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Sample records for plutonium hydroxides

  1. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  2. METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1961-04-25

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

  3. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  4. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  5. CSER 00-003 Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    SciTech Connect

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-07-13

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material.

  6. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  7. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  8. Americium and plutonium association with magnesium hydroxide colloids in alkaline nuclear industry process environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Zoe; Ivanov, Peter; O'Brien, Luke; Sims, Howard; Taylor, Robin J.; Heath, Sarah L.; Livens, Francis R.; Goddard, David; Kellet, Simon; Rand, Peter; Bryan, Nick D.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviours of Pu, Am and colloids in feed solutions to the Site Ion-exchange Effluent Plant (SIXEP) at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site in the U.K. have been studied. For both Pu and Am, fractions were found to be associated with material in the colloidal size range, with ˜50% of the Pu in the range 1-200 nm. The concentration of soluble Pu (<1 nm) was ˜1 nM, which is very similar to the solubility limit for Pu(V). The soluble Am concentration was of the order of 10-11 M, which was below the solubility limit of americium hydroxide. The size, morphology and elemental composition of the particulates and colloids in the feed solutions were investigated. Magnesium is homogeneously distributed throughout the particles, whereas U, Si, Fe, and Ca were present in localised areas only. Amongst some heterogeneous material, particles were identified that were consistent with hydrotalcite. The distribution of 241Am(III) on brucite (magnesium hydroxide) colloids of different sizes was studied under alkaline conditions representative of nuclear fuel storage pond and effluent feed solution conditions. The morphology of the brucite particles in the bulk material observed by ESEM was predominantly hexagonal, while that of the carbonated brucite consisted of hexagonal species mixed with platelets. The association of 241Am(III) with the brucite colloids was studied by ultrafiltration coupled with gamma ray-spectrometry. For carbonate concentrations up to 10-3 M, the 241Am(III) was mainly associated with larger colloids (>300 kDa), and there was a shift from the smaller size fractions to the larger over a period of 6 months. At higher carbonate concentrations (10-2 M), the Am was predominantly detected in the true solution fraction (<3 kDa) and in smaller size colloidal fractions, in the range 3-100 kDa.

  9. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-09-01

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions. It comprises forming a uranous hydroxide precipitate in such a plutonium bearing solution, at a pH of at least 5. The plutonium values are precipitated with and carried by the uranium hydroxide. The carrier precipitate is then redissolved in acid solution and the pH is adjusted to about 2.5, causing precipitation of the uranous hydroxide but leaving the still soluble plutonium values in solution.

  10. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  11. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  12. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  13. PLUTONIUM CARRIER METATHESIS WITH ORGANIC REAGENT

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1958-07-01

    A method is described for converting a plutonium containing bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate Into a compositton more readily soluble in acid. The method consists of dissolving the bismuth phosphate precipitate in an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide, and adding one of a certaia group of organic compounds, e.g., polyhydric alcohols or a-hydrorycarboxylic acids. The mixture is then heated causiing formation of a bismuth hydroxide precipitate containing plutonium which may be readily dissolved in nitric acid for further processing.

  14. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  15. CONCENTRATION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM IONS, IN AN OXIDATION STATE NOT GREATER THAN +4, IN AQUEOUS ACID SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-06-14

    A process for concentrating plutonium is given in which plutonium is first precipitated with bismuth phosphate and then, after redissolution, precipitated with a different carrier such as lanthanum fluoride, uranium acetate, bismuth hydroxide, or niobic oxide.

  16. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  17. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

    1959-10-13

    The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

  18. Study of the formation, prevention, and recovery of plutonium from plutonium esters in the Purex process

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L. W.; Burney, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses the basic Purex process to separate /sup 239/Pu from /sup 238/U and fission products. Dark-brown, dense solids containing up to 30% Pu have previously occurred in rotameters in the plutonium finishing operations. The kinetics of formation of this mixture of DBP- and MBP-Pu esters suggest two methods to prevent the formation of the solids. A selective dissolution method using NaOH metathesis has been developed to separate the phosphate ester from the plutonium before dissolution of the residual plutonium hydroxide in a HNO/sub 3/-HF medium.

  19. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  20. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  1. Radionuclide Basics: Plutonium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Plutonium (chemical symbol Pu) is a radioactive metal. Plutonium is considered a man-made element. Plutonium-239 is used to make nuclear weapons. Pu-239 and Pu-240 are byproducts of nuclear reactor operations and nuclear bomb explosions.

  2. Plutonium Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  3. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  4. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to an improved method for the decontamination of plutonium. The process consists broadly in an improvement in a method for recovering plutonium from radioactive uranium fission products in aqueous solutions by decontamination steps including byproduct carrier precipitation comprising the step of introducing a preformed aqueous slurry of a hydroxide of a metal of group IV B into any aqueous acidic solution which contains the plutonium in the hexavalent state, radioactive uranium fission products contaminant and a by-product carrier precipitate and separating the metal hydroxide and by-product precipitate from the solution. The process of this invention is especially useful in the separation of plutonium from radioactive zirconium and columbium fission products.

  5. Solubility of plutonium and uranium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubility of plutonium and uranium in alkaline salt solutions, which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process, was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the factors comprising the salt solutions. The factors included in the study were hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, carbonate, and temperature. Over the range of factor concentrations studied, the level of hydroxide in the solution is not sufficient alone to predict the resulting concentration of plutonium and uranium in the solution. Other constituents of the salt solution play an important role in determining the amount of plutonium and uranium in solution. Statistical models predicting the plutonium and uranium concentrations over the range of salt solutions investigated are provided.

  6. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  7. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  8. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  9. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  10. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  11. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  12. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

    1961-07-11

    A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

  13. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna; Wolkov, Benjamin

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  14. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

    1958-05-01

    A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

  15. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  16. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  17. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  18. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  19. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  20. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-07-01

    Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

  1. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  2. North Korean plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992, as part of its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, North Korea declared that it had earlier separated about 100 grams of plutonium from damaged fuel rods removed from a 25 megawatt-thermal (MW{sub t}) gas-graphite reactor at Yongbyon. The plutonium was separated at the nearby {open_quotes}Radiochemical Laboratory.{close_quotes} Separated plutonium is the raw ingredient for making nuclear weapons, but 100 grams is too little to make a crude bomb. Based on intelligence reports and IAEA inspections, North Korea may have separated enough plutonium for a nuclear weapon. Regardless of whether this is true, there is no doubt that North Korea has enough weapons-grade plutonium in spent fuel to make four or five nuclear weapons. But it cannot turn this plutonium into nuclear weapons unless it separates the plutonium from the spent fuel. Preventing the North from separating any more plutonium must remain a global priority. The IAEA must also be able to verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium North Korea may have diverted in the past.

  3. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  4. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  5. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  6. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM TO Pu$sup +3$ BY SODIUM DITHIONITE IN POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Hoekstra, H.R.

    1958-12-16

    Plutonium values are reduced in an alkaline aqueous medlum to the trlvalent state by means of sodium dlthionite. Plutonlum values are also separated from normally assoclated contaminants by metathesizing a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate containing plutonium with a hydroxide solution, performing the metathesis in the presence of about 0.2 M sodium dithionite at a temperature of between 40 and 90 icient laborato C.

  7. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (²³⁸Pu and ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout.

  9. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  10. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  11. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  12. CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

  13. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  14. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  15. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  16. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  17. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  18. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  19. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) Precursor Material Calcine Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.D.

    1999-07-29

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium are no longer needed and have been identified for disposition. A ceramic waste form is the chosen option for immobilization of the excess plutonium. The plutonium ceramic form then will be encased in high-level waste glass using can-in-canister technology for final disposition. The precursor materials are the non-radioactive components that are added to the plutonium feed stream to form the desired phases in the immobilization product. The precursor materials are blended and calcined prior to being mixed with the plutonium feed stream. The purpose of the calcine step is to remove any physical or chemical water retained in the precursors and convert any hydroxides or carbonates to the oxides. Initially, a temperature of 750 degrees C for a period of one hour was chosen for the calcining of the precursors. In this effort, several different calcine temperatures were investigated to evaluate the effect on initial phase formation (in the calcined precursors), thermal expansion of the pressed pellets during heating, and mineralogy and porosity of the final product.

  1. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  2. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  3. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  4. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  5. Superconductivity in plutonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Although the family of plutonium-based superconductors is relatively small, consisting of four compounds all of which crystallize in the tetragonal HoCoGa5 structure, these materials serve as an important bridge between the known Ce- and U-based heavy fermion superconductors and the high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Further, the partial localization of 5f electrons that characterizes the novel electronic properties of elemental plutonium appears to be central to the relatively high superconducting transition temperatures that are observed in PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, PuCoIn5, and PuRhIn5.

  6. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  7. Separating Metallic Beryllium from Plutonium by Selective Dissolution with Ammonium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R A

    2006-11-29

    Plutonium metal is stabilized for long-term storage by calcining to produce PuO{sub 2}. However, if beryllium is present, the calcined product may have a high neutron dose rate because of the {sup 9}Be({alpha},n){sup 12}C reaction in the finely divided oxide mixture. (At LLNL, inadvertent calcining of a mixture of {approx}500 g Pu/50 g Be produced a neutron source of {approx}5 R/hr.) Therefore, for health physics reasons, we would like a convenient procedure to remove beryllium from plutonium with high selectivity. Two reagents, sodium hydroxide and ammonium fluoride, were considered for aqueous processing. Each reagent selectively dissolves beryllium, which can be separated from the insoluble plutonium by decanting/filtering operations followed by water washes to remove the excess reagent. The washed plutonium is calcined for storage; the beryllium and wash fractions are solidified for disposal.

  8. Atomic spectrum of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.; Gutmacher, R.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains plutonium wavelengths, energy level classifications, and other spectroscopic data accumulated over the past twenty years at Laboratoire Aime Cotton (LAC) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The primary purpose was term analysis: deriving the energy levels in terms of quantum numbers and electron configurations, and evaluating the Slater-Condon and other parameters from the levels.

  9. Plutonium: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element.

  10. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-03-07

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D&T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D&T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D&T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency.

  11. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  12. From separations to reconstitution - a short history of Plutonium in the U.S. and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L W

    1999-04-15

    During the cold war plutonium was produced in reactors in both the US and Russia. It was then separated from the residual uranium and fission products by a variety of precipitation processes, such as Bismuth Phosphate, Redox, Butex, Purex, etc. in the US and uranium acetate and Purex in Russia. After a period of time in the field, plutonium weapons were recycled and the plutonium re-purified and returned to weapons. purification was accomplished by a variety of aqueous and molten salt processes, such as nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution followed by anion exchange, Purex modifications, molten salt extraction, electrorefining, etc. in the US and nitric acid dissolution or sodium hydroxide fusion followed by anion exchange in Russia. At the end of the Cold War, plutonium production of weapons-grade plutonium was cut off in the US and is expected to be cut off in Russia shortly after the turn of the century. Now both countries are looking at methods to reconstitute plutonium with fission products to render it no longer useful for nuclear weapons. These methods include immobilization in a ceramic matrix and then encasement in fission product laden glass, irradiation of MOX fuel, and disposal as waste in WIPP in the US and irradiation of MOX fuel in Russia. This paper details the contrast between the treatment of plutonium during the cold war and after the cold war was over.

  13. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  14. 4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF PLUTONIUM CANISTER ON CHAINVEYOR. SCRAP PLUTONIUM WAS COLLECTED INTO CANS AT INDIVIDUAL WORKSTATIONS. THE CANS WERE TRANSFERRED VIA THE CHAIN CONVEYOR TO A WORKSTATION IN MODULE C WHERE THE MATERIAL WAS COMPRESSED INTO BRIQUETTES FOR LATER USE. (6/20/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  16. Surprising Coordination for Plutonium in the First Plutonium (III) Borate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-22

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu2[B12O18(OH)4Br2(H2O)3]·0.5H2O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  17. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  18. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  19. Plutonium recovery from organic materials

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1973-12-11

    A method is described for removing plutonium or the like from organic material wherein the organic material is leached with a solution containing a strong reducing agent such as titanium (III) (Ti/sup +3None)/, chromium (II) (Cr/ sup +2/), vanadium (II) (V/sup +2/) ions, or ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), the leaching yielding a plutonium-containing solution that is further processed to recover plutonium. The leach solution may also contain citrate or tartrate ion. (Official Gazette)

  20. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Cameron M

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  1. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  2. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  3. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  4. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

  5. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  6. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  7. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  8. Photochemical preparation of plutonium pentafluoride

    DOEpatents

    Rabideau, Sherman W.; Campbell, George M.

    1987-01-01

    The novel compound plutonium pentafluoride may be prepared by the photodissociation of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. It is a white solid of low vapor pressure, which consists predominantly of a face-centered cubic structure with a.sub.o =4.2709.+-.0.0005 .ANG..

  9. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  10. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Nuttall, R.L.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for extracting plutonium from powdered neutron- irradiated urarium metal by contacting the latter, while maintaining it in the solid form, with molten magnesium which takes up the plutonium and separating the molten magnesium from the solid uranium.

  11. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  12. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Nigon, Jean-Louis; Lenain, Richard; Zaetta, Alain

    2002-07-01

    Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

  13. Probing Phonons in Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Joe

    2004-03-01

    The phonon spectra of plutonium and its alloys have been sought after in the past few decades following the discovery of this actinide element in 1941, but with no success. This was due to a combination of the high neutron absorption cross section of 239Pu, the common isotope, and non-availability of large single crystals of any Pu-bearing materials. We have recent designed a high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering experiment using a bright synchrotron x-ray beam at the European Sychrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble and mapped the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc delta-phase polycrystalline Pu-Ga alloy (1). Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus C', a Kohn-like anomaly in the T1[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the [111] transverse modes are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the lattice structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for d-plutonium.(2) This work was performed in collaboration with Dr. M. Krisch (ESRF)) and Prof. T.-C. Chiang (UIU), and under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. 1. Joe Wong et al. Science, vol.301, 1078 (2003) 2. X. Dai et al. Science, vol.300, 953 (2003)

  14. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Sean Douglas

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  15. PLUTONIUM-HYDROGEN REACTION PRODUCT, METHOD OF PREPARING SAME AND PLUTONIUM POWDER THEREFROM

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Baumbach, H.L.

    1959-12-01

    A process is described for forming plutonlum hydride powder by reacting hydrogen with massive plutonium metal at room temperature and the product obtained. The plutonium hydride powder can be converted to plutonium powder by heating to above 200 deg C.

  16. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  17. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  19. Probing phonons in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-11-16

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} {yields} {delta}{prime} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature {approx}640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the

  20. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  1. IODATE METHOD FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.; Duffield, R.B.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for removing radioactive fission products from aqueous solutions containing such fission products together with plutonium. This is accomplished by incorporating into such solutions a metal iodate precipitate to remove fission products which form insoluble iodates. Suitable metal iodates are those of thorium and cerium. The plutonium must be in the hexavalent state and the pH of the solution must be manintained at less than 2.

  2. METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Beede, R.L.; Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-11-17

    C rystalline plutonium tetrafluoride is precipitated from aqueous up to 1.6 N mineral acid solutions of a plutorium (IV) salt with fluosilicic acid anions, preferably at room temperature. Hydrogen fluoride naay be added after precipitation to convert any plutonium fluosilicate to the tetrafluoride and any silica to fluosilicic acid. This process results in a purer product, especially as to iron and aluminum, than does the precipitation by the addition of hydrogen fluoride.

  3. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  4. Novel synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) from zinc hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xue; Liu, Leipeng; Komarneni, Sridhar; Lv, Fengzhu

    2017-02-01

    The most common synthesis methods for layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are co-precipitation and reconstruction, which can have some limitations for application. Here, we report a novel synthesis method for LDHs. We use zinc hydroxide as the precursor to synthesize LDHs phase through a simple transformation process of zinc hydroxide phase. For this transformation process, aluminum can enter into zinc hydroxide and replace zinc quickly to transform it into LDH by creating positive charges in the zinc hydroxide solid phase. The mechanism of LDH formation was through Al3+ reaction first with zinc hydroxide followed by recrystallization of the original structure of zinc hydroxide. Thus, the new process of LDH formation involves a reaction of Al to substitute for Zn and recrystallization leading to LDH and the final pH influences the crystallization of LDHs by this process. In addition, Cr3+ was employed as a trivalent cation for LDH formation to react with zinc hydroxide, which also led to LDH structure.

