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Sample records for pllup henn ojaveer

  1. The Caenorhabditis elegans HEN1 Ortholog, HENN-1, Methylates and Stabilizes Select Subclasses of Germline Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Billi, Allison C.; Alessi, Amelia F.; Khivansara, Vishal; Han, Ting; Freeberg, Mallory; Mitani, Shohei; Kim, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Small RNAs regulate diverse biological processes by directing effector proteins called Argonautes to silence complementary mRNAs. Maturation of some classes of small RNAs involves terminal 2′-O-methylation to prevent degradation. This modification is catalyzed by members of the conserved HEN1 RNA methyltransferase family. In animals, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and some endogenous and exogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are methylated, whereas microRNAs are not. However, the mechanisms that determine animal HEN1 substrate specificity have yet to be fully resolved. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a HEN1 ortholog has not been studied, but there is evidence for methylation of piRNAs and some endogenous siRNAs. Here, we report that the worm HEN1 ortholog, HENN-1 (HEN of Nematode), is required for methylation of C. elegans small RNAs. Our results indicate that piRNAs are universally methylated by HENN-1. In contrast, 26G RNAs, a class of primary endogenous siRNAs, are methylated in female germline and embryo, but not in male germline. Intriguingly, the methylation pattern of 26G RNAs correlates with the expression of distinct male and female germline Argonautes. Moreover, loss of the female germline Argonaute results in loss of 26G RNA methylation altogether. These findings support a model wherein methylation status of a metazoan small RNA is dictated by the Argonaute to which it binds. Loss of henn-1 results in phenotypes that reflect destabilization of substrate small RNAs: dysregulation of target mRNAs, impaired fertility, and enhanced somatic RNAi. Additionally, the henn-1 mutant shows a weakened response to RNAi knockdown of germline genes, suggesting that HENN-1 may also function in canonical RNAi. Together, our results indicate a broad role for HENN-1 in both endogenous and exogenous gene silencing pathways and provide further insight into the mechanisms of HEN1 substrate discrimination and the diversity within the Argonaute family. PMID:22548001

  2. 4He+n+n continuum within an ab initio framework

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Quaglioni, Sofia; Navratil, Petr; Hupin, Guillaume

    2014-07-16

    In this study, the low-lying continuum spectrum of the 6He nucleus is investigated for the first time within an ab initio framework that encompasses the 4He+n+n three-cluster dynamics characterizing its lowest decay channel. This is achieved through an extension of the no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method, in which energy-independent nonlocal interactions among three nuclear fragments can be calculated microscopically, starting from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with three-body scattering boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonics method on a Lagrange mesh. Using amore » soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we find the known Jπ = 2+ resonance as well as a result consistent with a new low-lying second 2+ resonance recently observed at GANIL at ~2.6 MeV above the He6 ground state. We also find resonances in the 2–, 1+, and 0– channels, while no low-lying resonances are present in the 0+ and 1– channels.« less

  3. Hermite Functional Link Neural Network for Solving the Van der Pol-Duffing Oscillator Equation.

    PubMed

    Mall, Susmita; Chakraverty, S

    2016-08-01

    Hermite polynomial-based functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) is proposed here to solve the Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation. A single-layer hermite neural network (HeNN) model is used, where a hidden layer is replaced by expansion block of input pattern using Hermite orthogonal polynomials. A feedforward neural network model with the unsupervised error backpropagation principle is used for modifying the network parameters and minimizing the computed error function. The Van der Pol-Duffing and Duffing oscillator equations may not be solved exactly. Here, approximate solutions of these types of equations have been obtained by applying the HeNN model for the first time. Three mathematical example problems and two real-life application problems of Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation, extracting the features of early mechanical failure signal and weak signal detection problems, are solved using the proposed HeNN method. HeNN approximate solutions have been compared with results obtained by the well known Runge-Kutta method. Computed results are depicted in term of graphs. After training the HeNN model, we may use it as a black box to get numerical results at any arbitrary point in the domain. Thus, the proposed HeNN method is efficient. The results reveal that this method is reliable and can be applied to other nonlinear problems too. PMID:27348738

  4. Hermite Functional Link Neural Network for Solving the Van der Pol-Duffing Oscillator Equation.

    PubMed

    Mall, Susmita; Chakraverty, S

    2016-08-01

    Hermite polynomial-based functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) is proposed here to solve the Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation. A single-layer hermite neural network (HeNN) model is used, where a hidden layer is replaced by expansion block of input pattern using Hermite orthogonal polynomials. A feedforward neural network model with the unsupervised error backpropagation principle is used for modifying the network parameters and minimizing the computed error function. The Van der Pol-Duffing and Duffing oscillator equations may not be solved exactly. Here, approximate solutions of these types of equations have been obtained by applying the HeNN model for the first time. Three mathematical example problems and two real-life application problems of Van der Pol-Duffing oscillator equation, extracting the features of early mechanical failure signal and weak signal detection problems, are solved using the proposed HeNN method. HeNN approximate solutions have been compared with results obtained by the well known Runge-Kutta method. Computed results are depicted in term of graphs. After training the HeNN model, we may use it as a black box to get numerical results at any arbitrary point in the domain. Thus, the proposed HeNN method is efficient. The results reveal that this method is reliable and can be applied to other nonlinear problems too.

  5. Rewarding Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Carl A., II

    2008-01-01

    Besides the School Library Media Program of the Year (SLMPY), American Association of School Librarians (AASL) has other awards to honor library media professionals and programs. From the Frances Henne Award for new library media specialists to the Collaborative School Library Media Award for collaborative projects, the awards recognize programs…

  6. Development of COS-SNP and HRM markers for cost efficient and reliable haplotype-based detection of Lr14a in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks. & Henn.) is a major disease affecting durum wheat production. The Lr14a leaf rust resistant gene present in the durum wheat cv. Creso and its derivative Colosseo is one of the best characterized leaf rust resistance sources presently deployed in durum wheat breed...

