Giannini, Caterina; Raghunathan, Aditya

    2016-02-01

    Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has rarely been reported in combination with infiltrating glioma, historically interpreted as a "collision tumor." Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and BRAF V600E mutations are usually not concurrent. The former is typical of adult infiltrating gliomas, and the latter is identified in a variety of primary central nervous system neoplasms, including PXA, ganglioglioma, pilocytic astrocytoma, and rarely infiltrating gliomas. We report the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right temporal lobe mass with low T1 and high T2/FLAIR signal and a discrete contrast-enhancing focus. Histologically, the tumor showed 2 distinct components: an infiltrating astrocytoma harboring 5 mitoses/10 high-power fields and a relatively circumscribed focus, resembling PXA with, at most, 2 mitoses/10 high-power fields. No microvascular proliferation or necrosis was present in either component. The infiltrating astrocytoma component contained numerous axons, whereas the PXA-like component had sparse axons, as demonstrated by the neurofilament immunostain. Both components were positive for the mutant IDH1 R132H and showed loss of ATRX expression, whereas BRAF V600E was restricted to the PXA-like component. On sequencing of the 2 components separately after microdissection, both showed identical IDH1 R132H and TP53 R273C point mutations, whereas the BRAF V600E mutation was limited to the PXA-like component. These findings are consistent with clonal expansion of a morphologically distinct focus, harboring a private BRAF V600E mutation within an IDH1-mutant glioma. Intratumoral heterogeneity and clonal evolution, as seems to have occurred here, suggest reevaluation of "collision tumors" as a concept.

  18. A morphologic analysis of 'naked' islets of Langerhans in lobular atrophy of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Suda, K; Tsukahara, M; Miyake, T; Hirai, S

    1994-08-01

    The 'naked' islets of Langerhans (NIL) in randomly selected autopsy cases and in cases of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic carcinoma were studied histopathologically. The NIL were found in 55 of 164 randomly selected cases, with age-related frequency, in 21 of 30 cases of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, in 2 of 2 cases of cystic fibrosis, and in 25 of 32 cases of pancreatic carcinoma. The NIL were frequently accompanied by ductal alterations: epithelial metaplasia and hyperplasia in randomly selected cases, protein plugs in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, mucus plugs in cystic fibrosis, and obliterated ducts in pancreatic carcinoma. The NIL in randomly selected cases may have been formed by ductal alterations that caused stenosis of the lumen, those in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis were the result of protein or mucus plugging, and those in pancreatic carcinoma were a result of neoplastic involvement of the distal pancreatic duct. Therefore, the common factor in the development of NIL is thought to be obstruction of the pancreatic duct system, and in cases of NIL that have a multilobular distribution and interinsular fibrosis, a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis can usually be made.

  19. Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma with a minor dedifferentiated component: report of a case with clinicopathologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Amico, Paolo; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Li Destri, Giovanni; Greco, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Magro, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report a rare case of Warthin tumor-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with a dedifferentiated component consisting of a solid tumor area composed of neoplastic cells with a spindle to tall cell morphology associated with marked nuclear pleomorphism, atypical mitoses, and foci of necrosis. Although our patient presented with a locally aggressive disease (T3 N1b Mo), she is disease-free without radioiodine therapy after a 23-month follow-up period. We emphasize that Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma, like other morphological variants of papillary carcinoma, may occasionally undergo dedifferentiation. As this component may be only focally detectable, we suggest an extensive sampling of all large-sized (>3 cm) papillary thyroid carcinoma. Recognition of any dedifferentiated component in a Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma should be reported, including its percentage, because it may reflect a more aggressive clinical course.

  20. Warthin Tumor-Like Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with a Minor Dedifferentiated Component: Report of a Case with Clinicopathologic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Amico, Paolo; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Li Destri, Giovanni; Greco, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Magro, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report a rare case of Warthin tumor-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with a dedifferentiated component consisting of a solid tumor area composed of neoplastic cells with a spindle to tall cell morphology associated with marked nuclear pleomorphism, atypical mitoses, and foci of necrosis. Although our patient presented with a locally aggressive disease (T3 N1b Mo), she is disease-free without radioiodine therapy after a 23-month follow-up period. We emphasize that Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma, like other morphological variants of papillary carcinoma, may occasionally undergo dedifferentiation. As this component may be only focally detectable, we suggest an extensive sampling of all large-sized (>3 cm) papillary thyroid carcinoma. Recognition of any dedifferentiated component in a Warthin tumor-like papillary thyroid carcinoma should be reported, including its percentage, because it may reflect a more aggressive clinical course. PMID:20593036

  1. Lobular breast cancers lack the inverse relationship between ER/PR status and cell growth rate characteristic of ductal cancers in two independent patient cohorts: implications for tumor biology and adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hilda; Lau, Silvia; Cheung, Polly; Wong, Ting Ting; Parker, Andrew; Yau, Thomas; Epstein, Richard J

    2014-11-10

    Although invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast differs from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in numerous respects - including its genetics, clinical phenotype, metastatic pattern, and chemosensitivity - most experts continue to manage ILC and IDC identically in the adjuvant setting. Here we address this discrepancy by comparing early-stage ILC and IDC in two breast cancer patient cohorts of differing nationality and ethnicity. The clinicopathologic features of 2029 consecutive breast cancer patients diagnosed in Hong Kong (HK) and Australia (AUS) were compared. Interrelationships between tumor histology and other clinicopathologic variables, including ER/PR and Ki67, were analysed. Two hundred thirty-nine patients were identified with ILC (11.8%) and 1790 patients with IDC. AUS patients were older (p <0.001) and more often postmenopausal (p <0.03) than HK patients. As expected, ILC tumors were lower in grade and proliferative rate, and more often ER-positive and HER2-negative, than IDC (p <0.002); yet despite this, ILC tumors were as likely as IDC to present with nodal metastases (p >0.7). Moreover, whereas IDC tumors exhibited a strongly negative relationship between ER/PR and Ki67 status (p <0.0005), ILC tumors failed to demonstrate any such inverse relationship (p >0.6). These data imply that the primary adhesion defect in ILC underlies a secondary stromal-epithelial disconnect between hormonal signaling and tumor growth, suggesting in turn that this peritumoral feedback defect could reduce both the antimetastatic (adjuvant) and tumorilytic (palliative) efficacy of cytotoxic therapies for such tumors. Hence, we caution against assuming similar adjuvant chemotherapeutic survival benefits for ILC and IDC tumors with similar ER and Ki67, whether based on immunohistochemical or gene expression assays.

  2. Neuroendocrine differentiation in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Houcine, Yoldez; Chelly, Ines; Zehani, Alia; Belhaj Kacem, Linda; Azzouz, Haifa; Rekik, Wafa; C, Hend; Haouet, Slim; Kchir, Nidhameddine

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the prototypical basaloid tumor of the skin. It may show various patterns simulating other cutaneous tumors due to its pleomorphism. It may have an unusal pattern of differentiation such as squamous, sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine, pilar, and endocrine differentiation. In order to establish the relative frequency of neuroendocrine differentiation in BCC, we performed a retrospective study of 33 consecutive BCCs using conventional immunohistochemistry with two neuroendocrine antibodies: Chromogranine A and synaptophysine. The age of the patients ranged from 17-83 years with mean of 65 years. The male to female ratio was 16:17. In immunohistochimestry, Chromogranine A was seen in 72.2% (24/33) while Synaptophysine was positive in 9.09% (3/33). Their expression was cytoplasmic and membranous and was seen in the periphery of these tumors in the overlying cells. Positive staining of chromogranine A was high (75-100% of tumors cells) in 9%, intermediate (25-75% of tumors cells) in 33% of cases and relatively low (<25%) in 30.3% of cases.

  3. Unusual Metastasis of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma to the Breast: A Cytological and Histopathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Parul; Gandhi, Jatin S; Sharma, Anila; Gupta, Manoj; Choudhary, Partha S

    2018-01-01

    Breast metastases are a relatively rare condition and account for approximately 0.5–2% of all breast tumors. Recognition of metastatic tumors in the breast is important because it would prevent unnecessary mutilating surgery and would lead to appropriate treatment of the primary tumor. Breast metastases from medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) are very rare with only 21 reported cases in the literature. Some MTCs mimic primary invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast histopathologically and radiologically, making the distinction between the two diagnostically challenging. We present the case of a 45-year-old female presenting with a lump breast, which was later found out to be metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid. PMID:29643661

  4. In-silico insights on the prognostic potential of immune cell infiltration patterns in the breast lobular epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, J. C. L.; Schaadt, N. S.; Schönmeyer, R.; Brieu, N.; Forestier, G.; Wemmert, C.; Feuerhake, F.; Hatzikirou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Scattered inflammatory cells are commonly observed in mammary gland tissue, most likely in response to normal cell turnover by proliferation and apoptosis, or as part of immunosurveillance. In contrast, lymphocytic lobulitis (LLO) is a recurrent inflammation pattern, characterized by lymphoid cells infiltrating lobular structures, that has been associated with increased familial breast cancer risk and immune responses to clinically manifest cancer. The mechanisms and pathogenic implications related to the inflammatory microenvironment in breast tissue are still poorly understood. Currently, the definition of inflammation is mainly descriptive, not allowing a clear distinction of LLO from physiological immunological responses and its role in oncogenesis remains unclear. To gain insights into the prognostic potential of inflammation, we developed an agent-based model of immune and epithelial cell interactions in breast lobular epithelium. Physiological parameters were calibrated from breast tissue samples of women who underwent reduction mammoplasty due to orthopedic or cosmetic reasons. The model allowed to investigate the impact of menstrual cycle length and hormone status on inflammatory responses to cell turnover in the breast tissue. Our findings suggested that the immunological context, defined by the immune cell density, functional orientation and spatial distribution, contains prognostic information previously not captured by conventional diagnostic approaches. PMID:27659691

  5. In-silico insights on the prognostic potential of immune cell infiltration patterns in the breast lobular epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, J. C. L.; Schaadt, N. S.; Schönmeyer, R.; Brieu, N.; Forestier, G.; Wemmert, C.; Feuerhake, F.; Hatzikirou, H.

    2016-09-01

    Scattered inflammatory cells are commonly observed in mammary gland tissue, most likely in response to normal cell turnover by proliferation and apoptosis, or as part of immunosurveillance. In contrast, lymphocytic lobulitis (LLO) is a recurrent inflammation pattern, characterized by lymphoid cells infiltrating lobular structures, that has been associated with increased familial breast cancer risk and immune responses to clinically manifest cancer. The mechanisms and pathogenic implications related to the inflammatory microenvironment in breast tissue are still poorly understood. Currently, the definition of inflammation is mainly descriptive, not allowing a clear distinction of LLO from physiological immunological responses and its role in oncogenesis remains unclear. To gain insights into the prognostic potential of inflammation, we developed an agent-based model of immune and epithelial cell interactions in breast lobular epithelium. Physiological parameters were calibrated from breast tissue samples of women who underwent reduction mammoplasty due to orthopedic or cosmetic reasons. The model allowed to investigate the impact of menstrual cycle length and hormone status on inflammatory responses to cell turnover in the breast tissue. Our findings suggested that the immunological context, defined by the immune cell density, functional orientation and spatial distribution, contains prognostic information previously not captured by conventional diagnostic approaches.

  6. CELL CARCINOMA].

    PubMed

    Drvar, D Ledić; Lipozenčić, J; Mokos, Z Bukvić; Ilić, I; Knežević, F

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of cancer, in particular skin cancer, has been observed in the last few decades. Skin cancer represents a significant public health problem in Croatia and worldwide. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant tumor arising in epidermal keratinocytes. Together with basal cell carcinoma it belongs to non-melanoma skin cancers, which are the most common cancers in humans. The lifetime risk of cSCC development in Caucasian population is nowadays estimated to about 15%, which makes it double compared to 20 years ago. The most probable causes are increased ultraviolet light (UV) exposure (exposure to artificial UV sources in suntan parlors, spending more time outdoors, changes in fashion, as well as ozone holes), and longer life expectancy. In its etiopathogenesis, important risk factors include genetic factors, fair-skin phototype, UV exposure, chronic degenerative and inflammatory conditions, chemical factors, oncogenic viruses, immunosuppression, ionizing radiation, as well as habitual risk factors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family is involved in the control of multiple signal pathways. Their dysregulation is associated with development of many cancers such as breast carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, carcinoma of pancreas, head and neck carcinoma, as well as glioblastoma. The objective of our investigation was to establish if there is association of the skin phototype and UV exposure with the expression of HER receptors, Ki67 and p53 in patients with cSCC. Study group included 101 cSCC patients. Inclusion criteria were age >50, both sexes, histopathologically confirmed cSCC, no previous therapy, specimens sufficient for immunohistochemistry, and complete clinical data collected by a questionnaire. Material obtained by excisional biopsy was completely histopathologically evaluated and additional tissue slices were immunohistochemically analyzed. Statistical analysis of the sample

  7. Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Arising in a Lipoleiomyosarcoma of the Uterus: Report of a Case With Genetic Profiling by a Next Generation Sequencing Panel.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Stamatakos, Michael D; Moyer, Ann M; Park, Kay J; Fairbairn, Melissa; Fader, Amanda N

    2016-07-01

    Uterine tumors with adipocytic differentiation are very uncommon. Mature adipocytes are sometimes seen as an element of smooth muscle neoplasms, more often as lipoleiomyoma, but also in the rare lipoleiomyosarcoma. Exceptional cases have been reported of various subtypes of liposarcoma associated with uterine smooth muscle tumors with or without adipocytic differentiation. We present a case of pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a lipoleiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Genomic profiling was performed using a validated next generation sequencing panel covering 410 common cancer genes. Alterations were identified in TP53, PTEN, RB1, FAT1 and TERT. The patient's presentation and clinical course as well as the tumor's morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic findings are reviewed.

  8. Basaloid and warty carcinomas of the vulva. Distinctive types of squamous cell carcinoma frequently associated with human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Kurman, R J; Toki, T; Schiffman, M H

    1993-02-01

    In a previous study, we described an elevated prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in two specific types of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva designated basaloid carcinoma (BC) and warty carcinoma (WC) compared with the conventional type of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (KSC). To determine whether there were other differences in their clinical presentation or behavior, we examined 100 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva classified as BC (28 cases), WC (seven cases), and KSC (65 cases). We included only cases in which tissue adjacent to the tumor was present so that the presence of intraepithelial lesions (squamous hyperplasia, lichen sclerosus, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [VIN]) could be correlated with the different types of invasive carcinomas. Microscopically, BC was characterized by a relatively uniform population of small, ovoid cells with a high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio resembling VIN 3. Although WC was similar to typical squamous cell carcinoma, it contained many squamous cells that displayed marked nuclear pleomorphism, enlargement, atypia, and multinucleation in conjunction with cytoplasmic cavitation resembling koilocytotic atypia in intraepithelial lesions. The majority of the women with BC and WC were less than 60 years of age, and the proportion of black women was higher as compared with the women with KSC, the majority of whom were white and over 65 years of age. On crude comparison, women with BC appeared to have a survival advantage compared with women with KSC; however, through multivariate modelling, when all possible confounding variables were taken into account, there was little residual impression of a survival advantage of women with BC compared with those having KSC. Substantial differences were found among the three types of carcinoma with regard to the prevalence of adjacent intraepithelial lesions. Squamous hyperplasia was found adjacent to KSC in 54 (83%) of the 65 cases, whereas 27 (77%) of 35 cases of

  9. Induction of lymphomas on implantation of human oral squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Teni, T R; Saranath, D; Mahale, A M; Pai, S A; Ahire, S D; Ingle, A D

    2001-02-01

    Cancer cells from five oral cancer patients and pleomorphic adenoma cells from one individual were inoculated as single cell suspension into subcutis of 30 Swiss nude mice and tail vein of additional 30 mice. Further, tumor tissue pieces from three oral cancer patients were xenografted s.c. in 18 nude mice, and 10 mice were kept as controls. In animals implanted with tumor pieces, 7/18 (39%) mice, developed squamous cell carcinoma at the site of inoculation within 8-15 days, while tumors were not observed in mice inoculated with single cell suspension, up to 60/90 days. In 8/68 (12%) mice, white foci were observed in several tissues, with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly noted in 27/68 (39%) mice. Histopathological examination of various tissues revealed presence of large cell lymphoma in several organs in 14/68 (21%) mice. No regional or distant metastasis of the implanted oral tumor cells was detected. Mice injected with cells from pleomorphic adenoma, also demonstrated large cell lymphoma in 2/10 (20%) mice, whereas none of the 10 control animals showed any gross abnormalities or microscopic abnormalities in several organs. 2/16 (12%) lymphomas exhibited positive reaction with mouse B cell antibodies illustrating the murine origin of the lymphomas, and these were immunophenotyed as B cell lymphomas. The lymphomas were also examined with mouse T cell antibodies and none reacted positively with the mouse T cell antibodies. The lymphomas also failed to react with human T cell, B cell and human Leucocyte common antigen (LCA) antibodies, indicating that the induced lymphomas were not of human origin. The tumor specimens from seven of eight oral cancer patients and the pleomorphic adenoma patient induced lymphomas in nude mice. Thus it appears that xenografting oral tumor cells into nude mice may cause induction of the murine lymphomas, and this needs further investigation.

  10. Cyto-histopathological and outcome features of the prepuce squamous cell carcinoma of a mixed breed dog

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are uncommon, high-grade tumors, predominantly composed of round cells in the prepuce. The aim of this study is to better define the clinicopathologic features of this neoplasm. Case report We conducted cyto-histopathologic analysis on the manifestations of the prepuce SCC by H & E staining in a terrier mix dog. Grossly, tumor was large, multiple erythematous patch, and ulcerated masses frequently affecting the prepuce and deeply invading to distal prepuce out from the ventro-lateral of penis and the tumor covered by a necrotic discharge. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the cutaneous mass from the prepuce comprised of round nuclei, coarse chromatin pattern, distinct nucleoli and nuclear pleomorphism. Furthermore, the neoplastic cells were pleomorphic, round to caudate in shape, exhibiting prominent anisokaryosis and anisocytosis with rare mitotic features. Microscopically, the lesions were predominantly composed of atypical round cells disposed in interlacing fascicles. Frequent findings include keratin formation, horn pearls, mitoses and cellular atypia. The cells showed distinct borders, ranged from polygonal to round or elongate and had moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Conclusion The histopathologic features coupled with the cytopathology findings led to a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that multiple erythematous plaques have undergone malignant transformation in a terrier mix dog. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5748771971272873 PMID:24903567

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is uncommon in the United States, with only 0.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,00 people; this is in contrast to southern China and Hong Kong, where the incidence is 25 to 50 per 100,000 people. There is a potential link between Epstein-Barr virus and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiotherapy alone as a single modality leads to similar 10-year survival rates in United States, Denmark, and Hong Kong (34%, 37%, and 43%, respectively). Multiple studies have shown an advantage to concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of advanced disease. Radiation therapy remains the mainstay of salvage therapy, and modern techniques have allowed clinicians to achieve adequate local control without excessive toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the anterior mediastinum: A case report with cytological features of imprint and liquid-based cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Yoshimi; Hirato, Junko; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-04-01

    We herein report the cytological features of a very rare case of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the anterior mediastinum on imprint and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens. A 58-year-old man had an approximately 10-cm tumor in the anterior mediastinum as shown on computed tomography. Thymectomy with complete resection of the left lung was performed. The fresh cut surface of the tumor was used to prepare imprint and LBC specimens. The imprint specimens showed four types of tumor cells dispersed on a background of hemorrhage, necrosis, and mucus. On the other hand, only two types of tumor cells (spindle-shaped and spiderweb cells) were scattered or present in clusters in the LBC specimens. Immunocytologically, both of these cell types were positive for desmin and myoglobin, negative for pan-keratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytological and immunocytological features are useful for the correct diagnosis of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, and LBC specimens show clearer results than do imprint specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:333-338. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  14. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-22

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Comparative study of cell alterations in oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (p<0.05). Despite the fact that in some cases, some pathologists may make mistakes in the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.

  16. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Two Cases with Gastric Metastasis Originating from Breast Carcinoma, One with a Metachronous Primary Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Banias, Laura; Bara, Tivadar; Feher, I; Bara, Tivadar; Jung, Ioan

    2018-01-01

    Metastases to the stomach are extremely rare and the metastatic pathway is not well understood. To present two unusual gastric metastases and a review of the literature regarding the pathway of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in the metastatic cells. The clinicopathological aspects of the two cases were presented in the light of the most recent patents. Data about patents were obtained from the online databases PubMed, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Google patents. In the first case, in a 73-year-old female, total gastrectomy was performed for a Gastric Cancer (GC) that was proved to be, based on the immunohistochemical features (positivity for mammaglobin and estrogen receptor and negativity for E-cadherin, β-catenin, CD44 and maspin), a metastasis from an invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, that was later confirmed. In the second case, a 67-year-old female with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, which benefited from chemotherapy and mastectomy, presented a metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma with collision-type metastatic breast ductal carcinoma. The aggressiveness of the GC cells was induced through the E-cadherin/maspin pathway, while the CD44-related stem-like properties of the tumor cells induced the aggressiveness of ductal carcinoma. In females with breast cancer, a possible metastasis in the stomach should be taken into account. Maspin and VSIG1 are not involved in breast cancer histogenesis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not involved in the lobular carcinoma progression. The CD44/HER2 positivity in ductal carcinoma cells might indicate high risk of distant metastasis and low response to chemotherapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  18. LS-CAP: an algorithm for identifying cytogenetic aberrations in hepatocellular carcinoma using microarray data.

    PubMed

    He, Xianmin; Wei, Qing; Sun, Meiqian; Fu, Xuping; Fan, Sichang; Li, Yao

    2006-05-01

    Biological techniques such as Array-Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and affymetrix single nucleotide pleomorphism (SNP) array have been used to detect cytogenetic aberrations. However, on genomic scale, these techniques are labor intensive and time consuming. Comparative genomic microarray analysis (CGMA) has been used to identify cytogenetic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using gene expression microarray data. However, CGMA algorithm can not give precise localization of aberrations, fails to identify small cytogenetic changes, and exhibits false negatives and positives. Locally un-weighted smoothing cytogenetic aberrations prediction (LS-CAP) based on local smoothing and binomial distribution can be expected to address these problems. LS-CAP algorithm was built and used on HCC microarray profiles. Eighteen cytogenetic abnormalities were identified, among them 5 were reported previously, and 12 were proven by CGH studies. LS-CAP effectively reduced the false negatives and positives, and precisely located small fragments with cytogenetic aberrations.