  5. Nature of Nano-Sized Plutonium Particles in Soils at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Moore, Dean A.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-08-06

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO2) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments has been well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium may exist in environmental samples at the Hanford site in chemical forms in addition to large size PuO2 particles and that these previously unidentified nano-sized particles maybe more reactive and thus more likely to influence the environmental mobility of Pu. Here we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized plutonium iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group nanoparticles in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The distribution and nature of these nanoparticles varied depending on the adjacent phases present. Fine electron probes were used to obtain electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectra from specific phase regions of the 216-Z9 cribs specimens from fine-grained plutonium oxide and phosphate phases. Energy-loss spectra were used to evaluate the plutonium N4,5 (4d → 5f ) and iron L2,3 absorption edges. The iron plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local micro-environment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of Pu in the soil. This study also points to the utility of using electron beam methods for determining the identity of actinide phases and their association with other sediment phases.

  6. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    DOEpatents

    Hagan, Paul G.; Miner, Frend J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution.

  7. Recent plutonium science and technology at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium research and development (R and D) at ORNL has generally followed development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic plutonium chemistry studies have diminished since the mid-1970s; however, significant efforts have been made recently to determine fundamental characteristics of the aqueous plutonium polymer and to develop thermodynamic representations of plutonium oxides. Some studies have also been made on plutonium phosphates related to waste isolation and on definition of the oxidation states of environmental plutonium. The remaining work has been supported by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) and includes: (1) establishment of boundary limits for polymer formation in Purex systems; (2) preparation of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide microspheres by internal gelation sol-gel techniques; (3) direct thermal denitration of aqueous systems; and (4) plutonium/uranium extraction from spent fast reactor fuels.

  8. Analysis of naturally produced technetium and plutonium in geologic materials.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P; Curtis, D B; Musgrave, J; Roensch, F; Roach, J; Rokop, D

    1997-05-01

    In uncontaminated natural materials, plutonium and technetium exist exclusively as products (daughters) of nuclear reactions in which uranium is the principal reactant (parent). Under conditions of chemical stability over geologic periods of time, the relative abundances of daughter and parent elements are fixed by the rates of nuclear reactions and the decay of the daughter radionuclide. The state of this nuclear secular equilibrium condition is the primary basis of the geochemical study of these elements in nature. Thus, it is critical that nuclear parent and daughter abundances are measured in the same sample. We have developed a quantitative procedure for measuring subpicogram quantities of plutonium and technetium in gram quantities of geologic matrices such as uranium ores. The procedure takes advantage of the aggressive properties of sodium peroxide/hydroxide fusion to ensure complete dissolution and homogenization of complex materials, the precision provided by isotope dilution techniques, and the extreme sensitivity offered by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Using this technique, a quantitative aliquot can be removed for uranium analysis by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry or α spectrometry. Although the application of the procedure is unique, the analytical concepts may find more general application in studies of environmental contamination by nuclear materials. To assess the precision and accuracy of the analytical results, blanks and standards were analyzed routinely for a 1-year period to ensure quality control of our sample analyses. The average technetium blank is 5 ± 4 fg (n = 8), and that for plutonium is 0.17 ± 0.15 pg (n = 7). Thus, the detection limit for technetium (defined as 3 times the standard deviation of the average blank) is 11 fg, and that for plutonium is 0.44 pg. To assess the procedural precision, Canadian Reference Material BL-5 was analyzed routinely with samples. The results of seven replicate

  9. Plutonium focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  10. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  11. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-02-07

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  13. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  14. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  15. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  16. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  17. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of plutonium-238 and -239 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  18. 49 CFR 175.704 - Plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plutonium shipments. 175.704 Section 175.704... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.704 Plutonium shipments. Shipments of plutonium which are subject to 10 CFR 71.88(a)(4) must comply with the following: (a) Each...

  19. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  20. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, A.C.

    1957-11-12

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

  1. PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS AND PROCESS FOR THEIR PREPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.; Diehl, H.C. Jr.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to certain new compounds of plutonium, and to the utilization of these compounds to effect purification or separation of the plutonium. The compounds are organic chelate compounds consisting of tetravalent plutonium together with a di(salicylal) alkylenediimine. These chelates are soluble in various organic solvents, but not in water. Use is made of this property in extracting the plutonium by contacting an aqueous solution thereof with an organic solution of the diimine. The plutonium is chelated, extracted and effectively separated from any impurities accompaying it in the aqueous phase.

  2. Plutonium inventory characterization technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    This is a technical report on the data, gathered to date, under WHC- SD-CP-TP-086, Rev. 1, on the integrity of the food pack cans currently being used to store plutonium or plutonium compounds at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Workplan PFP-96-VO-009, `Inspection of Special Nuclear Material Using X-ray`, was used to gather data on material and containment conditions using real time radiography. Some of those images are included herein. A matrix found in the `Plutonium Inventory Characterization Implementation Plan` was used to categorize different plutonium items based upon the type of material being stored and the life expectancy of the containers.

  3. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  4. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    1984-07-10

    A method is described for chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  5. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Clifton, David G.; Blum, Thomas W.

    1984-01-01

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  6. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  7. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  8. Plutonium Recycle: The Fateful Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, J. Gustave; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Calls attention to the fact that if the Atomic Energy Commission proceeds with its plans to authorize the nuclear power industry to use plutonium as a fuel in commercial nuclear reactors around the country, this will result in a dramatic escalation in the risks posed by nuclear power. (PEB)

  9. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  10. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  11. The First Weighing of Plutonium

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1967-09-10

    Recollections and reminiscences at the 25th Anniversary of the First Weighing of Plutonium, Chicago, IL, September 10, 1967, tell an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  12. Plutonium disposition and storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, J.F.

    2000-03-01

    An EXTEND/SDI-Industry model of DOE plutonium disposition and storage has been created which can easily accommodate changes in scenarios by changing input parameters. It matches well with hand-crafted spreadsheet analyses, and has the advantage that it shows system logic and can be documented easily.

  13. Plutonium disposition and storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, J.F.

    1999-12-06

    An EXTEND/SDI-Industry model of DOE plutonium disposition and storage has been created which can easily accommodate changes in scenarios by changing input parameters. It matches well with hand-crafted spreadsheet analyses, and has the advantage that it shows system logic and can be documented easily.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  4. Surprising coordination for plutonium in the first plutonium(III) borate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    The first plutonium(III) borate, Pu(2)[B(12)O(18)(OH)(4)Br(2)(H(2)O)(3)]·0.5H(2)O, has been prepared by reacting plutonium(III) with molten boric acid under strictly anaerobic conditions. This compound contains a three-dimensional polyborate network with triangular holes that house the plutonium(III) sites. The plutonium sites in this compound are 9- and 10-coordinate and display atypical geometries.

  5. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  6. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  7. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  8. Comparison of sample preparation methods for reliable plutonium and neptunium urinalysis using automatic extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Xu, Yihong; Hou, Xiaolin; Miró, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes improvement and comparison of analytical methods for simultaneous determination of trace-level plutonium and neptunium in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four sample pre-concentration techniques, including calcium phosphate, iron hydroxide and manganese dioxide co-precipitation and evaporation were compared and the applicability of different techniques was discussed in order to evaluate and establish the optimal method for in vivo radioassay program. The analytical results indicate that the various sample pre-concentration approaches afford dissimilar method performances and care should be taken for specific experimental parameters for improving chemical yields. The best analytical performances in terms of turnaround time (6h) and chemical yields for plutonium (88.7 ± 11.6%) and neptunium (94.2 ± 2.0%) were achieved by manganese dioxide co-precipitation. The need of drying ashing (≥ 7h) for calcium phosphate co-precipitation and long-term aging (5d) for iron hydroxide co-precipitation, respectively, rendered time-consuming analytical protocols. Despite the fact that evaporation is also somewhat time-consuming (1.5d), it endows urinalysis methods with better reliability and repeatability compared with co-precipitation techniques. In view of the applicability of different pre-concentration techniques proposed previously in the literature, the main challenge behind relevant method development is pointed to be the release of plutonium and neptunium associated with organic compounds in real urine assays. In this work, different protocols for decomposing organic matter in urine were investigated, of which potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) treatment provided the highest chemical yield of neptunium in the iron hydroxide co-precipitation step, yet, the occurrence of sulfur compounds in the processed sample deteriorated the analytical performance of the ensuing extraction chromatographic separation with chemical

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  11. Disposition options for separated plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von; Feiveson, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Russia and the United States expect to dismantle [approximately]50,000 nuclear warheads containing [approximately]150 tonnes of plutonium as a result of the drastic reductions in tactical nuclear weapons announced by Presidents Bush and Gorbachev during the fall of 1991 and the reductions in strategic weapons agreed to in the START I and START II Treaties. In addition, if current plans for reprocessing spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel are carried out (mainly in Britain and France) [approximately]200 tonnes of civilian plutonium will be separated during the 1990s. This paper addresses the public-policy issues in the U.S. and abroad regarding disposition options as well as some technical aspects for options.

  12. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Potratz, H.A.

    1958-12-16

    A process for the separation of plutonium from uranlum and other associated radioactlve fission products ls descrlbed conslstlng of contacting an acid solution containing plutonium in the tetravalent state and uranium in the hexavalent state with enough ammonium carbonate to form an alkaline solution, adding cupferron to selectlvely form plutonlum cupferrlde, then recoverlng the plutonium cupferride by extraction with a water lmmiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  13. PROCESS OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY ELECTRODEPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Whal, A.C.

    1958-04-15

    A process is described of separating plutonium values from an aqueous solution by electrodeposition. The process consists of subjecting an aqueous 0.1 to 1.0 N nitric acid solution containing plutonium ions to electrolysis between inert metallic electrodes. A current density of one milliampere io one ampere per square centimeter of cathode surface and a temperature between 10 and 60 d C are maintained. Plutonium is electrodeposited on the cathode surface and recovered.

  14. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  15. WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

    1958-11-11

    S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

  16. PLUTONIUM-CUPFERRON COMPLEX AND METHOD OF REMOVING PLUTONIUM FROM SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Potratz, H.A.

    1959-01-13

    A method is presented for separating plutonium from fission products present in solutions of neutronirradiated uranium. The process consists in treating such acidic solutions with cupferron so that the cupferron reacts with the plutonium present to form an insoluble complex. This plutonium cupferride precipitates and may then be separated from the solution.

  17. ION EXCHANGE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Taylor, M.D.

    1961-07-11

    Ion exchange processes for the separation of plutonium from fission products are described. In accordance with these processes an aqueous solution containing plutonium and fission products is contacted with a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring adsorption of plutonium and fission products on the resin. A portion of the fission product is then eluted with a solution containing 0.05 to 1% by weight of a carboxylic acid. Plutonium is next eluted with a solution containing 2 to 8 per cent by weight of the same carboxylic acid, and the remaining fission products on the resin are eluted with an aqueous solution containing over 10 per cent by weight of sodium bisulfate.

  18. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    DOEpatents

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  19. OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

    1958-06-10

    A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

  20. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  1. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  2. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  3. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; ...

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  4. MOLTEN PLUTONIUM FUELED FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kiehn, R.M.; King, L.D.P.; Peterson, R.E.; Swickard, E.O. Jr.

    1962-06-26

    A description is given of a nuclear fast reactor fueled with molten plutonium containing about 20 kg of plutonium in a tantalum container, cooled by circulating liquid sodium at about 600 to 650 deg C, having a large negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, and control rods and movable reflector for criticality control. (AEC)

  5. URANOUS IODATE AS A CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for precipitating plutonium on a uranous iodate carrier from an aqueous acid solution conA plutonium solution more concentrated than the original solution can then be obtained by oxidizing the uranium to the hexavalent state and dissolving the precipitate, after separating the latter from the original solution, by means of warm nitric acid.

  6. Source Book on Plutonium and Its Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-24

    Data Entered) UNCLASIFIED 20. ABSTRACT (Continued) |development of the coupled differential equations, based on the 1965 and the proposed 1973...61 XV Some Foreign Plutonium Decontamination Standards . . ...... 63 XVI Variability of Sol Sampling Data .... ..... .... 64 XVII Criteria for...Scheduling Feces Samples . . .......... 66 XVIII Types of Data which may be Coliected for Plutonium Inhalation Incidents . 66 XIX Percent Efficiencies for

  7. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R.H.

    1961-04-01

    A process is given for recovering plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid zirconium-containing solution of an acidity between 0.2 and 1 N by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l) and precipitating the plutonium with an excess of hydrogen peroxide at from 53 to 65 deg C.

  8. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.

    1959-01-13

    An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

  8. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  9. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

    1984-06-01

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  11. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  12. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  13. Plutonium Uptake and Distribution in Mammalian Cells: Molecular vs Polymeric Plutonium

    PubMed Central

    ARYAL, BAIKUNTHA P.; GORMAN-LEWIS, DREW; PAUNESKU, TATJANA; WILSON, RICHARD E.; LAI, BARRY; VOGT, STEFAN; WOLOSCHAK, GAYLE E.; JENSEN, MARK P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To study the cellular responses to molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium using PC12 cells derived from rat adrenal glands. Materials and methods Serum starved PC12 cells were exposed to polymeric and molecular forms of plutonium for three hours. Cells were washed with 10 mM EGTA, 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.4 to remove surface sorbed plutonium. Localization of plutonium in individual cell was quantitatively analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. Results Molecular plutonium complexes introduced to cell growth media in the form of NTA, citrate, or transferrin complexes were taken up by PC12 cells, and mostly co-localized with iron within the cells. Polymeric plutonium prepared separately was not internalized by PC12 cells but it was always found on the cell surface as big agglomerates; however polymeric plutonium formed in situ was mostly found within the cells as agglomerates. Conclusions PC12 cells can differentiate molecular and polymeric forms of plutonium. Molecular plutonium is taken up by PC12 cells and mostly co-localized with iron but aged polymeric plutonium is not internalized by the cells. PMID:21770702

  14. Potentiometric determination of plutonium by sodium bismuthate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Charyulu, M M; Rao, V K; Natarajan, P R

    1984-12-01

    A potentiometric method for the determination of plutonium is described, in which the plutonium is quantitatively oxidized to plutonium(VI) with sodium bismuthate in nitric acid medium, the excess of oxidant is destroyed chemically and plutonium(VI) is reduced to plutonium(IV) with a measured excess of iron(II), the surplus of which is back-titrated with dichromate. For 3-5 mg of plutonium the error is less than 0.2%. For submilligram quantities of plutonium in presence of macro-amounts of uranium the error is below 2.0%.

  15. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, W.C.; Phillips, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  16. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  17. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  18. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  19. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  20. VOLATILE FLUORIDE PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM OTHER MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Newton, A.S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or tission products by formation of the higher fluorides of uranium and/or plutonium is discussed. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first convcrted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treatced with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sup 6/ leaving plutonium behind. The plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 500 deg C and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  1. Volatile fluoride process for separating plutonium from other materials

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F. H.; Newton, A. S.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from uranium and/or fission products by formation of the higher fluorides off uranium and/or plutonium is described. Neutronirradiated uranium metal is first converted to the hydride. This hydrided product is then treated with fluorine at about 315 deg C to form and volatilize UF/sub 6/ leaving plutonium behind. Thc plutonium may then be separated by reacting the residue with fluorine at about 5004DEC and collecting the volatile plutonium fluoride thus formed.

  2. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  3. Tritium and plutonium in waters from the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Beals, D.M.; Halverson, J.E.; Michel, R.L.; Cefus, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer of 1993, seawater in the Bering and Chukchi Seas was sampled on a joint Russian-American cruise [BERPAC] of the RV Okean to determine concentrations of tritium, 239Pu and 240Pu. Concentrations of tritium were determined by electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintilation counting. Tritium levels ranged up to 420 mBq L-1 showed no evidence of inputs other than those attribute atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Plutonium was recovered from water samples by ferric hydroxide precipitation, and concentrations were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 239+240Pu concentrations ranged from <1 to 5.5 [mu]Bq L-1. These concentrations are lower than those measured in water samples from other parts of the ocean during the mid-1960's to the late 1980's. The 240Pu:239Pu ratios, although associated with large uncertainties, suggest that most of the plutonium is derived from world-wide fallout. As points of comparison, the highest concentrations of tritium and plutonium observed here were about five orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentrations allowed in water released to the off-site environs from licensed nuclear facilities in the United States. This study and others sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program are providing data for the assessment of potential radiological impacts in the Arctic regions associated with nuclear waste disposal by the former Soviet Union.

