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Sample records for plutellae kurdjumov hymenoptera

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiansheng; Ke, Fushi; You, Shijun; Chen, Wenbin; He, Weiyi; You, Minsheng

    2017-06-20

    Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) from Fuzhou, Fujian, southeastern China, to verify the effectiveness of the 14 microsatellite loci in future studies on C. plutellae genetic diversity. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.123 to 0.316 and from 0.141 to 0.281, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.272 to 0.622. Potentially due to the substructure of the sampled population, three of the 14 microsatellite loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Further, loci C6, C22, and C31 could be amplified in Cocobius fulvus and Encarsia japonica, suggesting the transferability of these three polymorphic loci to other species of Hymenoptera.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tiansheng; Ke, Fushi; You, Shijun; Chen, Wenbin; He, Weiyi; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this transcriptome-based data analysis for Cotesia plutellae, which is an important larval parasitoid of the worldwide pest Plutella xylostella. A subsequent test was performed for a wild C. plutellae population (N = 32) from Fuzhou, Fujian, southeastern China, to verify the effectiveness of the 14 microsatellite loci in future studies on C. plutellae genetic diversity. The observed number of alleles ranged from two to six. The expected and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.123 to 0.316 and from 0.141 to 0.281, respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.272 to 0.622. Potentially due to the substructure of the sampled population, three of the 14 microsatellite loci deviated from Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Further, loci C6, C22, and C31 could be amplified in Cocobius fulvus and Encarsia japonica, suggesting the transferability of these three polymorphic loci to other species of Hymenoptera. PMID:28632152

  3. Suitability of a Novel Diet for a Parasitic Wasp, Cotesia plutellae

    PubMed Central

    Soyelu, Olalekan J.

    2013-01-01

    The braconid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a major solitary, larval endoparasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The impact of dietary protein was investigated in the laboratory by comparing performance of C. plutellae on honey, which is commonly used to rear the parasitoid, to that on a novel diet made of honey and protein-rich beebread. Cotesia plutellae was highly stimulated by honey and honey-beebread, with a feeding response exceeding 95%, a level that is comparable with its responses to fructose, glucose, and sucrose. The ability of honey-beebread to support host-parasitoid colonies was also comparable with that of honey. However, parasitoids raised on honey-beebread suppressed diamondback moths in rearing cages 3 weeks before the honey-fed wasps. The development time of C. plutellae reared on honey with or without beebread showed no significant difference, but adult wasps lived longer on honey-beebread. Mean developmental periods from oviposition to pupation and from pupation to adult emergence were 8 and 6 days, respectively. Adult wasps raised on honey-beebread outlived their conspecifics that were raised on honey by at least 4 days. Honey-beebread showed potential as a good food for rearing C. plutellae in the laboratory, and its benefit in parasitoid production is discussed. PMID:24224737

  4. Effect of Bt broccoli and resistant genotype of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on development and host acceptance of the parasitoid Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Onstad, David; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-08-01

    The ecological implications on biological control of insecticidal transgenic plants, which produce crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), remain a contentious issue and affect risk assessment decisions. In this study, we used a unique system of resistant insects, Bt plants and a parasitoid to critically evaluate this issue. The effects of broccoli type (normal or expressing Cry1Ac protein) and insect genotype (susceptible or Cry1Ac-resistant) of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were examined for their effects on the development and host foraging behavior of the parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) over two generations. Parasitism rate and development of D. insulare were not significantly different when different genotypes (Bt-resistant or susceptible) of insect host larvae fed on non-Bt broccoli plants. D. insulare could not discriminate between resistant and susceptible genotypes of P. xylostella, nor between Bt and normal broccoli plants with different genotypes of P. xylostella feeding on them. No D. insulare could emerge from Bt broccoli-fed susceptible and heterozygous P. xylostella larvae because these larvae were unable to survive on Bt broccoli. The parasitism rate, developmental period, pupal and adult weights of D. insulare that had developed on Bt broccoli-fed Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella larvae were not significantly different from those that developed on non-Bt broccoli-fed larvae. Female D. insulare emerged from Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella that fed on Bt plants could successfully parasitize P. xylostella larvae. The life parameters of the subsequent generation of D. insulare from P. xylostella reared on Bt broccoli were not significantly different from those from non-Bt broccoli. The Cry1Ac protein was detected in P. xylostella and in D. insulare when hosts fed on Bt broccoli. These results are the first to indicate that Cry1Ac did not harm the development or

  5. Response of Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid Cotesia plutellae to volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Nissinen, Anne; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2005-09-01

    The effects of limonene, a mixture of limonene + carvone (1:1, v/v), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella L.) oviposition, larval feeding, and the behavior of its larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov) with cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata, cvs. Rinda and Lennox) and broccoli (B. oleracea subsp. Italica cv Lucky) were tested. Limonene showed no deterrent effect on DBM when plants were sprayed with or exposed to limonene, although there was a cultivar difference. A mixture of limonene and carvone released from vermiculite showed a significant repellent effect, reducing the number of eggs laid on the cabbages. MeJA treatment reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of larvae on cv Lennox leaves. In Y-tube olfactometer tests, C. plutellae preferred the odors of limonene and MeJA to filtered air. In cv Lennox, the parasitoid preferred DBM-damaged plants with limonene to such plants without limonene. C. plutellae females were repelled by the mixture of limonene + carvone. In both cultivars, exogenous MeJA induced the emission of the sesquiterpene (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate + octanal. The attractive effect of limonene and MeJA predicts that these two compounds can be used in sustainable plant protection strategies in organic farming.

  6. Effects of venom/calyx fluid from the endoparasitic wasp Cotesia plutellae on the hemocytes of its host Plutella xylostella in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rui-xian; Chen, Ya-Feng; Chen, Xue-xin; Huang, Fang; Lou, Yong-gen; Liu, Shu-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Crude venom and calyx fluid from Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera Braconidae) were assayed for biological activity toward hemocytes of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera Plutellidae). Venom from C. plutellae displayed high activity toward the spreading of plasmatocytes of P. xylostella early in the incubation period, and the inhibition was more severe as the concentration of venom increased. However, most inhibited hemocytes spread normally after being incubated for 4h. No effects were found toward granular cells from the host. Additionally, the venom from C. plutellae had some lethal effects on hemocytes of P. xylostella at high concentrations. In contrast, when incubated with different concentrations of calyx fluid, the spreading of some hemocytes was inhibited, some began to disintegrate, and some were badly damaged with only the nucleus left. After 4h, the majority of hemocytes died. The same results were observed when hemocytes were incubated in calyx fluid together with venom. These results show that calyx fluid from C. plutellae may play a major role in the suppression of the host immune system, whereas venom from C. plutellae has a limited effect on hemocytes and probably synergizes the effect of calyx fluid or polydnavirus.

  7. Spread and global population structure of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and its larval parasitoids Diadegma semiclausum and Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) based on mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Juric, I; Salzburger, W; Balmer, O

    2017-04-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) (Plutella xylostella) is one of the main pests of brassicaceous crops worldwide and shows resistance against a wide range of synthetic insecticides incurring millions of dollars in control costs every year. The DBM is a prime example of the introduction of an exotic species as a consequence of globalization. In this study we analyzed the genetic population structure of the DBM and two of its parasitic wasps, Diadegma semiclausum and Diadegma fenestrale, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. We analyzed DBM samples from 13 regions worldwide (n = 278), and samples of the two wasp species from six European and African countries (n = 131), in an attempt to reconstruct the geographic origin and phylogeography of the DBM and its two parasitic wasps. We found high variability in COI sequences in the diamondback moth. Haplotype analysis showed three distinct genetic clusters, one of which could represent a cryptic species. Mismatch analysis confirmed the hypothesized recent spread of diamondback moths in North America, Australia and New Zealand. The highest genetic variability was found in African DBM samples. Our data corroborate prior claims of Africa as the most probable origin of the species but cannot preclude Asia as an alternative. No genetic variability was found in the two Diadegma species. The lack of variability in both wasp species suggests a very recent spread of bottlenecked populations, possibly facilitated by their use as biocontrol agents. Our data thus also contain no signals of host-parasitoid co-evolution.

  8. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)

    PubMed Central

    Ngenya, Watson; Malinga, Joyce; Tabu, Isaiah; Masinde, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA)-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide. PMID:27049398

  9. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov).

    PubMed

    Ngenya, Watson; Malinga, Joyce; Tabu, Isaiah; Masinde, Emily

    2016-04-02

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA)-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics of reproduction, development and population dynamics. RWA populations from the regions of Eldoret, Mau Narok and Njoro were used in the study. A factorial experiment was set up in randomized complete block design replicated eleven times. A single day-old nymph was placed on a new, fully-open leaf in a 0.5 cm-diameter clear plastic straw leaf cage and observed daily for its entire lifetime. The results showed that there were variations in aphid lifespan, reproductive longevity and aphid fecundity between populations, indicating that the phenotypic markers used to determine biotypes were good enough to show distinct biotypes among populations of the RWA in Kenya. Further, the study concluded that the use of phenotypic life and reproductive markers was a valid way of characterizing biotypes of RWA worldwide.

  10. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Cotesia plutellae to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, You-Nan; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Plant volatiles have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating the behavior of Cotesia plutellae, a major larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, but little is currently known about the function of each volatile and their mixtures. We selected 13 volatiles of the DBM host plant, a cruciferous vegetable, to study the electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of C. plutellae. EAG responses to each of the compounds generally increased with concentration. Strong EAG responses were to 100 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and cis-3-hexenol, and 10 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde with the strongest response provoked by trans-2-hexenal at 100 μL/mL. In the Y-tube olfactometer, C. plutellae, was significantly attracted by 1 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde. β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexenol or trans-2-hexenal significantly attracted C. plutellae at 10 μL/mL, while nonanal, benzyl alcohol, cis-3-hexenol or benzyl cyanide at 100 μL/mL significantly attracted C. plutellae. Trans-2-hexenal significantly repelled C. plutellae at 100 μL/mL. EAG of C. plutellae showed strong responses to all mixtures made of five various compounds with mixtures 3 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, benzyl cyanide, farnesene, eucalyptol) and 4 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, (R)-(+)-limonene, β-ionone, farnesene, eucalyptol) significantly attracting C. plutellae. These findings demonstrate that the behavior of C. plutellae can be affected either by individual compounds or mixtures of plant volatiles, suggesting a potential of using plant volatiles to improve the efficiency of this parasitoid for biocontrol of P. xylostella.

  11. Hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Flood, Aryn A

    2006-11-01

    The medically important groups of Hymenoptera are the Apoidea (bees), Vespoidea (wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets), and Formicidae (ants). These insects deliver their venom by stinging their victims. Bees lose their barbed stinger after stinging and die. Wasps, hornets, and yellow jackets can sting multiple times. Most deaths related to Hymenoptera stings are the result of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, causing anaphylaxis. Massive envenomations can cause death in nonallergic individuals. The estimated lethal dose is approximately 20 stings/kg in most mammals. Anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera stings are not dose dependent or related to the number of stings. Bee and wasp venoms are made up primarily of protein. Conversely, fire ant venoms are 95% alkaloids. Four possible reactions are seen after insect stings: local reactions, regional reactions, systemic anaphylactic responses, and less commonly, delayed-type hypersensitivity. Clinical signs of bee and wasp stings include erythema, edema, and pain at the sting site. Occasionally, animals develop regional reactions. Onset of life-threatening, anaphylactic signs typically occur within 10 minutes of the sting. Diagnosis of bee and wasp stings stem from a history of potential contact matched with onset of appropriate clinical signs. Treatment of uncomplicated envenomations (stings) consists of conservative therapy (antihistamines, ice or cool compresses, topical lidocaine, or corticosteroid lotions). Prompt recognition and initiation of treatment is critical in successful management of anaphylactic reactions to hymenopteran stings. Imported fire ants both bite and sting, and envenomation only occurs through the sting. Anaphylaxis after imported fire ant stings is treated similarly to anaphylactic reactions after honeybee and vespid stings. The majority of Hymenopteran stings are self-limiting events, which resolve in a few hours without treatment. Because life-threatening anaphylactic reactions can

  12. [Thermal tolerance of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiang-Qian; Ma, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Shu; Lü, Liang

    2012-03-01

    Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella is a worldwide important pest on cruciferous vegetables. Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) is often used as an index for the thermal tolerance of insects. By the method of dynamic heating, this paper measured the CTMax of P. xylostella in a self-assembled device, and studied the effects of development stage, rearing temperature, generation, sex, and heat shock on the thermal tolerance of P. xylostella based on the CTMax values. Reared at 25 degrees C, the mean CTMax of the 4th larva (50.31 degrees C) was significantly higher than that of the 1st larva (43.03 degrees C), 2nd larva (46.39 degrees C), 3rd larva (49.67 degrees C), female adult (45.76 degrees C), and male adult (47.73 degrees C); reared at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, the adults had no significant difference in their CTMax; reared at 30 degrees C for 1-, 3-, and 6 generations, the CTMax of the adults also had no significant difference. In all the treatments, the CTMax of the female and male adults had less difference. Heat shock with 40 degrees C for 45 minutes could make the CTMax of 5 day-old male moth increased from 45.51 degrees C to 46.49 degrees C.

  13. Martensitic transformation of pure iron at a grain boundary: Atomistic evidence for a two-step Kurdjumov-Sachs–Pitsch pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, Jerome; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-08-15

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential, we study the martensitic transformation pathway in a pure iron bi-crystal containing a symmetric tilt grain boundary. Upon cooling the system from the austenitic phase, the transformation starts with the nucleation of the martensitic phase near the grain boundary in a plate-like arrangement. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relations are fulfilled at the plates. During further cooling, the plates expand and merge. In contrast to the orientation relation in the plate structure, the complete transformation proceeds via the Pitsch pathway.

  14. Cotesia vestalis parasitization suppresses expression of a Plutella xylostella thioredoxin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are a family of small, highly conserved and ubiquitous proteins involved in protecting organisms against toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, a typical thioredoxin gene, PxTrx, was isolated from Plutella xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence is composed of 959 ...

  15. Baculoviral p94 homologs encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppress both immunity and development of the diamondback moth, Plutellae xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonggyun; Hepat, Rahul

    2016-04-01

    Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are a group of insect DNA viruses, which exhibit a mutual symbiotic relationship with their specific host wasps. Moreover, most encapsidated genes identified so far in PDVs share homologies with insect-originated genes, but not with virus-originated genes. In the meantime, PDVs associated with 2 wasp genera Cotesia and Glytapanteles encode some genes presumably originated from other viruses. Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes 4 genes homologous to baculoviral p94: CpBV-E94k1, CpBV-E94k2, CpBV-E94k3, and CpBV-E94k4. This study was conducted to predict the origin of CpBV-E94ks by comparing their sequences with those of baculoviral orthologs and to determine the physiological functions by their transient expressions in nonparasitized larvae and subsequent specific RNA interference. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpBV-E94ks were clustered with other E94ks originated from different PDVs and shared high similarity with betabaculoviral p94s. These 4 CpBV genes were expressed during most developmental stages of the larvae of Plutella xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae. Expression of these 4 E94ks was mainly detected in hemocytes and fat body. Subsequent functional analysis by in vivo transient expression showed that all 4 viral genes significantly inhibited both host immune and developmental processes. These results suggest that CpBV-E94ks share an origin with betabaculoviral p94s and play parasitic roles in suppressing host immune and developmental processes.

  16. [Toxicology of Hymenoptera venoms].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Mietka-Ciszowska, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Hymenoptera venom is a secretion of special poison glands of insects. It serves both as a defensive substance against aggressors, as well as weapon used to paralyze the victim during gaining food. Chemically, the venom is a mixture of biologically active substances of high-, medium-, and small molecular weight with a variety of physiological functions. Individual substances may have toxic effects on stung human contributing to certain clinical signs and symptoms of venom poisoning. In the present paper, chemical structure, physiological role and toxicity of particular components of Hymenoptera venom are described.

  17. Transient expression of specific Cotesia plutellae bracoviral segments induces prolonged larval development of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Bowon; Song, Seongbaeck; Choi, Jae Young; Je, Yeon Ho; Kim, Yonggyun

    2010-06-01

    A polydnavirus, Cotesia plutellae bracovirus (CpBV), possesses a segmented and dispersed genome that is located on chromosome(s) of its symbiotic endoparasitic wasp, C. plutellae. When the host wasp parasitizes larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, at least 27 viral genome segments are delivered to the parasitized host along with the wasp egg. The parasitized P. xylostella exhibits significant immunosuppression and a prolonged larval development. Parasitized larvae take about 2 days longer than nonparasitized larvae to develop until the wandering stage of the final larval instar, and die after egress of the full grown wasp larvae. Developmental analysis using juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid analogs suggests that altering endocrine signals could induce the retardation of larval developmental rate in P. xylostella. In this study we used a transient expression technique to micro-inject individual CpBV genome segments, and tested their ability to induce delayed larval development of P. xylostella. We demonstrated that a CpBV segment was able to express its own encoded genes when it was injected into nonparasitized larvae, in which the expression patterns of the segment genes were similar to those in the larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. Twenty three CpBV genome segments were individually cloned and injected into the second instar larvae of P. xylostella and their effects assessed by measuring the time taken for host development to the cocooning stage. Three CpBV genome segments markedly interfered with the host larval development. When the putative genes of these segments were analyzed, it was found that they did not share any common genes. Among these segments able to delay host development, segment S27 was predicted to encode seven protein tyrosine phosphatases (CpBV-PTPs), some of which were mutated by insertional inactivation with transposons, while other encoded gene expressions were unaffected. The mutant segments were unable to induce prolonged

  18. Karyotype analysis of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) reveals a large X chromosome with rRNA and histone gene families.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Jana; Havelka, Jan; Starý, Petr; Koutecký, Petr; Vítková, Magda

    2011-03-01

    The Russsian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a worldwide pest of cereals. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its genome. Here we investigated physical genomic features in RWA by karyotype analysis using differential staining with AgNO(3), CMA(3), and DAPI, by chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), H3 and H4 histone genes, and the "arthropod" telomeric sequence (TTAGG)(n) using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and by measuring the RWA genome size using flow cytometry. The female karyotype, 2n = 10, is composed of four autosome pairs and a pair of X chromosomes, whereas the male karyotype, 2n = 9, has a single X. The X chromosome is the largest element in the karyotype. All three molecular markers used, i.e., 18S rRNA and both H3 and H4 probes are co-localized at one end of the X chromosome. The FISH probes revealed that the AgNO(3)-positive bridge between two prometaphase X chromosomes of females, which is believed to be responsible for the elimination of one X chromosome in aphid oocytes determined to undergo male development, contains clusters of both histone genes, in addition to an rDNA cluster. Interestingly, RWA lacks the (TTAGG)(n) telomeric sequence in its genome, in contrast to several previously investigated aphid species. Additionally, we compared female and male genome sizes. The female genome size is 2C = 0.86 pg, whereas the male genome size is 2C = 0.70 pg. The difference between the DNA content in the two genders suggests that the RWA X chromosome occupies about 35% of the female haploid genome (1C = 0.43 pg), which makes it one of the largest sex chromosomes in the animal kingdom.

  19. Effects of an ascovirus (HvAV-3e) on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and evidence for virus transmission by a larval parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael J; Asgari, Sassan

    2010-02-01

    Ascoviruses (AVs) are pathogenic to lepidopteran larvae, and most commonly attack species in the Noctuidae. The unique pathology includes cleavage of host cells into virion-containing vesicles which leads to the milky white colouration of the hemolymph as opposed to the clear hemolymph of healthy larvae. Recently, we showed that a Heliothis virescens AV (HvAV-3e) isolate is able to induce disease in Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), affecting feeding, growth and survival of infected larvae. In this study, we investigated the effect of different variants of HvAV-3e on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae, another non-noctuid host. In hemolymph inoculation bioassays fourth instar larvae showed a significant dose response to each of the HvAV-3e variants and significant differences between the virulence of the three variants were detected. Both second and fourth instars were readily infected with the virus and infected individuals demonstrated significant reductions in food consumption and growth. The majority of infected individuals died at the larval or pupal stage and individuals which developed into adults were usually deformed, less fecund than non-infected controls and died shortly after emergence. In transmission studies, Diadegmasemiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a key parasitoid of diamondback moth, infected healthy host larvae during oviposition following previous attack of HvAV-3e infected hosts. In choice tests D. semiclausum did not discriminate between infected individuals but host infection had no detectable impact on the development of immature D. semiclausum or on subsequent adults.

  20. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bi...

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus suppresses a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwan; Hepat, Rahul; Lee, Daeweon; Kim, Yonggyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasitization by an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, inhibits a larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. This study tested an inhibitory effect of C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) on the metamorphosis of P. xylostella. Parasitized P. xylostella exhibited significantly reduced prothoracic gland (PTG) development at the last instar compared to nonparasitized larvae. Expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) was markedly suppressed during the last instar larvae parasitized by C. plutellae. By contrast, expression of the insulin receptor (InR) significantly increased in the parasitized larvae. Microinjection of CpBV significantly inhibited the larva-to-pupa metamorphosis of nonparasitized larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of CpBV also inhibited the expression of the EcR and increased the expression of the InR. Individual CpBV segments were transiently expressed in its encoded genes in nonparasitized larvae and screened to determine antimetamorphic viral gene(s). Out of 21 CpBV segments, two viral segments (CpBV-S22 and CpBV-S27) were proved to inhibit larva-to-pupa metamorphosis by transient expression assay. RNA interference of each gene encoded in the viral segments was applied to determine antimetamorphic gene(s). Protein tyrosine phosphatase, early expressed gene, and four hypothetical genes were selected to be associated with the antimetamorphic activity of CpBV. These results suggest that antimetamorphosis of P. xylostella parasitized by C. plutellae is induced by inhibiting PTG development and subsequent ecdysteroid signaling with viral factors of CpBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine

    PubMed Central

    Elsik, Christine G.; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M.; Unni, Deepak R.; Emery, Marianne L.; Nguyen, Hung N.; Hagen, Darren E.

    2016-01-01

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. PMID:26578564

  3. Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ralph S; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte; Lanfear, Robert; Diez, Patricia A; Heraty, John; Kjer, Karl M; Klopfstein, Seraina; Meier, Rudolf; Polidori, Carlo; Schmitt, Thomas; Liu, Shanlin; Zhou, Xin; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, and bees) are one of four mega-diverse insect orders, comprising more than 153,000 described and possibly up to one million undescribed extant species [1, 2]. As parasitoids, predators, and pollinators, Hymenoptera play a fundamental role in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and are of substantial economic importance [1, 3]. To understand the diversification and key evolutionary transitions of Hymenoptera, most notably from phytophagy to parasitoidism and predation (and vice versa) and from solitary to eusocial life, we inferred the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Hymenoptera by analyzing 3,256 protein-coding genes in 173 insect species. Our analyses suggest that extant Hymenoptera started to diversify around 281 million years ago (mya). The primarily ectophytophagous sawflies are found to be monophyletic. The species-rich lineages of parasitoid wasps constitute a monophyletic group as well. The little-known, species-poor Trigonaloidea are identified as the sister group of the stinging wasps (Aculeata). Finally, we located the evolutionary root of bees within the apoid wasp family "Crabronidae." Our results reveal that the extant sawfly diversity is largely the result of a previously unrecognized major radiation of phytophagous Hymenoptera that did not lead to wood-dwelling and parasitoidism. They also confirm that all primarily parasitoid wasps are descendants of a single endophytic parasitoid ancestor that lived around 247 mya. Our findings provide the basis for a natural classification of Hymenoptera and allow for future comparative analyses of Hymenoptera, including their genomes, morphology, venoms, and parasitoid and eusocial life styles.

  4. Sublethal Effects of Fenoxycarb on the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Mohammad; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fenoxycarb, a Juvenile hormone analogue, at sublethal concentrations were tested on some biological parameters of Plutella xylostella (L.) in two consecutive generations. The calculated LC10, LC25, and LC50 values of the insecticide were 21.58, 43.25, and 93.62 mg/liter on third-instar larvae, respectively. Fenoxycarb significantly reduced pupal weight and oviposition period in parent generation. In addition, the fecundity of treated groups (LC10 = 71.06, LC25 = 40.60 eggs per female) in parents was significantly lower than control (169.40 eggs per female). Although fenoxycarb could not affect gross reproductive rate and death rate, it decreased net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and birth rate in offspring generation. Also, mean generation time and doubling time of treated insects was significantly longer than control at LC10 level. Therefore, the data from this study suggested that fenoxycarb could adversely cause population decline in the subsequent generation. PMID:26136495

  5. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  6. Rapid report acetamiprid resistance and cross-resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Ninsin, Kodwo D

    2004-09-01

    A 110-fold acetamiprid-resistant Plutella xylostella (L) strain was established after four selection experiments (in five generations) on a 9.5-fold resistant colony in the laboratory. The resistant strain did not show cross-resistance to chlorfluazuron or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki Berliner, but displayed low resistance to cartap and phenthoate.

  7. Afrotropical Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L.; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera. PMID:25878545

  8. Intraoral Hymenoptera sting.

    PubMed

    Mader, C L

    1980-03-01

    Four days before a routine dental examination, the patient had been stung on the left side of the soft palate by a yellow jacket. The lesion was well demarcated, with a prominent area of deep red erythema approximately 1.5 cm in diameter. inside of which was a coral pink ring approximately 0.5 cm in diameter. The patient was not experiencing discomfort at the time of examination. Reactions to Hymenoptera stings usually include pain, erythema, and swelling, but, in more severe instances, extensive swelling and systemic reactions in the form of anaphylaxis or delayed allergic responses may be seen. The patient should be referred immediately to a physician or medical treatment facility for observation and treatment if necessary. If the stinger is located either periorally or intraorally, it should be carefully removed by flicking so that additional venom from the sac is not injected into the patient.

  9. Afrotropical cynipoidea (hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    van Noort, Simon; Buffington, Matthew L; Forshage, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The Afrotropical Cynipoidea are represented by 306 described species and 54 genera in four families: Cynipidae, Figitidae, Liopteridae and Ibaliidae, the latter represented by a single introduced species. Seven of these genera are only represented by undescribed species in the region. Seven new genus-level synonymies, one genus resurrected from synonymy, 54 new combinations, one combination reinstated, and one new replacement name are presented. We provide identification keys to the families, subfamilies and genera of cynipoid wasps occurring in the Afrotropical region (Africa south of the Sahara, including Madagascar and southern Arabian Peninsula). Online interactive Lucid Phoenix and Lucid matrix keys are available at: http://www.waspweb.org/Cynipoidea/Keys/index.htm. An overview of the biology and checklists of species for each genus are provided. This paper constitutes the first contributory chapter to the book on Afrotropical Hymenoptera.

  10. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrating genome annotations in HymenopteraMine.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Tayal, Aditi; Diesh, Colin M; Unni, Deepak R; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) (http://HymenopteraGenome.org), a model organism database for insect species of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). HGD maintains genomic data for 9 bee species, 10 ant species and 1 wasp, including the versions of genome and annotation data sets published by the genome sequencing consortiums and those provided by NCBI. A new data-mining warehouse, HymenopteraMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, integrates the genome data with data from external sources and facilitates cross-species analyses based on orthology. New genome browsers and annotation tools based on JBrowse/WebApollo provide easy genome navigation, and viewing of high throughput sequence data sets and can be used for collaborative genome annotation. All of the genomes and annotation data sets are combined into a single BLAST server that allows users to select and combine sequence data sets to search. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  12. Thelytokous parthenogenesis in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2013-01-01

    Female parthenogenesis, or thelytoky, is particularly common in solitary Hymenoptera. Only more recently has it become clear that many eusocial species also regularly reproduce thelytokously, and here we provide a comprehensive overview. Especially in ants, thelytoky underlies a variety of idiosyncratic life histories with unique evolutionary and ecological consequences. In all eusocial species studied, thelytoky probably has a nuclear genetic basis and the underlying cytological mechanism retains high levels of heterozygosity. This is in striking contrast to many solitary wasps, in which thelytoky is often induced by cytoplasmic bacteria and results in an immediate loss of heterozygosity. These differences are likely related to differences in haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms, which in eusocial species usually require heterozygosity for female development. At the same time, haplodiploidy might account for important preadaptations that can help explain the apparent ease with which Hymenoptera transition between sexual and asexual reproduction.

  13. Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) from Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pech, L.L.; Gates, M.W.; Graham, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We collected a Dirhinus texanus (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in Salt Creek Canyon, Canyonlands National Park, San Juan County, Utah. This is the first record for D. texanus in Utah. Copyright ?? 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.

  14. Revision of the European species of Omphale Haliday (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Christer; Shevtsova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The European species of Omphale Haliday (Eulophidae: Entedoninae) are revised. The revision includes 37 species, of which eleven are newly described and the remaining 26 species are redescribed. The species are classified into six species groups, with six unplaced species. All species are fully diagnosed and thoroughly illustrated. Identification keys are provided for females and males. Two new morphological features to aid classification and identification are introduced: male genitalia and wing interference patterns (WIPs). The former has been used successfully in the classification of New World Omphale and the latter is used for the first time in a taxonomic revision. Male genitalia in Omphale have considerable interspecific variation, an unusual trait among chalcidoid Hymenoptera, and are demonstrated to be useful for classification of species and species-groups, and they also possess the only autapomorphy for Omphale. WIPs are useful to help separate some species, but cannot be used to define either the genus or species groups. Distributional data are compiled for each species and suggest a pan-european distribution for most species. Gall-midges are the known hosts for 14 species, and the absence of host overlap between species suggests that host specialization is a driving force for speciation. Several Omphale species are known only from females, or have a strong female biased sex ratio, suggesting thelytokous development. Apart from the 37 species included in this revision, the status for nine additional species (names) in species group aetius remain unsolved. For nomenclatorial stability, a neotype is designated for Eulophus lugens Nees (= Omphale lugens (Nees)). Elachestus obscurus Förster and Derostenus sulciscuta Thomson are transferred from Holcopelte to Omphale comb. n. Derostenus radialis Thomson and Achrysocharella americana Girault are synonymized with Omphale theana (Walker), and Omphale teresis Askew is synonymized with Omphale phruron

  15. Coexistent anaphylaxis to Diptera and Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Freye, H B; Litwin, C

    1996-03-01

    Anaphylaxis to the bite of Diptera and specifically the bite of the Tabanidae family (horsefly) have been sparsely documented. The coexistent hypersensitivity to both the order Diptera and Hymenoptera has not been documented. We present a patient who experienced anaphylaxis to both insect species. Venom skin testing and RAST revealed sensitivity to several members of the Hymenoptera order. Prick, intradermal and RAST with whole body extracts of Tabanidae species is also documented in this patient. Twenty patients who are sensitive to Hymenoptera and have been bitten by horseflies but have had no reaction to the horsefly bite were used as controls. An anaphylactic reaction to horsefly bite has been documented in a 56-year-old white male. This patient also demonstrated evidence of anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera envenomation. In controls consisting of 20 patients with Hymenoptera sensitivity, there was no clinical history of reaction to horsefly bite despite the presence of positive prick and/or positive intradermal tests and/or positive RAST to mixed Tabanidae species extract. Skin testing to horsefly by prick and/or intradermal testing using whole body insect extract is not useful in making a diagnosis of Tabanidae hypersensitivity. RAST using Tabanidae species as antigen is similarly useless in making a diagnosis of Tabanidae hypersensitivity. In vivo and in vitro diagnosis of horsefly hypersensitivity may be achieved when the salivary gland antigen of the horsefly becomes available.

  16. Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-11-20

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops.

  17. [Repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng

    2004-03-01

    Based on the theory of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, the repellent and antifeedant effect of secondary metabolites of non-host plants on diamondback moth(DBM) Plutella xylostella was studied, aimed at finding out the oviposition repellents and antifeedants of insect pests. When the ethanol extracts(Etho Exts) of Bauhinia variegata, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Euphorbia hirta, Duranta repens, Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Magnolia grandiflora, and Nicotiana tabacum were applied respectively, the oviposition repellent rates were all over 80.00%; while after forty-eight hours treatment with the Etho Exts of Euphorbia pulcherrima, Broussonetia papyrifera, Artemisia argyi, Camellia oleifera, Salix babylonica, Euphorbia hirta, Bauhinia variegata, and Setaria viridisa, the antifeedant rates of DBM larvae were all more than 80.00%.

  18. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF THYMOL ON EGG PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH, PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA (LEPIDOPTERA).

    PubMed

    Somjit, C; Kumrungsee, N; Pluempanupat, W; Bullanpotil, V

    2015-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of thymol was evaluated in the laboratory against third instar Plutella xylostella by topical application. Our previous results described mortality in P. xylostella by thymol and the present study continues investigation for its possible efficacy on egg production and development in surviving treated P. xylostella. Our results showed that thymol at a sublethal dose (0.43 µg/larvae, LD₃₀) caused pupation inhibition, adult-emergence inhibition and abnormal adults at rates of 30, 33.33 and 23.33%, respectively. Moreover, the number of eggs was also reduced by 54.33%. These results showed that thymol was active against P. xylostella larvae and can effectively control this pest.

  19. Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ΦC31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ΦC31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

  20. Hymenoptera venom allergy in humans.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Reactions to Hymenoptera stings may appear as local or systemic responses. According to European data, the incidence of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in the general population is 0.3-7.5%, with the value being 0.3-0.8% in children and 14-43% in beekeepers. The most common systemic allergic (anaphylactic) reactions are caused by honeybees (Apis mellifera), and certain species of wasps in the family Vespidae. Severe generalized immediate-type allergic (anaphylactic) reactions to insect stings are of the highest clinical importance. They affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and cardiovascular system. The classification of severity of anaphylactic reaction following insect stings is based on the 4-grade Mueller scale. Crucial in patomechanism of anaphylaxis are specific IgE antibodies directed against the components of the venom, which mediate the activation of mast cells, the main effector cells of anaphylaxis. Therapeutic management in insect venom allergy should be considered in the context of prophylaxis, intervention in case symptoms develop, prevention in the form of venom specific immunotherapy (VIT). There are two steps of VIT 1. Initial dose venom immunotherapy (given according to four protocols which differ the time to reach the maintenance dose) 2. Maintenance dose VIT, usually equal 100 µg. Standard treatment time should span 3-5 years. The main mechanisms of immune tolerance that are initiated by VIT are associated with: 1. a decreased reactivity of effector cells, 2. expansion of T regulatory lymphocytes with IL-10 expression. Therapeutic effectiveness amounts to 90-100% in wasp venom allergy and approximately 80% in bee venom allergy.

  1. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  2. Trade-off between thermal tolerance and insecticide resistance in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin Jie; Wu, Zhao Li; Wang, Kuan Fu; Liu, Qun; Zhuang, Hua Mei; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to insecticides have been well documented, usually at normal temperature conditions, in many insect species. In this study, using chlorpyrifos-resistant homozygote (RR) and chlorpyrifos-susceptible homozygote (SS) of resistance ace1 allele of Plutella xylostella (DBM), we confirmed firstly that high temperature experience in pupal stage influenced phenotype of wing venation in insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible Plutella xylostella, and SS DBM showed significantly higher thermal tolerance and lower damages of wing veins under heat stress than RR DBM. As compared to SS DBM, RR DBM displayed significantly lower AChE sensitivity to chlorpyrifos, higher basal GSTs activity and P450 production at 25°C, but higher inhibitions on the enzyme activities and P450 production as well as reduced resistance to chlorpyrifos under heat stress. Furthermore, RR DBM displayed significantly higher basal expressions of hsp69s, hsp72s, hsp20,hsp90,Apaf-1, and caspase-7 at 25°C, but lower induced expressions of hsps and higher induced expressions of Apaf-1,caspase-9, and caspase-7 under heat stress. These results suggest that fitness costs of chlorpyrifos resistance in DBM may partly attribute to excess consumption of energy caused by over production of detoxification enzymes and hsps when the proteins are less demanded at conducive environments but reduced expressions when they are highly demanded by the insects to combat environmental stresses, or to excess expressions of apoptotic genes under heat stress, which results in higher apoptosis. The evolutionary and ecological implications of these findings at global warming are discussed. PMID:25691976

  3. [Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella population].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; Fu, Jianwei; You, Minsheng

    2005-06-01

    Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842, 8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum, Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768, 0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7. 3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E. tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for controlling insect pest.

  4. Human sting of Cephalonomia gallicola (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Yong; Shin, Chang-Seob; Sim, Seobo; Park, Jung-Won; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2014-12-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause serious injury to humans. We report the clinical findings of 6 cases of Hymenoptera stings. All patients developed painful erythematous papules at the sting sites and had a past history of parasitoid wasp sting. This is the first clinical report of the parasitoid wasp, Cephalonomia gallicola, causing human stings in Korea.

  5. Human Sting of Cephalonomia gallicola (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Yong; Shin, Chang-Seob; Sim, Seobo; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Hymenoptera stings can cause serious injury to humans. We report the clinical findings of 6 cases of Hymenoptera stings. All patients developed painful erythematous papules at the sting sites and had a past history of parasitoid wasp sting. This is the first clinical report of the parasitoid wasp, Cephalonomia gallicola, causing human stings in Korea. PMID:25548422

  6. Seasonal abundance of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    Treesearch

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Tonghai Zhao; Ruitong Gao; Liwen Song; Qingshu Luan; Ruozhong Jin; Changqi Gao

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal abundance and population dynamics of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and its natural enemies Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were studied on ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  7. Global identification of microRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Li, Xiuxia; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2017-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is one of the most serious cruciferous pests and has developed high resistance to most insecticides, including chlorantraniliprole. Previous studies have reported several protein-coding genes that involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance, but research on resistance mechanisms at the post-transcription level is still limited. In this study, a global screen of microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella was performed. The small RNA libraries for a susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole resistant strains (CHR, ZZ) were constructed and sequenced, and a total of 199 known and 30 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 23 miRNAs were differentially expressed between CHR and CHS, and 90 miRNAs were differentially expressed between ZZ and CHS, of which 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in both CHR and ZZ. Using miRanda and RNAhybrid, a total of 1,411 target mRNAs from 102 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted, including mRNAs in several groups of detoxification enzymes. The expression of several differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential targets was validated by qRT-PCR. The results may provide important clues for further study of the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated chlorantraniliprole resistance in DBM and other target insects. PMID:28098189

  8. Characterization of protein phosphatase 5 from three lepidopteran insects: Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi'en; Lü, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases, regulates a variety of biological processes. We obtained full-length PP5 cDNAs from three lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella, encoding predicted proteins of 490 (55.98 kDa), 490 (55.82 kDa) and 491 (56.07 kDa) amino acids, respectively. These sequences shared a high identity with other insect PP5s and contained the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains at N-terminal regions and highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domains. Tissue- and stage-specific expression pattern analyses revealed these three PP5 genes were constitutively expressed in all stages and in tested tissues with predominant transcription occurring at the egg and adult stages. Activities of Escherichia coli-produced recombinant PP5 proteins could be enhanced by almost 2-fold by a known PP5 activator: arachidonic acid. Kinetic parameters of three recombinant proteins against substrate pNPP were similar both in the absence or presence of arachidonic acid. Protein phosphatases inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, and endothall strongly impeded the activities of the three recombinant PP5 proteins, as well as exerted an inhibitory effect on crude protein phosphatases extractions from these three insects. In summary, lepidopteran PP5s share similar characteristics and are all sensitive to the protein phosphatases inhibitors. Our results also imply protein phosphatase inhibitors might be used in the management of lepidopteran pests.

  9. Characterization and expression of the cytochrome P450 gene family in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liying; Tang, Weiqi; He, Weiyi; Ma, Xiaoli; Vasseur, Liette; Baxter, Simon W.; Yang, Guang; Huang, Shiguo; Song, Fengqin; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are present in almost all organisms and can play vital roles in hormone regulation, metabolism of xenobiotics and in biosynthesis or inactivation of endogenous compounds. In the present study, a genome-wide approach was used to identify and analyze the P450 gene family of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a destructive worldwide pest of cruciferous crops. We identified 85 putative cytochrome P450 genes from the P. xylostella genome, including 84 functional genes and 1 pseudogene. These genes were classified into 26 families and 52 subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed with three additional insect species shows extensive gene expansions of P. xylostella P450 genes from clans 3 and 4. Gene expression of cytochrome P450s was quantified across multiple developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) and tissues (head and midgut) using P. xylostella strains susceptible or resistant to insecticides chlorpyrifos and fiprinol. Expression of the lepidopteran specific CYP367s predominantly occurred in head tissue suggesting a role in either olfaction or detoxification. CYP340s with abundant transposable elements and relatively high expression in the midgut probably contribute to the detoxification of insecticides or plant toxins in P. xylostella. This study will facilitate future functional studies of the P. xylostella P450s in detoxification. PMID:25752830

  10. An anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella with potential activity against Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, X-X; Zhang, Y-Q; Freed, S; Yu, J; Gao, Y-F; Wang, S; Ouyang, L-N; Ju, W-Y; Jin, F-L

    2016-12-01

    Insect defensins, are cationic peptides that play an important role in immunity against microbial infection. In the present study, an anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella, (designated as PxDef) was first cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the mature peptide owned characteristic six-cysteine motifs with predicted isoelectric point of 5.57, indicating an anionic defensin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PxDef was significantly induced in epidermis, fat body, midgut and hemocytes after injection of heat-inactivated Bacillus thuringiensis, while such an induction was delayed by the injection of live B. thuringiensis in the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella. Knocking down the expression of nuclear transcription factor Dorsal in P. xylostella by RNA interference significantly decreased the mRNA level of PxDef, and increased the sensitivity of P. xylostella larvae to the infection by live B. thuringiensis. The purified recombinant mature peptide (PxDef) showed higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with the minimum inhibition concentrations of 1.6 and 2.6 µM against B. thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about an anionic PxDef, which may play an important role in the immune system of P. xylostella against B. thuringiensis.

  11. Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

  12. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Development and Reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables throughout the world. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, has been reported to be toxic to some pests, including the diamondback moth. However, the effects of cantharidin, especially its sublethal effects on development and reproduction of diamondback moth, are less known. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of cantharidin at LC2 (0.41 mg liter(-1)), LC10 (1.33 mg liter(-1)), LC25 (3.38 mg liter(-1)), and LC50 (9.53 mg liter(-1)) on development and reproduction parameters of two consecutive diamondback moth generations. The results indicated that cantharidin reduced population growth by decreasing its pupation rate, pupal weight, and adult emergence, and by delaying its development. Furthermore, the duration of the female preoviposition period increased, while the oviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and survival rates of the offspring decreased. The peaks of age-specific fecundity in LC10, LC25, and LC50 treatment groups lagged behind the control group. The mean values of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly lower than those of the control, and the mean generation time (T) was prolonged. The present study demonstrates that cantharidin exhibits significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of diamondback moth, leading to fitness disadvantages.

  13. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  14. Identification of the chitinase genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Liao, Z H; Kuo, T C; Kao, C H; Chou, T M; Kao, Y H; Huang, R N

    2016-12-01

    Chitinases have an indispensable function in chitin metabolism and are well characterized in numerous insect species. Although the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella, which has a high reproductive potential, short generation time, and characteristic adaptation to adverse environments, has become one of the most serious pests of cruciferous plants worldwide, the information on the chitinases of the moth is presently limited. In the present study, using degenerated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR strategies, four chitinase genes of P. xylostella were cloned, and an exhaustive search was conducted for chitinase-like sequences from the P. xylostella genome and transcriptomic database. Based on the domain analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic analysis of the catalytic domain sequences, we identified 15 chitinase genes from P. xylostella. Two of the gut-specific chitinases did not cluster with any of the known phylogenetic groups of chitinases and might be in a new group of the chitinase family. Moreover, in our study, group VIII chitinase was not identified. The structures, classifications and expression patterns of the chitinases of P. xylostella were further delineated, and with this information, further investigations on the functions of chitinase genes in DBM could be facilitated.