  19. Immunohistochemical features of a papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium with transitional cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    An 84-year-old woman underwent hysterectomy due to a friable endometrial mass infiltrating almost half way through the myometrial wall. The tumor consisted of papillary structures with thin fibrovascular cores covered by several layers of pleomorphic cells. The deeply located neoplastic cells were ovoid with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm resembling urothelial cells. A diagnosis of papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium with transitional cell differentiation was made. Although she recovered well after surgery, she died one year later because of disseminated disease. In an attempt to obtain new insights into the physiopathology of this very rare tumor, an immunohistochemical panel with 32 markers was performed. The neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin 5, vimentin, p63, p21, VEGF, Ki67, BAG1, and bcl-2. The expression of BAG-1 and bcl-2 may suggest that anti-apoptotic stimuli are preponderant in this neoplasm. PMID:17645802

  20. Radial scars diagnosed on breast core biopsy: Frequency of atypia and carcinoma on excision and implications for management.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Alana R; Sieck, Leah; Booth, Christine N; Calhoun, Benjamin C

    2016-12-01

    The risk of finding carcinoma in excisions following a core needle biopsy diagnosis of radial scar is not well defined and clinical management is variable. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of high-risk lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma in excisions following a core biopsy diagnosis of radial scar. Dedicated breast pathologists and radiologists correlated the histologic and radiologic findings and categorized radial scars as the target lesion or an incidental finding. High-risk lesions were defined as atypical hyperplasia or classical lobular carcinoma in situ. Of the 79 radial scars identified over a 14-year period, 22 were associated with atypia or carcinoma in the core biopsy. Thirty-seven (37) of the 57 benign radial scars underwent excision with benign findings in 30 (81%), high-risk lesions in six (16%), and flat epithelial atypia in one (3%). There were no upgrades to carcinoma. One patient with a benign radial scar developed a 3-mm focus of intermediate-grade estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinoma in situ in the same quadrant of the ipsilateral breast 72 months after excision. One patient with an incidental un-excised benign radial scar was diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ at a separate site of suspicious calcifications. In this series, none of the benign radial scars was upgraded to carcinoma. Radial scar was the targeted lesion in all cases with high-risk lesions on excision. Surgical excision may not be mandatory for patients with benign incidental radial scars on core biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arenberg, Douglas

    2011-02-01

    This review focuses on aspects of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) in which it differs importantly from other forms of non-small-cell lung cancer. BAC is a form of adenocarcinoma with unique clinical, radiological, and epidemiological features. With the notable exception of a lower likelihood of a positive positron-emission tomographic (PET) scan in BAC, staging, diagnosis, and treatment are largely the same as for other histological subtypes of lung cancer. However, additional treatment options exist that are equivalent, if not more effective, for many patients with BAC. The diagnosis of BAC should be reserved for those tumors meeting the 1999/2004 criteria set forth by the World Health Organization. Revised nomenclature proposed by an expert consensus panel may change how this disease is viewed. Additional clinical trials are needed on patients with BAC, employing strict definitions and enrollment criteria to allow the results to be applied to appropriate patient populations. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. [Bronchoalveolar carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wislez, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Milleron, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar carcinoma is one of the four histologic subtypes of adenocarcinoma and its incidence is increasing. It grows in a lepidic fashion along the alveolar septa without invasive growth. The lack of invasive growth is an essential criterion based on data indicating that patients may be curable by surgical resection. The revised definition seems to be suitable for its solitary nodular form but less for multifocal or pneumonic-type form. High-resolution lung CT-scan is necessary to evaluate pulmonary involvement because of the high frequency of multifocal disease at initial presentation and because of the presence of ground glass opacity that could be one of the first manifestation of cancer bronchiolo-alvéolaireon CT. Therapeutic management does not differ from the one of non small cell lung cancer. Solitary nodules are treated by surgical resection with a good prognosis while multifocal and/or pneumonic forms are treated by systemic chemotherapy with a worse prognosis.

  3. Pathology of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lax, Sigurd F

    2017-01-01

    On a clinicopathological and molecular level, two distinctive types of endometrial carcinoma, type I and type II, can be distinguished. Endometrioid carcinoma, the typical type I carcinoma, seems to develop through an estrogen-driven "adenoma carcinoma" pathway from atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AEH/EIN). It is associated with elevated serum estrogen and high body mass index and expresses estrogen and progesterone receptors. They are mostly low grade and show a favorable prognosis. A subset progresses into high-grade carcinoma which is accompanied by loss of receptor expression and accumulation of TP53 mutations and behaves poorly. Other frequently altered genes in type I carcinomas are K-Ras, PTEN, and ß-catenin. Another frequent feature of type I carcinomas is microsatellite instability mainly caused by methylation of the MLH1 promoter. In contrast, the typical type II carcinoma, serous carcinoma, is not estrogen related since it usually occurs in a small uterus with atrophic endometrium. It is often associated with a flat putative precursor lesion called serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC). The molecular pathogenesis of serous carcinoma seems to be driven by TP53 mutations, which are present in SEIC. Other molecular changes in serous carcinoma detectable by immunohistochemistry involve cyclin E and p16. Since many of the aforementioned molecular changes can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, they are useful ancillary diagnostic tools and may further contribute to a future molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma as recently suggested based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.

  4. Mucinous metaplasia of breast carcinoma with macrocystic transformation resembling ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a case of synchronous bilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Huang; Chaung, Chen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) is a rare, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast that is virtually identical morphologically to MCA of the ovary, pancreas or appendix. Synchronous bilateral breast tumors, not uncommonly encountered in fibroadenoma and lobular carcinoma, are unusual in IDC. Reported herein is a primary MCA of the right breast coexisting with a bilateral ordinary IDC in a 55-year-old Taiwanese woman who underwent modified radical mastectomy of both breasts with bilateral axillary level I and II lymph node dissection. In the right breast a 2.5 cm unilocular mucus-filled cyst was found. It had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma, lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin and an abundance of intracystic extracellular mucin, coexisting with a low-grade ordinary IDC. In the left breast a high-grade ordinary IDC was discovered. The patient had undergone simple abdominal total hysterectomy for myoma uteri along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years previously. Based on pathological studies and a literature review, it is suggested that mammary MCA arises from mucinous metaplasia and macrocystic transformation of ordinary breast carcinoma. A brief discussion of bilateral breast cancers is also given.

  5. Idiopathic Granulomatous Lobular Mastitis – Report of 43 Cases from Iran; Introducing a Preliminary Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Omranipour, Ramesh; Mohammadi, S-Farzad; Samimi, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background We aimed to report a large series of idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) from Iran and sketch preliminary clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for approaching an inflammatory breast mass. Patients and Methods In a retrospective records review, 43 consecutive IGLM cases were studied. Data on baseline, clinical, imaging, and pathologic characteristics were collected. Results The mean age of the women was 33.5 years. All but 1 were married and had given birth. 16% had a cancer-like presentation. Inflammatory signs, architectural distortion, and a nodular pattern were the most common findings clinically, mammographically and ultrasonographically, respectively. 29.5% of the pathological reports indicated necrosis which was more common in younger subjects (p = 0.016); microabscesses were associated with a shorter lactation course (p = 0.006). Corticosteroids had been used as the initial treatment modality in 51%, immunosuppressive agents had not been administered, and a 16% relapse rate was recorded. We recognized the need for a multidisciplinary approach covering radiology, oncology, and surgery to best handle diagnostic and therapeutic issues and manage relevant infections as well as the major differential diagnosis, i.e. malignancy. Conclusion We hypothesized that a shorter lactation period may cause more milk stasis and extravasation and be contributory to IGLM. CPGs are needed to incorporate the needed multidisciplinary approach and to standardize IGLM care. We present one such guideline. PMID:24550752

  6. An improved protocol for optical projection tomography imaging reveals lobular heterogeneities in pancreatic islet and β-cell mass distribution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) imaging is a powerful tool for three-dimensional imaging of gene and protein distribution patterns in biomedical specimens. We have previously demonstrated the possibility, by this technique, to extract information of the spatial and quantitative distribution of the islets of Langerhans in the intact mouse pancreas. In order to further increase the sensitivity of OPT imaging for this type of assessment, we have developed a protocol implementing a computational statistical approach: contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE). We demonstrate that this protocol significantly increases the sensitivity of OPT imaging for islet detection, helps preserve islet morphology and diminish subjectivity in thresholding for tomographic reconstruction. When applied to studies of the pancreas from healthy C57BL/6 mice, our data reveal that, at least in this strain, the pancreas harbors substantially more islets than has previously been reported. Further, we provide evidence that the gastric, duodenal and splenic lobes of the pancreas display dramatic differences in total and relative islet and β-cell mass distribution. This includes a 75% higher islet density in the gastric lobe as compared to the splenic lobe and a higher relative volume of insulin producing cells in the duodenal lobe as compared to the other lobes. Altogether, our data show that CLAHE substantially improves OPT based assessments of the islets of Langerhans and that lobular origin must be taken into careful consideration in quantitative and spatial assessments of the pancreas. PMID:21633198

  7. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  8. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  9. Exploiting bilosomes for delivering bioactive polysaccharide isolated from Enteromorpha intestinalis for hacking hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matloub, Azza Abdelmageed; Salama, Alaa Hamed; Aglan, Hadeer Ahmed; AbouSamra, Mona Mahmoud; ElSouda, Sahar Salah Mohamed; Ahmed, Hanaa Hamdy

    2018-04-01

    Bile salts containing vesicles (bilosomes) represent a portentous vesicular carrier that showed prosperous results in delivering active moieties in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In this study, bilosomes were exploited to deliver sulfated polysaccharide-protein complexes of Enteromorpha intestinalis (EHEM) and enhance its activity against hepatocellular carcinoma as well as resist harsh GIT conditions. Bilosomes were prepared using the sodium salt of three different bile acids (cholic, deoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic) and two different nonionic surfactants (Span 40 and 65). The effects of experimental variables were thoroughly studied to obtain an optimum formulation loading EHEM. The selected formulation (EH-Bilo-2) prepared with sodium cholate and Span 65 displayed nano-sized (181.1 ± 16.80 nm) spherical vesicles with reasonable entrapment efficiency (71.60 ± 0.25%) and controlled release properties; and thus was investigated as anti-hepatocarcinogenic candidate for in vivo studies. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) bearing rats with EH-Bilo-2 experienced significant decrease in serum α-fetoprotein, endoglin, lipocalin-2, and heat shock protein 70 levels vs. the untreated counterparts. Furthermore, the photomicrographs of their liver tissue sections showed focal area of degenerated pleomorphic hepatocytes with fine fibrosis originating from the portal area. Thus, the optimized bilosomal formulation is a promising delegate for tackling hepatocellular carcinoma owing to its powerful anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic activity.

  10. Breast intraductal papillomas without atypia in radiologic-pathologic concordant core-needle biopsies: Rate of upgrade to carcinoma at excision.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Fresia; Corben, Adriana D; Brennan, Sandra B; Murray, Melissa P; Bowser, Zenica L; Jakate, Kiran; Sebastiano, Christopher; Morrow, Monica; Morris, Elizabeth A; Brogi, Edi

    2016-09-15

    The surgical management of mammary intraductal papilloma without atypia (IDP) identified at core-needle biopsy (CNB) is controversial. This study assessed the rate of upgrade to carcinoma at surgical excision (EXC). This study identified women with a CNB diagnosis of intraductal papilloma without atypia or carcinoma at a cancer center between 2003 and 2013. Radiologic-pathologic concordance was assessed for all cases, and discordant cases were excluded. The radiologic and clinicopathologic features of patients with a CNB diagnosis of IDP were correlated with an upgrade to carcinoma at EXC. The study population consists of 189 women with 196 IDPs; 166 women (171 IDPs) underwent EXC. The upgrade rate was 2.3% (4 of 171). The upgraded lesions were 2 invasive lobular carcinomas and 2 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). One case of DCIS involved the residual IDP, whereas the other 3 carcinomas were ≥ 8 mm away. Twenty-four women (25 IDPs) did not undergo EXC and had stable imaging on follow-up (median, 23.5 months). The upgrade rate at EXC for IDPs diagnosed at CNB with radiologic-pathologic concordance was 2.3%. These findings suggest that observation is appropriate for patients with radiologic-pathologic concordant CNB yielding IDP, regardless of its size. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2819-2827. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. An Extracranial Metastasis of Glioblastoma Mimicking Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jie, Wei-Ping; Bai, Jia-Ying; Li, Bin-Bin

    2018-05-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant tumor of the brain and central nervous system. Extracranial metastases of GBM are very rare, with few case reports published to date. The tumor cells of GBM show strong immunopositivity for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). A 47-year-old man without comorbidities presented with a 1-year history of an augmenting right parotid lump. A right total parotidectomy with selective neck dissection was performed. The hematoxylin-eosin stained slice of a parotid lymph node collected intraoperatively revealed destruction of normal lymph node structure by medium-sized pleomorphic cells scattered in groups; their cytoplasm was lightly stained and pale. There were abundant myxoid stroma in the interstitial tissue. This characteristic mimicked mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). Immunohistochemistry test demonstrated that the cells were positive for GFAP. A diagnosis of extracranial metastasis of GBM was made after confirmation with postoperative pathological examination of the intracranial resection specimen. We believe that this is the first reported case of extracranial metastasis of GBM resembling MEC in the microscope features. Pathologists and clinicians should be alert to this rare lesion and consider this differential diagnosis after excluding other common parotid lesions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    NICKELSEN, MARIE N.; VON HOLSTEIN, SARAH; HANSEN, ALASTAIR B.; PRAUSE, JAN U.; HEEGAARD, STEFFEN

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old female, with proptosis, reduced eye motility and diplopia which had developed over two to three months and a 69-year-old female with proptosis, oedema of the eyelid, reduced motility and ptosis, which had developed over three weeks, are presented in the present study. Computed tomography scans revealed irregular lacrimal gland tumours in the two patients. The two patients had history of breast cancer. The first breast cancer metastasis in the lacrimal gland demonstrated a cribriform growth pattern containing ductal elements. The epithelial tumour cells stained positive for cytokeratin (1–8, 10, 14–16, 18 and 19), oestrogen receptor, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). The second metastatic tumour was positive for EMA and estrogen receptor, but variably positive for CEA and GCDFP-15. The metastasis in the lacrimal gland was a pleomorphic tumour. The tumour cells were positive for EMA and variably positive for oestrogen and CEA. Metastases to the lacrimal gland are extremely rare, and metastases to the lacrimal gland should be considered in the diagnoses of lacrimal gland tumours. The present study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis. PMID:26622620

  14. Is the outcome at surgery different when flat epithelial atypia and lobular neoplasia are found in association at biopsy?

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Mona; Sanchez, Lilia Maria; Lalonde, Lucie; Trop, Isabelle; David, Julie; Mesurolle, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    To assess the impact on the final outcome at surgery of flat epithelial atypia (FEA) when found concomitantly with lobular neoplasia (LN) in biopsy specimens compared with pure biopsy-proven FEA. The approval from the institutional review board of the CHUM (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal) was obtained. A retrospective review of our database between 2009 and 2013 identified 81 females (mean age 54 years, range 38-90 years) with 81 FEA biopsy-proven lesions. These were pure or associated with LN only in 59/81 (73%) and 22/81 (27%) cases, respectively. Overall, 57/81 (70%) patients underwent surgery and 24/81 (30%) patients underwent mammographic surveillance with a mean follow-up of 36 months. FEA presented more often as microcalcifications in 68/81 (84%) patients and were mostly amorphous in 49/68 (72%). After excluding radio pathologically discordant cases, pure FEA proved to be malignant at surgery in 1/41 (2%; 95% confidence interval 0.06-12.9). There was no statistically significant difference in the upgrade to malignancy whether FEA lesions were pure or associated to LN at biopsy (p = 0.4245); however, when paired in biopsy specimens, these lesions were more frequently associated with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at surgery than with pure FEA (p = 0.012). Our results show a 2% upgrade rate to malignancy of pure FEA lesions. When FEA is found in association with LN at biopsy, surgical excision yields more frequently ADH than pure FEA thus warranting close surveillance or even surgical excision. Advances in knowledge: The association of LN with FEA at biopsy was more frequently associated with ADH at surgery than with pure FEA. If a biopsy-proven FEA lesion is deemed concordant with the imaging finding, when paired with LN at biopsy, careful surveillance or even surgical excision is suggested.

  15. Is the outcome at surgery different when flat epithelial atypia and lobular neoplasia are found in association at biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Lilia Maria; Lalonde, Lucie; Trop, Isabelle; David, Julie; Mesurolle, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact on the final outcome at surgery of flat epithelial atypia (FEA) when found concomitantly with lobular neoplasia (LN) in biopsy specimens compared with pure biopsy-proven FEA. Methods: The approval from the institutional review board of the CHUM (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal) was obtained. A retrospective review of our database between 2009 and 2013 identified 81 females (mean age 54 years, range 38–90 years) with 81 FEA biopsy-proven lesions. These were pure or associated with LN only in 59/81 (73%) and 22/81 (27%) cases, respectively. Overall, 57/81 (70%) patients underwent surgery and 24/81 (30%) patients underwent mammographic surveillance with a mean follow-up of 36 months. Results: FEA presented more often as microcalcifications in 68/81 (84%) patients and were mostly amorphous in 49/68 (72%). After excluding radio pathologically discordant cases, pure FEA proved to be malignant at surgery in 1/41 (2%; 95% confidence interval 0.06–12.9). There was no statistically significant difference in the upgrade to malignancy whether FEA lesions were pure or associated to LN at biopsy (p = 0.4245); however, when paired in biopsy specimens, these lesions were more frequently associated with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at surgery than with pure FEA (p = 0.012). Conclusion: Our results show a 2% upgrade rate to malignancy of pure FEA lesions. When FEA is found in association with LN at biopsy, surgical excision yields more frequently ADH than pure FEA thus warranting close surveillance or even surgical excision. Advances in knowledge: The association of LN with FEA at biopsy was more frequently associated with ADH at surgery than with pure FEA. If a biopsy-proven FEA lesion is deemed concordant with the imaging finding, when paired with LN at biopsy, careful surveillance or even surgical excision is suggested. PMID:28118035

  16. Temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and acquired BRAF mutation in an adolescent with the constitutional 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jeffrey C; Donahue, David J; Malik, Saleem I; Dzurik, Yvette B; Braly, Emily Z; Dougherty, Margaret J; Eaton, Katherine W; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2011-05-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS), is a rare and usually sporadic congenital genetic disorder resulting from a constitutional microdeletion at chromosome 22q11.2. While rare cases of malignancy have been described, likely due to underlying immunodeficiency, central nervous system tumors have not yet been reported. We describe an adolescent boy with DGS/VCFS who developed a temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array studies of the tumor confirmed a constitutional 22q11.21 deletion, and revealed acquired gains, losses and copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity of several chromosomal regions, including a homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A/B locus. The tumor also demonstrated a common V600E mutation in the BRAF oncogene. This is the first reported case of a patient with DiGeorge syndrome developing a CNS tumor of any histology and expands our knowledge about low-grade CNS tumor molecular genetics.

  17. Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas K

    2016-09-01

    This work presents experimental and analytical comparison of terahertz transmission and reflection imaging modes for assessing breast carcinoma in excised paraffin-embedded human breast tissue. Modeling for both transmission and reflection imaging is developed. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of the tissue samples are obtained. The reflection measurements taken at the system's fixed oblique angle of 30° are shown to be a hybridization of TE and TM modes. The models are validated with transmission spectroscopy at fixed points on fresh bovine muscle and fat tissues. Images based on the calculated absorption coefficient and index of refraction of bovine tissue are successfully compared with the terahertz magnitude and phase measured in the reflection mode. The validated techniques are extended to 20 and 30 μm slices of fixed human lobular carcinoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma mounted on polystyrene microscope slides in order to investigate the terahertz differentiation of the carcinoma with non-cancerous tissue. Both transmission and reflection imaging show clear differentiation in carcinoma versus healthy tissue. However, when using the reflection mode, in the calculation of the thin tissue properties, the absorption is shown to be sensitive to small phase variations that arise due to deviations in slide and tissue thickness and non-ideal tissue adhesion. On the other hand, the results show that the transmission mode is much less sensitive to these phase variations. The results also demonstrate that reflection imaging provides higher resolution and more clear margins between cancerous and fibroglandular regions, cancerous and fatty regions, and fibroglandular and fatty tissue regions. In addition, more features consistent with high power pathology images are exhibited in the reflection mode images.