  4. Disposition of Mixed Waste Organics at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.M.; Coriz, F.; Schreiber, S.B.; Balkey, S.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six organic solution items totaling 37 L had been stored in the Plutonium Facility vault at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, some for up to 18 years. They were residues from analytical analyses of radioactive solutions. All items had a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defined hazardous waste combined with special nuclear materials (SNM) and were stored as a mixed waste in a vault room pending disposition. Seventeen items had plutonium concentrations above established discard limits for organics. Due to their age, the containers were not suitable for long-term storage because a container failure would contaminate the vault area and personnel. Therefore, an aqueous-based flowsheet was developed to remove the plutonium so that the items could be discarded. The procedure was a wash with either sodium fluoride and/or potassium hydroxide solution followed by absorbing the discardable organic residues on vermiculite. When this approach did not work permission was obtained to discard the items as a transuranic (TRU) mixed waste without further treatment. The remaining nine solution items were consolidated into two items, repackaged, and stored for future disposition. The overall effort required approximately four months to disposition all the items. This report details the administrative and regulatory requirements that had to be addressed, the results of processing, and the current status of the items.

  5. RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Reber, E.J.

    1959-09-01

    A process is described for recovering plutonium values from aqueous solutions by precipitation on bismuth phosphate. The plutonium is secured in its tetravalent state. bismuth salt is added to the solution, and ant excess of phosphoric acid anions is added to the solution in two approximately equal installments. The rate of addition of the first installment is about two to three times as high as the rate of addition of the second installment, whereby a precipitate of bismuth phosphate forms, the precipitate carrying the plutonium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution.

  6. NON-CORROSIVE PLUTONIUM FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Waber, J.T.

    1962-10-23

    An improved plutonium reactor liquid fuel is described for utilization in a nuclear reactor having a tantalum fuel containment vessel. The fuel consists of plutonium and a diluent such as iron, cobalt, nickel, cerium, cerium-- iron, cerium--cobalt, cerium--nickel, and cerium--copper, and an additive of carbon and silicon. The carbon and silicon react with the tantalum container surface to form a coating that is self-healing and prevents the corrosive action of liquid plutonium on the said tantalum container. (AEC)

  7. Removal of plutonium from hepatic tissue

    DOEpatents

    Lindenbaum, Arthur; Rosenthal, Marcia W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for removing plutonium from hepatic tissues by introducing into the body and blood stream a solution of the complexing agent DTPA and an adjunct thereto. The adjunct material induces aberrations in the hepatic tissue cells and removes intracellularly deposited plutonium which is normally unavailable for complexation with the DTPA. Once the intracellularly deposited plutonium has been removed from the cell by action of the adjunct material, it can be complexed with the DTPA present in the blood stream and subsequently removed from the body by normal excretory processes.

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  9. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  10. Immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L J; Mansourov, O A

    1999-01-25

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  11. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  12. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium-239 based on the spectrum of plutonium(III) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Temer, D.J.; Walker, L.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes a spectrophotometric method for determining plutonium-239 (Pu-239) based on the spectrum of Pu(III) chloride. The authors used the sealed-reflux technique for the dissolution of plutonium oxide with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and small amounts of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. To complex the fluoride, they added zirconium, and to reduce plutonium to Pu(III), they added ascorbic acid. They then adjusted the solution to a concentration of 2 M HCl and measured the absorbances at five wavelengths of the Pu(III) chloride spectrum. This spectrophotometric determination can also be applied to samples of plutonium metal dissolved in HCl.

  14. PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    PEREYRA, RAMIRO A.; LOVATO, DARRYL

    2007-01-08

    From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the early pioneers faced such as compatibility, homogeneity and malleability have come to the forefront. And metallography will continue to be a principle tool for the resolution of old and new issues. Standard metallographic techniques are used for the preparation of plutonium samples. The samples are first cut with a slow speed idamond saw. After mounting in Epon 815 epoxy resin, the samples are ground through 600 grit silicon carbide paper. PF 5070 (a Freon substitute) is used as a coolant, lubricant, and solvent for most operations. Rough mechanical polished is done with 9-{mu} diamond using a nap less cloth, for example nylon or cotton. Final polish is done with 1-{mu} diamond on a nappy cloth such as sylvet. Ethyl alcohol is then used ultrasonically to clean the samples before electro polishing. The sample is then electro-polished and etched in an electrolyte containing 10% nitric acid, and 90% dimethyleneformalmide. Ethyl alcohol is used as a final cleaning agent. Although standard metallographic preparation techniques are used, there are several reasons why metallography of Pu is difficult and challenging. Firstly, because of the health hazards associated with its radioactive properties, sample preparation is conducted in glove boxes. Figure 1 shows the metallography line, in an R and D facility. Since they are designed to be negative in pressure to the laboratory, cross-contamination of abrasives is a major problem. In addition, because of safety concerns and waste issues, there is a limit to the amount of solvent that can be used. Secondly, Pu will readily hydride or oxidize when in contact

  15. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  16. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  17. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  18. Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Heaton, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    Different size cuts of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-..mu..m pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 ..mu..m was 3 ng/m/sup 2//s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-..mu..m filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  20. The thermal expansion behavior of unalloyed plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Tate, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Information and data concerning the thermal expansion characteristics of the solid and liquid phases of unalloyed plutonium have been collected from published and unpublished sources and evaluated, and are presented to provide increased availability in compact form.

  1. A Plutonium Storage Container Pressure Measurement Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, T.J.

    2002-05-10

    Plutonium oxide and metal awaiting final disposition are currently stored at the Savannah River Site in crimp sealed food pack cans. Surveillances to ensure continued safe storage of the cans include periodic lid deflection measurements using a mechanical device.

  2. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.G.; Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium administered as an alpha radiation source to the respiratory tracts of Syrian hamsters has resulted in various incidences of neoplasia. Adenomas are the primary lung tumor observed, but adenocarcinomas are also prevalent.

  3. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  4. A DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements.

    PubMed

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-09-16

    The toxicity of heavy metals in natural waters is strongly dependent on the local chemical environment. Assessing the bioavailability of radionuclides predicts the toxic effects to aquatic biota. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is largely exploited for bioavailability measurements of trace metals in waters. However, it has not been applied for plutonium speciation measurements yet. This study investigates the use of DGT technique for plutonium bioavailability measurements in chemically different environments. We used a diffusion cell to determine the diffusion coefficients (D) of plutonium in polyacrylamide (PAM) gel and found D in the range of 2.06-2.29 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). It ranged between 1.10 and 2.03 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1) in the presence of fulvic acid and in natural waters with low DOM. In the presence of 20 ppm of humic acid of an organic-rich soil, plutonium diffusion was hindered by a factor of 5, with a diffusion coefficient of 0.50 × 10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). We also tested commercially available DGT devices with Chelex resin for plutonium bioavailability measurements in laboratory conditions and the diffusion coefficients agreed with those from the diffusion cell experiments. These findings show that the DGT methodology can be used to investigate the bioaccumulation of the labile plutonium fraction in aquatic biota.

  5. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  6. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Saba, M.T.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-12-21

    Seven candidate materials, each contained in a static-bed column, have been evaluated for removing plutonium from nitric acid waste. Three materials have insufficient capacity for plutonium: TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) sorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 resin, O phi D(IB)CMPO (octylphenyl-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) sorbed on XAD-4, and Amberlite IRA-938 anion exchange resin. The remaining four materials reduced 10/sup -3/ g/l plutonium in 7.2M HNO/sub 3/ to low 10/sup -5/ g/l for 80 bed volumes (BV). The 10% breakthrough capacities for 3 x 10/sup -2/ g/l plutonium are: TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) on XAD-4 - 1800 BV, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) on XAD-4 - 960 BV, Dowex 1 x 4 - 840 BV, and DHDECMP + TBP - 640 BV. Based on these results and generally poor elution of all materials, TOPO on XAD-4 is recommended as the best candidate for recovery of plutonium followed by acid digestion or combustion of the TOPO to recover the concentrated plutonium.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH....

  8. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer electrolytes for electrochemical...Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes Report Title Hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) are important polymer ...constructing HEMs. EXPLORING ALKALINE STABLE ORGANIC CATIONS FOR POLYMER HYDROXIDE EXCHANGE MEMBRANES by Bingzi Zhang

  9. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  10. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

    1958-10-01

    A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

  11. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  12. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING SOUTHWEST THROUGH DOOR-WAY INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  14. 71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. INTERIOR, BUILDING 272 (PLUTONIUM STORAGE BUILDING) LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO PLUTONIUM STORAGE ROOM SHOWING CUBICLES FOR STORAGE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  15. 17. VIEW OF THE FIRST PLUTONIUM BUTTON PRODUCED FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF THE FIRST PLUTONIUM BUTTON PRODUCED FROM THE BUILDING 371 AQUEOUS RECOVERY OPERATION. (9/30/83) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  17. Preserving Plutonium-244 as a National Asset

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Bradley D; Alexander, Charles W; Benker, Dennis; Collins, Emory D; Romano, Catherine E; Wham, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium-244 (244 Pu) is an extremely rare and long-lived isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 80 million years. Measureable amounts of 244 Pu are found in neither reactor-grade nor weapons-grade plutonium. Production of this isotope requires a very high thermal flux to permit the two successive neutron captures that convert 242 Pu to 243 Pu to 244 Pu, particularly given the short (about 5 hour) half-life of 243 Pu. Such conditions simply do not exist in plutonium production processes. Therefore, 244 Pu is ideal for precise radiochemical analyses measuring plutonium material properties and isotopic concentrations in items containing plutonium. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is about ten times more sensitive when using 244 Pu rather than 242 Pu for determining plutonium isotopic content. The isotope can also be irradiated in small quantities to produce superheavy elements. The majority of the existing global inventory of 244 Pu is contained in the outer housing of Mark-18A targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The total inventory is about 20 grams of 244 Pu in about 400 grams of plutonium distributed among the 65 targets. Currently, there are no specific plans to preserve these targets. Although the cost of separating and preserving this material would be considerable, it is trivial in comparison to new production costs. For all practical purposes, the material is irreplaceable, because new production would cost billions of dollars and require a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles spanning up to 50 years. This paper will discuss a set of options for overcoming the significant challenges to preserve the 244 Pu as a National Asset: (1) the need to relocate the material from SRS in a timely manner, (2) the need to reduce the volume of material to the extent possible for storage, and (3) the need to establish an operational capability to enrich the 244 Pu in significant quantities. This paper suggests that if all the Mark-18A plutonium is

  18. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  19. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  20. COLUMBIC OXIDE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for separating plutonium ions from a solution of neutron irradiated uranium in which columbic oxide is used as an adsorbert. According to the invention the plutonium ion is selectively adsorbed by Passing a solution containing the plutonium in a valence state not higher than 4 through a porous bed or column of granules of hydrated columbic oxide. The adsorbed plutonium is then desorbed by elution with 3 N nitric acid.

  1. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  2. 15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF THE SAFE GEOMETRY PLUTONIUM METAL STORAGE PALLETS FROM THE INSIDE OF AN INPUT-OUTPUT STATION. INDIVIDUAL CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM ARE STORED IN THE WATER-FILLED, DOUBLE-WALLED STAINLESS STEEL TUBES THAT ARE WELDED ONTO THE PALLETS. (12/3/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  4. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  5. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  6. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE PLUTONIUM LABORATORY IN BUILDING 559. THE LABORATORY WAS USED TO ANALYZE THE PURITY OF PLUTONIUM. PLUTONIUM SAMPLES WERE CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES - Rocky Flats Plant, Chemical Analytical Laboratory, North-central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  8. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  9. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  10. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  11. 10 CFR 71.63 - Special requirement for plutonium shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special requirement for plutonium shipments. 71.63 Section... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.63 Special requirement for plutonium shipments. Shipments containing plutonium must be made with the contents in solid form, if the contents contain greater than...

  12. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  13. 10 CFR 71.88 - Air transport of plutonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air transport of plutonium. 71.88 Section 71.88 Energy... Controls and Procedures § 71.88 Air transport of plutonium. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any... citation of 49 CFR chapter I, as may be applicable, the licensee shall assure that plutonium in any...

  14. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, David Bryan; Skidmore, Bradley Evan

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  15. A particulate isotopic standard of plutonium in an aluminosilicate matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffels, J.J.; Cannon, W.C.; Robertson, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Plutonium isotopic microstandard particles have been produced for mass spectrometer calibration. The particles may also be useful as an elemental standard for calibration of electron and ion microprobe instruments. The standard consists of spherical, micrometer-size aluminosilicate particles loaded with plutonium of known isotopic distribution. The morphology, elemental composition, and plutonium isotopic composition of the particles have been characterized.

  16. Treatment of accidental intakes of plutonium and americium: guidance notes.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier, F; Grappin, L; Raynaud, P; Courtay, C; Wood, R; Joussineau, S; List, V; Stradling, G N; Taylor, D M; Bérard, Ph; Morcillo, M A; Rencova, J

    2005-06-01

    The scientific basis for the treatment of the contamination of the human body by plutonium, americium and other actinides is reviewed. Guidance Notes are presented for the assistance of physicians and others who may be called upon to treat workers or members of the public who may become contaminated internally with inhaled plutonium nitrate, plutonium tributyl phosphate, americium nitrate or americium oxide.

  17. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  18. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  19. Interaction of divalent plutonium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Rumer, I.A.

    1988-11-01

    It has been established that at plutonium concentrations ranging from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/ mole % the oxidation potentials of the Pu/sup 3 +//Pu/sup 2 +/ and Cm/sup 3 +//Cm/sup 2 +/ pairs increased by 0.15-0.2 V due to the dimerization of Pu/sup 2 +/ and the formation of mixed dimers of plutonium and curium. Promethium(2+) does not have a similar ability to form mixed dimers owing to the fact that Pm/sup 2 +/ does not have a free d electron. The oxidation potential of the Pm/sup 3 +//Pm/sup 2 +/ pair does not vary in the presence of massive quantities of plutonium

  20. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance.

  1. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  2. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  3. Characterization of Delta Phase Plutonium Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2000-09-21

    The FB-Line facility has developed the capability to recast plutonium metal using an M-18 reduction furnace with a new casting chamber. Plutonium metal is recast by charging a standard FB-Line magnesia crucible and placing the charge in the casting chamber. The loaded casting chamber is raised into the M-18 reduction furnace and sealed against the furnace head using a copper gasket following the same procedure used for a bomb reduction run. The interior volume of the chamber is evacuated and backfilled with argon gas. The M-18 motor-generator set is used to heat the surface of the casting chamber to nominally 750 Degrees C. Within about 2 hr, the plutonium metal reaches its melting temperature of approximately 640 Degrees C.

  4. Disposition of plutonium in deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Walter, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. A variety of disposition options are under consideration. One option is to place the plutonium either directly or in an immobilized form at the bottom of a deep borehole that is then sealed. Deep-borehole disposition involves placing plutonium several kilometers deep into old, stable, rock formations that have negligible free water present. Containment assurance is based on the presence of ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration and communication with the biosphere. Recovery would be extremely difficult (costly) and impossible to accomplish clandestinely.

  5. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS CONTAINING CONTROLLED AMOUNTS OF PLUTONIUM ALLOTROPES OBTAINED BY APPLICATION OF HIGH PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, R.O.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1962-07-10

    A method of making stabilized plutonium alloys which are free of voids and cracks and have a controlled amount of plutonium allotropes is described. The steps include adding at least 4.5 at.% of hafnium, indium, or erbium to the melted plutonium metal, homogenizing the resulting alloy at a temperature of 450 deg C, cooling to room temperature, and subjecting the alloy to a pressure which produces a rapid increase in density with a negligible increase in pressure. The pressure required to cause this rapid change in density or transformation ranges from about 800 to 2400 atmospheres, and is dependent on the alloying element. (AEC)

  6. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, Sven Peter

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

    2008-07-15

    The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

  8. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  9. Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard R. Cooper; Gayanath W. Fernando; S. Beiden; A. Setty; E.H. Sevilla

    2004-07-02

    Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste).