  7. Zur Besetzung der Leerstellen von Valenztragern (The Occupation of the Empty Spaces of Valence Bearers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeldt, Karl-Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Study of the linguistic means related to the occupation and non-occupation of Leerstellen'' (empty spaces) initiated by semantic and syntactic valence, as in the elliptical usage: Die Henne legt wieder. (Eier)'' (The hen is laying again. YeggsI). (RS)

  8. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  9. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of wheat introgression lines carrying the stem rust resistance gene Sr39.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn., poses a serious threat to global wheat production because of the emergence of Pgt-TTKSK (Ug99). The TTKSK resistant gene Sr39 was derived from Aegilops speltoides through chromosome translocation. In this study, we ch...

  10. Longevity of Puccinia horiana teliospores under various environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia horiana Henn. is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen and causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust (CWR). The pathogen and disease were first discovered in the United States in 1977 and quickly eradicated. During the early 1990s, CWR re-emerged on several instances, but in each instance...

  11. Evidence for systemic infection by Puccinia horiana, causal agent of Chrysanthemum White Rust, in Chrysanthemum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PUCCINIA HORIANA Henn., causal agent of the disease commonly known as Chrysanthemum white rust, is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen of chrysanthemum in the United States (U.S.) and indigenous to Asia. The pathogen was believed to have been eradicated in the U.S. but recently re-appeared on s...

  12. Mapping resistance to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust pathogen in a spring wheat landrace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed b...

  13. Genetic mapping of resistance to the Ug99 race group of Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici in a spring wheat landrace CItr 4311

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat landrace CItr 4311 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, F1 seedlings, 121 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross...

  14. Conference Proceedings of the International Association of School Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    The 1976 International Association of School Librarianship conference focused on crucial issues in school library development and professional education. Complete texts of the keynote address, Crucial Issues in School Library Development and Professional Education by Frances Henne, and the following presentations are included: The School…

  15. A new 2DS·2RL Robertsonian translocation transfers Sr59 resistance to stem rust into wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging new races of the wheat stem rust pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn, especially the Ug99 race group threaten global wheat, Triticum aestivum L., production. Screening of a collection of wheat-rye, Secale cereale L., chromosome substitution lines developed at the Swed...

  16. Ab initio calculations in three-body cluster systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Redondo, C.; Navratil, P.; Quaglioni, S.

    2013-06-10

    In this work we briefly outline the extension of the ab initio no-core shell model/Resonating group method (NCSM/RGM) to three-body cluster states. We present the results for {sup 6}He ground state within a {sup 4}He+n+n cluster basis under this approach.

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Nutrition and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Lisa; And Others

    These eight learning modules provide text, illustrations, and exercises on a variety of nutritional and dietetic topics. The first two modules were prepared by Lisa Henn to instruct older adults in the various food sources of caffeine and fiber and in the harmful effects of caffeine and the dietetic importance of fiber. The third module was…

  18. Sequencing of an Anthracnose-resistant sorghum genotype and mapping of a major QTL reveal strong candidate genes for Anthracnose resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum sublineolum Henn. ex. Sacc. and Trotter 1913, is an economically damaging disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in hot and humid production regions of the world. Control of anthracnose is almost exclusively through the use of genet...

  19. Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.) race TTKSK (Ug99) with virulence to the majority of the world’s wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has spread from Uganda throughout eastern and southern Africa, Yemen, and Iran. The identification and spread of vari...

  20. Genetics and Mapping of Seedling Resistance to Ug99 Stem Rust in the Winter Wheat Cultivar Triumph 64 and Differentiation of SrTmp, SrCad, and Sr42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), is an important disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. The emergence of virulent Pgt races in Africa, namely Ug99 and its variants, has stimulated the se...

  1. Genotyping-by-sequencing to re-map QTL for type II Fusarium head blight and leaf rust resistance in a wheat-tall wheatgrass introgression recombinant inbred population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminaerum (Fusarium head blight; FHB) and Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desmaz. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (leaf rust; LR) are two major fungal pathogens threatening the wheat crop; consequently identifying resistance genes from various sources is always of importance to wheat breede...

  2. Complex polycyclic scaffolds by metathesis rearrangement of Himbert arene/allene cycloadducts.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jonathan K; Schmidt, Yvonne; Vanderwal, Christopher D

    2012-11-01

    The intramolecular arene/allene cycloaddition first described 30 years ago by Himbert and Henn permits rapid access to strained polycyclic compounds. Alkene metathesis processes cleanly rearrange appropriately substituted cycloadducts into complex, functional-group-rich polycyclic lactams of potential utility for natural product synthesis and medicinal chemistry.

  3. "I'm New Here..." Making Friends, Staying Strong and Having a Fantastic First Year as a School Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Carolyn Stenzel is the Library Department chair and Upper School librarian at the Holton-Arms School in Bethesda, Maryland. She is a member of AASL and is the Independent Schools Committee Chair for the Virginia Association of School Librarians. She was awarded the AASL Frances Henne Award in 2014. In this article she shares her experiences as a…

  4. On the stability of cationic complexes of neon with helium--solving an experimental discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2013-10-21

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with neon and ionized by electrons. The size-dependence of the ion abundance of HenNex(+), identified in high-resolution mass spectra, is deduced for complexes containing up to seven neon atoms and dozens of helium atoms. Particularly stable ions are inferred from anomalies in the abundance distributions. Two pronounced anomalies at n = 11 and 13 in the HenNe(+) series confirm drift-tube data reported by Kojima et al. [T. M. Kojima et al., Z. Phys. D, 1992, 22, 645]. The discrepancy with previously published spectra of neon-doped helium droplets, which did not reveal any abundance anomalies [T. Ruchti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 10679-10687; C. A. Brindle et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 064312], is most likely due to limited mass resolution, which precluded unambiguous analysis of contributions from different ions with identical nominal mass. However, calculated dissociation energies of HenNe(+) reported so far do not correlate with the present data, possibly because of challenges in correctly treating the linear, asymmetric [He-Ne-He](+) ionic core in HenNe(+). Anomalies identified in the distributions of HenNex(+) for x > 1, including prominent ones at He12Ne2(+) and He14Ne2(+), may help to better understand solvation of Ne(+) and Nex(+) in helium.