  15. Correlation between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate.

  16. Expression patterns and binding properties of three pheromone binding proteins in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllotella.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play a key role in transporting hydrophobic sex pheromone components emitted by con-specific female across aqueous sensillar lymph to the surface of olfactory receptor neurons. A number of PBPs have been cloned, however, details of their function are still largely unknown. Here three pheromone binding protein genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllotella were cloned. The three PxylPBP genes are not only expressed in chemosensory tissues but also expressed in female reproductive organs and male legs. To better understand the functions of PxylPBPs in the initial steps of pheromone recognition, three PxylPBPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and the ligand-binding specificities of purified recombinant PBPs were investigated. Fluorescence binding assays indicate that three PxylPBPs not only robustly bound all four sex pheromone components but also significantly bound pheromone analogs with at least one double bond, while weakly bound tested plant volatiles. Although pheromone analogs bound PBPs, they could not elicit the moth's electrophysiological response. These experiments provide evidence that PxylPBPs have limited selectivity of pheromone components and analogs and some downstream components such as odor receptors might be involved in selectivity and specificity of pheromone perception in P. xyllotella.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KM023645). The length of this mitogenome is 16,014 bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It presents the typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A + T biased, accounting for 81.48%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.005). All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TA (nad5) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad2 and nad4), while others use TAA as their termination codons. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 888 bp.

  18. Midgut transcriptome response to a Cry toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lei, Yanyuan; Zhu, Xun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Guo, Zhaojiang; Xu, Baoyun; Li, Xianchun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the response of Plutella xylostella transcriptome in defending against a Bt toxin, high-throughput RNA-sequencing was carried out to examine Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant strains. The comparative analysis indentified over 2900 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) between these two strains. Gene Ontology analysis placed these unigenes primarily into cell, cell part, organelle, binding, catalytic, cellular process, metabolic process, and response to stimulus categories. Based on pathway analyses, DEUs were enriched in oxidoreductase activity and membrane lipid metabolic processes, and they were also significantly enriched in pathways related to the metabolic and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Most of the unigenes involved in the metabolic pathway were up-regulated in resistant strains. Within the ABC transporter pathway, majority of the down-regulated unigenes belong to ABCC2 and ABCC10, respectively, while up-regulated unigenes were mainly categorized as ABCG2. Furthermore, two aminopeptidases, and four cadherins encoding genes were significantly elevated as well. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional characterization of genes involved in the Bt resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest, P. xylostella.

  19. Cabbage Seasonal Leaf Quality Mediating the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) Performance.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, N C; Santos, N A; Maurício, R M; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A; Campos, W G

    2013-12-01

    Seasonal variation in plant quality may be intense enough to generate predictable patterns in insect herbivore populations. In order to explain seasonal oscillations in neotropical populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), we tested the following: (1) if nutritional quality of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), a primary host plant of diamondback moth, adversely affects the performance of this insect in late spring and early summer, when populations decline and go extinct, and (2) if nutritional features of cabbage change with the seasons. We measured the performance of diamondback moth reared on leaves of cabbages grown during the four seasons of the year. Summer plants proved to be worse for the survival of the immature stages and subsequent adult fecundity, but there were no significant differences between the remaining seasons. Our results support the hypothesis that short-lived plants, grown in different seasons of the year in the tropics, have different nutritional and defensive attributes. We analyzed nutritional quality of cabbage leaves from the four seasons, but only total lipids were reduced in summer plants. Neotropical populations of diamondback moth collapse before plant quality decay in the summer. If the diamondback moth is well adapted to the seasonal deterioration of the habitat, including the reduction in the quality of host plants, it is expected that emigration happens before the mortality increases and natality decreases during the summer.

  20. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum armatum against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S G Eswara; Chauhan, Urvashi; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) is the most serious pest of cruciferous crops grown in the world causing economic yield loss. Several synthetic insecticides have been used against P. xylostella but satisfactory control was not achieved due to development of resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the present study was carried out to screen different fractions of Zanthoxylum armatum for their insecticidal activities against second instar larvae of P. xylostella. Results indicate, all the fractions showed activity to P. xylostella. However, n-hexane fraction of Z. armatum showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum LC50 value of 2988.6 ppm followed by ethanol (LC50 = 12779.7 ppm) and methanol fraction (LC50 = 12908.8 ppm) whereas chloroform fraction was least toxic (LC50 = 16750.6 ppm). The GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction of leaf extract showed maximum larvicidal activity, which may be due to two major compounds i.e. 2-undecanone (19.75%) and 2-tridecanone (11.76%).

  1. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  2. A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-08-01

    Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant.

  3. Cross-resistance and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to indoxacarb in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Li, Dongyang; Wan, Hu; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    Indoxacarb belongs to a class of insecticides known as oxadiazines and is the first commercialized pyrazoline-type voltage-dependent sodium channel blocker. A moderate level of resistance to indoxacarb has evolved in field populations of Plutella xylostella from Central China. In the present study, cross-resistance, resistance stability and metabolic mechanisms of indoxacarb resistance were investigated in this moth species. A P. xylostella strain with a high level of resistance to indoxacarb was obtained through continuous selection in the laboratory. The strain showed cross-resistance to metaflumizone, beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr, but no resistance to cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, abamectin, chlorfluazuron, spinosad and diafenthiuron compared with the susceptible strain. Synergism tests revealed that piperonyl butoxide (PBO) (synergistic ratio, SR=7.8) and diethyl maleate (DEF) (SR=3.5) had considerable synergistic effects on indoxacarb toxicity in the resistant strain (F58). Enzyme activity data showed there was an approximate 5.8-fold different in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a 6.8-fold different in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase between the resistant strain (F58) and susceptible strain, suggesting that the increased activity of these two enzymes is likely the main detoxification mechanism responsible for the species' resistance to indoxacarb. These results will be helpful for insecticide resistance management strategies to delay the development of indoxacarb resistance in fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Tebufenozide resistance selected in Plutella xylostella and its cross-resistance and fitness cost.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangchun; Han, Zhaojun

    2006-08-01

    A susceptible strain of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was used to select for resistance to tebufenozide in the laboratory. After continuous selection with tebufenozide 17 times during 35 generations, a resistant strain was achieved with high resistance to tebufenozide (RR 93.8). Bioassay revealed that this strain showed high cross-resistance to abamectin (RR 35.7), methoxyfenozide (29.1) and JS118 (16.5), and a little to deltamethrin (3.9), but no obvious cross-resistance was found to cypermethrin (1.3), fipronil (1.3), trichlorfon (1.1), chlorfenapyr (1.0), phoxim (0.9) and acephate (0.8). The resistant and susceptible insects had similar development rates, but life table tests indicated that the resistant strain showed reproductive disadvantages, including decreased copulation rate, reproductivity and hatchability. When compared with the susceptible strain, the resistant insects had a relative fitness of only 0.3. This indicated that tebufenozide resistance selected under laboratory conditions had considerable fitness costs in this pest, and therefore rotational use of insecticides without cross-resistance is recommended to delay development of resistance.

  5. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%).

  6. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), a primary tool in gene expression analysis, requires an appropriate normalization strategy to control for variation among samples. The best option is to compare the mRNA level of a target gene with that of reference gene(s) whose expression level is stable across various experimental conditions. In this study, expression profiles of eight candidate reference genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were evaluated under diverse experimental conditions. RefFinder, a web-based analysis tool, integrates four major computational programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method to comprehensively rank the tested candidate genes. Elongation factor 1 (EF1) was the most suited reference gene for the biotic factors (development stage, tissue, and strain). In contrast, although appropriate reference gene(s) do exist for several abiotic factors (temperature, photoperiod, insecticide, and mechanical injury), we were not able to identify a single universal reference gene. Nevertheless, a suite of candidate reference genes were specifically recommended for selected experimental conditions. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis of this agriculturally important insect pest.

  7. [Antifeeding effects of crude lantadene from Lantana camara on Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura larvae].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yizhi; Zhang, Maoxin; Ling, Bing

    2005-12-01

    In this study, crude lantadene was extracted from Lantana canmara leaves, and its antifeeding effects on Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura larvae were tested. In no-choice test, crude lantadene at 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration had antifeeding effects on the 2nd instar P. xylostella larvae and 1st instar S. litura larvae, with the antifeeding rate being 62.4% and 33.1%, respectively within 48 h. In choice test, even a low concentration (0.4 mg x ml(-1)) crude lantadene still had anti-feeding effects on the 2nd instar P. xylostella larvae, and the antifeeding rate at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration was 52.7%, 55.5% and 78.9%, respectively. Crude lantadene only at 1.6 mg x ml(-1) concentration had anti-feeding effects on the 1st instar S. litura larvae, and the antifeeding rate was 33.0%. For the 2nd instar S. litura larvae, crude lantadene had no antifeeding effects both in no-choice and in choice test.

  8. A single type of cadherin is involved in Bacillus thuringiensis toxicity in Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Herrero, S; Kim, Y

    2015-12-01

    Cadherins have been described as one the main functional receptors for the toxins of the entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). With the availability of the whole genome of Plutella xylostella, different types of cadherins have been annotated. In this study we focused on determining those members of the cadherin-related proteins that potentially play a role in the mode of action of Bt toxins. For this, we mined the genome of P. xylostella to identify these putative cadherins. The genome screening revealed 52 genes that were annotated as cadherin or cadherin-like genes. Further analysis revealed that six of these putative cadherins had three motifs common to all Bt-related cadherins: a signal peptide, cadherin repeats and a transmembrane domain. From the six selected cadherins, only P. xylostella cadherin 1 (PxCad1) was expressed in the larval midgut and only the silencing of this gene by RNA interference (double-stranded RNA feeding) reduce toxicity and binding to the midgut of the Cry1Ac type toxin from Bt. These results indicate that from the whole set of cadherin-related genes identified in P. xylostella, only PxCad1 is associated with the Cry1Ac mode of action.

  9. Germline transformation of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., using the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Naish, N; Walker, A S; Morrison, N I; Scaife, S; Fu, G; Dafa'alla, T; Alphey, L

    2012-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most economically important agricultural pests. The larvae of this moth cause damage by feeding on the foliage of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and rapeseed. Control generally comprises chemical treatment; however, the diamondback moth is renowned for rapid development of resistance to pesticides. Other methods, such as biological control, have not been able to provide adequate protection. Germline transformation of pest insects has become available in recent years as an enabling technology for new genetics-based control methods, such as the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL(®) ). In the present study, we report the first transformation of the diamondback moth, using the piggyBac transposable element, by embryo microinjection. In generating transgenic strains using four different constructs, the function of three regulatory sequences in this moth was demonstrated in driving expression of fluorescent proteins. The transformation rates achieved, 0.48-0.68%, are relatively low compared with those described in other Lepidoptera, but not prohibitive, and are likely to increase with experience. We anticipate that germline transformation of the diamondback moth will permit the development of RIDL strains for use against this pest and facilitate the wider use of this species as a model organism for basic studies.

  10. Complex inheritance of larval adaptation in Plutella xylostella to a novel host plant

    PubMed Central

    Henniges-Janssen, K; Reineke, A; Heckel, D G; Groot, A T

    2011-01-01

    Studying the genetics of host shifts and range expansions in phytophagous insects contributes to our understanding of the evolution of host plant adaptation. We investigated the recent host range expansion to pea, in the pea-adapted strain (P-strain) of the crucifer-specialist diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Larval survivorship on the novel host plant pea and a typical crucifer host (kale) was measured in reciprocal F1, F2 and backcrosses between the P-strain and a strain reared only on crucifers (C-strain). Reciprocal F1 hybrids differed: offspring from P-strain mothers survived better on pea, indicating a maternal effect. However, no evidence for sex-linkage was found. Backcrosses to the P-strain produced higher survivorship on pea than C-strain backcrosses, suggesting recessive inheritance. In a linkage analysis with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers using P-strain backcrosses, two, four and five linkage groups contributing to survival on pea were identified in three different families respectively, indicating oligogenic inheritance. Thus, the newly evolved ability to survive on pea has a complex genetic basis, and the P-strain is still genetically heterogeneous and not yet fixed for all the alleles enabling it to survive on pea. Survivorship on kale was variable, but not related to survivorship on pea. This pattern may characterize the genetic inheritance of early host plant adaptation in oligophagous insect species. PMID:21673741

  11. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress.

  12. Structure and expression of sulfatase and sulfatase modifying factor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Li; He, Wei-Yi; Chen, Wei; Xu, Xue-Jiao; Qi, Wei-Ping; Zou, Ming-Min; You, Yan-Chun; Baxter, Simon W; Wang, Ping; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), uses sulfatases (SULF) to counteract the glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system that cruciferous plants have evolved to deter insect feeding. Sulfatase activity is regulated by post-translational modification of a cysteine residue by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). We identified 12 SULF genes (PxylSulfs) and two SUMF1 genes (PxylSumf1s) in the P. xylostella genome. Phylogenetic analysis of SULFs and SUMFs from P. xylostella, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens showed that the SULFs were clustered into five groups, and the SUMFs could be divided into two groups. Profiling of the expression of PxylSulfs and PxylSumfs by RNA-seq and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that two glucosinolate sulfatase genes (GSS), PxylSulf2 and PxylSulf3, were primarily expressed in the midgut of 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae. Moreover, expression of sulfatases PxylSulf2, PxylSulf3 and PxylSulf4 were correlated with expression of the sulfatases modifying factor PxylSumf1a. The findings from this study provide new insights into the structure and expression of SUMF1 and PxylSulf genes that are considered to be key factors for the evolutionary success of P. xylostella as a specialist herbivore of cruciferous plants. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Haloacetate analogs of pheromones: effects on catabolism and electrophysiology in Plutella xylostella

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Streinz, L.

    1988-03-01

    A series of mono, di-, and trihalogenated acetate analogs of Z11-16:Ac were prepared and examined for electrophysiological activity in antennae of males of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In addition, two potential affinity labels, a diazoacetate (Dza) and a trifluoromethyl ketone (Tfp), were evaluated for EAG activity. The Z11-16:Ac showed the highest activity in EAG assays, followed by the fluorinated acetates, but other haloacetates were essentially inactive. The effects of these analogs on the hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)Z11-16:Ac to (/sup 3/H)Z11-16:OH by antennal esterases was also examined. The three fluorinated acetates showed the greatest activity as inhibitors in competition assays, with rank order F/sub 2/Ac > F/sub 3/Ac > FAc > AC > Cl/sub 2/Ac > ClAc > Dza > Br/sub 2/Ac > BrAc > Tfp > I > Cl/sub 3/Ac > Br/sub 3/Ac > OH. The relative polarities of the haloacetates, as determined by TLC mobility, are in the order mono- > di- > trihalo, but F, Cl, Br, and I all confer similar polarities within a substitution group. Thus, the steric size appears to be the predominant parameter affecting the interactions of the haloacetate analogs with both receptor and catabolic proteins in P. xylostella males.

  14. Review of the Chinese Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin-hai; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Yue, Qi; Xu, Zai-fu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Chinese fauna of the family Leucospidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) is reviewed and illustrated for the first time. Twelve species of Leucospis Fabricius, 1775 are recorded; of which two species are new to science: Leucospis aequidentata sp. n. and Leucospis shaanxiensis sp. n. and one species is reported new for China: Leucospis intermedia Illiger, 1807. An identification key to Chinese species is included. A lectotype is designated for Leucospis aurantiaca Shestakov, 1923. PMID:28331388

  15. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan; Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, 'Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)' comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe.

  16. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  17. Fauna Europaea: Hymenoptera – Apocrita (excl. Ichneumonoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, John; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Nonveiller, Guido; Radchenko, Alexander; Polaszek, Andrew; Ronquist, Fredrick; Forshage, Mattias; Pagliano, Guido; Gusenleitner, Josef; Bartalucci, Mario Boni; Olmi, Massimo; Fusu, Lucian; Madl, Michael; Johnson, Norman F; Jansta, Petr; Wahis, Raymond; Soon, Villu; Rosa, Paolo; Osten, Till; Barbier, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hymenoptera is one of the four largest orders of insects, with about 130,000 described species. In the Fauna Europaea database, ‘Hymenoptera - Apocrita (excluding Ichneumonoidea)’ comprises 13 superfamilies, 52 families, 91 subfamilies, 38 tribes and 13,211 species. The paper includes a complete list of taxa dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition. As a general conclusion about the European fauna of Hymenoptera, the best known countries in terms of recorded species are those from northwestern Europe, with the least known fauna probably in the more eastern and southeastern parts of Europe. PMID:25859127

  18. Atopy and systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, J; Vervloet, D; Charpin, D

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate whether atopy is a risk factor for systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings, we compared the atopic status of two groups of subjects. The first group included 93 patients (59 males), mean (+/- SD) age: 42.3 +/- 17.2 yrs with a history of anaphylactic reactions to hymenoptera stings. The second was a control group of 712 subjects (379 males), mean (+/- SD) age: 42.0 +/- 9.6 years recruited at a public health care center. The protocol included a standardized questionnaire about symptoms suggestive of atopy, i.e. medical diagnosis of asthma, perennial rhinitis or hay fever, and skin tests to common aeroallergens, i.e. house dust mites, cat danders, and grass pollens. The percentage of subjects with atopic symptoms was comparable in the two groups (32.2% for the patient group and 28.5% for the control group). Similarly, 22.6% of patients and 36.8% of controls exhibited at least one positive skin prick test. Lastly, 15.1% of patients and 18.5% of controls (a nonsignificant difference) had at least one symptom of atopy and at least one positive skin test. These findings show that atopy is not a risk factor for systemic reactions to hymenoptera stings.

  19. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonate Plutella xylostella responses to surface wax components of a resistant cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigenbrode, S.D.; Pillai, S.K.

    1998-10-01

    Behavior of neonate Plutella xylostella was observed and quantified during the first 5 min of contact with cabbage surface waxes and surface wax components deposited as a film (60 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}) on glass. The time larvae spent biting was greater and the time walking was less on waxes extracted from the susceptible cabbage variety, Round-Up, than on an insect-resistant glossy-wax breeding line, NY 9472. The waxes of both cabbage types were characterized and some of the compounds present at higher concentrations in the glossy waxes were tested for their deterrent effects on larvae by adding them to the susceptible waxes. Adding a mixture of four n-alkane-1-ols or a mixture of {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrins to wax from susceptible cabbage reduced the number of insects biting and, among those biting, reduced the time biting and increased the time walking in a dose-dependent manner. Among individual n-alkane-1-ols, adding C{sub 24} or C{sub 25} alcohols reduced the number of insects biting but only adding C{sub 25} alcohol reduced the time spent biting among those insects that initiated biting. Adding a mixture of five n-alkanoic acids did not affect biting, but increased the time spent palpating and decreased walking time. Among individual n-alkanoic acids, only adding C{sub 14} significantly increased the time palpating. If the observed responses were gustory, the results indicate that some primary wax components, including specific long-chain alkyl components, have allelochemical activity influencing host acceptance behavior by a lepidopteran larva.

  1. Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Fipronil in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingliang; Wu, Shuwen; Gao, Weiyue; Wu, Yidong

    2016-02-01

    A field-collected strain (HF) of Plutella xylostella (L.) showed 420-fold resistance to fipronil compared with a susceptible laboratory strain (Roth). The HF-R strain, derived from the HF strain by 25 generations of successive selection with fipronil in the laboratory, developed 2,200-fold resistance to fipronil relative to the Roth strain. The F(1) progeny of the reciprocal crosses between HF-R and Roth showed 640-fold (R♀ × S♂) and 1,380-fold (R♂ × S♀) resistance to fipronil, indicating resistance is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait. Analysis of progeny from a backcross (F1♂ × S♀) suggests that resistance is controlled by one major locus. The LC(50) of the R♂ × S♀ cross F(1) progeny is slightly but significantly higher than that of the R♀ × S♂ cross F(1) progeny, suggesting a minor resistance gene on the Z chromosome. Sequence analysis of PxGABARα1 (an Rdl-homologous GABA receptor gene of P. xylostella) from the HF-R strain identified two mutations A282S and A282G (corresponding to the A302S mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene), which have been previously implicated in fipronil resistance in several insect species including P. xylostella. PxGABARα1 was previously mapped to the Z chromosome of P. xylostella. In conclusion, fipronil resistance in the HF-R strain of P. xylostella was incompletely dominant, and controlled by a major autosomal locus and a sex-linked minor gene (PxGABARα1) on the Z chromosome. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Preference‒performance linkage in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and implications for its management.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Marchioro; Foerster, Luís Amilton

    2014-01-01

    Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference‒performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference-performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella. Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella. Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella, favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing.

  4. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32–35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR. PMID:27668428

  5. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM.

  6. Tissue-specific Proteogenomic Analysis of Plutella xylostella Larval Midgut Using a Multialgorithm Pipeline*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xun; Xie, Shangbo; Armengaud, Jean; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xia, Jixing; He, Rongjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the major cosmopolitan pest of brassica and other cruciferous crops. Its larval midgut is a dynamic tissue that interfaces with a wide variety of toxicological and physiological processes. The draft sequence of the P. xylostella genome was recently released, but its annotation remains challenging because of the low sequence coverage of this branch of life and the poor description of exon/intron splicing rules for these insects. Peptide sequencing by computational assignment of tandem mass spectra to genome sequence information provides an experimental independent approach for confirming or refuting protein predictions, a concept that has been termed proteogenomics. In this study, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis to complement genome annotation of P. xylostella larval midgut based on shotgun HPLC-ESI-MS/MS data by means of a multialgorithm pipeline. A total of 876,341 tandem mass spectra were searched against the predicted P. xylostella protein sequences and a whole-genome six-frame translation database. Based on a data set comprising 2694 novel genome search specific peptides, we discovered 439 novel protein-coding genes and corrected 128 existing gene models. To get the most accurate data to seed further insect genome annotation, more than half of the novel protein-coding genes, i.e. 235 over 439, were further validated after RT-PCR amplification and sequencing of the corresponding transcripts. Furthermore, we validated 53 novel alternative splicings. Finally, a total of 6764 proteins were identified, resulting in one of the most comprehensive proteogenomic study of a nonmodel animal. As the first tissue-specific proteogenomics analysis of P. xylostella, this study provides the fundamental basis for high-throughput proteomics and functional genomics approaches aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance and controlling this pest. PMID:26902207

  7. Characterization and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    You, Yanchun; Xie, Miao; Ren, Nana; Cheng, Xuemin; Li, Jianyu; Ma, Xiaoli; Zou, Minming; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; You, Minsheng

    2015-03-05

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that play important roles in insects. The completion of several insect genome projects has enabled the identification and characterization of GST genes over recent years. This study presents a genome-wide investigation of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a species in which the GSTs are of special importance because this pest is highly resistant to many insecticides. A total of 22 putative cytosolic GSTs were identified from a published P. xylostella genome and grouped into 6 subclasses (with two unclassified). Delta, Epsilon and Omega GSTs were numerically superior with 5 genes for each of the subclasses. The resulting phylogenetic tree showed that the P. xylostella GSTs were all clustered into Lepidoptera-specific branches. Intron sites and phases as well as GSH binding sites were strongly conserved within each of the subclasses in the GSTs of P. xylostella. Transcriptome-, RNA-seq- and qRT-PCR-based analyses showed that the GST genes were developmental stage- and strain-specifically expressed. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut or epidermis. To date, this is the most comprehensive study on genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of the GST family in P. xylostella. The diversified features and expression patterns of the GSTs are inferred to be associated with the capacity of this species to develop resistance to a wide range of pesticides and biological toxins. Our findings provide a base for functional research on specific GST genes, a better understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance, and strategies for more sustainable management of the pest.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of the Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) ovary reveals genes involved in oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Yang, Yi-Fan; Zou, Ming-Min; He, Wei-Yi; Wang, Yue; Wang, Qing; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2017-09-12

    As a specialized organ, the insect ovary performs valuable functions by ensuring fecundity and population survival. Oogenesis is the complex physiological process resulting in the production of mature eggs, which are involved in epigenetic programming, germ cell behavior, cell cycle regulation, etc. Identification of the genes involved in ovary development and oogenesis is critical to better understand the reproductive biology and screening the potential molecular targets in Plutella xylostella, a worldwide destructive pest of economically major crops. Based on transcriptome sequencing, a total of 7.88Gb clean nucleotides was obtained, with 19,934 genes and 1861 new transcripts being identified. Expression profiling indicated that 61.7% of the genes were expressed (FPKM≥1) in the P. xylostella ovary. GO annotation showed that the pathways of multicellular organism reproduction and multicellular organism reproduction process, as well as gamete generation and chorion were significantly enriched. Processes that were most likely relevant to reproduction included the spliceosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, endocytosis, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, and focal adhesion were identified in the top 20 'highly represented' KEGG pathways. Functional genes involved in oogenesis were further analyzed and validated by qRT-PCR to show their potential predominant roles in P. xylostella reproduction. Our newly developed P. xylostella ovary transcriptome provides an overview of the gene expression profiling in this specialized tissue and the functional gene network closely related to the ovary development and oogenesis. This is the first genome-wide transcriptome dataset of P. xylostella ovary that includes a subset of functionally activated genes. This global approach will be the basis for further studies on molecular mechanisms of P. xylostella reproduction aimed at screening potential molecular targets for integrated pest

  9. N6-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-Adenosine Exhibits Insecticidal Activity against Plutella xylostella via Adenosine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Chai, Yiqiu; Chen, Guanjv; Wang, Huidong; Huang, Bo

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most important pests of cruciferous crops. We have earlier shown that N6-(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine (HEA) exhibits insecticidal activity against P. xylostella. In the present study we investigated the possible mechanism of insecticidal action of HEA on P. xylostella. HEA is a derivative of adenosine, therefore, we speculated whether it acts via P. xylostella adenosine receptor (PxAdoR). We used RNAi approach to silence PxAdoR gene and used antagonist of denosine receptor (AdoR) to study the insecticidal effect of HEA. We cloned the whole sequence of PxAdoR gene. A BLAST search using NCBI protein database showed a 61% identity with the Drosophila adenosine receptor (DmAdoR) and a 32-35% identity with human AdoR. Though the amino acids sequence of PxAdoR was different compared to other adenosine receptors, most of the amino acids that are known to be important for adenosine receptor ligand binding and signaling were present. However, only 30% binding sites key residues was similar between PxAdoR and A1R. HEA, at a dose of 1 mg/mL, was found to be lethal to the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella, and a significant reduction of mortality and growth inhibition ratio were obtained when HEA was administered to the larvae along with PxAdoR-dsRNA or antagonist of AdoR (SCH58261) for 36, 48, or 60 h. Especially at 48 h, the rate of growth inhibition of the PxAdoR knockdown group was 3.5-fold less than that of the HEA group, and the corrected mortality of SCH58261 group was reduced almost 2-fold compared with the HEA group. Our findings show that HEA may exert its insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae via acting on PxAdoR.

  10. Suppression of Plutella xylostella and Trichoplusia ni in cole crops with attracticide formulations.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Elly M; Fadamiro, Henry Y; McLaughlin, John R

    2006-08-01

    The three key lepidopteran pests of cole, Brassica oleracea L., crops in North America are diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae); cabbage looper; Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); and imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Two species-specific pheromone-based experimental attracticide formulations were evaluated against these pests: LastCall DBM for P. xylostella and LastCall CL for T. ni. No LastCall formulation was available against P. rapae. Laboratory toxicity experiments confirmed the effectiveness of each LastCall formulations in killing conspecific males that made contact. In replicated small plots of cabbage and collards in central Alabama, over four growing seasons (fall 2003, spring 2004, fall 2004, and spring 2005), an attracticide treatment receiving the two LastCall formulations, each applied multiple times at the rate of 1,600 droplets per acre, was compared against Bacillus thuringiensis. subspecies kursatki (Bt) spray at action threshold and a negative untreated control. Efficacy was measured by comparing among the three treatments male capture in pheromone-baited traps, larval counts in plots, and crop damage rating at harvest. LastCall provided significant reductions in crop damage comparable to Bt in three of the four seasons. Efficacy of LastCall was dependent upon lepidopteran population densities, which fluctuated from season to season. In general, reduction in crop damage was achieved with LastCall at low-to-moderate population densities of the three species, such as typically occurs in the fall in central Alabama, but not in the spring when high P. rapae population pressure typically occurs in central Alabama. Significant reductions in pheromone trap captures did not occur in LastCall plots, suggesting that elimination of males by the toxicant (permethrin), rather than interruption of sexual communication, was the main mechanism of effect.

  11. Preference—Performance Linkage in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, and Implications for Its Management

    PubMed Central

    Marchioro, Cesar Augusto; Foerster, Luís Amilton

    2014-01-01

    Host plants affect development, survival, and reproduction of phytophagous insects. In the case of holometabolous species, whose larvae have little mobility to find a host plant, the ability of females to discriminate hosts on the basis of their nutritional quality may be an important factor determining insect performance. The preference—performance correlation hypothesis states that females will choose to lay their eggs on host plants that provide the best offspring performance. The effects of three cultivated and two wild brassicas (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) on the biology of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an important pest of brassicas, were investigated. Based on these data, the preference-performance correlation hypothesis was tested. The results allowed the discussion of the possible role of wild brassicas on population dynamics of the pest. The life table parameters net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were used as indicatives of insect performance because they provide a detailed description of the survivorship, development, and reproduction of a population. Development, survival, and reproduction were affected by the cultivated and wild brassicas. Both net reproduction rate and intrinsic rate of increase were lower in individuals fed on wild brassicas, which indicates that brassicas are not nutritionally suitable for P. xylostella. Nevertheless, females showed no oviposition preference among host plants. The results showed that host plant quality might not be the only factor determining host selection by female P. xylostella. Results also suggest that wild brassicas may serve as a refuge for P. xylostella, favoring pest survival when crops are disturbed by insecticide application, irrigation, or ploughing. PMID:25368041

  12. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×102,1×103,1×104, and 1×105) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  13. Climate changes and Hymenoptera venom allergy: are there some connections?

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Stefano; Turillazzi, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    This review aims to update the world status of the main allergenic stinging Hymenoptera. In this review, we consider the problems that social Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) could represent in the nearest future for human health in different parts of the world. Distribution and consistency of allergenic species including venomous insects are interested by accelerated dynamics caused by climate changes and globalization. Owing to the expansion of ranges of native species and colonization of invasive ones, even in the uncertainty of present available models, new challenges presented by stinging Hymenoptera should be expected in the future.

  14. Synergistic Effect of Combining Plutella xylostella Granulovirus and Bacillus thuringiensis at Sublethal Dosages on Controlling of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Guangjie; Li, Chuanming; Liu, Qin; Xu, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are both entomo-pathogens to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The purpose of the present study was to measure the effect of the combination of PxGV and Bt at sublethal dosages on the development and mortality of diamondback moth in a laboratory setting. Bt and PxGV exhibited synergistic effect on diamondback moth larval mortality and effectively controlled diamondback moth populations with low dose combination treatment. The combination of three parts per million Bt and 1.3 × 10(3) occlusion bodies per milliliter of PxGV revealed a higher larval mortality compared with the treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. Combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal concentrations also increased larval duration, reduced oviposition and decreased adult longevity remarkably, resulting in the lowest population trend index among the treatments. The results suggested that the combination of Bt and PxGV at sublethal dosages might provide a valuable way to improve the control efficacy of diamondback moth compared with treatment of Bt or PxGV alone. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  16. A new Tanaostigmodes Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perioto, N W; Lara, R I R

    2013-05-01

    Tanaostigmodes horacioi sp. nov. Perioto & Lara (Hymenoptera, Tanaostigmatidae) from Brazil is described and illustrated. T. horacioi is the second included species in the insculptus species group of Tanaostigmodes Ashmead, 1896. A key to species of the insculptus group is provided.

  17. [Evidence of long distance migration of diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella: a review].

    PubMed

    Xing, Kun; Ma, Chun-Sen; Han, Ju-Cai

    2013-06-01

    As cruciferous plants have been cultivated northwards due to climate warming, diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella is becoming a major pest in North China. The long distance migration of DBM not only induces its sudden outbreak over extensive areas, but also leads to its insecticide resistance by the spread of resistant genes in large area. To elucidate the long distance migration of DBM is of significance for early warning and decision-making in integrated pest managements. So far, the migration of DBM has not yet been systematically investigated in China. Here, we reviewed the literatures about the long distance migration of DBM at home and abroad, and summarized the related evidence: 1) DBM cannot overwinter in cold regions such as northern Japan, western Canada, and northeast China, where the DBM outbreak is presumed from elsewhere by long distance migration, 2) DBM adults are captured from seas, mountain tops, sea islands, and sky, etc., and the collection of large quantity of DBM presents the powerful direct evidence of DBM long distance migration, 3) the sudden increase of DBM in fields is consistent with the meteorological conditions such as the presence of nocturnal temperature inversion layer and the front passage, suggesting that these meteorological conditions supply suitable backgrounds for the insect migration, 4) the target insect characters identified by vertical insect looking radar is consistent with the measured DBM characters in laboratory and the trapping data from fields, confirming the long distance migration of DBM, 5) the biological characteristics and genetic variations of different DBM populations have no correlations with geographic distance, suggesting the frequent gene flows among the populations in different positions, and 6) the flight test of DBM indicates its long distance flight capacity, and the decreasing fitness of host plants is probably one of the trigger factors for the migration of DBM. Some future research directions

  18. Aromatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Pathway in Barbarea vulgaris and its Response to Plutella xylostella Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tongjin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Haohui; Agerbirk, Niels; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Shen, Di; Song, Jiangping; Li, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    The inducibility of the glucosinolate resistance mechanism is an energy-saving strategy for plants, but whether induction would still be triggered by glucosinolate-tolerant Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth, DBM) after a plant had evolved a new resistance mechanism (e.g., saponins in Barbara vulgaris) was unknown. In B. vulgaris, aromatic glucosinolates derived from homo-phenylalanine are the dominant glucosinolates, but their biosynthesis pathway was unclear. In this study, we used G-type (pest-resistant) and P-type (pest-susceptible) B. vulgaris to compare glucosinolate levels and the expression profiles of their biosynthesis genes before and after infestation by DBM larvae. Two different stereoisomers of hydroxylated aromatic glucosinolates are dominant in G- and P-type B. vulgaris, respectively, and are induced by DBM. The transcripts of genes in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway and their corresponding transcription factors were identified from an Illumina dataset of G- and P-type B. vulgaris. Many genes involved or potentially involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis were induced in both plant types. The expression patterns of six DBM induced genes were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while six long-fragment genes were validated by molecular cloning. The core structure biosynthetic genes showed high sequence similarities between the two genotypes. In contrast, the sequence identity of two apparent side chain modification genes, the SHO gene in the G-type and the RHO in P-type plants, showed only 77.50% identity in coding DNA sequences and 65.48% identity in deduced amino acid sequences. The homology to GS-OH in Arabidopsis, DBM induction of the transcript and a series of qPCR and glucosinolate analyses of G-type, P-type and F1 plants indicated that these genes control the production of S and R isomers of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl glucosinolate. These glucosinolates were significantly induced by P. xylostella larvae in both the susceptiple P

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of Barbarea vulgaris Infested with Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Peng; Qiu, Yang; Song, Jiangping; Zhang, Youjun; Li, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella) is a crucifer-specific pest that causes significant crop losses worldwide. Barbarea vulgaris (Brassicaceae) can resist DBM and other herbivorous insects by producing feeding-deterrent triterpenoid saponins. Plant breeders have long aimed to transfer this insect resistance to other crops. However, a lack of knowledge on the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory networks of these insecticidal saponins has hindered their practical application. A pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris during DBM larval feeding was performed to identify genes and gene networks responsible for saponin biosynthesis and its regulation at the genome level. Principal Findings Approximately 1.22, 1.19, 1.16, 1.23, 1.16, 1.20, and 2.39 giga base pairs of clean nucleotides were generated from B. vulgaris transcriptomes sampled 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after onset of P. xylostella feeding and from non-inoculated controls, respectively. De novo assembly using all data of the seven transcriptomes generated 39,531 unigenes. A total of 37,780 (95.57%) unigenes were annotated, 14,399 of which were assigned to one or more gene ontology terms and 19,620 of which were assigned to 126 known pathways. Expression profiles revealed 2,016–4,685 up-regulated and 557–5188 down-regulated transcripts. Secondary metabolic pathways, such as those of terpenoids, glucosinolates, and phenylpropanoids, and its related regulators were elevated. Candidate genes for the triterpene saponin pathway were found in the transcriptome. Orthological analysis of the transcriptome with four other crucifer transcriptomes identified 592 B. vulgaris-specific gene families with a P-value cutoff of 1e−5. Conclusion This study presents the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of B. vulgaris subjected to a series of DBM feedings. The biosynthetic and regulatory pathways of triterpenoid saponins and other DBM deterrent metabolites in this plant were

  20. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  1. Presence of Wolbachia in three hymenopteran species: Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), and Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Pistone, Dario; Bione, Alessandro; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bandi, Claudio; Sassera, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Sawflies are important pests of various plant species. Diprion pini (L.) and Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) are two of the most important sawfly pests in Italy, and both species are parasitized by the hymenopteran parasitoid Dahlbominus fuscipennis (Zetterstedt). Bacterial endosymbionts are currently studied for their high potential in strategies of biocontrol in a number of insect species. In this study, we investigated the presence of symbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia and Cardinium) in the three species of hymenoptera mentioned earlier, both in wild and laboratory populations. Although all samples were negative for the presence of Cardinium, 100% prevalence for Wolbachia was detected, as all examined individuals resulted to be PCR positive. Furthermore, 16S rDNA and ftsZ gene sequencing indicated that all individuals from the three hymenopteran species are infected by a single Wolbachia strain. Additionally, we report the presence of gynandromorphic individuals in D. pini, both in wild and laboratory-reared populations. Heat treatments on D. pini colonies removed the Wolbachia symbionts, but they also prevented the development of adults.

  2. [Effects of applying Sophora alopecuroids extracts and emamectin on the growth, development, and fecundity of diamondback moth plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian-Cong; Luo, Wan-Chun; Ding, Jun; Yan, Lei; Xiao, Ting; Niu, Hong-Tao

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, the methanol- and water extracts of Sophora alopecuroids were applied respectively with emamectin, to study their effects on the growth, development, and fecundity of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. The results showed that the oral toxicity of the mixtures to the 3rd larvae of P. xylostella was much higher than that of emamectin, with the medium lethal concentration (LC50) of methanol extract plus emamectin, water extract plus emamectin, and emamectin being 0.19, 0.32 and 0.51 mg L(-1), respectively. The pupated percentage, emergence percentage, and fecundity of P. xylotella were obviously negatively affected after treated the 3rd larvae with sub-lethal dosage of the mixtures and emamectin.

  3. Generation-based life table analysis reveals manifold effects of inbreeding on the population fitness in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Zou, Mingmin; Ren, Nana; Xie, Miao; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Yifan; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Gurr, Geoff M.; Hou, Youming; You, Shijun; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how inbreeding affects fitness is biologically important for conservation and pest management. Despite being a worldwide pest of many economically important cruciferous crops, the influence of inbreeding on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), populations is currently unknown. Using age-stage-specific life tables, we quantified the inbreeding effects on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of P. xylostella. Egg hatching rate, survival and fecundity of the inbred line significantly declined compared to those of the outbred line over time. The inbred P. xylostella line showed significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproduction rate (R0), and finite increase rate (λ), and increasing generation time (T). Inbreeding effects vary with developmental stages and the fitness-related traits can be profoundly affected by the duration of inbreeding. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on molecular and genetic bases of the inbreeding depression for P. xylostella. PMID:26227337

  4. [Allergy to hymenoptera venoms in children].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; Abbal, M; Brémont, F; Dutau, G

    1999-01-01

    Incidence of hymenoptera venom allergy in children is about 0.4 to 0.8%. Clinical features usually range from urticaria to anaphylaxis. Fatal reactions can occur but with less frequency than in adults. Allergologic investigations must be performed in children with systemic or generalized reactions after hymenoptera stings, which may lead to venom immunotherapy. Venom immunotherapy is well reported, but protocols differ according to the authors: ultra-rush in 3 h, accelerated in 3 to 5 days and semi-rush in 2 to 8 weeks. Results are always excellent (90 to 100%). We report our experience with 91 children receiving venom immunotherapy. Clinical history and positivity of skin tests indicated immunotherapy. Clinical symptoms were anaphylaxis (15.3%), serious reaction (37.3%) strong reaction (34%), and mild reaction (7.6%). Changes in immunological parameters revealed wide individual variations, not differing from data in the literature, with no correlation with evolution of immunotherapy. Venom immunotherapy appeared with good tolerability in children, whatever the protocol used.

  5. Specific immunotherapy using Hymenoptera venom: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Alexandra Sayuri; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto Marcondes; Galvão, Clóvis Eduardo Santos; Kalil, Jorge; Castro, Fabio Fernandes Morato

    2010-01-01

    The only effective treatment for patients who have severe reactions after Hymenoptera stings is venom immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to review the literature to assess the effects of venom immunotherapy among patients presenting severe reactions after Hymenoptera stings. Randomized controlled trials in the worldwide literature were reviewed. The manuscript was produced in the Discipline of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Randomized controlled trials involving venom immunotherapy versus placebo or only patient follow-up were evaluated. The risk of systemic reactions after specific immunotherapy was evaluated by calculating odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals. 2,273 abstracts were identified by the keywords search. Only four studies were included in this review. The chi-square test for heterogeneity showed that two studies were homogeneous and could be included in a meta-analysis. By combining the two studies, the odds ratio became significant: 0.29 (0.10-0.87). However, analysis on the severity of the reactions after immunotherapy showed that the benefits may not be so significant because the reactions were mostly similar to or milder than the original reaction. Specific immunotherapy should be recommended for adults and children with moderate to severe reactions, but there is no need to prescribe it for children with skin reactions alone, especially if the exposure is very sporadic. On the other hand, the risk-benefit relation should always be assessed in each case.

  6. Checklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four
    and three new records.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Thomas; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr; Japoshvili, George; Hatt, Séverin; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-03-17

    Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries.

  7. A viral histone H4 suppresses expression of a transferrin that plays a role in the immune response of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Kim, Y

    2010-08-01

    A transferrin (Tf) gene has been predicted from an expressed sequence tag of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. It encodes 681 amino acid residues that share 80-90% sequence homologies with other lepidopteran Tfs. The gene was constitutively expressed in all developmental stages of P. xylostella. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to the Tf gene was prepared and microinjected into the larvae. We hypothesize that the dsRNA treatment suppressed the Tf gene expression level and it significantly inhibited haemocyte nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. The larvae treated with dsRNA also showed a significantly enhanced susceptibility to an entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. An endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, parasitized the larvae of P. xylostella, which showed significant reduction of Tf expression. The suppression of Tf expression was mimicked by transient expression of a viral gene CpBV-H4, encoded in the symbiotic virus of C. plutellae. A truncated form of CpBV-H4 prepared by deleting an extended N-terminal 38 amino acid residue lost its inhibitory activity against the Tf gene expression. These results suggest that Tf of P. xylostella plays an immunological role in P. xylostella and that the suppression of its expression in the parasitized larvae is caused by a viral histone H4 in an epigenetic mode.