  10. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc Ta

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  11. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  12. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  13. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM BY CHELATION-EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium can be separated from a mixture of plutonlum and lanthanum in which the lanthanum to plutonium molal ratio ls at least five by adding the ammonium salt of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine to an aqueous solution having a pH between about 3 and 0.2 and containing the plutonium in a valence state of at least +3, to form a plutonium chelate compound of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine. The plutonium chelate compound may be recovered from the solution by extracting with an immiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  14. Plutonium dispersal in fires: Summary of what is known

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, R.H.

    1993-07-01

    In view of the great public apprehension about plutonium and nuclear weapons we should explore ways to prevent, limit, or mitigate possible plutonium dispersals. This review is primarily a tutorial on what is known about plutonium dispersal in fires. It concludes that in most types of fires involving plutonium the amount released will not be an immediate danger to life. Indeed, in many cases very few personnel will receive more than the lung burden allowed by current regulations for plutonium workers. However, the dangers may be significant in special situations, unusual terrains, certain meteorological conditions, and very high burn temperatures.

  15. Properties of oxide-hydroxide sintered ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R. V.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  16. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mielke, Charles H.; Zapf, Vivien; Baiardo, Joseph P.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Mun, Eun D.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  17. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  18. Quantitative ion-exchange separation of plutonium from impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Pietri, C.E.; Freeman, B.P.; Weiss, J.R.

    1981-09-01

    The methods used at the New Brunswick Laboratory for the quantitative ion exchange separation of plutonium from impurities prior to plutonium assay are described. Other ion exchange separation procedures for impurity determination and for isotopic abundance measurements are given. The primary technique used consists of sorption of plutonium(IV) in 8N HNO/sub 3/ on Dowex-1 anion exchange resin and elution of the purified plutonium with 0.3N HCl-0.01N HF. Other methods consist of the anion exchange separation of plutonium(IV) in 12N HCl and the cation exchange separation of plutonium(III) in 0.2 N HNO/sub 3/. The application of these procedures to the subsequent assay of plutonium, isotopic analysis, and impurity determination is described.

  19. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  20. Adsorption of plutonium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Moritz; Wilson, Richard E; Lee, Sang Soo; Soderholm, L; Fenter, P

    2012-02-07

    Adsorption of monodisperse cubic plutonium oxide nanoparticles ("Pu-NP", [Pu(38)O(56)Cl(x)(H(2)O)(y)]((40-x)+), with a fluorite-related lattice, approximately 1 nm in edge size) to the muscovite (001) basal plane from aqueous solutions was observed in situ (in 100 mM NaCl background electrolyte at pH 2.6). Uptake capacity of the surface quantified by α-spectrometry was 0.92 μg Pu/cm(2), corresponding to 10.8 Pu per unit cell area (A(UC)). This amount is significantly larger than that of Pu(4+) needed for satisfying the negative surface charge (0.25 Pu(4+) for 1 e(-)/A(UC)). The adsorbed Pu-NPs cover 17% of the surface area, determined by X-ray reflectivity (XR). This correlates to one Pu-NP for every 14 unit cells of muscovite, suggesting that each particle compensates the charge of the unit cells onto which it adsorbs as well as those in its direct proximity. Structural investigation by resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity distinguished two different sorption states of Pu-NPs on the surface at two different regimes of distance from the surface. A fraction of Pu is distributed within 11 Å from the surface. The distribution width matches the Pu-NP size, indicating that this species represents Pu-NPs adsorbed directly on the surface. Beyond the first layer, an additional fraction of sorbed Pu was observed to extend more broadly up to more than 100 Å from the surface. This distribution is interpreted as resulting from "stacking" or aggregation of the nanoparticles driven by sorption and accumulation of Pu-NPs at the interface although these Pu-NPs do not aggregate in the solution. These results are the first in situ observation of the interaction of nanoparticles with a charged mineral-water interface yielding information important to understanding the environmental transport of Pu and other nanophase inorganic species.

  1. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide/Sodium Peroxide Fusion ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 in water and air filters Method Selected for: SAM lists this method as a pre-treatment technique supporting analysis of refractory radioisotopic forms of plutonium in drinking water and air filters using the following qualitative techniques: • Rapid methods for acid or fusion digestion • Rapid Radiochemical Method for Plutonium-238 and Plutonium 239/240 in Building Materials for Environmental Remediation Following Radiological Incidents. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  2. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  3. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  4. Recovery of Plutonium by Carrier Precipitation

    DOEpatents

    Goeckermann, R. H.

    1961-04-01

    The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

  5. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission.

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.

    1998-05-01

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations.

  7. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-12-19

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  8. Method for calibration of plutonium NDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Campbell, A.R.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Calibration materials characterized by calorimetric assay can be a practical alternative to synthetic standards for the calibration of plutonium nondestructive assay. Calorimetric assay is an effective measurement system for the characterization because: it can give an absolute assay from first principles when the isotopic composition is known, it is insensitive to most matrix effects, and its traceability to international measurement systems has been demonstrated.

  9. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU366)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  10. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  11. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  12. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  13. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  14. Aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles show a stronger vaccine adjuvant activity than traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Cui, Zhengrong

    2014-01-10

    Aluminum hydroxide is used as a vaccine adjuvant in various human vaccines. Unfortunately, despite its favorable safety profile, aluminum hydroxide can only weakly or moderately potentiate antigen-specific antibody responses. When dispersed in an aqueous solution, aluminum hydroxide forms particulates of 1-20μm. There is increasing evidence that nanoparticles around or less than 200nm as vaccine or antigen carriers have a more potent adjuvant activity than large microparticles. In the present study, we synthesized aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles of 112nm. Using ovalbumin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens, we showed that protein antigens adsorbed on the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles induced a stronger antigen-specific antibody response than the same protein antigens adsorbed on the traditional aluminum hydroxide microparticles of around 9.3μm. The potent adjuvant activity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles was likely related to their ability to more effectively facilitate the uptake of the antigens adsorbed on them by antigen-presenting cells. Finally, the local inflammation induced by aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the injection sites was milder than that induced by microparticles. Simply reducing the particle size of the traditional aluminum hydroxide adjuvant into nanometers represents a novel and effective approach to improve its adjuvanticity.

  15. In search of plutonium: A nonproliferation journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried

    2010-02-01

    In February 1992, I landed in the formerly secret city of Sarov, the Russian Los Alamos, followed a few days later by a visit to Snezhinsk, their Livermore. The briefings we received of the Russian nuclear weapons program and tours of their plutonium, reactor, explosives, and laser facilities were mind boggling considering the Soviet Union was dissolved only two months earlier. This visit began a 17-year, 41 journey relationship with the Russian nuclear complex dedicated to working with them in partnership to protect and safeguard their weapons and fissile materials, while addressing the plight of their scientists and engineers. In the process, we solved a forty-year disagreement about the plutonium-gallium phase diagram and began a series of fundamental plutonium science workshops that are now in their tenth year. At the Yonbyon reprocessing facility in January 2004, my North Korean hosts had hoped to convince me that they have a nuclear deterrent. When I expressed skepticism, they asked if I wanted to see their ``product.'' I asked if they meant the plutonium; they replied, ``Well, yes.'' Thus, I wound up holding 200 grams of North Korean plutonium (in a sealed glass jar) to make sure it was heavy and warm. So began the first of my six journeys to North Korea to provide technical input to the continuing North Korean nuclear puzzle. In Trombay and Kalpakkam a few years later I visited the Indian nuclear research centers to try to understand how India's ambitious plans for nuclear power expansion can be accomplished safely and securely. I will describe these and other attempts to deal with the nonproliferation legacy of the cold war and the new challenges ahead. )

  16. PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Conradson, S. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the determination of the speciation of plutonium contamination present on concrete surfaces at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). At RFETS, the plutonium processing facilities have been contaminated during multiple events over their 50 year operating history. Contamination has resulted from plutonium fire smoke, plutonium fire fighting water, milling and lathe operation aerosols, furnace operations vapors and plutonium ''dust'' diffusion.

  17. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to

  18. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  19. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium's longest-lived isotope.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Brant, Heather A; Nuessle, Patterson R; Hall, Gregory; Cadieux, James R

    2016-02-22

    Owing to the rich history of heavy element production in the unique high flux reactors that operated at the Savannah River Site, USA (SRS) decades ago, trace quantities of plutonium with highly unique isotopic characteristics still persist today in the SRS terrestrial environment. Development of an effective sampling, processing, and analysis strategy enables detailed monitoring of the SRS environment, revealing plutonium isotopic compositions, e.g., (244)Pu, that reflect the unique legacy of plutonium production at SRS. This work describes the first long-term investigation of anthropogenic (244)Pu occurrence in the environment. Environmental samples, consisting of collected foot borne debris, were taken at SRS over an eleven year period, from 2003 to 2014. Separation and purification of trace plutonium was carried out followed by three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS) measurements for plutonium isotopic content and isotopic ratios. Significant (244)Pu was measured in all of the years sampled with the highest amount observed in 2003. The (244)Pu content, in femtograms (fg = 10(-15) g) per gram, ranged from 0.31 fg/g to 44 fg/g in years 2006 and 2003 respectively. In all years, the (244)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher than global fallout, ranging from 0.003 to 0.698 in years 2014 and 2003 respectively.

  20. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, K. L.

    1998-10-01

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3-7%, a burnup of 20,000-40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2-6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

  1. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  2. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  3. Concentration and purification of plutonium or thorium

    DOEpatents

    Hayden, John A.; Plock, Carl E.

    1976-01-01

    In this invention a first solution obtained from such as a plutonium/thorium purification process or the like, containing plutonium (Pu) and/or thorium (Th) in such as a low nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) concentration may have the Pu and/or Th separated and concentrated by passing an electrical current from a first solution having disposed therein an anode to a second solution having disposed therein a cathode and separated from the first solution by a cation permeable membrane, the Pu or Th cation permeating the cation membrane and forming an anionic complex within the second solution, and electrical current passage affecting the complex formed to permeate an anion membrane separating the second solution from an adjoining third solution containing disposed therein an anode, thereby effecting separation and concentration of the Pu and/or Th in the third solution.

  4. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  5. 14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE REMOTE CONTROL STATION. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER, A REMOTELY-OPERATED, MECHANIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM, RETRIEVES CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM FROM SAFE GEOMETRY PALLETS STORED ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE VAULT. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER RUNS ALONG THE AISLE BETWEEN THE PALLETS OF THE STORAGE CHAMBER. (3/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY ION-EXCHANGE

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, J.

    1958-06-01

    A process is described for the separation of plutonium from an aqueous solution of a plutonium salt, which comprises adding to the solution an acid of the group consisting of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and oxalic acid, and mixtures thereof to provide an acid concentration between 0.0001 and 1 M, contacting the resultant solution with a synthetic organic anion exchange resin, and separating the aqueous phase and the resin which contains the plutonium.

  7. Spectrophotometers for plutonium monitoring in HB-line

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R. J.; O'Rourke, P. E.; Kyser, E. A.; Immel, D. M.; Plummer, J. R.; Evans, E. V.

    2016-02-12

    This report describes the equipment, control software, calibrations for total plutonium and plutonium oxidation state, and qualification studies for the instrument. It also provides a detailed description of the uncertainty analysis, which includes source terms associated with plutonium calibration standards, instrument drift, and inter-instrument variability. Also included are work instructions for instrument, flow cell, and optical fiber setup, work instructions for routine maintenance, and drawings and schematic diagrams.

  8. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-12-23

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  9. Investigations of plutonium immobilization into the vitreous compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Matyunin, Y.I.,

    1998-04-15

    Development and characterizations of phosphate and borosilicate glasses for vitrifying high level waste (HLW) solutions in Russia has been extensive. The technical data generated were for low concentrations (less than 0.05% Pu) of plutonium. Limited studies have been performed with plutonium concentrations one to two orders of magnitude larger. The results of these studies are being used to plan and implement an expanded experimental program to establish the limitations and characteristics of plutonium in similar glass compositions.

  10. Dose estimates of alternative plutonium pyrochemical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D. E.; Jackson, J. W.; Boerigter, S. T.; Averill, W. A.; Fasel, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    We have coupled our dose calculation tool Pandemonium with a discrete-event, object-oriented, process-modeling system ProMosO to analyze a set of alternatives for plutonium purification operations. The results follow expected trends and indicate, from a dose perspective, that an experimental flowsheet may warrant further research to see if it can be scaled to industrial levels. Flowsheets that include fluoride processes resulted in the largest doses.

  11. MEANS FOR PRODUCING PLUTONIUM CHAIN REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1961-01-24

    A neutronic reactor is described with an active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu/ sup 239/ disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of water to one atom of plutonium, the total amount of Pu/sup 239/ being sufficient to sustain a chain reaction. (auth)

  12. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM NEUTRON-BOMBARDED URANIUM FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-04-10

    A process of recovering plutonium from neutronbombarded uranium fuel by dissolving the fuel in equimolar aluminum chloride-potassium chloride; heating the mass to above 700 deg C for decomposition of plutonium tetrachloride to the trichloride; extracting the plutonium trichloride into a molten salt containing from 40 to 60 mole % of lithium chloride, from 15 to 40 mole % of sodium chloride, and from 0 to 40 mole % of potassium chloride or calcium chloride; and separating the layer of equimolar chlorides containing the uranium from the layer formed of the plutonium-containing salt is described. (AEC)

  13. 30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF A GLOVEBOX LINE USED IN PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS WERE OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE AT THE PLANT, BECAUSE OF THE RADIOACTIVE NATURE OF THE MATERIALS USED. PLUTONIUM GIVES OFF ALPHA AND BETA PARTICLES, GAMMA PROTONS, NEUTRONS, AND IS ALSO PYROPHORIC. AS A RESULT, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS THAT INCLUDE CONTAINMENT, FILTERING, SHIELDING, AND CREATING AN INERT ATMOSPHERE. PLUTONIUM WAS HANDLED WITHIN GLOVEBOXES THAT WERE INTERCONNECTED AND RAN SEVERAL HUNDRED FEET IN LENGTH (5/5/70). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  15. Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

    1989-01-01

    We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Technical considerations and policy requirements for plutonium management

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Dinehart, S.M.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    The goals for plutonium management have changed dramatically over the past few years. Today, the challenge is focused on isolating plutonium from the environment and preparing it for permanent disposition. In parallel, the requirements for managing plutonium are rapidly changing. For example, there is a significant increase in public awareness on how facilities operate, increased attention to environmental safety and health (ES and H) concerns, greater interest in minimizing waste, more emphasis on protecting material from theft, providing materials for international inspection, and a resurgence of interest in using plutonium as an energy source. Of highest concern, in the immediate future, is protecting plutonium from theft or diversion, while the national policy on disposition is debated. These expanded requirements are causing a broadening of responsibilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) to include at least seven organizations. An unavoidable consequence is the divergence in approach and short-term goals for managing similar materials within each organization. The technology base does exist, properly, safely, and cost effectively to extract plutonium from excess weapons, residues, waste, and contaminated equipment and facilities, and to properly stabilize it. Extracting the plutonium enables it to be easily inventoried, packaged, and managed to minimize the risk of theft and diversion. Discarding excess plutonium does not sufficiently reduce the risk of diversion, and as a result, long-term containment of plutonium from the environment may not be able to be proven to the satisfaction of the public.

  17. Design of the improved plutonium canister assay system (IPCAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M. E.; Baker, M. C.; Bourret, S. C.; Polk, P. J.; Vo, Duc T.

    2001-01-01

    The improved Plutonium Canister Assay System (iPCAS) is designed to detect gross and partial defects in the declared plutonium content of plutonium and MOX storage canisters during transfer to storage and process areas of the MOX fuel fabrication facility in Kokkasho, Japan. In addition, an associated Gamma Isotopics System (GIS) will be used to confirm facility-declared plutonium isotopics with accuracy sufficient to reduce the amount of destructive isotopic analysis needed. The design of the iPCAS instrument and its associated GIS is described and the expected performance of the instrument is discussed.

  18. Proposed Modification to the Plutonium Systemic Model.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Miller, Scott; Brey, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The currently accepted biokinetic model for plutonium distribution within the human body was recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 67. This model was developed from human and animal studies and behavioral knowledge acquired from other known bone-seeking radionuclides. The biokinetic model provides a mathematical means of predicting the distribution, retention, and clearance of plutonium within the human body that may be used in deriving organ, tissue, and whole body dose. This work proposed a modification to the ICRP 67 systemic model for plutonium that incorporated the latest knowledge acquired from recent human injection studies with physiologically based improvements. In summary, the changes included a separation of the liver compartments, removed the intermediate soft tissue-to-bladder pathway, and added pathways from the blood compartment to both the cortical and trabecular bone volumes. The proposed model provided improved predictions for several bioassay indicators compared to the ICRP 67 model while also maintaining its basic structure. Additionally, the proposed model incorporated physiologically based improvements for the liver and skeleton and continued to ensure efficient coupling with intake biokinetic models.