  5. Correlations of a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar ultracold gas at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemysław; Pfau, Tilman; Rzążewski, Kazimierz

    2013-04-01

    We study a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar gas at finite, but ultralow, temperatures using the classical field approximation. The method, already used for a contact interacting gas, is extended here to samples with a weakly interacting long-range interatomic potential. We present statistical properties of the system for the current experiment with chromium [Müller, Billy, Henn, Kadau, Griesmaier, Jona-Lasinio, Santos, and Pfau, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.053601 84, 053601 (2011)] and compare them with statistics for atoms with larger magnetic dipole moments. Significant enhancement of the third-order correlation function, relevant for the particle losses, is found.

  6. Beyond Depression: Towards a Process-Based Approach to Research, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Forgeard, Marie J. C.; Haigh, Emily A. P.; Beck, Aaron T.; Davidson, Richard J.; Henn, Fritz A.; Maier, Steven F.; Mayberg, Helen S.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of research on the etiology and treatment of depression, a significant proportion of the population is affected by the disorder, fails to respond to treatment and is plagued by relapse. Six prominent scientists, Aaron Beck, Richard Davidson, Fritz Henn, Steven Maier, Helen Mayberg, and Martin Seligman, gathered to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge on depression, and in particular on the basic neurobiological and psychopathological processes at play in the disorder. These general themes were addressed: 1) the relevance of learned helplessness as a basic process involved in the development of depression; 2) the limitations of our current taxonomy of psychological disorders; 3) the need to work towards a psychobiological process-based taxonomy; and 4) the clinical implications of implementing such a process-based taxonomy. PMID:22509072

  7. Beyond Depression: Towards a Process-Based Approach to Research, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Forgeard, Marie J C; Haigh, Emily A P; Beck, Aaron T; Davidson, Richard J; Henn, Fritz A; Maier, Steven F; Mayberg, Helen S; Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-12-01

    Despite decades of research on the etiology and treatment of depression, a significant proportion of the population is affected by the disorder, fails to respond to treatment and is plagued by relapse. Six prominent scientists, Aaron Beck, Richard Davidson, Fritz Henn, Steven Maier, Helen Mayberg, and Martin Seligman, gathered to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge on depression, and in particular on the basic neurobiological and psychopathological processes at play in the disorder. These general themes were addressed: 1) the relevance of learned helplessness as a basic process involved in the development of depression; 2) the limitations of our current taxonomy of psychological disorders; 3) the need to work towards a psychobiological process-based taxonomy; and 4) the clinical implications of implementing such a process-based taxonomy.

  8. C60 + in Diffuse Clouds: Laboratory and Astronomical Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The wavelengths of the strongest absorptions in the electronic spectrum of {{{C}}}60+ have been determined by experimental investigation into the perturbation caused by the helium in the laboratory spectra of {{{C}}}60+-{{{He}}}n(n=1{--}3). The extrapolation of these gives absorption bands of bare {{{C}}}60+ at 9348.4, 9365.2, 9427.8, 9577.0, and 9632.1 Å, with ±0.2 Å as the 2σ uncertainty. The laboratory data are compared with the complete set of astronomical observations reported in the literature. The spectral characteristics are found to be in agreement with five diffuse interstellar bands, for which the systematic uncertainties are larger than for the laboratory data.

  9. Protein Expression Profile of an Environmentally Important Bacterial Strain: the Chromate Response of Arthrobacter Species Strain FB24

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, Kristene L.; Turse, Joshua E.; Nakatsu, C. H.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-05-03

    The global proteomic response of Arthrobacter sp. strain FB24 to different levels of chromate stress was evaluated with both two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) [Henne et al. 2009b]. Proteome coverage of 22% and 71% was obtained with 2-DGE and LC/LC-MS/MS, respectively. The strong response of strain FB24 to chromate suggests a condition of sulfur limitation, which could be driven by competition for the sulfate transporter by the structurally similar chromate ion. Additionally, the involvement of genes hypothesized to be directly involved in chromate resistance in strain FB24 was supported at the protein level.

  10. A comparison of design variables for control theory based airfoil optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work in the area it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using either the potential flow or the Euler equations with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. We have also explored three-dimensional extensions of these formulations recently. The goal of our present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the control theory approach by designing airfoils using both Hicks-Henne functions and B-spline control points as design variables. The research also demonstrates that the parameterization of the design space is an open question in aerodynamic design.

  11. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for gg → h at NNLO and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  12. Differential Induction of Lipoxygenase Isoforms in Wheat upon Treatment with Rust Fungus Elicitor, Chitin Oligosaccharides, Chitosan, and Methyl Jasmonate.

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, C.; Balkenhohl, T.; Loers, G.; Feussner, I.; Grambow, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    A glycopeptide elicitor prepared from germ tubes of the rust fungus Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Erikss. & Henn (Pgt), as well as chitin oligosaccharides, chitosan, and methyl jasmonate (MJ) stimulated lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (E.C. 1.13.11.12) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Immunoblot analysis using anti-LOX antibodies revealed the induction of 92- and 103-kD LOX species after Pgt elicitor treatment. In contrast, MJ treatment led to a significant increase of a 100-kD LOX species, which was also detected at lower levels in control plants. The effects of chitin oligomers and chitosan resembled those caused by MJ. In conjunction with other observations the results suggest that separate reaction cascades exist, and that jasmonates may not be involved in Pgt elicitor action. LOX-92 appears to be mainly responsible for the increase in LOX activity after Pgt elicitor treatment because its appearance on western blots coincided with high LOX activity in distinct anion-exchange chromatography fractions. It is most active at pH 5.5 to 6.0, and product formation from linoleic and [alpha]-linolenic acid is clearly in favor of the 9-LOOHs. It is interesting that a 92-kD LOX species, which seems to correspond to the Pgt elicitor-induced LOX species, was also detected in rust-inoculated leaves. PMID:12223735

  13. Head and eye movements in rats with pontine reticular lesions in comparison with primates: a scientific memoir and a fresh look at some old and 'new' data.