  8. New threshold temperatures for the development of a North American diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) population and its larval parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Bahar, M H; Soroka, J J; Grenkow, L; Dosdall, L M

    2014-10-01

    The currently accepted lower threshold temperature for the development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), the world's most destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops, is around 6.0°C, and there is no known upper threshold temperature. Neither are there established threshold temperatures for diamondback moth's major natural enemy, Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Laboratory studies were undertaken to determine the survival and development of a North American diamondback moth population and its parasitoid D. insulare at 20 constant temperatures ranging from 2.0 to 38.0°C. Diamondback moth completed development from second instar to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-37°C, and D. insulare completed its life cycle from egg to adult within a temperature range of 4.0-33°C. The developmental data were fitted into one linear and four nonlinear models. Using goodness-of-fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance as selection criteria, the Wang model was the most acceptable among the nonlinear models to describe the relationship between temperature and development of both species. According to this model, the lower and upper threshold temperatures for diamondback moth were 2.1 and 38.0°C, respectively, and for D. insulare they were 2.1 and 34.0°C, respectively. Based on the Degree Day model, diamondback moth required 143 d above the lower threshold of 4.23°C to complete the life cycle, while D. insulare required 286 d above the lower threshold of 2.57°C. This study suggests that temperatures during the crop-growing seasons in North America are not limiting factors for development of either diamondback moth or D. insulare.

  9. Catalogue of the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier

    2015-11-16

    In the present study, the Iranian Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) fauna is summarized. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data and new material collected. In total 99 species belonging to 8 genera are from Iran: Apanteles Förster, 1862 (36 species), Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (34 species), Deuterixys Mason, 1981 (1 species), Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 (4 species), Microgaster Latreille, 1804 (4 species), Microplitis Förster, 1862 (11 species), Pholesetor Mason, 1981 (4 species) and Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898 (5 species) in 4 tribes (Apantilini, Cotesiini, Microgastrini and Microplitini). A faunistic list with distribution data, and host records are given. Four species are new records for the fauna of Iran: Apanteles brunnistigma Abdinbekova, 1969, A. ingenuoides Papp, 1971, Microplitis decipiens Prell, 1925 and M. marshallii Kokujev, 1898.

  10. Component-resolved diagnosis in hymenoptera allergy.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, D; Ruiz-León, B; Boni, E; Alfaya-Arias, T; Álvarez-Mon, M; Barbarroja-Escudero, J; González-de-Olano, D; Moreno-Aguilar, C; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M; Sánchez-González, M J; Sánchez-Morillas, L; Vega-Castro, A

    2017-07-21

    Component-resolved diagnosis based on the use of well-defined, properly characterised and purified natural and recombinant allergens constitutes a new approach in the diagnosis of venom allergy. Prospective readers may benefit from an up-to-date review on the allergens. The best characterised venom is that of Apis mellifera, whose main allergens are phospholipase A2 (Api m1), hyaluronidase (Api m2) and melittin (Api m4). Additionally, in recent years, new allergens of Vespula vulgaris have been identified and include phospholipase A1 (Ves v1), hyaluronidase (Ves v2) and antigen 5 (Ves v5). Polistes species are becoming an increasing cause of allergy in Europe, although only few allergens have been identified in this venom. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge about molecular diagnosis in hymenoptera venom allergy. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Hymenoptera Allergy and Mast Cell Activation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) can be diagnosed in patients with recurrent, severe symptoms from mast cell (MC)-derived mediators, which are transiently increased in serum and are attenuated by mediator-targeting drugs. When KIT-mutated, clonal MC are detected in these patients, a diagnosis of primary MCAS can be made. Severe systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom (HV) represent the most common form of anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis are predominantly males and do not have skin lesions in the majority of cases, and anaphylaxis is characterized by hypotension and syncope in the absence of urticaria and angioedema. A normal value of tryptase (≤11.4 ng/ml) in these patients does not exclude a diagnosis of mastocytosis. Patients with primary MCAS and HV anaphylaxis have to undergo lifelong venom immunotherapy, in order to prevent further potentially fatal severe reactions.

  12. A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Matthew J.; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  13. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2010-12-29

    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  14. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution.

  15. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera. PMID:22259288

  16. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, specifically inactivates Mustard Trypsin Inhibitor 2 (MTI2) to overcome host plant defence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2009-01-01

    The mustard trypsin inhibitor family has so far only been described among cruciferous species which represent the host plants for the specialist diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The performance of a Dutch and Chinese strain of DBM was assessed on transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Mustard Trypsin Inhibitor 2 (MTI2) at a level of 84 microg/g fresh weight equivalent to 12 microM. No significant differences in larval mortality or development were found relative to the control. Trypsin activity in gut extracts from larvae feeding on either control or transgenic plants were titrated with MTI2 and SKTI (Soybean Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor) to assess the basis of the insensitivity to MTI2. The specific trypsin activity per gut of larvae reared on MTI2 plants was not significantly higher compared to the control, and ca. 80% of trypsin activity could be inhibited by both inhibitors in both treatments, suggesting no specific induction of PI-insensitive activity in response to MTI2 in the diet. On the basis of the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of Plutella trypsins for MTI2 (80 nM), the gut trypsin concentration (4.8 microM), and the MTI2 concentration in the leaves (12 microM) it was calculated that 99% of the gut trypsin activity sensitive to MTI2 should be inhibited in vivo, unless MTI2 was degraded. Indeed, we found that a pre-incubation of MTI2 and SKTI with gut proteases for 3 h resulted in complete loss of inhibitory activity of MTI2, but not of SKTI, at the concentration ratios found in planta. This process was enzymatic as it was inactivated by heat. Gut extracts of larvae reared on control or MTI2 leaves were equally well capable of this degradation indicating that the inactivating enzymes are constitutively expressed. In conclusion, it appears that the insensitivity of the diamondback moth to MTI2 can be sufficiently explained by the specific degradation of MTI2, thereby protecting itself against this protease inhibitor which is part of the

  17. Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-19

    AND SUBTITLE Precision Targeting: Reduced Pesticide Use Strategy for Pharaoh’s Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ) Control 6. AUTHOR(S) David F. Williams...TARGETING: REDUCED PESTICIDE USE STRATEGY FOR PHARAOH’S ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE ) CONTROL DAVID F. WILLIAMS, RICHARD J. BRENNER AND DAVID MILNE...space may benefit from this method of control. This Precision targeting - reduced pesticide use strategy for Pharaoh’s ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

  18. Proteomic and Properties Analysis of Botanical Insecticide Rhodojaponin III-Induced Response of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaolin; Zhai, Yifan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua; Huang, Wanjun; Zheng, Zhihua; Han, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Background Rhodojaponin III, as a botanical insecticide, affects a wide variety of biological processes in insects, including reduction of feeding, suspension of development, and oviposition deterring of adults in a dose-dependent manner. However, the mode of these actions remains obscure. Principal Findings In this study, a comparative proteomic approach was adopted to examine the effect of rhodojaponin III on the Plutella xyllostella (L.). Following treating 48 hours, newly emergence moths were collected and protein samples were prepared. The proteins were separated by 2-DE, and total 31 proteins were significantly affected by rhodojaponin III compared to the control identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. These differentially expressed proteins act in the nervous transduction, odorant degradation and metabolic change pathways. Further, gene expression patterns in treated and untreated moths were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. RNAi of the chemosensory protein (PxCSP) gene resulted in oviposition significantly increased on cabbage plants treated with rhodojaponin III. Conclusions These rhodojaponin III-induced proteins and gene properties analysis would be essential for a better understanding of the potential molecular mechanism of the response to rhodojaponin III from moths of P. xylostella. PMID:23861792

  19. Novel mutations and mutation combinations of ryanodine receptor in a chlorantraniliprole resistant population of Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lei; Liang, Pei; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    A previous study documented a glycine to glutamic acid mutation (G4946E) in ryanodine receptor (RyR) was highly correlated to diamide insecticide resistance in field populations of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). In this study, a field population collected in Yunnan province, China, exhibited a 2128-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole. Sequence comparison between resistant and susceptible P. xylostella revealed three novel mutations including a glutamic acid to valine substitution (E1338D), a glutamine to leucine substitution (Q4594L) and an isoleucine to methionine substitution (I4790M) in highly conserved regions of RyR. Frequency analysis of all four mutations in this field population showed that the three new mutations showed a high frequency of 100%, while the G4946E had a frequency of 20%. Furthermore, the florescent ligand binding assay revealed that the RyR containing multiple mutations displayed a significantly lower affinity to the chlorantraniliprole. The combined results suggested that the co-existence of different combinations of the four mutations was involved in the chlorantraniliprole resistance. An allele-specific PCR based method was developed for the diagnosis of the four mutations in the field populations of P. xylostella. PMID:25377064

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of venom glands from Cotesia vestalis and Diadromus collaris, two endoparasitoids of the host Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Shi, Min; Ye, Xi-Qian; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2017-05-02

    Venoms secreted by the venom gland (VG) of parasitoid wasp help ensure successful parasitism by host immune suppression and developmental regulation. Cotesia vestalis, a larval endoparasitoid, and Diadromus collaris, a pupal endoparasitoid, parasitize the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. To explore and compare the venom components of two endoparasitoids, we sequenced transcriptomes of the VGs and wasp bodies without VGs (BWVGs) of the two endoparasitoids. Statistically enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways of the two VGs compared to respective whole-body background were similar and reflected active protein biosynthesis activities in the two VGs. 1,595 VG specific genes of the D. collaris VG and 1,461 VG specific genes of the C. vestalis VG were identified by comparative transcript profiling. A total of 444 and 513 genes encoding potential secretory proteins were identified and defined as putative venom genes in D. collaris VG and C. vestalis VG, respectively. The putative venom genes of the two wasps showed no significant similarity or convergence. More venom genes were predicted in D. collaris VG than C. vestalis VG, especially hydrolase-coding genes. Differences in the types and quantities of putative venom genes shed light on different venom functions.

  1. Sub-lethal effects of Vip3A toxin on survival, development and fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Asim; Wright, Denis J

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of sub-lethal effects is important to interpret the overall insecticide efficacy in controlling insect pest populations. In addition to the lethal effect, sub-lethal effects may also occur in exposed insects. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity against many insect pest species. In this study the sub-lethal effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal toxin Vip3A on the development and reproduction of Heliothis virescens F. and Plutella xylostella L. were evaluated in the laboratory. The results indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of Vip3A increased the duration of the larval and pupal stages as compared with the control treatment for both species. The percent pupation and percent adult emergence were significantly lower for Vip3A-treated insects. The proportion of pairs that produced eggs and the longevity of adults were not significantly different between treatments. H. virescens and P. xylostella treated with Vip3A showed an 11 and 17 % decrease in their intrinsic rate of increase (rm) respectively compared with untreated insects. The results from this study will be helpful to develop the strategy to incorporate Vip 3A containing crops in an integrated pest management programme.

  2. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of immune genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Xue, Minqian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M.; Baxter, Simon W.; Lin, Hailan; Lin, Junhan; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive pest that attacks cruciferous crops worldwide. Immune responses are important for interactions between insects and pathogens and information on these underpins the development of strategies for biocontrol-based pest management. Little, however, is known about immune genes and their regulation patterns in P. xylostella. A total of 149 immune-related genes in 20 gene families were identified through comparison of P. xylostella genome with the genomes of other insects. Complete and conserved Toll, IMD and JAK-STAT signaling pathways were found in P. xylostella. Genes involved in pathogen recognition were expanded and more diversified than genes associated with intracellular signal transduction. Gene expression profiles showed that the IMD pathway may regulate expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in the midgut, and be related to an observed down-regulation of AMPs in experimental lines of insecticide-resistant P. xylostella. A bacterial feeding study demonstrated that P. xylostella could activate different AMPs in response to bacterial infection. This study has established a framework of comprehensive expression profiles that highlight cues for immune regulation in a major pest. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on the functions of P. xylostella immune genes and mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:25943446

  3. Reliability of Degree-Day Models to Predict the Development Time of Plutella xylostella (L.) under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; de Moraes, C P; Foerster, L A

    2015-12-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of brassicaceous crops occurring in regions with highly distinct climate conditions. Several studies have investigated the relationship between temperature and P. xylostella development rate, providing degree-day models for populations from different geographical regions. However, there are no data available to date to demonstrate the suitability of such models to make reliable projections on the development time for this species in field conditions. In the present study, 19 models available in the literature were tested regarding their ability to accurately predict the development time of two cohorts of P. xylostella under field conditions. Only 11 out of the 19 models tested accurately predicted the development time for the first cohort of P. xylostella, but only seven for the second cohort. Five models correctly predicted the development time for both cohorts evaluated. Our data demonstrate that the accuracy of the models available for P. xylostella varies widely and therefore should be used with caution for pest management purposes.

  4. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a P-glycoprotein from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-11-20

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart.

  6. Identification and characterization of pheromone receptors and interplay between receptors and pheromone binding proteins in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors.

  7. cDNA cloning and characterization of the antibacterial peptide cecropin 1 from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fengliang; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Xiaoxia; Li, Linmiao; Gao, Gang; Xu, Yingjie; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Ren, Shunxiang

    2012-10-01

    Cecropins are linear cationic antibacterial peptides that have potent activities against microorganisms. In the present study, a 480bp full-length cDNA encoding diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) cecropin 1 (designated as Px-cec1) was obtained using RT-PCR. A Northern blot analysis showed that the Px-cec1 transcript was predominantly expressed in fat bodies, hemocytes, midgut and epidermis with the highest expression level in fat bodies. The expression of Px-cec1 mRNA in fat bodies was significantly increased 24h after microbial challenge, with the highest induced expression by Staphylococcus aureus. A circular dichroism (CD) analysis revealed that the recombinant Px-cec1 mainly contained α-helixes. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that recombinant Px-cec1 exhibited a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but it did not exhibit hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Furthermore, Px-cec1 caused significant morphological alterations of S. aureus, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrated that Px-cec1 exerts its antibacterial activity by acting on the cell membrane to disrupt bacterial cell structures.

  8. Superfamily of genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, S-F; Yu, H-Y; Jiang, T-T; Gao, C-F; Shen, J-L

    2015-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile superfamily of cell membrane proteins, which mediate various physiological processes including reproduction, development and behaviour. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most notorious insect pests, preferentially feeding on cruciferous plants. P. xylostella is not only one of the world's most widespread lepidopteran insects, but has also developed resistance to nearly all classes of insecticides. Although the mechanisms of insecticide resistance have been studied extensively in many insect species, few investigations have been carried out on GPCRs in P. xylostella. In the present study, we identified 95 putative GPCRs in the P. xylostella genome. The identified GPCRs were compared with their homologues in Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our results suggest that GPCRs in different insect species may have evolved by a birth-and-death process. One of the differences among compared insects is the duplication of short neuropeptide F receptor and adipokinetic hormone receptors in P. xylostella and B. mori. Another divergence is the decrease in quantity and diversity of the stress-tolerance gene, Mth, in P. xylostella. The evolution by the birth-and-death process is probably involved in adaptation to the feeding behaviour, reproduction and stress responses of P. xylostella. Some of the genes identified in the present study could be potential targets for the development of novel pesticides.

  9. Developmental and insecticide-resistant insights from the de novo assembled transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    He, Weiyi; You, Minsheng; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Guang; Xie, Miao; Cui, Kai; Bai, Jianlin; Liu, Chunhui; Li, Xiaojing; Xu, Xiufeng; Huang, Shiguo

    2012-03-01

    We present here the de novo assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth (DBM)), a widespread destructive pest of cruciferous plants, using short reads generated by Illumina sequencing from different developmental stages and insecticide-resistant strains. A total of 171,262 non-redundant sequences, denoted as unigenes, were obtained. They represented approximately 100-fold of all DBM mRNA and EST sequences in GenBank thus far. We identified 38,255 unigenes highly similar to the known functional protein-coding genes, most of which were annotated using gene ontology (GO) and orthologous groups of proteins (COG). Global profiling of differentially expressed unigenes revealed enriched GOs and biological pathways that were related to specific developmental stages and insecticide resistance. We also evaluated the resistance-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) using this high-throughput genotyping method. The newly developed transcriptome will facilitate researches on the DBM developmental biology and insecticide resistance evolution, and ultimately provide better pest management systems.

  10. A target-specific feeding toxicity of β(1) integrin dsRNA against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A M; Kim, Yonggyun

    2011-12-01

    Integrin is a cell-surface protein consisting of α and β heterodimers. A predicted amino acid sequence of an integrin subunit of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, was highly homologous to other lepidopteran β1 subunits and possessed essential functional domains. The β1 integrin of P. xylostella (βPx1) was expressed in all developmental stages of P. xylostella. It was also expressed in all tested tissues including hemocyte, fat body, gut, and epidermis of last instar. When βPx1 expression was suppressed by injection of dsRNA specific to βPx1 (dsRNA(βPx1)), the treated larvae exhibited significant suppression in immune response and also suffered significant larval mortality. When dsRNA(βPx1) was orally fed to young larvae, it suppressed the expression of âPx1 and resulted in a significant mortality. By contrast, a dsRNA specific to β1 subunit of Spodoptera exigua gave little adverse effects on βPx1 expression and larval development when it was treated by injection or oral administration, though these two genes showed 71% sequence homology. These results suggest a target-specific RNA interference of dsRNA(βPx1), which causes significant mortality to P. xylostella by feeding treatment.

  11. Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of immune genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yu, Liying; Xue, Minqian; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Vasseur, Liette; Gurr, Geoff M; Baxter, Simon W; Lin, Hailan; Lin, Junhan; You, Minsheng

    2015-05-06

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive pest that attacks cruciferous crops worldwide. Immune responses are important for interactions between insects and pathogens and information on these underpins the development of strategies for biocontrol-based pest management. Little, however, is known about immune genes and their regulation patterns in P. xylostella. A total of 149 immune-related genes in 20 gene families were identified through comparison of P. xylostella genome with the genomes of other insects. Complete and conserved Toll, IMD and JAK-STAT signaling pathways were found in P. xylostella. Genes involved in pathogen recognition were expanded and more diversified than genes associated with intracellular signal transduction. Gene expression profiles showed that the IMD pathway may regulate expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in the midgut, and be related to an observed down-regulation of AMPs in experimental lines of insecticide-resistant P. xylostella. A bacterial feeding study demonstrated that P. xylostella could activate different AMPs in response to bacterial infection. This study has established a framework of comprehensive expression profiles that highlight cues for immune regulation in a major pest. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on the functions of P. xylostella immune genes and mechanisms of innate immunity.

  12. Interactions Between Bt-Bioinsecticides and Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a Predator of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, G O; Vacari, A M; DE Bortoli, C P; Pomari, A F; DE Bortoli, S A; Polanczyk, R A

    2015-10-01

    Bioinsecticides are being increasingly used to protect vegetable crops against herbivores, but data on the side effects of such strategy on the third trophic level are still required. We investigated the influence of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-1 strain and of the commercial bioinsecticide Agree® on the biological aspects of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when feeding on Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)-infected larvae. On average, infected larvae were consumed more often than the non-infected larvae throughout the predator nymphal development, and no effect on nymph survival was observed. Population growth parameters (R 0, r m, and λ) resulting from the fertility life tables did not differ among treatments. The results led to the conclusion that P. nigrispinus can be used in combination with the product Agree® or the strain HD-1 for the control of P. xylostella. The combined use of these control agents helps to maintain the balance of the ecosystem and contributes for the production of food for healthy human consumption.

  13. Effectiveness of metal-metal and metal-organic compound combinations against Plutella xylostella: implications for plant elemental defense.

    PubMed

    Jhee, Edward M; Boyd, Robert S; Eubanks, Micky D

    2006-02-01

    Plants that contain elevated foliar metal concentrations can be categorized as accumulators or, if the accumulation is extreme, hyperaccumulators. The defense hypothesis suggests that these plants may be defended against folivore attack, and recent research has indicated that metal concentrations at or below the accumulator range may be defensively effective. This experiment explored the toxicity of four metals hyper-accumulated by plants (Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and asked if combinations of metals, or metals and organic chemicals, might broaden the defensive effectiveness of metals. Metals were used alone and in certain metal + metal (Zn plus Ni, Pb, or Cd) and metal + organic defensive chemical (Ni plus tannic acid, atropine, or nicotine) combinations. Artificial diet amended with these treatments was fed to larvae of the crucifer specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella. Combinations of metals and metals + organic chemicals significantly decreased survival and pupation rates, compared to single treatments, for at least some concentrations in every experiment. Effects of combinations were additive rather than synergistic or antagonistic. Because Zn enhanced the toxicity of other metals and Ni enhanced the toxicity of organic defensive chemicals, our findings suggest that the defensive effects of metals are more widespread among plants than previously believed. They also support the hypothesis that herbivore defense may have led to the evolution of metal hyper-accumulation by increasing the preexisting defensive effects of metals at accumulator levels in plants.

  14. A single hot event that does not affect survival but decreases reproduction in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth.

  15. Dynamics of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during Plutella xylostella interaction to a novel host Lepidium latifolium L.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tarandeep; Bhat, Rohini; Khajuria, Manu; Vyas, Ruchika; Kumari, Anika; Nadda, Gireesh; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2016-09-01

    Plutella xylostella L. is a notorious pest of cruciferous crops causing worldwide losses of $4-5 billion per year. Developing classical biological control to this pest include an introduction of host plants that act as natural enemies showing deviation from the preference-performance regimen in the evolutionary ecology of plant-insect interactions. The present study was designed to understand the role of glucosinolate-myrosinase system during P. xylostella interactions with a novel host. Adult moth preference and larval performance study were conducted on a novel host Lepidium latifolium L. (LL) that has high sinigrin content and was compared with its laboratory host Arabidopsis thaliana (AT). The glucosinolate-myrosinase system was studied in a time course experiment during larval feeding in choice and no-choice experiments. Adult moths visit and prefers LL over AT for oviposition. Conversely, LL leaves were not preferred and proved detrimental for P. xylostella larvae. Aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates were found to decrease significantly (p≤0.05) in AT during initial 12h of P. xylostella challenge, whereas, they were not affected in LL. Also, MYB transcription factor expression and myrosinase activity in LL do not suggest a typical host response to a specialist insect. This preference-performance mismatch of P. xylostella on LL mediated by glucosinolate pattern suggests that this novel plant could be utilized in P. xylostella management.

  16. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

    2005-10-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa.

  17. Insight into the Migration Routes of Plutella xylostella in China Using mtCOI and ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lixia; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Xiangjing; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, cause major economic losses to cruciferous crops, including cabbage, which is an important vegetable crop in China. In this study, we used the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 ISSR markers to characterize the genetic structure and seasonal migration routes of 23 P. xylostella populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed high haplotype diversity and gene flow among the populations, although some degree of genetic isolation was evident between the populations of Hainan Island and other sampling sites. The dominant haplotypes, LX1 and LX2, differed significantly from all other haplotypes both in terms of the number of individuals with those haplotypes and their distributions. Haplotypes that were shared among populations revealed that P. xylostella migrates from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River to northern China and then to northeastern China. Our results also revealed another potential migration route for P. xylostella, i.e., from southwestern China to both northwestern and southern China. PMID:26098353

  18. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin binding with brush border membrane vesicles from susceptible and resistant larvae of Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Masson, L; Mazza, A; Brousseau, R; Tabashnik, B

    1995-05-19

    An optical biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance was used to determine the kinetic rate constants for interactions between the CryIA(c) toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis and brush border membrane vesicles purified from susceptible and resistant larvae of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). CryIA(c) association and dissociation rate constants for vesicles from susceptible larvae were determined to be 4.5 x 10(3) M-1 s-1 and 3.2 x 10(-5) s-1, respectively, resulting in a calculated affinity constant of 7 nM. CryIE toxin did not kill susceptible or resistant larvae and did not bind to brush border vesicles. Contrary to expectations based on previous studies of binding in resistant P. xylostella, the binding kinetics for CryIA(c) did not differ significantly between susceptible larvae and those that were resistant to CryIA(c). Determination of the number of CryIA(c) receptors revealed an approximately 3-fold decrease in total CryIA(c) receptor numbers for resistant vesicles. These results suggest that factors other than binding may be altered in our resistant diamondback moth strain. They also support the view that binding is not sufficient for toxicity.

  19. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin to Aminopeptidase in Susceptible and Resistant Diamondback Moths (Plutella xylostella)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, K.; Tabashnik, B. E.; Adang, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin bound to a 120-kDa protein isolated from the brush border membranes of both susceptible and resistant larvae of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth. The 120-kDa protein was purified by Cry1Ac toxin affinity chromatography. Like Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) from other insects, this protein was eluted from the affinity column with 200 mM N-acetylgalactosamine. The purified protein had aminopeptidase activity and bound Cry1Ac toxin on ligand blots. Purified aminopeptidase was recognized by antibodies to the cross-reacting determinant found on phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized proteins. The results show that the presence of Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase in the brush border membrane is not sufficient to confer susceptibility to Cry1Ac. Furthermore, the results do not support the hypothesis that resistance to Cry1Ac was caused by lack of a Cry1Ac-binding aminopeptidase. PMID:16535536

  20. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

  1. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg.

  2. Insight into the Migration Routes of Plutella xylostella in China Using mtCOI and ISSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiaqiang; Tian, Lixia; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Xiangjing; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    The larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, cause major economic losses to cruciferous crops, including cabbage, which is an important vegetable crop in China. In this study, we used the mitochondrial COI gene and 11 ISSR markers to characterize the genetic structure and seasonal migration routes of 23 P. xylostella populations in China. Both the mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed high haplotype diversity and gene flow among the populations, although some degree of genetic isolation was evident between the populations of Hainan Island and other sampling sites. The dominant haplotypes, LX1 and LX2, differed significantly from all other haplotypes both in terms of the number of individuals with those haplotypes and their distributions. Haplotypes that were shared among populations revealed that P. xylostella migrates from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River to northern China and then to northeastern China. Our results also revealed another potential migration route for P. xylostella, i.e., from southwestern China to both northwestern and southern China.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. PMID:24264038

  4. A Single Hot Event That Does Not Affect Survival but Decreases Reproduction in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth. PMID:24116081

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO SERINE PROTEASES AND THEIR POTENTIAL INVOLVEMENT IN PROPHENOLOXIDASE ACTIVATION IN Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gao, Gang; Xu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Jing; Li, Lin-Miao; Ju, Wen-Yan; Jin, Feng-Liang; Freed, Shoaib

    2016-09-01

    The proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a humoral defense mechanism in insects and crustaceans. Phenoloxidase (PO) is produced as an inactive precursor namely, proPO and is activated via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO-activating proteinase. The current research reports two novel serine proteinase genes (PxSP1-768 bp and PxSP2-816 bp) from Plutella xylostella, encoding 255 and 271 amino acid residues, respectively. Tissue distribution analyses by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed the resultant genes to be primarily expressed in the hemocytes, while quantitative-RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that transcription level of PxSP1 and PxSP2 increased significantly after injection of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana. Purified recombinant fusion proteins of PxSP2 and PxSP1 were injected to New Zealand white rabbits and polyclonal antibodies were generated with the titers of 1:12,800. After silencing the expression of PxSP2 by RNAi, the PO activity decreased significantly. The results show that PxSP2 is involved in prophenoloxidase activation in P. xylostella.

  6. Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The results of a survey of Cardiochilinae and Ichneutinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise traps and a canopy trap. Selec...

  7. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with an estimated 500,000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a cladistic analysis of both morphological and molecular data. A total of 233 morphological characters were scored for 300 taxa and 265 genera, a...

  8. Geographic spread of Strumigenys silvestrii (Hymenoptera: formicidae: dacetine)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strumigenys silvestrii is a tiny dacetine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dacetini), apparently from South America, that has spread to the southern US and the West Indies. Strumigenys silvestrii has recently been found for the first time in the Old World, from the island of Madeira, mainland Portugal,...

  9. Revision of the Asychis species group of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    APHELINUS (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a genus of parasitoid wasps that has a long history of use in biological control programs against aphids. Past research shows that the classification of APHELINUS is greatly complicated by lack of comprehensive literature and the existence of cryptic species c...

  10. New records of parasitoids of Aculeate Hymenoptera in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres; R.R. Snelling; M. Canals

    2000-01-01

    There are few reports of parasitoids of Aculeate Hymenoptera for Puerto Rico (Wolcott, 1948). Parasitoids are potentially significant control agents of other insect species, and iti important to know their distribution and hosts . The parasitic species reported here have not previously been recorded from Puerto Rico. These parasitoids were collected or reared during...

  11. A review of Trachusoides Michener and Griswold (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although Megachile (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are well-known for their diverse nesting habits, records of the genus nesting in live plants are rare and unknown in the North America. Here, we report the widespread Megachile (Megachile) montivaga Cresson, 1878 nesting in live thistle (Cirsium neomexi...

  12. Thermoperiodism synchronizes emergence in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of M. rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Megachile rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the ph...

  13. Revision of the world species of Xeris Costa (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)

    Treesearch

    Henri Goulet; Caroline Boudreault; Nathan M. Schiff

    2015-01-01

    Xeris is one of ten extant genera of Siricidae known as as woodwasps or horntails. They are important wood-boring Hymenoptera from the Northern Hemisphere. Adults and larvae of Xeris are often intercepted at ports and are consequently of concern as potential alien invasive species. The genus consists of 16 species with eight in...

  14. Aphanogmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae): a hyperparasitoid of the coffee berry borer parasitoid Prorops nasuta (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) in Kenya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of a hyperparasitod of the primary parasitoid of the coffee berry borer Prorops nasuta Waterston (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae). Aphanogmus sp is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of larval and pupal stages of P. nasuta, which was found in coffee berry samples collected on the ground o...

  15. Power over reproduction in social hymenoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Madeleine; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory has been very successful in predicting and explaining much of the observed variation in the reproductive characteristics of insect societies. For example, the theory correctly predicts sex-ratio biasing by workers in relation to the queen's mating frequency. However, within an insect society there are typically multiple reproductive optima, each corresponding to the interest of different individual(s) or parties of interest. When multiple optima occur, which party's interests prevail? Presumably, the interests of the party with the greatest 'power'; the ability to do or act. This article focuses on factors that influence power over colony reproduction. In particular, we seek to identify the principles that may cause different parties of interest to have greater or lesser power. In doing this, we discuss power from two different angles. On the one hand, we discuss general factors based upon non-idiosyncratic biological features (e.g. information, access to and ability to process food) that are likely to be important to all social Hymenoptera. On the other hand, we discuss idiosyncratic factors that depend upon the biology of a taxon at any hierarchical level. We propose that a better understanding of the diversity of reproductive characteristics of insect societies will come from combining inclusive fitness theory with a wide range of other factors that affect relative power in a conflict situation. PMID:14561330

  16. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Heraty, John M.; Burks, Roger A.; Hawks, David; Mottern, Jason; Cruaud, Astrid; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Jansta, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist. This is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on a molecular analysis of 18S and 28S ribosomal gene regions for 19 families, 72 subfamilies, 343 genera and 649 species. The 56 outgroups are comprised of Ceraphronoidea and most proctotrupomorph families, including Mymarommatidae. Data alignment and the impact of ambiguous regions are explored using a secondary structure analysis and automated (MAFFT) alignments of the core and pairing regions and regions of ambiguous alignment. Both likelihood and parsimony approaches are used to analyze the data. Overall there is no impact of alignment method, and few but substantial differences between likelihood and parsimony approaches. Monophyly of Chalcidoidea and a sister group relationship between Mymaridae and the remaining Chalcidoidea is strongly supported in all analyses. Either Mymarommatoidea or Diaprioidea are the sister group of Chalcidoidea depending on the analysis. Likelihood analyses place Rotoitidae as the sister group of the remaining Chalcidoidea after Mymaridae, whereas parsimony nests them within Chalcidoidea. Some traditional family groups are supported as monophyletic (Agaonidae, Eucharitidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Leucospidae, Mymaridae, Ormyridae, Signiphoridae, Tanaostigmatidae and Trichogrammatidae). Several other families are paraphyletic (Perilampidae) or polyphyletic (Aphelinidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tetracampidae and Torymidae). Evolutionary scenarios discussed for Chalcidoidea include the evolution of phytophagy, egg parasitism, sternorrhynchan parasitism, hypermetamorphic development and heteronomy. PMID:22087244

  17. Checklist of Turkish Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Beyarslan, Ahmet; Fischer, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    The Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species recorded from Turkey until the end of 2011 are listed, the present total number being 182. Changes with respect to the previous Turkish fauna are briefly annotated and the distributions for all the species in each of the 68 biogeographical provinces of Turkey are presented. After the publication of our previous fauna, 174 species have been recorded as new to Turkey. Of these, 105 species are distributed only in Asian Turkey and ten species are distributed only in European Turkey, while 73 species occur in both. The presented checklist covers synonyms, zoogeographical region(s), hosts, host plants of the host species and parasitoid data for the species. In total, 182 species belonging to ten genera are reported for Turkey. The number of species of each genus is represented by: Atormus van Achterberg, 1997: one; Biosteres Foerster, 1862: 17; Bitomus Szépligeti, 1910: three; Diachasma Foerster, 1862: one; Diachasmimorpha Viereck, 1913: one; Eurytenes Foerster, 1862: three; Indiopius Fischer, 1966: three; Opius Wesmael, 1835: 151, Psyttalia Walker, 1860: one; Sternaulopius Fischer, 1965: one.

  18. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  19. Geographic spread, genetics and functional characteristics of ryanodine receptor based target-site resistance to diamide insecticides in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Denise; Gutbrod, Oliver; Lümmen, Peter; Matthiesen, Svend; Schorn, Corinna; Nauen, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Anthranilic diamides and flubendiamide belong to a new chemical class of insecticides acting as conformation sensitive activators of the insect ryanodine receptor (RyR). These compounds control a diverse range of different herbivorous insects including diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a notorious global pest on cruciferous crops, which recently developed resistance due to target-site mutations located in the trans-membrane domain of the Plutella RyR. In the present study we further investigated the genetics and functional implications of a RyR G4946E target-site mutation we recently identified in a Philippine diamondback moth strain (Sudlon). Strain Sudlon is homozygous for the G4946E mutation and has been maintained under laboratory conditions without selection pressure for almost four years, and still exhibit stable resistance ratios of >2000-fold to all commercial diamides. Its F1 progeny resulting from reciprocal crosses with a susceptible strain (BCS-S) revealed no maternal effects and a diamide susceptible phenotype, suggesting an autosomally almost recessive mode of inheritance. Subsequent back-crosses indicate a near monogenic nature of the diamide resistance in strain Sudlon. Radioligand binding studies with Plutella thoracic microsomal membrane preparations provided direct evidence for the dramatic functional implications of the RyR G4946E mutation on both diamide specific binding and its concentration dependent modulation of [(3)H]ryanodine binding. Computational modelling based on a cryo-EM structure of rabbit RyR1 suggests that Plutella G4946E is located in trans-membrane helix S4 close to S4-S5 linker domain supposed to be involved in the modulation of the voltage sensor, and another recently described mutation, I4790M in helix S2 approx. 13 Å opposite of G4946E. Genotyping by pyrosequencing revealed the presence of the RyR G4946E mutation in larvae collected in 2013/14 in regions of ten different countries where

  20. A hymenopterist’s guide to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: utility, clarification, and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenoptera exhibit an incredible diversity of phenotypes, the result of ~240 million years of evolution and the primary subject of more than 250 years of research. Here we describe the history, development, and utility of the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) and its associated applications. These...

  1. Susceptibility of field populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to a selection of insecticides in Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Shen, Jun; Mao, Kaikai; You, Hong; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a globally distributed and important economic pest. Chemical control is the primary approach to regulate populations of this pest. However, resistance to insecticides evolves following heavy and frequent use. Therefore, the insecticide resistance in field populations of P. xylostella collected from Central China from 2013 to 2014 was determined with a leaf-dipping method. Based on the results of the monitoring, P. xylostella has developed high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin (resistance ratio=69.76-335.76-fold), Bt (WG-001) (RR=35.43-167.36), and chlorfluazuron (RR=13.60-104.95) and medium levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole (RR=1.19-14.26), chlorfenapyr (RR=4.22-13.44), spinosad (RR=5.89-21.45), indoxacarb (RR=4.01-34.45), and abamectin (RR=23.88-95.15). By contrast, the field populations of P. xylostella remained susceptible to or developed low levels of resistance to diafenthiuron (RR=1.61-8.05), spinetoram (RR=0.88-2.35), and cyantraniliprole (RR=0.4-2.15). Moreover, the LC50 values of field populations of P. xylostella were highly positively correlated between chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (r=0.88, P=0.045), chlorantraniliprole and spinosad (r=0.66, P=0.039), spinosad and diafenthiuron (r=0.57, P=0.0060), and chlorfenapyr and diafenthiuron (r=0.51, P=0.016). Additionally, the activities of detoxification enzymes in field populations of P. xylostella were significantly positively correlated with the log LC50 values of chlorantraniliprole and spinosad. The results of this study provide an important base for developing effective and successful strategies to manage insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  2. Effects of Insecticides on the Fluidity of Mitochondrial Membranes of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella, Resistant and Susceptible to Avermectin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, J.; Liang, P.; Shi, X.; Gao, X.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various insecticides on the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes and cross-resistance were investigated in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using strains that were both resistant and susceptible to avermectin. The resistant strain of P. xylostella, AV-R, developed 1078-fold resistance to avermetins with a high level of cross-resistance to the analogs of avermectins, ivermectin and emamectin benzoate. It had more than 1000 times greater resistance when compared with the avermectin-susceptible strain, XH-S. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity was measured by detecting fluorescence polarization using DPH (1,6-Diphenyl -1,3,5-hexatriene) as the fluorescence probe. Abamectin, emamectin benzoate, ivermectin, cypermethrin and fenvalerate decreased the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes in the XH-S strain at 25°C. However, fipronil and acephate did not change the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane when the concentration of these insecticides was 1×10-4 mol/L. Membrane fluidity increased as the temperature increased. The thermotropic effect on the polarization value of DPH increased as the insecticide concentration was increased. There was a significant difference of mitochondrial membrane fluidity between both XH-S and AV-R when temperature was less than 25°C and no difference was observed when the temperature was more than 25°C. The low-dose abamectin (0.11 mg/L) in vivo treatment caused a significant change of membrane fluidity in the XH-S strain and no change in the AV-R strain. However, a high-dose abamectin (11.86 mg/L) resulted in 100% mortality of the XH-S strain. In vivo treatment may cause a significant change of membrane fluidity in the AV-R strain PMID:20345311

  3. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host.

  4. A point mutation in the glutamate-gated chloride channel of Plutella xylostella is associated with resistance to abamectin.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, R; Yang, Y; Wu, S; O'Reilly, A O; Wu, Y

    2016-04-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a global pest of cruciferous vegetables. Abamectin resistance in a field population of P. xylostella was introgressed into the susceptible Roth strain. The resulting introgression strain Roth-Abm showed 11 000-fold resistance to abamectin compared with Roth. An A309V substitution at the N-terminus of the third transmembrane helix (M3) of the glutamate-gated chloride channel of P. xylostella (PxGluCl) was identified in Roth-Abm. The frequency of the V309 allele of PxGluCl was 94.7% in Roth-Abm, whereas no such allele was detected in Roth. A subpopulation of Roth-Abm was kept without abamectin selection for 20 generations to produce a revertant strain, Roth-Abm-D. Abamectin resistance in Roth-Abm-D declined to 1150-fold compared with Roth, with the V309 allele frequency decreased to 9.6%. After treatment of the Roth-Abm-D strain with 80 mg/l abamectin the V309 allele frequency in the survivors increased to 55%. This demonstrates that the A309V mutation in PxGluCl is strongly associated with a 10-fold increase in abamectin resistance in Roth-Abm relative to Roth-Abm-D. Homology modelling and automated ligand docking results suggest that the A309V substitution allosterically modifies the abamectin-binding site, as opposed to directly eliminating a key binding contact. Other resistance mechanisms to abamectin in Roth-Abm are discussed besides the A309V mutation of PxGluCl.

  5. Temperature-sensitive fitness cost of insecticide resistance in Chinese populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin Jie; Jing, Yu Pu; Li, Xiao Hui; Li, Chang Wei; Bourguet, Denis; Wu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Alleles conferring a higher adaptive value in one environment may have a detrimental impact on fitness in another environment. Alleles conferring resistance to pesticides and drugs provide textbook examples of this trade-off as, in addition to conferring resistance to these molecules, they frequently decrease fitness in pesticide/drug-free environments. We show here that resistance to chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate (OP), in Chinese populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is conferred by two mutations of ace1 - the gene encoding the acetylcholinesterase enzyme targeted by OPs - affecting the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein. These mutations were always linked, consistent with the segregation of a single resistance allele, ace1R, carrying both mutations, in the populations studied. We monitored the frequency of ace1R (by genotyping more than 20 000 adults) and the level of resistance (through bioassays on more than 50 000 individuals) over several generations. We found that the ace1R resistance allele was costly in the absence of insecticide and that this cost was likely recessive. This fitness costs involved a decrease in fecundity: females from resistant strains laid 20% fewer eggs, on average, than females from susceptible strains. Finally, we found that the fitness costs associated with the ace1R allele were greater at high temperatures. At least two life history traits were involved: longevity and fecundity. The relative longevity of resistant individuals was affected only at high temperatures and the relative fecundity of resistant females - which was already affected at temperatures optimal for development - decreased further at high temperatures. The implications of these findings for resistance management are discussed.

  6. Ontogeny and reproductive biology of Diadegma semiclausum (Hym.: Ichneumonidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Pourian, Hamid-Reza; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Ashouri, Ahmad; Lotfalizadeh, Hossein-Ali; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the ontogeny and reproductive biology of Diadegma semiclausum (Hym.: Ichneumonidae), an important parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) are described in detail. We did dissect parasitized P. xylostella larvae in phosphate-buffered saline and determine the external morphology of its parasitoid at all developmental stages. The developmental duration of its immature stages, adult longevity, total oviposition period and fecundity of the parasitoid are determined at 24 ± 1 °C, 65  ±  5% R.H., and a photoperiod of 16:8 h L:D. The mean duration of egg and larval stages is 9.56 days and the prepupa and pupa stages last for 8.27 days. In average, female longevity is 1.31 times longer than that of males, and females lay 300 eggs in total. The peak of D. semiclausum oviposition is on the eighth day after mating. The egg loading pattern of D. semiclausum was investigated to determine the parasitoid 'ovigeny index' throughout the female's parasitoid lifetime. Initial egg load in immature females (<2 h age) is 1.45 per female and the mean lifetime potential fecundity (total immature and mature oocytes), at four interval ages, is 34. With an ovigeny index value of 0.038, D. semiclausum is considered moderately to strongly synovigenic. In the absence of the host, after 3 days, the number of eggs is decreased in D. semiclausum. Our results demonstrated that there is a negative relation between the ovigeny index and egg resorption in this parasitoid.