  19. Atomistic modeling of thermodynamic equilibrium of plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tongsik; Valone, Steve; Baskes, Mike; Chen, Shao-Ping; Lawson, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Plutonium metal has complex thermodynamic properties. Among its six allotropes at ambient pressure, the fcc delta-phase exhibits a wide range of anomalous behavior: extraordinarily high elastic anisotropy, largest atomic volume despite the close-packed structure, negative thermal expansion, strong elastic softening at elevated temperature, and extreme sensitivity to dilute alloying. An accurate description of these thermodynamic properties goes far beyond the current capability of first-principle calculations. An elaborate modeling strategy at the atomic level is hence an urgent need. We propose a novel atomistic scheme to model elemental plutonium, in particular, to reproduce the anomalous characteristics of the delta-phase. A modified embedded atom method potential is fitted to two energy-volume curves that represent the distinct electronic states of plutonium in order to embody the mechanism of the two-state model of Weiss, in line with the insight originally proposed by Lawson et al. [Philos. Mag. 86, 2713 (2006)]. By the use of various techniques in Monte Carlo simulations, we are able to provide a unified perspective of diverse phenomenological aspects among thermal expansion, elasticity, and phase stability.

  20. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  1. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.L.

    2000-01-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site (SRS), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form and making it unattractive for reuse. Since there are significant radiation and security concerns, the program team is developing novel and unique technology to remotely perform plutonium immobilization tasks. The remote task covered in this paper employs a jointed arm robot to load seven 3.5 inch diameter, 135-pound cylinders (magazines) through the 4 inch diameter neck of a stainless steel canister. Working through the narrow canister neck, the robot secures the magazines into a specially designed rack pre-installed in the canister. To provide the deterrent effect, the canisters are filled with a mixture of high-level waste and glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF).

  3. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    STAN, MARIUS; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S.

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  4. Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-09-08

    Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO/sub 2/ batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds.

  5. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  6. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  7. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  8. The carbonate complexation of plutonium(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, D E; Palmer, P D; Newton, T W

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemistry of these complexes is also important in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and purification, actinide separations, and environmental studies. This report describes initial experiments performed to determine the identity and equilibrium quotients of plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes. These experiments were performed at pH values between 7.2 and 9.6 using a spectrophotometric method. In addition, a brief review of the published literature on Pu(IV) carbonate complexes is presented. Since Pu(IV) exhibits low solubility in the near-neutral pH range, a complex-competition reaction where citrate ligands compete with carbonate ions for the plutonium will be employed. This will permit us to study the pure carbonate system; study the mixed carbonate/citrate system, and confirm and extend the literature work on the pure citrate system. The current experiments have demonstrated the existence of at least three distinct species in the pH region studied. This work will continue in the extended study of the pure citrate system, followed by the investigation of the citrate/carbonate complex/competition reaction. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  10. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  11. Plutonium release from pressed plutonium oxide fuel pellets in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Matlack, G.M.; Heaton, R.C.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

    1983-12-01

    Plutonium oxide pellets (80% /sup 238/Pu, 40 g each) were exposed to fresh water and sea water at two temperatures for 3 y in enclosed glass chambers. The concentrations of plutonium observed in the waters increased linearly with time throughout the experiment. However, the observed release rates were inversely dependent on temperature and salinity, ranging from 160 ..mu..Ci/day for cold fresh water to 1.4 ..mu..Ci/day for warm sea water. The total releases, including the chamber residues, showed similar dependencies. A major portion (typically greater than 50%) of the released plutonium passed through a 0.1-..mu..m filter, with even larger fractions (greater than 80%) for the fresh water systems.

  12. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM IONS FROM SOLUTION BY ADSORPTION ON ZIRCONIUM PYROPHOSPHATE

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-01-31

    A method is given for separating plutonium in its reduced, phosphate- insoluble state from other substances. It involves contacting a solution containing the plutonium with granular zirconium pyrophosphate.

  13. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of selected lanthanides and actinides in concentrated aqueous carbonate and carbonate-hydroxide solutions and in molten dimethyl sulfone

    SciTech Connect

    Varlashkin, P.G.

    1985-03-01

    Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of neptunium, plutonium, americium, californium, and terbium in concentrated aqueous carbonate and carbonate-hydroxide solutions have been carried out. Changes in the absorption spectra of Np(VII), Np(V), Pu(VI), Pu(V), Am(VI), and Am(V) in concentrated Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution and in the formal potentials of the Np(VI)/Np(V) and Pu(VI)/Pu(V) couples as a function of pH were observed. Heptavalent neptunium in concentrated Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution could only be producted at pH values close to or greater than 14. Plutonium(VII) in 2 M Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution could only be produced at hydroxide ion concentrations in excess of about 2.5 M. The complexation of Np(VII) and Pu(VII) in Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-NaOH solution seems to be mainly by hydroxide ions. Neptunium(IV) and plutonium(IV) are insoluble in Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution above ca. pH 11-12. Neptunium(III) in carbonate solution is rapidly oxidized by water to Np(IV). Plutonium(III) is insoluble in Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution. In K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution Pu(III) is stable to oxidation by water but is very sensitive to air oxidation. The redox properties of Cf(III) in Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solutions at pH values from 8 to 14 were investigated. The oxidation of terbium(III) in K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-KOH solution was studied. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of cerium, samarium, europium, ytterbium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium in molten dimethyl sulfone (DMSO/sub 2/) at 400 K were performed. Differences in the DMSO/sub 2/ solution absorption spectra of trivalent Sm, Eu, and Yb and divalent Eu compared with those in aqueous solution were observed. Complexation effects on the spectra of Ce(III), Ce(IV), U(VI), Np(VI), Pu(VI), and Am(VI) are more noticeable in poorly coordinating DMSO/sub 2/ than they are in water. 123 references, 54 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  15. Plutonium and Cesium Colloid Mediated Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhalfa, H.; Dittrich, T.; Reimus, P. W.; Ware, D.; Erdmann, B.; Wasserman, N. L.; Abdel-Fattah, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Plutonium and cesium have been released to the environment at many different locations worldwide and are present in spent fuel at significant levels. Accurate understanding of the mechanisms that control their fate and transport in the environment is important for the management of contaminated sites, for forensic applications, and for the development of robust repositories for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. Plutonium, which can be present in the environment in multiple oxidations states and various chemical forms including amorphous oxy(hydr)oxide phases, adsorbs/adheres very strongly to geological materials and is usually immobile in all its chemical forms. However, when associated with natural colloids, it has the potential to migrate significant distances from its point of release. Like plutonium, cesium is not very mobile and tends to remain adhered to geological materials near its release point, although its transport can be enhanced by natural colloids. However, the reactivity of plutonium and cesium are very different, so their colloid-mediated transport might be significantly different in subsurface environments. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in two identically-prepared columns; one dedicated to Pu and natural colloid transport experiments, and the other to Cs and colloid experiments. Multiple flow-through experiments were conducted in each column, with the effluent solutions being collected and re-injected into the same column two times to examine the persistence and scaling behavior of the natural colloids, Pu and Cs. The data show that that a significant fraction of colloids were retained in the first elution through each column, but the eluted colloids collected from the first run transported almost conservatively in subsequent runs. Plutonium transport tracked natural colloids in the first run but deviated from the transport of natural colloids in the second and third runs. Cesium transport tracked natural

  16. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Jones, Susan A.

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  17. Rapid Method for Sodium Hydroxide Fusion of Concrete and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete and brick samples Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, strontium-90, uranium-234, uranium-235 and uranium-238 in concrete or brick building materials. Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  18. [Calcium hydroxide in the treatment of traumatized teeth].

    PubMed

    Cvek, M

    1989-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide is used in the treatment of different traumatized teeth. New concepts about the effects of calcium hydroxide on vital pulps and immature non vital teeth are developed. Some clinical techniques and their results are described.

  19. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  1. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  2. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  3. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Manhattan Project plutonium workers: an update.

    PubMed

    Voelz, G L; Lawrence, J N; Johnson, E R

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker's mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines.

  4. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements.

  5. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Mahattan Project plutonium workers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.; Lawrence, J.N.P.; Johnson, E.R.

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker`s mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines. 28 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  8. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  9. 10. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF PLUTONIUM FABRICATION ROLLING MILL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE INSTALLATION OF PLUTONIUM FABRICATION ROLLING MILL. THE MILL ROLLED INGOTS INTO SHEETS THAT WERE THEN CUT INTO CIRCLE BLANKS TO BE PASSED THROUGH THE CENTER LINE FOR PRESSING. (2/19/63) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Elevations, Sections & Dets., Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23106, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  11. 25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Plutonium Recovery From Contaminated Materials, Architectural Plans & Details, Building 232-Z, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Dwg. No. H-2-23105, 1959. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  12. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  13. A plutonium-based single-molecule magnet.

    PubMed

    Magnani, N; Colineau, E; Griveau, J-C; Apostolidis, C; Walter, O; Caciuffo, R

    2014-08-04

    The magnetic properties of the 5f(5) [tris-(tri-1-pyrazolylborato)-plutonium(III)] complex have been investigated by ac susceptibility measurements, showing it to be the first plutonium single-molecule magnet; its magnetic relaxation slows down with decreasing temperature through a thermally activated mechanism followed by a quantum tunnelling regime below 5 K.

  14. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Anthony P.; Stachowski, Russell E.

    1995-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced.

  15. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured.

  16. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  17. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Willard, J.E.

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the separation of plutonium from solutions containing that element in a valence state not higher than 41 together with uranium ions and fission products. This separation is accomplished by contacting the solutions with diatomaceous earth which preferentially adsorbs the plutonium present. Also mentioned as effective for this adsorbtive separation are silica gel, filler's earth and alumina.

  18. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John Robert; Vigil, Duane M.; Jachimowski, Thomas A.; Archuleta, Alonso; Arellano, Gerald Joseph; Melton, Vince Lee

    2016-10-20

    The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

  19. Plutonium and Cs-137 in autopsy tissues in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Popplewell, D S; Ham, G J; Dodd, N J; Shuttler, S D

    1988-03-01

    Tissues removed at autopsy from members of the general public contain significantly higher concentrations of plutonium and 137Cs in west Cumbrians than in people from three other regions of Great Britain. Several autopsy cases from Cumbria showed unusually high values of plutonium. Subsequently it was found that the subjects had been former employees of British Nuclear Fuels.

  20. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-24

    S>A method is described for separating plutonium, in a valence state of less than five, from an aqueous solution in which it is dissolved. The niethod consists in adding potassium and sulfate ions to such a solution while maintaining the solution at a pH of less than 7.1, and isolating the precipitate of potassium plutonium sulfate thus formed.

  1. Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1979-01-01

    High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

  2. METHOD OF SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM CARRIER PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, I.R.

    1959-09-22

    The recovery of plutonium from fluoride carrier precipitates is described. The precipitate is dissolved in zirconyl nitrate, ferric nitrate, aluminum nitrate, or a mixture of these complexing agents, and the plutonium is then extracted from the aqueous solution formed with a water-immiscible organic solvent.

  3. 23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS 771, 776/777, AND 707. BUILDING 771, IN THE FOREGROUND, WAS BUILT IN 1952 TO HOUSE ALL PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. BY 1956, BUILDING 771 WAS NO LONGER ADEQUATE FOR PRODUCTION DEMANDS. BUILDING 776/777, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 771, WAS CONSTRUCTED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM FABRICATION AND FOUNDRY OPERATIONS. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY REMAINED IN BUILDING 771. BY 1967, CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING 707, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 776/777, BEGAN AS PRODUCTION LEVELS CONTINUED TO EXPAND NECESSITATING THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL PLUTONIUM FABRICATION SPACE (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FROM ITS OXIDES

    DOEpatents

    Weissman, S.I.; Perlman, M.L.; Lipkin, D.

    1959-10-13

    A method is described for obtaining a carbide of plutonium and two methods for obtaining plutonium metal from its oxides. One of the latter involves heating the oxide, in particular PuO/sub 2/, to a temperature of 1200 to 1500 deg C with the stoichiometrical amount of carbon to fornn CO in a hard vacuum (3 to 10 microns Hg), the reduced and vaporized plutonium being collected on a condensing surface above the reaction crucible. When an excess of carbon is used with the PuO/sub 2/, a carbide of plutonium is formed at a crucible temperature of 1400 to 1500 deg C. The process may be halted and the carbide removed, or the reaction temperature can be increased to 1900 to 2100 deg C at the same low pressure to dissociate the carbide, in which case the plutonium is distilled out and collected on the same condensing surface.

  5. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  6. BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1959-02-10

    A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

  7. Preparation of Pure Plutonium Metal Standards for Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    S. -T. Hsue; J. E. Stewart; M. S. Krick

    2000-11-01

    To calibrate neutron coincidence and neutron multiplicity counters for passive assay of plutonium, certain detector parameters must be determined. When one is using small plutonium metal samples, biases can be introduced from non-zero multiplication and impurities. This paper describes preparing small, pure plutonium metal standards with well-known geometries to enable accurate multiplication corrections and with acceptably low levels of impurities. To minimize multiplication, these standards are designed as 2-cm-diameter foils with varying thicknesses and masses of 1.4, 3.6, and 7.2 g plutonium. These standards will significantly improve characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters. They can also be equally useful for gamma-ray spectrometry and calorimetry. Five sets will be made: four for other US Department of Energy plutonium facilities, and one set to remain at Los Alamos. We will also describe other nondestructive assay standards that are planned for the next few years.

  8. Plutonium immobilization ceramic feed batching component test report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1999-10-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Ceramic feed batching (CFB) is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. The CFB step will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization CFB process preliminary concept (including a process block diagram), batch splitting component test results, CFB development areas, and FY 1999 and 2000 CFB program milestones.

  9. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

    1960-09-13

    Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

  10. Modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

    2003-01-01

    An Oceanic General Circulation Model (OGCM) including a plutonium scavenging model as well as an advection-diffusion model has been developed for modelling the distribution of plutonium in the Pacific Ocean. Calculated 239, 240Pu water profile concentrations and 239, 240Pu inventories in water and sediment of the Pacific Ocean have showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The presence of local fallout plutonium in central North Pacific waters has been confirmed. The observed 240Pu/239Pu mass ratios confirm that plutonium originating from local fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls is more rapidly removed from surface waters to deeper waters than plutonium originating from global fallout. The developed OGCM can be used for modelling the dispersion of other non-conservative tracers in the ocean as well.

  11. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    PubMed

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  12. Massive subcritical compact arrays of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Two experimental critical-approach programs are reported. Both were performed at the Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, Colorado; and both date back to the late 1960s. Both involve very large arrays of massive plutonium ingots. These ingots had been cast in the foundry at the Rocky Flats Plant as part of their routine production operations; they were not specially prepared for either study. Consequently, considerable variation in ingot mass is encountered. This mass varied between approximately 7 kg and a little more than 10 kg. One program, performed in the spring of 1969, involved stacked arrays of ingots contained within cylindrical, disk-shaped, thin, steel cans. This program studied four arrays defined by the pattern of steel cans in a single layer. The four were: 1 x N, 3 x N, 2 x 2 x N, and 3 x 3 x N. The second was a tightly-packed, triangular-pitched patterns; the last two were square-pitched patterns. The other program, performed about a year earlier, involved similar ingots also contained in similar steel cans, but these canned plutonium ingots were placed in commercial steel drums. This study pertained to one-, two-, and three-layered horizontal arrays of drums. All cases proved to be well subcritical. Most would have remained subcritical had the parameters of the array under study been continued infinitely beyond the reciprocal multiplication safety limit. In one case for the drum arrays, an uncertain extrapolation of the data of the earlier program suggests that criticality might have eventually been attained had several thousand additional kilograms of plutonium been available for use.

  13. Plutonium Hexaboride is a Correlated Topological Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    We predict that plutonium hexaboride (PuB6) is a strongly correlated topological insulator, with Pu in an intermediate valence state of Pu2.7+. Within the combination of dynamical mean field theory and density functional theory, we show that PuB6 is an insulator in the bulk, with nontrivial Z2 topological invariants. Its metallic surface states have a large Fermi pocket at the X¯ point and the Dirac cones inside the bulk derived electronic states, causing a large surface thermal conductivity. PuB6 has also a very high melting temperature; therefore, it has ideal solid state properties for a nuclear fuel material.

  14. Modeling thermal properties of plutonium mononitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. L.; Huang, H.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Meng, D. Q.

    2015-06-01

    The thermal properties of plutonium mononitride (PuN) were investigated by molecular dynamics method. The interatomic potentials of PuN were fitted by using Chen-Möbius multiple lattice inversion technique. Based on these interatomic potentials, the lattice constant, bulk modulus, compressibility, cohesive energy and heat capacity of PuN were obtained and the results are well consistent with experimental data and previous reports. It indicates that the potentials we build in this study are effective for studying thermal properties of PuN.

  15. Plutonium hexaboride is a correlated topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2013-10-25

    We predict that plutonium hexaboride (PuB(6)) is a strongly correlated topological insulator, with Pu in an intermediate valence state of Pu(2.7+). Within the combination of dynamical mean field theory and density functional theory, we show that PuB(6) is an insulator in the bulk, with nontrivial Z(2) topological invariants. Its metallic surface states have a large Fermi pocket at the X[over ¯] point and the Dirac cones inside the bulk derived electronic states, causing a large surface thermal conductivity. PuB(6) has also a very high melting temperature; therefore, it has ideal solid state properties for a nuclear fuel material.

  16. Plutonium hexaboride is a correlated topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University Team

    2014-03-01

    We predict that plutonium hexaboride (PuB6) is a strongly correlated topological insulator, with Pu in an intermediate valence state of Pu2 . 7 +. Within the combination of dynamical mean field theory and density functional theory, we show that PuB6 is an insulator in the bulk, with non-trivial Z2 topological invariants. Its metallic surface states have large Fermi pocket at X point and the Dirac cones inside the bulk derived electronic states causing a large surface thermal conductivity. PB6 has also a very high melting temperature therefore it has ideal solid state properties for a nuclear fuel material.

  17. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Christopher J; Wham, Robert M; Hobbs, Randall W; Owens, R Steven; Chandler, David; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  18. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  19. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Actinide contaminants were introduced to the subsurface environment as a result of nuclear weapons development and testing, as well as for nuclear power generation and related research activities for defense and civilian applications. Even though most actinide species were believed to be fairly immobile once in the subsurface, recent studies have shown the transport of actinides kilometers away from their disposal sites. For example, the treated liquid wastes released into Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory were predicted to travel less than a few meters; however, plutonium and americium have been detected 3.4 km away from the waste outfall. A colloid-facilitated mechanism has been suggested to account for this unexpected transport of these radioactive wastes. Clays, oxides, organic matters, and actinide hydroxides have all been proposed as the possible mobile phase. Pu ions associated with natural colloids are often referred to as pseudo-Pu colloids, in contrast with the intrinsic Pu colloids that consist of Pu oxides. Significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of pseudo-Pu colloids, while few studies have evaluated the environmental behavior of the intrinsic Pu colloids. Given the fact that Pu (IV) has extremely low solubility product constant, it can be inferred that the transport of Pu in the intrinsic form is highly likely at suitable environmental conditions. This study investigates the transport of intrinsic Pu colloids in a saturated alluvium material packed in a cylindrical column (2.5-cm Dia. x 30-cm high) and compares the results to previous data on the transport of pseudo Pu colloids in the same material. A procedure to prepare a stable intrinsic Pu colloid suspension that produced consistent and reproducible electrokinetic and stability data was developed. Electrokinetic properties and aggregation stability were characterized. The Pu colloids, together with trillium as a conservative tracer, were injected into the

  20. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    To address the accelerated disposition of the supernate and salt portions of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW), solubility experiments were performed to develop a predictive capability for plutonium (Pu) solubility. A statistically designed experiment was used to measure the solubility of Pu in simulated solutions with salt concentrations and temperatures which bounded those observed in SRS HLW solutions. Constituents of the simulated waste solutions included: hydroxide (OH{sup -}), aluminate (Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) anions. Each anion was added to the waste solution in the sodium form. The solubilities were measured at 25 and 80 C. Five sets of samples were analyzed over a six month period and a partial sample set was analyzed after nominally fifteen months of equilibration. No discernable time dependence of the measured Pu concentrations was observed except for two salt solutions equilibrated at 80 C which contained OH{sup -} concentrations >5 mol/L. In these solutions, the Pu solubility increased with time. This observation was attributed to the air oxidation of a portion of the Pu from Pu(IV) to the more soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) valence states. A data driven approach was subsequently used to develop a modified response surface model for Pu solubility. Solubility data from this study and historical data from the literature were used to fit the model. The model predicted the Pu solubility of the solutions from this study within the 95% confidence interval for individual predictions and the analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant lack of fit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) model was compared with predicted values from the Aqueous Electrolyte (AQ) model developed by OLI Systems, Inc. and a solubility prediction equation developed by Delegard and Gallagher for Hanford tank waste. The agreement between

  1. Plutonium contamination in the environment. September 1977-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for September 1977-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of plutonium contamination in the environment. Topics include plutonium contamination in freshwater and marine sediments, plutonium bioaccumulation, plutonium transport in the food chain, plutonium contamination bioindicators, methods of analysis, plutonium genotoxicity, plutonium contamination in soil and groundwater, and plutonium contamination from nuclear fallout and nuclear facilities. Plutonium distribution changes due to stratification in oxic and anoxic environments are described. (Contains 83 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. Rapid identification and analysis of airborne plutonium using a combination of alpha spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Dennis E; Steed, Amber C; Sobus, Jon; Stetzenbach, Klaus; Lindley, Kaz; Hodge, Vernon F

    2003-10-01

    Recent wildland fires near two U.S. nuclear facilities point to a need to rapidly identify the presence of airborne plutonium during incidents involving the potential release of radioactive materials. Laboratory turn-around times also need to be shortened for critical samples collected in the earliest stages of radiological emergencies. This note discusses preliminary investigations designed to address both these problems. The methods under review are same day high-resolution alpha spectroscopy to screen air filter samples for the presence of plutonium and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to perform sensitive plutonium analyses. Thus far, using modified alpha spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to reliably identify the approximately 5.2 MeV emission of 239Pu on surrogate samples (air filters artificially spiked with plutonium after collection) even though the primary alpha-particle emissions of plutonium are, as expected, superimposed against a natural alpha radiation background dominated by short-lived radon and thoron progeny (approximately 6-9 MeV). Several processing methods were tested to prepare samples for analysis and shorten laboratory turn-around time. The most promising technique was acid-leaching of air filter samples using a commercial open-vessel microwave digestion system. Samples prepared in this way were analyzed by both alpha spectroscopy (as a thin-layer iron hydroxide co-precipitate) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection levels achieved for 239Pu--approximately 1 mBq m(-3) for alpha spectroscopy screening, and, < 0.1 mBq m(-3) for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis--are consistent with derived emergency response levels based on EPA's Protective Action Guides, and samples can be evaluated in 36 to 72 h. Further, if samples can be returned to a fixed-laboratory and processed immediately, results from mass spectrometry could be available in as little as 24 h. When fully implemented

  3. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    SciTech Connect

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  4. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  5. Co-Design: Fabrication of Unalloyed Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Korzekwa, Deniece R.; Knapp, Cameron M.; Korzekwa, David A.; Gibbs, John W

    2012-07-25

    The successful induction casting of plutonium is a challenge which requires technical expertise in areas including physical metallurgy, surface and corrosion chemistry, materials science, electromagnetic engineering and a host of other technologies all which must be applied in concert. Here at LANL, we are employing a combined experimental and computational approach to design molds and develop process parameters needed to produce desired temperature profiles and improved castings. Computer simulations are performed using the commercial code FLOW-3D and the LANL ASC computer code TRUCHAS to reproduce the entire casting process starting with electromagnetic or radiative heating of the mold and metal and continuing through pouring with coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and non-isothermal solidification. This approach greatly reduces the time required to develop a new casting designs and also increases our understanding of the casting process, leading to a more homogeneous, consistent product and better process control. We will discuss recent casting development results in support of unalloyed plutonium rods for mechanical testing.

  6. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, B. J.; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D.; Betts, Jon B.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Mielke, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Migliori, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5—the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)—and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability—therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  7. Expected radiation effects in plutonium immobilization ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A., LLNL

    1997-09-01

    The current formulation of the candidate ceramic for plutonium immobilization consists primarily of pyrochlore, with smaller amounts of hafnium-zirconolite, rutile, and brannerite or perovskite. At a plutonium loading of 10.5 weight %, this ceramic would be made metamict (amorphous) by radiation damage resulting from alpha decay in a time much less than 10,000 years, the actual time depending on the repository temperature as a function of time. Based on previous experimental radiation damage work by others, it seems clear that this process would also result in a bulk volume increase (swelling) of about 6% for ceramic that was mechanically unconfined. For the candidate ceramic, which is made by cold pressing and sintering and has porosity amounting to somewhat more than this amount, it seems likely that this swelling would be accommodated by filling in the porosity, if the material were tightly confined mechanically by the waste package. Some ceramics have been observed to undergo microcracking as a result of radiation-induced anisotropic or differential swelling. It is unlikely that the candidate ceramic will microcrack extensively, for three reasons: (1) its phase composition is dominated by a single matrix mineral phase, pyrochlore, which has a cubic crystal structure and is thus not subject to anisotropic swelling; (2) the proportion of minor phases is small, minimizing potential cracking due to differential swelling; and (3) there is some flexibility in sintering process parameters that will allow limitation of the grain size, which can further limit stresses resulting from either cause.

  8. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, B J; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D; Betts, Jon B; Mitchell, J N; Tobash, P H; Mielke, C H; Bauer, E D; Migliori, Albert

    2015-03-17

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5--the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)--and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability--therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5.

  9. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  10. Management of disused plutonium sealed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julia Rose; Pearson, Michael W; Abeyta, Cristy

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources since 1999, including more than 2,400 Plutonium (Pu)-238 sealed sources and 653 Pu-239-bearing sources that represent more than 10% of the total sources recovered by GTRI/OSRP to date. These sources have been recovered from hundreds of sites within the United States (US) and around the world. OSRP grew out of early efforts at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program, a loan-lease program that serviced 31 countries, as well as domestic users. In the conduct of these recovery operations, GTRI/OSRP has been required to solve problems related to knowledge-of-inventory, packaging and transportation of fissile and heat-source materials, transfer of ownership, storage of special nuclear material (SNM) both at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and commercially, and disposal. Unique issues associated with repatriation from foreign countries, including end user agreements required by some European countries and denials of shipment, will also be discussed.

  11. AMS of the Minor Plutonium Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Steier, P; Hrnecek, E; Priller, A; Quinto, F; Srncik, M; Wallner, A; Wallner, G; Winkler, S

    2013-01-01

    VERA, the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator, is especially equipped for the measurement of actinides, and performs a growing number of measurements on environmental samples. While AMS is not the optimum method for each particular plutonium isotope, the possibility to measure (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, (242)Pu and (244)Pu on the same AMS sputter target is a great simplification. We have obtained a first result on the global fallout value of (244)Pu/(239)Pu = (5.7 ± 1.0) × 10(-5) based on soil samples from Salzburg prefecture, Austria. Furthermore, we suggest using the (242)Pu/(240)Pu ratio as an estimate of the initial (241)Pu/(239)Pu ratio, which allows dating of the time of irradiation based solely on Pu isotopes. We have checked the validity of this estimate using literature data, simulations, and environmental samples from soil from the Salzburg prefecture (Austria), from the shut down Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant (Sessa Aurunca, Italy) and from the Irish Sea near the Sellafield nuclear facility. The maximum deviation of the estimated dates from the expected ages is 6 years, while relative dating of material from the same source seems to be possible with a precision of less than 2 years. Additional information carried by the minor plutonium isotopes may allow further improvements of the precision of the method.

  12. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  13. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  14. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  15. How much plutonium does North Korea really have?

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    In a previous study, as part of the Global Nuclear Material Control Model effort, the author estimated the maximum quantity of plutonium that could be produced in thermal research reactors in the potential nuclear weapon states (including North Korea), based on their declared power level. D. Albright has estimated the amount of plutonium the North Koreans may have produced since 1986 in the 5-megawatt-electric power reactor at Yongbon. Albright provided an upper-bound estimate of 53 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium produced cumulatively if the gas-graphite (magnox) reactor had achieved a load factor of 0.80. This cumulative estimate of 53 kilograms ignores the potential plutonium production in the 8-megawatt-thermal research reactor, IRT-DPRK. To better quantify the cumulative North Korean production, the author conducted a study to estimate the amount of plutonium that could have been produced in the IRT-DPRK research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a period it was not safeguarded. The author estimates that, at most, an additional 6 to 33 kilograms of plutonium could have been produced cumulatively in the research reactor operating at the declared power level during the entire period it has operated, including a 12-year period it was not safeguarded, resulting in a total of 13 to 47 kilograms of plutonium possibly produced in both the research and power reactors.

  16. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  17. Particle size and shape of calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; D’souza, Rena N; Dechow, Paul C; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio of calcium hydroxide powder using a flow particle image analyzer (FPIA). Five sample groups each with 10mg calcium hydroxide were mixed with 15mL of alcohol and sonicated. Digital images of the particle samples were taken using the FPIA and analyzed with a one-way ANOVA. The overall averages±S.D. among the five groups for particle length (μm), width (μm), perimeter (μm), and aspect ratio were 2.255±1.994, 1.620±1.464, 6.699±5.598, and 0.737±0.149, respectively. No statistical significance was observed among the groups for all parameters. When the total of 46,818 particles from all five groups were classified into the five length categories of 0.5μm increments, there were significant differences in width, perimeter, and aspect ratio (all p-values<0.0001). In conclusion, calcium hydroxide particles have a size and shape that may allow direct penetration into open dentin tubules. PMID:19166791

  18. Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

  19. Kinetics of reduction of plutonium(VI) and neptunium(VI) by sulfide in neutral and alkaline solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, K.L.; Cleveland, J.M.; Sullivan, J.C.; Woods, M.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of reduction of plutonium(VI) and neptunium(VI) by bisulfide ion in neutral and mildly alkaline solutions has been investigated by the stopped-flow technique. The reduction of both of these ions to the pentavalent oxidation state appears to occur in an intramolecular reaction involving an unusual actinide(VI)-hydroxide-bisulfide complex. For plutonium the rate of reduction is 27.4 (??4.1) s-1 at 25??C with ??H* = +33.2 (??1.0) kJ/mol and ??S* = -106 (??4) J/(mol K). The apparent stability constant for the transient complex is 4.66 (??0.94) ?? 103 M-1 at 25??C with associated thermodynamic parameters of ??Hc = +27.7 (??0.4) kJ/mol and ??Sc = +163 (??2) J/(mol K). The corresponding rate and stability constants are determined for the neptunium system at 25??C (k3 = 139 (??30) s-1, Kc. = 1.31 (??0.32) ?? 103 M-1), but equivalent parameters cannot be determined at reduced temperatures. The reaction rate is decreased by bicarbonate ion. At pH > 10.5, a second reaction mechanism, also involving a sulfide complex, is indicated. ?? 1986 American Chemical Society.

  20. Imitators of plutonium and americium in a mixed uranium- plutonium nitride fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. N.; Shornikov, D. P.; Tarasov, B. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Burlakova, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Uranium nitride and mix uranium nitride (U-Pu)N is most popular nuclear fuel for Russian Fast Breeder Reactor. The works in hot cells associated with the radiation exposure of personnel and methodological difficulties. To know the main physical-chemical properties of uranium-plutonium nitride it necessary research to hot cells. In this paper, based on an assessment of physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of selected simulators Pu and Am. Analogues of Pu is are Ce and Y, and analogues Am - Dy. The technique of obtaining a model nitride fuel based on lanthanides nitrides and UN. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation- nitration method of derived powders nitrides uranium, cerium, yttrium and dysprosium, held their mixing, pressing and sintering, the samples obtained model nitride fuel with plutonium and americium imitation. According to the results of structural studies have shown that all the samples are solid solution nitrides rare earth (REE) elements in UN.

  1. HANFORD PLUTONIUM FINISHG PLAN (PFP) COMPLETES PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION KEY SAFETY ISSUES CLOSED

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-02-24

    A long and intense effort to stabilize and repackage nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium-bearing leftovers from defense production and nuclear experiments concluded successfully in February, bringing universal congratulations to the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The victorious stabilization and packaging endeavor at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), managed and operated by prime contractor Fluor Hanford, Inc., finished ahead of all milestones in Hanford's cleanup agreement with regulators, and before deadlines set by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), a part of the federal Executive Branch that oversees special nuclear materials. The PFP stabilization and packaging project also completed under budget for its four-year tenure, and has been nominated for a DOE Secretarial Award. It won the Project of the Year Award in the local chapter competition of the Project Management Institute, and is being considered for awards at the regional and national level.

  2. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.; Goeckermann, R.H.

    1958-06-10

    An improvement in oxidation-reduction type methods of separating plutoniunn from elements associated with it in a neutron-irradiated uranium solution is described. The method relates to the separating of plutonium from lanthanum ions in an aqueous 0.5 to 2.5 N nitric acid solution by 'treating the solution, at room temperature, with ammonium sulfite in an amount sufficient to reduce the hexavalent plutonium present to a lower valence state, and then treating the solution with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ thereby forming a tetravalent plutonium peroxide precipitate.

  3. METHOD AND MEANS FOR ELECTROLYTIC PURIFICATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bjorklund, C.W.; Benz, R.; Maraman, W.J.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1960-02-01

    The technique of electrodepositing pure plutonium from a fused salt electrolyte of PuCl/sub 3/ and aixati metal halides is described. When an iron cathode is used, the plutonium deposit alloys therewith in the liquid state at the 400 to 600 deg C operating temperature, such liquid being allowed to drip through holes in the cathode and collect in a massive state in a tantallum cup. The process is adaptable to continuous processing by the use of depleted plutonium fuel as the anode: good to excellent separation from fission products is obtained with a Pu--Fe "fission" anode containing representative fractions of Ce, Ru, Zr, La, Mo, and Nb.

  4. Gas pycnometry for density determination of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.; Randolph, H.W.

    1997-08-19

    The traditional method for plutonium density determination is by measuring the weight loss of the component when it is immersed in a liquid of known density, Archimedes` Principle. The most commonly used heavy liquids that are compatible for plutonium measurement are freon and monobromobenzene, but these pose serious environmental and health hazards. The contaminated liquid is also a radiological waste concern with difficult disposition. A gaseous medium would eliminate these environmental and health concerns. A collaborative research effort between the Savannah River Technology Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a gaseous density measurement process for plutonium hemishells.

  5. Accelerator-driven assembly for plutonium transformation (ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyle, Greorgy J. Van; Todosow, Michael; Powell, James; Schweitzer, Donald

    1995-01-01

    A particle accelerator-driven spallation target and corresponding blanket region are proposed for the ultimate disposition of weapons-grade plutonium being retired from excess nuclear weapons in the U.S. and Russia. The highly fissle plutonium is contained within .25 to .5 cm diameter silicon-carbide coated graphite beads, which are cooled by helium, within the slightly subcritical blanket region. Major advantages include very high one-pass burnup (over 90%), a high integrity waste form (the coated beads), and operation in a subcritical mode, thereby minimizing the vulnerability to the positive reativity feedbacks often associated with plutonium fuel.

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design for 13 MT Case

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.

    2001-01-31

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading conceptual design for the 13 Metric Ton (MT) PIP throughput case. This report includes a process block diagram, process description, and preliminary equipment specifications and documents the changes to the original can loading concept documented in previous reports.

  7. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  8. Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

    1992-10-01

    In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading FY98 Year End Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will immobilize plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report summarizes FY98 Can Loading work completed for the Plutonium Immobilization Project and it includes summaries of reports on Can Size, Equipment Review, Preliminary Concepts, Conceptual Design, and Preliminary Specification. Plant trip reports for the Greenville Automation and Manufacturing Exposition, Rocky Flats BNFL Pu repackaging glovebox line, and vendor trips are also included.

  10. Development of first ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaux, Miles F.; Cordoba, Miguel Santiago; Zocco, Adam T.; Vodnik, Douglas R.; Ramos, Michael; Richmond, Scott; Moore, David P.; Venhaus, Thomas J.; Joyce, Stephen A.; Usov, Igor O.

    2017-04-01

    Scanning probe microscopy capabilities have been developed for plutonium and its derivative compounds. Specifically, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope housed in an ultra-high vacuum system and an inert atmosphere glove box, respectively, were prepared for the introduction of small non-dispersible δ-Pu coupons. Experimental details, procedures, and preliminary imaging of δ-Pu coupons are presented to demonstrate the functionality of these new capabilities. These first of a kind capabilities for plutonium represent a significant step forward in the ability to characterize and understand plutonium surfaces with high spatial resolution.

  11. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  12. Development of first ever scanning probe microscopy capabilities for plutonium

    DOE PAGES

    Beaux, Miles F.; Cordoba, Miguel Santiago; Zocco, Adam T.; ...

    2017-04-01

    Scanning probe microscopy capabilities have been developed for plutonium and its derivative compounds. Specifically, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope housed in an ultra-high vacuum system and an inert atmosphere glove box, respectively, were prepared for the introduction of small non-dispersible δ-Pu coupons. Experimental details, procedures, and preliminary imaging of δ-Pu coupons are presented to demonstrate the functionality of these new capabilities. In conclusion, these first of a kind capabilities for plutonium represent a significant step forward in the ability to characterize and understand plutonium surfaces with high spatial resolution.

  13. Status of immobilization of excess weapons plutonium in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, G B; Jardine, L; Mansourov, O A

    1999-02-03

    In this paper, we examine the logic and framework for the development of a capability to immobilize excess Russian weapons plutonium by the year 2004. The initial activities underway in Russia, summarized here, include engineering feasibility studies of the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at the Krasnoyarsk and Mayak industrial sites. In addition, research and development (R&D) studies are underway at Russian institutes to develop glass and ceramic forms suitable for the immobilization of plutonium-containing materials, residues, and wastes and for their geologic disposal.

  14. Mortality among plutonium and other radiation workers at a plutonium weapons facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    In this letter the author rebuts a criticism of his study of excess cancer in Rocky Flats plutonium workers. In his reply to Wilkinson, et al, he suggest that studies of cancer incidence in specific cohorts are more sensitive and will yield better information earlier than studies of cancer deaths. Further he suggests that the cancer incidence studies should be controlled for smoking and healthy worker effect.

  15. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  16. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-02

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments.

  17. Phonon spectra of plutonium at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorado, Boris; Bottin, François; Bouchet, Johann

    2017-03-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are used to investigate the vibrational properties of the high-temperature δ and ɛ phases of plutonium. We combine the local-density approximation (LDA)+U for strong electron correlations and the temperature-dependent effective potential method in order to calculate the phonon spectra of the two phases, as well as their dependence on temperature. Our results show that the ɛ phase can only be stabilized when temperature and correlations are simultaneously accounted for. We are also able to quantify the degree of anharmonicity of the two phases. While the δ phase is fairly harmonic up to 1000 K, we find that the ɛ phase is strongly anharmonic, which explains why this structure dominates the phase diagram at high temperature.

  18. Modeling Superionic Behavior of Plutonium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günay, S. D.; Akgenç, B.; Taşseven, Ç.

    2016-11-01

    The Bredig transition to the superionic phase indicated with the λ-peak in Cp was highly expected for plutonium dioxide (Pu{0}_2)) as other actinide dioxides. However, least-square fit and local smoothing techniques applied to the experimental enthalpy data of PuO2 in 1980s could not detect a λ-peak in specific heat that might be due to too scattered and insufficient experimental data. Therefore, this issue has not been yet put beyond the doubts. In the current article, a superionic model of Pu{0}_2 is developed with partially ionic model of a rigid ion potential. Thermophysical properties were calculated in constant pressure-temperature ensemble using molecular dynamics simulation. The Bredig transition with vicinity of a λ-peak in specific heat was successfully observed for the model system at about 2,100 K. Moreover, the experimental enthalpy change was well reproduced before and after the estimated transition temperature.

  19. Thermophysical properties of coexistent phases of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Freibert, Franz J; Mitchell, Jeremy N; Saleh, Tarik A; Schwartz, Dan S

    2009-01-01

    Plutonium is the element with the greatest number of allotropic phases. Thermally induced transformations between these phases are typically characterized by thermal hysteresis and incomplete phase reversion. With Ga substitutal in the lattice, low symmetry phases are replaced by a higher symmetry phase. However, the low temperature Martensitic phase transformation ({delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime}) in Ga stabilized {delta}-phase Pu is characterized by a region of thermal hysteresis which can reach 200 C in extent. These regions of thermal hysteresis offer a unique opportunity to study thermodynamics in inhomogeneous systems of coexistent phases. The results of thermophysical properties measured for samples of inhomogeneous unalloyed and Ga alloyed Pu will be discussed and compared with similar measurements of their single phase constituents.

  20. Plutonium-Based Heavy-Fermion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    An effective mass of charge carriers that is significantly larger than the mass of a free electron develops at low temperatures in certain lanthanide- and actinide-based metals, including those formed with plutonium, owing to strong electron-electron interactions. This heavy-fermion mass is reflected in a substantially enhanced electronic coefficient of specific heat γ, which for elemental Pu is much larger than that of normal metals. By our definition, there are twelve Pu-based heavy-fermion compounds, most discovered recently, whose basic properties are known and discussed. Relative to other examples, these Pu-based heavy-fermion systems are particularly complex owing in part to the possible simultaneous presence of multiple, nearly degenerate 5fn configurations. This complexity poses significant opportunities as well as challenges, including understanding the origin of unconventional superconductivity in some of these materials.

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in plutonium analysis.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    The paper summarizes the results of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio studies in atmospheric fallout samples collected in 1986 over Gdynia (Poland) as well as three Baltic fish species collected in 1997 using the accelerator mass spectrometry. A new generation of AMS has been developed during last years and this method is an efficient and good technique to measure long-lived radioisotopes in the environment and provides the most accurate determination of the atomic ratios between (240)Pu and (239)Pu. The nuclide compositions of plutonium in filter samples correspond to their means of production. AMS measurements of atmospheric fallout collected in April showed sufficient increase of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio from 0.28 from March to 0.47. Also such high increase of (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, close to reactor core (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio, was observed in September and equaled 0.47.

  2. Uranium and plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuragi, Y.; Meason, J.L.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1983-04-20

    Uranium 234 and 235 were found to be highly enriched relative to uranium 238 in several rain samples collected at Fayetteville, Arkansas, during the months of April and May 1980. The anomalous uranium appears to have originated from the Soviet satellite Cosmos-954, which fell over Canada on January 24, 1978. The uranium fallout occurred just about the time Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980. The concentration of /sup 238/U in rain increased markedly after the eruption of Mount St. Helens, and it appeared as if a large quantity of natural uranium was injected into the atmosphere by the volcanic eruption. The pattern of variation of the concentrations of uranium in rain after the eruption of Mount St. Helens was found to be similar to that of plutonium isotopes.

  3. Crashworthy sealed pressure vessel for plutonium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 Kg PuO/sub 2/ in various isotopic forms (not to exceed 25 watts thermal activity), has a positive closure design consisting of a recessed, shouldered lid fastened to the vessel body by twelve stainless-steel bolts; sealing is accomplished by a ductile copper gasket in conjunction with knife-edge sealing beads on both the body and lid. Follow-on applications of this seal in newer, smaller packages for international air shipments of plutonium safeguards samples, and in newer, more optimized packages for greater payload and improved efficiency and utility, are briefly presented.

  4. Measurement and interpretation of plutonium spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, J.; Fred, M.S.; Carnall, W.T.; Crosswhite, H.M.; Crosswhite, H.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic spectroscopic data available for plutonium are among the rickest of any in the periodic system. They include high-resolution grating and Fourier-transform spectra as well as extensive Zeeman and isotope-shift studies. We summarize the present status of the term analysis and cite the configurations that have been identified. A least-squares adjustment of a parametric Hamiltonian for configurations of both Pu I and Pu II has shown that almost all of the expected low levels are now known. The use of a model Hamiltonian applicable to both lanthanide and actinide atomic species has been applied to the low configurations of Pu I and Pu II making use of trends predicted by ab initio calculations. This same model has been used to describe the energy levels of Pu/sup 3 +/ in LaCl/sub 3/, and an extension has permitted preliminary calculations of the spectra of other valence states.

  5. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  6. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  7. Detecting low concentrations of plutonium hydride with magnetization measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mun, E. D.; Baiardo, J. P.; Zapf, V. S.; Mielke, C. H.; Smith, A. I.; Richmond, S.; Mitchell, J.; Schwartz, D.

    2015-02-07

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at. % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 at. % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here, we use magnetization, X-ray, and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuH{sub x} on the surface of the sample with x ∼ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with ferromagnetic PuH{sub 1.9}.

  8. Radiation from plutonium 238 used in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, T. K.; Vallee, R. E.; Powers, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The principal mode of the nuclear decay of plutonium 238 is by alpha particle emission at a rate of 17 curies per gram. Gamma radiation also present in nuclear fuels arises primarily from the nuclear de-excitation of daughter nuclei as a result of the alpha decay of plutonium 238 and reactor-produced impurities. Plutonium 238 has a spontaneous fission half life of 4.8 x 10 to the 10th power years. Neutrons associated with this spontaneous fission are emitted at a rate of 28,000 neutrons per second per gram. Since the space fuel form of plutonium 238 is the oxide pressed into a cermet with molybdenum, a contribution to the neutron emission rate arises from (alpha, n) reactions with 0-17 and 0-18 which occur in natural oxygen.

  9. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  10. Sci-Tech Feature: Plutonium. Fuel for Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iikubo, Ryuko

    1993-01-01

    Despite opposition by environmental organizations, Japan plans to import plutonium from France and Great Britain. Interviews Toichi Sakata, director of the nuclear fuel division of the Science and Technology Agency, who explains why Japan needs the radioactive substance. (MDH)

  11. Process for immobilizing plutonium into vitreous ceramic waste forms

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Xiangdong; Einziger, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for converting spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium into a vitreous ceramic final waste form wherein spent nuclear fuel is bound in a crystalline matrix which is in turn bound within glass.

  12. Analysis of Uranium and Plutonium by MC-ICPMS

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W

    2005-02-23

    This procedure is written as general guidance for the measurement of elemental isotopic composition by plasma-source inorganic mass spectrometry. Analytical methods for uranium and plutonium are given as examples.

  13. Development of the Direct Fabrication Process for Plutonium Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-07-10

    The current baseline process for fabricating pucks for the Plutonium Immobilization Program includes granulation of the milled feed prior to compaction. A direct fabrication process was demonstrated that eliminates the need for granulation.

  14. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  16. Plutonium and Americium Geochemistry at Hanford: A Site Wide Review

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-08-23

    This report was produced to provide a systematic review of the state-of-knowledge of plutonium and americium geochemistry at the Hanford Site. The report integrates existing knowledge of the subsurface migration behavior of plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site with available information in the scientific literature regarding the geochemistry of plutonium and americium in systems that are environmentally relevant to the Hanford Site. As a part of the report, key research needs are identified and prioritized, with the ultimate goal of developing a science-based capability to quantitatively assess risk at sites contaminated with plutonium and americium at the Hanford Site and the impact of remediation technologies and closure strategies.

  17. High-Temperature Oxidation of Plutonium Surrogate Metals and Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Joshua C.; Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Washington, II, Aaron L.

    2016-07-27

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA) is a nuclear non-proliferation agreement designed to remove 34 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from Russia and the United States. While several removal options have been proposed since the agreement was first signed in 2000, processing the weapons-grade plutonium to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel has remained the leading candidate for achieving the goals of the PMDA. However, the MOX program has received its share of criticisms, which causes its future to be uncertain. One alternative pathway for plutonium disposition would involve oxidizing the metal followed by impurity down blending and burial in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This pathway was investigated by use of a hybrid microwave and a muffle furnace with Fe and Al as surrogate materials. Oxidation occurred similarly in the microwave and muffle furnace; however, the microwave process time was significantly faster.

  18. Plutonium releases from the 1957 fire at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Mongan, T R; Ripple, S R; Brorby, G P; diTomasso, D G

    1996-10-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sponsored a study to reconstruct contaminant doses to the public from the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant. This analysis of the September 1957 fire in a plutonium fabrication building that breached the building air filtration system is part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment study. The plutonium release from this fire is estimated using environmental data collected around the time of the fire and an air dispersion model. The approximate upper bound on the total plutonium release from the fire is 1.9 GBq (0.05 Ci), with an uncertainty of about two orders of magnitude. Off-site air concentrations and deposition of plutonium resulting from the approximate upper-bound release are estimated. The highest predicted off-site effective dose resulting from the approximate upper-bound release is about 13 microSv (1.3 mrem).

  19. Automated controlled-potential coulometer for plutonium determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The automated controlled-potential coulometer for the determination of plutonium described in this report is the second in a series of automated instruments designed to determine plutonium and uranium contents in nuclear fuel cycle materials. The measurement precision of the instrument is 0.1% relative standard deviation at the 5-mg plutonium level. A highly selective method of analysis was developed, involving reduction of plutonium to Pu(III) in a 5.5 M hydrochloric acid-0.015 M sulfamic acid electrolyte; oxidation of diverse ions, but not Pu(III); addition of phosphate complexant to reduce the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) potential; and oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV) as the measurement step. Construction details of the mechanical and electrical systems of the instrument and control-system software are described, along with instrument preoperational adjustments and tests and sample analysis operations.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  1. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY FROM NEUTRON-BOMBARDED URANIUM FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1964-03-24

    A process of recovering plutonium from fuel by dissolution in molten KAlCl/sub 4/ double salt is described. Molten lithium chloride plus stannous chloride is added to reduce plutonium tetrachloride to the trichloride, which is dissolved in a lithium chloride phase while the uranium, as the tetrachloride, is dissolved in a double-salt phase. Separation of the two phases is discussed. (AEC)

  2. Evolving Metallurgical Behaviors in Plutonium from Self-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, B W; Lema, K E; Hiromoto, D S

    2009-05-05

    The plutonium alpha-decay leads to the age-related changes in physical properties. We review our experimental approaches including analytical techniques to assess the effects of extended aging on plutonium alloys, together with our recent results on age-related changes in physical and static mechanical properties. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop capabilities to predict metallurgical evolution driven by aging effects.

  3. Chinese strategic weapons and the plutonium option (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, John W.; Xui Litai

    1988-04-01

    In their article "Chinese Strategic Weapons and the Plutonium Option," John W. Lewis and Xue Litai of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University's International Strategic Institute present an unclassified look at plutonium processing in the PRC. The article draws heavily on unclassified PRC sources for its short look at this important subject. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the recently available works referenced in the article.

  4. Nuclear Materials: Plutonium Processing in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    metal parts, Los Alamos uses ion exchange, after having dissolved the scrap with nitric acid. Sixteen of Los Alamos’ pyrochemical furnaces are used for...weapons components was done, produced much of the scrap . All plutonium processing operations for recovering metal are currently shut down and are not...impure plutonium metal . For the purposes of this report, the various types of scrap or residue are compiled into 14 general categories.1 Graphite

  5. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, A.P.; Stachowski, R.E.

    1995-08-08

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced. 10 figs.

  7. Bulging of cans containing plutonium residues. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Wood, D.H.; Condit, R.H.; Shikany, S.D.

    1996-03-01

    In 1994, two cans in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Plutonium Facility were found to be bulging as a result of the generation of gases form the plutonium ash residues contained in the cans. This report describes the chronology of this discovery, the response actions that revealed other pressurized cans, the analysis of the causes, the short-term remedial action, a followup inspection of the short-term storage packages, and a review of proposed long-term remedial options.

  8. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton; Kimball, David Bryan; Skidmore, Bradley Evan

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  9. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan

    1994-03-16

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

  10. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  11. Stablization and immobilization of excess Russian weapons origin plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Borisov, G.B.; Mansourov, O.A.

    1998-04-10

    This paper summarizes a strategy, logic, and framework for the development of a capability for immobilizing excess Russian weapons origin plutonium by the year 2004. We describe the initial activities underway in Russia and a schedule to implement the strategy. These activities include engineering feasibility studies of the select facilities at the Mayak and Krasnoyarsk industrial sites, and research and development studies on plutonium glass and ceramic immobilization forms at several Russian institutes.

  12. Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

  13. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, L C; Meinhold, C B; Moorthy, A R; Kaplan, E; Baum, J W

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones's plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples.

  14. Survey of glass plutonium contents and poison selection

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.; Ellison, A.J.G.; Shaw, H.

    1996-05-01

    If plutonium and other actinides are to be immobilized in glass, then achieving high concentrations in the glass is desirable. This will lead to reduced costs and more rapid immobilization. However, glasses with high actinide concentrations also bring with them undersirable characteristics, especially a greater concern about nuclear criticality, particularly in a geologic repository. The key to achieving a high concentration of actinide elements in a glass is to formulate the glass so that the solubility of actinides is high. At the same time, the glass must be formulated so that the glass also contains neutron poisons, which will prevent criticality during processing and in a geologic repository. In this paper, the solubility of actinides, particularly plutonium, in three types of glasses are discussed. Plutonium solubilities are in the 2-4 wt% range for borosilicate high-level waste (HLW) glasses of the type which will be produced in the US. This type of glass is generally melted at relatively low temperatures, ca. 1150{degrees}C. For this melting temperature, the glass can be reformulated to achieve plutonium solubilities of at least 7 wt%. This low melting temperature is desirable if one must retain volatile cesium-137 in the glass. If one is not concerned about cesium volatility, then glasses can be formulated which can contain much larger amounts of plutonium and other actinides. Plutonium concentrations of at least 15 wt% have been achieved. Thus, there is confidence that high ({ge}5 wt%) concentrations of actinides can be achieved under a variety of conditions.

  15. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  16. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution

  17. Plutonium and Neptunium Speciation and Mobility in Soils and the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, Stephen A.; Reilly, Sean D.; Neu, Mary P.

    2006-06-01

    The DOE is conducting cleanup and stabilization activities at its nuclear weapons development sites, many of which have accumulated plutonium in soils for 60 years. To properly control Pu migration in soils and groundwaters within Federal sites and onto public lands, better evaluate the public risk, and design effective remediation strategies, a fundamental understanding of Pu speciation and environmental transport is needed. The DOE is increasingly relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for site stewardship. While this is practical, and defensible based on fundamental actinide chemistry and most environmental data, there are significant gaps in the foundation of the approach. Key among them is the inability to project migration rates and redistribution of actinide contaminants, particularly given the diversity and heterogeneity of sites. Matrix sorption/desorption processes are the main factors that determine contaminant transport, but little data of this type are available for Pu or Np with minerals and sediments. To support MNA and predictive geochemical models we conducted the following research: (1) Studied environmentally relevant Pu and Np species. (2) Determined the mechanisms and thermodynamics of interactions of Pu and Np species with Mn and Fe (oxy)hydroxides and with sediments, including actinide sorption/desorption during mineral formation and redox cycling.

  18. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  19. Examination of the effect of alpha radiolysis on plutonium(V) sorption to quartz using multiple plutonium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Hixon, Amy E; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if radiolysis at the mineral surface was a plausible mechanism for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch sorption experiments were used to monitor the amount of plutonium sorbed to high-purity quartz as a function of time, pH, and total alpha radioactivity. Three systems were prepared using both (238)Pu and (242)Pu in order to increase the total alpha radioactivity of the mineral suspensions while maintaining a constant plutonium concentration. The fraction of sorbed plutonium increased with increasing time and pH regardless of the total alpha radioactivity of the system. Increasing the total alpha radioactivity of the solution had a negligible effect on the sorption rate. This indicated that surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in these systems was not due to radiolysis. Additionally, literature values for the Pu(V) disproportionation rate constant did not describe the experimental results. Therefore, Pu(V) disproportionation was also not a main driver for surface-mediated reduction of plutonium. Batch desorption experiments and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were used to show that Pu(IV) was the dominant oxidation state of sorbed plutonium. Thus, it appears that the observed surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) in the presence of high-purity quartz was based on the thermodynamic favorability of a Pu(IV) surface complex.

  20. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Marshall; J. D. Bess

    2011-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas{reg_sign} reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 {+-} 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter

  1. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.

    2006-07-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since {sup 233}U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing {sup 233}U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce {sup 233}U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/{sup 233}U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into {sup 233}U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with {sup 233}U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with {sup 233}U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  2. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  3. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E.; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A.

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of a prepared cavity before insertion of restorative material, such as amalgam, to protect the pulp of a...

  5. 1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233S), ReductionOxidation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233-S), Reduction-Oxidation Building (REDOX-202-S) to the right. Looking east. - Reduction-Oxidation Complex, Plutonium Concentration Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  6. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 776/777, THE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BUILDING 776/777, THE PLUTONIUM PROCESSING BUILDING, DURING CONSTRUCTION. (4/10/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  8. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Progress summaries are provided from the Amarillo National Center for Plutonium. Programs include the plutonium information resource center, environment, public health, and safety, education and training, nuclear and other material studies.

  9. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  10. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and the Determination of Neptunium and Plutonium in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Kate

    This project is concerned with the application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to the determination of neptunium-237, plutonium-239 and plutonium-240 concentrations in the marine environment…

  11. Neutron radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taherzadeh, M.

    1972-01-01

    The major sources of neutrons from plutonium dioxide nuclear fuel are considered in detail. These sources include spontaneous fission of several of the Pu isotopes, (alpha, n) reactions with low Z impurities in the fuel, and (alpha, n) reactions with O-18. For spontaneous fission neutrons a value of (1.95 + or - 0.07) X 1,000 n/s/g PuO2 is obtained. The neutron yield from (alpha, n) reactions with oxygen is calculated by integrating the reaction rate equation over all alpha-particle energies and all center-of-mass angles. The results indicate a neutron emission rate of (1.14 + or - 0.26) X 10,000 n/s/g PuO2. The neutron yield from (alpha, n) reactions with low Z impurities in the fuel is presented in tabular form for one part part per million of each impurity. The total neutron yield due to the combined effects of all the impurities depends upon the fractional weight concentration of each impurity. The total neutron flux emitted from a particular fuel geometry is estimated by adding the neutron yield due to the induced fission to the other neutron sources.

  12. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-08-11

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  13. Testing New Inert Matrix and Thoria Fuels for Plutonium Incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Vettraino, F.; Padovan, E.; Tverberg, T.

    2002-07-01

    One major issue for nuclear power continues to be the public concern about rad-waste and proliferation risk induced by large plutonium stockpiles accumulated worldwide. In this context, nuclear fuels which exhibit no-plutonium production, and possibly allow for an efficient utilization of the plutonium to get rid of, are of great interest. This is the basic reason for the efforts that many international institutions are devoting to R and D on such new U-free fuel concepts as Inert Matrix (IMF) and Thorium fuels. At the moment the major merit of such innovative fuels is primarily related to the safe closure of the nuclear fuel cycle as especially expected from those new concepts like ADS (Accelerated Driven System) for the transmutation of plutonium, minor actinides and LLFP. Both ceramic inert matrix (IM) and thoria (T) fuels have been identified as suitable to the scope of burning weapon and civilian plutonium and to act also as possible carrier for transmutation of minor actinides. For testing the irradiation behaviour of these new materials, three kinds of fuels have been selected: inert matrix (IM) fuel, inert matrix thoria-doped (IMT) fuel, and thoria (T) fuel. A first experiment, IFA-652, 40 MWD/kg burnup target, including high enriched uranium (HEU) as fissile phase, instead of plutonium, is currently underway in the Halden HWBR. The reason for this choice was that manufacturing of Pu containing fuels is more complex and there was no fabrication facility available at the needed time for the Pu fuel. It is expected, however, that the relative behaviour of the different kind of matrices would be only slightly dependent on the adopted fissile material. So, the comparison of the in-pile performance of the three fuels will constitute a significant common database also for plutonium bearing fuels. The primary aim for the IFA-652 experiment is the measurement of basic characteristics under LWR irradiation conditions over a period of 4-5 years. The design of a

  14. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  15. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  16. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  17. PRESSURE DEVELOPMENT IN SEALED CONTAINERS WITH PLUTONIUM BEARING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.

    2010-02-01

    Gas generation by plutonium-bearing materials in sealed containers has been studied. The gas composition and pressure are determined over periods from months to years. The Pu-bearing materials studied represent those produced by all of the major processes used by DOE in the processing of plutonium and include the maximum amount of water (0.5% by weight) allowed by DOE's 3013 Standard. Hydrogen generation is of high interest and the Pu-bearing materials can be classed according to how much hydrogen is generated. Hydrogen generation by high-purity plutonium oxides packaged under conditions typical for actual 3013 materials is minimal, with very low generation rates and low equilibrium pressures. Materials with chloride salt impurities have much higher hydrogen gas generation rates and result in the highest observed equilibrium hydrogen pressures. Other materials such as those with high metal oxide impurities generate hydrogen at rates in between these extremes. The fraction of water that is converted to hydrogen gas as equilibrium is approached ranges from 0% to 25% under conditions typical of materials packaged to the 3013 Standard. Generation of both hydrogen and oxygen occurs when liquid water is present. The material and moisture conditions that result in hydrogen and oxygen generation for high-purity plutonium oxide and chloride salt-bearing plutonium oxide materials have been characterized. Other gases that are observed include nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.

  18. Response of the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter in plutonium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Endres, A.W.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents response characteristics and the development of dose algorithms for the Hanford Combination Neutron Dosimeter (HCNO) implemented on January 1, 1995. The HCND was accredited under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) during 1994. The HCND employs two neutron dose components consisting of (1) an albedo thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD), and (2) a track-etch dosimeter (TED). Response characteristics of these two dosimeter components were measured under the low-scatter conditions of the Hanford 318 Building Calibration Laboratory, and under the high-scatter conditions in the workplace at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The majority of personnel neutron dose at Hanford (currently and historically) occurs at the PFP. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable sources were used to characterize dosimeter response in the laboratory. At the PFP, neutron spectra and dose-measuring instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters, were used to determine the neutron dose under several configurations from three different plutonium sources: (1) plutonium tetrafluoride, (2) plutonium metal, and (3) plutonium oxide. In addition, measurements were performed at many selected work locations. The HCNDs were included in all measurements. Comparison of dosimeter- and instrument-measured dose equivalents provided the data necessary to develop HCND dose algorithms and to assess the accuracy of estimated neutron dose under actual work conditions.

  19. Chloride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium in glovebox atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, M.; Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.; Morales, L.A.; Jarboe, D.M.; Puglisi, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    Characterization of glovebox atmospheres and the black reaction product formed on plutonium surfaces shows that the abnormally rapid corrosion of components in the fabrication line is consistent with a complex salt-catalyzed reaction involving gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) and water. Analytical data verify that chlorocarbon and HCl vapors are presented in stagnant glovebox atmospheres. Hydrogen chloride concentrations approach 7 ppm at some locations in the glovebox line. The black corrosion product is identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH), a product formed by hydrolysis of plutonium in liquid water and salt solutions at room temperature. Plutonium trichloride (PuCl{sub 3}) produced by reaction of HCl at the metal surface is deliquescent and apparently forms a highly concentrated salt solution by absorbing moisture from the glovebox atmosphere. Rapid corrosion is attributed to the ensuing salt-catalyzed reaction between plutonium and water. Experimental results are discussed, possible involvement of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is examined, and methods of corrective action are presented in this report.

  20. DEMOLITION OF HANFORDS 233-S PLUTONIUM CONCENTRATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    BERLIN, G.T.

    2004-01-21

    This paper describes the technical approach being used to demolish a plutonium-contaminated processing facility at the Hanford Site. This project represents the first open-air demolition of a highly-contaminated plutonium facility at the Hanford Site. This project may also represent one of the first plutonium facilities in the DOE complex to be demolished without first decontaminating surfaces to near ''free release'' standards. Demolition of plutonium contamination structures, if not properly managed, can subject cleanup personnel and the environment to significant risk. However, with proper sequencing and innovative use of commercially-available equipment, materials, and services, this project is demonstrating that a plutonium processing facility can be demolished while avoiding the need to perform extensive decontamination or construct large enclosures. The project is utilizing an excavator with purpose-built concrete shears, diamond circular saws, water misting and fogging equipment, specialized fixatives and dust suppressant mixtures, conventional mobile crane and rigging services, and near real-time modeling of meteorological and radiological conditions. Between the months of October and December 2003, approximately 85 percent of the footprint of the 233-S Facility had been demolished and properly disposed. Demolition of the remaining and more technically-challenging portion of the facility is expected to be completed by April 2004.