  18. Invasive urothelial carcinoma exhibiting basal cell immunohistochemical markers: A variant of urothelial carcinoma associated with aggressive features.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kien T; Truong, Luan D; Ball, Christopher G; Williams, Phillip; Flood, Trevor A; Belanger, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    We characterize invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) exhibiting urothelial basal cell immunohistochemical markers. Consecutive invasive UCs were immunostained with CK20 and urothelial basal cell markers, cytokeratin 5 (CK5)/CD44. Immunostaining for CK5 and CD44 was scored as follows: positive for staining of more than 25% thickness of the epithelial nest or epithelium and low for lesser immunoreactivity. Invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) exhibiting positive CK5/CD44 staining was designated as basal-like UC (BUC). In this study, of 251 invasive UC (pT1 in 57% and pT2-4 in 43%), BUC accounted for 40% of cases (accounting for most pT2-4 UC) and often presented as non-papillary UC without previous history of UC. In addition, BUC exhibited uniform nuclei with lesser degree of atypia than non BUC and decreased or negative cytokeratin 20 reactivity. Nested and microcystic variants of UC immunohistochemically stained as BUCs. Invasive non-BUCs were often papillary with marked cytologic atypia and pleomorphism, and accounted for most pT1 UC. The rates of perivesical invasion, lymph node and distant metastases were higher for BUC than non-BUC. All nine cases with absent/minimal residual in situ UC in 102 radical cystectomy specimens were from invasive non-BUC. BUC is distinguished from non-BUC due to this aggressive behavior, distinct immunohistochemical profile, and predominant non-papillary architecture. Our findings are consistent with recent studies identifying a subtype of muscle-invasive UC with molecular expression of basal cell and luminal cell molecular profiles. Our study further supports categorizing invasive UCs into these subtypes with different biological behaviors, possibly contributing to better therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Upper tract urothelial carcinomas: frequency of association with mismatch repair protein loss and lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harper, Holly L; McKenney, Jesse K; Heald, Brandie; Stephenson, Andrew; Campbell, Steven C; Plesec, Thomas; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Increased risk for upper tract urothelial carcinoma is described in patients with Lynch syndrome, caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. We aimed to identify the frequency of mismatch repair protein loss in upper tract urothelial carcinoma and its potential for identifying an association with Lynch syndrome. We queried our database to identify upper tract urothelial carcinomas. Patients were cross-referenced for history of colorectal carcinoma or other common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms to enrich for potential Lynch syndrome cases. Tumor histopathologic characteristics were reviewed and each case was analyzed for loss of mismatch repair proteins, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, by immunohistochemistry. Of 444 patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma, a subset of 215 (encompassing 30 with upper tract urothelial carcinoma and another common Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasm) was analyzed for loss of mismatch repair protein expression. Of 30 patients with Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms, six had documented Lynch syndrome, including two with Muir-Torre syndrome. Mismatch repair protein loss was identified in 7% of total upper tract urothelial carcinomas and 30% of patients with Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms (including all patients with Lynch syndrome/Muir-Torre syndrome). Of patients without history of Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms, 5 of 184 (2.7%) had loss of mismatch repair protein expression. Twelve cases with mismatch repair protein loss demonstrated loss of MSH2 and MSH6, and 2 had isolated loss of MSH6. MLH1 and PMS2 expression were consistently retained. Although increased intratumoral lymphocytes, inverted growth, pushing tumor-stromal interface, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism were more commonly seen in cases with mismatch repair protein loss, only intratumoral lymphocytes and presence of pushing borders were statistically significant. MLH1 and PMS2 testing appear to have little utility in upper tract urothelial

  20. Intraductal Therapy of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Presurgery Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, M. Ellen; Gordon, Eva J.; Rao, Jian Yu; Jin, Yusheng; Hylton, Nola; Love, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Many women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are treated with extensive surgery, radiation, and hormone therapy due to the inability to monitor the disease and to determine which cases will progress to invasive cancer. We assessed the safety and feasibility of administering chemotherapy directly into DCIS-containing ducts in 13 women before definitive surgery. The treatment was safe, feasible, and well tolerated, supporting further development of this strategy for management of DCIS. Introduction Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive breast cancer wherein malignant cells are confined within a ductal lobular unit. Although less than half the cases of DCIS will progress to invasive disease, most women are treated aggressively with surgery, radiation, and/or hormone therapy due to the inability to clinically evaluate the extent and location of the disease. Intraductal therapy, in which a drug is administered directly into the mammary duct through the nipple, is a promising approach for treating DCIS, but the feasibility of instilling drug into a diseased duct has not been established. Patients and Methods Four to 6 weeks before their scheduled surgery, 13 women diagnosed with DCIS were subjected to cannulation of the affected duct. After both the absence of perforation and presence of dye in the duct were confirmed by ductogram, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin was instilled. Histopathologic assessment was performed after surgery to assess the treatment effects. Results Of the 13 women enrolled in the study, 6 had their DCIS duct successfully cannulated without perforation and instilled with the drug. The treatment was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events have been reported. Biomarker studies indicated a general decrease in Ki-67 levels but an increase in annexin-1 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the lumen of DCIS-containing ducts, which suggests a local response to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment. Conclusions Intraductal therapy offers

  1. Hsp27 (HSPB1) differential expression in normal salivary glands and pleomorphic adenomas and association with an increased Bcl2/Bax ratio.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Elisa C de; Souza, Fabrício T A; Diniz, Marina G; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland neoplasm. The Hsp27 (HSPB1) is an antiapoptotic protein whose synthesis follows cytotoxic stresses and result in a transient increase in tolerance to subsequent cell injury. Although Hsp27 is expressed in a range of normal tissues and neoplasms, a wide variation in its expression exists among different cells and tissues types. In certain tumours of glandular origin (such as oesophageal adenocarcinomas), the level of Hsp27 is decreased. In the present study, Hsp27 protein levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a set of 18 fresh PA and 12 normal salivary gland samples. In addition, we tested if Hsp27 protein levels correlated with p53 expression and cell proliferation index, as well as with the transcriptional levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and Caspase 3 in PA. We further tested the association between Hsp27 expression and PA tumour size. While all normal salivary gland samples expressed Hsp27 protein, only half of the PA samples expressed it, resulting in a reduced expression of Hsp27 in PA when compared with normal salivary glands (P = 0.003). The expression levels of this protein correlated positively with a higher messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) ratio of Bcl2/Bax (R = 0.631; P = 0.01). In conclusion, a decreased Hsp27 protein expression level in PA was found. In addition, Hsp27 levels correlated positively with the Bcl2/Bax mRNA ratio, suggesting an antiapoptotic effect.

  2. Establishment and proteomic characterization of a novel cell line, NCC-UPS2-C1, derived from a patient with undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Rieko; Kito, Fusako; Sakumoto, Marimu; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Toki, Shunichi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2018-03-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is an aggressive mesenchymal malignancy requiring novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcome. Patient-derived cancer cell lines are an essential tool for investigating molecular mechanisms underlying cancer initiation and development; however, there is a lack of patient-derived cell lines of UPS available for research. The objective of this study was to develop a patient-derived cell model of UPS. A cell line designated NCC-UPS2-C1 was established from the primary tumor tissue of an 84-yr-old female patient with UPS. The short tandem repeat pattern of NCC-UPS2-C1 cells was identical to that of the original tumor and distinct from that of any other cell lines deposited in public cell banks. NCC-UPS2-C1 cells were maintained as a monolayer culture for over 80 passages during 30 mo and exhibited spindle-like morphology, continuous growth, and ability for spheroid formation and invasion. Proteomic profiling using mass spectrometry and functional treemap analysis revealed that the original tumor and the derived NCC-UPS2-C1 cells had similar but distinct protein expression patterns. Our results indicate that a novel UPS cell line was successfully established and could be used to study UPS development and effects of anti-cancer drugs. However, the revealed difference between proteomes of the original tumor and NCC-UPS2-C1 cells should be further investigated to determine the appropriate applications of this cell line in UPS research.

  3. Recent advances in mucin immunohistochemistry in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Farzana

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on the immunohistochemical expression of members of the MUC-type mucin family in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Information is available on changes in the expression levels and distribution profiles of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6 and MUC7 in tumors of the salivary glands; and of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in HNSCC. In salivary gland tumors the expression patterns of MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC and MUC6 appear to be very closely correlated with the histopathological tumor type indicating their potential use to improve diagnostic accuracy in salivary gland neoplasia. Some MUC-type mucins have emerged as valuable prognostic indicators in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and HNSCC. Nine antibodies directed against different MUC1 antigens have thus far been examined in HNSCC of which monoclonal antibodies DF3, HMFG-1 and Ma695 have shown significant correlations with disease outcome. The importance of taking the specific anti-MUC antibody into consideration when comparing the results of different studies on MUC expression in salivary gland tumors and HNSCC is also highlighted in this review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Fuhrman grading system has no prognostic value in patients with nonsarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Sandra; Janssen, Martin; Roos, Frederik C; Becker, Frank; Steinestel, Julie; Abbas, Mahmoud; Steinestel, Konrad; Wegener, Gerd; Siemer, Stefan; Thüroff, Joachim W; Hofmann, Rainer; Stöckle, Michael; Schrader, Mark; Hartmann, Arndt; Hasenfus, Andrea; Kuczyk, Markus A; Junker, Kerstin; Schrader, Andres J

    2014-12-01

    The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P = .01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P = .04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P = .58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P = .4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bexarotene in Preventing Breast Cancer in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-16

    Atypical Ductal Breast Hyperplasia; Atypical Lobular Breast Hyperplasia; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; No Evidence of Disease

  6. Organotropism and prognostic marker discordance in distant metastases of breast carcinoma: fact or fiction? A clinicopathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    St Romain, Paul; Madan, Rashna; Tawfik, Ossama W; Damjanov, Ivan; Fan, Fang

    2012-03-01

    Prior studies have suggested that the type of breast cancer influences the location of distant metastases ("organotropism") and that there may be discordance of estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) expression between primaries and metastases. Our aims were to investigate the relationship between tumor type and metastatic site and to compare biomarker expression between primary and metastatic tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 102 biopsy-proven cases of breast cancer metastatic to distant sites from 2000 to 2010 and 34 corresponding primaries for histologic subtype, grade, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, and expression of estrogen receptor and Her2. Most metastases were of ductal (88) and lobular (11) histologic types. Available data on primaries indicated that the majority were grade III with positive lymph node metastasis and lymphovascular invasion. Biomarkers on 73 metastases showed 37 estrogen receptor positive/Her2-, 6 estrogen receptor positive/Her2+, 8 estrogen receptor negative/Her2+, and 22 estrogen receptor negative/Her2-. The most common metastatic sites were the lung (26%), bone (32%), and liver (21%). We found no association between estrogen receptor/Her2 profile and metastatic site (P = .16). When compared with ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma showed a unique metastatic pattern to gastrointestinal tract/gynecologic sites (P = .014). Of 34 cases with paired prognostic markers for primary and metastatic sites, 7 (20%) demonstrated discordance in estrogen receptor-positive/Her2 profile between the primary and the metastasis. Because the estrogen receptor-positive/Her2 profile of metastatic breast cancer did not always match that of the primary tumor, it is important to repeat the prognostic markers of metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case of adequate fine-needle aspiration cytology specimens rendering a conclusive diagnosis possible.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Watanabe, Jiro; Ariyasu, Sanae; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Kurose, Nozomu; Fukushima, Kei; Yamada, Sohsuke

    2018-01-01

    An 80-year-old male presented with a history of a hard right parotid mass that had gradually increased in size, with subsequent facial paralysis. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The cytologic specimens contained a substantial number of sheet-like clusters or small groups of a mixture of plasmacytoid, oval to spindled, or large epithelioid cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei, abundant cytoplasm with occasional inclusion body-like materials, and prominent nucleoli, in a relatively clear background. We first interpreted it as a carcinoma, suggestive of myoepithelial differentiation. Radical parotidectomy was performed, and a gross examination of the neoplasm revealed a non-capsulated and ill-defined tumor lesion, with a grayish or yellowish cut surface, associated with fat invasion. On a microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of the solid proliferation of atypical cells including a mixture of oval to spindled, plasmacytoid, or epithelioid cells, often arranged in a trabecular and reticular growth pattern with patchy eosinophilic hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed that the carcinoma cells were specifically positive for p63, cytokeratins, and vimentin. Finally, electron microscopy demonstrated that their phenotype was consistent with a myoepithelial origin containing many bundles of variably thin actin filaments. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma, defined as the malignant counterpart of benign myoepithelioma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic cytological features, cytopathologists may be able to make a correct diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma, based on multiple and adequate samplings.

  8. Metastatic gastric carcinoma from breast cancer mimicking primary linitis plastica: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Shozo; Yoshikawa, Akemi; Tsukioka, Yuji; Fukushima, Wataru; Fujimura, Takashi; Hirosawa, Hisashi; Izumi, Ryohei; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract rarely occur in breast cancer except in invasive lobular carcinoma. The present study reports a rare case of metastatic gastric cancer from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast mimicking primary gastric linitis plastica. A 51-year-old premenopausal female, who had a history of partial mastectomy for right breast cancer at the age of 40, was referred to Toyama City Hospital (Toyoma, Japan) for an endoscopic diagnosis of gastric linitis plastica. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed left hydronephrosis, while peritoneal metastasis and malignant ascites were not detected. Chest CT detected a left lung tumor, which had invaded the left upper bronchus. Biopsy specimens were obtained and the histopathological findings on both the gastric tumor and lung tumor demonstrated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas the histology of the original breast cancer was IDC with a solid-tubular type. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the biopsied specimens of the gastric and lung tumors were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and negative for human epithelial growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). These molecular characteristics indicated the case was metastatic gastric carcinoma from the breast cancer with lung metastasis, since the statuses of ER, PgR and HER2 were concordant with those of the original breast cancer. However, the possibility of primary gastric cancer could not be completely ruled out. Therefore, a total gastrectomy was performed for the purpose of both diagnosis and treatment. Pathological examination of the resected specimen provided a definite diagnosis of multiple metastatic gastric carcinomas from the breast. To the best of our knowledge, metastatic gastric cancer derived from the breast presenting as linitis plastica 11 years following the surgical removal of IDC has not been described previously.

  9. Endometrial Metastasis from Ductal Breast Carcinoma: A Case Report with Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Maryam; Nili, Fatemeh; Tabibian, Elnaz

    2018-04-27

    BACKGROUND There are few reports of breast cancer cases with uterine metastases; among them, myometrium is more frequently involved than endometrium. The majority of breast cancer metastases to endometrium are lobular type, and there have been only 5 reported cases of ductal type since 1984. Here, we describe a new case of invasive ductal carcinoma with metastases to endometrium and isolated presentation of abnormal uterine bleeding, in addition to reviewing the existing literature on other similar cases. CASE REPORT The patient was a 51-year-old Persian woman with no remarkable past medical or family history of cancer, who presented with a 6-month complaint of menorrhagia to our gynecology clinic. Diagnostic studies including trans-vaginal ultrasonography, pathological examination of endometrial curettage specimen, immunohistochemistry findings, and X-plane and magnetic resonance mammography, and breast core-needle biopsy revealed invasive ductal breast carcinoma as the origin of the endometrial metastasis. CONCLUSIONS Abnormal uterine bleeding in a premenopausal patient should alert clinicians to the possibility of secondary as well as primary neoplasms. It is necessary to differentiate a metastatic tumor from a primary one, since the treatment and prognosis are completely different.

  10. 3D-CRT, Proton, or Brachytherapy APBI in Treating Patients With Invasive and Non-invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-29

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Grade 1 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 2 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Grade 3 Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  11. Pre-operative effects of the administration of systemic corticosteroids combined with antibiotics on a lobular capillary hemangioma in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Yonekura, Shuji; Nakamura, Hiroko; Fujikawa, Akira; Okamoto, Yoshitaka

    2016-04-01

    Lobular capillary hemangiomas (LCHs), also known as pyogenic granulomas, are benign, rapidly growing hemorrhagic lesions that usually develop in the oral or nasal cavities. In adults, LCHs occur in <5% of all pregnant women. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of right-sided nasal obstruction and recurrent epistaxis 2 months post-partum. A fragile, pink-red lobulated tumor existed in the anterior portion of the right inferior turbinate; the biopsy revealed a LCH. Although the patient declined surgery using an external approach, treatment with systemic corticosteroids combined with antibiotics resulted in tumor regression and an endoscopic en bloc resection was possible. No recurrence has been noted to date (>1 year after surgery). Pre-operative treatment with systemic corticosteroids combined with antibiotics may be useful to induce tumor regression and to excise the lesion completely with an endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence of breast carcinoma in women with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R; Palmer, L; Taylor, S; Cooksley, C S

    1999-02-01

    Breast carcinoma and differentiated thyroid carcinoma(the most common endocrine malignancy) occur predominantly in women. An association between the two tumors has been suggested by some investigators, but the potential impact of treatment of one of these diseases on the development of the other remains unclear. The authors examined the relation between the occurrence of these two tumors. There were 41,686 patients with breast carcinoma and 3662 with thyroid carcinoma who registered at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between March 1944 and April 1997. Women who received both diagnoses since 1976 were identified and incidence rates and relative risks of secondary tumor development were calculated. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program data on the age-adjusted incidences of these diseases during the same time period were used for the expected incidences in the same population. Among 18,931 women with a diagnosis of breast carcinoma since 1976, 11 developed differentiated thyroid carcinoma > or = 2 years after the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. These breast carcinoma patients contributed 129,336 person-years of follow-up; the observed incidence of thyroid carcinoma in this group was not different from that in a similar age group of women in the SEER database. Among 1013 women with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma since 1976, 24 developed breast carcinoma > or = 2 years after the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. These thyroid carcinoma patients contributed 8380 person-years of follow-up; the observed incidence of breast carcinoma in women ages 40-49 years was significantly higher than the expected incidence for women in the same age group in the SEER database. Breast carcinoma developing after thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed more frequently than expected in young adult women seen at the study institution since 1976. This potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after thyroid carcinoma should

  13. A 20-Year Review of 75 Cases of Salivary Duct Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mark R; Sharma, Arun; Schmitt, Nicole C; Johnson, Jonas T; Ferris, Robert L; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon

    2016-05-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the salivary glands. Owing to its rare nature, clinical data are limited, and only a few clinical studies comprise more than 50 patients. To review the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's experience with salivary duct carcinoma over a 20-year period, focusing on demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcome. This investigation was a retrospective cohort study in a multihospital institution with tertiary referral. A pathology database was reviewed for all cases of histopathologically diagnosed salivary duct carcinoma from January 1, 1995, to October 20, 2014. Patients who were referrals for pathology review only and were never seen at the institution were excluded. In total, 75 study patients were identified. The electronic medical record was reviewed for details regarding demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcome, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). This study was supplemented with a review of the institution's Head and Neck Oncology Database for further clinical details. Primary outcome measures consisted of OS and DFS. The study sample comprised 75 participants with a mean age at diagnosis of 66.0 years (age range, 33-93 years), and 29% (n = 22) were female. Most primary tumors were from the parotid gland (83%), with the next most frequent site being the submandibular gland (12%). Overall, 41% of the cases were carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Rates of other histologic features included the following: perineural invasion (69%), extracapsular spread (58%), ERBB2 (formerly HER2) positivity (31%) (62% of those who were tested), and vascular invasion (61%). The median OS was 3.1 years, and the median DFS was 2.7 years. Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that facial nerve sacrifice and extracapsular spread were associated with lower OS (2.38 vs 5.11 years and 2.29 vs 6.56 years, respectively) and DFS (2.4 vs 3.88 years and 1.44 vs 4

  14. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  16. Endometrial and ovarian carcinomas with undifferentiated components: clinically aggressive and frequently underrecognized neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tafe, Laura J; Garg, Karuna; Chew, Ivy; Tornos, Carmen; Soslow, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with undifferentiated components are uncommon neoplasms that are likely underdiagnosed. They are important to recognize as they have been shown to be clinically aggressive. We identified 32 carcinomas with undifferentiated components as defined by Silva and co-workers, 26 endometrial and 6 of ovarian origin. The patient age ranged from 21 to 76 years (median 55); 40% of patients were carcinomas with undifferentiated components) presented at advanced stages (FIGO III-IV). Pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were the most frequent sites of metastases. Twenty tumors, entirely undifferentiated, consisted of sheets of dyshesive, ovoid cells with uniform, large vesicular nuclei, whereas 12 tumors contained combinations of differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma with undifferentiated components. Although most undifferentiated tumors had a monotonous cytologic appearance without prominent stroma, six showed focal nuclear pleomorphism and eight cases had variably sized zones of rhabdoid cells in a background of myxoid stroma. The tumors were frequently misdiagnosed; they received a wide range of diagnoses, including FIGO grade 2 or 3 endometrioid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, high-grade sarcoma including endometrial stromal sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, lymphoma, granulosa cell tumor and epithelioid sarcoma. Up to 86% of the cases showed focal, but strong keratin and/or epithelial membrane antigen staining, with CK18 being the most frequently positive keratin stain. They were predominantly negative for neuroendocrine markers, smooth muscle markers and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor. Mismatch repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry was evaluated in 17 cases, and 8 (47%) were abnormal (7 with loss of MLH1/PMS2 and 1 with MSH6 loss). Follow-up was available for 27 patients, although it was very short in many cases, ranging from 0.5 to 89

  17. Patterns of nodal relapse after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the major and minor salivary glands: What is the role of elective neck irradiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Garcia, Joaquin; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of nodal relapses from carcinomas of the salivary glands among patients with clinically negative necks in an attempt to determine the potential utility of elective neck irradiation (ENI). Methods and Materials: Between 1960 and 2004, 251 patients with clinically N0 carcinomas of the salivary glands were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. None of the patients had undergone previous neck dissection. Histology was: adenoid cystic (84 patients), mucoepidermoid (60 patients), adenocarcinoma (58 patients), acinic cell (21 patients), undifferentiated (11 patients), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (7 patients), squamous cell (7 patients), and salivary duct carcinomamore » (3 patients); 131 patients (52%) had ENI. Median follow-up was 62 months (range, 3-267 months). Results: The 5- and 10-year actuarial estimates of nodal relapse were 11% and 13%, respectively. The 10-year actuarial rates of nodal failure were 7%, 5%, 12%, and 16%, for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 disease, respectively (p = 0.11). The use of ENI reduced the 10-year nodal failure rate from 26% to 0% (p = 0.0001). The highest crude rates of nodal relapse among those treated without ENI were found in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (67%), undifferentiated carcinoma (50%), adenocarcinoma (34%), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (29%). There were no nodal failures observed among patients with adenoid cystic or acinic cell histology. Conclusion: ENI effectively prevents nodal relapses and should be used for select patients at high risk for regional failure.« less

  18. [Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Arnoux, V; Lechevallier, E; Pamela, A; Long, J-A; Rambeaud, J-J

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to perform a systematic review of literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and biological data, prognosis and therapy of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas. Data on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas have been sought by querying the server Medline with MeSH terms following or combination of them: "renal carcinoma", "renal cell carcinoma," "renal cancer", "sarcomatoid" "sarcomatoid transformation" and "sarcomatoid differentiation." The articles obtained were selected according to their methodology, the language in English or French, the relevance and the date of publication. Twenty papers were selected. According to the literature, a sarcomatoid contingent can be observed in all subtypes of renal cell carcinomas, with a frequency of 1 to 15% of cases. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a majority of symptomatic patients (90%), mainly with abdominal pain and hematuria. These tumors were often found in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (45-77%). The imaging was not specific for the diagnosis and biopsy had a low sensitivity for identifying a sarcomatoid contingent. The treatment was based on a combination of maximal surgical resection whenever possible and systemic therapy for metastastic disease. Pathological data often showed large tumors, Furhman 4 grades, combined biphasic carcinomatous contingent (clear cell carcinoma in most cases) and sarcomatoid. Genetically, there was no specific abnormality but a complex association of chromosomal additions and deletions. The prognosis was pejorative with a specific median survival of 5 to 19 months without any impact of the sarcomatoid contingent rate. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a form not to ignore despite its rarity. Mainly symptomatic and discovered at an advanced stage, it has a poor prognosis, requiring multidisciplinary management quickly and correctly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  20. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  1. First Case Report of a Sporadic Adrenocortical Carcinoma With Gastric Metastasis and a Synchronous Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Kovecsi, Attila; Jung, Ioan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Azamfirei, Leonard; Kovacs, Zsolt; Gurzu, Simona

    2015-09-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with high aggresivity that can associate systemic metastases. A 71-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer. The abdominal computed tomography also revealed a tumor above the right kidney. Total gastrectomy and right adrenalectomy were performed. The encapsulated tumor of the adrenal gland weighed 560 grams and presented diffuse tumor architecture under microscope, with capsular, sinusoidal, and vascular invasion. The large tumor cells had a polygonal shape, with slight basophilic, eosinophilic, or vacuolated cytoplasm, pleomorphic nuclei, and a high mitotic rate. In the stomach, the protruded tumor was covered by normal mucosa; under microscope, the tumor cells were observed only in the submucosal layer. In primary adrenal tumor and gastric metastasis the tumor cells were marked by vimentin, inhibin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and calretinin. Based on these criteria, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) with gastric metastasis and no lymph node metastases was established. A synchronous 10 × 10-mm-sized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach, without mitoses, was also identified. So far, as we know, this is the 15th case of ever reported synchronous/metachronous sporadic ACCs; the ACC-related gastric metastases either synchronous ACC and GIST, has not been reported in the literature previously.