    PubMed

    Sirkin, David W

    2012-06-01

    The author recounts the process of discovery in Philip Teitelbaum's laboratory, which began with the observation of vestibular head stabilization in a rat with brainstem lesions, of the essential roles of the pontine reticular formation (PRF) in the rat in ipsiversive head as well as eye movements. The PRF in the rat appears to be in the pathways for most direction-changing movements of the eyes and head, leaving vestibular and optokinetic stabilizing movements intact and uninterrupted. The author postulates that a response to the sliding of feet or paws, or a "substrate-kinetic reflex," works together with vestibular and optokinetic reactions to stabilize an animal's directions of gaze and locomotion on the ground. Previously unpublished data are presented from later observations and recordings of rats with kainic acid lesions in the PRF, which support the conclusion that neurons in the PRF are essential for head as well as eye movements in the rat. In contrast, Volker Henn observed no obvious loss of head movements in monkeys that had a loss of fast eye movements from kainic acid lesions of the PRF. The author and others observed that quick phases of head nystagmus develop some time after quick phases of ocular nystagmus in normal human infants; in other words, after the PRF is functioning for eye movements. The author concludes that in primates, the pathway for head movements through the PRF has been replaced by a newer pathway, leaving certain PRF regions to be devoted to mediating only eye movements. PMID:22044476

  14. Three-cluster dynamics within an ab initio framework

    DOE PAGES

    Quaglioni, Sofia; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Navratil, Petr

    2013-09-26

    In this study, we introduce a fully antisymmetrized treatment of three-cluster dynamics within the ab initio framework of the no-core shell model/resonating-group method. Energy-independent nonlocal interactions among the three nuclear fragments are obtained from realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and consistent ab initio many-body wave functions of the clusters. The three-cluster Schrödinger equation is solved with bound-state boundary conditions by means of the hyperspherical-harmonic method on a Lagrange mesh. We discuss the formalism in detail and give algebraic expressions for systems of two single nucleons plus a nucleus. Using a soft similarity-renormalization-group evolved chiral nucleon-nucleon potential, we apply the method to amore » 4He+n+n description of 6He and compare the results to experiment and to a six-body diagonalization of the Hamiltonian performed within the harmonic-oscillator expansions of the no-core shell model. Differences between the two calculations provide a measure of core (4He) polarization effects.« less

  15. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  16. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit.

  17. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  18. The Two-Loop Six-Point MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.; Roiban, R.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2008-03-12

    We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal symmetry fixes their form at six points and beyond.

  19. Using a shock control bump to improve the performance of an axial compressor blade section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, K.; Khatibirad, S.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we use numerical analysis to study the effects of a shock control bump (SCB) on the performance of a transonic axial compressor blade section and to optimize its shape and location to improve the compressor performance. A section of the NASA rotor 67 blade is used for this study. Two Bézier curves, each consisting of seven control points, are used to model the suction and pressure surfaces of the blade section. The SCB is modeled with the Hicks-Henne function and, using five design parameters, is added to the suction side. The total pressure loss through a cascade of blade sections is selected as the cost function. A continuous adjoint optimization method is used along with a RANS solver to find a new blade section shape. A grid independence study is performed, and all optimization and flow solver algorithms are validated. Two single-point optimizations are performed in the design condition and in an off-design condition. It is shown that both optimized shapes have overall better performance for both on-design and off-design conditions. An analysis is given regarding how the SCB has changed the wave structure between blade sections resulting in a more favorable flow pattern.

  20. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Factor in Cotton Wax Stimulating the Germination of Self-Inhibited Wheat Stem Rust Uredospores 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, T. G.; Allen, Paul J.

    1966-01-01

    Filter paper, nonabsorbent cotton, and cotton wax were found to be progressively richer sources of germination-stimulatory activity effective in counteracting the self-inhibition of Puccinia graminis var. tritici Erikss. and E. Henn uredospores. The major stimulatory component of cotton wax was purified and partially characterized. It was catalytically effective in stimulating germination and oxygen consumption of uredospores and appeared to be as active as pelargonaldehyde. Unlike most of the previously reported chemical stimulants, however, it was not active across an air gap. Although the active compound was not identified, both the ultraviolet spectrum and the nonionic and solubility properties of the active fractions were consistent with the infrared spectrum which indicated a relatively long-chained. α. β unsaturated carbonyl compound such as a ketone or possibly an ester. The purification procedure involved deionization of ethanolic extracts from cotton or cotton wax on Dowex 50 (H+) and Dowex 1 (OH−) columns followed by chromatography on neutral alumina using ethylene dichloride as the developing and eluting solvent. Images PMID:16656227

  1. Route to Quantum Turbulence in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Parker, Nick; Proukakis, Nick; Barenghi, Carlo

    2013-05-01

    Turbulence in superfluid Helium has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations (for review see e.g. L. Skrbek and K.R. Sreenivasan, Phys. of Fluids 24, 011301 (2012)) and recently, experimentalists have been able to visualize vortex lines, reconnection events and Kelvin waves (E. Fonda et al. arXiv:1210.5194). Weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates however, present a unique opportunity to resolve the structure of vortices and in turn study the dynamics of a vortex tangle (as has recently been created in an atomic cloud E.A.L. Henn et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 103, 04301 (2009)). We investigate ways of generating turbulence in atomic systems by numerically stirring the condensate using a Gaussian `spoon' (analogous to a laser beam in the experiments), and study the isotropy of the resulting vortex tangle depending on whether the path the spoon stirs is circular or random. We model the system using the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation and extend our analysis to finite temperature using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin (ZNG) formalism (E. Zaremba et al. Jour. Low Temp. Phys. 116, 277 (1999)), whereby the full dynamics of the noncondensate atoms are described by a semiclassical Boltzmann equation.