  7. Amino acid substitutions and intron polymorphism of acetylcholinesterase1 associated with mevinphos resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shih-Chia; Lin, Chia-Li; Chang, Cheng; Feng, Hai-Tung; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2014-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is the most destructive insect pest of Brassica crops in the world. It has developed resistance rapidly to almost every insecticide used for its control. Mevinphos, a fast degrading and slow resistance evocating organophosphorus insecticide, has been recommended for controlling P. xylostella in Taiwan for more than 40years. SHM strain of P. xylostella, with ca. 22-fold resistance to this chemical, has been established from a field SH strain by selecting with mevinphos since 1997. Three mutations, i.e., G892T, G971C, and T1156T/G leading to A298S, G324A, and F386F/V amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase1 (AChE1), were identified in these two strains; along with three haplotype pairs and a polymorphic intron in AChE1 gene (ace1). Two genetically pure lines, i.e., an SHggt wild type with intron AS and an SHMTCN mutant carrying G892T, G971C, T1156T/G mutations and intron AR in ace1, were established by single pair mating and haplotype determination. The F1 of SHMTCN strain had 52-fold resistance to mevinphos in comparison with the F1 of SHggt strain. In addition, AChE1 of this SHMTCN population, which exhibited lower maximum velocity (Vmax) and affinity (Km), was less susceptible to the inhibition of mevinphos, with an I50 32-fold higher than that of the SHggt F1 population. These results imply that amino acid substitutions in AChE1 of SHMTCN strain are associated with mevinphos resistance in this insect pest, and this finding is important for insecticide resistance management of P. xylostella in the field.

  8. Two novel sodium channel mutations associated with resistance to indoxacarb and metaflumizone in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Liang; Su, Wen; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Yang, Yi-Hua; Dong, Ke; Wu, Yi-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone belong to a relatively new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). Due to intensive use of indoxacarb, field-evolved indoxacarb resistance has been reported in several lepidopteran pests, including the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a serious pest of cruciferous crops. In particular, the BY12 population of P. xylostella, collected from Baiyun, Guangdong Province of China in 2012, was 750-fold more resistant to indoxacarb and 70-fold more resistant to metaflumizone compared with the susceptible Roth strain. Comparison of complementary DNA sequences encoding the sodium channel genes of Roth and BY12 revealed two point mutations (F1845Y and V1848I) in the sixth segment of domain IV of the PxNav protein in the BY population. Both mutations are located within a highly conserved sequence region that is predicted to be involved in the binding sites of local anesthetics and SCBIs based on mammalian sodium channels. A significant correlation was observed among 10 field-collected populations between the mutant allele (Y1845 or I1848) frequencies (1.7% to 52.5%) and resistance levels to both indoxacarb (34- to 870-fold) and metaflumizone (1- to 70-fold). The two mutations were never found to co-exist in the same allele of PxNav , suggesting that they arose independently. This is the first time that sodium channel mutations have been associated with high levels of resistance to SCBIs. F1845Y and V1848I are molecular markers for resistance monitoring in the diamondback moth and possibly other insect pest species.

  9. Two novel sodium channel mutations associated with resistance to indoxacarb and metaflumizone in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing-Liang; Su, Wen; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Yang, Yi-Hua; Dong, Ke; Wu, Yi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone belong to a relatively new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). Due to intensive use of indoxacarb, field-evolved indoxacarb resistance has been reported in several lepidopteran pests including the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a serious pest of cruciferous crops. In particular, the BY12 population of P. xylostella, collected from Baiyun, Guangdong province of China in 2012, was 750-fold more resistant to indoxacarb and 70-fold more resistant to metaflumizone compared with the susceptible Roth strain. Comparison of cDNA sequences encoding the sodium channel genes of Roth and BY12 revealed two point mutations (F1845Y and V1848I) in the 6th segment of domain IV of the PxNav protein in the BY population. Both mutations are located within a highly conserved sequence region that is predicted to be involved in the binding sites of local anesthetics and SCBIs based on mammalian sodium channels. A significant correlation was observed among ten field-collected populations between the mutant allele (Y1845 or I1848) frequencies (1.7% to 52.5%) and resistance levels to both indoxacarb (34- to 870-fold) and metaflumizone (1- to 70-fold). The two mutant alleles were never found to co-exist in the same allele of PxNav, suggesting that they arose independently. This is the first time that sodium channel mutations have been associated with high levels of resistance to SCBIs. F1845Y and V1848I are molecular markers for resistance monitoring in the diamondback moth and possibly other insect pest species. PMID:25850422

  10. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Serine Protease Inhibitor Genes Increases the Mortality of Plutella xylostella Challenged by Destruxin A

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides. PMID:24837592

  11. Transcript and Protein Profiling Analysis of the Destruxin A-Induced Response in Larvae of Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaolin; Fan, Jiqiao; Qiu, Baoli; Ren, Shunxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Destruxins (dtxs) are the mycotoxin produced by certain entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae, Aschersonia sp, Alternaria brassicae and Ophiosphaerella herpotrichae. It can affect a wide variety of biological processes in insects, including innate immune, Ca2+ channel in cells, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Dtxs have been used as biological control agent for a long time, however, their molecular mechanism of action is still unknown. Principal Findings In this study, both digital gene expression (DGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) approaches were adopted to examine the effects of dtx A on Plutella xyllostella (L.) larvae. By using DGE and 2-DE analyses, 1584 genes and 42 protein points were identified as being up- or down regulated at least 2-fold in response to dtx A. Firstly, injection of dtx A to larvae accelerated the increase of peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP), which could activate the Toll signal pathway inducing production of antibacterial substances such as cecropin and gloverin. Dtx A also stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) system which plays an important role in innate immunity and leads to melanization of external organisms. Secondly, dtx A suppressed the expression of genes related to the Toll pathway, and induced expression of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), especially the serpin 2 that blocked process of the proPO system. Finally, other physiological process like xenobiotics detoxification, apoptosis, calcium signaling pathway and insect hormone biosynthesis, were also mediated in response to dtx A toxicity. Conclusions Transcript and protein profiling analyses will provide an insight into the potential molecular mechanism of action in P. xylostella larvae in response to dtx A. PMID:23585848

  12. RNAi-mediated knockdown of serine protease inhibitor genes increases the mortality of Plutella xylostella challenged by destruxin A.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengfei; Fan, Jiqiao; Liu, Yu; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Yan, Shaoqiao; Qiu, Bao-Li; Ren, Shunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Destruxin A is a mycotoxin that is secreted by entomopathogenic fungi which has a broad-spectrum insecticidal effect. Previous transcript and protein profiling analysis showed that destruxin A has significant effects on the expression of serine protease inhibitor genes (serpin-2, 4, 5) in the larvae of Plutella xylostella. In the current study, we aimed to understand the role of serpins under application of destruxin A. We obtained two full-length cDNA sequences of P. xylostella serpins, named serpin-4 and serpin-5, and cloned the serpin-2 gene whose full-length has already been published. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these two serpin genes were highly clustered with other serpins associated with the immune response in other insects. The temporal and spatial expression of serpin-2, serpin-4 and serpin-5 were determined to be the highest in the fat body and hemolymph of 4th larval stage using qRT-PCR and western blot detection techniques. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of P. xylostella serpin genes was carried out by microinjection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The expression levels of serpins decreased significantly after RNAi. Results showed that the depletion of serpins induced cecropins expression, increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, body melanization and mortality in the larvae of P. xylostella under the same lethal concentration of destruxin A. The superimposed effects of serpins RNAi were similar with the destruxin A treatment upon mortality of P. xylostella larvae. We discovered for the first time that serpins play indispensable role in P. xylostella when challenged by destruxin A and deduced the possible function mechanism of destruxin A. Our findings are conducive to fully understanding the potential insecticidal mechanism of destruxin A and constitute a well-defined potential molecular target for novel insecticides.

  13. Common, but complex, mode of resistance of Plutella xylostella to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Sayyed, Ali H; Gatsi, Roxani; Ibiza-Palacios, M Sales; Escriche, Baltasar; Wright, Denis J; Crickmore, Neil

    2005-11-01

    A field collected population of Plutella xylostella (SERD4) was selected in the laboratory with Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxins Cry1Ac (Cry1Ac-SEL) and Cry1Ab (Cry1Ab-SEL). Both subpopulations showed similar phenotypes: high resistance to the Cry1A toxins and little cross-resistance to Cry1Ca or Cry1D. A previous analysis of the Cry1Ac-SEL showed incompletely dominant resistance to Cry1Ac with more than one factor, at least one of which was sex influenced. In the present study reciprocal mass crosses between Cry1Ab-SEL and a laboratory susceptible population (ROTH) provided evidence that Cry1Ab resistance was also inherited as incompletely dominant trait with more than one factor, and at least one of the factors was sex influenced. Analysis of single pair mating indicated that Cry1Ab-SEL was still heterogeneous for Cry1Ab resistance genes, showing genes with different degrees of dominance. Binding studies showed a large reduction of specific binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac to midgut membrane vesicles of the Cry1Ab-SEL subpopulation. Cry1Ab-SEL was found to be more susceptible to trypsin-activated Cry1Ab toxin than protoxin, although no defect in toxin activation was found. Present and previous results indicate a common basis of resistance to both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in selected subpopulations and suggest that a similar set of resistance genes are responsible for resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac and are selected whichever toxin was used. The possibility of an incompletely dominant trait of resistant to these toxins should be taken into account when considering refuge resistance management strategies.

  14. Interaction between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Fipronil on 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei; Wei, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.) and LC50 of fipronil, the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and fipronil on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that pretreatment of the tested insects at 30 °C for 2, 4 and 8h could somewhat decrease the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations. The LC50 values of fipronil increased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were below zero. These results indicated that real mortalities were less than theoretical ones and antagonism was found in the treatments of fipronil at 0.39 and 0.78 mg/L after heat pretreatment at 30 °C at 2, 4 and 8 h. However, pretreatment at 30 °C for 12h could increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations, the LC50 of fipronil decreased after heat pretreatment and c.f. values in all these treatments were above zero, which indicated real mortalities were higher than theoretical ones. Pretreatment of the tested insects at 35 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 12h was found to increase the toxicity of fipronil at all set concentrations which resulted in the decrease of LC50 values of fipronil and c.f. above zero in all treatments with only one exception. Most interactions were assessed as synergism. The results indicated that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:20877489

  15. Allometric ecological distributions in a local community of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The present paper describes basic ecological distributions in a community of beech forest Hymenoptera. It shows that the species diversity-body weight and the density-body weight distributions give rise to a new distribution that relates total community biomass to species diversity. For Hymenoptera this distribution follows a power function with a slope of 1.3. Combining this relation with the species-area and the individuals-area relations resulted in two other distributions that relate community biomass to area and individual numbers. It appeared that population densities decrease when computed over larger areas. The biomass-species diversity relation offers a new and simple way to estimate total community biomass from samples. The possible implications of this distribution to the productivity-diversity debate are discussed.

  16. Four new species of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Myartseva, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Coronado-Blanco, Juana María

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Encarsia Förster (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Mexico are described--E. albata Myartseva sp. n. (State of Nuevo León), E. barracas Myartseva sp. n. (State of Baja California Sur), E. chichenitza Myartseva sp. n. (State of Yucatán) and E. elenae Myartseva sp. n. (State of Tamaulipas). A key to the species of Encarsia in Mexico published in 2012 is modified to include the newly described species.

  17. A taxonomic study of Ooctonus (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hai-Feng; Jin, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Cheng-De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of Ooctonus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang Province, China, are reviewed. One species, Ooctonus huberi sp. n., is described as new, and four species, Ooctonus orientalis Doutt, Ooctonus saturn Triapitsyn, Ooctonus sublaevis Förster and Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday are reported as new to China. A key to the females of the 10 described Chinese species is given. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China. PMID:25685015

  18. New records of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) for the Italian fauna

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Matthias; Diller, Erich; Schwarz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New distributional records on 55 ichneumonids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Italy are provided. Of these, 47 species are new for Italy, including representatives of the subfamily Diacritinae and of the tribes Zimmeriini (Ichneumoninae) and Pseudorhyssini (Poemeniinae); six species are new for Sardinia, one for Sicily and one for the Italian mainland. The hitherto unknown female of Baranisobas hibericus Heinrich, 1972 (Ichneumoninae) is described. PMID:26175609

  19. Dual olfactory pathway in Hymenoptera: evolutionary insights from comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wolfgang; Zube, Christina

    2011-07-01

    In the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and carpenter ant (Camponotus floridanus) the antennal lobe output is connected to higher brain centers by a dual olfactory pathway. Two major sets of uniglomerular projection neurons innervate glomeruli from two antennal-lobe hemispheres and project via a medial and a lateral antennal-lobe protocerebral tract in opposite sequence to the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Comparison across insects suggests that the lateral projection neuron tract represents a special feature of Hymenoptera. We hypothesize that this promotes advanced olfactory processing associated with chemical communication, orientation and social interactions. To test whether a dual olfactory pathway is restricted to social Hymenoptera, we labeled the antennal lobe output tracts in selected species using fluorescent tracing and confocal imaging. Our results show that a dual pathway from the antennal lobe to the mushroom bodies is present in social bees, basal and advanced ants, solitary wasps, and in one of two investigated species of sawflies. This indicates that a dual olfactory pathway is not restricted to social species and may have evolved in basal Hymenoptera. We suggest that associated advances in olfactory processing represent a preadaptation for life styles with high demands on olfactory discrimination like parasitoism, central place foraging, and sociality.

  20. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens.

    PubMed

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-07-09

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some "omics" approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  1. Recombination, chromosome number and eusociality in the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ross, L; Blackmon, H; Lorite, P; Gokhman, V E; Hardy, N B

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinarily high rates of recombination have been observed in some eusocial species. The most popular explanation is that increased recombination increases genetic variation among workers, which in turn increases colony performance, for example by increasing parasite resistance. However, support for the generality of higher recombination rates among eusocial organisms remains weak, due to low sample size and a lack of phylogenetic independence of observations. Recombination rate, although difficult to measure directly, is correlated with chromosome number. As predicted, several authors have noted that chromosome numbers are higher among the eusocial species of Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). Here, we present a formal comparative analysis of karyotype data from 1567 species of Hymenoptera. Contrary to earlier studies, we find no evidence for an absolute difference between chromosome number in eusocial and solitary species of Hymenoptera. However, we find support for an increased rate of chromosome number change in eusocial taxa. We show that among eusocial taxa colony size is able to explain some of the variation in chromosome number: intermediate-sized colonies have more chromosomes than those that are either very small or very large. However, we were unable to detect effects of a number of other colony characteristics predicted to affect recombination rate - including colony relatedness and caste number. Taken together, our results support the view that a eusocial lifestyle has led to variable selection pressure for increased recombination rates, but that identifying the factors contributing to this variable selection will require further theoretical and empirical effort.

  2. A case of anaphylaxis: horse-fly or hymenoptera sting?

    PubMed

    Quercia, O; Emiliani, F; Foschi, F G; Stefanini, G F

    2009-10-01

    In literature it has been described a high risk of systemic reaction after blood-sucking Dyptera bites, like mosquitoes and horsefly, in people sensitive to hymenoptera. A 51 year old man, allergic to hymenoptera venom and with a history of i.v. reaction after Mueller, who has been treated with Vespula sp. ITS for the last 3 years, was stung by a yellow, black and green insect on the neck. Five minutes after the bite, he suffered generalized hitching and urticaria, oral cavity and lower limbs paresthesia, followed by lost of consciousness. At the Emergency Room he was successfully treated with adrenaline, intravenous antihistamines and corticosteroid. The description of the insect as well as the lack of the sting on the site suggested a wasp as the culprit. By studying one of these insect that has been captured by the patient, it turned out it wasn't a Vespula, but a horsefly, the Tabanus bovinus, which resembles Hymenoptera. Skin prick test and RAST for Tabanus confirmed the allergology diagnosis. In conclusion, also Tabanus bovines can cause systemic reaction up to anaphylactic shock.

  3. Analysis of Hymenoptera stings reported to the Illinois Poison Center.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lee S; Modi, Pinal; Liang, Shile; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    Although there is some detailed research on anaphylactic reactions to Hymenoptera venom, there continues to be little epidemiological data about the distribution, trend, and factors associated with the occurrence of Hymenoptera envenomations in humans. We describe characteristics of persons suffering Hymenoptera stings from bees, wasps, and hornets as reported to the Illinois Poison Center, and assess seasonal, climatologic, and time trends of calls for envenomations between 2002 and 2007. Mean daily temperature and mean daily atmospheric pressure were positively associated with envenomations, whereas wind speed was negatively associated with envenomations. We also observed a significant increase in calls for envenomations on summer holidays (P < 0.001). In addition, our findings showed that the number of calls for envenomations declined by nearly half after 2005 (P < 0.001) compared with previous years. Our findings indicate that the decline in bees, wasps, and hornets may be widespread, affecting both wild and commercial populations, and that the decline appears to have been rapid and sustained in recent years. Poison center data are a valuable resource for the surveillance of poisoning in humans, but our findings show that the data can be used to monitor changes in nonhuman species.

  4. Facing Hymenoptera Venom Allergy: From Natural to Recombinant Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Riverol, Amilcar; Justo-Jacomini, Débora Lais; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima; Brochetto-Braga, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Along with food and drug allergic reactions, a Hymenoptera insect Sting (Apoidea, Vespidae, Formicidae) is one of the most common causes of anaphylaxis worldwide. Diagnoses of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and specific immunotherapy (SIT) have been based on the use of crude venom extracts. However, the incidence of cross-reactivity and low levels of sensibility during diagnosis, as well as the occurrence of nonspecific sensitization and undesired side effects during SIT, encourage the search for novel allergenic materials. Recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and SIT because they circumvent major problems associated with the use of crude venom. Production of recombinant allergens depends on the profound molecular characterization of the natural counterpart by combining some “omics” approaches with high-throughput screening techniques and the selection of an appropriate system for heterologous expression. To date, several clinically relevant allergens and novel venom toxins have been identified, cloned and characterized, enabling a better understanding of the whole allergenic and envenoming processes. Here, we review recent findings on identification, molecular characterization and recombinant expression of Hymenoptera venom allergens and on the evaluation of these heterologous proteins as valuable tools for tackling remaining pitfalls on HVA diagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:26184309

  5. Characterization and expression profiling of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiping; Ma, Xiaoli; He, Weiyi; Chen, Wei; Zou, Mingmin; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2016-09-27

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the major transmembrane protein families found in all organisms and play important roles in transporting a variety of compounds across intra and extra cellular membranes. In some species, ABC transporters may be involved in the detoxification of substances such as insecticides. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, is an important species to study as it is resistant to many types of insecticides as well as biological control Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. A total of 82 ABC genes were identified from our published P. xylostella genome, and grouped into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H) based on phylogenetic analysis. Genes of subfamilies ABCA, ABCC and ABCH were found to be expanded in P. xylostella compared with those in Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that many of the ABC transporters in P. xylostella are orthologous to the well-studied ABC transporter genes in the seven other species. Transcriptome- and qRT-PCR-based analysis elucidated physiological effects of ABC gene expressions of P. xylostella which were developmental stage- and tissue-specific as well as being affected by whether or not the insects were from an insecticide-resistant strain. Two ABCC and one ABCA genes were preferentially expressed in midgut of the 4th-instar larvae of a susceptible strain (Fuzhou-S) suggesting their potential roles in metabolizing plant defensive chemicals. Most of the highly expressed genes in insecticide-resistant strains were also predominantly expressed in the tissues of Malpighian tubules and midgut. This is the most comprehensive study on identification, characterization and expression profiling of ABC transporter genes in P. xylostella to date. The diversified features and expression patterns of this gene family may be associated with

  6. The identification and characterisation of a new deltamethrin resistance-associated gene, UBL40, in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Fengliang; Cheng, Chen; Jiao, Dongxu; Zhou, Zhou; Cheng, Luogen

    2013-11-01

    Differential expression of ubiquitin was previously reported between Plutella xylostella strains that are resistant or susceptible to the pesticide deltamethrin (DM). This finding hinted at the potential involvement of ubiquitin in deltamethrin resistance, a theory that demanded further testing. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that one of the ubiquitin genes, UBL40, was overexpressed in the deltamethrin-resistant strain during the fourth instar. To investigate the functional relationship between this gene and deltamethrin resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) and cell transfection were utilised. UBL40 knockdown was observed to significantly reduce the level of resistance in RNAi-treated larvae after 48 h. Conversely, overexpression of UBL40 in Drosophila Kc cells conferred a degree of protection against deltamethrin. These results represent the first evidence that UBL40 plays a role in the regulation of deltamethrin resistance in P. xylostella. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A whole genome screening and RNA interference identify a juvenile hormone esterase-like gene of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaojun; Kumar, Sunil; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays a crucial role in preventing precocious metamorphosis and stimulating reproduction. Thus, its hemolymph titer should be under a tight control. As a negative controller, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) performs a rapid breakdown of residual JH in the hemolymph during last instar to induce a larval-to-pupal metamorphosis. A whole genome of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, has been annotated and proposed 11 JHE candidates. Sequence analysis using conserved motifs commonly found in other JHEs proposed a putative JHE (Px004817). Px004817 (64.61 kDa, pI=5.28) exhibited a characteristic JHE expression pattern by showing high peak at the early last instar, at which JHE enzyme activity was also at a maximal level. RNA interference of Px004817 reduced JHE activity and interrupted pupal development with a significant increase of larval period. This study identifies Px004817 as a JHE-like gene of P. xylostella.

  8. Transcripts of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Pxylα6 with premature stop codons are associated with spinosad resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2010-11-01

    The cDNA sequence of the α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) was cloned and sequenced. Transcripts were similar between the spinosad-susceptible G88 and Wapio strains. All transcripts from the spinosad-resistant Pearl-Sel strain contained premature stop codons, and most transcripts have not been previously reported. None of these truncated transcripts were seen in the spinosad-susceptible strains. Proteins made from these transcripts would likely have no, or greatly altered, receptor function. An F(2) backcross and spinosad bioassay showed that all spinosad bioassay survivors produced truncated α6 transcripts. Thus, it appears that spinosad resistance in diamondback moth is due to a mutation(s) that results in no functional Pxylα6 being produced.

  9. Development of a new method to prepare nano-/microparticles loaded with extracts of Azadirachta indica, their characterization and use in controlling Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Costa, Eveline Soares; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Mondego, Janaina Marques; Boiça Junior, Arlindo Leal

    2013-09-25

    Biodegradable nanoparticles have been widely explored as carriers for controlled delivery of therapeutic molecules; however, studies describing the development of nanoparticles as carriers for biopesticide products are few. In this work, a new method to prepare nanoparticles loaded with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts is presented. In this study, nanoparticles were formulated as colloidal suspension and (spray-dried) powder and characterized by evaluating pH, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, absolute recovery, and entrapment efficiency. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for nanoparticle characterization. The best formulations presented absolute recovery and entrapment efficiencies of approximately 100% and a release profile based on swelling and relaxation of the polymer or polymer erosion. The biological data of the formulated products against Plutella xylostella showed 100% larval mortality. The nanoparticle information improved the stability of neem products against ultraviolet radiation and increased their dispersion in the aqueous phase.

  10. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  11. Larvicidal activity and structure activity relationship of cinnamoyl amides from Zanthoxylum armatum and their synthetic analogues against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vishal; Reddy, S. G. Eswara; Bhardwaj, Anuja; Dolma, Shudh Kirti; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamoyl amides isolated from Zanthoxylum armatum (Rutaceae) and their synthetic analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the second instar larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to determine the promising structures with insecticidal activity. Most of the test compounds showed promising activity against larvae of P. xylostella. However, the activities of different compounds varied depending on the presence of different substituents at various positions of both the aromatic rings A and B. Among the tested compounds, 8, N-(3-bromo-4-methoxyphenethyl)cinnamamide showed best larvicidal activity with an LC50 = 62.13 mg/L followed by 6, N-(3׳-bromophenethyl)cinnamamide (LC50=128.49 mg/L) and 2 N-(4׳-methoxyphenylethyl)cinnamamide (LC50 = 225.65 mg/L). PMID:27231477

  12. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  13. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  14. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  15. Competition between the filth fly parasitoids Muscidifurax raptor and M. raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Assays were conducted by varying e...

  16. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  17. Context dependent stridulatory responses of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to social, prey, and disturbance stimuli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By increasing the speed of stridulatory movements and the rates of stridulation pulses, individuals and groups of Leptogenys kitteli (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) produce graded stridulatory responses to increasingly excitatory stimuli ranging from social interactions within a nest to prey items placed ...

  18. First occurrence of the goldspotted oak borer parasitoid, Calosota elongata (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), in California

    Treesearch

    Laurel J. Haavik; Tom W. Coleman; Yigen Chen; Micheal I. Jones; Robert C. Venette; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2012-01-01

    Calosota elongata Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a gregarious, ectoparasitic larval parasitoid that was described recently (Gibson 2010) in association with the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse [now considered to be Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in its native...

  19. Two genera of Braconinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) in China, with descriptions of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Xue-Xin; Wu, Hong; He, Jun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Two genera, namely Dolabraulax Quicke and Scutibracon Quicke of Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China are studied for the first time, and four new species, namely Dolabraulax jigongshanus Wang & Chen, sp. n., Dolabraulax flavus Wang & Chen, sp. n., Dolabraulax brevivena Wang & Chen, sp. n. and Scutibracon fujianensis Wang & Chen, sp. n. are fully described and illustrated. The examined specimens are deposited in the Parasitic Hymenoptera Collection, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China (ZJUH). PMID:21594015

  20. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  1. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  2. A review of the subfamily Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Samira; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Rakhshani, Ehsan

    2015-06-17

    Specimens of the subfamily Rogadinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were collected in northern Iran during 2010-2011 with a series of Malaise traps. Twelve species belonging to three genera (Aleiodes Wesmael, 1838, Heterogamus Wesmael, 1838 and Clinocentrus Haliday, 1833) were identified, with one genus (Heterogamus) and seven species new for the fauna of Iran. An updated checklist of the genera and species of the subfamily Rogadinae is included. A total of 26 species belonging to four genera are listed for Iran after correction for misidentifications. A key to the genera and the species of Rogadinae known from Iran is provided.

  3. Generic key and catalogue of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Larralde, Adriana J; Huber, John T; Martínez, Humberto Quiroz

    2017-04-12

    The Mexican genera of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) are keyed in English and Spanish, and a catalogue of species occurring in Mexico is presented. Thirty-six genera, including 79 named species in 20 of the genera, are reported. These are mentioned in about 100 publications either as original species descriptions or as publications that specifically mention species and/or specimens from Mexico. In the catalogue, species distributions by state are given based on literature records, and collection data are compiled from about 3630 specimens examined in eight collections in Canada, Mexico and USA. Host are listed for specimens reared mainly in Mexico. A few extralimital host records are also given.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a new tRNA arrangement in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Hong, Eui Jeong; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Camponotus atrox (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which is only distributed in Korea. The genome was 16 540 bp in size and contained typical sets of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs). The C. atrox A+T-rich region, at 1402 bp, was the longest of all sequenced ant genomes and was composed of an identical tandem repeat consisting of six 100-bp copies and one 96-bp copy. A total of 315 bp of intergenic spacer sequence was spread over 23 regions. An alignment of the spacer sequences in ants was largely feasible among congeneric species, and there was substantial sequence divergence, indicating their potential use as molecular markers for congeneric species. The A/T contents at the first and second codon positions of protein-coding genes (PCGs) were similar for ant species, including C. atrox (73.9% vs. 72.3%, on average). With increased taxon sampling among hymenopteran superfamilies, differences in the divergence rates (i.e., the non-synonymous substitution rates) between the suborders Symphyta and Apocrita were detected, consistent with previous results. The C. atrox mt genome had a unique gene arrangement, trnI-trnM-trnQ, at the A+T-rich region and ND2 junction (underline indicates inverted gene). This may have originated from a tandem duplication of trnM-trnI, resulting in trnM-trnI-trnM-trnI-trnQ, and the subsequent loss of the first trnM and second trnI, resulting in trnI-trnM-trnQ.

  5. Antennal Sensilla in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm’s bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp. PMID:25843589

  6. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    PubMed Central

    van Wilgenburg, Ellen; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding, homozygous diploid and sterile males occur which form a genetic burden for a population. We review life history and genetical traits that may overcome the disadvantages of single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD). Behavioural adaptations to avoid matings between relatives include active dispersal from natal patches and mating preferences for non-relatives. In non-social species, temporal and spatial segregation of male and female offspring reduces the burden of sl-CSD. In social species, diploid males are produced at the expense of workers and female reproductives. In some social species, diploid males and diploid male producing queens are killed by workers. Diploid male production may have played a role in the evolution or maintenance of polygyny (multiple queens) and polyandry (multiple mating). Some forms of thelytoky (parthenogenetic female production) increase homozygosity and are therefore incompatible with sl-CSD. We discuss a number of hypothetical adaptations to sl-CSD which should be considered in future studies of this insect order. PMID:16393347

  7. Antennal sensilla in the parasitoid Sclerodermus sp. (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Sun, Xiao; Mi, Feng; Chen, Jingyuan; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the genus Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are an important natural enemy of the Japanese pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to examine the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Sclerodermus sp. Antennae of females and males comprised the scape, pedicel, and 11 flagellomere segments. Based on the morphology of the sensilla in each sex, seven types of sensillum were identified: sensilla trichodea (Tr.1, Tr.2 and Tr.3), sensilla basiconica (Ba.1, Ba.2, and Ba.3), sensilla styloconica (St.1 and St.2), sensilla placodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla squamiforma, and Bohm's bristles. Tr.2, Ba.1, and St.1 were only found in females, whereas Ba.2, Ba.3, and St.2 were only observed in males. Sensilla placodea were the most common, given that they occur on the antennae of many parasitoid Hymenoptera, whereas sensilla Tr were the most abundant, being distributed over the entire antennal surface. These sensilla are likely to have roles in the host locating and habitat searching behavior of adult Sclerodermus wasps. Therefore, our findings provide a basis for further studies of the host location behavior of this and other species of parasitic wasp.

  8. A New Species of Vespula, and First Record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vespula akrei Landolt sp. nov. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae; Vespinae) is described from Guatemala. The first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae:Vespinae) in Guatemala is given, and Vespula Inexspectata Eck (1994) from Mexico is re-described. We place Vespula akrei sp. nov. in the Vespula vulg...

  9. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006.

    PubMed

    Prado, Mónica; Quirós, Damaris; Lomonte, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute). Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI) in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93). The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%), representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older), as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1,591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees) in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1). Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Taeniogonalos taihorina (Bischoff) (Hymenoptera: Trigonalyidae) reveals a novel gene rearrangement pattern in the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Li, Qian; Gu, Yun; Shi, Bao-Cai; van Achterberg, Cees; Wei, Shu-Jun; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2014-06-10

    The family Trigonalyidae is considered to be one of the most basal lineages in the suborder Apocrita of Hymenoptera. Here, we determine the first complete mitochondrial genome of the Trigonalyidae, from the species Taeniogonalos taihorina (Bischoff, 1914). This mitochondrial genome is 15,927bp long, with a high A+T-content of 84.60%. It contains all of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The orders and directions of all genes are different from those of previously reported hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Eight tRNA genes, three protein-coding genes and the A+T-rich region were rearranged, with the dominant gene rearrangement events being translocation and local inversion. The arrangements of three tRNA clusters, trnY-trnM-trnI-trnQ, trnW-trnL2-trnC, and trnH-trnA-trnR-trnN-trnS-trnE-trnF, and the position of the cox1 gene, are novel to the Hymenoptera, even the insects. Six long intergenic spacers are present in the genome. The secondary structures of the RNA genes are normal, except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairing is absent.

  11. Temperature-dependent phenology of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Simulation and visualization of current and future distributions along the Eastern Afromontane

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, Benignus V.; Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Mwangi, Evans M.; Johansson, Tino; Ambale, Janet; Ndegwa, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    There is a scarcity of laboratory and field-based results showing the movement of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) across a spatial scale. We studied the population growth of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) under six constant temperatures, to understand and predict population changes along altitudinal gradients and under climate change scenarios. Non-linear functions were fitted to continuously model DBM development, mortality, longevity and oviposition. We compiled the best-fitted functions for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which we stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters. Three temperature-dependent indices (establishment, generation and activity) were derived from a logistic population growth model and then coupled to collected current (2013) and downscaled temperature data from AFRICLIM (2055) for geospatial mapping. To measure and predict the impacts of temperature change on the pest’s biology, we mapped the indices along the altitudinal gradients of Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania) and Taita Hills (Kenya) and assessed the differences between 2013 and 2055 climate scenarios. The optimal temperatures for development of DBM were 32.5, 33.5 and 33°C for eggs, larvae and pupae, respectively. Mortality rates increased due to extreme temperatures to 53.3, 70.0 and 52.4% for egg, larvae and pupae, respectively. The net reproduction rate reached a peak of 87.4 female offspring/female/generation at 20°C. Spatial simulations indicated that survival and establishment of DBM increased with a decrease in temperature, from low to high altitude. However, we observed a higher number of DBM generations at low altitude. The model predicted DBM population growth reduction in the low and medium altitudes by 2055. At higher altitude, it predicted an increase in the level of suitability for establishment with a decrease in the number of generations per year. If climate change occurs as per the selected

  12. Clonal mast cell disorders in patients with severe Hymenoptera venom allergy and normal serum tryptase levels.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Roberta; Lombardo, Carla; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Caimmi, Cristian; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; De Matteis, Giovanna; Perbellini, Omar; Rossini, Maurizio; Schena, Donatella; Busa, Moira; Marcotulli, Maria Cinzia; Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Franchini, Maurizio; Marchi, Giovanni; Simioni, Livio; Bonadonna, Patrizia

    2015-07-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is a clonal mast cell (MC) disease that can lead to potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions caused by excessive MC mediator release. The prevalence of mastocytosis in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy is high, and thus the disease should be suspected in patients with severe reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings and increased serum basal tryptase (SBT) levels. We sought to evaluate the presence of clonal MC disorders in patients seen at our mastocytosis center with Hymenoptera sting-induced anaphylaxis, documented hypotension, absence of urticaria pigmentosa, and normal SBT levels. Twenty-two patients with Hymenoptera sting-induced anaphylaxis, without skin lesions, and with tryptase levels of less than 11.4 ng/mL underwent bone marrow evaluation. Bone mineral density was assessed in those patients with ascertained mastocytosis. In 16 of 22 patients, a diagnosis of indolent mastocytosis could be established, and 1 patient had a monoclonal MC activation syndrome. Patients with mastocytosis had higher SBT levels (P = .03) but only rarely had angioedema/urticaria associated with hypotension (P = .004). The absence of urticaria or angioedema in severe reactions to Hymenoptera stings with hypotension might represent the most relevant factor in identifying patients with mastocytosis, regardless of their serum tryptase levels. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  14. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  15. In vitro interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae Ma9236 and Beauveria bassiana Bb9205 with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HNI0100 for the control of Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Correa-Cuadros, J P; Sáenz-Aponte, A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, M X

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is a major pest of broccoli crops in Colombia. To control P. xylostella, we evaluated the interaction of Beauveria bassiana Bb9205 and Metarhizium anisopliae Ma9236 with Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HNI0100 and its bacterial symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens HNI0100. We used antagonism and disk diffusion assays with fungal extracts to test the interaction between symbiotic bacterium and fungi. P. luminescens inhibited the growth of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae up to 40% by the secretion of secondary metabolites, whereas fungal extracts did not inhibit P. luminescens; this explains the in vivo interactions of these biological control agents. To test the interaction between fungi and nematodes, we first inoculated the fungi followed by the nematodes on different days (0, 2, 4, and 6). We identified the type of interaction using the formula by Nishimatsu and Jackson (J Econ Entomol 91:410-418, 1998) and established that on days 0, 2 and 4 there was an antagonistic interaction, while a synergistic interaction occurred on day 6. Therefore, the use of the interaction between H. bacteriophora HNI0100 with M. anisopliae Ma9236 and B. bassiana Bb9205 is an innovative alternative for the control of P. xylostella.

  16. Identification of immunity-related genes in Plutella xylostella in response to fungal peptide destruxin A: RNA-Seq and DGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Xu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Jin; Zhu, Xun; Li, Shuzhong; Zhou, Xianqiang; Yu, Jialin; Xu, Xiaojing; Hu, Qiongbo; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-09-08

    Plutella xylostella has become the major lepidopteran pest of Brassica owing to its strong ability of resistance development to a wide range of insecticides. Destruxin A, a mycotoxin of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, has broad-spectrum insecticidal effects. However, the interaction mechanism of destruxin A with the immune system of P. xylostella at genomic level is still not well understood. Here, we identified 129 immunity-related genes, including pattern recognition receptors, signal modulators, few members of main immune pathways (Toll, Imd, and JAK/STAT), and immune effectors in P. xylostella in response to destruxin A at three different time courses (2 h, 4 h, and 6 h). It is worthy to mention that the immunity-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis exhibited 30, 78, and 72 up-regulated and 17, 13, and 6 down-regulated genes in P. xylostella after destruxin A injection at 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h, respectively, compared to control. Interestingly, our results revealed that the expression of antimicrobial peptides that play a vital role in insect immune system was up-regulated after the injection of destruxin A. Our findings provide a detailed information on immunity-related DEGs and reveal the potential of P. xylostella to limit the infection of fungal peptide destruxin A by increasing the activity of antimicrobial peptides.

  17. Degradation of acephate by Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus cereus and Pantoea agglomerans isolated from diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L), a pest of cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Murthy, Kottilingam Srinivasa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Varghese, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Acephate-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from the larval gut of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a notorious pest of cruciferous crops worldwide that has developed resistance to insecticides. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as Bacillus cereus (PX-B.C.Or), Enterobacter asburiae (PXE), and Pantoae agglomerans (PX-Pt.ag.Jor). All isolates grew on minimal media (MM) in the presence of acephate at 100 and 200 ppm, with maximum growth at 200 ppm. LC-MS analyses of spent medium showed that E. asburiae degraded acephate to methamidophos and O, O-dimethyl phosporamidate and B. cereus O,S-dimethyl to phosphorothioate but P. agglomerans to an unnamed compound. All three isolates used acephate as a source of carbon and energy for growth; however, P. agglomerans used it also as source of sulphur. Strong evidence revealed that the bacterial communities present in the gut of diamondback moth might aid in acephate degradation and play a role in the development of insecticide resistance.

  18. Purification of the insecticidal Cry2Ad protein from a Bt-isolated BRC-HZP10 strain and toxin assay to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Liao, J Y; Gao, Y Q; Wu, Q Y; Zhu, Y C; You, M S

    2015-07-13

    The present study aims to characterize the Cry2Ad toxin protein isolated from a Bacillus thuringiensis strain, BRC-HZP10, which have a potential insecticidal activity against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The crude Bt toxin proteins were isolated and purified by cation exchange chromatography, then equilibrated with 0.2 M NaOH buffer, pH 4.0, followed by ultraviolet detection at 280 nm and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A refined Cry2Ad toxin protein with 88.34% purity was eventually obtained and used for a bioassay by feeding it to P. xylostella. The results showed conspicuous insecticidal activity towards P. xylostella with 50% lethal concentration of 6.84 μg/mL and 95% confidence interval of 5.77-7.91 mg/mL. At a concentration of 16.38 μg/mL, the intake of Cry2Ad protein significantly shortened the oviposition period and larval developmental duration, but significantly reduced the fecundity and egg hatchability of the population compared to those of control (without treatment with Cry2Ad protein) (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the Cry2Ad protein plays an effective role in controlling the population of P. xylostella.

  19. Resistance to diamide insecticides in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is associated with a mutation in the membrane-spanning domain of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Troczka, Bartek; Zimmer, Christoph T; Elias, Jan; Schorn, Corinna; Bass, Chris; Davies, T G Emyr; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S; Slater, Russell; Nauen, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    Diamide insecticides such as chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide are a new class of insecticide that selectively target insect ryanodine receptors (RyR), a distinct class of homo-tetrameric calcium release channels which play a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis in numerous cell types. Resistance to these insecticides has recently been reported in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a global lepidopteran pest of cruciferous crops. In the present study a region of the gene encoding the proposed diamide binding site of the RyR from P. xylostella collected from the Philippines and Thailand and found to be over 200-fold resistant to both chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide compared to susceptible strains, were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Comparison of the sequence with those from several susceptible reference strains revealed non-synonymous mutations in each of the resistant strains that in both cases lead to a glycine to glutamic acid substitution (G4946E) in the protein. The independent evolution of the same amino acid substitution within a highly conserved region of the proposed diamide binding site in two geographically separated resistant strains of P. xylostella strongly suggests a causal association with diamide resistance. Furthermore we designed a pyrosequencing-based diagnostic assay for resistance monitoring purposes that can be used to detect the G4946E mutation in field-collected samples of diamondback moth. The implications of the reported findings for resistance management strategies are discussed.

  20. Genome wide discovery of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and their expression in insecticide resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Etebari, Kayvan; Furlong, Michael J; Asgari, Sassan

    2015-09-28

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in genomic imprinting, cancer, differentiation and regulation of gene expression. Here, we identified 3844 long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNA) in Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious pest of cruciferous plants that has developed field resistance to all classes of insecticides, including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins. Further, we found that some of those lincRNAs may potentially serve as precursors for the production of small ncRNAs. We found 280 and 350 lincRNAs that are differentially expressed in Chlorpyrifos and Fipronil resistant larvae. A survey on P. xylostella midgut transcriptome data from Bt-resistant populations revealed 59 altered lincRNA in two resistant strains compared with the susceptible population. We validated the transcript levels of a number of putative lincRNAs in deltamethrin-resistant larvae that were exposed to deltamethrin, which indicated that this group of lincRNAs might be involved in the response to xenobiotics in this insect. To functionally characterize DBM lincRNAs, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes was extracted and showed over representation of protein, DNA and RNA binding GO terms. The data presented here will facilitate future studies to unravel the function of lincRNAs in insecticide resistance or the response to xenobiotics of eukaryotic cells.

  1. Engineering of benzylglucosinolate in tobacco provides proof-of-concept for dead-end trap crops genetically modified to attract Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth).

    PubMed

    Møldrup, Morten E; Geu-Flores, Fernando; de Vos, Martin; Olsen, Carl E; Sun, Joel; Jander, Georg; Halkier, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Glucosinolates are biologically active natural products characteristic of crucifers, including oilseed rape, cabbage vegetables and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Crucifer-specialist insect herbivores, like the economically important pest Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth), frequently use glucosinolates as oviposition stimuli. This suggests that the transfer of a glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway to a non-crucifer would stimulate oviposition on an otherwise non-attractive plant. Here, we demonstrate that stable genetic transfer of the six-step benzylglucosinolate pathway from A. thaliana to Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) results in the production of benzylglucosinolate without causing morphological alterations. Benzylglucosinolate-producing tobacco plants were more attractive for oviposition by female P. xylostella moths than wild-type tobacco plants. As newly hatched P. xylostella larvae were unable to survive on tobacco, these results represent a proof-of-concept strategy for rendering non-host plants attractive for oviposition by specialist herbivores with the long-term goal of generating efficient dead-end trap crops for agriculturally important pests.

  2. Quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid in the heads of houseflies (Musca domestica) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella (L.)), using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Liang, Pei; Song, Dunlun; Yang, Wenling; Gao, Xiwu

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for quantifying the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the heads of houseflies (Musca domestica) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella (L.)), using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The GABA in sample was derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) prior to CE-LIF analysis. In total, 32 mmol/L borate buffer, at pH 9.2 and containing 5.3 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 10.4 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was determined to be the optimum CE background electrolyte (BGE) for GABA analysis. The detection limit of GABA was 0.016 μmol/L. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the migration time and peak area of GABA were 1.78 and 4.93%, respectively. The average recoveries of 0.97, 3.88, and 5.83 μmol/L of GABA, each added to the head sample of housefly, ranged from 88.9 to 110.5%. This method is simple and applicable to GABA assays of the heads of insects. With this newly developed CE-LIF method, the amounts of GABA in the heads of houseflies (M. domestica) and diamondback moths (P. xylostella (L.)) were measured. The results are relevant to the understandings of some insecticides and insecticide-resistance mechanisms in pests.