  2. Nonsmall Cell Lung Carcinoma with Giant Cell Features Expressing Programmed Death-Ligand 1: A Report of a Patient Successfully Treated with Pembrolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Shingo; Sasaki, Mamoru; Morinaga, Shojiroh

    2018-01-01

    Giant cell carcinoma, a rare variant of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is characterized by aggressive progression and poor response to conventional chemotherapy. This report is the first to describe a patient with NSCLC and giant cell features who was successfully treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1). A 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with NSCLC with multiple brain metastases. Histological evaluation of lung biopsy specimens revealed proliferation of pleomorphic giant tumor cells with poor cohesiveness, findings consistent with giant cell carcinoma. Immunostaining showed that a high proportion of the tumor cells were positive for expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). The patient received stereotactic radiotherapy for the brain metastases, followed by administration of pembrolizumab. Treatment with pembrolizumab resulted in the rapid regression of the primary lung nodule, with the progression-free period maintained for at least four treatment cycles. Immunotherapy targeting PD-1/PD-L1 may be an option for patients with PD-L1-positive NSCLC with giant cell features. PMID:29736285

  3. Nonsmall Cell Lung Carcinoma with Giant Cell Features Expressing Programmed Death-Ligand 1: A Report of a Patient Successfully Treated with Pembrolizumab.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shingo; Sasaki, Mamoru; Morinaga, Shojiroh; Minematsu, Naoto

    2018-01-01

    Giant cell carcinoma, a rare variant of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is characterized by aggressive progression and poor response to conventional chemotherapy. This report is the first to describe a patient with NSCLC and giant cell features who was successfully treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1). A 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with NSCLC with multiple brain metastases. Histological evaluation of lung biopsy specimens revealed proliferation of pleomorphic giant tumor cells with poor cohesiveness, findings consistent with giant cell carcinoma. Immunostaining showed that a high proportion of the tumor cells were positive for expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). The patient received stereotactic radiotherapy for the brain metastases, followed by administration of pembrolizumab. Treatment with pembrolizumab resulted in the rapid regression of the primary lung nodule, with the progression-free period maintained for at least four treatment cycles. Immunotherapy targeting PD-1/PD-L1 may be an option for patients with PD-L1-positive NSCLC with giant cell features.

  4. Breast papilloma without atypia and risk of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee Jung; Jung, Inkyung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of asymptomatic papilloma has increased with the rising popularity of core needle biopsy for breast lesions. In this study, the risk of benign papilloma without atypia for subsequent breast carcinoma during follow-up was evaluated. From January 2000 to December 2010, among 39,461 women with breast ultrasonography, 37,847 women with benign papilloma on biopsy or excision, with benign diseases on biopsy, and with only ultrasonography performed were recruited. Women with concurrent or prior high-risk lesions (atypia, phyllodes tumor, or lobular neoplasm) or malignancies, or with a follow-up period of less than 12 months were excluded. The eligible 12,302 women were classified into three groups; papilloma (n = 265, patients with benign papilloma without atypia at excision), benign (n = 3,066, patients with benign results other than high risk results on core needle biopsy), and ultrasonography (n = 8,971, patients who underwent ultrasonography only without biopsy or surgery). The relative risks (RRs) of the papilloma and benign groups were calculated with intervals of 2 years using the Poisson regression analysis with age, family history, follow-up period, and breast parenchymal density being adjusted, and the ultrasonography group was used as a reference. The RR of the papilloma group was 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-9.0), significantly higher than 1.5 (95% CI, 1.0-2.1) of the benign group. In the first 2 years, the RR of the papilloma group was 5.2 (95% CI, 2.2-12.6) but it dropped to 2.2 (95% CI, 0.5-9.2) during the next 2 years. Afterward, the RR increased over time although statistical significance was not achieved. Benign papilloma without atypia increased breast cancer risk fivefold when the ultrasonography group was used as a reference, higher than other benign lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) encompasses neuroendocrine carcinomas primary to skin and occurs most commonly in association with clonally integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus with related retinoblastoma protein sequestration or in association with UV radiation-induced alterations involving the TP53 gene and mutations, heterozygous deletion, and hypermethylation of the Retinoblastoma gene. Molecular genetic signatures may provide therapeutic guidance. Morphologic features, although patterned, are associated with predictable diagnostic pitfalls, usually resolvable by immunohistochemistry. Therapeutic options for MCC, traditionally limited to surgical intervention and later chemotherapy and radiation, are growing, given promising early results of immunotherapeutic regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Screening for cutaneous carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Beani, J C

    1996-09-01

    Skin carcinoma is the most frequent of all cancers. The main risk factor is represented by solar exposition and, so, individuals with special risk are xeroderma pigmento sum (enzymatic defect of DNA repair), light phototype person, sun-seekers, outdoor-workers and patients treated with high doses of PUVA. X-rays, mineral oils, tar and arsenic are also known skin carcinogens. HPV can also participate to skin carcinogenis alone or associated with UV particularly in immunosupressed sujets. Subjects with predisposition for skin carcinoma can be pointed out and cautioned. Detection of preepitheliomatous lesions is easy; actinic keratosis are the main signs.

  7. Carcinoma in situ of the breast in New South Wales, Australia: Current status and trends over the last 40 year.

    PubMed

    Jacklyn, Gemma; Morrell, Stephen; McGeechan, Kevin; Houssami, Nehmat; Irwig, Les; Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Barratt, Alexandra

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of non-invasive breast cancer has increased substantially over time. We aim to describe temporal trends in the incidence of carcinoma in situ of the breast in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Descriptive study of trends in the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) in women who received a diagnosis from 1972 to 2012, recorded in the NSW Cancer Registry. Carcinoma in situ as a proportion of all breast cancer was 0.4% during the prescreening period 1972 to 1987 and is currently 14.1% (2006 to 2012). Among 10,810 women diagnosed with DCIS, incidence across all ages rose from 0.15 per 100,000 during 1972 to 1983 to 16.81 per 100,000 over 2006 to 2012, representing a 100-fold increase (IRR 113.10; 95% CI 81.94 to 156.08). Among women in the target age group for screening (50-69 years) incidence rose from 0.27 per 100,000 to 51.96 over the same period (IRR 195.50; 95% CI 117.26 to 325.89). DCIS incidence peaks in women aged 60-69 years. DCIS incidence has not stabilized despite screening being well established for over 20 years, and participation rates in the target age range remaining stable. Our findings raise questions about the value of the increasing detection of DCIS and aggressive treatment of these lesions, especially among older women, and support trials of de-escalated treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Malignant pleural effusion from papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by pleural effusion cytology: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kosmas, Konstantinos; Tsonou, Anna; Mitropoulou, Georgia; Salemi, Eufrosyni; Kazi, Danai; Theofanopoulou, Ageliki

    2018-02-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is by far the most common thyroid malignancy (over 85%) of all the thyroid cancers. It has excellent prognosis and 10-year survival rate in most of the cases (95%). Most of the tumors are indolent and do not recur or metastasize after removal. However, widespread metastases to lung, skeleton, central nervous system and, occasionally, other organs may be observed. In rare instances, this disease may metastasize to the pleura and manifest as a malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and portend poor prognosis. This article reports the cytomorphologic and immunocytochemical findings of a female patient with a symptomatic pleural effusion resulting from PTC metastatic to the pleura. Pleural fluid cytology revealed abundant papillary clusters with relatively nuclear pleomorphism, intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear grooves, small and distinct nucleoli as well as small discrete vacuoles. Psammoma bodies were not seen. Immunocytochemical staining was positive for TGB, EMA, Ber-EP4, CK19, and negative for TTF-1. Metastasis of PTC to pleural fluid is extremely rare and diagnosing the disease by cytology is challenging and requires medical expertise as well as knowledge of clinical context and immunocytochemical staining. Additionally, a cytologic diagnosis of MPE due to PTC provides important treatment information and plays an important role in prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chromatin texture, DNA index, and S-phase fraction in primary breast carcinoma cells analysed by laserscanning cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kuliffay, P; Sanislo, L; Galbavy, S

    2010-01-01

    Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a slide-based technique capable of measuring a number of biological parameters both in immobilised cell suspensions and in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. High proliferation rate in surgically removed breast tumours is an unfavourable prognostic factor. In node negative cases it can help distinguish patients with higher risk for distant metastases from those with a lower risk. In a prospective study we investigated 140 breast tumours, of which 113 were invasive ductal carcinomas, 11 were invasive lobular carcinomas, and 16 tumours were of other histological types. Cells for LSC investigations were prepared from fresh, surgically removed tumours by mechanical disintegration. After fixation the cells were stained with FITC-conjugated anti-cytokeratin (CK-FITC) to distinguish CK+ tumour cells from CK- stroma, and with propidium iodide to stain DNA. We identified three S-phase fraction (SPF) groups, with low (30 patients), moderate (54 patients), and high SPF (51 patients). Thirty-seven tumours were diploid, 83 were aneuploid, while 5 tumours had a bimodal distribution of DNA content. Chromatin texture values were increasing in the respective subclasses from the hypodiploid group to the tetraploid/hypertetraploid group. The measurement of DNA content and SPF of tumours by LSC completed by and correlated with other biological properties of the tumour cells may be a useful tool in assessing prognosis and clinical outcome of patients with breast cancer. (Tab. 5, Fig. 4, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  10. Image analysis of fibrosis in labial salivary glands of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. Close correlation of lobular fibrosis to seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and increased anti-CCP and RF titres in the serum.

    PubMed

    Katona, Krisztián; Farkas, Nelli; Kneif, Mária; SütŐ, Gábor; Berki, Tímea; Balatonyi, Balázs; Tornóczky, Tamás

    2018-06-01

    Lobular fibrosis in labial salivary glands of patients with systemic autoimmune disease is a rarely examined and rather neglected histological change. Its significance and disease association is poorly understood. Our aim was to explore the clinical correlations of fibrosis in labial salivary gland samples using objective methods and laboratory parameters. Labial salivary gland samples from more than 300 patients over a 3-year period were selected from the archives of the pathology department, histologically examined, digitised, image analysed and statistically evaluated to identify the presence and intensity of lobular fibrosis, its relation to age, clinical diagnoses of systemic autoimmune disease and the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), and anti-dsDNA serum markers. Significant correlation was found between lobular fibrosis and the presence of autoimmune disease (p = 0.023), mainly seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (p < 0.001). Also significant association was found between the fibrosis and the presence of serum anti-CCP (p < 0.001) and IgA/IgG/IgM-RF (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). Significant association was explored between the anti-dsDNA positivity and the negative histology groups (p = 0.033) and between the ANA positivity and the inflammation only group (p = 0.021). The results suggest that lobular fibrosis tends to associate to certain systemic autoimmune diseases, mainly seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, and seems to be rare in labial salivary gland biopsies of autoimmune diseases characterised by presence of anti-dsDNA. The close correlation of ANA positivity and the inflammation only histology was not surprising, since the majority of patients (62%) have Sjögren's syndrome, known for its inflammatory infiltrate. These findings emphasise that evaluation of lobular fibrosis and inflammation in histological samples of labial salivary gland biopsies

  11. Expression of adhesion molecules and cytokeratin 20 in merkel cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Sano, Toshiaki; Qian, Zhi Rong; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCCs often show characteristic paranuclear dot-like immunopositivity for cytokeratin 20 (CK20), a globular aggregation of CK20 intermediate filaments. These aggregates typically form rhabdoid features and fibrous bodies and may be associated with a down-regulation in adhesion molecules (AMs). To date, the relationship between the expression of AMs and CK20 and clinicopathological findings in MCC has not been well examined. In this immunohistochemical study, we assessed the expression of AMs, CK20, and chromogranin A (CgA) on MCCs in 8 men and 23 women with this disease, and also characterized their clinicopathological features. This study is the largest of its kind that has been undertaken to date in Japanese patients. Compared to normal tissue, E-cadherin and alpha- and beta-catenins showed reduced membranous expression in 95.7%, 46.7%, and 45.2% of MCCs, respectively. Nuclear E-cadherin localization was seen in four tumors, all of which predominantly showed a CK20 dot pattern. However, there was no significant relationship between the membranous expression of AMs and a CK20 dot pattern. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in tumors of > or =2 cm, and tumors negative for E-cadherin more frequently developed outside of the head and neck than within those regions. CgA was more intensely expressed in tumors with uniform nuclei and a dense lymphocytic infiltrate than in those that showed pleomorphisms and that had few, if any, infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings suggest that MCCs have a reduced expression of AMs and that down-regulation of E-cadherin expression may correlate with increased tumor aggressiveness. The fact that no significant relationship was demonstrable between the membranous expression of AMs and the CK20 expression pattern suggests that the mechanism of aggregation of intermediate filaments may be different in different types of tumors.

  12. [Thyroid carcinoma--differentiated, poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Kennichi; Bai, Yanhua; Li, Yaqiong; Wakasa, Tomoko; Mori, Ichiro

    2007-11-01

    The poorly differentiated carcinoma was first added as a new member in the lists of classification of thyroid carcinomas in the WHO 2004 edition. However its histological criteria include necrosis and increased mitoses in addition to the original definition by Sakamoto's proposal, solid, trabecular and schirrhous growth. This modification creates a significant change in the incidence and prognosis of this carcinoma. This carcinoma, defined by the new WHO classification, is about 1-5% of all thyroid malignancy and has more aggressive outcome than the previous definition.

  13. Heterogeneous clinicopathological features of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate: a comparison between "precursor-like" and "regular type" lesions.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kosuke; Divatia, Mukul K; Shen, Steven S; Miles, Brian J; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) has been described as a lesion associated with intraductal spread of invasive carcinoma and consequently aggressive disease. However, there are a few reported cases of pure IDC-P without an associated invasive component, strongly suggesting that this subset of IDC-P may represent a precursor lesion. We compared the clinicopathological features between the morphologically "regular type" IDC-P and "precursor-like" IDC-P. IDC-P was defined as follows; 1) solid/dense cribriform lesions or 2) loose cribriform/micropapillary lesions with prominent nuclear pleomorphism and/or non-focal comedonecrosis. We defined precursor-like IDC-P as follows; 1) IDC-P without adjoining invasive adenocarcinoma but carcinoma present distant from the IDC-P or 2) IDC-P having adjoining invasive microcarcinoma (less than 0.05 ml) and showing a morphologic transition from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) to the IDC-P. IDC-P lacking the features of precursor-like IDC-P was categorized as regular type IDC-P. Of 901 radical prostatectomies performed at our hospital, 141 and 14 showed regular type IDC-P and precursor-like IDC-P in whole-mounted specimens, respectively. Regular type IDC-P cases had significantly higher Gleason score, more frequent extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion, more advanced pathological T stage, and lower 5-year biochemical recurrence-free rate than precursor-like IDC-P cases. Multivariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis and the presence of regular type IDC-P as independent predictors for biochemical recurrence. Our data suggest that IDC-P may be heterogeneous with variable clinicopathological features. We also suggest that not all IDC-P cases represent intraductal spread of pre-existing invasive cancer, and a subset of IDC-P may be a precursor lesion.

  14. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  15. Pheochromocytoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Tariq; Qari, Faiza

    2009-08-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with labile and difficult to control hypertension on 3 different anti-hypertensive medications. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland showed a 1.8 cm thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, intact parathyroid hormone, and calcium levels were within normal limits. A 24-hour urine metanephrine showed significant elevation in urine metanephrine of approximately 3 times the upper limit of normal, and the result of 131I-metaiodobenzyleguanjdjne (131I-MIBG) scintigraphy confirmed that the adrenal mass was pheochromocytoma. Right adrenalectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed. The final pathology was pheochromocytoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. An analysis of c-ret porto-oncogene mutation yielded a negative result. This unusual association of 2 tumors represents a new entity.

  16. Therapy of vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haberthür, F; Almendral, A C; Ritter, B

    1993-01-01

    83 vulvar carcinoma patients were originally treated in the period between 1970 and 1990. 82 patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma. 70% of the patients were in Stage I or II. It was originally possible to operate on 74 of the 83 patients. A simple or partial vulvectomy was applied 17 times. A bilateral inguinal lymph node excision additionally took place in 6 cases. 51 patients were subjected to radical vulvectomy with inguinofemoral lymph node excision. In 13 cases, pelvic lymph node extirpation was also performed. A posterior pelvic exenteration was performed in 6 cases presenting extensive carcinoma involvement of the vulva. In the remaining 9 patients, either it was not possible to operate, or a nonradical operation could be performed. The primary morbidity, consisting of wound healing disturbances and infections, amounted to 50% in our group. We observed lymphedema in 47% of the cases, although it was clinically important in only 10%. We did not have any primary surgical mortality. The 5-year survival rate was 82% in our patients without inguinofemoral lymph node involvement and only 40% in lymph node metastatic cases. The absolute 5-year cure rate was 66%, or 69% corrected. To be able to give increased preference to less invasive methods an improved prevention and clarification procedure for physicians and patients is necessary.

  17. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  18. Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  19. Pancreatic resection for renal cell carcinoma metastasis: An exceptionally rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Boussios, Stergios; Zerdes, Ioannis; Batsi, Ourania; Papakostas, Vasilios P; Seraj, Esmeralda; Pentheroudakis, George; Glantzounis, George K

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic metastases are uncommon and only found in a minority of patients with widespread metastatic disease at autopsy. The most common primary cancer site resulting in pancreatic metastases is the kidney, followed by colorectal cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, lung carcinoma and sarcoma. Herein, we report a 63-year-old male patient who presented -3.5 years after radical nephrectomy performed for renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-with a well-defined lobular, round mass at the body of the pancreas demonstrated by abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy and cholecystectomy. Histopathological examination revealed clusters of epithelial clear cells, immunohistochemically positive for RCC marker, and negative for CD10 and CA19-9. A final diagnosis of clear RCC metastasizing to pancreas was obtained in view of the past history of RCC, microscopy and the immunoprofile. This was the second metachronous disease recurrence after a previous metastatic involvement of the liver, developed 19 months from the initial diagnosis. The patient has remained well at a 6 month follow up post-resection. Solitary pancreatic metastases may be misdiagnosed as primary pancreatic cancer. However, imaging including computed tomography (CT) and MRI, may discriminate between them. Surgical procedures could differentiate solitary metastasis from neuroendocrine neoplasms. The optimal resection strategy involves adequate resection margins and maximal tissue preservation of the pancreas. Recently, an increasing number of surgical resections have been performed in selected patients with limited metastatic disease to the pancreas. In addition, a rigid follow-up scheme, including endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and CT is essential give patients a chance for a prolonged life. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Metastatic gastric cancer from breast carcinoma: A report of 78 cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Liang, Shujing; Yan, Ningning; Zhang, Le; Gu, Hailiang; Fei, Xiaochun; Xu, Yingchun; Zhang, Fengchun

    2017-10-01

    The metastatic spread of breast carcinoma to the stomach is rare. There are a small number of previous studies that report metastases from the breast to the stomach and these provide limited information regarding this infrequent event. Consequently, the clinicopathological features, clinical outcomes and the optimal treatment for these patients remain to be elucidated. In the present study, 78 cases of gastric metastases from breast cancer, including the current case, were identified from previous studies between 1960 and 2015. The clinicopathological features of primary breast tumors and metastatic gastric lesions, including initial stage, tumor size, hormone receptor status, treatment modalities and overall survival (OS) rate, were analyzed. The patients were all female and the median age at the time of gastric metastasis diagnosis was 59 years old (range, 38-86 years). The majority of the patients initially presented with stage II breast cancer (35.9%) and abdominal pain was the most common symptom of gastric metastases (75.6%). A total of 51/78 patients (65.4%) were identified to have a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma and the majority of gastric tumors were positive for hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative (estrogen receptor, 94.0%; progesterone receptor, 68.3%; HER-2, 5.9%). Furthermore, in the univariate analysis, multiple organs involved prior to or at the time of gastric metastases were diagnosed and multiple gastric lesions and peritoneal carcinomatosis were significantly correlated with OS. Additionally, salvage hormonal therapy, but not surgery or chemotherapy, significantly extended OS. However, in the multivariate analysis, metastasis prior to stomach involvement was the only independent indicator of poor OS. In conclusion, physicians must be vigilant when patients with breast cancer history present with gastrointestinal symptoms, despite gastric metastasis from breast cancer being rare. An

  1. Impact of microinvasion on breast cancer mortality in women with ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2018-02-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a neoplastic proliferation of epithelial cells which is confined within the basement membrane of the mammary ductal-lobular system. It is of interest to determine to what extent the potential to metastasize increases for DCIS patients when the basement membrane is breached (i.e. microinvasion is present). We retrieved the records of 525,395 women who had either first primary DCIS or small (≤ 2.0 cm) node-negative invasive breast cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries database (1990-2013). For each patient, we extracted information on year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, tumour size, tumour grade, oestrogen receptor status, use of radiotherapy, type of surgery, cause of death and follow-up time. We classified patients into four groups, according to the size of the invasive component of the primary tumour. We estimated the actuarial rate of breast cancer-specific mortality at ten and 20 years for women in each size category. We identified 161,394 women with pure DCIS, 13,489 women with microinvasive carcinoma (≤ 0.1 cm of invasion), 153,856 women with invasive cancer 0.2-1.0 cm in size and 196,656 women with invasive cancer 1.1-2.0 cm in size. The 20-year actuarial breast cancer-specific mortality rate was 3.8% for women with pure DCIS, was 6.9% for women with microinvasive carcinoma, was 6.8% for women with invasive cancer 0.2-1.0 cm in size and was 12.1% for women with invasive cancer 1.1-2.0 cm in size. The adjusted hazard ratio for death associated with microinvasive carcinoma (vs. pure DCIS) was 2.00 (95% CI 1.76-2.26; p < 0.0001). In terms of prognosis, microinvasive cancer more closely resembles small invasive cancer 0.2-1.0 cm) than pure DCIS. For invasive cancers under 1.0 cm, size has little impact on mortality.