  2. Resistance to recombinant stem rust race TPPKC in hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Klindworth, D L; Miller, J D; Williams, N D; Xu, S S

    2011-08-01

    The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) resistance gene SrWld1 conditions resistance to all North American stem rust races and is an important gene in hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars. A sexually recombined race having virulence to SrWld1 was isolated in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine the genetics of resistance to the race. The recombinant race was tested with the set of stem rust differentials and with a set of 36 HRS and 6 durum cultivars. Chromosomal location studies in cultivars Len, Coteau, and Stoa were completed using aneuploid analysis, molecular markers, and allelism tests. Stem rust differential tests coded the race as TPPKC, indicating it differed from TPMKC by having added virulence on Sr30 as well as SrWld1. Genes effective against TPPKC were Sr6, Sr9a, Sr9b, Sr13, Sr24, Sr31, and Sr38. Genetic studies of resistance to TPPKC indicated that Len, Coteau, and Stoa likely carried Sr9b, that Coteau and Stoa carried Sr6, and Stoa carried Sr24. Tests of HRS and durum cultivars indicated that five HRS and one durum cultivar were susceptible to TPPKC. Susceptible HRS cultivars were postulated to have SrWld1 as their major stem rust resistance gene. Divide, the susceptible durum cultivar, was postulated to lack Sr13. We concluded that although TPPKC does not constitute a threat similar to TTKSK and its variants, some cultivars would be lost from production if TPPKC became established in the field.

  3. Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genome of Shiraia bambusicola Reveals Special Features in the Order of Pleosporales

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Ye; Li, Tong; Chen, Shuang; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Shiraia bambusicola P. Henn. is a pathogenic fungus of bamboo, and its fruiting bodies are regarded as folk medicine. We determined and analyzed its complete mitochondrial DNA sequence (circular DNA molecule of 39,030 bp, G + C content of 25.19%). It contains the typical genes encoding proteins involved in electron transport and coupled oxidative phosphorylation (nad1-6 and nad4L, cob and cox1-3), one ATP synthase subunit (atp6), 4 hypothetical proteins, and two genes for large and small rRNAs (rnl and rns). There is a set of 32 tRNA genes comprising all 20 amino acids, and these genes are evenly distributed on the two strands. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated mitochondrial proteins indicated that S. bambusicola clustered with members of the order Pleosporales, which is in agreement with previous results. The gene arrangements of Dothideomycetes species contained three regions of gene orders partitioned in their mitochondrial genomes, including block 1 (nad6-atp6), block 2 (nad1-cox3) and block 3 (genes around rns). S. bambusicola displayed unique special features that differed from the other Pleosporales species, especially in the coding regions around rns (trnR-trnY). Moreover, a comparison of gene orders in mitochondrial genomes from Pezizomycotina revealed that although all encoded regions are located on the same strand in most Pezizomycotina mtDNAs, genes from Dothideomycetes species had different orientations, as well as diverse positions and colocalization of genes (such as cox3, cox1-cox2 and nad2–nad3); these distinctions were regarded as class-specific features. Interestingly, two incomplete copies of the atp6 gene were found on different strands of the mitogenomic DNA, a finding that has not been observed in the other analyzed fungal species. In our study, mitochondrial genomes from Dothideomycetes species were comprehensively analyzed for the first time, including many species that have not appeared in previous reports. PMID:25790308

  4. Aerodynamic shape optimization using control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, James

    1996-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape design has long persisted as a difficult scientific challenge due its highly nonlinear flow physics and daunting geometric complexity. However, with the emergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) it has become possible to make accurate predictions of flows which are not dominated by viscous effects. It is thus worthwhile to explore the extension of CFD methods for flow analysis to the treatment of aerodynamic shape design. Two new aerodynamic shape design methods are developed which combine existing CFD technology, optimal control theory, and numerical optimization techniques. Flow analysis methods for the potential flow equation and the Euler equations form the basis of the two respective design methods. In each case, optimal control theory is used to derive the adjoint differential equations, the solution of which provides the necessary gradient information to a numerical optimization method much more efficiently then by conventional finite differencing. Each technique uses a quasi-Newton numerical optimization algorithm to drive an aerodynamic objective function toward a minimum. An analytic grid perturbation method is developed to modify body fitted meshes to accommodate shape changes during the design process. Both Hicks-Henne perturbation functions and B-spline control points are explored as suitable design variables. The new methods prove to be computationally efficient and robust, and can be used for practical airfoil design including geometric and aerodynamic constraints. Objective functions are chosen to allow both inverse design to a target pressure distribution and wave drag minimization. Several design cases are presented for each method illustrating its practicality and efficiency. These include non-lifting and lifting airfoils operating at both subsonic and transonic conditions.