  3. Isolation and expression analysis of a homolog of the 14-3-3 epsilon gene in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Se Hui; Han, Yeon Soo; Cho, Saeyoull

    2011-02-01

    A full-length 14-3-3 gene homolog (also referred to as the Px14-3-3 epsilon "ε" or Px14-3-3ε gene) was cloned from cDNA of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. The Px14-3-3 transcript is 789 nucleotides in length, and the predicted polypeptide is 263 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 29.6 kDa. The Px14-3-3 gene contains the typical and predicted 14-3-3 domains and motifs. The amino acid sequence of the diamondback moth 14-3-3 gene is very similar to that of other insect epsilons (ε) but not to other insect zetas (ζ). In particular, the protein sequence of the Px14-3-3 gene shows high identity to the Bombyx mori epsilon (96.2%). Western blot analysis using an antibody against Px14-3-3ε verified the expression of 14-3-3ε in the larval, pupal, and adult stages. The Px14-3-3ε expression patterns in all the different tissue types were examined in the fourth instar larvae. Px14-3-3ε was detected in every tissue examined, including the body fat, hemocytes, brain, gut, and cuticle.

  4. The correlation of the presence and expression levels of cry genes with the insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella for Bacillus thuringiensis strains.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Lun; Chen, Pin-Hsin; Pang, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Chin-Fa; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2014-08-19

    The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains with high insecticidal activity is essential for the preparation of bioinsecticide. In this study, for 60 Bt strains isolated in Taiwan, their genotypes and the correlation of some cry genes as well as the expression levels of cry1 genes, with their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella, were investigated. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results revealed that the genotypes of these Bt strains are highly diversified. Also, a considerable number of the Bt strains isolated in Taiwan were found to have high insecticidal activities. Since strains that showed individual combined patterns of PFGE and RAPD exhibited distinct insecticidal activities against P. xylostella, thus, these genotypes may be useful for the identification of the new Bt strains and those which have been used in bioinsecticides. In addition, although the presence of cry2Aa1 may have a greater effect on the insecticidal activity of Bt strains in bioassay than other cry genes, only high expression level of cry1 genes plays a key role to determine the insecticidal activity of Bt strains. In conclusion, both RAPD and PFGE are effective in the differentiation of Bt strains. The presence of cry2Aa1 and, especially, the expression level of cry1 genes are useful for the prediction of the insecticidal activities of Bt strains against P. xylostella.

  5. Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide in a field population of Plutella xylostella is due to a change in a midgut membrane receptor.

    PubMed

    Ferré, J; Real, M D; Van Rie, J; Jansens, S; Peferoen, M

    1991-06-15

    The biochemical mechanism for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins was studied in a field population of diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) with a reduced susceptibility to the bioinsecticidal spray. The toxicity and binding characteristics of three crystal proteins [CryIA(b), CryIB, and CryIC] were compared between the field population and a laboratory strain. The field population proved resistant (greater than 200-fold compared with the laboratory strain) to CryIA(b), one of the crystal proteins in the insecticidal formulation. Binding studies showed that the two strains differ in a membrane receptor that recognizes CryIA(b). This crystal protein did not bind to the brush-border membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of the field population, either because of strongly reduced binding affinity or because of the complete absence of the receptor molecule. Both strains proved fully susceptible to the CryIB and CryIC crystal proteins, which were not present in the B. thuringiensis formulation used in the field. Characteristics of CryIB and CryIC binding to brush-border membranes of midgut epithelial cells were virtually identical in the laboratory and the field population.

  6. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  7. Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide in a field population of Plutella xylostella is due to a change in a midgut membrane receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, J; Real, M D; Van Rie, J; Jansens, S; Peferoen, M

    1991-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins was studied in a field population of diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) with a reduced susceptibility to the bioinsecticidal spray. The toxicity and binding characteristics of three crystal proteins [CryIA(b), CryIB, and CryIC] were compared between the field population and a laboratory strain. The field population proved resistant (greater than 200-fold compared with the laboratory strain) to CryIA(b), one of the crystal proteins in the insecticidal formulation. Binding studies showed that the two strains differ in a membrane receptor that recognizes CryIA(b). This crystal protein did not bind to the brush-border membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of the field population, either because of strongly reduced binding affinity or because of the complete absence of the receptor molecule. Both strains proved fully susceptible to the CryIB and CryIC crystal proteins, which were not present in the B. thuringiensis formulation used in the field. Characteristics of CryIB and CryIC binding to brush-border membranes of midgut epithelial cells were virtually identical in the laboratory and the field population. PMID:2052591

  8. The Correlation of the Presence and Expression Levels of cry Genes with the Insecticidal Activities against Plutella xylostella for Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-Lun; Chen, Pin-Hsin; Pang, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Hwang, Chin-Fa; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains with high insecticidal activity is essential for the preparation of bioinsecticide. In this study, for 60 Bt strains isolated in Taiwan, their genotypes and the correlation of some cry genes as well as the expression levels of cry1 genes, with their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella, were investigated. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) results revealed that the genotypes of these Bt strains are highly diversified. Also, a considerable number of the Bt strains isolated in Taiwan were found to have high insecticidal activities. Since strains that showed individual combined patterns of PFGE and RAPD exhibited distinct insecticidal activities against P. xylostella, thus, these genotypes may be useful for the identification of the new Bt strains and those which have been used in bioinsecticides. In addition, although the presence of cry2Aa1 may have a greater effect on the insecticidal activity of Bt strains in bioassay than other cry genes, only high expression level of cry1 genes plays a key role to determine the insecticidal activity of Bt strains. In conclusion, both RAPD and PFGE are effective in the differentiation of Bt strains. The presence of cry2Aa1 and, especially, the expression level of cry1 genes are useful for the prediction of the insecticidal activities of Bt strains against P. xylostella. PMID:25153253

  9. Mis-Spliced Transcripts of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α6 Are Associated with Field Evolved Spinosad Resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Simon W.; Chen, Mao; Dawson, Anna; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Vogel, Heiko; Shelton, Anthony M.; Heckel, David G.; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of insecticide resistance is a global constraint to agricultural production. Spinosad is a new, low-environmental-risk insecticide that primarily targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and is effective against a wide range of pest species. However, after only a few years of application, field evolved resistance emerged in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, an important pest of brassica crops worldwide. Spinosad resistance in a Hawaiian population results from a single incompletely recessive and autosomal gene, and here we use AFLP linkage mapping to identify the chromosome controlling resistance in a backcross family. Recombinational mapping with more than 700 backcross progeny positioned a putative spinosad target, nAChR alpha 6 (Pxα6), at the resistance locus, PxSpinR. A mutation within the ninth intron splice junction of Pxα6 results in mis-splicing of transcripts, which produce a predicted protein truncated between the third and fourth transmembrane domains. Additional resistance-associated Pxα6 transcripts that excluded the mutation containing exon were detected, and these were also predicted to produce truncated proteins. Identification of the locus of resistance in this important crop pest will facilitate field monitoring of the spread of resistance and offer insights into the genetic basis of spinosad resistance in other species. PMID:20062520

  10. Silencing of ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes by bacterially produced double-stranded RNA affects larval growth and development in Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Israni, B; Rajam, M V

    2017-04-01

    RNA interference mediated gene silencing, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), has become a important tool for functional genomics studies in various systems, including insects. Bacterially produced dsRNA employs the use of a bacterial strain lacking in RNaseIII activity and harbouring a vector with dual T7 promoter sites, which allow the production of intact dsRNA molecules. Here, we report an assessment of the functional relevance of the ecdysone receptor, insect intestinal mucin and sericotropin genes through silencing by dsRNA in two lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella xylostella, both of which cause serious crop losses. Oral feeding of dsRNA led to significant reduction in transcripts of the target insect genes, which caused significant larval mortality with various moulting anomalies and an overall developmental delay. We also found a significant decrease in reproductive potential in female moths, with a drop in egg laying and compromised egg hatching from treated larvae as compared to controls. dsRNA was stable in the insect gut and was efficiently processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), thus accounting for the phenotypes observed in the present work. The study revealed the importance of these genes in core insect processes, which are essential for insect development and survival.

  11. Toxicity of Lavandula angustifolia oil constituents and spray formulations to insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant Plutella xylostella and its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang Geun; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Si Hyeock; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Kwon, Min; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Plutella xylostella is one of the most serious insect pests of cruciferous crops. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 21 constituents from Lavandula angustifolia essential oil (LA-EO) and another 16 previously known LA-EO constituents and the toxicity of six experimental spray formulations containing the oil (1-6 g L(-1) sprays) to susceptible KS-PX and pyrethroid-resistant JJ-PX P. xylostella larvae, as well as to its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata adults. Linalool and linalool oxide (LC50 = 0.016 mg cm(-3) ) were the most toxic fumigant compounds and were 10.7-fold less toxic than dichlorvos to KS-PX larvae. Either residual or fumigant toxicity of these compounds was almost identical against larvae from either of the two strains. Against C. glomerata, dichlorvos (LC50 = 7 × 10(-6)  mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic insecticide. LA-EO was ∼1430 times less toxic than dichlorvos. The oil applied as 6 g L(-1) spray and emamectin benzoate 21.5 g L(-1) emulsifiable concentrate provided 100% mortality against larvae from either of the two strains. Reasonable P. xylostella control in greenhouses can be achieved by a spray formulation containing the 6 g L(-1) oil as potential contact-action fumigant. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activities of the Himalayan Cedar, Cedrus deodara Essential Oil and Its Fractions Against the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Abha; Sharma, Prabha; Nadda, Gireesh; Tewary, Dhananjay Kumar; Singh, Bikram

    2011-01-01

    Plants and plant-derived materials play an extremely important role in pest management programs. Essential oil from wood chips of Himalayan Cedar, Cedrus deodara (Roxburgh) Don (Pinales: Pinaceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation and fractionated to pentane and acetonitrile from which himachalenes and atlantones enriched fractions were isolated. A total of forty compounds were identified from these fractions using GC and GC-MS analyses. Essential oils and fractions were evaluated for insecticidal activities against second instars of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), using a leaf dip method. All samples showed promising larvicidal activity against larvae of P. xylostella. The pentane fraction was the most toxic with a LC50 value of 287 µg/ml. The himachalenes enriched fraction was more toxic (LC50 = 362 µg/ml) than the atlantones enriched fraction (LC50 = 365 µg/ml). LC50 of crude oil was 425 µg/ml and acetonitrile fraction was LC50 = 815 µg/ml. The major constituents, himachalenes and atlantones, likely accounted for the insecticidal action. Present bioassay results revealed the potential for essential oil and different constituents of C. deodara as botanical larvicides for their use in pest management. PMID:22239128

  13. Competition and co-existence of Zoophthora radicans and Pandora blunckii, two co-occurring fungal pathogens of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Clark, Suzanne J; Alderson, Peter G; Pell, Judith K

    2009-11-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Zoophthora radicans and Pandora blunckii co-occur in field populations of Plutella xylostella and, therefore, are likely to interact during the infection process. We have investigated the possible outcomes of these interactions in the laboratory. Using four isolates, two of each fungal species, inter-specific interaction experiments were done in Petri dishes and on intact plants. In Petri dish experiments, larvae were inoculated directly using sporulating mats of mycelium, both species had the same opportunity to infect and only the relative concentration of conidia of each pathogen species applied was manipulated. In the intact plant experiments, larvae were placed onto fungus-contaminated plants, inoculation was passive and the probability of infection by either or both species of fungi depended on larval activity and proximity to inoculum. In the Petri dish experiment, the species with the largest concentration of conidia out-competed the other regardless of virulence, and results were similar in the intact plant experiment. The ecological implications for competition or co-existence of these two pathogens in the field are discussed.

  14. A checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bezděčková, Klára; Bezděčka, Pavel; Machar, Ivo

    2015-09-21

    The article presents a comprehensive list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Peru. Distribution data for 592 valid names of species-group taxa in 76 genera and 12 subfamilies were collected through a bibliographical review. The most diverse subfamilies in terms of species richness are Myrmicinae (273 species/subspecies), Formicinae (86 species/subspecies) and Ponerinae (71 species/subspecies). The most diverse genera are Pheidole (86 species/subspecies), Camponotus (73 species/subspecies), and Pseudomyrmex (47 species/subspecies). With respect to geographic divisions, richness is highest in Madre de Dios (245 species/subspecies), followed by Huanuco (109 species/subspecies) and Cusco (104 species/subspecies). Regions in greatest need of additional survey work are Aycucho, Huancavelica, Moquegua and Tacna, from which virtually no information on the ant fauna is available.

  15. Revision of the Paridris nephtaspecies group (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Paridris nephta group is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, 14 of which are new: Paridris atroxTalamas, sp. n.(Yunnan Province, China), Paridris bununTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris ferusTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris kagemonoTalamas, sp. n.(Japan), Paridris minatorTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris mystaxTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand), Paridris nephta(Kozlov) (Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Far Eastern Russia), Paridris nilakaTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand), Paridris reptilisTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris rugulosusTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Vietnam), Paridris solarisTalamas, sp. n.(Laos, Thailand, Vietnam), Paridris teresTalamas, sp. n.(Vietnam), Paridris toketokiTalamas, sp. n.(Taiwan), Paridris verrucosusTalamas, sp. n.(Guangdong Province, China), Paridris yakTalamas, sp. n.(Thailand). PMID:22140338

  16. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Ghahari, Hassan; Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Fischer, Maximilian

    2015-06-19

    In the present study, a catalogue of the Iranian Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is given. It is based on a detailed study of all available published data. In total 78 species from 15 genera including Alloea Haliday, 1833 (1 species), Angelovia Zaykov, 1980 (1 species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (2 species), Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (42 species), Coelinidea Viereck, 1913 (2 species), Coloneura Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (10 species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (5 species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (3 species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1862 (1 species), Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (2 species), Pseudopezomachus Mantero, 1905 (2 species), and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (3 species) are reported in this catalogue. Two species are new records for Iran: Coelinidea elegans (Curtis, 1829) and Dacnusa (Pachysema) aterrima Thomson, 1895. Also, a faunistic list with distribution data and host records is provided.

  17. New records of spider wasps (Hymenoptera, Pompilidae) from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Pitts, James P.; Rodriguez, Juanita; Cecilia Waichert; Fernández, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New records of genera and species of spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from Colombia are provided. Agenioideus, Cryptocheilus, Evagetes, Mystacagenia, and Xerochares are newly recorded genera from Colombia. Nineteen species are first recorded from Colombia: Aimatocare vitrea (Fox); Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella curtipinus (Cameron); Ageniella fallax (Arlé); Ageniella hirsuta Banks; Ageniella pilifrons (Cameron); Ageniella pretiosa Banks; Ageniella sanguinolenta (Smith); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); Aporus (Aporus) cuzco Evans; Aporus (Cosmiaporus) diverticulus (Fox); Aporus (Notoplaniceps) canescens Smith; Euplaniceps exilis (Banks); Euplaniceps herbertii (Fox); Irenangelus clarus Evans; Mystacagenia bellula Evans; Phanochilus nobilitatus (Smith) and Xerochares expulsus Schulz. The following species and genera have their occurence ranges expanded for South America: Ageniella azteca (Cameron); Ageniella zeteki (Banks); Agenioideus birkmanni (Banks); and Xerochares expulsus Schulz; Cryptocheilus Panzer; and Xerochares Evans. PMID:25349495

  18. Sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera support inclusive fitness theory.

    PubMed

    Bourke, A F G

    2015-11-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera are a function of the relatedness asymmetry (relative relatedness to females and males) of the individuals controlling sex allocation. In monogynous ants (with one queen per colony), assuming worker control, the theory therefore predicts female-biased sex investment ratios, as found in natural populations. Recently, E.O. Wilson and M.A. Nowak criticized this explanation and presented an alternative hypothesis. The Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis proposes that, in monogynous ants, there is selection for a 1 : 1 numerical sex ratio to avoid males remaining unmated, which, given queens exceed males in size, results in a female-biased sex investment ratio. The hypothesis also asserts that, contrary to inclusive fitness theory, queens not workers control sex allocation and queen-worker conflict over sex allocation is absent. Here, I argue that the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis is flawed because it contradicts Fisher's sex ratio theory, which shows that selection on sex ratio does not maximize the number of mated offspring and that the sex ratio proposed by the hypothesis is not an equilibrium for the queen. In addition, the hypothesis is not supported by empirical evidence, as it fails to explain 'split' (bimodal) sex ratios or data showing queen and worker control and ongoing queen-worker conflict. By contrast, these phenomena match predictions of inclusive fitness theory. Hence, the Wilson-Nowak sex ratio hypothesis fails both as an alternative hypothesis for sex investment ratios in eusocial Hymenoptera and as a critique of inclusive fitness theory.

  19. Venom immunotherapy in patients with mastocytosis and hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    González-de-Olano, David; Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Vega, Arantza; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2011-05-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is typically suspected in patients with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). In recent years, the presence of clonal mast cells (MCs) in a subset of patients with systemic symptoms associated with MC activation in the absence of CM has been reported and termed monoclonal MC activation syndromes or clonal systemic MC activation syndromes. In these cases, bone marrow (BM) MC numbers are usually lower than in SM with CM, there are no detectable BM MC aggregates, and serum baseline tryptase is often <20 µg/l; thus, diagnosis of SM in these patients should be based on careful evaluation of other minor WHO criteria for SM in reference centers, where highly sensitive techniques for immunophenotypic analysis and investigation of KIT mutations on fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified BM MCs are routinely performed. The prevalence of hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) among SM patients is higher than among the normal population and it has been reported to be approximately 5%. In SM patients with IgE-mediated HVA, venom immunotherapy is safe and effective and it should be prescribed lifelong. Severe adverse reactions to hymenoptera stings or venom immunotherapy have been associated with increased serum baseline tryptase; however, presence of clonal MC has not been ruled out in most reports and thus both SM and clonal MC activation syndrome might be underdiagnosed in such patients. In fact, clonal BM MC appears to be a relevant risk factor for both HVA and severe reactions to venom immunotherapy, while the increase in serum baseline tryptase by itself should be considered as a powerful surrogate marker for anaphylaxis. The Spanish Network on Mastocytosis has developed a scoring system based on patient gender, the clinical symptoms observed during anaphylaxis and serum baseline tryptase to predict for the presence of both MC clonality and SM among individuals who suffer from anaphylaxis.

  20. Adaptive evolution of vertebrate-type cryptochrome in the ancestors of Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Gu, Hai-Feng; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-02-23

    One of the most mysterious aspects of insect clock mechanisms is that some insects, including Hymenoptera and Tribolium, only express a vertebrate-type cryptochrome (cry2). It is unknown whether or not cry2 underwent adaptive evolution in these insects. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cry2 from a fig pollinator species, Ceratosolen solmsi (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae), and examined the molecular evolution and daily expression of this gene. Our results suggest that cry2 underwent positive selection in the branch leading to hymenopteran insects. The function of CRY2 might have been fixed since undergoing natural selection in the ancestor of Hymenoptera. Male pollinators showed stronger rhythmicity in the host figs, which reflect an adaptation to their life cycles.

  1. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  2. Hymenoptera venom allergy in outdoor workers: Occupational exposure, clinical features and effects of allergen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Toletone, Alessandra; Voltolini, Susanna; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Dini, Guglielmo; Bignardi, Donatella; Minale, Paola; Massa, Emanuela; Troise, Costantino; Durando, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. To describe (i) the clinical characteristics of workers, exposed to hymenoptera stings, with an ascertained diagnosis of Hymenoptera Venom Allergy (HVA), (ii) the specific role of occupational exposure, (iii) the effect of Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) in reducing the severity of allergic episodes in workers exposed to repeated stings of hymenoptera, and (iv) the management of the occupational consequences caused by allergic reactions due to hymenoptera stings. Methods. Between 2000 and 2013 an observational study, including patients referred to the regional reference hospital of Liguria, Italy, with an ascertained diagnosis of HVA and treated with VIT, was performed. A structured questionnaire was administered to all patients to investigate the occupational features of allergic reactions. These were graded according to standard systems in patients at the first episode, and after re-stings, during VIT. Results. One-hundred and 8four out of the 202 patients referred had a complete data set. In 32 (17.4%) patients, the allergic reaction occurred during work activities performed outdoor. Of these, 31.2% previously stung by hymenoptera at work, and receiving VIT, were re-stung during occupational activity. The grades of reaction developed under VIT treatment resulted clinically less severe than of those occurred at the first sting (p-value = 0.031). Conclusion. Our findings confirmed the clinical relevance of HVA, and described its occupational features in outdoor workers with sensitization, stressing the importance of an early identification and proper management of the professional categories recognized at high risk of hymenoptera stings. The Occupational Physician should be supported by other specialists to recommend appropriate diagnostic procedures and the prescription of VIT, which resulted an effective treatment for the prevention of episodes of severe reactions in workers with a proven HVA. PMID:27924689

  3. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Hymenoptera venom allergy in mastocytosis patients.

    PubMed

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Golden, David B K

    2014-05-01

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a typical IgE-mediated reaction caused by sensitization to 1 or more allergens of the venom, and accounts for 1.5% to 34% of all cases of anaphylaxis. Patients suffering from mastocytosis are more susceptible to the anaphylactic reactions to an insect sting. This article aims to answer the most important clinical questions raised by the diagnosis and treatment of insect venom allergy in mastocytosis patients. Total avoidance of Hymenoptera is not feasible, and there is no preventive pharmacologic treatment available, although venom immunotherapy reduces the risk of subsequent systemic reactions.

  4. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:26999122

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of the abdominal-A homeotic gene in the global pest, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuping; Chen, Yazhou; Zeng, Baosheng; Wang, Yajun; James, Anthony A; Gurr, Geoff M; Yang, Guang; Lin, Xijian; Huang, Yongping; You, Minsheng

    2016-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide agricultural pest that has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Genetics-based approaches show promise as alternative pest management approaches but require functional studies to identify suitable gene targets. Here we use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target a gene, abdominal-A, which has an important role in determining the identity and functionality of abdominal segments. We report that P. xylostella abdominal-A (Pxabd-A) has two structurally-similar splice isoforms (A and B) that differ only in the length of exon II, with 15 additional nucleotides in isoform A. Pxabd-A transcripts were detected in all developmental stages, and particularly in pupae and adults. CRISPR/Cas9-based mutagenesis of Pxabd-A exon I produced 91% chimeric mutants following injection of 448 eggs. Phenotypes with abnormal prolegs and malformed segments were visible in hatched larvae and unhatched embryos, and various defects were inherited by the next generation (G1). Genotyping of mutants demonstrated several mutations at the Pxabd-A genomic locus. The results indicate that a series of insertions and deletions were induced in the Pxabd-A locus, not only in G0 survivors but also in G1 individuals, and this provides a foundation for genome editing. Our study demonstrates the utility of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeting genes in an agricultural pest and therefore provides a foundation the development of novel pest management tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fusing the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa7 and the N terminus of Cry9Ca improves toxicity against Plutella xylostella larvae.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Shi, Ruiping; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhan, Tao; Wu, Gaobing; Shen, Jie; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) and vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) have been widely used as a kind of safe bio-insecticides. A problem that has been of concern worldwide is how to improve their insecticidal activities. In this study, to determine the synergism between VIPs and ICPs effect on insecticidal activity, a construct that produces a chimeric protein of the Vip3Aa7 and the N terminus ofCry9Ca, named V3AC9C, was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. In additional experiments, the V3AC9C chimeric protein, the single Vip3Aa7, and the single N terminus of Cry9Ca were treated with trypsin. SDS-PAGE showed that the V3AC9C could be processed into two single toxins. Bioassays tested on third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella showed that the toxicity of the chimeric protein was markedly better than either of the single toxins. Interestingly, the toxicity of the chimeric protein was 3.2-fold higher than a mixture of the Vip3Aa7 and Cry9Ca toxins (mass ratio of 1:1). The synergism factor (SF) of chimeric protein containing Vip3Aa7 and Cry9Ca was calculated to be 4.79. The SF in mixture of toxins is only 1.46. Hence, the effect was more than the sum of the Vip3Aa7 and Cry9C activities. Analysis of the protein's solubility showed that the Vip3Aa7 helped the N terminus of Cry9Ca to dissolve in an alkaline buffer. It was concluded that the increase in the toxicity of the V3AC9C chimeric protein over the constituent proteins mainly resulted from this increase in solubility. These results lay a foundation for the development of a new generation of bio-insecticides and multi-gene transgenic plants.

  7. Flubendiamide resistance and Bi-PASA detection of ryanodine receptor G4946E mutation in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.).

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui-Hui; Xue, Chao-Bin; Li, Guang-Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Long; Che, Xiao-Zhi; Wang, Long-Long

    2014-10-01

    The extensive application of flubendiamide has led to increasingly prominent development of resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Here we report that the moderate and high level resistance to flubendiamide was identified in a laboratory-selected and two field-collected strains of P. xylostella. The resistance ratios were tested in the lab-selected resistant strains (R), and two field strains (BY and ZC). Compared with the S strain, the R strain showed extended larval development time, decreased pupation rate, emergencing rate, and male adult longevity. The realized heritability (h(2)=0.135) implies the high risk of flubendiamide resistance development in P. xylostella. A Bi-PASA (bi-directional PCR amplification of specific allele)-based method was successfully developed to detect the point mutation (G4946E) potentially causing flubendiamide resistance in diamondback moth, in which different fragments 866 bp + 340 bp, 866 bp+568 bp, and 866 bp+568 bp+340 bp were presented in SS, RR and RS stains, respectively. The predominant genotype was 83.33% SS homozygote in the S strain, 80.77% RR homozygote in ZC population, and 73.08% RS heterozygote in BY population, respectively. Current results showed the significant correlation between the frequencies of the allele carrying G4946E mutation (51.92%, 55.77% and 90.38% for R, BY and ZC, respectively) and the resistance ratios (40.72, 24.24 and 1779.24-folds for R, BY and ZC, respectively) in the three strains/populations. In addition, the relative PxRyR mRNA transcript level in the R strain was 2.938 ± 0.53 folds as compared with the S strain (1.0-fold).

  8. Genetic structure and demographic history reveal migration of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the southern to northern regions of China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects.

  9. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  10. Down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Biopesticides or transgenic crops based on Cry toxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) effectively control agricultural insect pests. The sustainable use of Bt biopesticides and Bt crops is threatened, however, by the development of Cry resistance in the target pests. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the first pest that developed resistance to a Bt biopesticide in the field, and a recent study has shown that the resistance of P. xylostella to Cry1Ac is caused by a mutation in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene (ABCC2). In this study, we report that down-regulation of a novel ABC transporter gene from ABCG subfamily (Pxwhite) is associated with Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pxwhite was cloned and analyzed. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that Pxwhite was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in Malpighian tubule tissue and in egg stage. Sequence variation analysis of Pxwhite indicated the absence of constant non-synonymous mutations between susceptible and resistant strains, whereas midgut transcript analysis showed that Pxwhite was remarkably reduced in all resistant strains and further reduced when larvae of the moderately resistant SZ-R strain were subjected to selection with Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of Pxwhite gene expression significantly reduced larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin, and genetic linkage analysis confirmed that down-regulation of Pxwhite gene is tightly linked to Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that Pxwhite gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella.

  11. Development and survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) as a function of temperature: effect on the number of generations in tropical and subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, C A; Foerster, L A

    2011-10-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the most important pest of brassicaceous crops worldwide. Since temperature is the major abiotic factor influencing insect development and thermal requirements may vary among insect populations, it is important to know the effect of temperature on development and survival of a subtropical strain of P. xylostella. Development and survival of the diamondback moth was evaluated under seven constant temperatures ranging from 10°C to 35°C. Development was completed between 10°C and 32.5°C, but at 35°C all individuals died in the larval stage. Data were fitted to one linear and five nonlinear models. Considering as criteria the goodness of fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance, the models Briere-1 and Briere-2 were the most adequate to describe the relationship between temperature and development of P. xylostella. The linear model demonstrated that P. xylostella required 312.5 degree-days above a lower threshold of 6.3°C to complete development. The degree-day model showed that the number of diamondback moth generations in the tropical region of Brazil is nearly twice the number in the subtropical region of the country. This result explains, at least in part, the higher population levels of this species in the tropical region of Brazil, and also demonstrates that P. xylostella is tolerant to a wide range of temperatures (6.1-32.5°C). Therefore, temperature cannot be considered a limiting factor for the occurrence of diamondback moth throughout the year in most regions of Brazil.

  12. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J.; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S.; Wu, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. PMID:26855198

  13. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  14. Identification of multiple small heat-shock protein genes in Plutella xylostella (L.) and their expression profiles in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi'en; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    We identify and characterize 14 small heat-shock protein (sHSP) genes from the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that, except for sHSP18.8 and sHSP19.22, the other 12 DBM sHSPs belong to five known insect sHSP groups. Developmental expression analysis revealed that most sHSPs peaked in the pupal and adult stages. The transcripts of sHSPs display tissue specificity with two exhibiting constitutive expression in four tested tissues. Expression of sHSP18.8 in fourth instar larvae is not induced by the tested abiotic stressors, and unless sHSP21.8 is not sensitive to thermal stress, 12 sHSPs are significantly up-regulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of all sHSPs are reduced under oxidative stress. Food deprivation leads to significant down-regulation of three sHSPs. The majority of sHSPs show expression variation to various heavy metals, whereas mRNA abundances of sHSP22.1 and sHSP 28.9 are reduced by four heavy metals. The responses of sHSPs to indoxacarb and cantharidin are varied. Beta-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr exposure results in an increase of 13 sHSP transcripts and a reduction of 12 sHSP transcripts, respectively. These results show that different sHSPs might play distinct roles in the development and regulation of physiological activities, as well as in response to various abiotic stresses of DBM.

  15. Effect of insecticides and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) genotype on a predator and parasitoid and implications for the evolution of insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Collins, Hilda L; Onstad, David; Roush, Rick; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    In the laboratory and in cages in the greenhouse, we evaluated the toxicity of two insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin and spinosad) on the parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), and the predator, Coleomegilla maculate (DeGeer), both natural enemies of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Lambda-cyhalothrin was very toxic to both natural enemies. Spinosad was less toxic to C. maculata adults and larvae, and slightly toxic to D. insulare. Both natural enemies suppressed P. xylostella populations in cages with 80% spinosad-treated and 20% nontreated plants; such suppression was not seen when lambda-cyhalothrin was used. Using broccoli, Brassica oleracea L. variety italica, a common host for P. xylostella, we also studied direct and indirect effects of both natural enemies in the presence and absence of the two insecticides and to different P. xylostella genotypes: resistant to the insecticide, susceptible, or heterozygous. Neither natural enemy could distinguish host genotype if P. xylostella were feeding on nontreated plants. They could also not distinguish between larvae feeding on spinosad-treated plants and nontreated plants, but D. insulare could distinguish between larvae feeding on lambda-cyhalothrin treated and nontreated plants. Our studies suggest that lambda-cyhalothrin has direct toxicity to these two natural enemies, can affect their host foraging and acceptance of P. xylostella and consequently would not be compatible in conserving these natural enemies in a program for suppression of P. xylostella. In contrast, our studies suggest that treatment with spinosad has much less effect on these natural enemies and would allow them to help suppress populations of P. xylostella. These findings are discussed in relation to the evolution of insecticide resistance and suppression of the pest populations.

  16. Brevicoryne brassicae aphids interfere with transcriptome responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars in a density-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Anneke; Broekgaarden, Colette; Castellanos Uribe, Marcos; May, Sean; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Plants are commonly attacked by multiple herbivorous species. Yet, little is known about transcriptional patterns underlying plant responses to multiple insect attackers feeding simultaneously. Here, we assessed transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to simultaneous feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars and Brevicoryne brassicae aphids in comparison to plants infested by P. xylostella caterpillars alone, using microarray analysis. We particularly investigated how aphid feeding interferes with the transcriptomic response to P. xylostella caterpillars and whether this interference is dependent on aphid density and time since aphid attack. Various JA-responsive genes were up-regulated in response to feeding by P. xylostella caterpillars. The additional presence of aphids, both at low and high densities, clearly affected the transcriptional plant response to caterpillars. Interestingly, some important modulators of plant defense signalling, including WRKY transcription factor genes and ABA-dependent genes, were differentially induced in response to simultaneous aphid feeding at low or high density compared with responses to P. xylostella caterpillars feeding alone. Furthermore, aphids affected the P. xylostella-induced transcriptomic response in a density-dependent manner, which caused an acceleration in plant response against dual insect attack at high aphid density compared to dual insect attack at low aphid density. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that aphids influence the caterpillar-induced transcriptional response of A. thaliana in a density-dependent manner. It highlights the importance of addressing insect density to understand how plant responses to single attackers interfere with responses to other attackers and thus underlines the importance of the dynamics of transcriptional plant responses to multiple herbivory.

  17. Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools.

  18. Bacteria abundance and diversity of different life stages of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), revealed by bacteria culture-dependent and PCR-DGGE methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Pan, Qin-Jian; Tian, Hong-Gang; Douglas, Angela E; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Microbial abundance and diversity of different life stages (fourth instar larvae, pupae and adults) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., collected from field and reared in laboratory, were investigated using bacteria culture-dependent method and PCR-DGGE analysis based on the sequence of bacteria 16S rRNA V3 region gene. A large quantity of bacteria was found in all life stages of P. xylostella. Field population had higher quantity of bacteria than laboratory population, and larval gut had higher quantity than pupae and adults. Culturable bacteria differed in different life stages of P. xylostella. Twenty-five different bacterial strains were identified in total, among them 20 strains were presented in larval gut, only 8 strains in pupae and 14 strains in adults were detected. Firmicutes bacteria, Bacillus sp., were the most dominant species in every life stage. 15 distinct bands were obtained from DGGE electrophoresis gel. The sequences blasted in GenBank database showed these bacteria belonged to six different genera. Phylogenetic analysis showed the sequences of the bacteria belonged to the Actinobacteri, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Serratia sp. in Proteobacteria was the most abundant species in larval gut. In pupae, unculturable bacteria were the most dominant species, and unculturable bacteria and Serratia sp. were the most dominant species in adults. Our study suggested that a combination of molecular and traditional culturing methods can be effectively used to analyze and to determine the diversity of gut microflora. These known bacteria may play important roles in development of P. xylostella. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. A new species of Holotachysphex de Beaumont, 1940 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Crabronidae) from Iran with identification key to species.

    PubMed

    Schmid-Egger, Christian; Fallahzadeh, Majid; Khosroabadi, Mahdi; Ljubomirov, Toshko

    2016-09-19

    Holotachysphex iraniensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Crabronidae) from southern Iran is described. A revised key to the world species of Holotachysphex is provided. A red form of H. mochii from Jordan is described.

  20. Role of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larval vibrations in host-quality assessments by Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Richard W. Mankin; Yigen Chen; Jian J. Duan; Therese M. Poland; Leah S. Bauer

    2011-01-01

    The biological control agent Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive cambium-feeding species responsible for recent, widespread mortality of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in...

  1. Reproductive and developmental biology of the emerald ash borer parasitoid Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as affected by temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an invasive pest of serious concern in North America. To complement ongoing biological control efforts, Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently-described specialist parasitoid of ...

  2. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  3. Acute exposure to low dose radiation disrupts reproduction and shortens survival of Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera Formicidae)queens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the invasive little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), was studied to determine...

  4. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  5. Biting the bullet: revisionary notes on the Oraseminae of the Old World (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twelve genera of Oraseminae (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) are recognized in the Old World. The genus Orasema is now considered as found only in the New World, and the Old World species, previously treated as species groups, are now treated as distinct genera. Nine new genera are proposed: Australosema...

  6. The Hymenopterous Poison Apparatus. X. Morphological and Behavioral Changes in Atta texana (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Treesearch

    Henry R. Hermann; John C. Moser; Allen N. Hunt

    1970-01-01

    Atta texana (Buckley) and other members of this genus no longer utilize the 8th and 9th gonapophyses as part of their defensive system. Although the sclerites that comprise the stinging apparatus in most aculeate Hymenoptera are present in the species, they seem to function only in the deposition of trail pheromones. A mechanical and chemical defense...

  7. Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachile)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bee tribe Anthidiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a large, cosmopolitan group of solitary bees that exhibit intriguing nesting behavior. We present the first molecular-based phylogenetic analysis of relationships within Anthidiini using model based methods and a large, multi-locus dataset (fiv...

  8. Field evaluations of emamectin benzoate for control of birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in Interior Alaska

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Roger E. Burnside; Christopher J. Hayes; Mark E. Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Ambermarked birch leafminer, Profenusa thomsoni (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), is an exotic, invasive pest of urban and wildland birch, Betula spp., in portions of North America. Extensive defoliation of ornamental birch in Alaska requires that suitable control measures be evaluated and developed. Based on previous work, we evaluated the...

  9. Utilizing Descriptive Statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to Expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Katja C.; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J.; Bertone, Matthew A.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the ‘Proofer’, as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction. PMID:23441153

  10. Dinoponera lucida Emery (Formicidae: Ponerinae): the highest number of chromosomes known in Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. S. F.; Delabie, J. H. C.; Ramos, L. S.; Lacau, S.; Pompolo, S. G.

    We report the remarkable karyotype of Dinoponera lucida, a Brazilian endemic ponerine ant. Its chromosome number is 2n=106, most of the chromosomes are acrocentric and of very small size, and the karyotype formula is 88A+18M. A chromosome pair of the AMt type is reported. This is the largest number of chromosomes reported for the Hymenoptera order until now.

  11. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  12. Stiff upper lip: Labrum deformity and functionality in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In hyper-diverse groups such as Hymenoptera, a variety of structures with different, complementary functions are used for feeding. Although the function of the parts such as the mandibles is obvious, the use of others, like the labrum, is more difficult to discern. Here, we discuss the labrum’s func...

  13. Cell position during larval development affects postdiapause development in Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes and other specialty crops. Female M. rotundata are gregarious, nest in ca...

  14. [Prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in veterinary medicine students from Monterey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.

  15. Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community structure on two sagebrush steppe sites in southern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Stephen P. Cook; Sara M. Birch; Frank W. Merickel; Carrie Caselton Lowe; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Although sagebrush, Artemisia spp., does not require an insect pollinator, there are several native species of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), that are present in sagebrush steppe ecosystems where they act as pollinators for various forbs and shrubs. These native pollinators contribute to plant productivity and reproduction. We captured 12 species of...

  16. The similarity and appropriate usage of three honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) datasets for longitudinal studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have experienced profound fluctuations, especially declines, in the past few decades. Long-term datasets on honey bees are needed to identify the most important environmental and cultural factors associated with these changes. While a few suc...

  17. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  18. Utilizing descriptive statements from the biodiversity heritage library to expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Pénzes, Zsolt; Yoder, Matthew J; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera, the insect order that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants, exhibits an incredible diversity of phenotypes, with over 145,000 species described in a corpus of textual knowledge since Carolus Linnaeus. In the absence of specialized training, often spanning decades, however, these articles can be challenging to decipher. Much of the vocabulary is domain-specific (e.g., Hymenoptera biology), historically without a comprehensive glossary, and contains much homonymous and synonymous terminology. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy, as well as provide support for domain experts so they may actively benefit from the anatomy ontology development. As part of HAO development, an active learning, dictionary-based, natural language recognition tool was implemented to facilitate Hymenoptera anatomy term discovery in literature. We present this tool, referred to as the 'Proofer', as part of an iterative approach to growing phenotype-relevant ontologies, regardless of domain. The process of ontology development results in a critical mass of terms that is applied as a filter to the source collection of articles in order to reveal term occurrence and biases in natural language species descriptions. Our results indicate that taxonomists use domain-specific terminology that follows taxonomic specialization, particularly at superfamily and family level groupings and that the developed Proofer tool is effective for term discovery, facilitating ontology construction.

  19. Stenonartonia tekoraava sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae), a new member of a typical Amazonian mimicry ring.

    PubMed

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R

    2014-09-03

    Stenonartonia tekoraava sp. nov., a new species of potter wasp is described from central Amazonia. By size and color pattern, this species falls into the typically Amazonian mimicry ring of the social wasp Polybia liliacea (Fabricius) [Vespidae: Polistinae]. Comments are made on the Müllerian mimicry rings as a common phenomenon in Hymenoptera and particularly in the family Vespidae. 

  20. Cuticular Lipids of Female Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees mainly consisted of hydrocarbons....

  1. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in commercial United States alfalfa seed fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a geographically large survey to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata, Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Healthy prepupae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the en...

  2. Multiple mechanisms underlie displacement of solitary Hawaiian Hymenoptera by an invasive social wasp.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E E; Holway, D A

    2010-11-01

    Variation in invasion success may result from the divergent evolutionary histories of introduced species compared to those of native taxa. The vulnerability of native biotas to ecological disruption may be especially great on oceanic islands invaded by continental species with unique ecological traits. In part because Hawaii lacks native eusocial insects, social invaders may threaten endemic taxa that are ecologically similar but solitary. Using a combination of field manipulations, molecular analyses, physiological data, and behavioral assays, we identify the mechanisms underlying the displacement of two genera of native solitary Hymenoptera in Hawaii by a social continental invader, the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica). Experimental removal of V. pensylvanica colonies resulted in increased densities of native Hymenoptera. Endemic Hylaeus bees directly suffer through predation by yellowjackets, and perhaps as a consequence, avoid floral resources occupied by V. pensylvanica. Native Nesodynerus wasps also avoid V. pensylvanica but are negatively affected by yellowjackets not through predation, but through exploitative competition for caterpillar prey. Displacement of native solitary Hymenoptera may be heightened by the ability of V. pensylvanica to prey upon and scavenge honey bees and to rob their honey stores, resources unavailable to endemic bees and wasps because of their specialized niches. Our study provides a unique example of an ecologically generalized social invader that restructures native assemblages of solitary Hymenoptera by interacting with endemic taxa on multiple trophic levels.

  3. Developing Methods to Evaluate Reproduction Rates of Pseudacteon curvatus (Diptera: Phoridae) in Solenopsis richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The black imported fire ants Solenopsis richteri Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a major economic pest that has spread throughout United State. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for augmentative biological control agents in an effort to control its spread and reduce the damage prod...

  4. Prewinter Management Affects Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) Prepupal Physiology and Adult Emergence and Survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is widely used as a pollinator for production of alfalfa seed, and populations of these bees can be maintained by alfalfa seed growers or can be purchased from mostly Canadian bee providers. Megachile rotundata raised i...

  5. The genus Polystenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) in China, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pu; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Chen, Xue-xin; Hagedorn, Henry

    2014-05-15

    The species of Polystenus Foerster, 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) from China are revised, and four species are recognized. Two new species, P. brevitergum sp nov. and P. taiwanus sp nov., are described and illustrated. A key to all species of the genus Polystenus is provided.

  6. First record of Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) for the fauna of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gadallah, Neveen S; Edmardash, Yusuf A

    2015-06-26

    The family Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea) is recorded for the first time for the Egyptian fauna, with one species, Foenatopus bisignatus Aguiar & Jennings, 2010. A single specimen was collected among Acacia raddiana trees infested with Agrilus roscidus Kiesenwetter (Coleoptera, Buprestidae), which represents a likely new host record.

  7. A revision of the Indian species of Oligosita Walker (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Begum, Salma; Anis, Shoeba Binte; Khan, Mohd Talib

    2015-06-19

    The Indian species of the genus Oligosita Walker, 1851 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are revised. One new species, Oligosita aseta Begum & Anis, sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from Kerala, India. A key to the 16 Indian species of the genus is also given.