  2. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  3. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-08

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  4. [Pleural metastases of renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giigoruk, O G; Lazarev, A F; Doroshenko, V S

    2007-01-01

    Metastases in renal carcinoma are diagnosed at initial diagnosis in 25% examinees. Traditional renal carcinoma has higher metastatic potential, is associated with worse survival of the patients compared to papillary cancer. We studied cytological characteristics of renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in comparison with histological studies of the primary lesion using immunohistochemical findings. We examined cytologically pleural liquid in renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in 6 patients (2.3% of carcinomatous pleuricies). High efficacy was shown by a cytocentrifuge CYTOSPIN-4. In 3 cases initial cancer was renal cell carcinoma, pleural exudation developed 2 years later, clear cell carcinoma appeared 6 years later and papillary cancer--10 years later. In the other 3 cases malignant cells were detected in new-onset cases. Renal carcinoma was diagnosed in one case. Cytological preparations were studied with identification of cytological signs typical for classic clear cell, granulocell and papillary renal cancer. Immunohistochemical examination of primary tumor lesion in the kidney discovered high proliferative activity of tumor cells by Ki-67 index to 5.28%. The tumors had solitary Bcl-2 positive cells. Expression of mutant p-53 took place in 0.93%. Her-2/neu hyperexpression was not found in the tumors of the above patients. Such immunohistochemical parameters point to poor prognosis. This is confirmed by renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura.

  5. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age < 37 vs 37-42 weeks increased the risk for thyroid carcinoma (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.07-3.27). Plurality, birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  6. [Cortico-suprarenal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Costan, I; Viţalariu, Adriana; Lungu, C; Obrocea, F; Gulinescu, L

    2002-01-01

    The authors show the case of a 69 years old male with a large corticosuprarenalian tumor that was detected on an random abdominal echographic examination. The patient was operated in the General Surgery Department. of Prof. Agrippa Ionescu Hospital, Bucharest. We performed ablation of the large left suprarenalian gland malign tumor with left nephrectomy, splenectomy and partial pancreatectomy. The hystopathological examination reveals a diffuse corticosuprenalian carcinoma. The case is interesting because of low incidence of this kind of malign tumor and also of the unusual tumor evolution in a long time up to its large size (12 cm in diameter).

  7. The minimal carcinoma triple stain is superior to commercially available multiplex immunohistochemical stains: breast triple stain and LC/DC breast cocktail.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Paula S; Varma, Sonal; Liu, Yi-Fang; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-12-01

    The Minimal Carcinoma (MC) Triple Stain is a tri-chromogen multiplex immunostain (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) helpful in classifying morphologically ambiguous and/or small carcinomas as either ductal or lobular and/or in situ or invasive. We compared the utility of this stain with two commercially available duplex/multiplex immunostains: Breast Triple Stain (BTS) (Clarient, Aliso Viejo, CA; CK5, p63, and CK8/18) and LC/DC Breast Cocktail (LCDC) (Biocare, Concord, CA; E-cadherin and p120). Ninety-seven mammary carcinomas stained with the MC Triple Stain, BTS, and LCDC were compared. The MC Triple Stain, LCDC, and BTS were diagnostic in 90 (93%) of 97, 82 (85%) of 97, and 85 (88%) of 97 of cases, respectively. All stains showed decreased diagnostic utility due to variability in tissue integrity, quality of the staining, and/or ease of interpretation. In cases where all immunostains were interpretable, the MC Triple Stain yielded the most information. When technically sufficient, all three immunostains demonstrated relative strengths and weaknesses in their ability to provide diagnostic information with the highest consistency and ease of use. Many cases stained with LCDC were technically insufficient due to a suboptimal staining protocol provided by the company. Overall, the MC Triple Stain outperformed BTS and LCDC by more consistently providing more diagnostic information. The MC Triple Stain is a viable alternative to other multiplex immunostains in evaluating small foci of carcinoma, particularly when both the histologic type and extent of disease (in situ vs invasive) require clarification. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  8. Fast evaluation of 69 basal cell carcinomas with ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: criteria description, histopathological correlation, and interobserver agreement.

    PubMed

    Bennàssar, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Vilalta, Antoni; Malvehy, Josep

    2013-07-01

    Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) represents a first step toward a rapid "bedside pathology" in the Mohs surgery setting and in other fields of general pathology. To describe and validate FCM criteria for the main basal cell carcinoma (BCC) subtypes and to demonstrate the overall agreement with classic pathologic analysis of hematoxylin-eosin-stained samples. DESIGN A total of 69 BCCs from 66 patients were prospectively imaged using ex vivo FCM. Confocal mosaics were evaluated in real time and compared with classic pathologic analysis. Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, between November 2010 and July 2011. Patients with BCC attending the Mohs Surgery Unit. Presence or absence of BCC and histological subtype (superficial, nodular, and infiltrating) in the confocal mosaics. Eight criteria for BCC were described, evaluated, and validated. Although there were minor differences among BCC subtypes, the most BCC-defining criteria were peripheral palisading, clefting, nuclear pleomorphism, and presence of stroma. These criteria were validated with independent observers (κ values >0.7 [corrected] for most criteria). We herein propose, describe, and validate FCM criteria for BCC diagnosis. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is an attractive alternative to histopathologic analysis of frozen sections during Mohs surgery because large areas of freshly excised tissue can be assessed in real time without the need for tissue processing while minimizing labor and costs.

  9. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-11-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas.

  10. Invasive onychocytic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Neoplasms originating from nail matrix keratinocytes are very rare. Onychomatricoma and onychocytic matricoma are benign tumors arising from nail matrix keratinocytes. Only one case of onychocytic carcinoma, the malignant counterpart of onychocytic matricoma, has been reported in the literature. Herein, we describe a case of invasive onychocytic carcinoma. Two biopsy specimens of the tumor, obtained at early and invasive stages, were examined histopathologically. The first biopsy specimen showed a retiform proliferation of eosinophilic and basophilic cells in the nail matrix. The second biopsy specimen showed a retiform basophilic cell proliferation with focal keratinization. Similar to normal nail matrix keratinocytes, the proliferating basophilic cells failed to express cytokeratin (CK)1, CK6 and CK10. Focal expression of hair-specific keratins, including K31, K85 and K86, was observed. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was identified as an invasive malignant tumor originating from nail matrix keratinocytes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Standardized measures of lobular involution and subsequent breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Palakal, Maya M.; Degnim, Amy C.; Radisky, Derek; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Mann, Melody L. Stallings; Papathomas, Daphne; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Duggan, Maire A.; Visscher, Daniel; Sherman, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct-lobular unit (TDLU) involution predict higher breast cancer risk; however, standardized measures to quantitate levels of TDLU involution have only recently been developed. We assessed whether three standardized measures of TDLU involution, with high intra/inter pathologist reproducibility in normal breast tissue, predict subsequent breast cancer risk among women in the Mayo benign breast disease (BBD) cohort. We performed a masked evaluation of biopsies from 99 women with BBD who subsequently developed breast cancer (cases) after a median of 16.9 years and 145 age-matched controls. We assessed three metrics inversely related to TDLU involution: TDLU count/mm2, median TDLU span (microns, which approximates acini content), and median category of acini counts/TDLU (0–10; 11–20; 21–30; 31–50; >50). Associations with subsequent breast cancer risk for quartiles (or categories of acini counts) of each of these measures were assessed with multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). In multivariable models, women in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartiles of TDLU counts and TDLU span measures were significantly associated with subsequent breast cancer diagnoses; TDLU counts quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.44, 95 %CI 0.96–6.19, p-trend = 0.02; and TDLU spans, quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.83, 95 %CI = 1.13–7.06, p-trend = 0.03. Significant associations with categorical measures of acini counts/TDLU were also observed: compared to women with median category of <10 acini/TDLU, women with >25 acini counts/TDLU were at significantly higher risk, OR = 3.40, 95 %CI 1.03–11.17, p-trend = 0.032. Women with TDLU spans and TDLU count measures above the median were at further increased risk, OR = 3.75 (95 %CI 1.40–10.00, p-trend = 0.008), compared with women below the median for both of these metrics. Similar results were observed for combinatorial

  12. Standardized measures of lobular involution and subsequent breast cancer risk among women with benign breast disease: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Brinton, Louise A; Palakal, Maya M; Degnim, Amy C; Radisky, Derek; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Stallings Mann, Melody L; Papathomas, Daphne; Gierach, Gretchen L; Hewitt, Stephen M; Duggan, Maire A; Visscher, Daniel; Sherman, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct-lobular unit (TDLU) involution predict higher breast cancer risk; however, standardized measures to quantitate levels of TDLU involution have only recently been developed. We assessed whether three standardized measures of TDLU involution, with high intra/inter pathologist reproducibility in normal breast tissue, predict subsequent breast cancer risk among women in the Mayo benign breast disease (BBD) cohort. We performed a masked evaluation of biopsies from 99 women with BBD who subsequently developed breast cancer (cases) after a median of 16.9 years and 145 age-matched controls. We assessed three metrics inversely related to TDLU involution: TDLU count/mm(2), median TDLU span (microns, which approximates acini content), and median category of acini counts/TDLU (0-10; 11-20; 21-30; 31-50; >50). Associations with subsequent breast cancer risk for quartiles (or categories of acini counts) of each of these measures were assessed with multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). In multivariable models, women in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartiles of TDLU counts and TDLU span measures were significantly associated with subsequent breast cancer diagnoses; TDLU counts quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.44, 95 %CI 0.96-6.19, p-trend = 0.02; and TDLU spans, quartile4 versus quartile1, OR = 2.83, 95 %CI = 1.13-7.06, p-trend = 0.03. Significant associations with categorical measures of acini counts/TDLU were also observed: compared to women with median category of <10 acini/TDLU, women with >25 acini counts/TDLU were at significantly higher risk, OR = 3.40, 95 %CI 1.03-11.17, p-trend = 0.032. Women with TDLU spans and TDLU count measures above the median were at further increased risk, OR = 3.75 (95 %CI 1.40-10.00, p-trend = 0.008), compared with women below the median for both of these metrics. Similar results were observed for

  13. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Vishwas; Seykora, John T

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant neoplasm of the skin characterized by an aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common malignancy globally, and usually arises in the chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly white individuals. From a pathologist's perspective, it is important to differentiate cSCC from the benign and reactive squamoproliferative lesions and identify the high-risk features associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of cSCC along with its precursor lesions and important histologic variants, with a particular emphasis on the histopathologic features and molecular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  16. Morphologic Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas can be further divided into distinct subtypes that provide important clinical information and biological insights. These subtypes are distinct from growth patterns and are on based on morphologic and molecular findings. There are 12 reasonably well-defined subtypes as well as 6 provisional subtypes, together making up 35% of all hepatocellular carcinomas. These subtypes are discussed, with an emphasis on their definitions and the key morphologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Columnar cell lesions without atypia initially diagnosed on breast needle biopsies: is imaging follow-up enough?

    PubMed

    Seo, Mirinae; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hwa; Park, In-Ae; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underestimation rate and predictive factor of underestimation of columnar cell lesions (CCLs) without atypia diagnosed through breast core needle biopsies (CNBs). From January 2007 through December 2011, 141 CCLs without atypia, including columnar cell change and columnar cell hyperplasia, were diagnosed in 138 women by CNB. Excisional (n = 16) or imaging follow-up (n = 125) findings were available in all cases. On a per-lesion basis, the underestimation rate and predictive factor of underestimation were evaluated. Among the 16 surgically excised lesions, there were two malignancies (one ductal carcinoma in situ and one invasive ductal carcinoma) and one lobular carcinoma in situ. Overall, the pooled underestimation rate of malignancy was 1.4% (2/141). With regard to lesion variables, the mean lesion size was significantly larger in the underestimation group of CCLs (p = 0.007). Fine pleomorphic morphology of microcalcifications (p < 0.001), the distribution of the microcalcifications (p = 0.007), BI-RADS final assessment (p = 0.001), and imaging-pathologic correlation (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with underestimation. Multivariate analysis showed that fine pleomorphic morphology of microcalcifications (p < 0.0001) was an independent predictor of underestimation in 58 lesions with microcalcifications on mammography. The overall underestimation rate of malignancy was 1.4%. Imaging follow-up is reasonable for CCLs without atypia at CNB, especially in small lesions with less suspicious imaging findings. Fine pleomorphic microcalcifications and higher BI-RADS category might be helpful in the prediction of underestimation of a high-risk lesion or malignancy.

  18. MDM2 and CDK4 amplifications are rare events in salivary duct carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Grünewald, Inga; Trautmann, Marcel; Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Huss, Sebastian; Schweinshaupt, Petra; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Odenthal, Margarete; Quaas, Alexander; Büttner, Reinhard; Meyer, Moritz F.; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Stenner, Markus; Hartmann, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands associated with poor clinical outcome. SDCs are known to carry TP53 mutations in about 50%, however, only little is known about alternative pathogenic mechanisms within the p53 regulatory network. Particularly, data on alterations of the oncogenes MDM2 and CDK4 located in the chromosomal region 12q13-15 are limited in SDC, while genomic rearrangements of the adjacent HMGA2 gene locus are well documented in subsets of SDCs. We here analyzed the mutational status of the TP53 gene, genomic amplification of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification as well as protein expression of TP53 (p53), MDM2 and CDK4 in 51 de novo and ex pleomorphic adenoma SDCs. 25 of 51 cases were found to carry TP53 mutations, associated with extreme positive immunohistochemical p53 staining levels in 13 cases. Three out of 51 tumors had an MDM2 amplification, one of them coinciding with a CDK4 amplification and two with a HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification. Two of the MDM2 amplifications occurred in the setting of a TP53 mutation. Two out of 51 cases showed a CDK4 amplification, one synchronously being MDM2 amplified and the other one displaying concurrent low copy number increases of both, MDM2 and HMGA2. In summary, we here show that subgroups of SDCs display genomic amplifications of MDM2 and/or CDK4, partly in association with TP53 mutations and rearrangement/amplification of HMGA2. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of chromosomal region 12q13-15 alterations in SDC tumorigenesis and their potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance. PMID:27662657

  19. MDM2 and CDK4 amplifications are rare events in salivary duct carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Inga; Trautmann, Marcel; Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Huss, Sebastian; Schweinshaupt, Petra; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Odenthal, Margarete; Quaas, Alexander; Büttner, Reinhard; Meyer, Moritz F; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Stenner, Markus; Hartmann, Wolfgang

    2016-11-15

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands associated with poor clinical outcome. SDCs are known to carry TP53 mutations in about 50%, however, only little is known about alternative pathogenic mechanisms within the p53 regulatory network. Particularly, data on alterations of the oncogenes MDM2 and CDK4 located in the chromosomal region 12q13-15 are limited in SDC, while genomic rearrangements of the adjacent HMGA2 gene locus are well documented in subsets of SDCs. We here analyzed the mutational status of the TP53 gene, genomic amplification of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification as well as protein expression of TP53 (p53), MDM2 and CDK4 in 51 de novo and ex pleomorphic adenoma SDCs.25 of 51 cases were found to carry TP53 mutations, associated with extreme positive immunohistochemical p53 staining levels in 13 cases. Three out of 51 tumors had an MDM2 amplification, one of them coinciding with a CDK4 amplification and two with a HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification. Two of the MDM2 amplifications occurred in the setting of a TP53 mutation. Two out of 51 cases showed a CDK4 amplification, one synchronously being MDM2 amplified and the other one displaying concurrent low copy number increases of both, MDM2 and HMGA2.In summary, we here show that subgroups of SDCs display genomic amplifications of MDM2 and/or CDK4, partly in association with TP53 mutations and rearrangement/amplification of HMGA2. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of chromosomal region 12q13-15 alterations in SDC tumorigenesis and their potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance.

  20. Cytomorphology of non-small cell lung carcinoma with anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Toll, Adam D; Maleki, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase demonstrating activating mutations in several malignancies including a subset (1-5%) of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Prior work examining, the histologic features of these tumors found a spectrum of findings, notably a solid/acinar pattern, as well as a mucinous cribriform pattern. We present the first study to date describing the cytomorphology of NSCLC harboring ALK rearrangements. A retrospective database search was conducted to identify cytologic specimens of NSCLC demonstrating ALK rearrangement. Cytogenetic analysis was performed with fluorescence in situ hybridization. A total of 12 patients were identified, 10 with available material. Cellular morphology and smear background was evaluated in the study group, as well as control cases lacking ALK rearrangement. A total of 25 specimens from 10 patients were obtained. Five patients never smoked, and four patients had a remote smoking history. ALK rearrangements were identified in cells with unique cytologic characteristics. All cases demonstrated moderate to poor differentiation with a predominance of single cells showing anisonucleosis and frequent intracytoplasmic neutrophils. The control cases showed cells with smaller, less pleomorphic nuclei, and smaller nucleoli with more clusters/tissue fragments. Several unique cytomorphologic features were consistently identified in the study population relative to the control population and include a prominence of single, markedly enlarged tumor cells with plasmacytoid features and anisonucleosis, as well as intracytoplasmic neutrophils. Larger studies are warranted to confirm our preliminary findings, as these features may help establish a more cost-effective means to select patients being tested for ALK mutational analysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  2. EBV-Negative Monomorphic B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Marked Morphologic Pleomorphism and Pathogenic Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, Agata M

    2017-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-negative PTLDs appear to represent a distinct entity. This report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic EBV-negative PTLD consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) 13 years after heart-lung transplant. Histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells including nodular areas reminiscent of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with abundant large, bizarre Hodgkin-like cells. By immunostaining, the malignant cells were immunoreactive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BCL6, MUM1, and p53 and negative for CD15, CD30, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER). Flow cytometry demonstrated lambda light chain restricted CD5 and CD10 negative B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH) were negative for cMYC , BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements but showed deletion of TP53 and monosomy of chromosome 17. Next-generation sequencing studies (NGS) revealed numerous genetic alterations including 6 pathogenic mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53 (x2) genes and 30 variants of unknown significance (VOUS) in ABL1, ASXL1, ATM, BCOR, BCORL1, BRNIP3, CDH2, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FBXW7, KIT, NF1, RUNX1, SETPB1, SF1, SMC1A, STAG2, TET2, TP53, and U2AF2.

  3. EBV-Negative Monomorphic B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Marked Morphologic Pleomorphism and Pathogenic Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-negative PTLDs appear to represent a distinct entity. This report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic EBV-negative PTLD consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) 13 years after heart-lung transplant. Histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells including nodular areas reminiscent of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with abundant large, bizarre Hodgkin-like cells. By immunostaining, the malignant cells were immunoreactive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BCL6, MUM1, and p53 and negative for CD15, CD30, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER). Flow cytometry demonstrated lambda light chain restricted CD5 and CD10 negative B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH) were negative for cMYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements but showed deletion of TP53 and monosomy of chromosome 17. Next-generation sequencing studies (NGS) revealed numerous genetic alterations including 6 pathogenic mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53(x2) genes and 30 variants of unknown significance (VOUS) in ABL1, ASXL1, ATM, BCOR, BCORL1, BRNIP3, CDH2, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FBXW7, KIT, NF1, RUNX1, SETPB1, SF1, SMC1A, STAG2, TET2, TP53, and U2AF2. PMID:28487787

  4. Breast biopsy -- ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperplasia Atypical lobular hyperplasia Flat epithelial atypia Intraductal papilloma Lobular carcinoma-in-situ Radial scar Abnormal results ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  5. [Penile squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; de Torres, I; García-Patos, V

    2012-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is uncommon in Europe, where it accounts for approximately 0.7% of all malignant tumors in men. The main risk factors are poor hygiene, lack of circumcision, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and certain chronic inflammatory skin diseases. HPV infection is detected in 70% to 100% of all penile in situ SCCs and in 30% to 50% of invasive forms of the disease, mainly basaloid and warty SCCs. In situ tumors can be treated conservatively, but close monitoring is essential as they become invasive in between 1% and 30% of cases. The treatment of choice for penile SCC is surgery. Inguinal lymph node irradiation is no longer recommended as a prophylactic measure, and it appears that selective lymph node biopsy might be useful for reducing the morbidity associated with prophylactic inguinal lymph node dissection. Survival is directly related to lymph node involvement. Improving our knowledge of underlying molecular changes and their associated genotypes will open up new therapeutic pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in women with breast carcinoma In Situ and referred for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael J; Reid, Julia E; Wenstrup, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    Ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ (CIS) accounted for 62,280 (24.5%) of all new breast cancer diagnoses in 2009. BRCA1/2 mutations confer an extremely high risk of breast cancer, and management guidelines for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers advise close follow-up, intensive screening, and consideration of prophylactic surgery to lower this risk. The limited relevant previous data are not definitive in establishing the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in breast CIS patients, creating uncertainty as to whether referral for cancer risk assessment and genetic testing is appropriate for this group. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Myriad Genetics BRCA1/2 database to determine the prevalence of these mutations in breast CIS patients. All statistical tests were 2-sided, and confidence intervals (CI) are reported at the 95% level (α = 0.05). The source population was 64,717 consecutive women who were not Ashkenazi Jewish, underwent BRCA1/2 testing, and provided a personal and family history of invasive breast and ovarian cancer; 7,295 (11.3%) reported a diagnosis of CIS (ductal or lobular) and had an overall 5.9% prevalence of mutated BRCA1/2 (mBRCA). Subgrouped by history (personal or family) of invasive breast and/or ovarian cancer, these CIS patients had the following prevalences of mBRCA: (1) no personal or family history, 2.3%; (2) personal history, 5.2%; (3) family history, 5%; and (4) personal and family history, 10.3%. mBRCA risk was significantly higher in women with early-onset (<50 years old) CIS than with late-onset (≥ 50 years old) CIS [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1). Disease onset at less than 40 years age was associated with an even higher mBRCA risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.3). By far the largest analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in non-Ashkenazi Jewish breast CIS patients, this study shows that early-onset CIS is associated with mBRCA1/2 in patients referred for genetic testing. When a family history of breast and

  7. Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Akiko T; Hirano, Shigeru; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Honda, Nobumitsu; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma. Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma. Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram. DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.