  5. Identification of New Resistance Loci to African Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Tetraploid Wheats Based on Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    PubMed

    Laidò, Giovanni; Panio, Giosuè; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Ficco, Donatella B M; Giovanniello, Valentina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Steffenson, Brian; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn. (Pgt), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Races of the pathogen in the "Ug99 lineage" are of international concern due to their virulence for widely used stem rust resistance genes and their spread throughout Africa. Disease resistant cultivars provide one of the best means for controlling stem rust. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to African stem rust race TTKSK at the seedling stage, we evaluated an association mapping (AM) panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in response to race TTKSK in the AM panel, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTL in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Thirty-five resistance QTL were identified on all chromosomes, and seventeen are of particular interest as identified by multiple associations. Many of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes; however, nine on chromosomes 1AL, 2AL, 4AL, 5BL, and 7BS may be novel. To validate AM results, a biparental population of 146 recombinant inbred lines was also considered, which derived from a cross between the resistant cultivar "Cirillo" and susceptible "Neodur." The stem rust resistance of Cirillo was conferred by a single gene on the distal region of chromosome arm 6AL in an interval map coincident with the resistance gene Sr13, and confirmed one of the resistance loci identified by AM. A search for candidate resistance genes was carried out in the regions where QTL were identified, and many of them corresponded to NBS-LRR genes and protein kinases with LRR domains. The results obtained in the present study are of great interest as a high level of genetic variability for resistance to race TTKSK was described in a germplasm panel comprising most of the tetraploid wheat sub-species.

  6. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  7. Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism During Germination of Uredospores of Puccinia graminis tritici 1

    PubMed Central

    Daly, J. M.; Knoche, H. W.; Wiese, M. V.

    1967-01-01

    Uredospores of Puccinia graminis (Pers.) tritici (Eriks. and Henn.) were uniformly labeled with 14C by permitting the host (Triticum aestivum L.) to carry out photosynthesis in 14CO2 during the process of spore production by the obligate parasite. The use of 14C labeled spores provided advantages in a study of the utilization of endogenous substrates at frequent intervals with small amounts of spores under conditions conducive to germination. Because of previous uncertainties about the nature of the substrates of importance to germination, a detailed study of carbohydrate and lipid components, both in the spores and in the germination medium, was made during the first 7 hours after placing the spores on aqueous media. Diethyl ether and 80% ethanol soluble metabolites each constituted approximately 20% of the total spore carbon. During the first hour nearly 60% of the 80% alcohol solubles disappeared from the spores while the total ether soluble material did not change appreciably. A significant part of the 80% ethanol soluble materials appeared in the germination medium. During germination and germ tube extension, there was rapid utilization of trehalose, arabitol and mannitol even though appreciable amounts of these materials were present as exogenous pools in the germination medium. Although the total amounts of ether soluble components did not change as drastically as the carbohydrate fraction, there was extensive utilization of palmitic, oleic, linolenic and 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acids. The results indicate that the germination process in spores of obligate parasites is not based solely on the utilization of lipids and some possible roles of the changes in internal and external pools of soluble carbohydrates are discussed. PMID:16656698

  8. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  9. The climate-isotope relationship of tree-rings at temperate, high-altitude and high-latitude sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurer, Matthias; Kress, Anne; Sidorova, Olga; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Tree-ring-width and latewood density provide climate information particularly at extreme sites where growth is limited by a single factor. It is not clear, however, if this general principle also holds for stable carbon isotope (δ13C) or oxygen isotope (δ18O) variations. With increasing number of isotope studies and developing isotopic networks (ISONET, MILLENNIUM), the influence of site conditions on the climate-isotope relationship can now be systemically investigated. Our studies with trees growing in Europe and Siberia indicate the following: (1) Significant climate-isotope relationship are found for temperate regions where neither temperature nor precipitation are strongly limiting growth (Saurer et al. 2008) (2) The climate signal does not depend as much on site conditions as it does for tree-ring width and latewood density (3) A particularly strong carbon isotope climate signal reflecting drought is found for an Alpine larch chronology (Kress et al. 2009) (4) Isotopes at high-latitude Siberian sites contain a mixed temperature-precipitation signal (Sidorova et al. 2009). Overall, we can state that stable isotopes in tree-rings provide complimentary information to tree-ring width and density and extend the geographical range as well as the derived climate parameters significantly. Kress, A., Saurer, M., Siegwolf, R.T.W., Frank, D.C., Esper, J. and Bugmann, H.: A 350-year drought reconstruction from Alpine tree-ring stable isotopes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, in press Saurer, M., Cherubini, P., Reynolds-Henne, C. E., Treydte, K. S., Anderson, W. T., and Siegwolf, R. T. W.: An investigation of the common signal in tree ring stable isotope chronologies at temperate sites, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113, 10.1029/2008jg000689, 2008. Sidorova, O. V., Siegwolf, R. T. W., Saurer, M., Naurzbaev, M. M., Shashkin, A. V., and Vaganov, E. A.: Spatial patterns of climatic changes in the Eurasian north reflected in Siberian larch tree

  10. The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A.J.L.; Alves, A.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    . & A.J.L. Phillips, Lasiodiplodia lignicola (Ariyawansa, J.K. Liu & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, A. Alves & Abdollahz., Neoscytalidium hyalinum (C.K. Campb. & J.L. Mulder) A.J.L. Phillips, Groenewald & Crous, Sphaeropsis citrigena (A.J.L. Phillips, P.R. Johnst. & Pennycook) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves, Sphaeropsis eucalypticola (Doilom, J.K. Liu, & K.D. Hyde) A.J.L. Phillips, Sphaeropsis porosa (Van Niekerk & Crous) A.J.L. Phillips & A. Alves. Epitypification (basionym) - Sphaeria sapinea Fries. Neotypifications (basionyms) - Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., Physalospora agaves Henn, Sphaeria atrovirens var. visci Alb. & Schwein. PMID:24302790

  11. The Colletotrichum acutatum species complex

    PubMed Central

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    . orchidophilum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. paxtonii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. pseudoacutatum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous C. pyricola Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. rhombiforme Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. scovillei Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. sloanei Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. tamarilloi Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. walleri Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Typifications: Epitypifications - C. acutatum J.H. Simmonds, C. limetticola (R.E. Clausen) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. nymphaeae (Pass.) Aa, C. phormii (Henn.) D.F. Farr & Rossman, C. salicis (Fuckel) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Lectotypifications - C. nymphaeae (Pass.) Aa, C. orchidearum Allesch. PMID:23136458

  12. Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Birth Outcomes among a Population Residing near a Mining-Related Superfund Site

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Birgit Claus; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Hopkins, Marianne R.; Jim, Rebecca; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Christiani, David C.; Coull, Brent A.; Bellinger, David C.; Wright, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    importance. Citation: Claus Henn B, Ettinger AS, Hopkins MR, Jim R, Amarasiriwardena C, Christiani DC, Coull BA, Bellinger DC, Wright RO. 2016. Prenatal arsenic exposure and birth outcomes among a population residing near a mining-related Superfund site. Environ Health Perspect 124:1308–1315; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510070 PMID:26859631

  13. Identification of New Resistance Loci to African Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Tetraploid Wheats Based on Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Laidò, Giovanni; Panio, Giosuè; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A.; Ficco, Donatella B. M.; Giovanniello, Valentina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Steffenson, Brian; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn. (Pgt), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Races of the pathogen in the “Ug99 lineage” are of international concern due to their virulence for widely used stem rust resistance genes and their spread throughout Africa. Disease resistant cultivars provide one of the best means for controlling stem rust. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to African stem rust race TTKSK at the seedling stage, we evaluated an association mapping (AM) panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in response to race TTKSK in the AM panel, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTL in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Thirty-five resistance QTL were identified on all chromosomes, and seventeen are of particular interest as identified by multiple associations. Many of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes; however, nine on chromosomes 1AL, 2AL, 4AL, 5BL, and 7BS may be novel. To validate AM results, a biparental population of 146 recombinant inbred lines was also considered, which derived from a cross between the resistant cultivar “Cirillo” and susceptible “Neodur.” The stem rust resistance of Cirillo was conferred by a single gene on the distal region of chromosome arm 6AL in an interval map coincident with the resistance gene Sr13, and confirmed one of the resistance loci identified by AM. A search for candidate resistance genes was carried out in the regions where QTL were identified, and many of them corresponded to NBS-LRR genes and protein kinases with LRR domains. The results obtained in the present study are of great interest as a high level of genetic variability for resistance to race TTKSK was described in a germplasm panel comprising most of the tetraploid wheat sub

  14. Molecular detection of Puccinia horiana in Chrysanthemum x morifolium through conventional and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Alaei, Hossein; Baeyen, Steve; Maes, Martine; Höfte, Monica; Heungens, Kurt

    2009-02-01

    Puccinia horiana Henn. is a quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum x morifolium cultivars grown for cut flower or potted plant production (florist's chrysanthemum) in several regions of the world. Highly specific primer pairs were identified for conventional, nested, and real-time PCR detection of P. horiana based on the specific and sensitive PCR amplification of selected regions in the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Using these different PCR versions, 10 pg, 10 fg, and 5 fg genomic DNA could be detected, respectively. When using cloned target DNA as template, the detection limits were 5000, 50, and 5 target copies, respectively. These detection limits were not affected by a background of chrysanthemum plant DNA. The DNA extraction method was optimized to maximize the recoverability of the pathogen from infected plant tissue. A CTAB extraction protocol or a selection of commercial DNA extraction methods allowed the use of 10 ng total (plant+pathogen) DNA without interference of PCR inhibitors. Due to the specificity of the primers, SYBR Green I technology enabled reliable real time PCR signal detection. However, an efficient TaqMan probe is available. The lowest proportion of infected plant material that could still be detected when mixed with healthy plant material was 0.001%. The real-time PCR assay could detect as few as eight pure P. horiana basidiospores, demonstrating the potential of the technique for aerial detection of the pathogen. The amount of P. horiana DNA in plant tissue was determined at various time points after basidiospore inoculation. Using the real-time PCR protocol, it was possible to detect the pathogen immediately after the inoculation period, even though the accumulation of pathogen DNA was most pronounced near the end of the latent period. The detection system proved to be accurate and sensitive and could help not only in pathogen diagnosis but

  15. Ames Optimized TCA Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    CPU time limit available on the Cray machines. A typical optimization run using finite difference gradients can use only 30 to 40 design variables and one optimization iteration within the 8 hour queue limit for the chosen grid size and convergence level. The efficiency afforded by the adjoint method allowed for 50-120 design variables and 5-10 optimization iterations in the 8 hour queue. Geometric perturbations to the wing and fuselage were made using the Hicks/Henne (HH) shape functions. The HH functions were distributed uniformly along the chords of the wing defining sections and lofted linearly. During single-surface design, constraints on thickness and volume at selected wing stations were imposed. Both fuselage camber and cross-sectional area distributions were permitted to change during design. The major disadvantage to the use of these functions is the inherent surface waviness produced by repeated use of such functions. Many smoothing operations were required following optimization runs to produce a configuration with reasonable smoothness. Wagner functions were also used on the wing sections but were never used on the fuselage. The Wagner functions are a family of increasingly oscillatory functions that have also been used extensively in airfoil design. The leading and trailing edge regions of the wing were designed by use of polynomial and monomial functions respectively. Twist was attempted but was abandoned because of little performance improvement available from changing the baseline twist.

  16. Frontiers of QC Laser spectroscopy for high precision isotope ratio analysis of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim; Harris, Eliza; Eyer, Simon; Ibraim, Erkan; Tuzson, Béla

    2016-04-01

    ., Henne, S. & Emmenegger, L. Tracking isotopic signatures of CO2 at the high altitude site Jungfraujoch with laser spectroscopy: Analytical improvements and representative re-sults. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 1659-1671 (2013). 2 Tuzson, B. et al. Continuous isotopic composition measurements of tropospheric CO2 at Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), Switzerland: real-time observation of regional pollution events. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, 1685-1696 (2011). 3 Mohn, J. et al. A liquid nitrogen-free preconcentration unit for measurements of ambient N2O isotopomers by QCLAS. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 3, 609-618 (2010). 4 Wolf, B. et al. First on-line isotopic characterization of N2O above intensively managed grassland. Biogeosciences 12, 2517-1960 (2015). 5 Harris, E. et al. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland. Waste Management 35, 135-140 (2015). 6 Harris, E. et al. Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor. Water Research 83, 258-270 (2015). 7 Eyer, S. et al. Real-time analysis of δ13C- and δ D-CH4 in ambient air with laser spectroscopy: method development and first intercomparison results. Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 8, 8925-8970 (2015).

  17. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    .S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Crous) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora leucadendri (Cooke) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora snelliana (Reichert) U. Braun, H.D. Shin, C. Nakash. & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; Typifications: Epitypifications - Pseudocercospora angolensis (T. Carvalho & O. Mendes) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora araliae (Henn.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora cercidis-chinensis H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora corylopsidis (Togashi & Katsuki) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora dovyalidis (Chupp & Doidge) Deighton, Pseudocercospora fukuokaensis (Chupp) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo, Pseudocercospora humuli (Hori) Y.L. Guo & X.J. Liu, Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lyoniae (Katsuki & Tak. Kobay.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora lythri H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora sambucigena U. Braun, Crous & K. Schub., Pseudocercospora stephanandrae (Tak. Kobay. & H. Horie) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora viburnigena U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Xenostigmina zilleri (A. Funk) Crous; Lectotypification - Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton; Neotypifications - Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W. Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo. PMID:24014898

  18. Redisposition of phoma-like anamorphs in Pleosporales

    PubMed Central

    de Gruyter, J.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Aveskamp, M.M.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    & Verkley, Plen. collinsoniae (Dearn. & House) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. confertus (Niessl ex Sacc.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. congestus (M.T. Lucas) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. enteroleucus (Sacc.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. fallaciosus (Berl.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. hendersoniae (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. influorescens (Boerema & Loer.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. libanotidis (Fuckel) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. lindquistii (Frezzi) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. lupini (Ellis & Everh.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. pimpinellae (Lowen & Sivan.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. tracheiphilus (Petri) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Plen. visci (Moesz) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Pleospora fallens (Sacc.) Gruyter & Verkley, Pleo. flavigena (Constantinou & Aa) Gruyter & Verkley, Pleo. incompta (Sacc. & Martelli) Gruyter & Verkley, Pyrenochaetopsis pratorum (P.R. Johnst. & Boerema) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplenodomus apiicola (Kleb.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplen. drobnjacensis (Bubák) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplen. valerianae (Henn.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Subplen. violicola (P. Syd.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, Westerdykella capitulum (V.H. Pawar, P.N. Mathur & Thirum.) de Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley, W. minutispora (P.N. Mathur ex Gruyter & Noordel.) Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley. New names: Pleospora angustis Gruyter & Verkley, Pleospora halimiones Gruyter & Verkley. PMID:24014897

  19. Is global dimming and brightening limited to urban areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Imamovic, Adel; Folini, Doris; Ohmura, Atsumu; Wild, Martin

    2013-04-01

    as zenith transmittance and maximum transmittance (A. Ohmura, personal communication, 26 February 2012) separately for the pristine (i.e. least influenced by urbanization) and polluted stations. 2) We deal with several hundreds of stations in Europe, Japan, and China compiled by the GEBA project and look into the SSR data since 1960. To infer the temporal development of the urbanization level at each measurement site, we use the following two datasets: i) the high resolution gridded emission data (0.5 degree) provided by the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) (Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre / Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), and ii) the population data (0.08 degree) obtained from the History Database of the Global Environment (HYDE) (Klein Goldewijk et al. 2010). To these data, we apply a selection of distance weighting functions to account for the spatial extent of urbanization surrounding each site (Folini et al. 2009). Our preliminary results obtained from these two approaches do not support the claim that the global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. References Alpert P, Kishcha P, Kaufman YJ, Schwarzbard R (2005) Global dimming or local dimming?: Effect of urbanization on sunlight availability. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L17802. Dwyer JG, Norris JR, Ruckstuhl C (2010) Do climate models reproduce observed solar dimming and brightening over China and Japan? Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115, D00K08. Folini D, Kaufmann P, Ubl S, Henne S (2009) Region of influence of 13 remote European measurement sites based on modeled carbon monoxide mixing ratios. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114, D08307. Klein Goldewijk K, Beusen A, Janssen P (2010) Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20, 565-573. Kvalevåg MM, Myhre G (2007) Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the

  20. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    MoralIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Valentina Giangreco Marotta PulettiUppsala University Valeria L GiliQueen Mary, University of London Luciano GirardelloUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Gian GiudiceCERN, Geneva Kevin Goldstein Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Pietro Antonio GrassiUniversità del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria Viviane GraßLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Johannes GrosseJagiellonian University, Krakow Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Norberto Gutierrez RodriguezUniversity of Oviedo Babak HaghighatPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Robert HaslhoferEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Tae-Won HaPhysikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn Alexander HauptImperial College London and Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marc HenneauxUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Johannes HennLAPTH, Annecy-le-Vieux Shinji HiranoNiels Bohr Institute, København Stefan HoheneggerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Jan HomannLudwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Gabriele Honecker CERN, Geneva Joost HoogeveenInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Mechthild HuebscherUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid Chris HullImperial College London Carmen-Liliana IonescuUniversity of Craiova Ella JasminUniversité Libre de Bruxelles Konstantin KanishchevInstitute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw Stefanos Katmadas Utrecht University Alexandros KehagiasNational Technical University of Athens Christoph Keller Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Patrick Kerner Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Rebiai KhaledLaboratoire de Physique Mathématique et Physique Subatomique, Université Mentouri, Constantine Elias Kiritsis Centre de Physique Théorique,