  8. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. The current protocol for rearing T. ...

  9. Suitability of immature emerald ash borers to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since first detected in Michigan in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), a buprestid native to Asia, has killed millions of ash trees in northeastern North America and continues to expand into new areas. Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregar...

  10. Injection of emamectin benzoate protects paper birch from birch leafminer (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) for two field seasons

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Roger E. Burnside; Mark E. Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Ambermarked birch leafminer, Profenusa thomsoni (Konow) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), is an exotic, invasive pest of urban and wildland birch. We initiated a study near Fairbanks, Alaska to determine the efficacy of emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge®, Arborjet Inc., Woburn, MA) for control of P. thomsoni on paper...

  11. Ephuta icema Casal, 1969 and its host Auplopus subaurarius Dreisbach, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae, Pompilidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cambra, Roberto A; Buschini, Maria Luisa Tunes; Arias, Diomedes Quintero; Brozoski, Fanciele; Lustosa, Priscila Rudiak

    2017-05-29

    The male and female of Ephuta icema Casal, 1969 are reared from the host Auplopus subaurarius Dreisbach, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) that allow to unit both sexes for this mutillid and describe hitherto unknown male. A review of all the previous host records for the genus Ephuta Say, 1836 is given.

  12. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  13. Genetic differentiation of Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) from East and Southeast Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aims to clarify genetic differentiation of the Drosophila parasitoid Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera; Figitidae; Eucoilinae) based on the nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and three nuclear DNA regions, the inter-transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) ...

  14. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as a potential natural enemy of corn-infesting Ulidiidae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A four-species complex of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) are primary sweet corn pests in Florida. Few natural enemies of these flies are known. The pupal parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was discovered in a laboratory colony of Euxesta eluta Loew (Dipte...

  15. Increasing trophic complexity influences aphid attendance by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and predation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species that are involved in multitrophic interactions are affected by the trophic levels that are above and below them in both indirect and direct ways. In this experiment, interactions among ants (Formica montana Wheeler; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), aphids (Myzus persicae [Sulzer]; Hemiptera: Aphidi...

  16. Suitability and accessibility of immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Ivich. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T....

  17. The species of the genus Hypodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) occurring in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garcete-Barrett, Bolívar R.; Hermes, Marcel Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An identification table and descriptions are given to recognize the two species of Hypodynerus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) recorded from Brazil: Hypodynerus arechavaletae (Brèthes) and Hypodynerus duckei (Bertoni) comb. n. The lectotype is designated and the male is described for Hypodynerus duckei, its presence being recorded from Brazil for the first time. PMID:23794876

  18. First description of the karyotype of a eucharitid wasp (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eucharitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Igor Silva; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Costa, Marco Antonio; Mariano, Cléa Santos Ferreira; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The haploid karyotype of Kapala sp. (Eucharitidae), a parasite of the Neotropical ant Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), is reported for the first time. It consists of four metacentric chromosomes. Chromosomes in the family Eucharitidae were unknown so far; therefore, our results confirm that multiple parallel chromosomal fusions have taken place in several lineages within the superfamily Chalcidoidea. PMID:26753077

  19. Suitability and Accessibility of Immature Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Stages to Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Treesearch

    Michael Ulyshen; Jian Duan; Leah Bauer; Ivich Fraser

    2010-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, is one of three biocontrol agents from Asia currently being released in the United States to combat the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). The current protocol for rearing T. planipennisi involves presenting the wasps with...

  20. The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), parasitoids of wood-boring beetles

    Treesearch

    Gary A. P. Gibson

    2005-01-01

    The world species of Balcha Walker (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) are revised, keyed and illustrated. Sixteen species are recognized, including two that are newly classified in the genus, B. reticulata (Nikol?skaya) n. comb. and B. splendida (Girault) n. comb., and eight that are described as new, B. \\i>...

  1. First record of the tramp ant Cardiocondyla obscurior (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cardiocondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is an old world genus of omnivorous ants native to Africa and Asia. The genus Cardiocondyla includes several common tramp species that have spread globally with human commerce. A single alate female C. obscurior Wheeler was collected by J. M. Stro...

  2. An update on the diversity of Wolbachia in Spalangia spp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections of Wolbachia bacteria have the potential to improve the efficacy of their host insects as biological control agents. Results of an earlier study documented numerous cases of such infections in a beneficial guild of wasps (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitic on pest flies affecting lives...

  3. Insecticidal Effects of Organotin(IV) Compounds on Plutella Xylostella (L.) Larvae. II. Inhibitory Potencies Against Acetylcholinesterase and Evidence for Synergism in Tests With Bacillus Thuringiensis(BER.) and Malathion.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N W; Huang, T S; Balabaskaran, S; Lo, K M; Das, V G

    1994-01-01

    Features of pesticide synergism and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition (in vitro) were studied using a selected range of organotin compounds against the early 4th instar larvae of a highly resistant strain of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, a major universal pest of cruciferous vegetables.Fourteen triorganotin compounds were evaluated for their ability to enhance the toxicity of the microbial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and of the commercial insecticide, Malathion to Plutella xylostella larvae. Supplemental synergism was observed with triphenyl- and tricyclopentyltin hydroxides in combinations with Bacillus thuringiensis. Increased synergism was observed with an increase in the number of cyclopentyl groups on tin in the mixed series, Cyp(n) Ph(3-n) SnX, where X = OH, and 1-(1,2,4-triazolyl). The combination of (p-chlorophenyl)diphenyltin N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate at LD(10) and LD(25) concentrations with sublethal concentrations of Malathion as well as of tricyclohexyltin methanesulphonate at the 0.01% (w/v) concentration with Malathion exerted strong synergistic effects (supplemental synergism) with toxicity index (T.I) values of 7.2, 19.8 and 10.1, respectively.Studies on the in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase prepared from the DBM larvae showed that while most of the triorganotin Compounds tested were without effect on the enzyme, compounds containing the thiocarbamylacetate or the dithiocarbamylacetate moieties demonstrated appreciable levels of inhibition, being comparable in efficacy to commercial grades of Malathion and Methomyl.

  4. On the parasitoid complex of butterflies with descriptions of two new species of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M; Bhambure, Ravindra

    2015-11-01

    In comprehensive rearing of butterflies from Goa, India, an interesting parasitoid complex of wasps and tachinid flies was found. Two new species of parasitic wasps are described and illustrated: Tetrastichus thetisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the pupa of Curetis thetis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on the host plant Derris sp., and Sympiesis thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on the host plant Cocos nucifera L. Additionally, the following host-parasitoid associations are recorded: Amblypodia anita Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with Parapanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); Coladenia indrani (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Sympiesis sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae); Danaus chrysippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Sturmia convergens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tachinidae); Idea malabarica Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with Brachymeria sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Palexorista sp. (Diptera: Tachinidae); Notocrypta curvifascia Felder & Felder (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); and Rapala sp. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) with an inominate species close to Aplomya spp. (Diptera: Tachinidae). This discovery is the first record of Tetrastichus as parasitoid of Curetis thetis, Sympiesis as parasitoid of Gangara thyrsis and Coladenia indrani, Brachymeria and Palexorista as parasitoids of Idea malabarica, and Cotesia erionotae as parasitoid of Notocrypta curvifascia. Data on habitat, brief diagnoses and host records for all parasitoids are provided.

  5. Revision of the Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan

    2015-06-09

    The Afrotropical species of Norbanus Walker, 1843 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are revised. Four previously described Afrotropical species are recognized as valid and redescribed: N. africanus Subba Rao, 1973, N. garouae (Risbec, 1956) comb. nov. (transferred from Bruchobius Ashmead), N. kitegaensis (Risbec, 1957) and N. seyrigi (Risbec, 1952) comb. nov. (from Habrocytus Thomson). In addition, the Mediterranean species N. tenuicornis Bouček, 1970 is recorded for the first time from the Afrotropical region, and 21 species are described as new: N. aequus sp. nov., N. awi sp. nov., N. brevicephalus sp. nov., N. breviclava sp. nov., N. caloramans sp. nov., N. draco sp. nov., N. erebus sp. nov., N. foritempus sp. nov., N. gibber sp. nov., N. gracilis sp. nov., N. incombo sp. nov., N. ingens sp. nov., N. longissimus sp. nov., N. maliarphae sp. nov., N. mustatai sp. nov., N. pilosus sp. nov., N. pleuralis sp. nov., N. polaszeki sp. nov., N. prinslooi sp. nov., N. rotundus sp. nov., and N. sunabron sp. nov. Three extralimital species from North Africa are included in the key: N. cerasiops (Masi, 1922), N. guyoni (Giraud, 1869), and N. obscurus (Masi, 1922). Lectotypes are designated for N. cerasiops, N. kitegaensis and N. seyrigi. The subgenus Picroscytoides Masi is placed in synonymy with Norbanus s.s. syn. nov. Host records are given for several new species, including some economically important pests of maize, sorghum or rice.

  6. Paridris kieffer of the new world (hymenoptera, platygastroidea, platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Talamas, Elijah J; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2012-01-01

    Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead.

  7. World species of the genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Taekul, Charuwat; Johnson, Norman F.; Masner, Lubomír; Polaszek, Andrew; Rajmohana K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The genus Platyscelio Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Scelioninae) is a widespread group in the Old World, found from West Africa to northern Queensland, Australia. The species concepts are revised and a key to world species is presented. The genus is comprised of 6 species, including 2 known species which are redescribed: Platyscelio africanus Risbec (Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe); and Platyscelio pulchricornis Kieffer (Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Vanuatu, Vietnam). Five species-group names are considered to be junior synonyms of Platyscelio pulchricornis: Platyscelio abnormis Crawford syn. n., Platyscelio dunensis Mukerjee syn. n., Platyscelio mirabilis Dodd syn. n., Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer syn. n., and Platyscelio wilcoxi Fullaway. The following species are hypothesized and described as new taxa: Platyscelio arcuatus Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia); Platyscelio mysterium Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa); Platyscelio mzantsi Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (South Africa); and Platyscelio striga Taekul & Johnson, sp. n. (Western Australia). PMID:21594118

  8. Safety evaluation of eleven insecticides to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Song, Min; Qi, Suzhen; Wang, Chengju

    2013-02-01

    The safety of 11 pesticides (indoxacarb, chlorfluazuron, azadirachtin, methoxyfenozide, rotenone, spinosad, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and triazophos) to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in this study. The acute toxicity to the adults was investigated using dry-film method. The influences of the pesticides on both parasitic ability and different developmental stages were studied using corn leaves residual method, rice moth egg card dipping method, and T. nubilale parasitized rice moth egg dipping method. Results showed that methoxyfenozide, azadirachtin, and indoxacarb were safe for the whole life cycle of T. nubilale. Chlorfluazuron, rotenone, and acetamiprid had different levels of impacts on different developmental stages, and they should be chosen to be used according to their safety time with reduced exposure levels. Rotenone was safe for the adults but it was harmful to the other stages, whose dosage should be reduced when it was used. Acetamiprid could be applied during the pupae stage. Finally, to avoid large kill, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, triazophos, and imidacloprid should not be used as they were not safe for any development stage of T. nubilale.

  9. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Clarke, Jessica; Shoemaker, DeWayne

    2010-10-07

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.

  10. Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

  11. DNA Extraction from Museum Specimens of Parasitic Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jeremy C.; Mills, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    At the same time that molecular researchers are improving techniques to extract DNA from museum specimens, this increased demand for access to museum specimens has created tension between the need to preserve specimens for maintaining collections and morphological research and the desire to conduct molecular analyses. To address these concerns, we examined the suitability of non-invasive DNA extraction techniques on three species of parasitic Hymenoptera (Braconidae), and test the effects of body size (parasitoid species), age (time since collection), and DNA concentration from each extract on the probability of amplifying meaningful fragments of two commonly used genetic loci. We found that age was a significant factor for determining the probability of success for sequencing both 28S and COI fragments. While the size of the braconid parasitoids significantly affected the total amount of extracted DNA, neither size nor DNA concentration were significant factors for the amplification of either gene region. We also tested several primer combinations of various lengths, but were unable to amplify fragments longer than ∼150 base pairs. These short fragments of 28S and COI were however sufficient for species identification, and for the discovery of within species genetic variation. PMID:23077493

  12. Ficus (Moraceae) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony; Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jer; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2015-12-01

    Although Ficus-associated wasp fauna have been extensively researched in Australasia, information on these fauna in Taiwan is not well accessible to scientists worldwide. In this study, we compiled records on the Ficus flora of Taiwan and its associated wasp fauna. Initial agronomic research reports on Ficus were published in Japanese in 1917, followed by reports on applied biochemistry, taxonomy, and phenology in Chinese. On the basis of the phenological knowledge of 15 species of the Ficus flora of Taiwan, recent research has examined the pollinating and nonpollinating agaonid and chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Updating records according to the current nomenclature revealed that there are 30 taxa (27 species) of native or naturalized Ficus with an unusually high proportion of dioecious species (78%). Four species were observed to exhibit mutualism with more than one pollinating wasp species, and 18 of the 27 Ficus species were reported with nonpollinating wasp species. The number of nonpollinating wasp species associated with specific Ficus species ranges from zero (F. pumila) to 24 (F. microcarpa). Approximately half of the Taiwanese fig tree species have been studied with basic information on phenology and biology described in peer-reviewed journals or theses. This review provides a solid basis for future in-depth comparative studies. This summary of knowledge will encourage and facilitate continuing research on the pollination dynamics of Ficus and the associated insect fauna in Taiwan.

  13. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    PubMed

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Lapeva-Gjonova, Albena; Antonova, Vera; Radchenko, Alexander G.; Atanasova, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Bulgaria is made on a base of critical reconsideration of literature (covering the period from 1892 till 2009 and part of 2010) as well as on examination of the authors‘ and several museum‘s collections. A lot of data were omitted in the previous Bulgarian monograph on ants, lots of new data were recently added and many important additions and alterations were made due to taxonomic revisions of Eurasian Formicidae during the last three decades. Two new species are reported for the country [Temnothorax graecus (Forel, 1911) and Temnothorax cf. korbi (Emery, 1924)]. This catalogue contains a list of 163 ant species belonging to 40 genera of 6 subfamilies now known from Bulgaria. Synonyms and information on the previously reported names in relevant publications are given. Known localities of the species are grouped by geographic regions. Maps with concrete localities or regions for each species were prepared. The conservation status of 13 ant species is given as they are included in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and Bulgarian Biodiversity Act. In comparison with adjacent Balkan regions the ant fauna of Bulgaria is quite rich and its core is composed of South European elements. PMID:21594018

  15. Reproductive Biology of Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, X-L; Huang, Z-Y; Li, J; Yang, Z-D; Yang, X-H; Lu, W

    2017-03-14

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations around the world. The successful colonization of L. invasa is possibly related to its reproductive biology. The objective of this study was to examine the reproductive biology of L. invasa. In Guangxi Province, the sex ratio (proportion of female, 0.99) of L. invasa was female-dominant throughout the year based on natural and artificial infestation. This result was similar to the ratios observed for other geographic populations in China, including those in Fujian (0.99), Guangdong (0.98), Hainan (0.95), Jiangxi (0.96), and Sichuan (0.99). The offspring sex ratio favored females. A large number of females emerged from the galls produced by females, with few males found. Galls on the petioles and midribs of Eucalyptus plants could be caused by newly emerged females with mature eggs. The lengths of the ovariole, spermatheca, common oviduct, and reproductive glands did not differ among L. invasa females, but their lateral oviducts showed differences from 0 to 42 h after emergence, indicating that this insect is proovigenic. These results could explain why L. invasa populations can rapidly increase in invaded areas.

  16. Paridris Kieffer of the New World (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Paridris in the New World is revised (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Fifteen species are described, of which 13 are new. Paridris aenea (Ashmead)(Mexico (Tamaulipas) and West Indies south to Bolivia and southern Brazil (Rio de Janeiro state)), Paridris armata Talamas, sp. n. (Venezuela), Paridris convexa Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica, Panama), Paridris dnophos Talamas, sp. n. (Mexico (Vera Cruz) south to Bolivia and central Brazil (Goiás)), Paridris gongylos Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, Tennessee, South Carolina), Paridris gorn Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (United States: Ohio south to Alabama, Georgia), Paridris invicta Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil: São Paulo), Paridris isabelicae Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Cuba, Dominican Republic), Paridris lemete Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Puerto Rico), Paridris minor Talamas, sp. n. (Cuba), Paridris nayakorum Talamas, sp. n. (Costa Rica), Paridris pallipes (Ashmead)(southeastern Canada, United States south to Costa Rica, also Brazil (São Paulo), Paridris psydrax Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Argentina, Mexico, Paraguay, United States, Venezuela), Paridris saurotos Talamas, sp. n. (Jamaica), Paridris soucouyant Talamas & Masner, sp. n. (Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela). Paridris brevipennis Fouts, Paridris laeviceps (Ashmead), and Paridris nigricornis (Fouts) are treated as junior synonyms of Paridris pallipes; Paridris opaca is transferred to Probaryconus. Lectotypes are designated for Idris aenea Ashmead and Caloteleia aenea Ashmead. PMID:23226959

  17. New records of chalcidid (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) pupal parasitoids from India

    PubMed Central

    Kanagarajan, Rasappan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Chalcidids are one of the most important parasitoids of pupae of agriculturally important pests belonging to orders like Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Such an important group has not been studied consistently by any team of workers from any country apart from the notable contributions by Boucek, Steffan, Delvare and Narendran. (Boucek 1988, Steffan 1973, Delvare 1992 and Narendran 1989). On a personal note, Dr. John S Noyes of Natural History Museum London agrees with this view as expressed with the second author and hence we felt that we can initiate further work on this group within India. We currently hold hundreds of unidentified specimens of this family in our department collection confirming that we will have much work to do over a long period of time. New information New distribution records of Chalcididae from Andhra Pradesh (Brachymeria megaspila, B. minuta, Dirhinus anthracia and D. auratus), Bihar (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, B. hearseyi, D. anthracia, D. auratus, D. pilifer, Epitranus erythrogaster and Psilochalcis carinigena), Karnataka (B. apicicornis), Manipur (B. euploeae, D. auratus and E. erythrogaster), Mizoram (B. euploeae and D. anthracia), Nagaland (B. euploeae), Himachal Pradesh (B. alternipes), and Tamil Nadu (B. apicicornis, D. anthracia, D. deplanatus, D. pilifer, D. bakeri, E. observator, E. elongatulus, P. keralensis and P. soudanensis) and union territories Andaman & Nicobar Islands (B. podagrica, B. excarinata, E. erythrogaster and P. carinigena) and Pudhucherry (B. albicrus, D. anthracia, D. auratus, E. erythrogaster and P. kerelensis) are documented from the unidentified material mentioned above. PMID:26929709

  18. Maternal Care in the Parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring. PMID:23251468

  19. Maternal care in the parasitoid Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenjie; Zhao, Xingli; Li, Yisong; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Guarding behavior is an important activity in sub-social insects, and this behavior is believed to improve the survival of offspring. Sclerodermus harmandi (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is one of most powerful epizoic parasitoid wasps, and it parasitizes Monochamus alternatus, a borer of wood and also the primary vector of the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. After laying eggs, S. harmandi exhibits sub-social behavior involving the female tending the clutch of eggs until emergence (guarding behavior). In this study, the benefits of this maternal care with regard to improvements in the survival of offspring were examined. During the developmental stages, only offspring in the egg and larval stages were sensitive to guarding behavior. A positive relationship between the survival of the offspring and the duration of guarding was detected with logistic regression analysis. A female replacement experiment demonstrated that multiparous S. harmandi stepmothers showed guarding behavior and that this behavior improved the survival of the immature offspring, whereas nulliparous stepmothers failed to exhibit the guarding behavior. These results indicate that S. harmandi females display maternal care and that this behavior improves the survival of offspring.

  20. Checklist of Braconinae species of Turkey (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Beyarslan, Ahmet

    2014-04-17

    The Braconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species recorded from Turkey are listed, the present total number being 195. Changes with respect to the previous Turkish fauna are briefly annotated and the distributions for all the species in each of the 68 biogeographical provinces are presented. After the publication of our previous fauna, 173 species have been recorded as new to Turkey. Of these, 96 species are distributed only in Asian Turkey and 14 species are distributed only in European Turkey, while 85 species occure in both. The presented checklist covers synonyms, zoogeographical region(s), hosts, host plants of host species and parasitoid data for the species.        In total, 195 species belonging 9 genera are reported for the studied regions of Turkey. The number of species of each genus is represented by: Atanycolus Foester, 1862: 4, Baryproctus Ashmead, 1900: 1, Bracon Fabricius, 1804: 149, Ceratobracon Telenga, 1936: 1, Coeloides Wesmael,1838: 2, Glyptomorpha Holmgren, 1868: 7, Iphiaulax Foerster, 1862: 9, Pseudovipio Szépligeti, 1896: 9, Vipio Latreille, 1804: 13 species. Bracon (Asiabracon) amaculatus Beyarslan, 1988 is synonymized with B. (A.) quadrimaculatus Telenga, 1936. 

  1. Diversity in bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) community in "campos rupestres", Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Pereira, Vivane; Santos, Gilberto M M

    2006-01-01

    Hymenoptera such as bees and social wasps are regular floral visitors in "campos rupestres" vegetation. A community of bees and social wasps was studied during floral visitation in an area of "campos rupestres", at Chapada Diamantina, BA, Brazil, from September 2001 to April 2002. The community was described in relation to diversity, evenness, and dominance rank, considering the individuals abundance (H' = 2.14/ J' = 0.55) and biomass (H' = 2.34/ J' = 0.60). Thirty nine bee (588 individuals/ 15.742 g) and 11 social wasp species (52 individuals/ 2.156 g) were collected, being the first report of social wasps for the Brazilian "campos rupestres". The main species regarding number of individuals were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Apis mellifera L., Frieseomelitta francoi (Moure), and Bombus brevivillus Franklin. About 48% of the species were represented by a single individual. There was an inversion in the dominance rank when the species biomass was considered. B. brevivillus, A. mellifera, T spinipes, and other species represented by 15 individuals or less, such as the social wasps Synoeca cyanea (Olivier), Polistes canadensis (L.) and Myschocyttarus drewseni (Saussure), and the bees Eufriesea nigrohirta (Friese), Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Megachile (Pseudocentron) sp.l were the predominant species. The use of biomass in diversity analysis permitted to detect differences in the relative contribution of species in hierarchy dominance. The comparison between bee faunas from different areas indicates a large similarity of the sampled fauna in Palmeiras (Bahia State) with neighboring ecosystems, although with low values of similarity.

  2. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation alters the attractiveness of Arabidopsis plants to diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella L.): impacts on oviposition and involvement of the jasmonic acid pathway.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Carla; Rutitzky, Mariana; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2006-08-01

    Solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) can have large impacts on the interactions between plants and herbivorous insects. Several studies have documented effects of UV-B-induced changes in plant tissue quality on the feeding performance of insect larvae. In contrast, the effects of UV-B-induced plant responses on the behavior of adult insects have received little attention. We carried out a series of field and glasshouse experiments using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana L. and the crucifer-specialist insect Plutella xylostella L. (diamondback moth) to investigate the effects of UV-B on natural herbivory and plant-insect interactions. Natural herbivory under field conditions was less severe on plants exposed to ambient UV-B than on plants grown under filters that attenuated the UV-B component of solar radiation. This reduced herbivory could not be accounted for by effects of UV-B on larval feeding preference and performance, as P. xylostella caterpillars did not respond to changes in plant quality induced by UV-B. In contrast, at the adult stage, the insects presented clear behavioral responses: P. xylostella moths deposited significantly more eggs on plants grown under attenuated UV-B levels than on plants exposed to ambient UV-B. The deterring effect of UV-B exposure on insect oviposition was absent in jar1-1, a mutant with impaired jasmonic acid (JA) sensitivity, but it was conserved in mutants with altered ethylene signaling. The jar1-1 mutant also presented reduced levels of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds than the other genotypes that we tested. Our results suggest that variations in UV-B exposure under natural conditions can have significant effects on insect herbivory by altering plant traits that female adults use as sources of information during the process of host selection for oviposition. These effects of natural UV-B on plant quality appear to be mediated by activation of signaling circuits in which the defense-related hormone JA plays a functional

  3. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  4. Simplification of intradermal skin testing in Hymenoptera venom allergic children.

    PubMed

    Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Stobiecki, Marcin; Brzyski, Piotr; Rogatko, Iwona; Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Sztefko, Krystyna; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Lis, Grzegorz; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The direct comparison between children and adults with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis (HVA) has never been extensively reported. Severe HVA with IgE-documented mechanism is the recommendation for venom immunotherapy, regardless of age. To determine the differences in the basic diagnostic profile between children and adults with severe HVA and its practical implications. We reviewed the medical records of 91 children and 121 adults. Bee venom allergy was exposure dependent, regardless of age (P < .001). Atopy was more common in children (P = .01), whereas cardiovascular comorbidities were present almost exclusively in adults (P = .001). In the bee venom allergic group, specific IgE levels were significantly higher in children (29.5 kUA/L; interquartile range, 11.30-66.30 kUA/L) compared with adults (5.10 kUA/L; interquartile range, 2.03-8.30 kUA/L) (P < .001). Specific IgE levels for culprit insect venom were higher in bee venom allergic children compared with the wasp venom allergic children (P < .001). In adults, intradermal tests revealed higher sensitivity, accompanied by larger area of skin reactions, regardless of type of venom. At concentrations lower than 0.1 μg/mL, 16% of wasp venom allergic children and 39% of bee venom allergic children had positive intradermal test results. The median tryptase level was significantly higher in adults than in children for the entire study group (P = .002), as well as in bee (P = .002) and wasp venom allergic groups (P = .049). The basic diagnostic profile in severe HVA reactors is age dependent. Lower skin test reactivity to culprit venom in children may have practical application in starting the intradermal test procedure with higher venom concentrations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy: Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham; Mosbech, Holger; Bilò, M Beatrice; Akdis, Cezmi A; Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Gawlik, Radoslaw; Jakob, Thilo; Kosnik, Mitja; Lange, Joanna; Mingomataj, Ervin; Mitsias, Dimitris I; Ollert, Markus; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Pfaar, Oliver; Pitsios, Constantinos; Pravettoni, Valerio; Ruëff, Franziska; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Agache, Ioana; Angier, Elizabeth; Arasi, Stefania; Calderón, Moises A; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Halken, Susanne; Jutel, Marek; Lau, Susanne; Pajno, Giovanni B; van Ree, Ronald; Ryan, Dermot; Spranger, Otto; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Dhami, Sangeeta; Zaman, Hadar; Sheikh, Aziz; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-07-27

    Hymenoptera venom allergy is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction following a honeybee, vespid or ant sting. Systemic allergic sting reactions have been reported in up to 7.5% of adults and up to 3.4% of children. They can be mild and restricted to the skin or moderate-to-severe with a risk of life-threatening anaphylaxis. Patients should carry an emergency kit containing an adrenaline autoinjector, H1 -antihistamines, and corticosteroids depending on the severity of their previous sting reaction(s). The only treatment to prevent further systemic sting reactions is venom immunotherapy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Venom Immunotherapy as part of the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy initiative. The guideline aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of venom immunotherapy, has been informed by a formal systematic review and meta-analysis and produced using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) approach. The process included representation from a range of stakeholders. Venom immunotherapy is indicated in venom allergic children and adults to prevent further moderate to severe systemic sting reactions. Venom immunotherapy is also recommended in adults with only generalized skin reactions as it results in significant improvements in quality of life compared to carrying an adrenaline auto-injector. This guideline aims to give practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests).

  7. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) are revised: 42 species are recognized, of which two were previously named and are redescribed: Trichoteleia afo Talamas, sp. n., Trichoteleia albidipes Kieffer, Trichoteleia bicolor Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia bidentata Talamas sp. n.; Trichoteleia carinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia cincta Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia delilah Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia eburata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia echinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia fisheri Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia funesta Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia halterata Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia hemlyae Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia irwini Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia janus Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia jiro Talamas, sp. n.; T. ketrona Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia levii Talamas & Johnson, sp. n.; Trichoteleia longiventris Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia minima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia nify Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia oculea Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia orona Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia parvipennis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia pauliani (Risbec); Trichoteleia picturata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prolixa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia quazii Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia ravaka Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia rugifrons Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia solocis Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia sphaerica Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia subtilis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tahotra Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia takariva Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tezitra Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tigris Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tonsa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia warreni Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia xantrox Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia zuparkoi Talamas & Masner, sp. n. A neotype is designated for Trichoteleia albidipes and a lectotype is designated for Trichoteleia pauliani. PMID

  8. Fertility signals in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sramkova, A.; Schulz, C.; Twele, R.; Francke, W.; Ayasse, M.

    2008-06-01

    In eusocial Hymenoptera, queen control over workers is probably inseparable from the mechanism of queen recognition. In primitively eusocial bumblebees ( Bombus), worker reproduction is controlled not only by the presence or absence of a dominant queen but also by other dominant workers. Furthermore, it was shown that the queen dominance is maintained by pheromonal cues. We investigated whether there is a similar odor signal released by egg-laying queens and workers that may have a function as a fertility signal. We collected cuticular surface extracts from nest-searching and breeding Bombus terrestris queens and workers that were characterized by their ovarian stages. In chemical analyses, we identified 61 compounds consisting of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, and fatty acid esters. Nest-searching queens and all groups of breeding females differed significantly in their odor bouquets. Furthermore, workers before the competition point (time point of colony development where workers start to develop ovaries and lay eggs) differed largely from queens and all other groups of workers. Breeding queens showed a unique bouquet of chemical compounds and certain queen-specific compounds, and the differences toward workers decrease with an increasing development of the workers’ ovaries, hinting the presence of a reliable fertility signal. Among the worker groups, the smallest differences were found after the competition point. Egg-laying females contained higher total amounts of chemical compounds and of relative proportions of wax-type esters and aldehydes than nest-searching queens and workers before the competition point. Therefore, these compounds may have a function as a fertility signal present in queens and workers.

  9. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Johnston, J Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities.

  10. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gokhman, Vladimir E.; Johnston, J. Spencer; Small, Chiyedza; Rajwani, Roma; Hanrahan, Shawn J.; Govind, Shubha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896) is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862) and Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for Leptopilina boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979)(n = 9), whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the Leptopilina heterotoma clade. Like Leptopilina boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for Ganaspis xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insectcommunities. PMID:24260630

  11. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism.

  12. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Talamas, Elijah J; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2011-02-16

    The species of the genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) are revised: 42 species are recognized, of which two were previously named and are redescribed: Trichoteleia afo Talamas, sp. n., Trichoteleia albidipes Kieffer, Trichoteleia bicolor Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia bidentata Talamas sp. n.; Trichoteleia carinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia cincta Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia delilah Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia eburata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia echinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia fisheri Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia funesta Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia halterata Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia hemlyae Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia irwini Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia janus Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia jiro Talamas, sp. n.; T. ketrona Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia levii Talamas & Johnson, sp. n.; Trichoteleia longiventris Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia minima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia nify Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia oculea Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia orona Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia parvipennis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia pauliani (Risbec); Trichoteleia picturata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prolixa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia quazii Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia ravaka Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia rugifrons Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia solocis Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia sphaerica Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia subtilis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tahotra Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia takariva Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tezitra Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tigris Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tonsa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia warreni Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia xantrox Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia zuparkoi Talamas & Masner, sp. n. A neotype is designated for Trichoteleia albidipes and a lectotype is designated for Trichoteleia pauliani.

  13. Allergen-specific immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy - also a matter of diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schiener, Maximilian; Graessel, Anke; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Blank, Simon

    2017-06-12

    Stings of hymenoptera can induce IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions in venom-allergic patients, ranging from local up to severe systemic reactions and even fatal anaphylaxis. Allergic patients' quality of life can be mainly improved by altering their immune response to tolerate the venoms by injecting increasing venom doses over years. This venom-specific immunotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated. However, component-resolved information about the venoms has increased in the last years. This knowledge is not only able to improve diagnostics as basis for an accurate therapy, but was additionally used to create tools which enable the analysis of therapeutic venom extracts on a molecular level. Therefore, during the last decade the detailed knowledge of the allergen composition of hymenoptera venoms has substantially improved diagnosis and therapy of venom allergy. This review focuses on state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic options as well as on novel directions trying to improve therapy.

  14. Impact of Insecticides Used in Soybean Crops to the Egg Parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Zirondi Filho, D M

    2017-08-19

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible side effects of insecticides used in soybean crops on pupae and adults of the egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) under laboratory conditions. The protocol was adapted from standard methodology stablished by the Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms Working Group of the International Organization for Biological and integrated Control (IOBC) for Trichogramma cacoeciae (Marchal) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). All tested benzoylureas, diacylhydrazines, diamides and spinosins as well as pyrethroid beta-cyfluthrin were harmless to T. podisi pupae and adults, and therefore, can be used in IPM without damage to this biological control agent. The tested organophosphate, pyrethroids (except beta-cyfluthrin) and its combinations with either neonicotinoids or diamides triggered deleterious effects on at least one of the life stages of the parasitoid and should, whenever possible, be replaced by other insecticides more selective to natural enemies.

  15. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M T; Ewan, P W; Diwakar, L; Durham, S R; Frew, A J; Leech, S C; Nasser, S M

    2011-09-01

    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Aminopeptidase N isoforms from the midgut of Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella -- their classification and the factors that determine their binding specificity to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kazuko; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nagino, Yasushi; Hara, Hirotaka; Kitami, Madoka; Atsumi, Shogo; Miura, Nami; Sato, Ryoichi

    2002-05-22

    Novel aminopeptidase N (APN) isoform cDNAs, BmAPN3 and PxAPN3, from the midguts of Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella, respectively, were cloned, and a total of eight APN isoforms cloned from B. mori and P. xylostella were classified into four classes. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab toxins were found to bind to specific APN isoforms from the midguts of B. mori and P. xylostella, and binding occurred with fragments that corresponded to the BmAPN1 Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of each APN isoform. The results suggest that APN isoforms have a common toxin-binding region, and that the apparent specificity of Cry1Aa toxin binding to each intact APN isoform seen in SDS-PAGE is determined by factors such as expression level in conjunction with differences in binding affinity.

  17. Hymenoptera Venom Immunotherapy: Tolerance and Efficacy of an Ultrarush Protocol versus a Rush and a Slow Conventional Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patella, Vincenzo; Florio, Giovanni; Giuliano, Ada; Oricchio, Carmine; Spadaro, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni; Genovese, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Various venom immunotherapy (VIT) protocols are available for Hymenoptera allergy. Although adverse reactions (ADRs) to VIT are widely reported, controlled trials are still needed. We conducted a randomized prospective study to evaluate ADRs and the efficacy of three VIT regimens. Methods. 76 patients with Hymenoptera allergy, aged 16–76 years, were randomized to receive an ultrarush protocol (group A: 27 patients), a rush protocol (group B: 25), or a slow protocol (group C: 24). Aqueous venom extract was used in incremental phase and an adsorbed depot in maintenance phase. ADRs and accidental Hymenoptera stings during VIT were used to evaluate efficacy. Results. During incremental treatment, ADRs occurred in 1.99%, 3.7%, and 3.9% of patients in groups A, B, and C, and in 0.99%, 1.46%, and 2.7%, respectively, during maintenance. ADRs were significantly fewer in group A (incremental + maintenance phase) than in group C (1.29% versus 3.2%; P = 0.013). Reactions to accidental Hymenoptera stings did not differ among groups (1.1%, 1.2%, and 1.1%). Conclusion. Ultrarush was as effective as the rush and slow protocols and was associated with a low incidence of reactions to stings. This study indicates that ultrarush VIT is a valid therapeutic option for Hymenoptera allergy. PMID:22693521

  18. Effects of temperature and nonionizing ultraviolet radiation treatments of eggs of five host insects on production of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control applications.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control against insect pests, attacking eggs of over 200 species. Eggs of Spodoptera litura, Corcyra cephalonica, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were tested to consider the effect of temperature and radiation on parasitization, emergence of...

  19. Cold storage of adult Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Mymaridae: Hymenoptera) and effects on maternal and progeny fitness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT Storage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) adults at 2, 5, and 10°C showed that these parasitoids do not survive at 2°C for 5 d, and exposure to 5 and 10°C shortens their lifespan. The LT50 (i.e., length of storage time for 50% wasp survival) at 5°C was 14 d ...

  20. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-05-31

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given.

  1. Checklist of British and Irish Hymenoptera - aculeates (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Else, George R.; Bolton, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The checklist of British and Irish aculeate Hymenoptera (Apoidea, Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea) is revised. Species distribution is summarised for all species at the level of country (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Isle of Man). New information The 601 native species represent an increase of 25 on the 1978 checklist, comprising mostly new discoveries. This increase is nearly balanced by the 23 species now presumed to be extinct in Britain and Ireland. PMID:27226757

  2. Revision of the genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), with the description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Carrón, Nilo F. Ortiz de Zugasti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic genus Paralipsis Foerster, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is revised and two new species are described: Paralipsis tibiator van Achterberg & Ortiz de Zugasti, sp. n. from Spain and Paralipsis planus van Achterberg, sp. n. from the Netherlands. Some biological notes are supplied for Paralipsis tibiator sp. n. A key to the four known species is added and all species are illustrated. PMID:27551220

  3. The description of Alloxysta chinensis, a new Charipinae species from China (Hymenoptera, Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Dávid; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja; Pénzes, Zsolt; Melika, George

    2013-01-01

    A new figitid species, Alloxysta chinensis Fülöp & Mikó sp nova, based on females, is described from China and South Korea. The functional morphology and the phylogenetic implication of some anatomical structures frequently used in Charipinae and the validity of the genus Carvercharips is discussed. This manuscript is the first of its kind linking descriptive terminology to Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology classes, which provides persistent links to definitions for terms used within this manuscript.

  4. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps.

    PubMed

    Kaltenpoth, Martin; Showers Corneli, Patrice; Dunn, Diane M; Weiss, Robert B; Strohm, Erhard; Seger, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes). Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of Apocrita is unlikely

  5. Four new species of Andricus Hartig oak gallwasp from Turkey (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini).

    PubMed

    Mutun, Serap; Dinç, Serdar; Bozsó, Miklós; Melika, George

    2014-01-31

    Four new species of oak gallwasps, Andricus ahmeti, A. anatolicus, A. bakrachus and A. turcicus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) are described from Turkey. All four species are known only from asexual females and induce galls on twigs and young shoots on Q. infectoria, Q. macranthera and Q. petraea. Data on the diagnosis, distribution and biology of the four new species are given. Andricus stonei and Aphelonyx kordestanica are listed for the first time for the Turkish oak gallwasp fauna.

  6. Review of south temperate New World Coelocybinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Heydon, Steven L

    2014-01-16

    The Coelocybinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of the southern parts of the New World are reviewed. Ariasina Heydon n. gen. is described for Ar. adusta Heydon n. sp. and Ar. gigas Heydon n. sp. Other new species described are Ambogaster karooi Heydon n. sp., Lanthanomyia bockleri Heydon n. sp. and L. pardos Heydon n. sp. Updated information on distributional records, new host plant information, and a key to all included genera and species of the Coelocybinae of Chile and Argentina are presented. 

  7. Checklist of Iranian Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with Descriptions of New Species

    PubMed Central

    Fallahzadeh, Majid; Japoshvili, George

    2010-01-01

    A list of Iranian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) is given for the first time. It includes 93 species representing 32 genera. Host information from Iran and distributional data are also provided. Three genera and 7 species are first recorded from Iran. New host records are provided for three species. Two new species, Gyranusoidea iranica sp. n. and Microterys iranicus sp. n., are described and diagnostic characters are provided for them. PMID:20672988

  8. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço de; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  9. Are the TTAGG and TTAGGG telomeric repeats phylogenetically conserved in aculeate Hymenoptera?

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Bardella, Vanessa B; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Lucena, Daercio A A; Almeida, Eduardo A B

    2017-09-27

    Despite the (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat supposed being the ancestral DNA motif of telomeres in insects, it was repeatedly lost within some insect orders. Notably, parasitoid hymenopterans and the social wasp Metapolybia decorata (Gribodo) lack the (TTAGG)n sequence, but in other representatives of Hymenoptera, this motif was noticed, such as different ant species and the honeybee. These findings raise the question of whether the insect telomeric repeat is or not phylogenetically predominant in Hymenoptera. Thus, we evaluated the occurrence of both the (TTAGG)n sequence and the vertebrate telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n using dot-blotting hybridization in 25 aculeate species of Hymenoptera. Our results revealed the absence of (TTAGG)n sequence in all tested species, elevating the number of hymenopteran families lacking this telomeric sequence to 13 out of the 15 tested families so far. The (TTAGGG)n was not observed in any tested species. Based on our data and compiled information, we suggest that the (TTAGG)n sequence was putatively lost in the ancestor of Apocrita with at least two subsequent independent regains (in Formicidae and Apidae).

  10. Expressed sequence tags reveal Proctotrupomorpha (minus Chalcidoidea) as sister to Aculeata (Hymenoptera: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Sharanowski, Barbara J; Robbertse, Barbara; Walker, John; Voss, S Randal; Yoder, Ryan; Spatafora, Joseph; Sharkey, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the most diverse groups of animals on the planet and have vital importance for ecosystem function as pollinators and parasitoids. Higher-level relationships among Hymenoptera have been notoriously difficult to resolve with both morphological and traditional molecular approaches. Here we examined the utility of expressed sequence tags for resolving relationships among hymenopteran superfamilies. Transcripts were assembled for 6 disparate Hymenopteran taxa with additional sequences added from public databases for a final dataset of 24 genes for 16 taxa and over 10 kb of sequence data. The concatenated dataset recovered a robust and well-supported topology demonstrating the monophyly of Holometabola, Hymenoptera, Apocrita, Aculeata, Ichneumonoidea, and a sister relationship between the two most closely related proctotrupomorphs in the dataset (Cynipoidea+Proctotrupoidea). The data strongly supported a sister relationship between Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha, contrary to previously proposed hypotheses. Additionally there was strong evidence indicating Ichneumonoidea as sister to Aculeata+Proctotrupomorpha. These relationships were robust to missing data, nucleotide composition biases, low taxonomic sampling, and conflicting signal across gene trees. There was also strong evidence indicating that Chalcidoidea is not contained within Proctotrupomorpha. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemoreceptor Evolution in Hymenoptera and Its Implications for the Evolution of Eusociality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2015-08-12

    Eusocial insects, mostly Hymenoptera, have evolved unique colonial lifestyles that rely on the perception of social context mainly through pheromones, and chemoreceptors are hypothesized to have played important adaptive roles in the evolution of sociality. However, because chemoreceptor repertoires have been characterized in few social insects and their solitary relatives, a comprehensive examination of this hypothesis has not been possible. Here, we annotate ∼3,000 odorant and gustatory receptors in recently sequenced Hymenoptera genomes and systematically compare >4,000 chemoreceptors from 13 hymenopterans, representing one solitary lineage (wasps) and three independently evolved eusocial lineages (ants and two bees). We observe a strong general tendency for chemoreceptors to expand in Hymenoptera, whereas the specifics of gene gains/losses are highly diverse between lineages. We also find more frequent positive selection on chemoreceptors in a facultative eusocial bee and in the common ancestor of ants compared with solitary wasps. Our results suggest that the frequent expansions of chemoreceptors have facilitated the transition to eusociality. Divergent expression patterns of odorant receptors between honeybee and ants further indicate differential roles of chemoreceptors in parallel trajectories of social evolution.