  8. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  10. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  13. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast overexpresses MUC4 and is associated with poor outcome to adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mercogliano, María F; Inurrigarro, Gloria; De Martino, Mara; Venturutti, Leandro; Rivas, Martín A; Cordo-Russo, Rosalía; Proietti, Cecilia J; Fernández, Elmer A; Frahm, Isabel; Barchuk, Sabrina; Allemand, Daniel H; Figurelli, Silvina; Deza, Ernesto Gil; Ares, Sandra; Gercovich, Felipe G; Cortese, Eduardo; Amasino, Matías; Guzmán, Pablo; Roa, Juan C; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2017-12-28

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast (IMPC) is a histological tumor variant that occurs with low frequency characterized by an inside-out formation of tumor clusters with a pseudopapillary arrangement. IMPC is an aggressive tumor with poor clinical outcome. In addition, this histological subtype usually expresses human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) which also correlates with a more aggressive tumor. In this work we studied the clinical significance of IMPC in HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab. We also analyzed mucin 4 (MUC4) expression as a novel biomarker to identify IMPC. We retrospectively studied 86 HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting. We explored the association of the IMPC component with clinicopathological parameters at diagnosis and its prognostic value. We compared MUC4 expression in IMPC with respect to other histological breast cancer subtypes by immunohistochemistry. IMPC, either as a pure entity or associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), was present in 18.6% of HER2-positive cases. It was positively correlated with estrogen receptor expression and tumor size and inversely correlated with patient's age. Disease-free survival was significantly lower in patients with IMPC (hazard ratio = 2.6; 95%, confidence interval 1.1-6.1, P = 0.0340). MUC4, a glycoprotein associated with metastasis, was strongly expressed in all IMPC cases tested. IMPC appeared as the histological breast cancer subtype with the highest MUC4 expression compared to IDC, lobular and mucinous carcinoma. In HER2-positive breast cancer, the presence of IMPC should be carefully examined. As it is often not informed, because it is relatively difficult to identify or altogether overlooked, we propose MUC4 expression as a useful biomarker to highlight IMPC presence. Patients with MUC4-positive tumors with IMPC component should be more frequently

  14. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  15. Corticosteroid treatment and timing of surgery in idiopathic granulomatous mastitis confusing with breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erozgen, Fazilet; Ersoy, Yeliz E; Akaydin, Murat; Memmi, Naim; Celik, Aysun Simsek; Celebi, Fatih; Guzey, Deniz; Kaplan, Rafet

    2010-09-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is an uncommon chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast with an uncertain optimal treatment regimen, the physical examination, and radiologic features of which may be confused with breast carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of 33 patients who admitted to our breast policlinic and took the diagnosis of granulomatous (idiopathic and non-idiopathic) mastitis, and report the place of corticosteroids and the timing of surgery in the treatment of patients with IGM. The clinical features of 33 patients who presented to our breast policlinic with the complaint of breast mass and reached the final diagnosis of GM between March 2005 and October 2009 were reported. The most common symptoms were mass (n: 27) and pain (n: 11). Ultrasonography (USG) and biopsy were performed in all of the patients. Mammography (MMG) was performed in 9, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 10 patients. The diagnosis of idiopathic lobular granulomatous mastitis (ILGM) was made in 25 patients and tuberculous mastitis (non-idiopathic GM) in the remaining 8 patients. Twenty-four patients received steroid treatment except one who was pregnant. After giving birth, she also received steroids. One of the patients who developed recurrence after 11 months repeated the steroid therapy. Eight patients with tuberculous mastitis were placed on a regimen of antituberculosis therapy for 6 months. In the diagnosis of IGM, physical examination, USG, MMG, and even MRI alone may sometimes not be enough. They should be discussed altogether and the treatment should begin after definitive histopathologic result. Fine needle aspiration biopsy for cytology will result in a high level of diagnostic accuracy, however, core biopsy will reinforce the exact result. Corticosteroid therapy has been shown to be efficacious for IGM, but in the existence of complications such as abscess formation, fistulae, and persistent wound infection

  16. [Hepatocellular carcinoma in undamaged liver].

    PubMed

    Feketé, F; Belghiti, J; Flejou, J F; Panis, Y; Molas, G

    1991-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma mainly affects patients with cirrhosis or with various degrees of fibrosis. From 1979 to 1990, among 87 patients who underwent hepatic resection for non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 (14%) had a non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma developed in a normal liver. There were 8 men and 4 women, aged 29 to 74 years. In 7 patients (58%) hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with clinical manifestations. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen were absent in all patients. Serum alphafetoprotein level was less than 100 mg/ml in 10 (83%), size of the tumor was greater than or less than 5 cm in 10 (83%) and capsule was present in 10 (83%). Resections included removal of 2 segments or more in 11 (91%). One patient died postoperatively. Actuarial survival rate at 3 and 5 years were respectively 57% and 38%. Intra or extrahepatic recurrence was recognized in 8 (67%), 2 patients were alive respectively 28 and 16 months after treatment of their intrahepatic recurrence (resection in one and intra-arterial embolisation in one). In conclusion, our results suggest that aggressive surgical efforts are justified in non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma arising in normal liver.

  17. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan resultsmore » in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.« less

  18. Fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yun Shin; Zimmitti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare primary liver cancer occurring in adolescents and young adults without chronic liver disease or known risk factors. Histologically, it is defined by lamellar bands of fibrosis surrounding well-differentiated tumor cells. Radiologic imaging typically demonstrates a large, solitary mass with calcifications and a central scar. Lymph node metastases in the porta hepatis are frequently diagnosed upon presentation. More patients with fibrolamellar carcinoma are candidates for surgical resection than those with conventional hepatocellular carcinoma, owing to their young age and absence of cirrhosis. The most important prognostic factor is surgical resection, which results in 5-year overall survival rates ranging between 50 and 76 %. Despite complete surgical resection, relapse rates are high, and novel therapies are needed to prevent and treat recurrent disease.

  19. Breast metastases from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Radu; Christie-Brown, Jonathan; Bristol, James

    2004-04-01

    A case history is presented of a 53-year-old woman with an incidental finding of a breast lump, identified after having had chemotherapy for lung metastases from a rectal carcinoma. Clinical examination, ultrasound, mammography, fine needle aspiration and core biopsies could not prove definitively whether the breast lump represented a metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. Following local excision, the final diagnosis of metastatic colorectal carcinoma to the breast was based on the absence of any site of origin within the breast (i.e. no surrounding DCIS) and on the expression of cytokeratin CK7 and CK20 on immunohistochemistry. Postoperative chemotherapy was initiated. Four months later, although without local recurrence in the breast, the patient developed cutaneous metastatic deposits and active treatment was stopped. A review of other cases of breast metastases from extramammary sources is presented. Possible mechanisms for this rare and unusual phenomenon are discussed.

  20. Update in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias; Allolio, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an orphan malignancy that has attracted increasing attention during the last decade. Here we provide an update on advances in the field since our last review published in this journal in 2006. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and IGF-2 signaling have been confirmed as frequently altered signaling pathways in ACC, but recent data suggest that they are probably not sufficient for malignant transformation. Thus, major players in the pathogenesis are still unknown. For diagnostic workup, comprehensive hormonal assessment and detailed imaging are required because in most ACCs, evidence for autonomous steroid secretion can be found and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (if necessary, combined with functional imaging) can differentiate benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. Surgery is potentially curative in localized tumors. Thus, we recommend a complete resection including lymphadenectomy by an expert surgeon. The pathology report should demonstrate the adrenocortical origin of the lesion (eg, by steroidogenic factor 1 staining) and provide Weiss score, resection status, and quantitation of the proliferation marker Ki67 to guide further treatment. Even after complete surgery, recurrence is frequent and adjuvant mitotane treatment improves outcome, but uncertainty exists as to whether all patients benefit from this therapy. In advanced ACC, mitotane is still the standard of care. Based on the FIRM-ACT trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy. However, most patients will experience progress and require salvage therapies. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing international efforts including comprehensive "-omic approaches" and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully lead to better therapies.

  1. Multiple gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poškus, Eligijus; Platkevičius, Gediminas; Simanskaitė, Vilma; Rimkevičiūtė, Ernesta; Petrulionis, Marius; Strupas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin malignancy. Primary Merkel cell carcinomas are treated by wide radical excision with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, while benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy remain doubtful. There are only several cases of gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma reported so far. We report a case of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma with metastases to the stomach and the small intestines after wide excision of primary Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. [Endometrial carcinomas and precursor lesions--new aspects].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D

    2009-07-01

    Endometrial carcinomas can be separated into two groups which are designated as type I and type II carcinomas today. Both groups of tumors are clearly different with regard to conventional light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology and clinical features. Only type I carcinomas are associated with hyperestrogenism. The group of type I carcinomas consists of endometrioid carcinoma and its variants, and mucinous carcinoma. The prototypes of type II carcinomas are serous and clear cell carcinoma. Not all carcinomas, however, can be assigned to one of the two groups, because there are hybrid tumors and mixed carcinomas, e.g. endometrioid carcinoma with a serous component. The precursor lesions of the endometrioid carcinoma and the serous carcinoma are well characterized morphologically and by molecular pathology. Atypical hyperplasia is the precursor lesion of endometrioid carcinoma, whereas endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) is the precursor lesion of serous carcinoma. No precursor lesion has as yet been identified for clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endometrial carcinoma are CK7 and vimentin, for serous carcinoma markers are p53 and p16. Correct typing is of essential prognostic necessity in endometrial carcinoma. Of utmost importance is the detection of a serous component, because serous carcinoma leads to early tumor spread with the necessity of radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  3. Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the ocular adnexa - variability in clinical and histological appearance with analysis of immunohistochemical staining patterns.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Eva Janine; Herwig-Carl, Martina C; Holz, Frank G; Loeffler, Karin U

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) of the ocular adnexae, which is due to a high variability in clinical, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics often challenging to diagnose. Records of six patients with SGC were reviewed, who underwent surgical excision and who were histologically diagnosed with SGC. For comparison, there were specimens from four patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and four patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis included stains for HE, cytokeratins (CKpan, Cam5.2), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), androgen receptor (AR441), perforin and adipophilin. SGC's were located in the upper (n = 2) or lower (n = 4) eyelid and were associated with various presenting clinical signs including chalazion-like lesions with pyogenic granuloma (n = 1), papillomatous conjunctival tumors (n = 3), a hyperkeratotic exophytic neoplasm (n = 1) and an ulcerating crusted lesion resembling chronic blepharitis (n = 1). The treatment was tumor resection, followed (if necessary) by adjuvant therapy with topical Mitomycin C (n = 2). Histologic characteristics included basophilic pleomorphic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, mitotic figures and in some cases pagetoid spread (n = 2). CKpan, EMA and Cam5.2 showed strong positive immunoreactivity in all specimens (SGC, BCC, SCC). Perforin immunostaining showed a varying, but overall weak, non-specific cytoplasmatic staining reaction in all lesions. AR441 positivity was noted with variable intensity in almost all lesions and in particular in pagetoid spread in contrast to non-tumor cells. Adipophilin showed an annular staining of lipid granules in immature sebaceous cells in SGC in contrast to a more granular staining pattern in BCC and SCC. SGCs display a variety of clinical signs and may mimic many other lesions. Tumor resection, followed by histological and

  4. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  5. [Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma : An underdiagnosed entity?].

    PubMed

    Udvardi, A; Mayer, B; Volc-Platzer, B; Rütten, A

    2016-09-01

    Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma with indolent biological behaviour. It should not be mistaken for a cutaneous metastasis of a visceral carcinoma, an adenoid cystic basal cell carcinoma or a primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  6. Reoperation Rates in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ vs Invasive Breast Cancer After Wire-Guided Breast-Conserving Surgery.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Linnea; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Talman, Maj-Lis M; Vejborg, Ilse; Kroman, Niels; Tvedskov, Tove F

    2017-04-01

    New techniques for preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions may decrease the reoperation rate in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) compared with rates after surgery with the standard wire-guided localization. However, a valid reoperation rate for this procedure needs to be established for comparison, as previous studies on this procedure include a variety of malignant and benign breast lesions. To determine the reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with histologically verified nonpalpable invasive breast cancer (IBC) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to examine whether the risk of reoperation is associated with DCIS or histologic type of the IBC. This nationwide study including women with histologically verified IBC or DCIS having wire-guided BCS performed between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, used data from the Danish National Patient Registry that were cross-checked with the Danish Breast Cancer Group database and the Danish Pathology Register. Reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with IBC or DCIS. Wire-guided BCS was performed in 4118 women (mean [SD] age, 60.9 [8.7] years). A total of 725 patients (17.6%) underwent a reoperation: 593 were reexcisions (14.4%) and 132 were mastectomies (3.2%). Significantly more patients with DCIS (271 of 727 [37.3%]) than with IBC (454 of 3391 [13.4%]) underwent a reoperation (adjusted odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 3.19-4.58; P < .001). After the first reexcision, positive margins were still present in 97 patients (16.4%). The risk of repeated positive margins was significantly higher in patients with DCIS vs those with IBC (unadjusted odds ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.42-3.43; P < .001). The risk of reoperation was significantly increased in patients with lobular carcinoma vs those with ductal carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio, 1.44; 95% CI 1.06-1.95; P = .02). A total of 202 patients (4.9%) had a subsequent completion mastectomy, but no difference was found in the type of

  7. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung masquerading as urothelial carcinoma of bladder

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Donna M.; O’Connor, Kate M.; Hinchion, John; Coate, Linda E.; Burke, Louise; Power, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. There is no consensus regarding optimal management for this disease. Case report We present a case of MEC of the lung in a 75 year-old female with a history of superficial urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The patient was found to have an asymptomatic lung mass. Initial biopsy suggested metastatic recurrence of urothelial carcinoma and therefore, cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy was administered prior to surgical resection. Pathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed a diagnosis of stage IIIA MEC with focal high-grade features including transitional cell-like areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered due to a positive microscopic resection margin. No chemotherapy was given due to lack of supporting data. The patient developed widespread metastatic disease 3 months following completion of radiotherapy and died 1 month later. Conclusion This case demonstrates the possibility of dual pathology in cases where metastatic disease is suspected. The use of small tissue samples may complicate diagnosis due to the heterogeneity of malignant tumours. PMID:24936321

  8. Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Kopinski, Piotr; Schwartz, Robert; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology; gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen et al. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cytopathologic differential diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma and reactive urothelial proliferation in bladder washings: a logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Ebru; Kucuk, Ulku; Pala, Emel Ebru; Sezer, Ozlem; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Cakmak, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    Conventional cytomorphologic assessment is the first step to establish an accurate diagnosis in urinary cytology. In cytologic preparations, the separation of low-grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC) from reactive urothelial proliferation (RUP) can be exceedingly difficult. The bladder washing cytologies of 32 LGUC and 29 RUP were reviewed. The cytologic slides were examined for the presence or absence of the 28 cytologic features. The cytologic criteria showing statistical significance in LGUC were increased numbers of monotonous single (non-umbrella) cells, three-dimensional cellular papillary clusters without fibrovascular cores, irregular bordered clusters, atypical single cells, irregular nuclear overlap, cytoplasmic homogeneity, increased N/C ratio, pleomorphism, nuclear border irregularity, nuclear eccentricity, elongated nuclei, and hyperchromasia (p ˂ 0.05), and the cytologic criteria showing statistical significance in RUP were inflammatory background, mixture of small and large urothelial cells, loose monolayer aggregates, and vacuolated cytoplasm (p ˂ 0.05). When these variables were subjected to a stepwise logistic regression analysis, four features were selected to distinguish LGUC from RUP: increased numbers of monotonous single (non-umbrella) cells, increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, hyperchromasia, and presence of small and large urothelial cells (p = 0.0001). By this logistic model of the 32 cases with proven LGUC, the stepwise logistic regression analysis correctly predicted 31 (96.9%) patients with this diagnosis, and of the 29 patients with RUP, the logistic model correctly predicted 26 (89.7%) patients as having this disease. There are several cytologic features to separate LGUC from RUP. Stepwise logistic regression analysis is a valuable tool for determining the most useful cytologic criteria to distinguish these entities. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genomics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kenneth; Yesensky, Jessica; Hasina, Rifat; Agrawal, Nishant

    2018-02-01

    To report on the current state of the literature on the genetics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands with a focus on genomic screens and recently discovered genetic translocations. A PubMed based literature review was performed to query for genetics related basic science and preclinical studies about mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands. Genetic translocations between CRTC1 and MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and between MYB and NFIB in adenoid cystic carcinoma have been recently discovered and have therapeutic implications. Key signaling pathways such as the EGFR pathway in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the Notch pathway, chromatin regulation, and c-kit mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in adenoid cystic carcinoma have recently been elucidated, pointing to possible therapeutic targets in both cancers.

  11. Genomics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kenneth; Yesensky, Jessica; Hasina, Rifat

    2018-01-01

    Objective To report on the current state of the literature on the genetics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands with a focus on genomic screens and recently discovered genetic translocations. Methods A PubMed based literature review was performed to query for genetics related basic science and preclinical studies about mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands. Results and conclusions Genetic translocations between CRTC1 and MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and between MYB and NFIB in adenoid cystic carcinoma have been recently discovered and have therapeutic implications. Key signaling pathways such as the EGFR pathway in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the Notch pathway, chromatin regulation, and c‐kit mediated epithelial‐mesenchymal transitions in adenoid cystic carcinoma have recently been elucidated, pointing to possible therapeutic targets in both cancers. PMID:29492469

  12. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the breast: a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Horne, Hisani N; Sherman, Mark E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Khodr, Zeina G; Falk, Roni T; Pollak, Michael; Patel, Deesha A; Palakal, Maya M; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Geller, Berta; Vacek, Pamela M; Weaver, Donald L; Chicoine, Rachael; Shepherd, John; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Fan, Bo; Malkov, Serghei; Herschorn, Sally; Hewitt, Stephen M; Brinton, Louise A; Gierach, Gretchen L

    2016-02-18

    Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the primary structures from which breast cancers and their precursors arise. Decreased age-related TDLU involution and elevated mammographic density are both correlated and independently associated with increased breast cancer risk, suggesting that these characteristics of breast parenchyma might be linked to a common factor. Given data suggesting that increased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) factors are related to reduced TDLU involution and increased mammographic density, we assessed these relationships using validated quantitative methods in a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratios were measured in 228 women, ages 40-64, who underwent diagnostic breast biopsies yielding benign diagnoses at University of Vermont affiliated centers. Biopsies were assessed for three separate measures inversely related to TDLU involution: numbers of TDLUs per unit of tissue area ("TDLU count"), median TDLU diameter ("TDLU span"), and number of acini per TDLU ("acini count"). Regression models, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to assess the associations of TDLU count, median TDLU span and median acini count per TDLU with tertiles of circulating IGFs. Given that mammographic density is associated with both IGF levels and breast cancer risk, we also stratified these associations by mammographic density. Higher IGF-I levels among postmenopausal women and an elevated IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio among all women were associated with higher TDLU counts, a marker of decreased lobular involution (P-trend = 0.009 and <0.0001, respectively); these associations were strongest among women with elevated mammographic density (P-interaction <0.01). Circulating IGF levels were not significantly associated with TDLU span or acini count per TDLU. These results suggest that elevated IGF levels may define a sub-group of

  13. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  14. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Leskelä, Susanna; Cristóbal-Lana, Eva; Santón, Almudena; López-García, Ma Ángeles; Muñoz, Gloria; Pérez-Mies, Belen; Biscuola, Michele; Prat, Jaime; Esther, Oliva E; Soslow, Robert A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Palacios, Jose

    2016-11-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components, as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: (a) hypermutated tumors with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); (b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); (c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumors group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%); and (d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumors with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group, whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumors. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, which may have prognostic value.

  15. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Rosa, J.M.; Leskelä, S.; Cristóbal-Lana, E.; Santón, A.; López-García, M.A.; Muñoz, G.; Pérez-Mies, B.; Biscuola, M; Prat, J.; Oliva, E.; Soslow, R.A.; Matias-Guiu, X.; Palacios, J.

    2017-01-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumours, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: a) hypermutated tumours with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumours group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%) ; and d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumours with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumours. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumours, which may have prognostic value. PMID:27491810

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren Dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda da

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  17. [Biological behavior of hypopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhou, L X

    1997-01-01

    Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (HPC) has an extremely poor prognosis. Characteristics of cell lines of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas including HPC were studied by various methods, e.g., chemosensitivity test and the immunohistochemistry staining method, to determine whether this poor prognosis is due to the biological behavior of this cancer. An HPC cell line was found to be resistant to anti tumor drugs, i.e., PEP, MTX and CPM and moderately sensitive to CDDP, 5-FU and ADM. Thermoresistance to hyperthermatic treatment and weak expression of ICAM-1 on the HPC cell line were observed. DNA synthesis by the HPC cell line was induced by stimulation with a low concentration of EGF and the amount of EGFR on these HPC cells was very high. In addition, cyclinD1 overexpression was found in the HPC cell line. Based on the above findings, further analysis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells and the development of a new treatment modality to control tumor growth and metastatic factors influencing the poor outcome are necessary to improve the prognosis of this cancer.

  18. Neural invasion in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Kui-Yang

    2002-08-01

    Neural invasion is a special metastatic route in pancreatic cancer and responsible for the high recurrence in curatively resected cases. To summarize the characteristics and mechanisms of neural invasion in pancreatic carcinoma for the better treatment of this disease. The international literatures were reviewed about the definition, incidence and mechanisms of neural invasion and its clinicopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Neural invasion is defined when the medial perineurium is involved by cancer cells, accounting for 45%-100% of all cases. It can be divided into different kinds or stages according to its locations and the number of nerve fascicles involved. Invasion along vascularity, lymphatic vessels, perineural space and neurotropism is considered as its primary mechanisms. No clinicopathologic factors are correlated with neural invasion. Intravascular ultrasound, CT scan and immunostaining K-ras gene analysis can be used to diagnose neural invasion pre-, intra- or postoperatively. Neural invasion is an important prognostic factor for the recurrence of pancreatic carcinoma after pancreatectomy. Because of its high incidence, pancreatectomy with extended radical retroperitoneal dissection should be considered as a basic procedure in the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma.

  19. Bowenoid epidermotropic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ihm, C W; Park, S L; Sung, S Y; Lee, I S

    1996-10-01

    Epidermotropic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma produced full-thickness cellular atypia of bowenoid carcinoma in situ or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 (VIN 3), in a 73-year-old woman who had past history of uterine cervical carcinoma. The presence of intravascular tumor cell nests and areas showing smooth continuity of the malignant squamous cell nodules with the adjoining benign epidermis supported the possibility of the epidermotropic metastasis. To our knowledge, metastatic epidermotropic squamous carcinoma clinicopathologically simulating primary Bowen's disease has not been reported.