  12. Tolerated sting challenge in patients on Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy improves health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Koschel, D S; Schmies, M; Weber, C Nink; Höffken, G; Balck, F

    2014-01-01

    Sting challenge with a live insect remains the best test for proving the efficacy of immunotherapy in Hymenoptera allergy. We studied the impact of tolerated sting challenge on quality of life. In this prospective study, data were collected via self-report questionnaires completed by consenting patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy on venom immunotherapy before and after a sting challenge. The study population comprised 100 adult patients (82 with yellow jacket allergy and 18 with honeybee allergy) who participated between September 2009 and November 2010. After the sting challenge, the score on the Vespid Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire revealed a statistically significant improvement (mean [SD] change, 0.73 [0.98]; P < .0001; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94). This improvement was independent of the patients' gender and age and the severity of the initial anaphylactic reaction. A statistically significant improvement was documented in 2 subgroups of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (physical functioning, mean change, -5.78 [25.23]; P = .038; 95% CI, -11.22 to -0.34; vitality, mean change -4.29 [12.49]; P =.002; 95% CI, -7.02 to -1.57). Sting challenge results in a significant improvement in disease-specific quality of life and subgroups of general quality of life in patients allergic to Hymenoptera venom receiving established venom immunotherapy.

  13. In vitro diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy and further development of component resolved diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ebo, Didier G; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; de Graaf, Dirk C; Bridts, Chris H; De Clerck, Luc S; Sabato, Vito

    2014-03-01

    For most people Hymenoptera stings result in transient and bothersome local inflammatory responses characterized by pain, itching, redness and swelling. In contrast, for those presenting an IgE-mediated allergic reaction, a re-sting may cause life-threatening reactions. In such patients, correct diagnosis is an absolute prerequisite for effective management, i.e. venom-specific immunotherapy. Generally, identification of the offending insect involves a detailed history along with quantification of venom-specific IgE antibodies and venom skin tests. Unfortunately, due to uncertainties associated with both tests, correct diagnosis is not always straightforward. This review summarizes the potentials and limitations of the various in vitro tests that are currently being used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Particular attention is paid to the potential of novel cellular tests such as basophil activation tests and component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant venom allergens in the diagnostic approach of patients with difficult diagnosis, i.e. cases in whom traditional venom specific IgE and skin tests yield equivocal or negative results. Finally, this review also covers the recent discoveries in the field of proteome research of Hymenoptera venoms and the selection of cell types for recombinant allergens production.

  14. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  15. "It stings a bit but it cleans well": venoms of Hymenoptera and their antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Sébastien J M

    2013-02-01

    Venoms from Hymenoptera display a wide range of functions and biological roles. These notably include manipulation of the host, capture of prey and defense against competitors and predators thanks to endocrine and immune systems disruptors, neurotoxic, cytolytic and pain-inducing venom components. Recent works indicate that many hymenopteran species, whatever their life style, have also evolved a venom with properties which enable it to regulate microbial infections, both in stinging and stung animals. In contrast to biting insects and their salivary glands, stinging Hymenoptera seem to constitute an under-exploited ecological niche for agents of vector-borne disease. Few parasitic or mutualistic microorganisms have been reported to be hosted by venom-producing organs or to be transmitted to stung animals. This may result from the presence of potent antimicrobial molecules in venoms, histological features of venom apparatuses and selective effects of venoms on immune defenses of targeted organisms. The present paper reviews for the first time the venom antimicrobial potential of solitary and social Hymenoptera in molecular, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives.

  16. Bacterial associates of seed-parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Megastigmus).

    PubMed

    Paulson, Amber R; von Aderkas, Patrick; Perlman, Steve J

    2014-09-25

    The success of herbivorous insects has been shaped largely by their association with microbes. Seed parasitism is an insect feeding strategy involving intimate contact and manipulation of a plant host. Little is known about the microbial associates of seed-parasitic insects. We characterized the bacterial symbionts of Megastigmus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), a lineage of seed-parasitic chalcid wasps, with the goal of identifying microbes that might play an important role in aiding development within seeds, including supplementing insect nutrition or manipulating host trees. We screened multiple populations of seven species for common facultative inherited symbionts. We also performed culture independent surveys of larvae, pupae, and adults of M. spermotrophus using 454 pyrosequencing. This major pest of Douglas-fir is the best-studied Megastigmus, and was previously shown to manipulate its tree host into redirecting resources towards unfertilized ovules. Douglas-fir ovules and the parasitoid Eurytoma sp. were also surveyed using pyrosequencing to help elucidate possible transmission mechanisms of the microbial associates of M. spermotrophus. Three wasp species harboured Rickettsia; two of these also harboured Wolbachia. Males and females were infected at similar frequencies, suggesting that these bacteria do not distort sex ratios. The M. spermotrophus microbiome is dominated by five bacterial OTUs, including lineages commonly found in other insect microbiomes and in environmental samples. The bacterial community associated with M. spermotrophus remained constant throughout wasp development and was dominated by a single OTU - a strain of Ralstonia, in the Betaproteobacteria, comprising over 55% of all bacterial OTUs from Megastigmus samples. This strain was also present in unparasitized ovules. This is the first report of Ralstonia being an abundant and potentially important member of an insect microbiome, although other closely-related Betaproteobacteria, such as

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of ponerine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have revolutionized our understanding of how these ecologically dominant organisms diversified, but detailed phylogenies are lacking for most major ant subfamilies. I report the results of the first detailed phylogenetic study of the ant subfamily Ponerinae, a diverse cosmopolitan lineage whose properties make it an attractive model system for investigating social and ecological evolution in ants. Molecular sequence data were obtained from four nuclear genes (wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin, rudimentary [CAD], 28S rDNA; total of ~3.3 kb) for 86 ponerine taxa, representing all three ponerine tribes, 22 of the 28 currently recognized genera, and 14 of the 18 informal subgenera of Pachycondyla, a heterogeneous grouping whose monophyly is doubtful on morphological grounds. Phylogenetic reconstructions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference support the monophyly of Ponerinae and tribe Platythyreini, but fail to support the monophyly of the large tribe Ponerini due to its inclusion of the unusual genus Thaumatomyrmex. Pachycondyla is inferred to be broadly non-monophyletic. Numerous novel generic and suprageneric relationships are inferred within Ponerini, which was found to consist of four major multi-generic clades (the Ponera, Pachycondyla, Plectroctena and Odontomachus genus groups) plus the single genera Hypoponera and Harpegnathos. Uncertainty remains in some regions of the phylogeny, including at the base of Ponerini, possibly reflecting rapid radiation. Divergence dating using a Bayesian relaxed clock method estimates an origin for stem Ponerinae in the upper Cretaceous, a major burst of diversification near the K/T boundary, and a rich and continual history of diversification during the Cenozoic. These results fail to support the predictions of the "dynastic-succession hypothesis" previously developed to explain the high species diversity of Ponerinae. Though model

  18. A new species of Crinibracon Quicke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Achterberg, Cornelis Van; Chitrala, Malathi

    2016-08-29

    A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) emerged along with C. chromusae sp. n. from pupae of H. chromus. The generic placement of this new species along with interesting parasitoid biology is discussed.

  19. Two new species of the genus Ficobracon van Achterberg and Weiblen (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China, expanding its host range.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pan; Li, Zi; Van Achterberg, Cees; Feng, Gui; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Syconia of figs (Moraceae: Ficus spp.) harbour many wasp species, mostly belonging to several genera of chalcidoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). In contrast, only two genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) with a few known species are found in syconia belonging to the subgenus Urostigma. The braconid fig wasps have an infrequent occurrence with low population density and are rarely encountered. Two new species, Ficobracon rhiknosus sp. nov. from figs of the subgenus Urostigma, and F. codonatus sp. nov. from figs of the subgenus Sycidium are described. Our previous experiments firmly support the suggestion that the Ficobracon species are parasitoids of non-pollinating chalcidoid fig wasps in the syconia.

  20. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  1. Powdered sugar shake to monitor and oxalic acid treatments to control varroa mites (Parasitiformes: Varroidae) in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective monitoring and alternative strategies to control the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann (Parasitiformes: Varroidae), (varroa) are crucial for determining when to apply effective treatments to honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies. Using simpl...

  2. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, on hosts exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  3. Influence of temperature on the reproductive and developmental biology of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for biological control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ontsira mellipes Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a North American parasitoid that develops on the invasive pest, Anoplophora glabripennis (Moltschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions, and is currently being considered as a potential new-association biocontrol agent. In ...

  4. Tanzawana flavomaculata (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), a new genus and species of parasitoid of Fagineura crenativora (Tenthredinidae, Nematinae), a serious pest of beech tree.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kyohei; Taniwaki, Tooru; Kasparyan, Dmitri

    2015-11-10

    We describe a new genus, and a new species, of parasitoid--Tanzawana flavomaculata Watanabe & Kasparyan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae)--based on material collected in Honshu, Japan. As T. flavomaculata is found on Fagineura crenativora Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2000 (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a serious pest of beech tree, this parasitoid is an important natural enemy of F. crenativora that can be used for the biological control of this pest.

  5. Establishing Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the introduced egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer, in Michigan ash stands

    Treesearch

    Toby Petrice; F. William Ravlin; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2016-01-01

    The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is one of four parasitoid species from northeast Asia being released in regions of North America as part of a biological control program to manage the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (Bauer et al...

  6. Discovery of Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a larval ectoparasitoid of citrus longhorned beetle in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spathius ibarakius Belokobylskij et Maeto, which belongs to the Spathius exarator species group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) was found as an ectoparasitoid of the first- and second-instar larvae of the citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster), from Gwangneung, Pocheon, Kore...

  7. Origin and phylogeography of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera : Cephidae): implications for pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    he wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage by this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are not very effective and uncertainties regarding its origin and i...

  8. Review of species of the genus Adelurola Strand, 1928, with a key to species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Yari, Zahra; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Ehsan Rakhshani; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The alysiine genus Adelurola Strand, 1928 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is revised. Illustrated re-descriptions and a key to all known species of this genus are given. The following new combination is proposed: Dapsilarthra eurys (Chen & Wu, 1994), comb. n. Adelurola amplidens (Fischer, 1966) and Adelurola asiatica Telenga, 1935 are recorded for the first time from Iran and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. PMID:27047244

  9. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  10. Landing surface color preferences of Spathius agrili (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...

  11. Detection and identification of Amylostereum areolatum (Russulales: Amylostereaceae) in the mycangia of Sirex nigricornis (Hymenoptera: Siricaidae) in central Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Jeremy Allison; James Meeker; Wood Johnson; Douglas Streett; M. Catherine Aime; Christopher Carlton

    2014-01-01

    The woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) has become established in North America. A primary tactic for the management of S. noctilio in the southern hemisphere has been the development of a biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. This nematode has a bicyclic life cycle including a...

  12. Two New Species of Egg Parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) of Wood-Boring Beetle Pests from China

    Treesearch

    Yanzhou Zhang; Dawei Huang; Tonghai Zhao; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2005-01-01

    Oobius agrili sp.n. and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from China. Morphological characters of the new species are illustrated. O. agrili is an egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and A....

  13. Description of a new genus and three species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Devi, O K Rema; Srinivasa, Y B

    2014-06-10

    A new genus of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), Noyesencyrtus Singh gen. nov. (type species N. brachyoculus Singh sp. nov.), associated with insects inhabiting fruiting bodies of wood-decaying fungi, and two new species, Psyllaephagus kundapurensis Singh sp. nov. and Ooencyrtus hayatii Singh sp. nov., are described from the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

  14. The use of root plates for nesting sites by Anthophora abrupta (Hymenoptera: Apidae) may be common within forested habitats

    Treesearch

    Joshua W. Campbell; Cynthia C. Viguiera; Patrick Viguiera; John E. Hartgerink; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2017-01-01

    This is the first reported use of root plates by Anthophora abrupta Say (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Previous reported nesting sites were vertical riverbanks and several man-made clay structures. Root plates in forested habitats may be the preferred nesting site for A. abrupta.

  15. Description of two techniques to increase efficiency in processing and curating minute arthropods, with special reference to parasitic Hymenoptera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe and illustrate two techniques for enhancing curatorial and processing efficiency as it pertains to parasitic Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea, Cynipoidea). These techniques were developed in response not only to the massive number of parasitoids that have been acquired through our and others’ ...

  16. Antennal olfactory responsiveness of the Texas leaf cutting ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to trail pheromone and its two alarm substances

    Treesearch

    N.A. Andryszak; Thomas L. Payne; J.C. Dickens; John C. Moser; R.W. Fisher

    1990-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from major workers, queens, and males of the Texas leaf cutting, Atta texana (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in response to serial dilutions of two alarm substances, 2-heptanone and 4-methyl-3-heptanone, and its trial phermone, 4-methylpyrrole-2-carbonxylate. The lower EAG threshold for major workers...

  17. Conserving natural enemies with flowering plants: estimating floral attractiveness to parasitic Hymenoptera and attractions relationship to flower and plant morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering plants in agricultural landscapes can provide ecological services, such as nectar-food for adult parasitic Hymenoptera. Various native, introduced/established and cultivated potted plants-in-flower were used to bait interception traps along the wooded margins of fields planted seasonally w...

  18. Distribution of 18S rDNA sites and absence of the canonical TTAGG insect telomeric repeat in parasitoid Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Gokhman, Vladimir E; Anokhin, Boris A; Kuznetsova, Valentina G

    2014-08-01

    Karyotypes of six species belonging to three main clades of parasitoid Hymenoptera, the superfamilies Ichneumonoidea (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon amphibolus), Cynipoidea (Cynipidae: Diplolepis rosae) and Chalcidoidea (Eurytomidae: Eurytoma robusta, Eu. serratulae and Eu. compressa, and Torymidae: Torymus bedeguaris) were studied using FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric (TTAGG)n probes. Haploid karyotypes of D. rosae, Eu. robusta and Eu. serratulae carried the only 18S rDNA hybridization signal, whereas those of I. amphibolus and Eu. compressa carried three and two rDNA clusters respectively. In addition, three rDNA sites were visualized in the aneuploid female of T. bedeguaris. The number of rDNA clusters in parasitoid Hymenoptera generally correlates to the chromosome number. Apart from the overwhelming majority of the studied species of aculeate Hymenoptera, no hybridization signals were obtained from FISH with the telomeric (TTAGG)n probe in the examined parasitoid species. These data suggest absence of the canonical (TTAGG)n insect telomeric motif in the Ichneumonoidea, Cynipoidea and Chalcidoidea, and perhaps in parasitoid Hymenoptera in general.

  19. European hornet (Vespa crabro) sting: a new risk factor for life-threatening reaction in hymenoptera allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Antonicelli, L; Bilò, M B; Napoli, G; Farabollini, B; Bonifazi, F

    2003-06-01

    Severity of a previous reaction, adult age, male gender and honeybee sting are risk factors for severe systemic reactions after hymenoptera stings. The aim of the study was to assess the association between the Vespa crabro sting and severe systemic reactions. One hundred fifty seven hymenoptera allergic patients with a positive case history for systemic reactions were selected on the basis of unequivocal identification of the stinging insect. In 97 patients the culprit insect was Vespula spp., in 35 was Vespa crabro in the remaining 25 patients was Apis mellifera. The relative risk for a life-threatening reactions after a sting was evaluated for each hymenoptera species. While the percentage of life-threatening reactions was similar both in Apis mellifera (24%) and in Vespula spp. Allergic patients groups (27.8%), a very high prevalence (81.2%) was documented in Vespa crabro allergic patients group. The relative risk for life-threatening reactions after a Vespa crabro sting was about three times higher (RR = 2.74--CI 95% 1.93-3.89--R < 0.0001) than it was for a honeybee or yellow jacket sting. The increase of the risk for life-threatening reactions after a Vespa crabro sting was independent from the age of patients. Vespa crabro sting seems to be a new risk factor for life-threatening reactions after hymenoptera sting.

  20. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in North America in an effort to control the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental tim...

  1. The effect of photobleaching on bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) setae color and its implications for studying aging and behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies of foraging ecology and plant-pollinator interactions benefit from a number of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) characteristics including morphometric measurements, natural history and age. Historically, bee age has been estimated using measurements of wing wear and integument color change. Wing w...

  2. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  3. Solenopsis invicta virus (sinv-1) infection and insecticide interactions in the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlling invasive species is a growing concern; however, pesticides can be detrimental for non-target organisms. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has aggressively invaded approximately 138 million ha in the USA and causes over $6 billion in damage and ...

  4. Methyl 6-methylsalicylate: A female-produced pheromone component of the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex pheromone-related behavior and chemistry were studied in the wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a pupal parasitoid of house flies Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Males responded behaviorally to female extracts by arrestment, whereas females did not arrest to male e...

  5. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  6. Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Alabama Beekeeping Operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utility of USDA-developed Russian and varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was compared to that of locally produced, commercial Italian bees during 2004-2006 in beekeeping operations in Alabama, USA. Infestations of varroa mites, Varroa destructor ...

  7. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  8. Review of the genus Metopheltes Uchida, 1932 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) with description of a new species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Reshchikov, Alexey; van Achterberg, Kees

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Metopheltes Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Ctenopelmatinae), Metopheltesclypeoarmatus sp. n. is described from Vietnam. Metopheltespetiolaris Uchida, 1932 is recorded for the first time from the Russian Far East. The other previously described species are also illustrated and discussed.

  9. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  10. The effect of linear distance on the parasitism of house fly hosts (Diptera: Muscidae) by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common pupal parasitoid of pest flies in livestock facilities. Biological control for fly control using parasitoids has had variable success. The lack of efficacy in some trials may be a consequence of the insufficient knowledge of parasi...

  11. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes USBombus, a large dataset that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the US was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affi...

  12. Biology and life history of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a larval endoparasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera:Buprestidae)

    Treesearch

    Jian J. Duan; Craig B. Oppel; Michael D. Ulyshen; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan. LeLito

    2011-01-01

    Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious larval endoparasitoid from China that is being released in the United States as a biocontrol agent of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), an exotic beetle responsible for widespread ash mortality. The developmental time of immature stages, adult...

  13. An epidemiological survey of hymenoptera venom allergy in the Spanish paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cañavate, A; Tabar, A I; Eseverri, J L; Martín, F; Pedemonte-Marco, C

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom are infrequent in paediatric patients. A study was made to determine the incidence of this pathology in children, based on an epidemiological survey targeted to all members of the SEICAP (Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia Pediátrica/Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy), and designed to collect the data on patients under 17 years of age diagnosed with hymenoptera venom allergy. The data corresponding to 175 patients (135 males) were collected. The mean age was 9.9 ± 3.6 years. Seventeen percent (32 patients) were the offspring of beekeepers, and 68.9% had experienced previous stings. The causal insect was Apis melifera, implicated in 55 cases, followed by Polistes dominulus (33 cases). In 151 patients (83.9%) the condition consisted of a local reaction. The most frequent systemic response was urticaria and angio-oedema. Fourteen patients suffered anaphylactic shock. The diagnosis was based on skin test (intradermal and prick) and/or specific IgE testing. Three treatment categories were established: (a) prevention and educational measures; (b) symptomatic treatment with oral antihistamines as well as self-injectable adrenalin; and (c) immunotherapy. In this context, 135 patients underwent immunotherapy with a mean duration of 3.5 ± 1.7 years (range 2-5 years) - with excellent tolerance. The starting regimen was predominantly conventional (92 patients). The results of this survey show hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom to be infrequent in paediatrics, though with a strong impact upon patient quality of life. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate data, localisation of the sting, grade of anaphylaxis and therapy of hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian Tasso; Mikula, Mirko; Ricklin, Meret Elisabeth; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Helbling, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    International epidemiological studies indicate that around 1-7% of the population respond with an allergic reaction to a hymenoptera sting, which is frequently associated with admission to an emergency department. This retrospective study included patients admitted between 2009 and 2013 to an emergency department after a hymenoptera sting. In all, 86 (60.1%) men and 57 (39.9%) women were included in the study. The mean age was 43 years, with a range from 19 to 84 years. The most common localisations of a sting were the head (n = 33; 22.5%), the hands (n = 32; 21.9%) and the arms (n = 26; 17.8%). In women, we recorded significantly more stings in distal extremities (p = 0.033) and in men stings in the rump and head were most frequent. Local swellings were observed in 67.1% (n = 96) of patients and 34.3% (n = 49) patients exhibited an anaphylactic reaction. Of these, 21.7% (n = 31) suffered from a grade I, 6.3% (n = 9) grade II, 4.2% (n = 6) grade III and 2.1% (n = 3) grade IV anaphylactic reactions. 46% (66) of the patients were given antihistamines, 45% (64) intravenous glucocorticoids and only 12.5% (16) epinephrine. Most stings were recorded on days without rainfall (p = 0.013), with more hours of sunshine (p = 0.001), low relative humidity (p = 0.006), with mean air pressure above 954.3 hPa and on days with mean temperature above 24.2 °C (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the most hymenoptera stings induced local swelling only; severe reactions were rare. The most dangerous stings are enoral and result from inattentive drinking. Epinephrine was rarely used in anaphylactic reactions.

  15. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  16. Review of Afrotropical Cryptopimpla Taschenberg (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Banchinae), with description of nine new species

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Terry Reynolds; van Noort, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Afrotropical banchine fauna (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) comprises 12 genera. One of these, Cryptopimpla Taschenberg, 1863, is a predominately northern hemisphere genus represented by 47 described species of which only one is known from the Afrotropical region. We describe nine new species of this rare Afrotropical genus: Cryptopimpla elongatus sp. n., Cryptopimpla fernkloofensis sp. n., Cryptopimpla goci sp. n., Cryptopimpla hantami sp. n., Cryptopimpla kogelbergensis sp. n., Cryptopimpla neili sp. n., Cryptopimpla onyxi sp. n., Cryptopimpla parslactis sp. n., and Cryptopimpla zwarti sp. n. All the Afrotropical species are only known from South Africa. Online interactive Lucid keys to the nine Cryptopimpla species are available at: http://www.waspweb.org. PMID:28138289

  17. Five new species of Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Luis Felipe Ventura; Dias, Angélica Maria Penteado

    2015-12-10

    Meteorus Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a cosmopolitan genus with around 340 species described, all koinobiont endoparasitoids of Coleoptera or Lepidoptera larvae, and several of its hosts are pest insects. Previously to this work only two species were described from Brazil, M. eaclidis Muesebeck and M. townsendi Muesebeck. Five new species of Meteorus are here described: M. atlanticus n. sp., M. ferruginosus n. sp., M. itatiaiensis n. sp., M. monoceros n. sp., and M. strigatus n. sp. Three species are recorded for the first time from Brazil: M. jerodi Aguirre & Shaw, M. laphygmae Viereck and M. megalops Zitani.

  18. Utility of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Vachová, Martina; Panzner, Petr; Malkusová, Ivana; Hanzlíková, Jana; Vlas, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    A diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy is based on clinical history and the results of skin tests and/or laboratory methods. To analyze the utility of available laboratory tests in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Ninety-five patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy with a history of bee (35) or wasp (60) anaphylactic sting reaction and positive skin test with bee or wasp venom were included in this analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (to bee venom extract, wasp venom extract, available recombinant molecules, and a basophil activation test with venom extracts were assessed in all the patients. Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using standard threshold values; then, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to compute optimal threshold values. Also, statistical analysis of the utility of different combinations of laboratory tests was performed. The optimal threshold values were revealed to be the following: 1.0 kIU/L for bee venom extract (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 100%), 0.35 kIU/L for rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 68.57%; specificity, 100%), 1.22 kIU/L for wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 88.33%; specificity, 95.45%), 0.7 kIU/L for rVes v 5 (sensitivity, 86.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 1.0 kIU/L for rVes v 1 (sensitivity, 56.67%; specificity, 95.45%), 6.5% for basophil activation test with bee venom extract (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 95.45%), and 4.5% for basophil activation test with wasp venom extract (sensitivity, 91.53%; specificity, 95.45%). The best test combinations were found to be the following: bee venom extract plus rApi m 1 (sensitivity, 97.14%; specificity, 95.45%) in bee and either wasp venom extract plus rVes v 5, or rVes v 5 plus rVes v 1 (both sensitivity, 98.33%; specificity, 95.45%) in patients with wasp venom allergy. Our analysis confirmed that currently used laboratory tests represent effective tools in diagnosing Hymenoptera venom allergy. Moreover, our probabilistic approach offered another

  19. Evolution of Cuticular Hydrocarbons in the Hymenoptera: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical communication is the oldest form of communication, spreading across all forms of life. In insects, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) function as chemical cues for the recognition of mates, species, and nest-mates in social insects. Although much is known about the function of individual hydrocarbons and their biosynthesis, a phylogenetic overview is lacking. Here, we review the CHC profiles of 241 species of Hymenoptera, one of the largest and most important insect orders, which includes the Symphyta (sawflies), the polyphyletic Parasitica (parasitoid wasps), and the Aculeata (wasps, bees, and ants). We investigated whether these taxonomic groups differed in the presence and absence of CHC classes and whether the sociality of a species (solitarily vs. social) had an effect on CHC profile complexity. We found that the main CHC classes (i.e., n-alkanes, alkenes, and methylalkanes) were all present early in the evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera, as evidenced by their presence in ancient Symphyta and primitive Parasitica wasps. Throughout all groups within the Hymenoptera, the more complex a CHC the fewer species that produce it, which may reflect the Occam's razor principle that insects' only biosynthesize the most simple compound that fulfil its needs. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the complexity of CHC profiles between social and solitary species, with some of the most complex CHC profiles belonging to the Parasitica. This profile complexity has been maintained in the ants, but some specialization in biosynthetic pathways has led to a simplification of profiles in the aculeate wasps and bees. The absence of CHC classes in some taxa or species may be due to gene silencing or down-regulation rather than gene loss, as demonstrated by sister species having highly divergent CHC profiles, and cannot be predicted by their phylogenetic history. The presence of highly complex CHC profiles prior to the vast radiation of the social Hymenoptera indicates a

  20. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Falcó-Garí, Jose Vicente; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed. PMID:25197232

  1. Mexican species of the genus Exenterus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Tryphoninae) reared from diprionid hosts.

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Cancino, Enrique; Khalaim, Andrey I

    2015-11-24

    Two new species of the tryphonine genus Exenterus from Mexico, E. durangensis Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov. and E. sehuerachicus Khalaim & Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., are described. Both species belong to the group of Exenterus species characterized by the unusually short, depressed tarsi. Exenterus durangensis was reared from the sawfly Zadiprion falsus Smith and E. sehuerachicus from Neodiprion autumnalis Smith (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). This is the first record of the genus Exenterus as a parasitoid of these hosts. An identification key to separate the two Mexican species of Exenterus is provided.

  2. A fungal-like organism associated with a wasp (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Dominican amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2012-05-01

    A fungal-like organism emerging from a parasitic wasp (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Dominican amber is characterized. The fossil consists of a white sclerotium-like formation in the wasp's abdomen and a flattened clava-like structure with an ovoid terminus emerging from the sclerotium-like formation. The ovoid terminus bears a protruding elliptical appendix. The fossil, which is characterized by its small size, somatic configuration, pteromalid host and presence in Dominican amber, cannot be placed with assurance in any extant fungal group at this time.

  3. Estimation of postmortem interval based on colony development time for Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Goff, M L; Win, B H

    1997-11-01

    The postmortem interval for a set of human remains discovered inside a metal tool box was estimated using the development time required for a stratiomyid fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), Hermetia illucens, in combination with the time required to establish a colony of the ant Anoplolepsis longipes (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) capable of producing alate (winged) reproductives. This analysis resulted in a postmortem interval estimate of 14 + months, with a period of 14-18 months being the most probable time interval. The victim had been missing for approximately 18 months.

  4. Influence of rough handling on Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) nest establishment in commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Cory A; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) can be used to pollinate fruit trees. Populations are sometimes difficult to sustain because some female bees fail to establish at provided nesting sites. We address the hypothesis that rough handling of overwintered O. lignaria results in decreased establishment. We tested this by shaking (200 rpm for 2 min) overwintering bees as a proxy for rough handling. Bees were then released in an orchard, and nest establishment of shaken and unshaken bees was recorded. There was no significant difference in the proportion of shaken and unshaken females that nested, indicating that rough handling of overwintering bees does not discourage nest establishment.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian honey bee, Apis cerena cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae).

    PubMed

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Sanga, Zothan; Lalnunmawii, Esther; Lalhruaitluanga, H; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Sudalaimuthu, Naganeeswaran; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenome of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae) was sequenced using Illumina NextSeq500 platform and found to be 15 831 bp long. The mitogenome contains 37 genes (13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs) and a control region. The base composition is biased towards A-T (83.9%). The control region is 498 bp long with polyT stretch and poly [TA (A)]n-like stretch. The phylogenetic tree constructed using concatenated PCGs showed that A. cerana cerana clustered with other cavity nesting Apis species.

  6. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  7. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    PubMed Central

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015–2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  8. Screening of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin on the artificial phospholipid monolayer incorporated with brush border membrane vesicles of Plutella xylostella by optical biosensor technology.

    PubMed

    Okumura, S; Akao, T; Mizuki, E; Ohba, M; Inouye, K

    2001-02-26

    The binding of Cry1Ac, an insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis, to a brush border membrane (BBM) isolated from midguts of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella was examined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor. BBM was mixed with 1,3-ditetradecylglycero-2-phosphocholine (PC14), a neutral charged artificial lipid, and was reconstructed to a monolayer on a hydrophobic chip for the biosensor. The binding of Cry1Ac to the reconstructed monolayer was analyzed by a two-state binding model, and it was shown that Cry1Ac bound to the monolayer in the first step with an affinity constant (K(1)) of 508 nM, followed by the second uni-molecular step with an equilibrium constant (K(2)) of 0.472. The overall affinity constant K(d) was determined to be 240 nM. The binding was markedly inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (K(i)=8 mM). The monolayer was shown to retain a high affinity to Cry1Ac, providing an insect-free system for rapid and large-scale screening of B. thuringiensis insecticidal proteins by the SPR-based biosensor technology.

  9. Antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of the web-spinning sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiujie; Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiangbo; Wang, Hongbin; Shen, Gengchen; Zhang, Haijun

    2013-07-01

    Acantholyda posticalis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is an important pine pest with a world-wide distribution. To clarify the olfactory receptive mechanism of A. posticalis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the morphology, ultrastructure, and distribution of antennal sensilla of adults from two sites in China. The antennae were filiform, and the flagella comprised 32-35 flagellomeres. Six sensillum types were found. Sensilla chaetica were straight setae with sharply pointed tips and without dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla trichodea were characterized by a parallel-grooved wall and one terminal pore and were innervated by four dendrites at the base. Sensilla basiconica I possessed longitudinally grooved surfaces and multiple terminal pores, with five dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla basiconica II not only had a distinct terminal pore but also had numerous tiny wall pores and many dendritic branches within the sensillum lymph. Sensilla coeloconica had deep longitudinal grooves, one terminal pore and six dendrites, while sensilla campaniformia were thick-walled with a terminal opening and sensory nerve bundles in the lumen. Sensilla chaetica and s. trichodea were most abundant and distributed over the entire antennae, while s. basiconica I and II, s. coeloconica, and s. campaniformia were restricted to the ventral flagellar surfaces. Although the shape and structure of antennae were similar in males and females, females had significantly longer antennae than males, and males had significantly more s. basiconica I than females. We compared the morphology and structure of these sensilla to other Hymenoptera and discussed their possible functions.

  10. Decrease of IgE-dependent platelet activation in Hymenoptera hypersensitivity after specific rush desensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Tsicopoulos, A; Tonnel, A B; Wallaert, B; Joseph, M; Ameisen, J C; Ramon, P; Dessaint, J P; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    A receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE on human platelets has been recently described, which mediated an IgE-dependent activation in the presence of specific allergen. We investigated the allergen-induced activation of platelets from patients with Hymenoptera hypersensitivity before and after specific rush desensitization. Nineteen patients with a history of anaphylactic reactions were included (15 sensitive to yellow-jacket and four to honey-bee venom), fourteen/nineteen having experienced severe life-threatening systemic reactions and 5/19 large local reactions. All showed positive skin tests and high values of specific IgE. By comparison to the baseline results obtained before desensitization, a significant decrease of platelet activation (76.8% inhibition) after rush desensitization was observed. In the case of two polysensitized patients, after Hymenoptera venom desensitization alone, platelets not only lost their reactivity to venom but also towards the other allergen. This modulation of the IgE-dependent platelet reactivity during desensitization offers therefore a new approach for the study of allergen-induced desensitization. PMID:3383448

  11. Decrease of IgE-dependent platelet activation in Hymenoptera hypersensitivity after specific rush desensitization.

    PubMed

    Tsicopoulos, A; Tonnel, A B; Wallaert, B; Joseph, M; Ameisen, J C; Ramon, P; Dessaint, J P; Capron, A

    1988-03-01

    A receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE on human platelets has been recently described, which mediated an IgE-dependent activation in the presence of specific allergen. We investigated the allergen-induced activation of platelets from patients with Hymenoptera hypersensitivity before and after specific rush desensitization. Nineteen patients with a history of anaphylactic reactions were included (15 sensitive to yellow-jacket and four to honey-bee venom), fourteen/nineteen having experienced severe life-threatening systemic reactions and 5/19 large local reactions. All showed positive skin tests and high values of specific IgE. By comparison to the baseline results obtained before desensitization, a significant decrease of platelet activation (76.8% inhibition) after rush desensitization was observed. In the case of two polysensitized patients, after Hymenoptera venom desensitization alone, platelets not only lost their reactivity to venom but also towards the other allergen. This modulation of the IgE-dependent platelet reactivity during desensitization offers therefore a new approach for the study of allergen-induced desensitization.

  12. The rearranged mitochondrial genome of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), a parasitoid wasp of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Daniel S.; Gomes, Tiago M.F.F.; Loreto, Elgion L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The partial mitochondrial genome sequence of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) was characterized. Illumina sequencing was used yielding 35,999,679 reads, from which 102,482 were utilized in the assembly. The length of the sequenced region of this partial mitochondrial genome is 15,417 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 21tRNA genes (the trnaM failed to be sequenced) and a partial A+T-rich region. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Eleven protein-coding genes presented TAA stop codons, whereas ND6 and COII that presented TA, and T nucleotides, respectively. The gene pattern revealed extensive rearrangements compared to the typical pattern generally observed in insects. These rearrangements involve two protein-coding and two ribosomal genes, along with the 16 tRNA genes. This gene order is different from the pattern described for Ibalia leucospoides (Ibaliidae, Cynipoidea), suggesting that this particular gene order can be variable among Cynipoidea superfamily members. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Apocrita was performed using amino acid sequence of 13 protein-coding genes, showing monophyly for the Cynipoidea superfamily within the Hymenoptera phylogeny. PMID:27648767

  13. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wayne B

    2010-02-01

    A media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified Hert-Hunter 70 media. Cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. Multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pupae were used to successfully establish cell cultures from the tissues of the head, thorax, and abdomen. Multiple cell types were observed which included free-floating suspensions, fibroblast-like, and epithelia-like monolayers. The final culture medium, WH2, was originally developed for hemipterans, Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis cell cultures but has been shown to work for a diverse range of insect species such as bees. Bee cell cultures had various doubling times at 21-23 degrees C ranging from 9-15 d. Deformed wing virus was detected in the primary explanted tissues, which tested negative by rt-PCR for Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), Kashmir bee virus, acute bee paralysis virus, and black queen cell virus. Culture inoculation with IAPV from an isolate from Florida field samples, was detectable in cell cultures after two subcultures. Cell culture from hymenoptera species, such as bees, greatly advances the approaches available to the field of study on colony collapse disorders.

  14. Induction of Specific Immunotherapy with Hymenoptera Venoms Using Ultrarush Regimen in Children: Safety and Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Köhli-Wiesner, Alice; Stahlberger, Lisbeth; Bieli, Christian; Stricker, Tamar; Lauener, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective. Ultrarush induction for specific venom immunotherapy has been shown to be reliable and efficacious in adults. In this study its safety and tolerance in children was evaluated. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 102 ultrarush desensitizations carried out between 1997 and 2005 in 94 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Diagnosis and selection for immunotherapy were according to recommendations of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Systemic adverse reactions (SARs) were described using the classification of H. L. Mueller. Results. All patients reached the cumulative dose of 111.1 μg hymenoptera venom within 210 minutes. Six patients (6%) had allergic reactions grade I; 2 patients (2%) grade II and 5 patients (5%) grade III. Three patients (3%) showed unclassified reactions. SARs did not occur in the 15 patients aged 4 to 8 years and they were significantly more frequent in girls (29%) compared with boys (12%) (P = 0.034, multivariant analysis) and in bee venom extract treated patients (20%) compared to those treated with wasp venom extract (8%) (OR 0.33, 95% Cl 0.07–1.25). Conclusion. Initiation of specific immunotherapy by ultrarush regimen is safe and well tolerated in children and should be considered for treating children with allergy to hymenoptera venom. PMID:21804830

  15. Linkage analysis of sex determination in Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, A K; Strand, M R; Black, W C; Antolin, M F

    2000-01-01

    To test whether sex determination in the parasitic wasp Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is based upon a single locus or multiple loci, a linkage map was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The map includes 71 RAPD markers and one phenotypic marker, blonde. Sex was scored in a manner consistent with segregation of a single "sex locus" under complementary sex determination (CSD), which is common in haplodiploid Hymenoptera. Under haplodiploidy, males arise from unfertilized haploid eggs and females develop from fertilized diploid eggs. With CSD, females are heterozygous at the sex locus; diploids that are homozygous at the sex locus become diploid males, which are usually inviable or sterile. Ten linkage groups were formed at a minimum LOD of 3.0, with one small linkage group that included the sex locus. To locate other putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sex determination, sex was also treated as a binary threshold character. Several QTL were found after conducting permutation tests on the data, including one on linkage group I that corresponds to the major sex locus. One other QTL of smaller effect had a segregation pattern opposite to that expected under CSD, while another putative QTL showed a female-specific pattern consistent with either a sex-differentiating gene or a sex-specific deleterious mutation. Comparisons are made between this study and the in-depth studies on sex determination and sex differentiation in the closely related B. hebetor. PMID:10628981

  16. Linkage analysis of sex determination in Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Holloway, A K; Strand, M R; Black, W C; Antolin, M F

    2000-01-01

    To test whether sex determination in the parasitic wasp Bracon sp. near hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is based upon a single locus or multiple loci, a linkage map was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The map includes 71 RAPD markers and one phenotypic marker, blonde. Sex was scored in a manner consistent with segregation of a single "sex locus" under complementary sex determination (CSD), which is common in haplodiploid Hymenoptera. Under haplodiploidy, males arise from unfertilized haploid eggs and females develop from fertilized diploid eggs. With CSD, females are heterozygous at the sex locus; diploids that are homozygous at the sex locus become diploid males, which are usually inviable or sterile. Ten linkage groups were formed at a minimum LOD of 3.0, with one small linkage group that included the sex locus. To locate other putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sex determination, sex was also treated as a binary threshold character. Several QTL were found after conducting permutation tests on the data, including one on linkage group I that corresponds to the major sex locus. One other QTL of smaller effect had a segregation pattern opposite to that expected under CSD, while another putative QTL showed a female-specific pattern consistent with either a sex-differentiating gene or a sex-specific deleterious mutation. Comparisons are made between this study and the in-depth studies on sex determination and sex differentiation in the closely related B. hebetor.

  17. A new cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Adachi-Hagimori, Tetsuya; Miura, Kazuki; Stouthamer, Richard

    2008-12-07

    Vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria, such as Wolbachia, Cardinium and Rickettsia, modify host reproduction in several ways to facilitate their own spread. One such modification results in parthenogenesis induction, where males, which are unable to transmit the bacteria, are not produced. In Hymenoptera, the mechanism of diploidization due to Wolbachia infection, known as gamete duplication, is a post-meiotic modification. During gamete duplication, the meiotic mechanism is normal, but in the first mitosis the anaphase is aborted. The two haploid sets of chromosomes do not separate and thus result in a single nucleus containing two identical sets of haploid chromosomes. Here, we outline an alternative cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera. During female gamete formation in Rickettsia-infected Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) parasitoids, meiotic cells undergo only a single equational division followed by the expulsion of a single polar body. This absence of meiotic recombination and reduction corresponds well with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females. We conclude that diploidy in N. formosa is maintained through a functionally apomictic cloning mechanism that differs entirely from the mechanism induced by Wolbachia.

  18. Assessment of potential fumigants to control Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C

    2009-12-01

    With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when <2,473.5 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil was applied as a fumigant, respectively. When the two chemicals were directly applied to the exoskeleton of O. cornifrons adults, 353.4 ppm of wintergreen oil caused bee mortality within 10 min; however, no mortality was found with any formic acid application attempted. Mortality of C. krombeini hypopi occurred 5 and 10 min after application of >176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation.

  19. The evolution of heat shock protein sequences, cis-regulatory elements, and expression profiles in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Andrew D; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Cahan, Sara Helms

    2016-01-19

    The eusocial Hymenoptera have radiated across a wide range of thermal environments, exposing them to significant physiological stressors. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of three families of Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40), the primary molecular chaperones protecting against thermal damage, across 12 Hymenopteran species and four other insect orders. We also predicted and tested for thermal inducibility of eight Hsps from the presence of cis-regulatory heat shock elements (HSEs). We tested whether Hsp induction patterns in ants were associated with different thermal environments. We found evidence for duplications, losses, and cis-regulatory changes in two of the three gene families. One member of the Hsp90 gene family, hsp83, duplicated basally in the Hymenoptera, with shifts in HSE motifs in the novel copy. Both copies were retained in bees, but ants retained only the novel HSE copy. For Hsp70, Hymenoptera lack the primary heat-inducible orthologue from Drosophila melanogaster and instead induce the cognate form, hsc70-4, which also underwent an early duplication. Episodic diversifying selection was detected along the branch predating the duplication of hsc70-4 and continued along one of the paralogue branches after duplication. Four out of eight Hsp genes were heat-inducible and matched the predictions based on presence of conserved HSEs. For the inducible homologues, the more thermally tolerant species, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, had greater Hsp basal expression and induction in response to heat stress than did the less thermally tolerant species, Aphaenogaster picea. Furthermore, there was no trade-off between basal expression and induction. Our results highlight the unique evolutionary history of Hsps in eusocial Hymenoptera, which has been shaped by gains, losses, and changes in cis-regulation. Ants, and most likely other Hymenoptera, utilize lineage-specific heat inducible Hsps, whose expression patterns are associated with adaptive

  20. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  1. Risk of anaphylaxis in patients with large local reactions to hymenoptera stings: a retrospective and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Stefano; D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Illuminati, Ilenia; Makri, Elena; Incorvaia, Cristoforo

    2015-01-01

    In the few studies available, the risk of developing systemic reactions (SR) to hymenoptera stings in patients with previous large local reactions (LLRs) to stings ranges from 0 to 7 %. We evaluated both retrospectively and prospectively the risk of SRs in patients with LLRs to stings. An overall number of 477 patients, 396 with an SR as the first manifestation of allergy and 81 with a history of only LLRs after hymenoptera stings, were included in the study. All patients had clinical history and allergy testing (skin tests and/or specific IgE) indicative of allergy to venom of only one kind of Hymenoptera. Of the 81 patient with LLRs, 53 were followed-up for 3 years by annual control visits, while the 396 patients with SR were evaluated retrospectively. Among the 396 patients with an SR, only 17 (4.2 %) had had a previous LLR as debut of allergy, after an history of normal local reactions to Hymenoptera stings. All the 81 patients with a history of only LLRs had previously had at least two LLRs, with an overall number of 238 stings and no SR. Among the 53 patients who were prospectively evaluated we found that 31 of them (58.3 %) were restung by the same type of insect, with an overall number of 59 stings, presenting only LLRs and no SR. Our findings confirm that patients with repeated LLRs to stings had no risk of SR, while a single LLR does not exclude such risk. This has to be considered in the management of patients with LLRs.

  2. Three new species and new distributional data for five rare species of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye; Li, Cheng-de

    2016-03-15

    Eight species of Aphelinus Dalman (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) from China are reviewed. Three species, A. pseudonepalensis sp. nov., A. truncaticlavus sp. nov. and A. maculigaster sp. nov. are newly described, four species, A. meghalayanus Hayat, A. huberi Hayat, A. sharpae Hayat, and A. maculatus Yasnosh are reported as new to China, and A. asychis Walker is newly reported from Tibet, China. A key to the Chinese species of Aphelinus based on females is given.

  3. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom for improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Seismann, Henning; Blank, Simon; Cifuentes, Liliana; Braren, Ingke; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Grunwald, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Spillner, Edzard

    2010-04-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Proper diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivities. Although non-glycosylated marker allergens would facilitate the identification of the culprit venom, the major allergen phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom (YJV) remained unavailable so far. Expression of Ves v 1 as wild type and enzymatically inactivated mutant and Ves v 5 in insect cells yielded soluble proteins that were purified via affinity chromatography. Functionality of the recombinant allergens was assessed by enzymatic and biophysical analyses as well as basophil activation tests. Diagnostic relevance was addressed by ELISA-based analyses of sera of YJV-sensitized patients. Both major allergens Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 could be produced in insect cells in secreted soluble form. The recombinant proteins exhibited their particular biochemical and functional characteristics and were capable for activation of human basophils. Assessment of IgE reactivity of sera of YJV-sensitized and double-sensitized patients emphasised the relevance of Ves v 1 in hymenoptera venom allergy. In contrast to the use of singular molecules the combined use of both molecules enabled a reliable assignment of sensitisation to YJV for more than 90% of double-sensitised patients. The recombinant availability of Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom will contribute to a more detailed understanding of the molecular and allergological mechanisms of insect venoms and may provide a valuable tool for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy.

  4. Recombinant phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom for improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Proper diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivities. Although non-glycosylated marker allergens would facilitate the identification of the culprit venom, the major allergen phospholipase A1 (Ves v 1) from yellow jacket venom (YJV) remained unavailable so far. Methods Expression of Ves v 1 as wild type and enzymatically inactivated mutant and Ves v 5 in insect cells yielded soluble proteins that were purified via affinity chromatography. Functionality of the recombinant allergens was assessed by enzymatic and biophysical analyses as well as basophil activation tests. Diagnostic relevance was addressed by ELISA-based analyses of sera of YJV-sensitized patients. Results Both major allergens Ves v 1 and Ves v 5 could be produced in insect cells in secreted soluble form. The recombinant proteins exhibited their particular biochemical and functional characteristics and were capable for activation of human basophils. Assessment of IgE reactivity of sera of YJV-sensitized and double-sensitized patients emphasised the relevance of Ves v 1 in hymenoptera venom allergy. In contrast to the use of singular molecules the combined use of both molecules enabled a reliable assignment of sensitisation to YJV for more than 90% of double-sensitised patients. Conclusions The recombinant availability of Ves v 1 from yellow jacket venom will contribute to a more detailed understanding of the molecular and allergological mechanisms of insect venoms and may provide a valuable tool for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy. PMID:20359368

  5. Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from the Palaearctic Region and new records of species from China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junli; Kula, Robert R; Wharton, Robert A; Chen, Jiahua

    2015-05-14

    Four new species of Tanycarpa (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae), T. gymnonotum Yao sp. n., T. similis Yao sp. n., T. areolata Yao sp. n., and T. lineata Yao sp. n., are described from the Palaearctic Region of China, and T. chors Belokobylskij is newly recorded from China. Significant range extensions are given for T. bicolor (Nees von Esenbeck), T. gracilicornis (Nees von Esenbeck), and T. mitis Stelfox. A key to the Palaearctic species of Tanycarpa is provided.

  6. First record of Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Doryctinae) as parasitoid of Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526

  7. The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) new for China, with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qian; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Jiang-Li; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The genus Trachionus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini) is reported for the first time from China. The genus is represented by four new species from Shaanxi province (NW China), which are described and illustrated. An identification key to the species in China is presented, a key to the genera of the Trachionus group and notes on the relationships with other Palaearctic species are added.

  8. A review of unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankita; Shaw, Mark; Cardinal, Sophie; Fernandez-Triana, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The unusual species of Cotesia (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with the first tergite narrowing at midlength are reviewed. One new species, Cotesia trabalae sp. n. is described from India and compared with Cotesia pistrinariae (Wilkinson) from Africa, the only other species sharing the same character of all the described species worldwide. The generic placement of these two species, based on molecular and morphological analyses as well as parasitoid biology is discussed. PMID:27110207

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy: comparative study between specific IgE, western blot and allergen leukocyte stimulation (CAST).

    PubMed

    Santos, M C Pereira; Carlos, M L Palma; Pedro, E; Carlos, A G Palma

    2002-01-01

    Allergy to hymenoptera venom is a classical IgE mediated disease with a potentially fatal course. Specific venom immunotherapy (SIT) is the most effective mean of treating this serious condition, after the diagnosis has been clearly established by a clinical history, in-vivo and in vitro tests. We have evaluated the usefulness of a cellular test (CAST) which is a recently developed ELISA method based on the evaluation of sulfidoleukotriene secretion by leukocytes stimulated with specific antigen. We also evaluated the correlation of CAST with skin tests, specific IgE (sIgE) and western blot for sIgE for hymenoptera venom sIgE. We have included in this study 14 patients, with a clinical history suggestive of hymenoptera venom allergy. None of them had previously been subjected to immunotherapy. A good correlation was obtained between skin tests, sIgE and western blot. However, there was no correlation between these methods and CAST. We conclude that the positivity of CAST method raises some questions about other mechanisms, which maybe non-IgE dependent. Although the number of patients in this study is quite small, the immunoblot analysis may be a valuable additional method in insect venom allergy.

  10. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  11. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  12. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 gene, CYP321E1 from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in chlorantraniliprole resistance.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Lin, Q; Chen, H; Li, Z; Yin, F; Feng, X

    2014-12-01

    Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play an important role in catalysis of many reactions leading to insecticides resistance. Our previous studies on transcriptome analysis of chlorantraniliprole-resistant development in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella revealed that up-regulation of cytochrome P450s are one of the main factors leading to the development of chlorantraniliprole resistance. Here, we report for the first time a novel cytochrome P450 gene CYP321E1, which belongs to the cytochrome P450 gene family CYP321. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses indicated that CYP321E1 was expressed at all developmental stages of P. xylostella but was highest in the fourth-instar larvae; furthermore, the relatively high expression was observed in the midgut of the fourth-instar larvae, followed by fat bodies and epidermis. The expression of CYP321E1 in P. xylostella was differentially affected by three representative insecticides, including alphamethrin, abamectin and chlorantraniliprole. Among them, the exposure to chlorantraniliprole resulted in the largest transcript level of this cytochrome P450 gene. The findings suggested potential involvement of CYP321E1 in chlorantraniliprole resistance of P. xylostella. To assess the functional link of CYP321E1 to chlorantraniliprole resistance, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) injecting was used. Results revealed that injection delivery of dsRNA can greatly reduce gene expression after 24 h. As a consequence of RNAi, a significant increment in mortality of larvae injected CYP321E1 dsRNA was observed after 24 h of exposure to chlorantraniliprole. These results strongly support our notion that this novel cytochrome P450 gene plays an important role in chlorantraniliprole detoxification in the diamondback moth and is partly responsible for its resistance.

  13. Multiple paternity or multiple queens: two routes to greater intracolonial genetic diversity in the eusocial Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W; Oldroyd, B P

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the evolution of multiple mating by females (polyandry) is an important question in behavioural ecology. Most leading explanations for polyandry by social insect queens are based upon a postulated fitness benefit from increased intracolonial genetic diversity, which also arises when colonies are headed by multiple queens (polygyny). An indirect test of the genetic diversity hypotheses is therefore provided by the relationship between polyandry and polygyny across species, which should be negative if the genetic diversity hypotheses are correct. Here, we conduct a powerful comparative investigation of the relationship between polyandry and polygyny for 241 species of eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps). We find a clear and significant negative relationship between polyandry and polygyny after controlling for phylogeny. These results strongly suggest that fitness benefits resulting from increased intracolonial genetic diversity have played an important role in the evolution of polyandry, and possibly polygyny, in social insects.

  14. Two new species of Prionomastix Mayr (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with a key to Indian species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Species of Prionomastix Mayr were not known from India when Manickavasagam and Rameshkumar 2011 and Rameshkumar and Poorani 2015 misidentified a new species as P. siccarius. Now it is corrected by explaining the characters as to why it is new and not P. siccarius along with another new species. As we have one another new species, P. orientialis, described by Rameshkumar and Poorani 2015 our two new species are compared with P. orientalis also. New information Two new species of Prionomastix Mayr (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), one from Bihar state and the other from Tamil Nadu state, India, are described viz., P. tamilnadensis sp. nov and P. biharensis sp. nov. and a key to all known Indian species is provided. PMID:27563277

  15. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  16. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Matthew A.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Seltmann, Katja C.; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group’s anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process. Database URL: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/hao/2012-07-18/arthropod-mappings.obo PMID:23303300

  17. Parasitoids of the eucalyptus gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Huang, Zong-You; Dong, Dan; Guo, Chun-Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Zhen-De; Yang, Xiu-Hao; Lu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) is an invasive pest in Eucalyptus plantations throughout the world. Potential biological control agents for L. invasa were investigated in the Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Sichuan provinces of China, where Eucalyptus spp. have been severely damaged by the eucalyptus gall wasp. Three hymenopteran parasitoids of L. invasa were identified: Quadrastichus mendeli Kim & La Salle (Eulophidae), Aprostocetus causalis La Salle & Wu (Eulophidae), and Megastigmus viggianii Narendran & Sureshan (Torymidae); M. viggianii is newly recorded in China. The percentages of parasitization by Q. mendeli, A. causalis, and M. viggianii were 2.96%–19.53%, 2.30%–26.38%, and 24.93%, respectively. The longevity and body length of females were significantly greater than for males in A. causalis and M. viggianii. No males of Q. mendeli were found in China. These parasitoids could be used as biological agents for L. invasa in China. PMID:28000590

  18. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Patricia L; Kawada, Ricardo; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with Evaniscus tibialis and Evaniscus rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ) format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains.

  19. Revision of the Palaearctic Gasteruption assectator aggregate, with special reference to Sweden (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Niklas; van Achterberg, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) are revised and three species are recognised. Two species are re-instated: Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883), stat. n. and Gasteruption nigritarse (Thomson, 1883), stat. n., and both are excluded from the synonymy with Gasteruption assectator (Linnaeus, 1758). The general distribution of both species is given for Europe and in detail for Sweden. A key to the valid Palaearctic species of the Gasteruption assectator aggregate is given; key characters and primary types are illustrated. Four new synonyms are listed: Foenus fumipennis Thomson, 1883, Trichofoenus breviterebrae Watanabe, 1934, and Gasteruption margotae Madl, 1987, are synonymized with Gasteruption boreale (Thomson, 1883) and Gasteruption brevicauda Kieffer, 1904, with Gasteruption undulatum (Abeille de Perrin, 1879). PMID:27667942

  20. Towards the conservation of parasitoid wasp species in Canada: Preliminary assessment of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper is the first to consider braconid parasitoid wasps in conservation efforts in Canada. Out of the 28 genera of the subfamily Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) present in the country, 13 genera were studied and 16 species were identified as potential candidates to be included in the Species Candidate Lists of COSEWIC (The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). For every selected species a brief summary of its broad geographical distribution is provided, with detailed and in many cases new information of its distribution and collecting dates in Canada, hosts (Lepidoptera) if known, and color pictures of all wasp species. A preliminary assessment is made using Prioritization Criteria developed by COSEWIC, and some general recommendations are made based in those analyses. PMID:24891824

  1. Larvae of Ixodiphagus wasps (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra Santos, Marcos Antônio; de Macedo, Lucia Oliveira; de Souza, Islanne Barbosa; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2017-03-21

    The biological control of ticks represents an alternative method to the chemical control, given its ecological-friendly approach. Amongst the alternatives, the use of parasitoids of the genus Ixodiphagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to document and molecularly characterize Ixodiphagus wasps in ticks from a tropical region of Brazil. From October 2015 to March 2016, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (n=1814) were collected from naturally infested dogs and Ixodiphagus larvae were detected by microscopic examination. In addition, adult wasps were obtained in the laboratory. Larvae and adults were molecularly identified as Ixodiphagus hookeri. These findings suggest that this type of parasitism deserves to be studied in local tick populations, in order to elucidate the role of these wasps as a potential alternative to chemical tick control.

  2. A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Patricia L.; Kawada, Ricardo; Balhoff, James P.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented with Evaniscus tibialis and Evaniscus rafaeli as sister to the remaining Evaniscus species. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other relevant biomedical ontologies are employed to create semantic phenotype statements in Entity-Quality (EQ) format for species descriptions. This approach is an early effort to formalize species descriptions and to make descriptive data available to other domains. PMID:23166458

  3. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment.

    PubMed

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  4. Changes in follicular cells architecture during vitellogenin transport in the ovary of social Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ronnau, Milton; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Gonçlaves, Wagner Gonzaga; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Vitellogenins are the major yolk proteins, synthesized in the fat body, released into the hemolymph and captured by the developing oocytes, but the mechanisms by which these proteins cross the follicular cell layer are still poorly understood. This study describes the actin distribution in follicular cells during vitellogenin transport to the oocyte in social Hymenoptera represented by bees Apis mellifera and Melipona quadrifasciata, the wasp Mischocyttarus cassununga and the ant Pachycondyla curvinodis. In oocytic chambers of vitellogenic follicles, vitellogenin was found within the follicular cells, perivitelline space and oocyte, indicating a transcellular route from the hemolymph to the perivitelline space. The cortical actin cytoskeleton in follicular cells underwent reorganization during transport of vitellogenin across this epithelium suggesting that in the ovary of social hymenopterans, vitellogenin delivery to oocytes requires a dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangement of actin filaments in the follicular cells.

  5. Wolbachia Infections Responsible for Thelytoky in Dryinid Wasps. The Case of Gonatopus bonaerensis Virla (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae).

    PubMed

    Espinosa, M S; Virla, E G; Cuozzo, S

    2017-08-01

    We studied the occurrence of Wolbachia in the parasitoid Gonatopus bonaerensis Virla (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae). In order to verify the existence of natural infections in the parasitoid, a field survey was conducted. Identification of Wolbachia was performed on the basis of 16S rDNA, wsp_F1, and wsp_R1-sequences. After the detection of the bacteria, infected specimens of G. bonaerensis were treated with a solution of tetracycline. In Tucumán, parasitoids hold Wolbachia endosymbiont, which seems to control the wasp's reproduction in the nature turning it into thelytokous. The symbiont was identified as the Wolbachia sp. wRi strain. The cure of infected unfertilized females determined the normal arrhenotokous parthenogenesis and the production of male offspring. As a consequence of this procedure, the male of G. bonaerensis is described for the first time.

  6. Antennal sensory receptors of Pteromalus puparum female (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Hany K M

    2009-12-01

    The external morphology of the antennal sensilla of Pteromalus puparum females (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is described using scanning electron microscopy. The antennae of P. puparum females are geniculate in shape, formed from a large, cylindrical scape with a basal radicel fitting into the antennal socket, a shorter, barrel-shaped pedicel and a flagellum composed of 12 subsegments. Eight morphologically distinct types of sensilla were found on the female antennae. These are: nonporous sensilla trichodea types 1 and 2, which are putative mechanosensilla, nonporous sensilla chaetica, which may function as proprioceptors, uniporous sensilla trichodea types 3 and 4, which are presumably contact chemosensilla, basiconic capitate peg sensilla, which probably function in thermo-hygro reception, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and multiporous sensilla placodea which are all presumed to be olfactory sensilla.

  7. Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of platelet activation during desensitization in patients with hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Ledru, E; Pestel, J; Tsicopoulos, A; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    T cells from peripheral blood of hymenoptera sensitive patients were studied before and after venom desensitization. Before treatment, T cells showed a variable but higher proliferative response to allergen than T cells of treated patients or controls. While before desensitization, T cell products, specifically released after in vitro allergen stimulation, were able to amplify the IgE-dependent platelet activity, we showed that after treatment of the same patients, T cell products strongly reduced platelet activation. Considering the modifications in platelet activation previously observed in patients treated by specific immunotherapy, the present results suggest that, through a modification of T cell reactivity to allergen, T cell functions are modulated by desensitization, and emphasize the involvement of T cell products in the desensitization mechanisms. PMID:3263227

  8. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. [Round Table: Urticaria caused by arthropod bites and stings (excluding Hymenoptera)].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Molero, M I

    1999-01-01

    Adverse reactions to arthropod bites (hymenoptera excluded) can be faced with systemic reactions and local reaction. Among the numerous families of arthropods the species most commonly responsible are mosquitoes,. flea, horsefly and tick. In this article we explain the characteristics of reaction caused by arthropods and the mechanisms proposed. An IgE mechanism is incriminated in severe anaphylactic reactions. Various mechanisms have been proposed for local reactions. In order to know the incidence of sensitization and cross-reactivity with other arthropods, we have done a study where we have found that 31% of patients with reaction to mosquito bite had sensitization to Aedes communis and 53% of this group also had sensitization to other arthropods, probably due to a cross-reactivity.

  10. Interaction between Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Sganzerla, Vânia Maria Ambrosi; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is a soil scale that is considered the main pest of vineyards in Brazil. The ant Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is frequently found associated with this species of scale in infested areas. The effect of the presence of L. micans on the infestation and dispersal capacity of E. brasiliensis on vine roots was measured in a greenhouse, using Paulsen 1103 rootstock seedlings planted in simple and double "Gallotti Cages." Treatments measured were: infestation of roots with E. brasiliensis or L. micans, and infestation with both species together. In the experiment using simple Gallotti Cages, with E. brasiliensis associated with L. micans, higher mean numbers of cysts and ants per plant were recorded, a result significantly different from that found for infestation with scale only. When double Gallotti Cages were used, first-instar nymphs were transported between the cages. The results showed that L. micans transports and aids in the attachment of E. brasiliensis to vine plants.

  11. Antibacterial Compounds from Propolis of Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sanpa, Sirikarn; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Eitssayeam, Sukum; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis collected from two stingless bee species Tetragonula laeviceps and Tetrigona melanoleuca (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Six xanthones, one triterpene and one lignane were isolated from Tetragonula laeviceps propolis. Triterpenes were the main constituents in T. melanoleuca propolis. The ethanol extract and isolated compounds from T. laeviceps propolis showed a higher antibacterial activity than those of T. melanoleuca propolis as the constituent α-mangostin exhibited the strongest activity. Xanthones were found in propolis for the first time; Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) was the most probable plant source. In addition, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivity of propolis from T. melanoleuca. PMID:25992582

  12. Rampant host switching and multiple female body colour transitions in Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-F; Huang, D-W; Chen, L-L; Zhen, W-Q; Fu, Y-G; Peng, Z-Q

    2006-07-01

    Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and their associated fig waSPS (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea and Agaonidae) have attracted much attention and have been used as a model system for many studies. Fig waSPS belonging to the genus Philotrypesis are very common in most figs but their taxonomy, ecology and biology are currently poorly explored. A previous study on African Philotrypesis showed that their host association is phylogenetically conserved at subsection level. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny with extended sampling from seven sections of figs. Our study suggested that the diversification of Philotrypesis is less constrained by host figs. Host switching is rampant between figs at species level and even at section level. We also investigated the evolution of the body colour forms in female Philotrypesis. Our study first suggested that female body colour is not evolutionarily stable and that there have been multiple transitions. Possible mechanisms for multiple colour transitions are expected to be determined in the near future.

  13. Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure 1892 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, Angeline David; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Description of five species of Xanthopimpla Saussure, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from Malaysia was done using specimens deposited in Centre for Insects Systematics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (CIS, UKM). Type and non-type specimens were loaned from several repositories namely Zoological Museum of Amsterdam Netherlands (ZMAN), Swedish Museum of Natural History (NRM), British Natural History Museum London (BMNH) and Department of Agricultural Malaysia (DOA) for identification and comparison. The specimens were identified to the species level which gives rise to five species namely Xanthopimpla conica Cushman, 1925, Xanthopimpla despinosa leipephelis Townes & Chiu, 1970, Xanthopimpla flavolineata Cameron, 1907, Xanthopimpla punctata (Fabricius, 1781) and Xanthopimpla tricapus impressa Townes & Chiu, 1970. A dichotomous key and descriptions for five Xanthopimpla spesies were provided. Photos and illustrations of carina on propodeum were also included in this paper.

  14. A review of the New World species of the parasitoid wasp Iconella (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Triana, José L.; Cardinal, Sophie; Whitfield, James B.; Winnie Hallwachs; Smith, M. Alex; Janzenr, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The New World species of Iconella (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Iconella andydeansi Fernández-Triana, sp. n., Iconella canadensis Fernández-Triana, sp. n., and Iconella jayjayrodriguezae Fernández-Triana, sp. n., are described as new. Iconella isolata (Muesebeck, 1955), stat. r., previously considered as a subspecies of Iconella etiellae (Viereck, 1911), is here elevated to species rank. All species have different, well defined geographic distributions and hosts. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous hardcopy versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, host records (mostly Lepidoptera: Crambidae and Pyralidae), and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. Phylogenetic analyses of the barcoding region of COI indicate the possibility that Iconella is not monophyletic and that the New World species may not form a monophyletic group; more data is needed to resolve this issue. PMID:23950690

  15. Occurrence of Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-04-01

    Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.

  16. Histamine-immunoreactive local neurons in the antennal lobes of the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Reisenman, Carolina E.; Paulk, Angelique C.; Nighorn, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Neural networks receive input which is transformed before being sent as output to higher centers of processing. These transformations are often mediated by local interneurons (LNs) that influence output based on activity across the network. In primary olfactory centers, the LNs that mediate these lateral interactions are extremely diverse. For instance, the antennal lobes (ALs) of bumble bees possess both GABA and histamine-immunoreactive (HA-ir) LNs, and both are neurotransmitters associated with fast forms of inhibition. Although the GABAergic network of the AL has been extensively studied, we sought to examine the anatomical features of the HA-ir LNs in relation to the other cellular elements of the bumble bee AL. As a population, HA-ir LNs densely innervate the glomerular core while sparsely arborizing in the outer glomerular rind, overlapping with the terminals of olfactory receptor neurons. Individual fills of HA-ir LNs revealed heavy arborization of the outer ring of a single “principal” glomerulus and sparse arborization in the core of other glomeruli. In contrast, projection neurons, and GABA-immunoreactive LNs project throughout the glomerular volume. To provide insight as to the selective pressures that resulted in the evolution of HA-ir LNs, we determined the phylogenetic distribution of HA-ir LNs in the AL. HA-ir LNs were present in all but the most basal hymenopteran examined, although there were significant morphological differences between major groups within the Hymenoptera. The ALs of other insect taxa examined lacked HA-ir LNs, suggesting that this population of LNs arose within the Hymenoptera and underwent extensive morphological modification. PMID:20533353

  17. A Semantic Model for Species Description Applied to the Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) of New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Balhoff, James P.; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J.; Mullins, Patricia L.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As natural language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based semantic representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and semantic statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity–quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of semantic statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key. [Biodiversity informatics; Evaniidae; New Caledonia; new species; ontology; semantic

  18. Sensitization to Hymenoptera venoms is common, but systemic sting reactions are rare.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gunter J; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Schuster, Christian; Sturm, Eva M; Bokanovic, Danijela; Vollmann, Jutta; Crailsheim, Karl; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner

    2014-06-01

    Sensitization to Hymenoptera venom without systemic sting reactions (SSRs) is commonly observed in the general population. Clinical relevance for a future sting has not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of these debatable sensitizations with deliberate sting challenges and to monitor serologic changes for up to 2 years. One hundred thirty-one challenges with bees and wasps were performed in 94 subjects with a hitherto irrelevant sensitization. The clinical outcome was recorded, and results of specific IgE (sIgE) determinations, skin tests, and basophil activation tests were correlated to the sting reaction. sIgE levels were monitored in reactors and nonreactors after 3 hours, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 1 year. Only 5 (5.3%) patients had SSRs, but 41 (43.6%) had large local reactions (LLRs) after the sting. Compared with the general population, there was a 9.5-fold higher risk for LLRs but not for SSRs. Three hours after the sting, sIgE levels slightly decreased, but none of the 94 subjects' results turned negative. After 1 week, sIgE levels already increased, increasing up to 3.5-fold (range, 0.2- to 34.0-fold) baseline levels after 4 weeks. To assess the clinical relevance of this increase, we randomly selected 18 patients for a re-sting. Again, 50% had an LLR, but none had an SSR. Although sensitization to Hymenoptera venoms was common, the risk of SSRs in sensitized subjects was low in our study. The sIgE level increase after the sting was not an indicator for conversion into symptomatic sensitization. Currently available tests were not able to distinguish between asymptomatic sensitization, LLRs, and SSRs. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Results Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Conclusions Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment. PMID:23805850

  20. Food load manipulation ability shapes flight morphology in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Carlo; Crottini, Angelica; Della Venezia, Lidia; Selfa, Jesús; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2013-06-28

    Ecological constraints related to foraging are expected to affect the evolution of morphological traits relevant to food capture, manipulation and transport. Females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera vary in their food load manipulation ability. Bees and social wasps modulate the amount of food taken per foraging trip (in terms of e.g. number of pollen grains or parts of prey), while solitary wasps carry exclusively entire prey items. We hypothesized that the foraging constraints acting on females of the latter species, imposed by the upper limit to the load size they are able to transport in flight, should promote the evolution of a greater load-lifting capacity and manoeuvrability, specifically in terms of greater flight muscle to body mass ratio and lower wing loading. Our comparative study of 28 species confirms that, accounting for shared ancestry, female flight muscle ratio was significantly higher and wing loading lower in species taking entire prey compared to those that are able to modulate load size. Body mass had no effect on flight muscle ratio, though it strongly and negatively co-varied with wing loading. Across species, flight muscle ratio and wing loading were negatively correlated, suggesting coevolution of these traits. Natural selection has led to the coevolution of resource load manipulation ability and morphological traits affecting flying ability with additional loads in females of central-place foraging Hymenoptera. Release from load-carrying constraints related to foraging, which took place with the evolution of food load manipulation ability, has selected against the maintenance of a powerful flight apparatus. This could be the case since investment in flight muscles may have to be traded against other life-history traits, such as reproductive investment.

  1. A semantic model for species description applied to the ensign wasps (hymenoptera: evaniidae) of New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Balhoff, James P; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Mullins, Patricia L; Deans, Andrew R

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic descriptions are unparalleled sources of knowledge of life's phenotypic diversity. As natural language prose, these data sets are largely refractory to computation and integration with other sources of phenotypic data. By formalizing taxonomic descriptions using ontology-based semantic representation, we aim to increase the reusability and computability of taxonomists' primary data. Here, we present a revision of the ensign wasp (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) fauna of New Caledonia using this new model for species description. Descriptive matrices, specimen data, and taxonomic nomenclature are gathered in a unified Web-based application, mx, then exported as both traditional taxonomic treatments and semantic statements using the OWL Web Ontology Language. Character:character-state combinations are then annotated following the entity-quality phenotype model, originally developed to represent mutant model organism phenotype data; concepts of anatomy are drawn from the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and linked to phenotype descriptors from the Phenotypic Quality Ontology. The resulting set of semantic statements is provided in Resource Description Framework format. Applying the model to real data, that is, specimens, taxonomic names, diagnoses, descriptions, and redescriptions, provides us with a foundation to discuss limitations and potential benefits such as automated data integration and reasoner-driven queries. Four species of ensign wasp are now known to occur in New Caledonia: Szepligetella levipetiolata, Szepligetella deercreeki Deans and Mikó sp. nov., Szepligetella irwini Deans and Mikó sp. nov., and the nearly cosmopolitan Evania appendigaster. A fifth species, Szepligetella sericea, including Szepligetella impressa, syn. nov., has not yet been collected in New Caledonia but can be found on islands throughout the Pacific and so is included in the diagnostic key.

  2. Population structure and survival in a solitary wasp (Microbembex cubana: Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Nyssoninae).

    PubMed

    Toft, C A

    1987-09-01

    This paper documents population structure in a solitary wasp, Microbembex cubana (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Nyssoninae), on a small (15 km(2)) Bahamian island. A relatively isolated portion of this population was studied April-June 1985. The population comprised small aggregations of territorial males and nesting females. Individuals of both sexes were with rare exceptions faithful to a "home" aggregation during their one- to two-month adult lifespans, conducting all reproductive activities there. Individuals from different aggregations, however, mixed daily during these activities: feeding on nectar, hunting for provisions and retiring to clustered sleeping burrows. Significant variation occurred among the nine breeding aggregations in size, density, sex-ratio (which was on average 2:1 in favor of males) and survival (which was 0.93-0.99 per individual/per day and which was not higher for females than for males). Aggregations retained the same characteristics for longer than the life expectancies of individuals in them.Factors affecting reproductive success and survivorship in M. cubana are complex: they are apparently only partially overlapping between males and females and subject to spatial variation. Patterns in the data suggest several hypotheses about how behavior, morphology and habitat interact to shape population processes. I propose that aggregations arise and are characterized by considerable behavioral inertia because individual M. cubana use conspecifics as sources of information on resource quality. Because M. cubana occurs in secondary habitats, individuals retain flexibility in responding to better opportunities for reproduction, but this population exhibits more viscosity than reported for other ground-nesting solitary Hymenoptera.

  3. Identification and characterization of defensin genes from the endoparasitoid wasp Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Zhi; Shi, Min; Zhao, Wei; Bian, Quan-Le; Ye, Gong-Yin; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-11-01

    Defensins are members of a large and diverse family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) containing three or four intramolecular disulfide bonds. They are widely distributed from vertebrates to invertebrates, and serve as critical defense molecules protecting the host from the invasion of pathogens or protozoan parasites. Cotesia vestalis is a small endoparasitoid wasp that lays eggs in larvae of Plutella xylostella, a cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. We identified and characterized three full-length cDNAs encoding putative defensin-like peptides from C. vestalis, named CvDef1, CvDef2 and CvDef3. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences showed that they are present in two clades, CITDs and PITDs, indicating a diversity of defensins in C. vestalis. We analyzed their expression patterns in larvae, pupae and adults by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that CvDef1 mRNA was expressed from the end stage of the second instar larva, CvDef3 mRNA from the early stage of the second instar larva, and CvDef2 mRNA was expressed in all developmental stages of C. vestalis. Furthermore, CvDef1 showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus indicated that CvDef1 had much better antimicrobial ability than ampicillin, making it a potential candidate for practical use. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination of CvDef1-treated S. aureus cells showed extensive damage to the cell membranes. Our results revealed the basic properties of three defensins in C. vestalis for the first time, which may pave the way for further study of the functions of defensins in parasitism and innate immunity of C. vestalis.

  4. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded

    PubMed Central

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  5. Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

    PubMed

    Bogusch, Petr; Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of

  6. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera); two species were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North Ame...

  7. Two new species of mites of the genera Petalomium Cross and Caesarodispus Mahunka (acari: Heterostigmata:Neopygmephoridae, Microdispidae) associated with Solenopsis Invicta Buren (hymenoptera: Formicdae) from the U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Alexandr A. Khaustov; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites, Petalomium hofstetteri n. sp.(Neopygmephoridae) and Caesarodispus klepzigi n. sp. (Microdispidae), associated with the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described from Louisiana, U.S.A.

  8. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  9. Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Faircloth, Brant C; Branstetter, Michael G; White, Noor D; Brady, Seán G

    2015-05-01

    Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome are similar in composition to the types of data with which biologists have traditionally worked (e.g. exons). However, molecular techniques requiring RNA as a template, including transcriptome sequencing, are limited to using very high-quality source materials, which are often unavailable from a large proportion of biologically important insect samples. Recent research suggests that DNA-based target enrichment of conserved genomic elements offers another path to collecting phylogenomic data across insect taxa, provided that conserved elements are present in and can be collected from insect genomes. Here, we identify a large set (n = 1510) of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) shared among the insect order Hymenoptera. We used in silico analyses to show that these loci accurately reconstruct relationships among genome-enabled hymenoptera, and we designed a set of RNA baits (n = 2749) for enriching these loci that researchers can use with DNA templates extracted from a variety of sources. We used our UCE bait set to enrich an average of 721 UCE loci from 30 hymenopteran taxa, and we used these UCE loci to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships spanning very old (≥220 Ma) to very young (≤1 Ma) divergences among hymenopteran lineages. In contrast to a recent study addressing hymenopteran phylogeny using transcriptome data, we found ants to be sister to all remaining aculeate lineages with complete support, although this result could be explained by

  10. The role of selected soil fauna as predators of Apethymus abdominalis Lep. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in oak forests in the District Caiuti, Romania

    Treesearch

    C. Ciornei; N. Popa; L. Ciuca; C. Rang

    2003-01-01

    The present study was initiated in 2001 in the oak forests from Trotus valley (Forest District Caiucti - Bacau, Romania) which were heavily infested by oak sawflies Apethymus abdominalis Lep. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), in order to understand better the role of soil-inhabitating predators in population regulation of this pest.

  11. The genus Pseudapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with an emphasis on the species in Area de Conservación Guanacaste in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudapanteles is a moderately diverse genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), endemic to the New World and with the vast majority of its species (including many undescribed) in the Neotropical region. We describe here 25 new species from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (...

  12. Revision of the genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with a key to all species previously described from Mesoamerica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genera Microplitis and Snellenius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica, are revised. A total of 28 new species are described: 23 of Snellenius (the first record for Mesoamerica) and five of Microplitis. A key is provided to all new spec...

  13. A new species of Oozetetes De Santis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae) from Colombia with an updated key for the bucheri species-group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Benavides, A Lucia; Serna, Francisco; Gibson, Gary A P

    2016-02-26

    Oozetetes lucidus sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is described from Colombia, South America, and through macrophotography compared with all described species in the bucheri species-group of Oozetetes De Santis. An illustrated key modified from Gibson (2004) is provided to distinguish females of the six described species of this group.

  14. Taxonomic and behavioral components of faunal comparisons over time: The bees of Boulder County past and present (Colorado, USA) (Hymenoptera: Anthophila)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historical and recent studies of Boulder County, Colorado (USA) bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) illustrate the potential and the pitfalls of using comparative collection data to evaluate faunal composition and change over time. A compilation of bee records from Boulder Co., CO (USA) (Scott et al., 2...

  15. Field-cage evaluation of the parasitoid Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a natural enemy of the coffee berry borer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an African parasitoid that has been imported to Mexico and other Latin American countries for the biological control of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). As a part of the evaluation of this ...

  16. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Treesearch

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  17. Molecular markers discriminate closely related species, Encarsia diaspidicola and E. berlesei (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Biocontrol candidate agents for white peach scale in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozetti (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), is a serious economic pest of papaya in Hawaii. The endoparasitoid Encarsia diaspidicola Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was imported from Samoa into quarantine in Hawaii to be evaluated for potential r...

  18. New host record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a parasitoid of Microdon sp. larvae associated with the ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The host of Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) is newly reported as Microdon sp. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a genus of obligatory myrmecophilous fly that predates ant brood, in this case Camponotus sp. aff. textor, in southern Mexico. The biology of Microdon spp. is reported as is that o...

  19. First discovery of the family Tanaostigmatidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from China with a description of a new gall-making species utilizing kudzu leaves

    Treesearch

    Yang Zhong-qi; Sun Jiang-hua; James P. Pitts

    2004-01-01

    A new species of Tanaostigmodes (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Tanaostigmatidae) is described from China- Tanaostigmodes puerariae sp. nov. This is the first record of this family in China. This new species has potential as a biological control agent for control of kudzu, Pueraria lobate, in the U.S., because its...

  20. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Treesearch

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  1. The Basophil Activation Test Is Not a Useful Screening Tool for Hymenoptera Venom-Related Anaphylaxis in Patients with Systemic Mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Mark J A; Schreurs, Marco W J; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; van Daele, Paul L A; Hermans, Maud A W

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients are at a high risk for anaphylaxis, with Hymenoptera as the main culprit. A screening instrument to identify which patients are sensitized to Hymenoptera before they experience anaphylaxis would therefore be of great value. The basophil activation test (BAT) is proposed as a possible tool for diagnosing Hymenoptera venom-related allergy (HVA), especially in patients in whom conventional allergy tests yield contradictory results. We included outpatients with SM, according to WHO criteria, from September 2011 to January 2012. Next, to obtain various clinical data including intradermal test results, specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) measurements and BAT were performed. We included 29 patients, 9 of whom had a history of HVA and 4 of whom had experienced anaphylaxis due to other triggers. Sixteen patients had no history of anaphylaxis. sIgE was detected in 6 patients with HVA and in 2 patients with anaphylaxis due to other triggers. The BAT was positive in only 1 patient, in whom the skin test and sIgE were also positive. Compared to patients with skin lesions, those without skin lesions had significantly more anaphylaxis and sIgE to Hymenoptera. During a 3-year follow-up, no one experienced new anaphylactic episodes. The BAT is not a reliable tool for randomly screening SM patients for HVA. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Treesearch

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  3. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France

    Treesearch

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques

    1991-01-01

    The within-cone distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, infesting Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] cones from north-central France was compared with that in samples from California. Results indicate that the mid-region of cones was more intensively...

  4. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  5. A new species and additional records of the genus Collyria Schiødte, 1839 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yurtcan, Murat; Kolarov, Janko

    2015-07-09

    A new species, Collyria pronotalis Yurtcan and Kolarov sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Collyriinae), from Turkey is described and illustrated. A key for identification of the species of Collyria Schiødte, 1839 is provided. Moreover, additional records are reported for Collyria coxator (Villers, 1789) from Turkey.

  6. Longevity of multiple species of tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) provided exotic and sympatric-fruit based diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While adult parasitic Hymenoptera in general feed on floral and extrafloral nectars, hemipteran-honeydews and fluids from punctured hosts, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), an Old World opiine braconid introduced to tropical/subtropical America for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. (Te...

  7. Biological Control of Fenusa pusilla (Birch Leafminer) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in the Northeastern United States: A thirty-four year perspective on efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Parasitoid releases against Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) in eastern North America began in 1974, with releases in eastern Canada, followed by others in the Middle Atlantic States and New England. Of four parasitoids released, only one – the ichneumonid Lathrolestes nigri...

  8. Comparison of the host searching and oviposition behaviors of the tephtitid (Diptera) parasitoids Aganaspis pelleranoi and Odontosema anastrephae (Hymenoptera: Figitidae, Eucoilinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared the host-searching and oviposition behaviors of two Neotropical figitid parasitoids (Hymenoptera) that exploit the same resource: ripe fruit infested by fruit fly larvae (Tephritidae) that have fallen to the ground. Sexually mature Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes) and Odontosema anastreph...

  9. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Treesearch

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy. Van Driesche

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by

  10. Test of nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone to protect trap trees for Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) from attacks by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Kevin Dodds; Daniel Miller

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is an invasive woodwasp, currently established in northeastern North America. In other regions of the world, stressed trap trees are used to monitor populations of S. noctilio and to provide inoculation points for the biological control nematode Deladenus siricidicola Bedding. However, the operational use of trap trees for S....

  11. Comparison of the olfactory preferences of four species of filth fly pupal parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for hosts in equine and bovine manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are common pests in equine and cattle facilities. Pupal parasitoids primarily in the genera Spalangia and Muscidifurax (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) can be purchased for biological control of these flies. ...

  12. Brachymeria koehleri (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a Hyperparasitoid of Lespesia melloi (Diptera: Tachinidae) Pupae in Thagona tibialis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) Caterpillars in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hyperparasitoids use the offspring of other parasitoids for their development, which can reduce the efficiency of biological control. The aim of this study was to present the first report of hyperparasitoidism by Brachymeria koehleri Blanchard, 1935 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) in pupae of Lespesia s...

  13. Taxonomic and behavioral composition of an island fauna: A survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard (Dukes County, Massachusetts, USA)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An intensive survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard, the largest offshore island in Massachusetts, USA, was conducted mostly from 2010-2011 at over 60 sites across the island’s six towns. We document 181 bee species in 31 genera and six families, and historical record...

  14. Effects of venom immunotherapy on serum level of CCL5/RANTES in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Glück, Joanna; Jawor, Barbara; Rogala, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Hymenoptera venoms are known to cause life-threatening IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in allergic individuals. Venom immunotherapy is a recommended treatment of insect allergy with still the mechanism not being completely understood. We decided to assess the serum CCL5/RANTES level in patients who experienced severe anaphylactic reaction to Hymenoptera venom and to find out changes in the course of immunotherapy. Twenty patients (9 men, 11 women, mean age: 31.91 ± 7.63 years) with history of anaphylactic reaction after insect sting were included into the study. Diagnosis was made according to sIgE and skin tests. All of them were enrolled into rush venom immunotherapy with bee or wasp venom extracts (Pharmalgen, ALK-Abello, Horsholm, Denmark). Serum levels of CCL5/RANTES were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). CCL5/RANTES serum concentration are higher in insect venom allergic patients than in healthy controls (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 387.27 ± 85.11 pg/ml). Serum concentration of CCL5/RANTES in insect venom allergic patient was significantly reduced in the course of allergen immunotherapy already after 6 days of vaccination (887.5 ± 322.77 versus 567.32 ± 92.16 pg/ml). CCL5/RANTES serum doesn't correlate with specific IgE. Chemokine CCL5/RANTES participates in allergic inflammation induced by Hymenoptera venom allergens. Specific immunotherapy reduces chemokine CCL5/RANTES serum level already after initial days of venom immunotherapy.

  15. A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P

    2012-12-01

    Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.].

  16. A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Schulmeister, Susanne; Murray, Debra L.; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.] PMID:22723471

  17. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  18. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  19. Regional species richness of families and the distribution of abundance and rarity in a local community of forest Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Recent investigations about the relationship between the number of species of taxonomic lineages and regional patterns of species abundances gave indecisive results. Here, it is shown that mean densities of species of a species-rich community of forest Hymenoptera (673 species out of 25 families) were positively related to the number of European species per family. The fraction of abundant species per family declined and the fraction of rare species increased with species richness. Species rich families contained relatively more species, which were present in only one study year (occasional species), and relatively fewer species present during the whole study period (frequent species).

  20. Review of the Iranian Pteromalinae with spiculated antennae, and description of a new species of Norbanus Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Lotfalizadeh, Hossein

    2015-09-09

    Based on recently collected Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), 13 species were identified from genera of Pteromalinae that are characterized in part by the female clava being distinctly acuminate or apically bearing a narrow spicula. Included are two species of Callitula Spinola, three species of Homoporus Thomson, seven species of Norbanus Walker, and one species of Rhaphitelus Walker. One new species, Norbanus rasplusi n. sp., is described and six species are newly recorded from Iran: Homoporus subniger (Walker), Norbanus calabrus (Masi), N. cerasiops (Masi), N. meridionalis (Masi), N. obscurus (Masi) and N. scabriculus (Nees).