  20. The distribution of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) grade in 4232 women and its impact on overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; Fracheboud, J; Overbeek, L I H; Broeders, M J M; Wesseling, J; den Heeten, G J; de Koning, H J

    2016-05-10

    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has rapidly increased over time. The malignant potential of DCIS is dependent on its differentiation grade. Our aim is to determine the distribution of different grades of DCIS among women screened in the mass screening programme, and women not screened in the mass screening programme, and to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis by grade of DCIS. We retrospectively included a population-based sample of 4232 women with a diagnosis of DCIS in the years 2007-2009 from the Nationwide network and registry of histopathology and cytopathology in the Netherlands. Excluded were women with concurrent invasive breast cancer, lobular carcinoma in situ and no DCIS, women recently treated for invasive breast cancer, no grade mentioned in the record, inconclusive record on invasion, and prevalent DCIS. The screening status was obtained via the screening organisations. The distribution of grades was incorporated in the well-established and validated microsimulation model MISCAN. Overall, 17.7 % of DCIS were low grade, 31.4 % intermediate grade, and 50.9 % high grade. This distribution did not differ by screening status, but did vary by age. Older women were more likely to have low-grade DCIS than younger women. Overdiagnosis as a proportion of all cancers in women of the screening age was 61 % for low-grade, 57 % for intermediate-grade, 45 % for high-grade DCIS. For women age 50-60 years with a high-grade DCIS this overdiagnosis rate was 21-29 %, compared to 50-66 % in women age 60-75 years with high-grade DCIS. Amongst the rapidly increasing numbers of DCIS diagnosed each year is a significant number of overdiagnosed cases. Tailoring treatment to the probability of progression is the next step to preventing overtreatment. The basis of this tailoring could be DCIS grade and age.

  1. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  3. Transarterial embolization of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chang; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung; Wu, Chun-Ying; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative treatment for extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 71-year-old patient had a stable liver condition following treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, but later developed symptomatic mediastinal metastasis. This rapidly growing mediastinal mass induced symptoms including cough and hoarseness. Serial sessions of transarterial embolization (TAE) successfully controlled this mediastinal mass with limited side effects. The patient’s survival time since the initial diagnosis of the mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma was 32 mo, significantly longer than the 12 mo mean survival period of patients with similar diagnoses: metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and a liver condition with a Child-Pugh class A score. Currently, oral sorafenib is the treatment of choice for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies indicate that locoregional treatment of extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinomas might also significantly improve the prognosis in patients with their primary hepatic lesions under control. Many effective locoregional therapies for extrahepatic metastasis, including radiation and surgical resection, may provide palliative effects for hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mediastinal metastasis. This case report demonstrates that TAE of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma provided this patient with tumor control and increased survival time. This finding is important as it can potentially provide an alternative treatment option for patients with similar symptoms and diagnoses. PMID:23801848

  4. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  5. Mucinous breast carcinoma with tall columnar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, N; Kiakou, M; Tolia, M; Kostakis, I D; Galanopoulos, M; Nakos, G; Tryfonopoulos, D; Kyrgias, G; Koumakis, G

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast represents 1%-4% of all breast cancers. The World Health Organization classification divides this type of tumour into three different subtypes: mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma with tall columnar cells (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and columnar cell mucinous carcinoma) and signet ring cell carcinoma. A 74-year-old woman presented a tumour with inflammatory features in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast, 7 cm in diameter. The core biopsy showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no specific type. The tumour-node-metastasis clinical staging was T4cN3M0 (Stage IIIC). She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, underwent left mastectomy with radical axillary resection and subsequently received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed two solid tumors in the tail of Spence, which corresponded to adenocarcinoma with high columnar cells. The patient died 16 months after the diagnosis, suffering from pulmonary metastases and anterior chest wall infiltration. A review of the literature revealed only 21 reports of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with tall columnar cells, including our case. This is only the third time that the specific histological type of columnar cell mucinous carcinoma has been reported in the literature.

  6. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) occurs when cancer cells have spread in the body and formed metastatic tumors but the site of the primary cancer is not known. There are a number of reasons why the primary cancer may not be found. Start here to find treatment information for carcinoma of unknown primary.

  7. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  8. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Awan, Basim A; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving.

  9. Scalp Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A.; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. Conclusion: In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving. PMID:24695441

  10. Esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma mimicking acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsukuma, Susumu; Takahashi, Oh; Utsumi, Yoshitaka; Tsuda, Masaki; Miyai, Kosuke; Okada, Kenji; Takeo, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Herein is described a unique case of esophageal cancer mimicking acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The patient succumbed to the disease within one month of diagnosis. Autopsy revealed a 10-cm esophageal tumor, characterized by prominent acantholysis-like areas composed of discohesive cancer cells, along with nested growth of SCC. These discohesive cancer cells focally exhibited pagetoid extension into adjacent esophageal epithelium, comprised ~60% of the esophageal tumor volume and had widely metastasized to the lungs, chest wall, liver, spleen, right adrenal gland, bones and lymph nodes. No metastases of SCC were observed. SCC cells were immunohistochemically positive for keratin 5/6 and E-cadherin and were negative for mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). However, the discohesive cancer cells exhibited negativity for keratin 5/6, positivity for mucin and CEA, and diminished or no immunostaining for E-cadherin. Thus, these discohesive cells represented true adenocarcinomatous differentiation rather than acantholytic SCC cells. It was concluded that this tumor was an esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma with ‘pseudo’-acantholytic adenocarcinoma components, which should be considered as a rare but distinctive type of aggressive cancer. PMID:29085501

  11. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  12. Update on Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a tumorigenic DNA virus, is present in most MCC tumors, with implications for tumor biology, diagnosis, and management. Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative tumors have a high burden of UV-signature mutations, similar to melanoma. The histopathologic diagnosis of MCC requires immunohistochemistry to exclude morphologically similar entities. Therapies for advanced disease are currently lacking. Here, the features of MCC are reviewed, including recent molecular discoveries with implications for improved therapy for advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cetuximab & Nivolumab in Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-13

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Cancer; Head and Neck Carcinoma

  14. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly-differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemistry for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clone SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), Napsin A, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma since they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly-differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly-differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  16. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands: presentation of two cases, literature review, and differential cytodiagnosis of high-grade salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Moore, J G; Bocklage, T

    1998-07-01

    Primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare, high-grade neoplasm which accounts for a very small number (1-5.5%) of malignant salivary gland tumors. The large-cell variant (LCU) is less well-characterized than the small-cell form. We report on the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy findings of 2 cases of LCU, one arising in the parotid gland, and the other in a buccal mucosa accessory salivary gland. The 2 cases were similar in composition: isolated and loosely cohesive large cells with abundant cytoplasm, and variability pleomorphic nuclei with prominent nucleoli. One case also featured multinucleated tumor giant cells and macrophage polykaryons; the latter has not previously been described in FNA biopsies of LCU. There was no evidence of squamous, myoepithelial, or widespread mucinous differentiation by morphological, cytochemical, or immunohistochemical analyses (focal rare mucin production identified on special stains in one case). The differential diagnosis is lengthy and consists of other high-grade primary salivary gland malignancies as well as metastatic lesions, including melanoma. The pattern of immunohistochemical reactivity (positive keratin, negative S-100, and HMB-45 antigens), and lack of conspicuous mucin production of significant lymphoidinfiltrate, were useful in establishing the correct diagnosis.

  17. Radioembolization in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2018-05-02

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice. A 68-year-old man with a remote history of alcohol abuse presented with vague abdominal pain. A review of systems suggested the patient had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1 (restriction of strenuous physical activity). There were no physical examination findings of note. Laboratory studies disclosed Child-Pugh A liver status (no ascites; no encephalopathy; total bilirubin, 1 mg/dL; albumin, 3.5 g/dL; and international normalized rato, 1.2). The alpha-fetoprotein was mildly elevated (19.5 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast disclosed an infiltrative mass with extensive malignant right and left portal vein thrombosis ( Fig 1A ) with cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The infiltrative mass ( Fig 2A ) was biopsied, revealing hepatocellular carcinoma. No distant metastases were found on a bone scintigraphy or computerized tomography scan. Given these features, this patient was classified as Barcelona Clinic for Liver Cancer stage C. The patient was referred for management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  19. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  20. [Benign proliferative breast disease with and without atypia].

    PubMed

    Coutant, C; Canlorbe, G; Bendifallah, S; Beltjens, F

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years, diagnostics of high-risk breast lesions (atypical ductal hyperplasia [ADH], flat epithelial atypia [FEA], lobular neoplasia: atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH], lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], radial scar [RS], usual ductal hyperplasia [UDH], adenosis, sclerosing adenosis [SA], papillary breast lesions, mucocele-like lesion [MLL]) have increased with the growing number of breast percutaneous biopsies. The management of these lesions is highly conditioned by the enlarged risk of breast cancer combined with either an increased probability of finding cancer after surgery, either a possible malignant transformation (in situ or invasive cancer), or an increased probability of developing cancer on the long range. An overview of the literature reports grade C recommendations concerning the management and follow-up of these lesions: in case of ADH, FEA, ALH, LCIS, RS, MLL with atypia, diagnosed on percutaneous biopsies: surgical excision is recommended; in case of a diagnostic based on vacuum-assisted core biopsy with complete disappearance of radiological signal for FEA or RS without atypia: surgical abstention is a valid alternative approved by multidisciplinary meeting. In case of ALH (incidental finding) associated with benign lesion responsible of radiological signal: abstention may be proposed; in case of UDH, adenosis, MLL without atypia, diagnosed on percutaneous biopsies: the concordance of radiology and histopathology findings must be ensured. No data is available to recommend surgery; in case of non-in sano resection for ADH, FEA, ALH, LCIS (except pleomorphic type), RS, MLL: surgery does not seem to be necessary; in case of previous ADH, ALH, LCIS: a specific follow-up is recommended in accordance with HAS's recommendations. In case of FEA and RS or MLL combined with atypia, little data are yet available to differ the management from others lesions with atypia; in case of UDH, usual sclerosing adenosis, RS without atypia, fibro cystic

  1. Sebaceous carcinoma of the vulva: critical approach to grading and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pusiol, T; Morichetti, D; Zorzi, M G

    2011-06-01

    Sebaceous glands are abundant on the vulva, but vulvar sebaceous carcinoma (SC) is an uncommon neoplasm. We report a case of SC of the vulva in a 51 year-old woman. The patient presented a 6-month history of an asymptomatic 2.5 x 1.5 cm exophytic tumour localized on the left labium majora. Tumorectomy was performed. Histologically, the lesion had an irregular lobular growth pattern composed of lobules or sheets of malignant cells separated by fibrovascular stroma. There was a mixture of sebaceous-type differentiation, small ducts and areas showing basaloid or squamous features. Centrally-located tumour cells showed moderate EMA immunoreactivity, especially enhancing cytoplasmic "bubbliness". Tumour cells were immunoreactive for CAM 5.2. The immunoreactivity for intranuclear p53 staining was > 10%. Southern blot hybridization and PCR studies did not detect HPV DNA. Hemivulvectomy was performed. After 18 months of follow-up, the patient has no evidence of recurrence, metastases or other malignant tumours. The grading of cutaneous SC proposed by Rutten et al. (World Health Organization Classification of Skin Tumours) and Patterson & Wick (Nonmelanocytic Tumours of the Skin. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology) is based on patterns of tumour growth rather than cytological features. Such grading of skin SC, including vulvar SC, should not be used since its prognostic value has not been sufficiently documented. As the number of reported vulvar SCs is very limited, their natural history is unknown and the optimal treatment has not been established. The follow-up of 7 reported cases supports the general opinion that the tumour may be aggressive. SC groin node metastases carry a devastating prognosis, and unrecognized disease in the inguinofemoral lymph nodes is nearly always fatal. The use of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) has evolved as an effective surgical technique for identifying early subclinical regional nodal involvement for many solid tumours throughout the body for

  2. Incidence of breast cancer in patients with pure flat epithelial atypia diagnosed at core-needle biopsy of the breast.

    PubMed

    Khoumais, Nuha A; Scaranelo, Anabel M; Moshonov, Hadas; Kulkarni, Supriya R; Miller, Naomi; McCready, David R; Youngson, Bruce J; Crystal, Pavel; Done, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    to determine the frequency of malignancy in subsequent breast excisions following core-needle biopsy (CNB) diagnosis of pure flat epithelial atypia (pFEA) and to evaluate the imaging features of the associated tumors. Retrospective review of 8,996 image-guided CNB (2002-2010) identified 115 cases of FEA not associated with other atypia. Patients with history of breast cancer or radiation therapy were excluded. One hundred four cases (women) with pFEA (mean age 51 years, range 29-77 years) were reviewed. Stereotactic CNB was performed in 79 (76%) cases and ultrasound (US)-guided CNB in 25 (24%) cases. In 99 cases 14G needles were used, and 10G vacuum-assisted devices were used in 5 cases. Ninety-four patients had subsequent excision. Ten patients declined excision, and imaging follow-up (mean of 36 months) is available. The upgrade rate of pFEA was defined as the number of patients diagnosed with invasive carcinoma (IC) or carcinoma in situ (CIS) divided by the total number of patients. 10 of 104 (9.6%) patients were diagnosed with cancer: 9 presented as calcifications (89% fine pleomorphic and amorphous) and 1 case as a mammographically occult mass. The size of calcifications was not statistically significant (P=0.358). Five cases had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and five cases had IC (ductal and lobular) presenting as amorphous and pleomorphic calcifications. The upgrade rate of pFEA in our series was 9.6%. The presence of 4.8% of invasive cancers is substantial and warrants continuing management with surgical excision in all cases.

  3. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  4. [Verrucous carcinoma of penis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yokonishi, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Yuusuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Osaka, Kimito; Umemoto, Susumu; Komiya, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Kishi, Hiroichi; Tsuura, Yukio; Ikeda, Shigeru

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of verrucous carcinoma of the penis. A 62-year-old man, who presented with penile swelling and pain, was referred to our hospital. Although, penile tumor biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, the patient presented with penile swelling and discharge. The penis was surgically resected and urinary diversion was performed. The pathological examination of the resected glans revealed verrucous carcinoma of penis. Furthermore, in situ hybridization revealed human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. This clearly showed that the verrucous carcinoma of the penis resulted from the HPV infection. The patient has survived for 14 months after surgery without local recurrence or metastasis.

  5. Hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Lou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers with limited therapeutic options. Pathogenesis of this disease involves tumor hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia inducible factors. In this review, we describe the current understanding of hypoxia signaling pathway and summarize the expression, function and target genes of hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma. We also highlight the recent progress in hypoxia-targeted therapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma and discuss further the future efforts for the study of hypoxia and/or hypoxia inducible factors in this deadly disease. PMID:28493839

  6. FGFR2 alterations in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gatius, Sonia; Velasco, Ana; Azueta, Ainara; Santacana, Maria; Pallares, Judit; Valls, Joan; Dolcet, Xavier; Prat, Jaime; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in many biological processes such as embryogenesis, adult tissue homeostasis and cell proliferation. Mutations in FGFR2 have been reported in up to 10-12% of endometrial carcinomas identical to those found in congenital craniofacial disorders. Inhibition of FGFR2 could be a new therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma. FGFR2 immunostaining was assessed in three tissue microarrays: one constructed from paraffin-embedded blocks of 60 samples of normal endometrium in different phases of menstrual cycle, and two tissue microarrays containing endometrial carcinoma samples (95 and 62 cases). FGFR2 expression was correlated with stage, histological type and grade as well as with immunostaining of PTEN, RASSF1A, estrogen and progesterone receptors, KI67, Cyclin D1, STAT-3 and SPRY2. FGFR2 mutations were assessed by PCR and direct sequencing, with DNA obtained from 31 paraffin-embedded endometrial carcinoma samples. In normal endometrium, FGFR2 expression was higher in the secretory than in the proliferative phase (P=0.001), with an inverse correlation with Ki67 (P=0.00032), suggesting a tumor-suppressor role for FGFR2 in normal endometrium. Cytoplasmic expression of FGFR2 was higher in endometrial carcinoma when compared with the atrophic endometrium from the same patients (P=0.0283), but was lower in comparison with normal endometrium from women in the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, nuclear staining was observed in some cases, and it was less frequent in endometrial carcinoma when compared with the adjacent atrophic endometrium (P=0.0465). There were no statistical differences when comparing superficial and myoinvasive endometrial carcinoma samples. Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas showed higher expression of FGFR2 than nonendometrioid endometrial carcinomas (fold change 2.56; P=0.0015). Grade III endometrioid endometrial carcinomas showed decreased FGFR2 expression when compared

  7. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  8. Atezolizumab in urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hamilou, Zineb; Lavaud, Pernelle; Loriot, Yohann

    2018-02-01

    Metastatic bladder cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis when presenting with advanced stage. Cisplatin-based therapy has been the mainstay of first-line treatment but therapy in second-line setting has been an unmet medical need for decades. Moreover, many patients are unable to receive cisplatin-based therapy. Recently, immune-checkpoint inhibitors transformed the management and prognosis of many malignancies and will certainly redefine the standard of care for bladder cancer. Atezolizumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, was the first immune-checkpoint inhibitor to be approved by the US FDA in May 2016 for patients with urothelial carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind this promising drug.

  9. Early Localization of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, C.; Leriche, J. C.; Ikeda, N.; Palcic, B.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least 1 pack of cigarettes per day for 25 years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant, and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect significantly more areas with moderate/severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ than conventional white-light bronchoscopy with a similar specificity. Multiple foci of dysplasia or cancer were found in 13–24% of these individuals. Fluorescence bronchoscopy may be an important adjunct to conventional bronchoscopic examination to improve our ability to detect and localize premalignant and early lung cancer lesions. PMID:18493345

  10. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  11. [Vulvar carcinoma. Diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Schnürch, H G

    2004-07-01

    Vulvar cancer is a rare entity. It appears mostly in older women aged 70-79 years with a slow tendency to younger age. More than 90% of the tumors show a squamous differentiation. The correspondent preneoplasia is VIN 3. This lesion occurs in women mostly younger than 35 years. Experts assume vulvar cancer to appear in two different types:HPV-induced type in younger women and non-HPV-dependent type in older women. The preneoplasia VIN 3 already should be treated by resection or destruction. Invasive carcinomas stage I or II can be treated by wide local excision. The inguinofemoral lymph nodes should be resected if invasion exceeds 1 mm in depth. In larger primary tumors, vulvectomy with bilateral inguinofemoral node dissection is indicated. In advanced tumor stages, multimodal concepts are applied: primary radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy may precede a salvage operation.

  12. [Molecular pathology of pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Zdeněk; Matějčková, Milada; Matěj, Radoslav

    2014-04-01

    The group of non-small cell lung carcinomas includes tumors that are variable at the clinical, histopathological and molecular levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular pathology of lung adenocarcinomas in particular has led to changes in their histopathological classification and treatment. Patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma harboring specific mutations benefit from the administration of specific targeted therapy. Therefore, pathologists closely involved in the diagnostics of lung tumors significantly contribute to the diagnostic-therapeutical algorithm. Analysis of EGFR gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas is already routinely performed and the presence of activating mutations in EGFR is the main indication for the administration of tyrosinkinase inhibitors. Besides EGFR mutations, EML4-ALK rearrangement is also being analysed and there is potential in analysing BRAF mutations as well. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of the most relevant molecules that also serve as the therapeutic target for practicing pathologists.

  13. Does the Fuhrman or World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology Grading System Apply to the Xp11.2 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma?: A 10-Year Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Gan, Weidong; Qu, Feng; Wang, Zhen; Zhuang, Wenyuan; Agizamhan, Sezim; Xu, Linfeng; Yin, Juanjuan; Guo, Hongqian; Li, Dongmei

    2018-04-01

    The Fuhrman and World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) grading systems are widely used to predict survival for patients with conventional renal cell carcinoma. To determine the validity of nuclear grading systems (both the Fuhrman and the WHO/ISUP) and the individual components of the Fuhrman grading system in predicting the prognosis of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 tRCC), we identified and followed up 47 patients with Xp11.2 tRCC in our center from January 2007 to June 2017. The Fuhrman and WHO/ISUP grading was reassigned by two pathologists. Nuclear size and shape were determined for each case based on the greatest degree of nuclear pleomorphism using image analysis software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the capacity of the grading systems and nuclear parameters to predict overall survival and progression-free survival. On univariate Cox regression analysis, the parameters of nuclear size were associated significantly with overall survival and progression-free survival, whereas the grading systems and the parameters of nuclear shape failed to reach a significant correlation. On multivariate analysis, however, none of the parameters was associated independently with survival. Our findings indicate that neither the Fuhrman nor the WHO/ISUP grading system is applicable to Xp11.2 tRCC. The assessment of nuclear size instead may be novel outcome predictors for patients with Xp11.2 tRCC. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  15. [Superficial invasive squamous carcinoma of the vulva].

    PubMed

    Rosmanich, A; Briones, H; Espinoza, A; Dabancens, A

    1994-01-01

    We present our experience at University of Chile Clinical Hospital, about superficial scamous vulvar carcinoma, during January, 1967 and april, 1992. We studied eight patients, mean age 57.1 years. Diagnostic was histopathologic in all cases. Three patients were submitted to simple total vulvectomy; other three were treated by total vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy (classic form of treatment). The other two cases, were submitted to simple in one case and partial vulvectomy in other, with lymphadenectomy by separate bilateral inguinal incisions. Histopathological study proved in situ scamous carcinoma near invasive focus at 50% of all cases. Follow up was between 2 and 25 years, mean 10.5 years. In one patient, carcinoma in situ relapsed at 2 years and 8 months after treatment, and then, at 8 years after primitive treatment. In other patient, and anal carcinoma was demonstrated 20 years after vulvectomy.

  16. Perioperative Considerations in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Kate; Vasdev, Nikhil; Ashead, Jim; Lane, Tim; Hanbury, Damian; Nathan, Paul; Gowrie-Mohan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma are complex, with the potential for significant complications, and require extensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative management. This article discusses, in depth, the necessary considerations in the treatment of these patients. PMID:27833463

  17. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  19. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  20. Primary and secondary hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.B.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1976-10-04

    We investigated the thyroid and pituitary functions of six of the seven patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been previously treated with external radiation, and who were seen at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Hospital within a recent 18-month period. Two patients had primary hypothyroidism, and four had secondary hypothyroidism. These findings suggest that thyroid and pituitary abnormalities are frequent complications of both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its treatment.

  1. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  2. Clinicopathological characteristics of head and neck Merkel cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Andreas; Bas, Murat; Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Stark, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There are still controversies about the therapeutic strategies and subsequent outcome in head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinicopathological data of 23 Merkel cell carcinomas, 93 cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), 126 malignant melanomas, and 91 primary parotid gland carcinomas were comprehensively analyzed. Merkel cell carcinomas were cytokeratin 20 (CK20)/neuron-specific enolase (NSE)/chromogranin A (CgA)/synaptophysin (Syn)/thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)/MIB1 immunostained. All Merkel cell carcinomas underwent wide local excision. Parotidectomy/neck dissection was performed in 40%/33% cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma and 100%/100% in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma. Five-year recurrence-free interval (RFI)/overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in malignant melanoma (81/80%) than in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma/HNSCC. Interestingly, 5-year RFI/OS was significantly higher in Merkel cell carcinoma (61%/79%) than in HNSCC (33%/65%; p < .0001) despite comparable TNM classifications and treatment regimens. There were neither differences of RFI/OS between parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma and parotid gland carcinomas, nor in the immunohistochemical profile. Five-year RFI/OS was significantly better in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma when compared with TNM classification matched HNSCC. Five-year RFI/OS was comparable in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma and other primary parotid gland malignancies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 92-97, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  4. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  5. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  6. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  7. Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2017-01-12

    Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas resembled squamous carcinomas of other organs more than they did oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Our analyses identified three molecular subclasses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but none showed evidence for an aetiological role of human papillomavirus. Squamous cell carcinomas showed frequent genomic amplifications of CCND1 and SOX2 and/or TP63, whereas ERBB2, VEGFA and GATA4 and GATA6 were more commonly amplified in adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal adenocarcinomas strongly resembled the chromosomally unstable variant of gastric adenocarcinoma, suggesting that these cancers could be considered a single disease entity. However, some molecular features, including DNA hypermethylation, occurred disproportionally in oesophageal adenocarcinomas. These data provide a framework to facilitate more rational categorization of these tumours and a foundation for new therapies.

  8. [Clinicopathological study of diffuse carcinoma of stomach (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, T

    1978-11-01

    The biological behavior of ulcer type gastric carcinoma was studied on 114 cases of diffuse carcinoma (Borrmann's 4 type) and 262 cases of early like advanced carcinoma (including superficial spreading type). In both types of gastric carcinoma, the age distribution, location, ulcer with cancer focus and prognosis differed greatly. The early like carcinoma was speculated to have advanced maintaining the groos findings of early gastric carcinoma, and its location and associated ulcer were the same as the early ulcer type of carcinoma. The prognosis of this type of carcinoma was good, showing a figure of 70% in 3 year survival rate. On the other hand, diffuse carcinoma demonstrated diffuse extensive infiltration of tumor cells along the gastric wall, resulting in poor prognosis with a 3 year survival rate of almost 0%. Histologically, diffuse type of carcinoma showed lymphatic infiltration of tumor cells, and this is probably the main reason for the diffuse infiltration in this type of carcinoma. Diffuse carcinoma is, therefore, considered to be one special type of carcinoma having different biological behavior compared with the other ulcer type of carcinoma, and diffuse carcinoma is not the terminal stage of early like advanced carcinoma. There are three stages in diffuse carcinoma: 1. Infiltrative stage: wide spread infiltration of cancer cells through lymphatic channels (lymphangiosis carcinomatosa) 2. Edematous stage: soluble collagen appearing in gastric wall 3. Sclerosing stage: soluble collagen changing into insoluble collagen leading to marked thickening and stiffness of the gastric wall. This is the end stage of gastric diffuse carcinoma. It is difficult to explain that the marked fibrosis of gastric wall is a result to stromal reaction from tumor cell infiltration, since extensive fibrosis is found in areas without tumor cells and stiffness of the gastric wall occurs in a too short period of time. The production of abundunt soluble collagen is probably

  9. Clinicopathologic analysis of matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Robert A; Wethington, Stephanie L; Cesari, Matthew; Chiappetta, Daniel; Olvera, Narciso; Shia, Jinru; Levine, Douglas A

    2012-12-01

    It is unknown whether the type and grade of a primary endometrial carcinoma is reliably maintained in recurrence. All matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 at our institution were identified; 34 cases had available slides. Histologic classification was performed using modifications to the World Health Organization criteria. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53, p16, progesterone receptor (PR), and DNA mismatch-repair proteins (MMR) (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) was performed. Endometrioid carcinoma recurrences were mostly local, whereas serous carcinoma recurrences were mostly peritoneal. Compared with endometrioid carcinoma patients, serous carcinoma patients were older, presented at high stage, and had shorter survival. Serous carcinomas were the most common recurrent endometrial carcinoma (18/34 cases). Overall, 21 cases (62%) displayed similar morphology when comparing primary and recurrent carcinomas, whereas 13 displayed discordant morphology. Seven of 13 endometrioid carcinomas (54%) had a morphologically discordant recurrence, compared with 3 of 14 serous carcinomas (21%), 1 of 4 morphologically ambiguous carcinomas (25%), and both mixed epithelial carcinomas. Serous and morphologically ambiguous carcinomas therefore demonstrated relative morphologic fidelity compared with endometrioid carcinomas. Four morphologically discordant cases demonstrated either pure clear cell carcinoma or clear cell features at recurrence. Seven of 23 matched pairs displayed discordant PR results, with 5 cases, including both endometrioid and serous carcinomas, showing diminished PR expression at recurrence. p53, p16, and DNA MMR staining results were generally concordant when evaluating matched pairs, with only occasional exceptions. Sixty-four percent of all pure endometrioid carcinomas and mixed epithelial carcinomas with an endometrioid component showed loss of expression of MLH1 and/or PMS2; no serous carcinoma demonstrated this

  10. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34βE12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  11. Triple Test in Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Sameer; Mukherjee, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The commonest clinical presentation in majority of breast pathology is a lump. A definite diagnosis of breast lump is very important for the surgeon to decide on the final course of treatment and also saves the patient from unnecessary physical, emotional and psychological trauma if there is a definite preoperative diagnosis of benign lesion. The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness and relevance of “TRIPLE TEST”in diagnosis of carcinoma breast in rural labour class population. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective study conducted on patients over 35 years of age having palpable breast lumps presenting in the out patient department of general surgery, ESI Hospital Basaidarapur New Delhi, India. The duration of study was from May 2007 to June 2009 and a total of 100 cases were studied. Each patient was subjected to a detailed history, clinical breast examination ,diagnostic mammography and FNAC. In this study, the results of each modality was divided in three groups: benign, suspicious and malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of each test was calculated individually and as combined. Result: Out of 100 patients enrolled in this study, 60 cases were benign and 40 cases were of malignant breast disease. The age of patients with carcinoma breast in the series varied from 35 years to 70 years. The highest incidence of malignancy noted was 30% in 41-50 years age group (4th decade) followed by 27.5% in 51-60 years age group (5th decade). The sensitivity of clinical examination was found to be 75%, specificity was 83.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 75% and diagnostic accuracy of 80%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mammography was calculated and was found to be 94.9% , 90% , 86% and 92% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of

  12. Thyroid carcinoma at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulaudzi, T V; Ramdial, P K; Madiba, T E; Callaghan, R A

    2001-05-01

    Western literature depicts papillary carcinoma as the most common thyroid malignancy followed by follicular carcinoma. To assess the clinical pattern of thyroid carcinoma among African and Indian patients. King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. A retrospective study. One hundred patients with thyroid carcinoma treated at a tertiary teaching hospital between 1990 and 1997. Seventy seven patients were Africans and 23 were Indians. The male to female ratio was 1:6. Ninety eight patients presented with goitre with or without regional lymph node involvement or distant disease. The duration of symptoms ranged from one to 360 months. The mean age at presentation was 48.6 +/- 16.0 years. Follicular carcinoma was the most common malignancy among African patients (68%), followed by papillary carcinoma (16%), anaplastic carcinoma (13%) and medullary carcinoma (2.6%). Papillary carcinoma was the most common malignancy among Indian patients (57%) followed by follicular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma. There was no anaplastic carcinoma among Indian patients. Fifty five patients underwent lobectomy with 32 undergoing subsequent completion thyroidectomy. Nine patients had near total thyroidectomy, 27 were offered total thyroidectomy as primary surgery and eight had biopsy only. The in-hospital mortality was 8%. Recurrence rate was 8%. Most patients present long after the development of symptoms. Follicular carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy among Africans. Further studies are required to explain this phenomenon.

  13. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma.

  14. Targeting Src in Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Nishimura, Masato; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Huang1, Jie; Komurov, Kakajan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Roh, Ju Won; Sanguino, Angela M.; Lu, Chunhua; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshien, Neil B.; Sakakibara, Atsuko; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Ram, Prahlad T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Gallick, Gary E.; Wong, Kwong K.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Mucinous ovarian carcinomas have a distinct clinical pattern compared to other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Here, we evaluated (i) stage-specific clinical significance of mucinous ovarian carcinomas in a large cohort and (ii) the functional role of src kinase in pre-clinical models of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1302 ovarian cancer patients including 122 (9.4%) cases of mucinous carcinoma were evaluated for survival analyses. Biological effects of src kinase inhibition were tested in a novel orthotopic mucinous ovarian cancer model (RMUG-S-ip2) using dasatinib-based therapy. RESULTS Patients with advanced-stage mucinous ovarian cancer had significantly worse survival compared to those with serous histology: median overall survival, 1.67 versus 3.41 years, p=0.002; and median survival time after recurrence of 0.53 versus 1.66 years, p<0.0001. Among multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUG-S-ip2 mucinous ovarian cancer cells showed the highest src kinase activity. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment induced phosphorylation of src kinase. This induced activity by oxaliplatin therapy was inhibited by concurrent administration of dasatinib. Targeting src with dasatinib in vivo showed significant anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model, but not in the serous ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3-TR) model. Combination therapy of oxaliplatin with dasatinib further demonstrated significant effects on reducing cell viability, increasing apoptosis, and in vivo anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that poor survival of women with mucinous ovarian carcinoma is associated with resistance to cytotoxic therapy. Targeting src kinase with combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin may be an attractive approach in this disease. PMID:21737505

  15. Phenotypic Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia; Pires-Luís, Ana S; Rocha, Eduardo; Bartosch, Carla; Lopes, José M

    2018-03-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity has been shown to play an important role in diagnostic accuracy, development of treatment resistance, and prognosis of cancer patients. Recent studies have proposed quantitative measurement of phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity, but no study is yet available in endometrial carcinomas. In our study we evaluated the phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity of a consecutive series of 10 endometrial carcinomas using measures of dispersion and diversity. Morphometric architectural (%tumor cells, %solid tumor, %differentiated tumor, and %lumens) and nuclear [volume-weighted mean nuclear volume ((Equation is included in full-text article.))] parameters, as well as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, vimentin, and beta-catenin immunoexpression (H-score) were digitally analyzed in 20 microscopic fields per carcinoma. Quantitative measures of intratumoral heterogeneity included coefficient of variation (CV) and relative quadratic entropy (rQE). In each endometrial carcinoma there was slight variation of architecture from field to field, resulting in globally low levels of heterogeneity measures (mean CV %tumor cells: 0.10, %solid tumor: 0.73, %differentiated tumor: 0.19, %lumens: 0.61 and mean rQE %tumor cells: 18.5, %solid tumor: 20.3, %differentiated tumor: 25.6, %lumens: 21.8). Nuclear intratumoral heterogeneity was also globally low (mean (Equation is included in full-text article.)CV: 0.23 and rQE: 27.3), but significantly higher than the heterogeneity of architectural parameters within most carcinomas. In general, there was low to moderate variability of immunoexpression markers within each carcinoma, but estrogen receptor (mean CV: 0.56 and rQE: 46.2) and progesterone receptor (mean CV: 0.60 and rQE: 39.3) displayed the highest values of heterogeneity measures. Intratumoral heterogeneity of immunoexpression was significantly higher than that observed for morphometric parameters. In conclusion, our study indicates that endometrial

  16. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  17. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  18. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  19. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast in Caucasian and African American women: The Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Falk, Roni T; Horne, Hisani N; Xiang, Jackie; Pollak, Michael; Brinton, Louise A; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Sherman, Mark E; Gierach, Gretchen L; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-08-01

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, as reflected by higher numbers of TDLUs and acini/TDLU, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. In rodent models, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates involution of the mammary gland. We examined associations of circulating IGF measures with TDLU involution in normal breast tissues among women without precancerous lesions. Among 715 Caucasian and 283 African American (AA) women who donated normal breast tissue samples to the Komen Tissue Bank between 2009 and 2012 (75% premenopausal), serum concentrations of IGF-I and binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxilyn and eosin-stained tissue sections were assessed for numbers of TDLUs ("TDLU count"). Zero-inflated Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimator were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for association of IGF measures (tertiles) with TDLU count by race and menopausal status, adjusting for potential confounders. AA (vs. Caucasian) women had higher age-adjusted mean levels of serum IGF-I (137 vs. 131 ng/mL, p = 0.07) and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (4165 vs. 4684 ng/mL, p < 0.0001). Postmenopausal IGFBP-3 was inversely associated with TDLU count among AA (RR T3vs.T1  = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.84, p-trend = 0.04) and Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.98, p-trend = 0.04) women. In premenopausal women, higher IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratios were associated with higher TDLU count in Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75, p-trend = 0.04), but not in AA (RR T3vs.T1 =0.65, 95% CI = 0.42-1.00, p-trend = 0.05), women. Our data suggest a role of the IGF system, particularly IGFBP-3, in TDLU involution of the normal breast, a breast cancer risk factor, among Caucasian and AA women. © 2018 UICC.

  20. Childhood Midline Tract Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood midline tract carcinoma treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood midline tract carcinoma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  1. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Merkel cell carcinoma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  2. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  3. Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

  5. Aspergillus colonization in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sana; Malik, Abida; Bhargava, Rakesh; Shahid, Mohammad; Fatima, Nazish

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus antigens such as galactomannan antigen, a cell wall polysaccharide, can be detected in patient's serum or bronchoalveolar lavage. To study the prevalence of Aspergillus infection in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, we measured galactomannan antigen in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The study was conducted on 45 bronchogenic carcinoma patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed by bronchoscopy, histopathological and radiological examinations. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from each patient by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was subjected to direct microscopy and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and Czapek-Dox agar, and Aspergillus galactomannan antigen was measured in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The majority of patients were male (93.3%) in the age group 51-60 years, 88.9% were addicted to gutka chewing, and 82.1% were addicted to smoking. Most patients complained of cough (73%) and shortness of breath (51.1%). Squamous cell carcinoma (64.4%) was the most common malignancy, followed by adenocarcinoma (13.3%). On culture of bronchoalveolar lavage samples, 35.5% showed growth of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus in 17.8%, Aspergillus flavus in 13.3%, and Aspergillus niger in 4.4%). Galactomannan antigen was detected in 58.3% of bronchoalveolar lavage samples and 47.2% of serum samples. There is a high prevalence of aspergillosis in patients with lung carcinoma, especially among smokers and gutka chewers.

  6. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazo, P A

    1999-08-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14-22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21-22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12-22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24-28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma.

  7. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  8. Primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma: A previously overlooked low-grade sweat gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno

    2018-03-01

    Twelve cases of primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma (PCSC) have been published, 9 showing ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, a characteristic finding shared with secretory breast carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. A 34-year-old female presented a solitary nodule on the right groin. Biopsy revealed a secretory carcinoma staining positive with CK7, CAM5.2, mammaglobulin and S100 and negative with GATA3, CK20, podoplanin, calponin and CDX2. ETV6-NTRK3 was demonstrated by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PCSC is a rare neoplasm, described in the skin in 2009, that affects more frequently females with a mean age of 42.3 years and it is most commonly located in axilla. Histopathologically, these tumor cells are characterized by bubbly eosinophilic secretions diastase-resistant and bland nuclei and they are arranged in various growth patterns, including microcystic, tubular, solid and papillary. S100, mammoglobin and CK7 are usually positive. We review the main histopathological features to rule out histopathologic mimics such as breast metastasis, salivary tumors, cribriform carcinoma and primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma. GATA3 negative staining, as in our case, can help to rule out breast metastasis. Moreover, long-term benign follow up (144 months) in this case as well as follow-up data on outcomes from literature review support that PCSC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Carcinoma Request Permissions Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2017 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

  10. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities. With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies, as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3, PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery. PMID:20132413

  11. [Fundus fluorescein angiography in metastatic choroidal carcinomas and differentiating metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary choroidal melanomas].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Wen-Ji; Chen, Rong-Jia; Qian, Jiang; Luo, Chuan-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Jin; Shen, Ying; Ye, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Qiao-Yun

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) in metastatic choroidal carcinomas and determine the value of FFA in differentiating metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary choroidal melanomas. It was a retrospective case series. The retrospective analysis of clinical data and FFA findings was performed in 23 eyes of 22 patients with metastatic choroidal carcinomas and 31 eyes of 31 patients with primary choroidal melanomas as the control. Ocular fundus findings of metastatic choroidal carcinomas were divided into three types: solitary flat (tumor thickness less than 3 mm), solitary elevated (tumor thickness more than 3 mm) or diffuse type. FFA of the three types showed hypofluorescence during the arterial phase and progressive hyperfluorescence during the subsequent phases. The border of the lesions revealed retinal capillary dilation during the arteriovenous phase and persistent pinpoint leakage throughout the angiogram. Retinal capillary dilation and pinpoint leakage were more frequently presented in the solitary flat type. Simultaneous visualization of retinal and tumor circulation (the so called double circulation) was more frequently presented in the solitary elevated type. Pinpoint leakage could be detected in 17 (73.91%) eyes of metastatic choroidal carcinomas and in 5 (16.13%) eyes of primary choroidal melanomas. The difference between the visibility of pinpoint leakage in metastatic choroidal carcinomas and primary choroidal melanomas was statistically significant (P = 0.0000). When pinpoint leakage of FFA was used to differentiate metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary choroidal melanomas, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were 73.91%, 83.87%, 79.63%, 77.27%, 81.25% respectively. FFA is helpful for the diagnosis of metastatic choroidal carcinomas. Pinpoint leakage on the border of lesions has some value in differentiating metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour.

    PubMed

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat

    2011-12-01

    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  13. The Molecular Biology of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Shao, Chunbo; Tan, Marietta L.; Mu, David; Ferris, Robert L.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an unusual salivary gland malignancy that remains poorly understood. Standard treatment, including surgery with postoperative radiation therapy have attained reasonable local control rates, but the propensity for distant metastases has limited any improvement in survival over time. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving adenoid cystic carcinoma is quite rudimentary, due to the infrequent nature of its occurrence. Methods An extensive literature review was performed on salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma and basic science research findings. Results This review highlights many findings that are emerging about the carcinogenesis of ACC including cytogenetics, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial alterations, and biomarker studies. Conclusions While there have been many discoveries, much still remains unknown about this rare malignancy. PMID:22006498

  14. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  15. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  16. [Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and tumour-to-tumour metastasis to renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Pilt, Anette Pedersen; Wittendorff, Hans-Erik

    2015-04-06

    Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and tumour-to-tumour metastasis is rare. We describe a case of a 71-year-old woman with previous breast cancer presenting with dyspepsia, nausea and weight-loss. Biopsies from the pylorus revealed what appeared to be a gastric carcinoma. A CT scan showed large kidney mass and biopsies revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with areas of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of breast carcinoma in both locations.

  17. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  18. Surgical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Valdes, Daniel; Taner, Timucin; Nagorney, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In select patients, surgical treatment in the form of either resection or transplantation offers a curative option. The aims of this review are to (1) review the current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases/European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines on the surgical management of HCC and (2) review the proposed changes to these guidelines and analyze the strength of evidence underlying these proposals. Three authors identified the most relevant publications in the literature on liver resection and transplantation for HCC and analyzed the strength of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification. In the United States, the liver allocation system provides priority for liver transplantation to patients with HCC within the Milan criteria. Current evidence suggests that liver transplantation may also be indicated in certain patient groups beyond Milan criteria, such as pediatric patients with large tumor burden or adult patients who are successfully downstaged. Patients with no underlying liver disease may also benefit from liver transplantation if the HCC is unresectable. In patients with no or minimal (compensated) liver disease and solitary HCC ≥2 cm, liver resection is warranted. If liver transplantation is not available or contraindicated, liver resection can be offered to patients with multinodular HCC, provided that the underlying liver disease is not decompensated. Many patients may benefit from surgical strategies adapted to local resources and policies (hepatitis B prevalence, organ availability, etc). Although current low-quality evidence shows better overall survival with aggressive surgical strategies, this approach is limited to select patients. Larger and well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the benefits and limits of such approach. PMID:28975836

  19. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  20. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Therapeutic Update.

    PubMed

    Cassler, Nicole M; Merrill, Dean; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Brownell, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Early-stage disease can be cured with surgical resection and radiotherapy (RT). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important staging tool, as a microscopic MCC is frequently identified. Adjuvant RT to the primary excision site and regional lymph node bed may improve locoregional control. However, newer studies confirm that patients with biopsy-negative sentinel lymph nodes may not benefit from regional RT. Advanced MCC currently lacks a highly effective treatment as responses to chemotherapy are not durable. Recent work suggests that immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death receptor 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint holds great promise in treating advanced MCC and may provide durable responses in a portion of patients. At the same time, high-throughput sequencing studies have demonstrated significant differences in the mutational profiles of tumors with and without the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). An important secondary endpoint in the ongoing immunotherapy trials for MCC will be determining if there is a response difference between the virus-positive MCC tumors that typically lack a large mutational burden and the virus-negative tumors that have a large number of somatic mutations and predicted tumor neoantigens. Interestingly, sequencing studies have failed to identify a highly recurrent activated driver pathway in the majority of MCC tumors. This may explain why targeted therapies can demonstrate exceptional responses in case reports but fail when treating all comers with MCC. Ultimately, a precision medicine approach may be more appropriate for treating MCC, where identified driver mutations are used to direct targeted therapies. At a minimum, stratifying patients in future clinical trials based on tumor viral status should be considered as virus-negative tumors are more likely to harbor activating driver mutations.

  1. The Association Between Lung Carcinoma and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The association between lung tuberculosis and lung carcinoma is still controversial. Objective: to describe the characteristics of patients with associated lung tuberculosis (TB) and lung carcinoma (LC) in patients treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi”. Material and Methods: This is the retrospective study of patients with LC associated with TB treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in five-year period -from 2012 to 2016. We analyzed sex and age of patients, whether TB preceded LC or LC preceded TB, a time period between the developments of these two diseases, activity of TB, the histopathological type of LC, localization of LC in lungs (bronchial, peripheral, cavern) according to histopathological type. Results: In this period there were 2608 patients treated for LC. Among them there were 34 patients with diagnosed TB or 1.3%. All of them were smokers. No one had active TB. TB was the first diagnosis in all these patients. Each patient was previously treated for TB in hospital and had regular anti TB treatment. TB preceded LC in median time of 5 years (interquartile range 2 to 25 years). In 21 cases it was carcinoma of the drainage bronchus, in 11 cases it was peripheral lung carcinoma and 2 cases it was cavern carcinoma. Conlusion: patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis represent a group at risk for developing lung carcinoma. Changes in the bronchial and alveolar mucosa which tuberculosis leaves behind in the lungs must be taken as a possible place of later malignant alteration. Patients with any form of pulmonary tuberculosis have to be controlled continuously. PMID:28974836

  2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-05-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5(th) and 6(th) decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed.

  3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-01-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

  4. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma