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Sample records for plutonium-239-induced canine lung

  1. p53, erbB-2 and K-ras gene alterations are rare in spontaneous and plutonium-239-induced canine lung neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1996-02-01

    Inhalation of high-linear energy transfer radiation in the form of radon progeny is a suspected cause of human lung cancer. To gain insight into the types of genetic derangements caused by this type of radiation, lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and those arising in animals with no known carcinogen exposure were examined for evidence of aberrations in genes known to be altered in lung tumors. Altered expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and proto-oncogene erbB-2 proteins (p185{sup erbB2}) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of 117 tumors representing different histological types in exposed (n = 80) and unexposed (n = 37) animals. Twenty-eight tumors were analyzed for K-ras proto-oncogene mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Fourteen percent (16/116) of all lung neoplasms showed elevated nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Regardless of exposure history, adenosquamous and squamous cell cancers comprised 94% of all tumors with p53 abnormalities. Eighteen percent (21/117) of all tumors had evidence of erbB-2 protein overexpression. K-ras mutations were not detected in codons 12, 13 or 61 of tumors from unexposed (n = 9) or plutonium-exposed dogs (n = 19). These data indicate that p53 and K-ras gene abnormalities as a result of missense mutation are infrequent events in spontaneous and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-induced lung neoplasia in this colony of beagle dogs. Alternative mechanisms of gene alteration may be involved in canine pulmonary carcinogenesis. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Technetium-fibrinogen lung scanning in canine lung contusion

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, E.; Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Carvalho, A.C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Jones, R.; Zapol, W.M.

    1984-07-01

    To detect experimentally induced acute lung contusion in anesthetized dogs, serial radionuclide images of the lung were recorded following intravenous infusion of 99mTc-labelled human fibrinogen (Tc-HF). The accumulation of Tc-HF in canine lungs was serially quantitated for up to 20 hours after lung contusion. A contusion (number1) was produced in one lung, Tc-HF was injected IV after 15 minutes, and 75 minutes later a contralateral lung contusion (number2) was produced in a series of 14 dogs. At autopsy the excised lungs were scanned, sectioned, and counted for radioactivity. Radiolabelled fibrinogen accumulated within 2-4 minutes of contusion number2 and remained stable over the next 20 hours in 14 dogs; contusion number1 was barely visible in four dogs. Lung Tc-HF activity in the central region of contusion number2 remained sixfold higher than in normal lung tissue. These data suggest that following lung contusion, fibrinogen deposition occurs rapidly and remains stable over a 20-hour interval of observation.

  3. Optimizing a canine survival model of orthotopic lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Farivar, A S; Yunusov, M Y; Chen, P; Leone, R J; Madtes, D K; Kuhr, C S; Spector, M R; Abrams, K; Hwang, B; Nash, R A; Mulligan, M S

    2006-06-01

    While acute models of orthotopic lung transplantation have been described in dogs, the technical considerations of developing a survival model in this species have not been elaborated. Herein, we describe optimization of a canine survival model of orthotopic lung transplantation. Protocols of orthotopic left lung transplantation and single lung ventilation were established in acute experiments (n=9). Four dogs, serving as controls, received autologous, orthotopic lung transplants. Allogeneic transplants were performed in 16 DLA-identical and 16 DLA-mismatched unrelated recipient dogs. Selective right lung ventilation was utilized in all animals. A Malecot tube was left in the pleural space connected to a Heimlich valve for up to 24 hours. To date, animals have been followed up to 24 months by chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, bronchoscopy with lavage, and open biopsies. Long-term survival was achieved in 34/36 animals. Two recipients died intraoperatively secondary to cardiac arrest. All animals were extubated on the operating table, and in all cases the chest tube was removed within 24 hours. Major complications included thrombosis of the pulmonary artery and subcritical stenosis of bronchial anastamosis. One recipient underwent successful treatment of a small bowel intussusception. We report our experience in developing a survival canine model of orthotopic single lung transplantation. While short-term survival following canine lung transplantation is achievable, we report particular considerations that facilitate animal comfort, early extubation, and lung reexpansion in the immediate postoperative period, further optimizing use of this species for experimental modeling of long-term complications after lung transplantation.

  4. Lessons from a canine model of compensatory lung growth.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W

    2004-01-01

    For over a century, canines have been used to study adaptation to surgical lung resection or pneumonectomy (PNX) that results in a quantifiable and reproducible loss of lung units. As reviewed by Schilling (1965), the first successful experimental pneumonectomies were performed in dogs and rabbits in 1881. By the early 1920s, it was appreciated that dogs can function normally with one remaining lung that increases in volume to fill the thoracic cavity (Andrus, 1923; Heuer and Andrus, 1922; Heuer and Dunn, 1920); these pioneering observations paved the way for surgeons to perform major lung resection in patients. Reports in the 1950s (Schilling et al., 1956) detail surprisingly well-preserved work performance in dogs following staged resection of up to 70% of lung mass. Since then, the bulk of the literature on post-PNX adaptation has shifted to rodents, especially for defining molecular mediators of compensatory lung growth. Because rodents are smaller and easier to handle, more animals can be studied over a shorter duration, resulting in time and cost savings. On the other hand, key aspects of lung anatomy, development, and time course of response in the rodent do not mimic those in the human subject, and few rodent studies have related structural adaptation to functional consequences. In larger mammals, anatomical lung development more closely resembles that in humans, and physiological function can be readily measured. Because dogs are natural athletes, functional limits of compensation can be characterized relatively easily by stressing oxygen transport at peak exercise. Thus, the canine model remains useful for relating structure to function, defining sources and limits of adaptation as well as evaluating therapeutic manipulation. This chapter summarizes key concepts of compensatory lung growth that have been consolidated from canine studies: (i) structure-function relationships during adaptation, (ii) dysanaptic (unequal) nature of compensation, and (iii

  5. Ex vivo evaluation of canine lung biopsy techniques.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Sarah; Monnet, Eric

    2013-05-01

    An ex vivo comparison of thoracoscopic lung biopsy techniques in dogs. Experimental. Cadaveric canine lung lobes. Lungs were inflated to 10 cmH2 O. After collecting biopsies 3 cm from the edge of lung lobes, leak pressures were recorded as inflation pressure was increased to 40 cmH2 O. Pre-tied loop ligature, square knot (SQ), modified 4S Roeder knot (M4SR) with glycomer 631 and polyglactin 910 size 0 and 2-0 were used in addition to EndoGIA 45-2.5 mm (Covidien, Norwalk, CT) and a vessel sealant device (VSDS single and VSDD double seal). Six biopsies were performed with each of these modalities. Median airway pressure at which leakage occurred was 28 (20-34)cmH2 O for EndoGIA 45; 33 (14-40) for VSDD; and 33 (10-40) for VSDS while other groups reached a median pressure of 40 cmH2 O (P < .0001). Leakage occurred at 20 cmH2 O in 1 sample with the EndoGIA and the VSDS, and in 2 with the VSDD while leakage did not occur in any other group (P = .36). Leakage occurred at 30 cmH2 O in 1 specimen each of the 0-polyglactin SQ, 2-0 glycomer 631 M4SR, 2-0 polyglactin M4SR, and 2-0 Surgitie (Covidien, Norwalk, CT); 2 with the VSDS; and 3 with the EndoGIA and the VSDD while leakage did not occur in any other group (P = .26). All tested techniques seemed safe except the vessel sealant device since it did not consistently seal every biopsy and leaked at pressures <20 cmH2 O. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  7. Canine bilateral lung transplantation after 18-hour preservation using non-heart-beating donors.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hideyuki; Date, Hiroshi; Aoe, Motoi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    We previously reported that lung inflation with oxygen, EPC-K1 (a diester alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid), urokinase and low-potassium dextran glucose (LPDG) solution can be beneficial in lung preservation. In the present study, a canine bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) model was used to evaluate long-term lung preservation of non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). Animals were euthanized without heparinization and left at room temperature for 2 hours until lung extraction. After cardiac arrest, the lungs were kept inflated with 100% oxygen. After extraction, the donor lungs were flushed with LPDG solution containing EPC-K1 (1.0 mg/liter), followed by injection of urokinase (120,000 IU) into the pulmonary artery. Eighteen BLTs were performed after preservation at 4 degrees C. Total ischemic time was scheduled for 12 hours in Group 1 (n = 6), 18 hours in Group 2 (n = 6) and 24 hours in Group 3 (n = 6). After BLT, recipients were followed up for 6 hours. An additional 6 BLTs were performed as a chronic study in the same setting as for Group 2. All animals in Groups 1 and 2 showed excellent pulmonary function during the 6-hour post-transplant assessment time, in contrast to only 2 dogs from Group 3. In the chronic study, all 6 animals showed excellent pulmonary function for 24 hours (PaO2 = 528 +/- 8 mm Hg with 100% oxygen) and 2 of them survived for >1 week. Successful chronic lung preservation (18 hours) using NHBDs is achievable in a canine BLT model.

  8. Thyroid transcription factor-1 immunohistochemistry: diagnostic tool and malignancy marker in canine malignant lung tumours.

    PubMed

    Bettini, G; Marconato, L; Morini, M; Ferrari, F

    2009-03-01

    Distinguishing primary lung carcinomas (PLCs) from metastases is a challenging task. The diagnostic and prognostic relevance of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), a nuclear protein expressed in follicular cells of the thyroid gland and pneumocytes, was tested in 34 primary and 27 nonprimary canine lung tumours. Normal pneumocytes stained negatively in 14 PLCs because of overfixation or prolonged storage of paraffin blocks and were excluded from the study. Among the 20 immunoreactive PLCs, 17 showed strong nuclear positivity. The three tumours that scored negative were two squamous cell and one papillary carcinoma. Metastatic tumours were always negative. TTF-1 was 100% specific and 85% sensitive for PLCs. There was no significant relationship among the percentage of labelled tumour cells (TTF-1 index) and the considered clinicopathological parameters (age, gender, histological type, tumour grade, TNM stage, node status and MIB-1 index). TTF-1 immunohistochemistry may give useful additional information regarding the origin of canine lung tumours, whereas its prognostic use still needs to be determined.

  9. Bronchoscopic Implantation of a Novel Wireless Electromagnetic Transponder in the Canine Lung: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mayse, Martin L.; Parikh, Parag J. Lechleiter, Kristen M.; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. Methods and Materials: After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Results: Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Conclusions: Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  10. Bronchoscopic implantation of a novel wireless electromagnetic transponder in the canine lung: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mayse, Martin L; Parikh, Parag J; Lechleiter, Kristen M; Dimmer, Steven; Park, Mia; Chaudhari, Amir; Talcott, Michael; Low, Daniel A; Bradley, Jeffrey D

    2008-09-01

    The success of targeted radiation therapy for lung cancer treatment is limited by tumor motion during breathing. A real-time, objective, nonionizing, electromagnetic localization system using implanted electromagnetic transponders has been developed (Beacon electromagnetic transponder, Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA). We evaluated the feasibility and fixation of electromagnetic transponders bronchoscopically implanted in small airways of canine lungs and compared to results using gold markers. After approval of the Animal Studies Committee, five mongrel dogs were anesthetized, intubated, and ventilated. Three transponders were inserted into the tip of a plastic catheter, passed through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope, and implanted into small airways of a single lobe using fluoroscopic guidance. This procedure was repeated for three spherical gold markers in the opposite lung. One, 7, 14, 28, and 60 days postimplantation imaging was used to assess implant fixation. Successful bronchoscopic implantation was possible for 15 of 15 transponders and 12 of 15 gold markers; 3 markers were deposited in the pleural space. Fixation at 1 day was 15 of 15 for transponders and 12 of 12 for gold markers. Fixation at 60 days was 6 of 15 for transponders and 7 of 12 for gold markers, p value = 0.45. Bronchoscopic implantation of both transponders and gold markers into the canine lung is feasible, but fixation rates are low. If fixation rates can be improved, implantable electromagnetic transponders may allow improved radiation therapy for lung cancer by providing real-time continuous target tracking. Developmental work is under way to improve the fixation rates and to reduce sensitivity to implantation technique.

  11. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients at normal hematocrits.

    PubMed

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1997-12-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) values were measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations at normal hematocrit values using three methods: gravimetric, blood-corrected gravimetric, and optical. The lungs were kept in zone 3 conditions and subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 10.24 +/- 0.27 (SE) cmH2O. The resulting Kfc (ml . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung wt-1) measured with the gravimetric technique was 0.420 +/- 0.017, which was statistically different from the Kfc measured by the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.273 +/- 0.018) or the product of the reflection coefficient (sigmaf) and Kfc measured optically (0. 272 +/- 0.018). The optical method involved the use of a Cellco filter cartridge to separate red blood cells from plasma, which allowed measurement of the concentration of the tracer in plasma at normal hematocrits (34 +/- 1.5). The permeability-surface area product was measured using radioactive multiple indicator-dilution methods before, during, and after venous pressure elevations. Results showed that the surface area of the lung did not change significantly during the measurement of Kfc. These studies suggest that sigmafKfc can be measured optically at normal hematocrits, that this measurement is not influenced by blood volume changes that occur during the measurement, and that the optical sigmafKfc agrees with the Kfc obtained via the blood-corrected gravimetric method.

  12. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients after alloxan infusion.

    PubMed

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1998-04-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) was measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations by using three methods: standard gravimetric (Std), blood-corrected gravimetric (BC), and optical. The lungs were held in zone III conditions and were subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 8.79 +/- 0.93 (mean +/- SD) cmH2O. The permeability of the lungs was increased with an infusion of alloxan (75 mg/kg). The resulting Kfc values (in milliliters . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung weight-1) measured by using Std and BC gravimetric techniques before vs. after alloxan infusion were statistically different: Std, 0.527 +/- 0.290 vs. 1. 966 +/- 0.283; BC, 0.313 +/- 0.290 vs. 1.384 +/- 0.290. However, the optical technique did not show any statistical difference between pre- and postinjury with alloxan, 0.280 +/- 0.305 vs. 0.483 +/- 0. 297, respectively. The alloxan injury, quantified by using multiple-indicator techniques, showed an increase in permeability and a corresponding decrease in reflection coefficient for albumin (sigmaf). Because the optical method measures the product of Kfc and sigmaf, this study shows that albumin should not be used as an intravascular optical filtration marker when permeability is elevated. However, the optical technique, along with another means of measuring Kfc (such as BC), can be used to calculate the sigmaf of a tracer (in this study, sigmaf of 0.894 at baseline and 0.348 after injury). Another important finding of this study was that the ratio of baseline-to-injury Kfc values was not statistically different for Std and BC techniques, indicating that the percent contribution of slow blood-volume increases does not change because of injury.

  13. Computerized tomography versus perfusion lung scanning in canine radiation lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, I.H.; Logus, J.W.; El-Khatib, E.; Battista, J.J.; Ferri, H.; Lentle, B.C.; Man, G.C.; Man, S.F. )

    1990-03-01

    Computerized tomographic (CT) measurements of lung density were obtained before and serially after thoracic irradiation in dogs to detect the alterations caused by radiation therapy. Fourteen mongrel dogs were given either 2000 cGy (Group A, 10 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), 1000 cGy (Group B, 2 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), or 500 cGy (Group C, 2 dogs, right lung irradiation) in one fraction. Once before and bi-weekly after irradiation, the anesthetized dogs had thoracic CT scans. CT numbers for the irradiated area were compared to their preirradiation control values. Macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scans were also obtained before and at weekly intervals after irradiation and were evaluated visually and quantitatively for abnormalities. When both these tests were abnormal, or at the end of the scheduled study, the dogs were sacrificed to confirm radiation lung injury histologically. Our results showed that CT numbers (as a measure of tissue density) were higher with higher doses of radiation. Among all the techniques used, only the quantitative assessment of macro-aggregated albumin perfusion scan detected abnormalities in all the dogs given 2000 cGy. Their abnormalities correlated well with the presence of radiation lung damage histologically, however, the applicability of these methods in the detection of early injury has to be further evaluated.

  14. Impact of ventilation frequency and parenchymal stiffness on flow and pressure distribution in a canine lung model.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W

    2013-12-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cm H2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized.

  15. IMPACT OF VENTILATION FREQUENCY AND PARENCHYMAL STIFFNESS ON FLOW AND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN A CANINE LUNG MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of ventilation frequency, lung volume, and parenchymal stiffness on ventilation distribution, we developed an anatomically-based computational model of the canine lung. Each lobe of the model consists of an asymmetric branching airway network subtended by terminal, viscoelastic acinar units. The model allows for empiric dependencies of airway segment dimensions and parenchymal stiffness on transpulmonary pressure. We simulated the effects of lung volume and parenchymal recoil on global lung impedance and ventilation distribution from 0.1 to 100 Hz, with mean transpulmonary pressures from 5 to 25 cmH2O. With increasing lung volume, the distribution of acinar flows narrowed and became more synchronous for frequencies below resonance. At higher frequencies, large variations in acinar flow were observed. Maximum acinar flow occurred at first antiresonance frequency, where lung impedance achieved a local maximum. The distribution of acinar pressures became very heterogeneous and amplified relative to tracheal pressure at the resonant frequency. These data demonstrate the important interaction between frequency and lung tissue stiffness on the distribution of acinar flows and pressures. These simulations provide useful information for the optimization of frequency, lung volume, and mean airway pressure during conventional ventilation or high frequency oscillation (HFOV). Moreover our model indicates that an optimal HFOV bandwidth exists between the resonant and antiresonant frequencies, for which interregional gas mixing is maximized. PMID:23872936

  16. Role of mediators in the response of the canine peripheral lung to 1 ppm ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, S.R.; Kolbe, J.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.; Peters, S.P.; Spannhake, E.W.

    1988-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the in vivo response of the canine peripheral lung to 1 ppm ozone is mediated, in part, by histamine and cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid metabolism. Ozone was delivered for 5 min to lobar segments through a wedged bronchoscope and resulted in a mean (+/- 1 SE) increase in collateral system resistance (Rcs) of 220.7 +/- 13.8% immediately after exposure. Four 5-min exposures of ozone to the same segments over a 3-h period yielded reproducible Rcs responses, i.e., tolerance to the exposure regimen was not exhibited. Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from the isolated segment 1 min after a single exposure to ozone indicated significant increases, compared with control, in mean concentrations of PGD2 (135.3 +/- 33.3 pg/ml versus 47.8 +/- 16.0; p less than 0.025) and histamine (1.43 +/- 0.19 ng/ml versus 1.18 +/- 0.17; p less than 0.05). Additionally, a molecule that exhibited high reactivity with LTB4 antibody was found in greater concentrations in ozone-exposed segments compared to controls (821.5 +/- 206.7 pg/ml versus 437.5 +/- 78.8; p less than 0.05). In contrast, the concentration of TxB2 was not significantly greater in ozone-exposed segments compared to controls (37.2 +/- 6.6 pg/ml versus 33.7 +/- 10.3; p less than 0.05). Cyclooxygenase inhibition (indomethacin, 5 mg/kg, IV) significantly inhibited the Rcs response by 32% (p less than 0.05) and histamine H1-receptor blockade (chlorpheniramine maleate, 5 mg/kg, IV) reduced the response by 30% (p less than 0.05). However, blockade of thromboxane synthetase (UK-37,248, 3 mg/kg, IV) had no significant effect on the ozone-induced response.

  17. Fractal analysis of lung alveoli during the acute phase vs. repair phase of an adenoviral infection in canines.

    PubMed

    Tinajero, J P; Robledo, R F; Lantz, R C; Sobonya, R E; Quan, S F; Lemen, R J; Tollinger, B J; Witten, M L

    1997-03-01

    Acute viral respiratory infections are commonly associated with alterations in lung growth. Recently, fractal techniques have been demonstrated to show changes in alveolar perimeter after canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) infection in a beagle puppy model. In the present study, we investigated whether the fractal dimension (Df) of the alveolar perimeter was changed in the acute phase (2-3 weeks after inoculation, 131d CAV2 group) or during the recovery phase (approximately 22 weeks after inoculation, 235d CAV2 group) after a single bout of CAV2. There were sham CAV2 groups, 130d and 238d controls, corresponding to the CAV2 groups. The Df of alveolar perimeter length was significantly increased in the 235d CAV2 puppies compared to all of the other beagle puppy groups. On the other hand, the fractal dimensions for alveolar perimeter length for the other beagle puppy groups were very similar. In a related human study of patients (age range of 25 h to 19 y, N = 11), who died of non-respiratory causes, showed no consistent change in Df of alveolar perimeter length with normal lung growth and development. We conclude that fractal analysis of alveolar perimeter length can be used as an index of permanent lung injury after insult to the growing lungs.

  18. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tobie D; Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally Somanathan; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G; Martin, Chelsea K; Werbeck, Jillian L; Rosol, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis.

  19. Effect of zoledronic acid and amputation on bone invasion and lung metastasis of canine osteosarcoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Tobie D.; Somanathan Pillai, Smitha Pankajavally; Hildreth, Blake Eason; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Werbeck, Jillian L.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive, highly metastatic and lytic primary bone neoplasm commonly affecting the appendicular skeleton of dogs and children. Current treatment options include amputation of the afflicted limb, limb-sparing procedures, or palliative radiation with or without adjunct chemotherapy. Therapies that inhibit bone resorption, such as the bisphosphonates, may be an effective palliative therapy by limiting the local progression of OSA in those patients that are not viable candidates for amputation. We have developed a mouse model of canine skeletal OSA following intratibial inoculation of OSCA40 cells that spontaneously metastasized to the lungs. We demonstrated that therapy with a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (Zol), reduced OSA-induced bone lysis; however, Zol monotherapy or in combination with amputation was not effective at inhibiting pulmonary metastasis. While not reaching statistical significance, amputation of the tumor-bearing limb reduced the average incidence of lung metastases; however, this effect was nullified when Zol was added to the treatment protocol. In untreated mice, the magnitude of proximal tibial lysis was significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis. The data support amputation alone for the management of appendicular OSA rather than combining amputation with Zol. However, in patients that are not viable candidates for amputation, Zol may be a useful palliative therapy for OSA by reducing the magnitude of lysis and therefore bone pain, despite the risk of increased pulmonary metastasis. PMID:21374084

  20. Protective effect of pre-recovery surfactant inhalation on lungs donated after cardiac death in a canine lung transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Ohsumi, Akihiro; Chen, Fengshi; Sakamoto, Jin; Nakajima, Daisuke; Hijiya, Kyoko; Motoyama, Hideki; Okita, Kenji; Horita, Kenta; Kikuchi, Ryutaro; Yamada, Tetsu; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    Warm ischemia-reperfusion injury related to donation after cardiac death is a crucial issue in transplantation. Because surfactant function deteriorates in lungs during warm ischemia, we hypothesized pre-recovery surfactant inhalation would mitigate warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. We rendered donor dogs cardiac dead and left them at room temperature. All animals received ventilation for 60 minutes starting at 240 minutes after cardiac arrest. The animals were divided into 2 groups: NS (normal saline, n = 7) group, which received aerosolized normal saline, and SF (surfactant; n = 5), which received aerosolized surfactant. The lungs were flushed and procured, and the left lung was transplanted into recipient dogs. At 45 minutes of reperfusion, the right pulmonary artery was ligated, and the left transplanted lung function was evaluated. In the NS group, 2 of 7 dogs died at 75 minutes after reperfusion, whereas all 5 animals in the SF group survived for 240 minutes after reperfusion. The SF group showed significantly better dynamic compliance, oxygenation, and wet-to-dry weight ratio. Furthermore, the SF group had higher levels of high-energy phosphates in the lung tissues and lower levels of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and protein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histologically, the lungs in the SF group showed fewer signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage and significantly less neutrophilic sequestration than those of the NS group. Our results indicated pre-recovery surfactant inhalation improved graft function, maintained adenine nucleotide levels, and prevented alveolar-capillary barrier leakage, resulting in the attenuation of warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of RNA-seq to determine variation in canine cytochrome P450 mRNA expression between blood, liver, lung, kidney and duodenum in healthy beagles.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Weber, K; Rincon, G; Merritt, D

    2017-03-19

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool for the evaluation and quantification of transcriptomes and expression patterns in animals, tissues, or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA transcripts in whole blood, kidney, duodenum, liver, and lung in healthy, adult male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) beagles via RNA-seq. mRNA expression was above background (transcripts per million) for 45 canine CYPs, with liver, duodenum, and lung expressing a high number of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs, while prominent endogenous metabolizing CYP expression was present in blood and kidney. The relative expression pattern of CYP2A13, 2B11, 2C21, 2D15, 2E1, 3A12, and 27A1 in liver, lung, and duodenum was verified through qPCR. This is the first global profiling of physiologic CYP mRNA expression in multiple canine tissues, providing a platform for further studies characterizing canine CYPs and changes in gene expression in disease states.

  2. Receptor for advanced glycation end products involved in lung ischemia reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass attenuated by controlled oxygen reperfusion in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Liang, Meng-ya; Chen, Guang-xian; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Wu, Zhong-kai

    2013-01-01

    Controlled oxygen reperfusion could protect the lung against ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by downregulating high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a high affinity receptor of HMGB1. This study investigated the effect of controlled oxygen reperfusion on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression and its downstream effects on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Fourteen canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. Animals were randomized to receive 80% FiO2 during the entire procedure (control group) or to a test group receiving a controlled oxygen reperfusion protocol. Pathologic changes in lung tissues, RAGE expression, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The lung pathologic scores after 25 and 90 minutes of reperfusion were significantly lower in the test group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). RAGE expression, TNF-α, and IL-6 were downregulated by controlled oxygen treatment (p < 0.001). RAGE might be involved in the lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model of CPB, which was downregulated by controlled oxygen reperfusion.

  3. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow contributions to upper airways in canine lung

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, S.A.; Ardell, J.L.; Parker, J.C.; Perry, M.L.; Taylor, A.E. )

    1988-11-01

    The blood flow contributions and drainage patterns of the pulmonary and systemic circulations in the upper airways (trachea and main bronchi) were assessed in anesthetized dogs by injecting 15-{mu}m radiolabeled microspheres into the right and left heart, respectively. After the animals were killed, the tracheal cartilage, tracheal muscle-mucosa, and main bronchi were excised. The tracheal cartilage and tracheal muscle-mucosa were divided into lower, middle, and upper segments for blood flow determinations. The pulmonary contribution to tracheal blood flow was very small, being higher in the lower segments. The systemic contribution to these same tracheal regions was significantly higher, and higher in the upper segments. The pulmonary and systemic circulations each contributed {approximately}50% to the main bronchi blood flow. The pulmonary blood flow contribution alone to the trachea and main bronchi was also determined in subsequent experiments that utilized the isolated lung, and these blood flows were not significantly different from the pulmonary contribution measured in the intact lungs. The present results indicate that the systemic (bronchial) circulation is the primary source of tracheal blood flow and that both the pulmonary and systemic circulations may contribute {approximately}50% of the blood flow to the main bronchi in dog lungs.

  4. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes

    PubMed Central

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called ‘Hoover's sign’, has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (ΔPpl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ΔPpl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ΔPpl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm. PMID:25063819

  5. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-10-15

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called 'Hoover's sign', has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (∆Ppl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ∆Ppl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ∆Ppl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm.

  6. Effect of methacholine on low-frequency mechanics of canine airways and lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Sato, J; Suki, B; Davey, B L; Bates, J H

    1993-07-01

    We measured tracheal flow, tracheal pressure, and alveolar capsule pressure in four anesthetized paralyzed tracheostomized open-chest dogs. Lung impedance between 0.12 and 4.88 Hz was measured with a forced volume oscillation technique before and after the intravenous administration of methacholine (MCh). Before MCh administration, lung impedance was well described by a model featuring a single airway leading to an alveolar region surrounded by tissue with a continuous distribution of viscoelastic time constants as used by Hantos et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 849-860, 1990). After MCh, however, this model gave a poor fit to the impedances. The impedances were well accounted for, however, when the model was enhanced to include an extra time constant term, which we suspect is required to account for the uneven ventilation distribution produced by MCh. Airway impedance before MCh administration was well described by a simple resistance-inertance model, but a model incorporating serial inhomogeneity of ventilation was again required after MCh. Our results support those of previous studies indicating that the impedance of the normal dog lung is well described by a homogeneously ventilated viscoelastic tissue model. In contrast, our results after MCh administration show strong evidence of marked regional ventilation inhomogeneity in addition to the rheological properties of the tissues.

  7. Site of deposition and factors affecting clearance of aerosolized solute from canine lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, N.W.; Luce, J.M.; Hoeffel, J.M.; Price, D.C.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several factors on lung solute clearance using aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate was determined. The authors used a jet nebulizer-plate separator-balloon system to generate particles with an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.1 ..mu..m, administered the aerosol in a standard fashion, and determined clearance half times (t/sub 1/2/) with a gamma-scintillation camera. The following serial studies were performed in five anesthetized, paralyzed, intubated, mechanically ventilated dogs: (1) control, with ventilatory frequency (f) = 15 breaths/min and tidal volume (V/sub T/) = 15 ml/kg during solute clearance; (2) repeat control, for reproducibility; (3) increased frequency, with f = 25 breaths/min and V/sub T/ = 10 ml/kg; (4) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 10 cmH/sub 2/O; (5) unilateral pulmonary arterial occlusion (PAO); and (6) bronchial arterial occlusion (BAO). Control t/sub 1/2/ was 25 +/- 5 min and did not change in the repeat control, increased frequency, or BAO experiments. PEEP markedly decreased t/sub 1/2/ to 13 +/- 3 min (P < 0.01), and PAO increased it to 37 +/- 6 min (P < 0.05). We conclude that clearance from the lungs by our method is uninfluenced by increased frequency, increases markedly with PEEP, and depends on pulmonary, not bronchial, blood flow.

  8. Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS) ablate tumors and inhibit lung metastasis on both canine spontaneous osteosarcoma and murine transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma with high metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinhua; Chen, Yiling; Jiang, Jianwen; Wu, Liming; Yin, Shengyong; Miao, Xudong; Swanson, Robert J; Zheng, Shusen

    2017-07-04

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF), which is also termed as nano-pulse stimulation (NPS), has the potential of stimulating immune responses toward cancer cells. The current study investigates its local and systemic antitumor efficacy in vivo in late stage tumors with lung metastasis. The 12 canines with spontaneous osteosarcomas and 12 nude mice transplanted with human hepatocellular carcinoma were divided randomly and were given NPS treatment, surgery or no treatment control. Nanosecond pulsed electric field was delivered with puncture electrodes at 40 kV/cm with 500 pulses at 1 Hz. The survival time, tumor volume, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), joint capsule damage and lung metastasis were followed up. The efficacy was compared with control. Nanosecond pulsed electric field reduced primary tumor volume and extended the survival significantly compared to the control group (P<0.05). Inhibition of serum alkaline phosphatase and lung metastasis without joint deformity or thermal damage were also observed. Locally applied nanosecond pulsed electric field is a novel non-thermal ablation method. It can ablate the primary tumor and decrease lung metastasis as a palliative therapy for late stage tumor.

  9. Assessment of CCL2 and CXCL8 chemokines in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples from dogs affected with canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Roels, Elodie; Krafft, Emilie; Farnir, Frederic; Holopainen, Saila; Laurila, Henna P; Rajamäki, Minna M; Day, Michael J; Antoine, Nadine; Pirottin, Dimitri; Clercx, Cecile

    2015-10-01

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a progressive disease of the lung parenchyma that is more prevalent in dogs of the West Highland white terrier (WHWT) breed. Since the chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis in humans, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these same chemokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were measured by ELISA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from healthy dogs and WHWTs affected with CIPF. Expression of the genes encoding CCL2 and CXCL8 and their respective receptors, namely (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) and (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), was compared in unaffected lung tissue and biopsies from dogs affected with CIPF by quantitative PCR and localisation of CCL2 and CXCL8 proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry. Significantly greater CCL2 and CXCL8 concentrations were found in the BALF from WHWTs affected with CIPF, compared with healthy dogs. Significantly greater serum concentrations of CCL2, but not CXCL8, were found in CIPF-affected dogs compared with healthy WHWTs. No differences in relative gene expression for CCL2, CXCL8, CCR2 or CXCR2 were observed when comparing lung biopsies from control dogs and those affected with CIPF. In affected lung tissues, immunolabelling for CCL2 and CXCL8 was observed in bronchial airway epithelial cells in dogs affected with CIPF. The study findings suggest that both CCL2 and CXCL8 are involved in the pathogenesis of CIPF. Further studies are required to determine whether these chemokines might have a clinical use as biomarkers of fibrosis or as targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  11. A novel surgical marking system for small peripheral lung nodules based on radio frequency identification technology: Feasibility study in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Fumitsugu; Sato, Toshihiko; Takahata, Hiromi; Okada, Minoru; Sugiura, Tadao; Oshiro, Osamu; Date, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of a novel surgical marking system based on radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology for the localization of small peripheral lung nodules (SPLNs) in a canine model. The system consists of 4 components: (1) micro RFID tags (13.56 MHz, 1.0 × 1.0 × 0.8 mm), (2) a tag delivery system with a bronchoscope, (3) a wand-shaped locating probe (10-mm diameter), and (4) a signal processing unit with audio interface. Before the operation, pseudolesions mimicking SPLNs were prepared in 7 dogs by injecting colored collagen. By use of a computed tomographic (CT) guide, an RFID tag was placed via a bronchoscope close to each target lesion. This was then followed by scanning with the locating probe, and wedge resection was performed when possible. Operators can locate the tag by following the sound emitted by the system, which exhibits tone changes according to the tag-probe distance. The primary outcome measure was the rate of wedge resection with good margins. A total of 10 pseudolesions imitating SPLNs were selected as targets. During thoracoscopic procedures, 9 of 10 tags were detected by the system within a median of 27 seconds. Wedge resections were performed for these 9 lesions with a median margin of 11 mm. The single failure was caused by tag dislocation to the central airway. Successful localization and wedge resection of pseudolesions with appropriate margins were accomplished in an experimental setting. Our RFID marking system has future applications for accurately locating SPLNs in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  13. Canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R

    1985-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the literature regarding canine malignant lymphoma. It includes a discussion of etiology, classification, systemic manifestations of disease, therapy, and supportive care for patient management.

  14. Canine gastritis.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  15. Interstitial pneumonia in neonatal canine pups with evidence of canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Karamjeet; Podell, Brendan; Gould, Daniel H; Johnson, Bill J; Thompson, Sheri

    2006-03-01

    Four dead canine pups (5-12 days old) from 3 litters in Douglas County of north central Colorado were submitted to the Colorado State University Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Pups were originally presented to the referring clinics for respiratory tract illness, with or without diarrhea. At necropsy, the lungs from all pups had similar lesions, including random foci of hemorrhage and failure to collapse on opening of the thoracic cavity. The lungs were histologically characterized by subacute interstitial pneumonia, with alveolar septa expanded by a histiocyte-rich infiltrate with a few lymphocytes and neutrophils. The alveolar spaces were filled with moderate amounts of proteinaceous fluid, foamy macrophages, and a few neutrophils. Lungs from 3 of the 4 pups were test positive for canine distemper virus (CDV) by use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Immunohistochemically stained lungs, including those from the pup that were CDV negative, by use of RT-PCR analysis, were test positive for CDV antigen in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells and in a few alveolar macrophages. Central nervous system lesions were not observed in any of the 4 pups. These cases represent an unusual presentation of canine distemper in neonatal pups marked by respiratory tract lesions without central nervous system involvement. Canine distemper should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal canine respiratory tract illness.

  16. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Simultaneous canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, and Mycoplasma cynos infection in a dog with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chvala, S; Benetka, V; Möstl, K; Zeugswetter, F; Spergser, J; Weissenböck, H

    2007-07-01

    The present case is the first description of a triple infection with canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2, and Mycoplasma cynos in a dog. The 5-month-old female Miniature Pinscher was euthanized because of dyspnea, croaking lung sounds, weight loss, and lymphopenia. Pathologic examination revealed a fibrinous necrotizing pneumonia with large amphophilic intranuclear and acidophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion bodies in different lung cells. Immunohistochemically, CDV antigen was present in lung and many other organs. In situ hybridization for detection of CAV nucleic acid showed positive signals in the lung only. Polymerase chain reaction of lung tissue and consecutive sequencing of the amplification product identified CAV type 2. Bacteriologic examination of lung tissue yielded large amounts of M cynos. This infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry detecting abundant positive signals in the lung tissue.

  18. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  19. Canine thymoma.

    PubMed

    Aronsohn, M

    1985-07-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog.

  20. RAS gene hot-spot mutations in canine neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Murua Escobar, H; Günther, K; Soller, J T; Winkler, S; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2005-01-01

    Point mutations in the cellular homologues HRAS, KRAS2, and NRAS of the viral Harvey and Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogenes are commonly involved in the onset of malignancies in humans and other species such as dog, mouse, and rat. Most often, three particular hot-spot codons are affected, with one amino acid exchange being sufficient for the induction of tumor growth. While RAS genes have been shown to play an important role in canine tumors such as non-small lung cell carcinomas, data about RAS mutations in canine fibrosarcomas as well as KRAS2 mutations in canine melanomas is sparse. To increase the number of tumors examined, we recently screened 13 canine fibrosarcomas and 11 canine melanomas for point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot spots. The results were compared to the already existing data from other studies about these tumors in dogs.

  1. P53 tumor suppressor gene and protein expression is altered in cell lines derived from spontaneous and alpha-radiation-induced canine lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Johnson, N.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequently occurring gene alterations in malignant human cancers, including lung cancer. In lung cancer, common point mutations within conserved exons of the p53 gene result in a stabilized form of mutant protein which is detectable in most cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition to point mutations, allelic loss, rearrangements, and deletions of the p53 gene have also been detected in both human and rodent tumors. It has been suggested that for at least some epithelial neoplasms, the loss of expression of wild-type p53 protein may be more important for malignant transformation than the acquisition of activating mutations. Mechanisms responsible for the loss of expression of wild-type protein include gene deletion or rearrangement, nonsense or stop mutations, mutations within introns or upstream regulatory regions of the gene, and accelerated rates of degradation of the protein by DNA viral oncoproteins.

  2. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  3. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  4. THORACIC RADIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CANINE INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SIX DOGS.

    PubMed

    Secrest, Scott A; Sharma, Ajay

    2016-09-01

    Canine influenza virus is an emerging, highly contagious, respiratory pathogen that has not previously been radiographically described. In this retrospective case series study, we describe the thoracic radiographic appearance of confirmed canine influenza virus in six dogs. Radiographic findings varied, but included abnormal unstructured interstitial (one) and unstructured interstitial and alveolar (five) pulmonary patterns, which were distributed cranioventral (four), diffuse (one), and caudodorsal (one). The right middle (five), left cranial (five), and right cranial (four) lung lobes were most commonly affected. Additionally, mild pleural effusion was present in one dog. Intrathoracic lymphadenopathy and cranial mediastinal widening/fluid accumulation were not detected in any dog. Canine influenza virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for canine patients with respiratory signs and a cranioventral unstructured interstitial to alveolar pulmonary pattern. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J; Brooks, Harriet W; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-10-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs.

  6. Longitudinal Study of Viruses Associated with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs. PMID:15472304

  7. Dirofilaria immitis exposure status in client-owned cats with or without lower airway/lung-associated signs: case-control study in a canine heartworm-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Hui; Lo, Pei-Ying; Tsai, Han-Ju; Wang, Lih-Chiann; Liaw, Bor-Song; Hsieh, Olivia F; Chang, Yeong-Shuenn; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Yu, Szu-Ching; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) is a recently recognised pathological manifestation in cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis exposure. This study aimed to estimate the percentage of cats at risk of developing HARD in a heartworm-endemic area (Taipei, Taiwan), and to test the correlation of heartworm exposure and the presence of lower airway/lung clinical signs (LA/L signs). Methods This was a prospective case-control study. The study design called for the enrolment of at least 80 cats with LA/L signs and at least 80 cats without such clinical signs in a 1 year period. The D immitis antibody seroprevalence of the two cohorts was compared. Results From February 2014 to January 2015, 187 client-owned cats were prospectively enrolled: 83 clinical cases with LA/L signs and 104 cats without such signs. Antibody seropositivity was approximately twice as frequent in cats with LA/L signs (13.3%) than in cats without signs (7.8%) (odds ratio [OR] 1.814); nevertheless, no statistically significant difference between the two cohorts ( P = 0.22) was found. We used 41 frozen samples from free-roaming cats to examine the possibility of different exposure rates to mosquito bites between client-owned cats and stray cats, finding the seroprevalence to be 7.5% in free-roaming cats - a result not statistically different to that in client-owned cats ( P = 0.60). Outdoor access was a significant risk factor for heartworm exposure in client-owned cats (OR 3.748; P = 0.03); however, living entirely indoors did not provide complete protection from exposure/infection. Conclusions and relevance Our results did not show statistically significant differences in antibody seroprevalence between cats with and without LA/L signs. LA/L signs were not always present under conditions of natural exposure. However, exposure to D immitis is not rare among client-owned cats, suggesting that heartworm prophylactics should be a part of routine care in all cats living in areas

  8. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  9. Molecular cloning and gene expression of canine apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage.

    PubMed

    Tomura, Shintaro; Uchida, Mona; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Masato; Bonkobara, Makoto; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru; Tamahara, Satoshi; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) plays roles in survival of macrophages. In this study, we cloned canine AIM cDNA and observed its transcriptional expression levels in various tissues. The coding sequence of canine AIM was 1,023 bp encoding 340 amino acid residues, which had around 65% homology with those of the human, mouse and rat. Transcriptional expression of AIM was observed in the spleen, lung, liver and lymph node, which confirmed the expression of canine AIM in tissue macrophages. Moreover, AIM was highly expressed in one of the canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines. CD36, the receptor of AIM, was also expressed in various tissues and these cell lines. These findings are useful to reveal the actual functions of canine AIM.

  10. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  11. Canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabrielle; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Vaccine-based prophylaxis has greatly helped to keep distemper disease under control. Notwithstanding, the incidence of canine distemper virus (CDV)-related disease in canine populations throughout the world seems to have increased in the past decades, and several episodes of CDV disease in vaccinated animals have been reported, with nation-wide proportions in some cases. Increasing surveillance should be pivotal to identify new CDV variants and to understand the dynamics of CDV epidemiology. In addition, it is important to evaluate whether the efficacy of the vaccine against these new strains may somehow be affected.

  12. Fractal branching pattern of the monopodial canine airway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping M; Kraman, Steve S

    2004-06-01

    Unlike the human lung, monopodial canine airway branching follows an irregular dichotomized pattern with fractal features. We studied three canine airway molds and found a self-similarity feature from macro- to microscopic scales, which formed a fractal set up to seven scales in the airways. At each fractal scale, lateral branches evenly lined up along an approximately straight main trunk to form three to four two-dimensional structures, and each lateral branch was the monopodial main trunk of the next fractal scale. We defined this pattern as the fractal main lateral-branching pattern, which exhibited similar structures from macro- to microscopic scales, including lobes, sublobes, sub-sublobes, etc. We speculate that it, rather than a mother-daughter pattern, could better describe the actual asymmetrical architecture of the monopodial canine airway.

  13. Distribution of inclusion bodies in tissues from 100 dogs infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takuya; Kagawa, Yumiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    One hundred dogs that were positive for canine distemper virus antigen and inclusion bodies in the tonsils were examined for the distribution of inclusion bodies in various tissues. Inclusion bodies were found in the lungs (70 dogs), brains (20 dogs), urinary bladders (73 dogs), stomachs (78 dogs), spleens (77 dogs), and lymph nodes (81 dogs) of the dogs. Based on these results, the tonsils may be the most suitable tissue for detection of inclusion bodies in canine distemper.

  14. Clinical canine dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kristin M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided.

  15. Apoptosis in canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Moro, L; de Sousa Martins, A; de Moraes Alves, C; de Araújo Santos, F G; dos Santos Nunes, J E; Carneiro, R A; Carvalho, R; Vasconcelos, A C

    2003-01-01

    Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease characterized by immunosuppression followed by secondary infections. Apoptosis is observed in several immunosuppressive diseases and its occurrence on canine distemper in vivo has not been published. In this study, the occurrence of apoptosis was determined in lymphoid tissues of thirteen naturally infected dogs and nine experimentally inoculated puppies. Healthy dogs were used as negative controls. Samples of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and brain were collected for histopathological purposes. Sections, 5 microm thick, of retropharingeal lymph nodes were stained by HE, Shorr, Methyl Green-Pyronin and TUNEL reaction. Shorr stained sections were further evaluated by morphometry. Canine distemper virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Retropharingeal lymph nodes of naturally and experimentally infected dogs had more apoptotic cells per field than controls. In addition, DNA from thymus of infected dogs were more fragmented than controls. Therefore, apoptosis is increased in lymphoid depletion induced by canine distemper virus and consequently play a role in the immunosuppression seen in this disease.

  16. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  17. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  18. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  19. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  20. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  1. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  2. Canine distemper virus infection in binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    Hur, K; Bae, J S; Choi, J H; Kim, J H; Kwon, S W; Lee, K W; Kim, D Y

    1999-10-01

    Two binturongs (Arctictis binturong) kept in outdoor exhibits at Everland Zoological Gardens in Korea died within 10 days of the onset of clinical signs that included depression, dyspnoea, diarrhoea and convulsions. On necropsy, the significant gross findings were limited to the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Proteus vulgaris was isolated from the lung of one animal. Histopathologically, diffuse severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia with secondary bacterial infection was noted in the lungs. Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies were seen in the lining epithelium of the bronchi, bronchioles, small and large intestines, renal pelvis and urinary bladder. Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific antigens were demonstrated in frozen sections of the lungs by the direct immunofluorescence technique. This is believed to be the first confirmed report of CDV infection in binturongs. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  3. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  4. A canine distemper outbreak in Alaska: diagnosis and strain characterization using sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Roger K; Wise, Annabel G; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Ramudo, Albert; Kline, Joseph; Vilnis, Aivars; Benson, Cherie

    2003-05-01

    Vaccination with modified-live vaccines has been very effective in reducing the incidence of canine distemper, a disease that can be devastating in unvaccinated populations. A diagnostic submission to the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory at Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, involved a case in which several hundred dogs in an Alaskan town died in a suspected canine distemper outbreak. Cytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies, consistent with canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, were found in urinary bladder, spleen, lung, and salivary gland. Direct fluorescent antibody test gave results that could be considered positive for canine distemper. Because of the condition of the tissues received, the histopathology and fluorescent antibody-staining results were suggestive but not conclusive of CDV. In this study, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the presence of canine distemper virus in these tissues and to perform molecular characterization of the virus. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of the virus in spleen, lung, and salivary gland. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in brain, spleen, liver, lung, and kidney, both with nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein (P)-gene-specific primers. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of a 540-bp P-gene fragment of the Alaskan strain with corresponding sequences of 2 vaccine and 7 wild-type CDV strains showed that the virus responsible for the outbreak was closely related to a virulent strain of distemper virus from Siberia.

  5. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  6. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  7. Molecular cloning of canine protease-activated receptor-2 and its expression in normal dog tissues and atopic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Chimura, Naoki; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2009-05-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to a new G protein-coupled receptor subfamily and is activated by serine proteases. PAR-2 has been demonstrated to play an important role in inflammation and immune response in allergic diseases. In this study, we cloned canine PAR-2 cDNA from the canine kidney by RT-PCR. The canine PAR-2 clone contained a full-length open reading frame encoding 397 amino acids that had 84% and 80% homology with human and mouse homologues, respectively. Canine PAR-2 mRNA was detected in the heart, lung, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, colon, kidney, adrenal gland, spleen, thyroid gland, thymus, skeletal muscle, lymph node, fat and skin of three healthy dogs. The expression pattern of PAR-2 mRNA in canine tissues was similar to that in humans. The expression level of PAR-2 mRNA in skin was not different between the atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy dogs, suggesting that the level of PAR-2 mRNA transcription may not be associated with development of canine AD. The canine PAR-2 cDNA clone obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation of the immunopathogenesis of canine allergic diseases.

  8. Canine distemper virus in wild ferret-badgers of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Liao, Ming-Huei; Mortenson, Jack A

    2008-04-01

    Canine distemper is an acute or subacute, highly contagious, febrile disease that is caused by canine distemper virus (CDV). Two CDV-infected wild Taiwan ferret-badgers (Melogale moschata subauantiaca) were found in Kaohsiung County, southern Taiwan, in 2005. Each case was confirmed by detecting CDV RNA in lung and brain tissues. A suspected third case was detected based on clinical signs and histology. These cases are the first record of wildlife infected by CDV in Taiwan. It is believed that domestic dogs or coexisting wild carnivores infected with the virus were the most likely source, and a serologic survey is needed to fully understand the host range of this virus in Taiwan. In addition, further genetic sequencing is needed to determine the source of these CDV cases.

  9. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  10. Serologic survey for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in free-ranging wild carnivores from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Nuno; Almendra, Cláudia; Tavares, Luís

    2009-01-01

    A serologic survey for Canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) was performed on serum and lung extract from an opportunistic sample of 120 free-ranging wild carnivores (13 species) from Portugal, collected from 1995 to 2006. Antibodies to CDV were detected in wolf (Canis lupus; 3/27) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes; 2/22). Antibodies to CPV were detected in wolf (9/28), red fox (2/14), wildcat (Felis silvestris;1/8), genet (Genetta genetta; 17/18), and stone marten (Martes foina; 3/17). Antibodies to CPV were detected throughout the study, whereas for CDV antibodies were detected in 3 of 10 yr and only during winter. The extremely high CPV antibody prevalence in genets is unprecedented. Although based on a limited sample, these data suggest widespread exposure of free-ranging Iberian carnivores to CDV and CPV.

  11. Canine pulmonary adenocarcinoma tyrosine kinase receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) expression and activation in canine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (cpAC) biospecimens. As histological similarities exist between human and cpAC, we hypothesized that cpACs will have increased TKR mRNA and protein expression as well as TKR phosphorylation. The molecular profile of cpAC has not been well characterized making the selection of therapeutic targets that would potentially have relevant biological activity impossible. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to define TKR expression and their phosphorylation state in cpAC as well as to evaluate the tumors for the presence of potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activating mutations in exons 18–21. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TKR expression was performed using a tissue microarray (TMA) constructed from twelve canine tumors and companion normal lung samples. Staining intensities of the IHC were quantified by a veterinary pathologist as well as by two different digitalized algorithm image analyses software programs. An antibody array was used to evaluate TKR phosphorylation of the tumor relative to the TKR phosphorylation of normal tissues with the resulting spot intensities quantified using array analysis software. Each EGFR exon PCR product from all of the tumors and non-affected lung tissues were sequenced using sequencing chemistry and the sequencing reactions were run on automated sequencer. Sequence alignments were made to the National Center for Biotechnology Information canine EGFR reference sequence. Results The pro-angiogenic growth factor receptor, PDGFRα, had increased cpAC tumor mRNA, protein expression and phosphorylation when compared to the normal lung tissue biospecimens. Similar to human pulmonary adenocarcinoma, significant increases in cpAC tumor mRNA expression and receptor phosphorylation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine receptor were present when compared to the

  12. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  13. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  14. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  15. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  16. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  17. Canine distemper and related diseases: report of a severe outbreak in a kennel.

    PubMed

    Decaro, N; Camero, M; Greco, G; Zizzo, N; Tinelli, A; Campolo, M; Pratelli, A; Buonavoglia, C

    2004-04-01

    An outbreak of canine distemper in a kennel of German shepherds in the province of Bari is reported. Six 42-day-old pups developed typical signs of canine distemper (fever, conjunctivitis, respiratory distress and enteritis) and died within 7-10 days. Neurological symptoms were observed only in one pup. Four additional pups, which had shown no sign of illness, were separated and vaccinated, but two of these developed a severe, fatal nervous form 15 days later. Post-mortem examination, carried out on two pups which died without neurological signs, showed pneumonia and enteritis, more severe in one of the two examined pups. Smears from the brain and the conjunctiva of both dogs tested positive for canine distemper virus (CDV) by an immunofluorescent assay, confirmed by the identification of viral RNA using RT-PCR. Bordetella bronchiseptica and a canine adenovirus strain, characterized as canine adenovirus type 2 by a differential PCR assay, were isolated from the lungs of the pup showing the most pronounced lesions. Furthermore, canine coronavirus was detected by PCR in the intestinal content of this pup, suggesting a multifactorial aetiology of the outbreak.

  18. Genomic Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus 19

    PubMed Central

    Tisza, Michael J.; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that individual papillomas (warts) are caused by infection with individual papillomavirus types. Deep sequencing of virions extracted from a canine oral papilloma revealed the presence of canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1), CPV2, and a novel canine papillomavirus, CPV19. This suggests that papillomas sometimes harbor multiple viral species. PMID:27932663

  19. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers.

  20. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  1. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas. PMID:27918691

  2. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  3. Canine "honing" in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1990-06-01

    The maxillary canines of Australopithecus afarensis show a distal wear facet that extends from the apex of the crown to a point near the distal cingulum. Although these facets bear a superficial resemblance to the honing facets found on the projecting portions of the canines of other anthropoids, a more detailed examination provided in this paper shows that they are not homologous or functionally equivalent. The facets are not related to the use of the maxillary canine as a weapon or as an additional masticatory surface. Instead, their presence in A. afarensis represented a blunting or dulling of the posterior edge of C so that its occlusion with P3 would be consistent with cheek tooth occlusion.

  4. Mandibular canine index in establishing sex identity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shishir; Nagabhushana, D; Rao, B Balaji; Mamatha, G P

    2002-01-01

    An investigation study on sex identity through mandibular canine index directed to detect sexual dimorphism using the Mesio-Distal width of mandibular permanent canines and inter canine and inter canine arch width in the mandible was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. 360 patients were subjected to the mesio-distal measurement and inter canine arch width. Males were detected correctly in 83.3% and in females 81%. They were statistically significant and the related literatures reviewed.

  5. Canine tooth size variability in primates.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G

    1989-01-01

    I present an analysis of canine tooth size variability in male and female primates. The coefficient of variation (CV = SD X 100/mean) as an index of canine size variability proved to be dependent on mean canine size in males and, to a lower extent, in females. Therefore, variability tends to increase with increasing values of mean canine size. Using residuals from the regression of log SD on log mean canine size in male and female primates, I analysed the contribution of diet, habitat and mating system to canine size variability. Habitat and mating system are known to influence to a certain extent the degree of sexual dimorphism in canine size. Given the well-known relationship between sexual dimorphism and phenotypic variability, it was suggested that these factors might influence variability in canine size. Everything else being equal, males of polygynous species are characterized by more variable canine sizes than males of monogamous species. Habitat and diet did not contribute to the level of variability observed in either males or females. It is proposed that a high level of variability in canine size may be related to the likelihood that enlarged canines evolved as a result of male-male competition for mates in polygynous species.

  6. Canine and feline colostrum.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2016-11-30

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival.

  7. Canine lymphoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play an important role. cL is not a single disease, and a wide variation in clinical presentations and histological subtypes is recognized. Despite this potential variation, most dogs present with generalized lymphadenopathy (multicentric form) and intermediate to high-grade lymphoma, more commonly of B-cell origin. The most common paraneoplastic sign is hypercalcemia that is associated with the T-cell immunophenotype. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and a doxorubicin-based multidrug protocol is currently the standard of care. A complete remission is obtained for most dogs and lasts for a median period of 7-10 months, resulting in a median survival of 10-14 months. Many prognostic factors have been reported, but stage, immunophenotype, tumor grade, and response to chemotherapy appear of particular importance. Failure to respond to chemotherapy suggests drug resistance, which can be partly attributed to the expression of drug transporters of the ABC-transporter superfamily, including P-gp and BCRP. Ultimately, most lymphomas will become drug resistant and the development of treatments aimed at reversing drug resistance or alternative treatment modalities (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) are of major importance. This review aims to summarize the relevant data on cL, as well as to provide an update of the recent literature.

  8. Mechanical advantage of the canine triangularis sterni.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, A; Legrand, A

    1998-02-01

    Recent studies on the canine parasternal intercostal, sternomastoid, and scalene muscles have shown that the maximal changes in airway opening pressure (delta Pao) obtained per unit muscle mass (delta Pao/m) during isolated contraction are closely related to the fractional changes in muscle length per unit volume increase of the relaxed chest wall. In the present study, we have examined the validity of this relationship for the triangularis sterni, an important expiratory muscle of the rib cage in dogs. Passive inflation above functional residual capacity (FRC) induced a virtually linear increase in muscle length, such that, with a 1.0-liter inflation, the muscle lengthened by 17.9 +/- 1.6 (SE) % of its FRC length. When the muscle in one interspace was maximally stimulated at FRC, Pao increased by 0.84 +/- 0.11 cmH2O. However, in agreement with the length-tension characteristics of the muscle, when lung volume was increased by 1.0 liter before stimulation, the rise in Pao amounted to 1.75 +/- 0.12 cmH2O. At the higher volume, delta Pao/m therefore averaged +.053 +/- 0.05 cmH2O/g, such that the coefficient of proportionality between the change in triangularis sterni length during passive inflation and delta Pao/m was the same as that previously obtained for the parasternal intercostal and neck inspiratory muscles. These observations, therefore, confirm that there is a unique relationship between the fractional changes in length of the respiratory muscles, both inspiratory and expiratory, during passive inflation and their delta Pao/m. Consequently, the maximal effect of a particular muscle on the lung can be predicted on the basis of its change in length during passive inflation and its mass. A geometric analysis of the rib cage also established that the lengthening of the canine triangularis sterni during passive inflation is much greater than the shortening of the parasternal intercostals because, in dogs, the costal cartilages slope downward from the sternum.

  9. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Lung transplant Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or ... lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people who have tried other ...

  10. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung tissue that is diseased or damaged from emphysema or bronchiectasis Remove blood or blood clots ( hemothorax ) ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Collapsed Lung Emphysema Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders Browse the ...

  11. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  12. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  13. Surfactant Protein A and Napsin A in the Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Pulmonary Carcinomas: Comparison With Thyroid Transcription Factor-1.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jessica; Miller, Margaret A; Frank, Chad; DuSold, Dee; Ramos-Vara, José Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a specific and sensitive marker for canine pulmonary tumors but is also expressed in thyroid carcinomas, which commonly metastasize to lung. Napsin A and surfactant protein A (SP-A) are used in the histologic diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer in humans but have not been thoroughly evaluated in neoplasms of dogs. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of immunohistochemistry for SP-A, napsin A, and TTF-1 in the diagnosis of canine pulmonary carcinomas. TTF-1, napsin A, and SP-A antibodies were applied to 67 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine pulmonary tumors. Although each marker had good sensitivity, only 3% (2/67) of lung tumors were negative for SP-A compared with 7% (5/67) and 9% (6/67) for napsin A and TTF-1, respectively. Each antigen was detected in a greater percentage of cells of tumors with acinar or papillary patterns compared with those with squamous differentiation. SP-A immunoreactivity was absent in all 113 nonpulmonary tumors tested. Of 108 normal tissues, SP-A was detected only in lung and in 1 of 6 adrenal, 1 of 3 endometrial, and 1 of 4 hepatic sections. Based on these findings, SP-A and napsin A are useful markers of canine lung epithelial neoplasia. Of these, SP-A is the most sensitive and specific (a possible pitfall is the need to distinguish entrapped normal pulmonary epithelial cells or alveolar macrophages from neoplastic cells) and can be used in combination with TTF-1 or napsin A to improve detection and differentiation of pulmonary carcinomas from metastatic tumors in the canine lung.

  14. Canine distemper virus infection in fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Jho, Yeon-Sook; Bak, Eun-Jung

    2010-08-01

    Fifteen 8-month-old fennec foxes imported from Sudan showed fever, mucopurulent ocular discharge, diarrhea, severe emaciation, seizures, and generalized ataxia, and died. Three of the 15 animals were presented for diagnostic investigation. Severe dehydration, brain congestion, and gastric ulcers were observed in all animals. In one animal, the lungs had failed to collapse and were multifocally dark red in appearance. Histopathologically, there were lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis with malacia, mild interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion of lymphoid tissues and organs, and intestinal villous atrophy with intralesional coccidia. There were many intracytoplasmic and/or intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial cells of the medullary velum, lungs, liver, kidneys, trachea, pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, urinary bladder, and ureters, and in macrophages of malacia foci and lymphocytes and macrophages of lymphoid organs. Additionally, intestinal coccidia were confirmed to be Isospora species by a fecal test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of canine distemper with intestinal coccidiosis in fennec fox.

  15. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  16. Current developments in canine genetics.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  17. Septic shock in canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Matijatko, Vesna; Kis, Ivana; Torti, Marin; Brkljacić, Mirna; Kucer, Nada; Rafaj, Renata Barić; Grden, Darko; Zivicnjak, Tanja; Mrljak, Vladimir

    2009-06-10

    The records of all canine patients (86) that had been diagnosed with babesiosis and that were admitted to the Clinic for Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagreb from January 2007 to December 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. All dogs that had been diagnosed with canine babesiosis and that had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) followed by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and refractory hypotension, were included in this study. Of 86 patients diagnosed with canine babesiosis that were admitted during the study period, 10 had evidence of septic shock and were included in this study. Seven of the 10 dogs had a level of parasitaemia above 1%, with the highest level being 20.2%, seven of the 10 dogs were anaemic and three of the 10 dogs were leucopoenic. Thrombocytopenia was present in nine dogs. Hypoglycaemia was noted in two dogs, and bilirubinaemia in nine dogs. Four patients had involvement of two organs, five had involvement of three organs, and one had involvement of four organs. The organ that was most frequently involved was the kidney (nine cases). Central nervous system dysfunction was the rarest complication noted (one case). The mortality rate in non-septic shock canine babesiosis was 2.6%. All dogs that developed septic shock died between the first and the fourth day after admission. The 100% mortality rate that is reported here reflects the fact that in cases in which progression of the inflammatory response leads to the development of septic shock, an unfavourable outcome should be expected.

  18. Outbreak of canine distemper in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, D; Ramis, A; Tomás, A; Carpintero, E; Bargalló, F

    2008-08-23

    In 2006 an outbreak of canine distemper affected 14 young domestic ferrets in Barcelona, Spain. Their clinical signs included a reduced appetite, lethargy, dyspnoea, coughing, sneezing, mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharges, facial and perineal dermatitis, diarrhoea, splenomegaly and fever. Late in the course of the disease, general desquamation and pruritus, and hyperkeratotic/crusting dermatitis of the lips, eyes, nose, footpads, and perineal area were observed. None of the ferrets developed neurological signs. Non-regenerative anaemia and high serum concentrations of alpha- and beta-globulins were the most common laboratory findings. Most of the animals died or were euthanased because of respiratory complications. Postmortem there were no signs of lung collapse. Distemper was diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence of conjunctival swabs or pcr of several organs, and histology revealed the characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies of canine distemper virus in several organs. The minimum incubation periods calculated for six of the ferrets were 11 to 56 days, and in 13 of the ferrets the signs of disease lasted 14 to 34 days. Inclusion bodies compatible with infection by herpesvirus were found in the lungs of one of the ferrets.

  19. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this.

  20. Novel diabetes mellitus treatment: mature canine insulin production by canine striated muscle through gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Niessen, S J M; Fernandez-Fuente, M; Mahmoud, A; Campbell, S C; Aldibbiat, A; Huggins, C; Brown, A E; Holder, A; Piercy, R J; Catchpole, B; Shaw, J A M; Church, D B

    2012-07-01

    Muscle-targeted gene therapy using insulin genes has the potential to provide an inexpensive, low maintenance alternative or adjunctive treatment method for canine diabetes mellitus. A canine skeletal muscle cell line was established through primary culture, as well as through transdifferentiation of canine fibroblasts after infection with a myo-differentiation gene containing adenovirus vector. A novel mutant furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin gene insert (cppI4) was designed and created through de novo gene synthesis. Various cell lines, including the generated canine muscle cell line, were transfected with nonviral plasmids containing cppI4. Insulin and desmin immunostaining were used to prove insulin production by muscle cells and specific canine insulin ELISA to prove mature insulin secretion into the medium. The canine myoblast cultures proved positive on desmin immunostaining. All cells tolerated transfection with cppI4-containing plasmid, and double immunostaining for insulin and desmin proved present in the canine cells. Canine insulin ELISA assessment of medium of cppI4-transfected murine myoblasts and canine myoblast and fibroblast mixture proved presence of mature fully processed canine insulin, 24 and 48 h after transfection. The present study provides proof of principle that canine muscle cells can be induced to produce and secrete canine insulin on transfection with nonviral plasmid DNA containing a novel mutant canine preproinsulin gene that produces furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin. This technology could be developed to provide an alternative canine diabetes mellitus treatment option or to provide a constant source for background insulin, as well as C-peptide, alongside current treatment options.

  1. Expression of claudins, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 in canine organs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Da-Hye; Lee, Dongoh; Kang, Su-Myung; Seok, Ju-Hyung; Kang, Hee Young; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are classified as transmembrane proteins. These factors form selective permeability barriers between cells, act as paracellular transporters and regulate structural and functional polarity of cells. Although tight junctions have been previously studied, comparison of the transcriptional-translational levels of these molecules in canine organs remains to be investigated. In the present study, organ-specific expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 was examined in the canine duodenum, lung, liver and kidney. Results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the tight junctions were localized in intestinal villi and glands of the duodenum, bronchiolar epithelia and alveolar walls of the lung, endometrium and myometrium of the hepatocytes, and the distal tubules and glomeruli of the kidney. These results suggest that tight junctions are differently expressed in organs, and therefore may be involved in organ-specific functions to maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:27600198

  2. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  3. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  4. Human Recombinant Apyrase Therapy Protects Against Canine Pulmonary Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Wang, Xingan; Puyo, Carlos A.; Montecalvo, Alessandro; Huang, Howard J.; Hachem, Ramsey R.; Andreetti, Claudio; Menna, Cecilia; Chen, Ridong; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Kreisel, Daniel; Rendina, Erino A.; Gelman, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is accumulating evidence that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) promotes many of the underlying mechanisms that exacerbate acute lung injury. However, much of this data is from inbred rodent models indicating the need for further investigation in higher vertebrates to better establish clinical relevance. To this end we evaluated a human recombinant apyrase therapy in a canine warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model and measured eATP levels in human lung recipients with or without primary lung allograft dysfunction (PGD). METHODS Warm ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in the left lung of 14 mongrel dogs. Seven minutes after reperfusion, the apyrase APT102 (1 mg/kg, N=7) or saline vehicle (N=7) was injected into the pulmonary artery. Arterial blood gases were obtained every 30 minutes up to 180 minutes after reperfusion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for eATP concentration, cellularity and inflammatory mediator accumulation. Thirty bilateral human lung transplant recipients were graded for immediate early PGD and assessed for BALF eATP levels. RESULTS APT102-treated dogs had progressively better lung function and less pulmonary edema over the 3-hour reperfusion period when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Protection from IRI was observed with lower BALF eATP levels, fewer airway leukocytes and blunted inflammatory mediator expression. Additionally, human lung recipients with moderate to severe PGD had significantly higher eATP levels when compared to recipients without this injury. CONCLUSIONS Extracellular ATP accumulates in acutely injured canine and human lungs. Strategies that target eATP reduction may help protect lung recipients from IRI. PMID:25455749

  5. Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

  6. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  7. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; McDonald, Michael; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Davison, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154) isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp) and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp) that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively). The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease. PMID:27213534

  8. Fractal pattern of canine trichoblastoma.

    PubMed

    De Vico, Gionata; Cataldi, Marielda; Maiolino, Paola; Carella, Francesca; Beltraminelli, Stefano; Losa, Gabriele A

    2011-06-01

    To assess by fractal analysis the specific architecture, growth pattern, and tissue distribution that characterize subtypes of canine trichoblastoma, a benign tumor derived from or reduplicating the primitive hair germ of embryonic follicular development. Tumor masks and outlines obtained from immunohistologic images by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components were analyzed by fractal and conventional morphometry. The fractal dimension [FD] of each investigated case was determined from the slope of the regression line describing the fractal region within a bi-asymptotic curve experimentally established. All tumor masks and outlines obtained by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components showed fractal self-similar properties that were evaluated by peculiar FDs. However, only masks revealed significantly different FD values, ranging from 1.75 to 1.85, enabling the discrimination of canine trichoblastoma subtypes. The FD data suggest that an iterative morphogenetic process, involving both the air germ and associated dermal papilla, may be responsible of the peculiar tissue architecture of trichoblastoma. The present study emphasized the reliability of fractal analysis in achieving the objective characterization of canine trichoblastoma.

  9. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  10. Lung Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have severe COPD Cystic fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Pulmonary hypertension Complications of lung transplantation include rejection of the transplanted lung and infection. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  11. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  12. Collapsed Lung

    MedlinePlus

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  13. Lung resection using surgical staples in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    LaRue, S M; Withrow, S J; Wykes, P M

    1987-01-01

    Thirty seven dogs and cats were subjected to lobectomy, partial lobectomy, or pneumonectomy using stapling equipment. The most common indication was neoplasia. No operative, perioperative, or long-term deaths could be attributed to the use of staples: complications were minimal. Staple resection was believed to be safe, fast, and efficient for removal of various segments of canine and feline lung.

  14. Early prediction of maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Ann-Sophie; Voet, Martine; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish prediction criteria for maxillary canine impaction in young patients, based on angular and linear measurements on panoramic radiographs. Methods: From 828 records having at least 2 panoramic radiographs, both taken between the ages of 7 and 14 years, with a minimum 1-year and maximum 3-year interval (T1 and T2), a training data set consisting of 30 subjects with unilateral canine impaction (12 males and 18 females) was selected. The patients' mean age was 10.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.3 years] at T1 and 11.9 years (SD 1.1 years) at T2. The training data set also consisted of 30 maxillary canines from the contralateral sides and an additional 60 normal erupted canines from 30 subjects. Those 30 subjects of a test data set were selected based on displaying bilateral maxillary canine eruption at T2 and being matched for gender and age with the subjects of the training data set [12 males and 18 females; mean age at T1, 10.1 years (SD 1.3 years) and at T2, 11.1 years (SD 1.2 years)]. Angular and linear measurements were performed separately by two observers on the total study sample at T1. Linear measurements were expressed as a multiplication of the maxillary central incisor width at the non-impacted side. Results: Significant differences for linear and angular measurements and radiographic factors were found between the maxillary impacted canine and erupted maxillary canine. The three best-discriminating parameters were canine to first premolar angle, canine cusp to midline distance and canine cusp to maxillary plane distance. These three parameters were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the probability of impaction, yielding a high area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.99), with 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusions: Prediction of maxillary canine impaction from a combination of parameters relating to angles and distances measured

  15. Molecular signalling pathways in canine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, C E; York, D; Higgins, R J; LeCouteur, R A; Dickinson, P J

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we determined the expression of key signalling pathway proteins TP53, MDM2, P21, AKT, PTEN, RB1, P16, MTOR and MAPK in canine gliomas using western blotting. Protein expression was defined in three canine astrocytic glioma cell lines treated with CCNU, temozolamide or CPT-11 and was further evaluated in 22 spontaneous gliomas including high and low grade astrocytomas, high grade oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Response to chemotherapeutic agents and cell survival were similar to that reported in human glioma cell lines. Alterations in expression of key human gliomagenesis pathway proteins were common in canine glioma tumour samples and segregated between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumour types for some pathways. Both similarities and differences in protein expression were defined for canine gliomas compared to those reported in human tumour counterparts. The findings may inform more defined assessment of specific signalling pathways for targeted therapy of canine gliomas.

  16. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

  17. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  18. Canine dysautonomia: two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, P M; Scudamore, C L; Ruppert, C E; Mauchline, S; Simpson, J W

    2002-01-01

    Two clinical cases of canine dysautonomia are described. Two young female neutered dogs were presented with clinical signs including vomiting, diarrhoea, faecal tenesmus, dysphagia and urinary retention. Decreased tear production, dry mucous membranes, bilateral Horner's syndrome, decreased anal sphincter tone and gastrointestinal hypomotility were also observed. Presumptive diagnoses of dysautonomia were made based on the clinical presentation and investigations. Postmortem histopathological examination in one of the cases demonstrated marked depletion of neuronal cell bodies in the intestinal myenteric plexuses and parasympathetic ganglia, confirming the diagnosis in this case. Criteria for aiding the antemortem diagnosis of this rare condition based on clinical observations and diagnostic testing are proposed.

  19. Canine Breed-Specific Hepatopathies.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2017-05-01

    Canine hepatopathies, both congenital and acquired, arise from an interaction between genes and environment. Many show increased breed prevalences. This article reviews the current understanding on breed predispositions for congenital portosystemic shunts; microvascular dysplasia and portal vein hypoplasia; ductal plate abnormalities (congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli disease); chronic hepatitis (both copper associated and idiopathic); vacuolar hepatopathies; and gallbladder mucocele. Although all these diseases can occur in many breeds and crossbreeds, understanding breed predispositions helps recognition and will guide future research to improve understanding of causes and treatments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Dirofilaria immitis on canine cardiopulmonary physiology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of canine heartworm disease (CHD) were studied using in vitro and in vivo preparation to gain insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the characteristics lesions. The in vitro studies examined the contractile responses of pulmonary artery strips, bronchial spirals and lung parenchymal strips from normal and CHD dogs. Carbamylcholine failed to contract arteries and bronchial and parenchymal responses were the same for both groups. Decreased arterial responsiveness to histamine in both magnitude and number of strips responding was seen in the CHD group, suggesting tachyphylaxis of the histamine receptors. Enhanced responses were seen i the CHD pulmonary artery strips with norepinephrine and in the lung parenchymal strips with histamine. Hypoxia caused increased pulmonary perfusion pressures in the anesthetized dogs. Only heart rate changes and percent change in cardiac index differed. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors of the lung parenchyma were studied by radioligand binding using (H{sup 3}) prazosin. Low amount of specific binding necessitated the use of a single high concentration of ligand to determine receptor density. No differences in binding were seen.

  1. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness.

  2. Cloning of canine Toll-like receptor 7 gene and its expression in dog tissues.

    PubMed

    Okui, Yasuhumi; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2008-01-15

    Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is activated by single strand RNA and imidazoquinoline compounds, and induces interferon production. In this study, canine TLR7 cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA of canine TLR7 gene was 3419bp, encoding 1032 amino acids. The similarities of canine TLR7 with human and mouse TLR7 were 84 and 80% at the nucleotide sequence level, and 86 and 79% at amino acid sequence level, respectively. Further, the expression of TLR7 mRNA was investigated in canine normal tissues by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. The common expression level of TLR7 mRNA in tissues from three dogs examined was in large intestine, lung, pancreas, small intestine and skin, though the expression level in each tissue was varied among these healthy dogs. In other tissues (kidney, liver, lymph node, spleen, adrenal gland, and PBMCs), the level of TLR7 mRNA expression was different in individuals.

  3. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Comparison of dual-energy computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in canines.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Yang, Gui Fen; Schoepf, U Joseph; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhao, Yan E; Wu, Jiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhu, Hong; Stubenrauch, Andrew C; Mangold, Stefanie; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-02-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy between dual-energy CT lung perfused blood volume (Lung PBV) imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in detecting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) with histopathological results as reference standard in a canine model. Eighteen CTEPH canines were included into this experimental study. All procedures including paracentesis, embolization, scanning, pressure measurement and feeding medicine were repeated each two weeks, until systolic/diastolic pressure in canines was ≥ 30/15 mm Hg or mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 20 mm Hg, and then sacrificed for histopathology examination. Two radiologists (readers 1 and 2) and two nuclear radiologists (readers 3 and 4) analyzed images of conventional CT pulmonary angiography in dual-energy CT mode, Lung PBV imaging and SPECT, respectively. The presence, numbers, and locations of pulmonary emboli (PE) were recorded on a per-lobe basis. Pathological examination was served as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Lung PBV and SPECT were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to quantify inter-reader agreement. With histopathological results as reference standard, the sensitivities of 72.2%, 78.8%, 81.2%, specificities of 75.9%, 87.5%, 84.8%, accuracies of 73.8%, 83.1%, 83.1%, for readers 1, 2 and both with Lung PBV, respectively. Readers 3, 4 and both had sensitivities of 14.3%, 25.7%, 33.3%, specificities of 90.0%, 86.7%, 93.3%, accuracies of 49.2%, 53.8%, 60.0% with SPECT for detecting CTEPH. Inter-reader agreements were good for dual-energy CT (kappa=0.662) and SPECT (k=0.706) for detecting CTEPH. Dual-energy CT had a higher accuracy to detect CTEPH than SPECT in this canine model study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aging in the Canine Kidney.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Benali, S L; Aresu, L

    2016-03-01

    Given the irreversible nature of nephron loss, aging of the kidney is of special interest to diagnostic and toxicologic pathologists. There are many similarities among histologic lesions in aged human and canine kidneys, including increased frequency of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Unfortunately, there are few studies in which renal tissue from aged healthy dogs was adequately examined with advanced diagnostics-namely, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence-so age-associated changes in canine podocytes and glomerular basement membranes are poorly characterized. An age-associated decrease in the glomerular filtration rate in humans and dogs (specifically small breed dogs) has been documented. Although lesions in aged rats and mice differ somewhat from those of aged dogs and humans, the knowledge gained from rodent models is still vital to elucidating the pathogenesis of age-associated renal disease. Many novel molecules implicated in renal aging have been identified through genetically modified rodent models and transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human kidneys. These molecules represent intriguing therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Likewise, influencing critical pathways of cellular aging, such as telomere shortening, cellular senescence, and autophagy, could improve renal function in the elderly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Ibuprofen in canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, E R; Soulsby, M E; Bone, R C; Wilson, F J; Hiller, F C

    1982-01-01

    The participation of prostaglandins in the physiologic alterations of endotoxin shock has been well established with the aid of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Our study was designed to investigate the potential of ibuprofen, a highly specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, to reverse the hemodynamic and acid base abnormalities of canine endotoxin shock. Mean blood pressure fell to 49.8 +/- 6.6 mm Hg in dogs given endotoxin by 5 min after injection, and remained below 83 mm Hg for the duration of the 120-min observation period. In animals given endotoxin followed by ibuprofen, a similar initial drop of systemic blood pressure was seen, but it subsequently recovered to 150.2 +/- 4.1 mm Hg by 120 min (P less than 0.001). Cardiac index increased in animals given ibuprofen (2.3 +/- 0.28 liter/m2 per min) compared with animals given endotoxin alone (1.0 +/- 0.09 liter/m2 per min) by termination of the experiment. The arterial pH dropped in endotoxin treated animals to 7.18 +/- 0.03 by 120 min. Ibuprofen prevented the acidosis, the final pH in ibuprofen and endotoxin treated animals measuring 7.36 +/- 0.01. We conclude that ibuprofen protects against the hypotension, acidosis, and depression of cardiac index of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:7107893

  7. Identification of a Canine Adenovirus (Infectious Canine Hepatitis Virus) Inhibitor in Dog Liver Extracts as Arginase

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. Images PMID:4344396

  8. Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ruff, Christopher B

    2008-05-01

    Anthropoid primates are well known for their highly sexually dimorphic canine teeth, with males possessing canines that are up to 400% taller than those of females. Primate canine dimorphism has been extensively documented, with a consensus that large male primate canines serve as weapons for intrasexual competition, and some evidence that large female canines in some species may likewise function as weapons. However, apart from speculation that very tall male canines may be relatively weak and that seed predators have strong canines, the functional significance of primate canine shape has not been explored. Because carnivore canine shape and size are associated with killing style, this group provides a useful comparative baseline for primates. We evaluate primate maxillary canine tooth size, shape and relative bending strength against body size, skull size, and behavioral and demographic measures of male competition and sexual selection, and compare them to those of carnivores. We demonstrate that, relative to skull length and body mass, primate male canines are on average as large as or larger than those of similar sized carnivores. The range of primate female canine sizes embraces that of carnivores. Male and female primate canines are generally as strong as or stronger than those of carnivores. Although we find that seed-eating primates have relatively strong canines, we find no clear relationship between male primate canine strength and demographic or behavioral estimates of male competition or sexual selection, in spite of a strong relationship between these measures and canine crown height. This suggests either that most primate canines are selected to be very strong regardless of variation in behavior, or that primate canine shape is inherently strong enough to accommodate changes in crown height without compromising canine function.

  9. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions.

  10. Clinicopathological study of canine transmissible venereal tumour in leishmaniotic dogs.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Gaglio, G; Zanghì, A

    2012-06-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour is occasionally observed in leishmaniotic dogs, and Leishmania amastigotes can be harboured in canine transmissible venereal tumour cells. The aim of this paper was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the association of both diseases. Nineteen dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumour and canine leishmaniasis were studied retrospectively. In these dogs, the tumour manifested a large size and often aggressive behaviour (42%) and no predictive sign of spontaneous regression was observed. Sporadic Leishmania amastigotes were found within the canine transmissible venereal tumour in three cases, probably transported by infected macrophages often infiltrating the tumour. A high Leishmania parasitisation of canine transmissible venereal tumour was observed in two other cases and verified by immunohistochemistry. Canine transmissible venereal tumour is a tumour of the dog able to harbour a large number of Leishmania parasites. Alternatively, the systemic disease (canine leishmaniasis) may lower the immune defence against malignancy (canine transmissible venereal tumour). © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad epidermis.

    PubMed

    Gröne, Andrea; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Infection of the footpad epidermis can occur in natural canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of dogs. Footpads from 19 dogs experimentally inoculated with virulent distemper strain A75/17 and from two nonexposed dogs were examined histopathologically and assessed for the presence of viral antigen and nucleoprotein mRNA, as well as number of inflammatory and apoptotic cells. Dogs were divided into four groups based on inoculation status and postmortem examination: inoculated dogs with severe distemper (group 1, n = 7); inoculated dogs with mild distemper (group 2, n = 4); inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3, n = 8); and noninoculated dogs (group 4, n = 2). Footpads from dogs of all groups had a comparably thick epidermis. Eosinophilic viral inclusions and syncytial cells were present in footpad epidermis of one dog of group 1. Footpads of group 1 dogs contained viral antigen and mRNA in the epidermis with strongest staining in a subcorneal location. Additionally, in these dogs footpad dermal structures including eccrine glands and vascular walls were positive for virus particles. No CDV antigen or mRNA was present in the footpad epidermis and dermis of any other dog. Group 1 dogs had more CD3-positive cells and apoptotic cells within the basal layer of the epidermis when compared to the other groups. These findings demonstrate that in experimental infection CDV antigen and mRNA were colocalized in all layers of the infected canine footpad epidermis. The scarcity of overt pathological reactions with absence of keratinocyte degeneration indicates a noncytocidal persisting infection of footpad keratinocytes by CDV.

  12. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis.

  13. Comparative functional characterization of canine IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lisa M; McCandless, Erin E; Dunham, Steve; Dunkle, Bill; Zhu, Yaqi; Shelly, John; Lightle, Sandra; Gonzales, Andrea; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-01-15

    To date, very little is known about the functional characteristics of the four published canine IgG subclasses. It is not clear how each subclass engages the immune system via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), or how long each antibody may last in serum. Such information is critical for understanding canine immunology and for the discovery of canine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Through both in vitro and ex vivo experiments to evaluate canine Fc's for effector function, complement binding, FcRn binding, and ADCC, we are now able to categorize canine subclasses by function. The subclasses share functional properties with the four human IgG subclasses and are reported herein with their function-based human analog. Canine Fc fusions, canine chimeras, and caninized antibodies were characterized. Canine subclasses A and D appear effector-function negative while subclasses B and C bind canine Fc gamma receptors and are positive for ADCC. All canine subclasses bind the neonatal Fc receptor except subclass C. By understanding canine IgGs in this way, we can apply what is known of human immunology toward translational and veterinary medicine. Thus, this body of work lays the foundation for evaluating canine IgG subclasses for therapeutic antibody development and builds upon the fundamental scholarship of canine immunology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  15. Parturition prediction and timing of canine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YeunHee; Travis, Alexander J.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate method of predicting the date of parturition in the bitch is clinically useful to minimize or prevent reproductive losses by timely intervention. Similarly, an accurate method of timing canine ovulation and gestation is critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies, e.g. estrous synchronization and embryo transfer. This review discusses present methods for accurately timing canine gestational age and outlines their use in clinical management of high-risk pregnancies and embryo transfer research. PMID:17904630

  16. [Fractures of the canines require attention].

    PubMed

    van Foreest, Andries

    2005-01-15

    Hardly any attention was paid to a barely visible fracture of a canine tooth (104) in an 18-month-old dog. When the dog was 6-years old, a fistulous opening was seen on the bridge of the nose. A year later, radiography revealed a periapical process. The investigations performed and treatment given are described, as is the correct way to handle fractures of the canines.

  17. Endodontic treatment of a multirooted permanent maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Pandit, I K; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report an unusual case of multirooted permanent maxillary canine. A 16-year-old female patient presented with pain and swelling related to the upper right permanent canine. Radiographic examination revealed a multirooted permanent maxillary canine--an unusual finding. Endodontic treatment was performed after amputation of 2 extra roots, and then the tooth was intentionally reimplanted. The prevalence of birooted permanent mandibular canines in the Japanese population has been reported, but the prevalence of this 3-rooted maxillary canine is still unknown. This report also states the potential etiological factors, effects on the developing dentition, and various treatment options for the multirooted maxillary permanent canine.

  18. Lung transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases that may require a lung transplant are: Cystic fibrosis Damage to the arteries of the lung because ... BC; Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee; ... Therapies Committee. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: ...

  19. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  20. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem.

  1. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  2. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  3. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  4. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  5. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions.

  7. Genetic and Biochemical Biomarkers in Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, K L; McCowan, C; White, A

    2017-03-01

    In many health-related fields, there is great interest in the identification of biomarkers that distinguish diseased from healthy individuals. In addition to identifying the diseased state, biomarkers have potential use in predicting disease risk, monitoring disease progression, evaluating treatment efficacy, and informing pathogenesis. This review details the genetic and biochemical markers associated with canine primary glaucoma. While there are numerous molecular markers (biochemical and genetic) associated with glaucoma in dogs, there is no ideal biomarker that allows early diagnosis and/or identification of disease progression. Genetic mutations associated with canine glaucoma include those affecting ADAMTS10, ADAMTS17, Myocilin, Nebulin, COL1A2, RAB22A, and SRBD1. With the exception of Myocilin, there is very limited crossover in genetic biomarkers identified between human and canine glaucomas. Mutations associated with canine glaucoma vary between and within canine breeds, and gene discoveries therefore have limited overall effects as a screening tool in the general canine population. Biochemical markers of glaucoma include indicators of inflammation, oxidative stress, serum autoantibodies, matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. These markers include those that indicate an adaptive or protective response, as well as those that reflect the damage arising from oxidative stress.

  8. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  9. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  10. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  11. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  12. Factors affecting self-eruption of displaced permanent maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Smailienė, Dalia; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatienė, Kristina; Guzevičienė, Vesta; Juodžbalys, Gintaras

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of the spontaneous eruption of displaced unerupted maxillary canines after the extraction of the deciduous canine and dental arch expansion and to determine the impact of initial canine position on treatment success rate. Materials and METHODS. The study sample included 50 patients (mean age, 13.5 years [SD, 2.2]) with unilaterally displaced unerupted maxillary canines. Deciduous canines were extracted, and the space for displaced canine was created at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period for the spontaneous eruption was 12 months. The initial vertical, horizontal, labio-palatal position and angle of inclination to the midline of the displaced canine were assessed on panoramic radiographs. RESULTS. Only 42% of displaced canines erupted spontaneously within one-year period (52.9% of labially displaced canines and 36.4% of palatally displaced canines). A significant difference of inclination was determined between spontaneously erupted and unerupted teeth in the labially displaced canine group (P<0.01), with no difference in the palatally displaced canine group. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the critical angle of inclination for the spontaneous eruption of the retained canine was 20º (sensitivity 0.759; specificity 0.571; P<0.05). The majority of unerupted canines (75.9%) were inclined more than 20º. The initial height of canine was crucial for spontaneous eruption (sensitivity 0.966; specificity 0.81; P<0.001). This was true for both palatal and labial cases. CONCLUSIONS. The initial vertical position of the labially and palatally displaced canines and the inclination of the labially displaced canines were the most important predictors for spontaneous eruption of the cuspid.

  13. Correlated response, competition, and female canine size in primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M

    1998-12-01

    Recently, comparative analyses of female canine tooth size in primates have yielded two hypotheses to explain interspecific variation in female relative canine size. Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1992] Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 35:153-184; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) suggested that covariation in male and female canine size across species indicates that female canine size reflects correlated response (in which the expression of a trait in one sex causes the expression of the same trait in the other sex). Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) noted that female canine size in primates is associated with variation in categorical estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition, suggesting that selection favors large female canine size in many species. While it may seem that the two models are in conflict, they are not. To simultaneously evaluate these two models, this analysis examines the joint relations between male canine size, female canine size, and estimates of female-female competition in a sample of 108 primate species. Overall, female canine size is correlated with variation in male canine size. Controlling for variation in male canine size, female canine size is also correlated with estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition. The relation between these variables differs strongly between anthropoid and strepsirhine primates. In anthropoids, the data suggest that selection for the development of large canines in females is not constrained by any affect of correlated response. In strepsirhines, the evidence suggests that sexual selection may affect male canine size but that correlated response affects female canine size, resulting in monomorphism for most species. These observations help reconcile the observations of Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) and Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) and provide a more precise model for

  14. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-02-27

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection.

  15. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms' tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakurai, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kubo, Masahito; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-28

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.

  16. Novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary emphysema using gelatin microspheres releasing basic fibroblast growth factor in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sung Soo; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Matsuura, Natsumi; Gotoh, Masashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The prognosis of patients with emphysema is poor as there is no truly effective treatment. Our previous study showed that the alveolar space was smaller and the microvessel density was higher in a canine emphysema model after the intrapulmonary arterial administration of gelatin microspheres slowly releasing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-GMS). In the present study, we evaluated the functional effect of injecting bFGF-GMS via the pulmonary artery in this canine pulmonary emphysema model. Using the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE)-induced total emphysema model, we approximated the value of lung compliance with a Power Lab System, and performed blood gas analysis in a control group, a total emphysema group, and a bFGF group in which bFGF-GMS were injected toward the whole pulmonary artery via the femoral vein. Each group comprised five dogs. Lung compliance was higher in the total emphysema group than in the control group (p = 0.031), and the bFGF group showed no significant improvement of lung compliance vs. the total emphysema group (p = 0.112). PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) was improved by administering bFGF-GMS in the total emphysema model (p = 0.027). In the canine total emphysema model, blood gas parameters were improved by the whole pulmonary arterial administration of bFGF-GMS. This method has the potential to be an effective novel therapy for pulmonary emphysema.

  17. Lung Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  18. Multiphoton microscopy and microspectroscopy for diagnostics of inflammatory and neoplastic lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Flanders, James; Southard, Teresa L.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2012-03-01

    Limitations of current medical procedures for detecting early lung cancers inspire the need for new diagnostic imaging modalities for the direct microscopic visualization of lung nodules. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) provides for subcellular resolution imaging of intrinsic fluorescence from unprocessed tissue with minimal optical attenuation and photodamage. We demonstrate that MPM detects morphological and spectral features of lung tissue and differentiates between normal, inflammatory and neoplastic lung. Ex vivo MPM imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence was performed on mouse and canine neoplastic, inflammatory and tumor-free lung sites. Results showed that MPM detected microanatomical differences between tumor-free and neoplastic lung tissue similar to standard histopathology but without the need for tissue processing. Furthermore, inflammatory sites displayed a distinct red-shifted fluorescence compared to neoplasms in both mouse and canine lung, and adenocarcinomas displayed a less pronounced fluorescence emission in the 500 to 550 nm region compared to adenomas in mouse models of lung cancer. These spectral distinctions were also confirmed by two-photon excited fluorescence microspectroscopy. We demonstrate the feasibility of applying MPM imaging of intrinsic fluorescence for the differentiation of lung neoplasms, inflammatory and tumor-free lung, which motivates the application of multiphoton endoscopy for the in situ imaging of lung nodules.

  19. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  20. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Engelhardt, P; Zurbriggen, A

    2003-09-01

    The proliferation of footpad keratinocytes of canine distemper virus (CDV)-infected dogs was investigated. Footpads of 19 dogs inoculated experimentally with a virulent distemper strain (A75/17) and of two noninoculated control dogs were collected at necropsy. Dogs were divided into four groups according to results of the postmortem examination: dogs with severe distemper (group 1), dogs with mild distemper (group 2), inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3) and noninoculated dogs (group 4). There was no distinct difference of epidermal thickness among the four groups. Infection of the footpad epidermis with CDV was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for viral nucleoprotein and in situ hybridization for nucleoprotein messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Only group 1 dogs had viral antigen and mRNA in the footpad epidermis with the same distribution. Footpad epidermis of group 1 dogs had more mitotic figures in the basal layer, and significantly more basal keratinocytes were positive for the proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Double-staining for Ki-67 and viral nucleoprotein identified rare double-labeled basal keratinocytes. These findings suggest that the presence of CDV particles in the footpad epidermis is associated with keratinocyte proliferation.

  1. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine...

  2. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine...

  3. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  4. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  5. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  6. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    PubMed

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Bianchi, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT) concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018), opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics. PMID:27800192

  8. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage.

  9. Molecular characteristics of canine parainfluenza viruses type 5 (CPIV-5) isolated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Three canine parainfluenza viruses type 5 (CPIV-5) were isolated from lung tissues of 3 Korean dogs with mild pneumonia between 2008 and 2009. The isolates were fully sequenced and compared with published reference sequences. The size of the genome was 15 246 nucleotides long and no remarkable differences were found when compared with previously published reference sequences. In phylogenetic analysis based on the F and P genes, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5) strains were divided into at least 3 subgroups. Three CPIV-5 strains were clustered with CPIV-5 T1, H22 and 78524 strains. All PIV-5 strains were independent of the host species, geographical distribution, and the isolated period.

  10. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S.; Wisner, Erik R.; Johnson, Lynelle R.; Stern, Joshua A.; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t

  11. Single-energy computed tomography-based pulmonary perfusion imaging: Proof-of-principle in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kent, Michael S; Wisner, Erik R; Johnson, Lynelle R; Stern, Joshua A; Qi, Lihong; Fujita, Yukio; Boone, John M

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion. In a protocol approved by the institutional animal care and use committee, the authors acquired CT scans in the prone position for a total of 14 anesthetized canines (seven canines with normal lungs and seven canines with diseased lungs). The elastix algorithm was used for DIR. The accuracy of DIR was evaluated based on the target registration error (TRE) of 50 anatomic pulmonary landmarks per subject for 10 randomly selected subjects as well as on singularities (i.e., regions where the displacement vector field is not bijective). Prior to perfusion computation, HUs of the precontrast end-inspiratory image were corrected for variation in the lung inflation level between the precontrast and postcontrast end-inspiratory CT scans, using a model built from two additional precontrast CT scans at end-expiration and midinspiration. The authors also assessed spatial heterogeneity and gravitationally directed gradients of regional perfusion for normal lung subjects and diseased lung subjects using a two-sample two-tailed t-test. The mean TRE

  12. Genetic characteristics of canine bocaviruses in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2015-09-30

    To survey for canine bocavirus (CBoV) infection, 83 Korean dogs showing several clinical signs were collected in different provinces from January 2013 to July 2014. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization, CBoVs were detected in intestine and/or lung samples of 8 dogs (9.6%). To reveal the genetic characteristics of CBoVs, partial or complete regions of CBoVs were sequenced. In phylogenetic trees, 8 CBoVs fell into three clusters. The CBoV strains 13D226-1, 13D250, and 14Q216 were closely related to the CBoV HK831F strain, and the CBoV 14D142 strain was related to the CBoV HK882F strain. Lastly, CBoV 13D003, 13D095, 14D193, and 14Q209 strains were related to CBoV Dis-023, Dis-040, and Dis-046 strains. Interestingly, no canine pathogens were found in dogs in which four CBoVs (13D003, 13D0095, 14D142, and 14D193 strains) were detected and three of them (13D003, 13D095, and 14D193 strains) had a unique deletion (18 nucleotides) in the VP2 gene. Further, the open reading frame 4 (ORF4) region was absent in these 4CBoVs, but found in the other strains, which indicates that the absence of the ORF4 region rather than a unique deletion may have an influence on the pathogenesis of CBoV in dogs.

  13. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    PubMed

    Hagman, R

    2016-11-03

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed.

  14. Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.

  15. Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L

    2001-09-01

    Careful review of the literature regarding clinical signs caused by hypothyroidism in dogs has shown that some assumptions regarding the relation of hypothyroidism to other conditions are based on anecdotal evidence. Cutaneous manifestations are present in most hypothyroid dogs, but the specific abnormalities and breed variations remain to be clearly defined. Decreased metabolic rate manifested by obesity and lethargy is also common. Neurologic manifestations, although uncommon, clearly occur in hypothyroid dogs. Cardiac abnormalities seem to be common, but their clinical significance is questionable. The only consistent hematologic abnormality that occurs in hypothyroid dogs is anemia; evidence for acquired von Willebrand's disease or other bleeding disorders is negligible. Reproductive dysfunction secondary to hypothyroidism is unlikely to occur in male dogs, and there is no evidence to support abnormalities in female dogs. The relation of megaesophagus, laryngeal paralysis, ocular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders with hypothyroidism remains to be established. Future research into canine hypothyroidism may serve to convert dogma into a more clear understanding of the manifestations and pathophysiologic findings of this common endocrinopathy.

  16. The effect of canine characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when canine teeth are substituted for lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Wendy Jane; Barber, Sophy K; Spencer, Richard James

    2015-03-01

    To determine the effect of canine tooth characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when maxillary canine teeth are substituted for missing lateral incisors. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Non-clinical study undertaken from Leeds Dental Institute, UK. A composite full-face image of a smiling female was used to display various dentitions; a control image with an 'ideal' smile, plus six further images substituting the maxillary lateral incisors with canine teeth either unilaterally or bilaterally with varying size, shape, colour and gingival margin level. The seven images were shown to orthodontists (n = 30), dentists (n = 30) and lay people (n = 30) who were asked to rate smile attractiveness using a visual analogue scale. Dental professionals rated smiles with canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis to be significantly less attractive than an ideal smile unless the substituted canine teeth approximated the lateral incisor in terms of size, shape, colour and gingival margin. Lay people did not find smiles where canine teeth were substituted for lateral incisors significantly more or less attractive than an ideal smile regardless of the canine tooth characteristics. Dental professionals were significantly more perceptive than lay people to the deviation from ideal smile aesthetics due to canine substitution. Smiles with unilateral canine substitution were not found to be significantly less attractive than bilateral canine substitution by all groups. Canine characteristics and observer status will affect how canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis is viewed in terms of aesthetic outcome.

  17. [The lung].

    PubMed

    Martinod, Emmanuel; Uzunhan, Yurdagül; Radu, Dana M; Seguin, Agathe; Boddaert, Guillaume; Valeyre, Dominique; Planès, Carole; Carpentier, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Lung transplantation is still the only curative treatment for end-stage pulmonary diseases. The results remain poor, however, because of the limited availability of lung donors, chronic rejection, and complications related to immunosuppressive therapy. The use of a bioartificial lung generated from autologous cells could offer a solution. We have demonstrated that in vivo epithelial and cartilage regeneration of the airways is feasible with the use of an aortic tissue matrix. Other studies show that in vitro and in vivo airway regeneration, respectively, can be obtained by using bio-engineering and heterotopic allograft implantation. A more complex challenge is the creation of an artificial lung Indeed, this would require the use of an elastic matrix that can promote regeneration of the different lung components (airways, alveoli, vessels) over a large surface area, thus allowing ventilation, blood perfusion and gas exchanges. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of in vitro and in vivo regeneration of lung tissue from autologous cells, and especially stem cells. This emerging research field is currently dominated by the use of decellularized lung matrices and autologous epithelial and endothelial cells. Implantation of such a recellularized matrix in animals has proved the feasibility of a functional bio-artificial lung. The first human transplantation of a bio-artificial lung should be possible within 10-20 years.

  18. Intracellular calcium in canine muscle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Valentine, B A; Cooper, B J; Gallagher, E A

    1989-04-01

    Intracellular staining for calcium was studied in muscle biopsies from 15 dogs by the alizarin red S (ARS) stain. Rare positive fibres were present in normal muscle and in denervation atrophy. The percentage of positive fibres was slightly increased in polymyositis, dermatomyositis and canine temporal/masseter myositis and markedly increased in progressive muscular dystrophy. Calcium-positive fibres were usually so-called large-dark (hypercontracted) fibres or necrotic fibres, although there was occasional staining of normal and atrophied fibres. These results indicate the probable involvement of calcium in muscle injury in canine inflammatory myopathies and in canine muscular dystrophy. In addition, use of the ARS stain appears to be useful for detecting the earliest lesions of acute muscle fibre injury.

  19. Biomarkers in canine inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, M; Rychlik, A; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A

    2013-01-01

    Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. The etiology, similar to human IBD, remains unknown. Canine IBD is diagnosed by exclusion, which is a long, time and money-consuming process due to the need of elimination of other diseases presenting with similar symptoms. Therefore, a search for a specific and sensitive marker is needed to overcome these difficulties. The article is divided into 3 sections presenting up-to-date information about laboratory markers, immunohistochemical markers and changes in the neurochemical coding of the enteric nervous system, concentrating on their usefulness and future applications. Data concerning laboratory and immunohistochemical markers is based mainly on canine IBD, while the neuroimmunohistochemistry section presents knowledge from human IBD due to the lack of such studies in veterinary medicine.

  20. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio >1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in >1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the canine prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, T A; Lu, B; Smock, S L; Vestergaard, P; Pan, L C; Owen, T A

    1999-05-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) binds to four G-protein coupled cell surface receptors (EP1-EP4) and has been implicated as a local mediator of bone anabolism via a cyclic AMP mediated pathway following activation of the EP2 and/or EP4 receptor subtype. A canine kidney cDNA library was screened using a human EP2 probe, and a clone with an open reading frame of 1083 bp, potentially encoding a protein of 361 amino acids, was characterized. This open reading frame has 89% identity to the human EP2 cDNA at the nucleotide level and 87% identity at the predicted protein level. Scatchard analysis of a CHO cell line stably transfected with canine EP2 yielded a dissociation constant of 22 nM for PGE2. Competition binding studies, using 3H-PGE2 as ligand, demonstrated specific displacement by PGE2, Prostaglandin E1, Prostaglandin A3, and butaprost (an EP2 selective ligand), but not by ligands with selectivity for the related DP, FP, IP, or TP receptors. Specific ligand binding also resulted in increased levels of cAMP in EP2 transfected cells with no evidence of short-term, ligand-induced desensitization. Northern blot analysis revealed two transcripts of 3300 and 2400 bp in canine lung, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed expression in all tissues examined. Southern blot analysis suggests the presence of a single-copy gene for EP2 in the dog.

  2. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  3. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  4. Oncolytic virotherapy of canine and feline cancer.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-05-16

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  5. The Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus-2 in a Selected Sample of the Canine Population in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Carman, P. S.; Povey, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Canine sera, collected from dogs presented to the Ontario Veterinary College between 1976 and 1980, were assessed for canine parvovirus-2 antibody using a microtitre hemagglutination-inhibition test. Special emphasis was made on the period from September 1979 to October 1980 (2892 samples). No antibody was detected in samples collected in 1976 or 1977. The first positive sera were obtained in January 1978. By the end of 1978 antibodies to canine parvovirus-2 were widespread in Ontario dogs and in 1980, 683 of 2191 dogs (31.2%) had antibody. This was before widespread vaccination was being practised and indicates canine parvovirus-2 infection occurred frequently. Evaluation of clinical records of these dogs suggested that most infections had been subclinical. PMID:17422418

  6. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf.

  7. Serologic response of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to canine and canine parvovirus vaccination distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M

    2001-03-01

    This study evaluated the immune response of 47 (22 males, 25 females) captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to modified-live canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus (Onderstepoort and Rockborn strains) vaccines. Sera were collected from 33 adults and 14 pups, including five free-ranging pups captured at 1 yr of age or younger. All the adults and four captive-born pups had been vaccinated prior to this first blood collection. Virus neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed for quantitating antibodies against canine distemper and canine parvovirus, respectively. Distemper antibody titers > or = 100 were present in 57% of adults and 14% of pups. All adults and 29% of pups had parvovirus antibody titers > or = 80. After vaccination, 72% of the wolves developed antibody titers > or = 100 against distemper and 98% developed titers > or = 80 against parvovirus. Both vaccines used were safe and immunogenic to juvenile and adult maned wolves, regardless of prior vaccination history.

  8. Forty years of canine vaccination.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J

    1999-01-01

    During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic "nosodes" to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago.

  9. Development of a novel lung-stabilizing device for VATS procedures.

    PubMed

    Muranishi, Yusuke; Sato, Toshihiko; Yutaka, Yojiro; Sakaguchi, Yasuto; Komatsu, Teruya; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Hirata, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-03-08

    The use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has substantially increased in recent years. These procedures involve the insertion of specialized devices into the thoracic cavity via access ports. However, conventional devices such as cotton-tipped applicators and graspers can limit the field of view and injure the fragile lung tissue. The aim of this study was to develop a novel lung-stabilizing device for VATS that provides a good surgical field of view without causing lung injury. We developed a novel suction-based lung-stabilizing device equipped with three hemispheric 20-mm-diameter silicon suction cups. The utility and safety of the novel device were evaluated using a resected pig lung and canine models. In order to assess potential organ damage arising from the use of the novel device, canine lung parenchyma and pleura were macroscopically and microscopically examined after the device had been continuously applied under negative pressure conditions of -400 or -540 mmHg for 1 h. To assess the utility of the novel device, we performed lobectomies in the resected pig lung and VATS in canine models. The device demonstrated sufficient power to stabilize the lungs and provided a clear field of view during surgery, which enabled us to perform VATS lobectomies more easily than conventional stabilizing forceps. Assessment of the dogs' lungs immediately after detaching the suction-based device revealed no complications such as hemorrhage, air leaks, and bullae formation. Pathological examination after 7 days also showed no substantial damage, except for a small impression in the parenchyma and pleura of the surface layer where the device had contacted the lung tissue. Although further validation studies in clinical settings are required, our study indicates that the novel lung-stabilizing device has potentially useful applications in VATS procedures.

  10. H3N2 canine influenza virus causes severe morbidity in dogs with induction of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are companion animals that live in close proximity with humans. Canine H3N2 influenza virus has been isolated from pet dogs that showed severe respiratory signs and other clinical symptoms such as fever, reduced body weight, and interstitial pneumonia. The canine H3N2 influenza virus can be highly transmissible among dogs via aerosols. When we analyzed global gene expression in the lungs of infected dogs, the genes associated with the immune response and cell death were greatly elevated. Taken together, our results suggest that canine H3N2 influenza virus can be easily transmitted among dogs, and that severe pneumonia in the infected dogs may be partially due to the elevated expression of genes related to inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:24090140

  11. Serological and molecular epidemiology of canine adenovirus type 1 in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David; Fee, Seán A.; Hartley, Gill; Learmount, Jane; O’Hagan, Maria J. H.; Meredith, Anna L.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Porphyre, Thibaud; Sharp, Colin P.; Philbey, Adrian W.

    2016-01-01

    Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) causes infectious canine hepatitis (ICH), a frequently fatal disease which primarily affects canids. In this study, serology (ELISA) and molecular techniques (PCR/qPCR) were utilised to investigate the exposure of free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to CAV-1 in the United Kingdom (UK) and to examine their role as a wildlife reservoir of infection for susceptible species. The role of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), primarily a respiratory pathogen, was also explored. In foxes with no evidence of ICH on post-mortem examination, 29 of 154 (18.8%) red foxes had inapparent infections with CAV-1, as detected by a nested PCR, in a range of samples, including liver, kidney, spleen, brain, and lung. CAV-1 was detected in the urine of three red foxes with inapparent infections. It was estimated that 302 of 469 (64.4%) red foxes were seropositive for canine adenovirus (CAV) by ELISA. CAV-2 was not detected by PCR in any red foxes examined. Additional sequence data were obtained from CAV-1 positive samples, revealing regional variations in CAV-1 sequences. It is concluded that CAV-1 is endemic in free-ranging red foxes in the UK and that many foxes have inapparent infections in a range of tissues. PMID:27796367

  12. Serological and molecular epidemiology of canine adenovirus type 1 in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Walker, David; Fee, Seán A; Hartley, Gill; Learmount, Jane; O'Hagan, Maria J H; Meredith, Anna L; de C Bronsvoort, Barend M; Porphyre, Thibaud; Sharp, Colin P; Philbey, Adrian W

    2016-10-31

    Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) causes infectious canine hepatitis (ICH), a frequently fatal disease which primarily affects canids. In this study, serology (ELISA) and molecular techniques (PCR/qPCR) were utilised to investigate the exposure of free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to CAV-1 in the United Kingdom (UK) and to examine their role as a wildlife reservoir of infection for susceptible species. The role of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), primarily a respiratory pathogen, was also explored. In foxes with no evidence of ICH on post-mortem examination, 29 of 154 (18.8%) red foxes had inapparent infections with CAV-1, as detected by a nested PCR, in a range of samples, including liver, kidney, spleen, brain, and lung. CAV-1 was detected in the urine of three red foxes with inapparent infections. It was estimated that 302 of 469 (64.4%) red foxes were seropositive for canine adenovirus (CAV) by ELISA. CAV-2 was not detected by PCR in any red foxes examined. Additional sequence data were obtained from CAV-1 positive samples, revealing regional variations in CAV-1 sequences. It is concluded that CAV-1 is endemic in free-ranging red foxes in the UK and that many foxes have inapparent infections in a range of tissues.

  13. Lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  14. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  15. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  16. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  17. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  18. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  19. Canine distemper virus associated proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, P; Wyder, M; Zurbriggen, A; Gröne, A

    2005-04-25

    Infection of canine footpads with canine distemper virus (CDV) can result in so-called hard pad disease characterized by footpad epidermal proliferation and hyperkeratosis. Cultured canine footpad keratinocytes (CFK) were inoculated with a virulent canine distemper virus strain (A75/17-CDV) to study the effects of CDV-infection on keratinocyte proliferation. Infection was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for CDV nucleoprotein (N-protein) antigen and mRNA. CDV caused a persistent, non-cytocidal infection with spread from single cells to infection of the confluent cell layer 7 days post infection (p.i.). Absolute cell numbers were significantly higher in infected cultures compared to control cultures from day 4 until day 6 p.i. Infected cultures contained significantly more total DNA on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. Immunohistochemical investigation of proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU demonstrated a nearly two-fold increase in numbers of positive cells on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. These findings demonstrate that canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro was associated with proliferation.

  20. Extra-intestinal detection of canine kobuvirus in a puppy from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Diniz, Jaqueline Assumpção; Pereira, Alfredo Hajime Tanaka; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings associated with the extra-intestinal detection of canine kobuvirus (CaKV) in a 5-month-old Chihuahua puppy, that had a clinical history of bloody-tinged feces. Principal pathological findings were interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing bronchitis, and parvovirus-induced enteritis. Molecular diagnostic methods identified CaKV within the cerebellum, cerebrum, lung, tonsil, and liver. CaKV and rotavirus were not identified within the feces and intestine. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays detected antigens of CDV and CAdV-1 in the lungs. These results confirmed the extra-intestinal detection of CaKV in this puppy and represent the first extra-intestinal detection of CaKV in a dog.

  1. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  2. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  3. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  4. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  5. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  6. Mortality increases after massive exchange transfusion with older stored blood in canines with experimental pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Steven B; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Kanias, Tamir; Feng, Jing; Helms, Christine C; Solomon, Michael A; Alimchandani, Meghna; Quezado, Martha; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2013-02-28

    Two-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24) infected with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia were randomized in a blinded fashion for exchange transfusion with either 7- or 42-day-old canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Older blood increased mortality (P = .0005), the arterial alveolar oxygen gradient (24-48 hours after infection; P ≤ .01), systemic and pulmonary pressures during transfusion (4-16 hours) and pulmonary pressures for ~ 10 hours afterward (all P ≤ .02). Further, older blood caused more severe lung damage, evidenced by increased necrosis, hemorrhage, and thrombosis (P = .03) noted at the infection site postmortem. Plasma cell–free hemoglobin and nitric oxide (NO) consumption capability were elevated and haptoglobin levels were decreased with older blood during and for 32 hours after transfusion (all P ≤ .03). The low haptoglobin (r = 0.61; P = .003) and high NO consumption levels at 24 hours (r = −0.76; P < .0001) were associated with poor survival. Plasma nontransferrin-bound and labile iron were significantly elevated only during transfusion (both P = .03) and not associated with survival (P = NS). These data from canines indicate that older blood after transfusion has a propensity to hemolyze in vivo, releases vasoconstrictive cell-free hemoglobin over days, worsens pulmonary hypertension, gas exchange, and ischemic vascular damage in the infected lung, and thereby increases the risk of death from transfusion.

  7. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  8. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. Objectives: To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18–25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. Results: All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. Conclusion: The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification. PMID:27555724

  10. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Epsilon

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Limin; Xu, Lei; Li, Yun; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of the entire family of canine interferons (IFNs). Canine IFN-ɛ (IFNE), IFN-κ (IFNK), and IFN-λ (IFNL) were discovered for the first time. Ten functional and 2 truncated IFN-α (IFNA) pseudogenes were found in the genome, which also enriched the existing knowledge about canine IFNA. The canine type I IFN genes are clustered on chromosome 11, and their relative arrangements are illustrated. To further investigate the biological activity of canine IFNE, it was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli. Recombinant canine IFNE (rCaIFN-ɛ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in vitro, indicating that rCaIFN-ɛ has more broad cross-species activity than recombinant canine IFNA (rCaIFN-α). The antiviral activities of rCaIFN-ɛ and rCaIFN-α7 against different viruses on MDCK cells were also evaluated. The antiviral activities of recombinant canine IFNK and IFNL were demonstrated using a VSV-MDCK virus-target cell system. rCaIFN-ɛ exhibited a significant anti-proliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK canine epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. rCaIFN-α7 was approximately 16-fold more potent than rCaIFN-ɛ in promoting natural killer cell cytotoxicity activity. Further, rCaIFN-ɛ can activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. PMID:23964570

  11. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    PubMed

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  12. Intrasexual competition and canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M; van Schaik, C P

    1992-04-01

    A number of factors, including sexual selection, body weight, body-weight dimorphism, predation, diet, and phylogenetic inertia have been proposed as influences on the evolution of canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates. Although these factors are not mutually exclusive, opinions vary as to which is the most important. The role of sexual selection has been questioned because mating system, which should reflect its strength, poorly predicts variation in canine dimorphism, particularly among polygynous species. Kay et al. (1988) demonstrate that a more refined estimate of intermale competition explains a large proportion of the variation in canine dimorphism in platyrrhine primates. We expand their analysis, developing a more generalized measure of intermale competition based on the frequency and intensity of male-male agonism. We examine the relative influences of predation (inferred by substrate use), female body weight, body-weight dimorphism, diet, and sexual selection on the evolution of anthropoid canine dimorphism. Intermale competition is very strongly associated with canine dimorphism. Predation also has a marked effect on canine dimorphism, in that savanna-dwelling species consistently show greater canine dimorphism than other species, all other factors being held equal. Body-weight dimorphism is also strongly associated with canine dimorphism, though apparently through a common selective basis, rather than through allometric effects. Body weight seems to play only a minor, indirect role in the evolution of canine dimorphism. Diet plays no role. Likewise, we find little evidence that phylogenetic inertia is a constraint on the evolution of canine dimorphism.

  13. Survivin expression in canine epidermis and in canine and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Laura; Colombi, Isabella; Fortunato, Carmine; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2009-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is ubiquitously expressed during tissue development, undetectable in most normal tissues, but re-expressed in most cancers, including skin malignancies. Expression of survivin was evaluated retrospectively in 19 canine cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; one in situ; 16 well differentiated; one invasive, one lymph node metastasis) and 19 well differentiated SCCs from human beings. Seven specimens of normal canine skin were included. Immunohistochemical expression of full-length survivin was determined using a commercially available antibody. In addition, apoptotic rate [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labelling index (TUNEL) index] and mitotic index (MI), counting mitoses in 10 high power fields (HPF), were determined. Scattered survivin positive nuclei were identified in the epidermal basal cell layer of normal canine skin. Nuclear survivin expression was identified in 18 of 19 human and in all canine SCCs, mainly along the base of the tumour cell population. Cytoplasmic survivin expression was rarely observed in human SCCs and in 84.2% of canine SCCs. The TUNEL index ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 in human beings and from 7.5 to 69.4 in dogs, while MIs ranged from 0 to 4 in human beings and dogs. No correlation was found between survivin expression and apoptotic or mitotic rates. Canine and human tumours showed similar nuclear survivin expression, indicating similar functions of the molecule. We demonstrated survivin expression in normal adult canine epidermis. Increased nuclear survivin expression in pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions demonstrates a possible association of survivin with development of SCCs in human beings and dogs.

  14. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  15. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-16

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species.

  16. Canine visceral leishmaniasis as a systemic fibrotic disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucelia C; Castro, Rodrigo S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Michalick, Marilene S M; Tafuri, Washington L; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2013-01-01

    We propose that canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic fibrotic disease, as evidenced by the wide distribution of fibrosis that we have found in the dogs suffering from chronic condition. The inflammatory cells apparently direct fibrosis formation. Twenty-four cases (symptomatic dogs) were identified from a total of one hundred and five cases that had been naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi and had been documented during an epidemiological survey of CVL carried out by the metropolitan area of the municipality of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. The histological criterion was intralobular liver fibrosis, as has been described previously in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. In addition to the findings in the liver, here we describe and quantify conspicuous and systemic deposition of collagen in other organs, including spleen, cervical lymph nodes, lung and kidney of all the infected symptomatic dogs. Thus we report that there is a systematic fibrotic picture in these animals, where inflammatory cells appear to direct fibrosis in all organs that have been studied. Therefore we propose that CVL is a systemic fibrotic disease. PMID:23419132

  17. Lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sputum test to look for cancer cells Thoracentesis (sampling of fluid buildup around the lung) In most ... quitting, talk with your provider. There are many methods to help you quit, from support groups to ...

  18. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... will recover in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) before moving to a hospital room for one to three weeks. Your doctor may recommend pulmonary rehabilitation after your lung transplant surgery to help you ...

  19. Unexpandable lung.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  1. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  2. European canine lymphoma network consensus recommendations for reporting flow cytometry in canine hematopoietic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Comazzi, S; Avery, P R; Garden, O A; Riondato, F; Rütgen, B; Vernau, W

    2017-09-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is assuming increasing importance in diagnosis in veterinary oncology. The European Canine Lymphoma Network (ECLN) is an international cooperation of different institutions working on canine lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. The ECLN panel of experts on FC has defined the issue of reporting FC on canine lymphoma and leukemia as their first hot topic, since a standardized report that includes all the important information is still lacking in veterinary medicine. The flow cytometry panel of the ECLN started a consensus initiative using the Delphi approach. Clinicians were considered the main target of FC reports. A panel of experts in FC was interrogated about the important information needed from a report. Using the feedback from clinicians and subsequent discussion, a list of information to be included in the report was made, with four different levels of recommendation. The final report should include both a quantitative part and a qualitative or descriptive part with interpretation of the salient results. Other items discussed included the necessity of reporting data regarding the quality of samples, use of absolute numbers of positive cells, cutoff values, the intensity of fluorescence, and possible aberrant patterns of antigen expression useful from a clinical point of view. The consensus initiative is a first step toward standardization of diagnostic approach to canine hematopoietic neoplasms among different institutions and countries. This harmonization will improve communication and patient care and also facilitate the multicenter studies necessary to further our knowledge of canine hematopoietic neoplasms. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Interceptive approach to treatment of impacted maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Verri, Ana Caroline Gonçales; Martins, Lídia Pimenta; Fabre, Aubrey Fernando; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido

    2012-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines can be prevented by early intervention in the mixed dentition phase after the correct diagnosis of malocclusion, reducing the complexity of the treatment. This article reports the case of a 10-year-old patient who possessed impacted maxillary canines and, after early extraction of primary canines, had reestablished favorable permanent successors' eruption axis. This 5-year radiographic follow-up study with panoramic radiography shows that this can be used in practice and that an effective control strategy ensures the accuracy in the inclination of the impacted canines. Treatment success is related to early diagnosis and strategic interceptive treatment choice.

  4. What factors are associated with impacted canines in cleft patients?

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Anna; Sjöström, Mats; Björnström, Lena; Ransjö, Maria

    2014-11-01

    It is important to predict and prevent the impaction of canines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impacted canines in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to identify factors associated with impaction. This retrospective cohort study included patients with nonsyndromic UCLP. The predictors were pre-eruptive inclination angle, deviation in tooth number (agenesis or supernumerary lateral incisors), and reoperation of bone transplant. The outcome variable was impacted and surgically exposed canines. The prevalence of impacted and surgically exposed canines in the 68 consecutive patients with UCLP was 20.6%. The pre-eruptive inclination angle was significantly larger (34.4°) for the impacted canines on the cleft side compared with the spontaneously erupted canines on the cleft and non-cleft sides (25.5° vs 15.4; P < .05). Reoperation of the bone transplant significantly increased canine impaction (50%; P < .05). The eruption of maxillary canines needs to be supervised carefully in patients with UCLP, because the prevalence of impaction is 10 times higher compared with the general population. Factors associated with canine impaction are a pre-eruptive inclination larger than 30° and reoperation of the bone transplant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental processes and canine dimorphism in primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary T; Miller, Ellen R; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of canine sexual dimorphism is important for interpreting the developmental biology, socioecology and phylogenetic position of primates. All current evidence for extant primates indicates that canine dimorphism is achieved through bimaturism rather than via differences in rates of crown formation time. Using incremental growth lines, we charted the ontogeny of canine formation within species of Eocene Cantius, the earliest known canine-dimorphic primate, to test whether canine dimorphism via bimaturism was developmentally canalized early in primate evolution. Our results show that canine dimorphism in Cantius is achieved primarily through different rates of crown formation in males and females, not bimaturism. This is the first demonstration of rate differences resulting in canine dimorphism in any primate and therefore suggests that canine dimorphism is not developmentally homologous across Primates. The most likely interpretation is that canine dimorphism has been selected for at least twice during the course of primate evolution. The power of this approach is its ability to identify underlying developmental processes behind patterns of morphological similarity, even in long-extinct primate species.

  6. Canine islets in an ultrafiltered environment.

    PubMed

    Merrell, R C; Basadonna, G

    1985-11-01

    Molecular sieve membranes can protect pancreatic islets against immune recognition in diabetic patients treated by endocrine tissue replacement. These biocompatible membranes permit the passage of small peptides such as insulin, and preclude the diffusion of immunoglobulins and immunogenic molecules. However, the tissue must function indefinitely in an ultrafiltered environment determined by the sequestering membranes. The chronic perifusion of canine islet tissue was compared in ultrafiltered and microfiltered chambers. The biphasic pattern of insulin release by similar numbers of islets from the same pancrease preparation was not significantly different when tissue was cultured in a micro- or an ultrafiltered environment. The cumulative insulin output of the two systems was quite similar over 3 days of culture. Canine islet tissue can be sustained in an ultrafiltered environment with maintenance of insulin release to glucose stimulation, which is quantitatively similar to islet tissue maintained in chronic perifusion without ultrafiltration.

  7. Reevaluating canine perspective-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2011-12-01

    Udell, Dorey, and Wynne (2011) demonstrated that both domesticated and nondomesticated canids-specifically, gray wolves-have the capacity to succeed on perspective-taking tasks, suggesting that dogs' ability to respond to the human attentional state is not a by-product of domestication alone. Furthermore, not all dogs were successful on the task. Instead, the occluder type used was a strong predictor of performance, indicating the important role of environment and experience for tasks of this type. Here, we address several commentaries reflecting on the methods and design of that study, as well as the interpretation of the results. We also discuss the positive shift toward more interactive approaches in the field of canine behavior and cognition. Finally, we question the functionality of describing canine social behavior in terms of theory of mind.

  8. Mapping lubricin in canine musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Berger, Evelyn J; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Jay, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Lubricin, also known as superficial zone protein or PRG4, has many distinct biological functions, including lubrication, antiadhesion, and as a regulator of cell growth. This study investigated lubricin in canine musculoskeletal tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. One or more variants were noted in canine flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon, Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, A2 pulley, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee lateral collateral ligament (LCL), articular cartilage, meniscus, muscle, and skin. We found 6 N-terminal lubricin splicing variants. The variants with larger sizes were identified in FDP tendon, ACL, LCL, A2 pulley, and cartilage. Lubricin was distributed both on the tissue surfaces and at the interface of fiber bundles within tissues, but this distribution varied by tissue type. We conclude that lubricin is present in many tissues; variations in splicing and physical distribution suggest that the variants of lubricin may play different roles in different locations.

  9. Kynanthropy: canine madness in Byzantine late antiquity.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Nadine

    2015-09-01

    Those afflicted bark like dogs, scramble on all fours and loiter around graveyards - canine madness, referred to as kynanthropy, was an illness concept in its own right in the medicine of late antiquity. At roughly the same time as the medical description produced by Aëtius of Amida, the Syrian chronicler John of Ephesus, also from Amida, reported an epidemic of dog-like madness sweeping his home town in ad 560. The symptoms are identical and both authors are from Amida - what is the connection between the two depictions? In addition to the history of the medical concept, the example of the canine madness of Amida and its cultural embedding allows us to contextualize and interpret the significance of dog-like behaviour for the people of the sixth century AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Isolation and cultivation of canine uveal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Baglien, Ethan M; Winkler, Paige A; Bruewer, Ashlee R; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Bartoe, Joshua T

    2015-07-01

    To establish a method for isolation and culture of canine uveal melanocytes. Uveal explants from five mixed-breed dogs. Donor globes were dissected, and the anterior uvea removed. The uveal explants were placed in trypsin solution for enzymatic digestion. Extracted cells were cultured in modified F12 media. Immunocytochemistry was performed to confirm the identity of the extracted cells. Melanocytes were successfully isolated from uveal explants. Contaminating cell types were not observed. Repeated passaging of the melanocytes resulted in a gradual decrease in intracellular pigment. Melanocyte cell lines could be cryopreserved, thawed, and cultures successfully reestablished. This extraction technique allows for generation of large populations of canine uveal melanocytes in a relatively short period of time. This technique could be a useful tool for future studies investigating both normal cellular characteristics and alterations found in melanocytes from dogs with ocular melanocytic disorders. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. The treatment of canine demodecosis with amitraz.

    PubMed

    Davis, D A

    1985-03-01

    The treatment of a series of 27 clinical cases of canine demodecosis is reported. Three of 4 applications of a wash containing 0,025% amitraz, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy where necessary, were sufficient to effect clinical cure in 25 out of 26 cases mildly to severely affected. In one case, very severely affected, 9 weekly applications, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy, effected clinical and parasitological cure.

  12. [Restoration of canine guidance using bonded prostheses].

    PubMed

    Maroto García, J; Maroto García, F

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an easy, accurate and aesthetical solution to the problem of the loss, by wastage, of anterior guides in those patients who show facets in initial stages of bruxism (central of peripheral). Using the acid-etch non-precious metals(Cr-Ni-Be) technique we make a metalic plaque covering the posterior face of the upper canines, on which we place a porcelain incisal rim. All of this is fixed with a composed material.

  13. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Expression in Canine Liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avallone, G; Pellegrino, V; Roccabianca, P; Lepri, E; Crippa, L; Beha, G; De Tolla, L; Sarli, G

    2017-03-01

    The expression of tyrosine kinase receptors is attracting major interest in human and veterinary oncological pathology because of their role as targets for adjuvant therapies. Little is known about tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) expression in canine liposarcoma (LP), a soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the TKRs fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ); their ligands, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB); and c-kit in canine LP. Immunohistochemical labeling was categorized as high or low expression and compared with the mitotic count and MIB-1-based proliferation index. Fifty canine LPs were examined, classified, and graded. Fourteen cases were classified as well differentiated, 7 as myxoid, 25 as pleomorphic, and 4 as dedifferentiated. Seventeen cases were grade 1, 26 were grade 2, and 7 were grade 3. A high expression of FGF2, FGFR1, PDGFB, and PDGFRβ was identified in 62% (31/50), 68% (34/50), 81.6% (40/49), and 70.8% (34/48) of the cases, respectively. c-kit was expressed in 12.5% (6/48) of the cases. Mitotic count negatively correlated with FGF2 ( R = -0.41; P < .01), being lower in cases with high FGF2 expression, and positively correlated with PDGFRβ ( R = 0.33; P < .01), being higher in cases with high PDGFRβ expression. No other statistically significant correlations were identified. These results suggest that the PDGFRβ-mediated pathway may have a role in the progression of canine LP and may thus represent a promising target for adjuvant cancer therapies.

  14. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities.

  15. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  16. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SIMULATING VENTILATION DISTRIBUTION IN HETEROGENOUS LUNG INJURY USING A BINARY TREE DATA STRUCTURE

    PubMed Central

    Colletti, Ashley A.; Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on the distribution of regional flows and pressures in the injured lung, we developed an anatomic model of the canine lung comprised of an asymmetric branching airway network which can be stored as binary tree data structure. The entire tree can be traversed using a recursive flow divider algorithm, allowing for efficient computation of acinar flow and pressure distributions in a mechanically heterogeneous lung. These distributions were found to be highly dependent on ventilation frequency and the heterogeneity of tissue elastances, reflecting the preferential distribution of ventilation to areas of lower regional impedance. PMID:21872852

  18. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the medicines used to ...

  19. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... by zip code or Select your state State Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > ... I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no prescribed diet ...

  20. Lung Nodules: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  1. Eosinophilic Lung Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Eosinophilic Lung Disorders Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Rafeul Alam, MD, PhD (July 01, 2012) Eosinophilic lung disorders are a category of lung problems characterized ...

  2. Lung Nodules: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer screening Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Lung cancer screening is a process that's used to detect the presence ... with a high risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer screening is recommended for older adults who are longtime ...

  4. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  5. Furrier's lung

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J. Cortez

    1970-01-01

    As is known, the inhalation of animal hairs can provoke immunological reactions in the respiratory tract affecting the naso-tracheo-bronchial sector and giving rise to asthma-like syndromes. Another form of disease, found in furriers with long exposure to `hair dust', is described. It is characterized by a granulomatous interstitial pneumonia, of the tuberculoid type, very similar to that described in other diseases related to the inhalation of organic dusts, both vegetable and animal, such as `farmer's lung' and `bird fancier's lung'. This new disease—which we experimentally reproduced—can be diagnosed from the occupational history together with the finding on lung biopsy of hair shafts within granulomatous lesions (birefringence and histo-chemical reactions). As in other diseases of this type, a host factor of probable immunological nature is suggested. Attention is drawn to the need to protect workers in the furrier's trade. Images PMID:5484998

  6. Tsunami lung.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Ogino, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Oikawa, Hirotaka; Koeda, Yorihiko; Ueda, Hironobu; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Terui, Katsutoshi; Nakadate, Toshihide; Aoki, Hidehiko; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2012-04-01

    We encountered three cases of lung disorders caused by drowning in the recent large tsunami that struck following the Great East Japan Earthquake. All three were females, and two of them were old elderly. All segments of both lungs were involved in all the three patients, necessitating ICU admission and endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. All three died within 3 weeks. In at least two cases, misswallowing of oil was suspected from the features noted at the time of the detection. Sputum culture for bacteria yielded isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cause of tsunami lung may be a combination of chemical induced pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia.

  7. Simultaneous Removal of Right Lung Hydatid Cyst and Repair of Atrial Septal Defect in a Single Session.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guang; Lin, Xi; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of echinococcosis caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus species, and the lung is the most common site of occurrence. Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart disease with an incidence of 100 per 100,000 live births. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of coexistence of right lung hydatid cyst and atrial septal defect that were both treated with one-stage surgery.

  8. Lung imaging.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    Imaging of the lung is a mainstay of respiratory medicine. It provides local information about morphology and function of the lung parenchyma that is unchallenged by other noninvasive techniques. During the 2014 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Munich, Germany, a Clinical Year in Review session was held focusing on the latest developments in pulmonary imaging. This review summarises some of the main findings of peer-reviewed articles that were published in the 12-month period prior to the 2014 International Congress. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  9. Cloning and characterization of canine PAX6 and evaluation as a candidate gene in a canine model of aniridia.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Linda S; Sidjanin, Duska J; Hijar, Manuel Villagrasa; Johnson, Jennifer L; Kirkness, Ewen; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-03-26

    Mutations in PAX6 cause human aniridia. The small eye (sey) mouse represents an animal model for aniridia. However, no large animal model currently exists. We cloned and characterized canine PAX6, and evaluated PAX6 for causal associations with inherited aniridia in dogs. Canine PAX6 was cloned from a canine retinal cDNA library using primers designed from human and mouse PAX6 consensus sequences. An RH3000 radiation hybrid panel was used to localize PAX6 within the canine genome. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of dogs with inherited aniridia, and association testing was performed using markers on CFA18. Fourteen PAX6 exons were sequenced and scanned for mutations, and a Southern blot was used to test for large deletions. Like the human gene, canine PAX6 has 13 exons and 12 introns, plus an alternatively spliced exon (5a). PAX6 nucleotide and amino acid sequences were highly conserved between dog, human, and mouse. The canine PAX6 cDNA sequence determined in this study spans 2 large gaps present in the current canine genomic sequence. Radiation hybrid mapping placed canine PAX6 on CFA18 in a region with synteny to HSA11p13. Exon-scanning revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms, but no pathological mutations, and Southern blot analysis revealed no differences between normal and affected animals. Canine PAX6 was cloned and characterized, and results provide sequence information for gaps in the current canine genome sequence. Canine PAX6 nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as gene organization and map location, were highly homologous with that of the human gene. PAX6 was evaluated in dogs with an inherited form of aniridia, and sequence analysis indicated no pathological mutations in the coding regions or splice sites of aniridia-affected dogs, and Southern blot analysis showed no large deletions.

  10. COMPARISON BETWEEN SEDATION AND GENERAL ANESTHESIA FOR HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CANINE IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS IN WEST HIGHLAND WHITE TERRIERS.

    PubMed

    Roels, Elodie; Couvreur, Thierry; Farnir, Frédéric; Clercx, Cécile; Verschakelen, Johny; Bolen, Géraldine

    2017-02-23

    Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease mainly affecting West Highland white terriers. Thoracic high-resolution computed tomographic (T-HRCT) findings for Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis acquired under general anesthesia have been described previously. However, the use of general anesthesia may be contraindicated for some affected dogs. Sedation may allow improved speed and safety, but it is unknown whether sedation would yield similar results in identification and grading of Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lesions. The aim of this prospective, observational, method-comparison, case-control study was to compare findings from T-HRCT images acquired under sedation versus general anesthesia for West Highland white terriers affected with Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 11) and age-matched controls (n = 9), using the glossary of terms of the Fleischner Society and a scoring system. Ground-glass opacity was identified in all affected West Highland white terriers for both sedation and general anesthesia acquisitions, although the Ground-glass opacity extent varied significantly between the two acquisitions (P < 0.001). Ground-glass opacity was the sole lesion observed in control dogs (n = 6), but was less extensive compared with affected West Highland white terriers. Identification and grading of a mosaic attenuation pattern differed significantly between acquisitions (P < 0.001). Identification of lesions such as consolidations, nodules, parenchymal and subpleural bands, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis did not differ between acquisitions. The present study demonstrated that T-HRCT obtained under sedation may provide different information than T-HRCT obtained under general anesthesia for identification and grading of some Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lesions, but not all of them. These differences should be taken into consideration when general anesthesia is contraindicated and sedation is

  11. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  12. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  13. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  14. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  15. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  16. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  17. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  18. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  19. Adult treatment with removal of all four permanent canines.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R S

    1994-11-01

    The permanent canines-especially in the maxillary arch-have always been considered of prime importance, even before the "cuspid protection" hypothesis became well known to most orthodontists in the 1960s. In the adult case presented, periodontal considerations and other factors led to the unconventional (and likely controversial) extraction of all four canines.

  20. Sex differences in anthropoid mandibular canine lateral enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Spence, Jennifer; Talabere, Tiffany; Hubbard, Amelia; Schmidt, Stacey

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that great ape and macaque males achieve large canine crown sizes primarily through extended canine growth periods. Recent work has suggested, however, that platyrrhine males may achieve larger canine sizes by accelerating rather than prolonging growth. This study tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic pathway leading to canine sexual dimorphism in catarrhines differs from that of platyrrhines. To test this hypothesis, males and females of several catarrhine genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cercopithecus, and Cercocebus) and three platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Ateles, and Callicebus) were compared in the number and spacing of perikymata (enamel growth increments) on their canine crowns. In addition, perikymata periodicities (the number of days of growth perikymata represent) were determined for five genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cebus, and Ateles) using previously published as well as original data gathered for this study. The central findings are as follows: 1) males have more perikymata than females for seven of eight genera (in five of the seven, the differences are statistically significant); 2) in general, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism, the greater the sex difference in male and female perikymata numbers; 3) there is no evidence of a systematic sex difference in primate periodicities; and 4) there is some evidence that sex differences in enamel formation rates may make a minor contribution to canine sexual dimorphism in Papio and Cercopithecus. These findings strongly suggest that in both catarrhines and platyrrhines prolongation of male canine growth is the primary mechanism by which canine crown sexual dimorphism is achieved.

  1. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  2. Limitations of the mandibular canine index in sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashith B; Mainali, Sneedha

    2009-02-01

    Measuring teeth is a useful adjunct in sex assessment. Canines, in particular, have the greatest degree of sexual dimorphism, resist disease and survive postmortem trauma, rendering them highly valuable in identification. Hence, their exclusive use in odontometric sex assessment using the Mandibular Canine Index (MCI) has been advocated before. The MCI is derived as the ratio of the mesiodistal (MD) dimension of canines and the inter-canine arch width. This study has tested the use of the MCI in assessing sex on a sample from Nepal and compared its accuracy to that of absolute canine measurements. Measurements were obtained from one hundred-and-seventeen dental stone casts that belonged to 63 males and 54 females, all young adults in the age-group 19-28 years. Independent samples t-test revealed no significant sexual dimorphism in the MCI. In addition, discriminant analysis of the MCI also had poor ability to differentiate the sexes. In contrast, the absolute canine measurements revealed statistically significant male-female difference and superior ability to differentiate sex using discriminant analysis. The poor ability of the MCI in sex assessment is attributed to it being a relative value-it is obtained as the ratio of two absolute measurements (MD dimension of canines and inter-canine arch width) and does not reflect sex differences that exist in the absolute measurements per se.

  3. [Humidifier lung].

    PubMed

    Gerber, P; de Haller, R; Pyrozynski, W J; Sturzenegger, E R; Brändli, O

    1981-02-07

    Breathing air from a humidifier or an air conditioning unit contaminated by various microorganisms can cause an acute lung disease involving fever, cough and dyspnea, termed "humidifier fever". This type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was first described in 1959 by PESTALOZZI in the Swiss literature and subsequently by BANASZAK et al. in the Anglo-American. Here a chronic form of this disease which led to pulmonary fibrosis is described: A 37-year-old woman who works in a cheese shop presented with dyspnea which had been progressive over two years, weight loss, a diffuse reticular pattern radiographically and a severe restrictive defect in lung function tests. Open lung biopsy revealed chronic interstitial and alveolar inflammation with non-caseating granulomas and fibrotic changes. Circulating immune complexes and precipitins against the contaminated humidifier water and cheese mites were found, but no antibodies suggesting legionnaires' disease. Two out of five otherwise healthy employees of this cheese shop, where a new humidifying system had been installed 7 years earlier, also had precipitins against the contaminated water from the humidifier and the cheese mites. Despite ending of exposure and longterm steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, the signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis persisted. Contrary to the acute disease, this chronic form is termed "humidifier lung". The importance is stressed of investigating the possibility of exposure to contaminated humidifiers or air conditioning units in all cases of newly detected pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. The Aerodynamics and Transport Phenomena of Canine Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Settles, Gary; Paterson, Eric

    2008-11-01

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway, developed from a 3-D reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, is used to study the aerodynamics of canine olfaction. Simulation results reveal that a unique olfactory airflow pattern exists within the canine nasal cavity during sniffing that is critical for efficient olfaction. The physics of olfactory mass transport are next considered via a reduced-order numerical model of multi-phase odorant transport in mucus-lined olfactory airways. Calculations show that this novel olfactory airflow pattern provides a crucial residence time for odorant absorption in the sensory region and promotes spatiotemporal fractionation of odorant mixtures along the olfactory epithelium. Consequently, the aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are highly-optimized for odorant transfer and olfactory discrimination, which may largely explain the high olfactory acuity of the canine.

  5. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma.

  6. Canine brain tumours: a model for the human disease?

    PubMed

    Hicks, J; Platt, S; Kent, M; Haley, A

    2017-03-01

    Canine brain tumours are becoming established as naturally occurring models of disease to advance diagnostic and therapeutic understanding successfully. The size and structure of the dog's brain, histopathology and molecular characteristics of canine brain tumours, as well as the presence of an intact immune system, all support the potential success of this model. The limited success of current therapeutic regimens such as surgery and radiation for dogs with intracranial tumours means that there can be tremendous mutual benefit from collaboration with our human counterparts resulting in the development of new treatments. The similarities and differences between the canine and human diseases are described in this article, emphasizing both the importance and limitations of canines in brain tumour research. Recent clinical veterinary therapeutic trials are also described to demonstrate the areas of research in which canines have already been utilized and to highlight the important potential benefits of translational research to companion dogs.

  7. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals.

  8. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value.

  9. Nosocomial Outbreak of Serious Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough) Caused by Canine Herpesvirus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken; Imai, Ayako; Ohashi, Emi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Tohya, Yukinobu; Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectious disease of the canine respiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called “ infectious tracheobronchitis” (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a novel ITB outbreak accompanied by death among aged dogs in an animal medical center. Most inpatient dogs had received medications that could induce immunosuppression. CHV was the only pathogen identified, and several CHV isolates were recovered in cell culture. No other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were found. Molecular and serological analyses revealed that the causative CHV isolates were from a single source but that none was a peculiar strain when the strains were compared with previous CHV strains. The virus had presumably spread among the dogs predisposed to infection in the center. The present results serve as a warning to canine clinics that, under the specific set of circumstances described, such serious CHV outbreaks may be expected wherever canine ITB occurs. PMID:20107103

  10. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) promotes EMT, growth, and invasion in canine prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Elshafae, Said M; Hassan, Bardes B; Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Camiener, Rachael Y; Ding, Haiming; Tweedle, Michael F; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) is upregulated in early and late-stage human prostate cancer (PCa) and other solid tumors of the mammary gland, lung, head and neck, colon, uterus, ovary, and kidney. However, little is known about its role in prostate cancer. This study examined the effects of a heterologous GRPr agonist, bombesin (BBN), on growth, motility, morphology, gene expression, and tumor phenotype of an osteoblastic canine prostate cancer cell line (Ace-1) in vitro and in vivo. The Ace-1 cells were stably transfected with the human GRPr and tumor cells were grown in vitro and as subcutaneous and intratibial tumors in nude mice. The effect of BBN was measured on cell proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth (using bioluminescence), tumor cell morphology, bone tumor phenotype, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR). GRPr mRNA expression was measured in primary canine prostate cancers and normal prostate glands. Bombesin (BBN) increased tumor cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumor growth and invasion in vivo. BBN upregulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers (TWIST, SNAIL, and SLUG mRNA) and downregulated epithelial markers (E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA), and modified tumor cell morphology to a spindle cell phenotype. Blockade of GRPr upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated VIMENTIN and SNAIL mRNA. BBN altered the in vivo tumor phenotype in bone from an osteoblastic to osteolytic phenotype. Primary canine prostate cancers had increased GRPr mRNA expression compared to normal prostates. These data demonstrated that the GRPr is important in prostate cancer growth and progression and targeting GRPr may be a promising strategy for treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate 76:796-809, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tropism and pathological findings associated with canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Judy A; Brooks, Harriet W; Szladovits, Balázs; Erles, Kerstin; Gibbons, Rachel; Shields, Shelly; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-03-23

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) occurs frequently in densely housed dog populations. One of the common pathogens involved is canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), however little is known regarding its pathogenesis and the role it plays in the development of CIRD. The pathogenesis of five geographically unrelated canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) isolates was investigated. Following experimental infection in dogs, all five CRCoV isolates gave rise to clinical signs of respiratory disease consistent with that observed during natural infection. The presence of CRCoV was associated with marked histopathological changes in the nares and trachea, with loss and damage to tracheal cilia, accompanied by inflammation. Viral shedding was readily detected from the oropharynx up to 10 days post infection, but there was little or no evidence of rectal shedding. The successful re-isolation of CRCoV from a wide range of respiratory and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues, and lung lavage fluids demonstrates a clear tropism of CRCoV for respiratory tissues and fulfils the final requirement for Koch's postulates. By study day 14 dogs had seroconverted to CRCoV and the antibodies raised were neutralising against both homologous and heterologous strains of CRCoV in vitro, thus demonstrating antigenic homogeneity among CRCoV strains from the two continents. Defining the role that CRCoV and other agents play in CIRD is a considerable, but important, challenge if the disease is to be managed, treated and prevented more successfully. Here we have successfully developed a model for studying the pathogenicity and the role of CRCoV in CIRD.

  12. What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carcinoid Tumor About Lung Carcinoid Tumors What Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors? Lung carcinoid tumors (also known as ... lungs, as well as the neuroendocrine system. The lungs The lungs are 2 sponge-like organs in ...

  13. Effects of transplantation sites on tumour growth, pulmonary metastasis and ezrin expression of canine osteosarcoma cell lines in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jaroensong, T; Endo, Y; Lee, S-J; Kamida, A; Mochizuki, M; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N; Nakagawa, T

    2012-12-01

    To determine the influence of the transplantation site of canine osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines on tumour growth and pulmonary metastasis, three OS cell lines were transplanted into nude mice via subcutaneous (SC), intratibial (IT) or intravenous (IV) injection. IT-xenografts exhibited greater potential for developing primary masses and pulmonary metastasis than SC-xenografts. In IT and IV xenografts, lung micrometastases along with phosphorylated ezrin-radixin-moesin (p-ERM) overexpression were found in mice xenografted with HMPOS and OOS cells after 1 week and metastasis was found with decreased p-ERM expression at later time points. The expression of ezrin and p-ERM in the primary tumours of IT-xenografted mice was higher than those in SC-xenografted mice with HMPOS and OOS cells. The results suggest that the orthotopic transplantation site plays an important role in the spontaneous metastasis of canine OS and that ezrin phosphorylation may be involved in the early metastatic mechanism of canine OS cells. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Global and quantitative proteomic analysis of dogs infected by avian-like H3N2 canine influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shuo; Tian, Jin; Hong, Malin; Zhou, Pei; Lu, Gang; Zhu, Huachen; Zhang, Guihong; Lai, Alexander; Li, Shoujun

    2015-01-01

    Canine influenza virus A (H3N2) is a newly emerged etiological agent for respiratory infections in dogs. The mechanism of interspecies transmission from avian to canine species and the development of diseases in this new host remain to be explored. To investigate this, we conducted a differential proteomics study in 2-month-old beagles inoculated intranasally with 106 TCID50 of A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2) virus. Lung sections excised at 12 h post-inoculation (hpi), 4 days, and 7 days post-inoculation (dpi) were processed for global and quantitative analysis of differentially expressed proteins. A total of 17,796 proteins were identified at different time points. About 1.6% was differentially expressed between normal and infected samples. Of these, 23, 27, and 136 polypeptides were up-regulated, and 14, 18, and 123 polypeptides were down-regulated, at 12 hpi, 4 dpi, and 7 dpi, respectively. Vann diagram analysis indicated that 17 proteins were up-regulated and one was down-regulated at all three time points. Selected proteins were validated by real-time PCR and by Western blot. Our results show that apoptosis and cytoskeleton-associated proteins expression was suppressed, whereas interferon-induced proteins plus other innate immunity proteins were induced after the infection. Understanding of the interactions between virus and the host will provide insights into the basis of interspecies transmission, adaptation, and virus pathogenicity. PMID:25883591

  15. Interleukin-31: its role in canine pruritus and naturally occurring canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Andrea J; Humphrey, William R; Messamore, James E; Fleck, Timothy J; Fici, Gregory J; Shelly, John A; Teel, Janet F; Bammert, Gary F; Dunham, Steven A; Fuller, Troy E; McCall, Robert B

    2013-02-01

    Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a member of the gp130/interleukin-6 cytokine family that is produced by cell types such as T helper 2 lymphocytes and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen positive skin homing T cells. When overexpressed in transgenic mice, IL-31 induces severe pruritus, alopecia and skin lesions. In humans, IL-31 serum levels correlate with the severity of atopic dermatitis in adults and children. To determine the role of IL-31 in canine pruritus and naturally occurring canine atopic dermatitis (AD). Purpose-bred beagle dogs were used for laboratory studies. Serum samples were obtained from laboratory animals, nondiseased client-owned dogs and client-owned dogs diagnosed with naturally occurring AD. Purpose-bred beagle dogs were administered canine interleukin-31 (cIL-31) via several routes (intravenous, subcutaneous or intradermal), and pruritic behaviour was observed/quantified via video monitoring. Quantitative immunoassay techniques were employed to measure serum levels of cIL-31 in dogs. Injection of cIL-31 into laboratory beagle dogs caused transient episodes of pruritic behaviour regardless of the route of administration. When evaluated over a 2 h period, dogs receiving cIL-31 exhibited a significant increase in pruritic behaviour compared with dogs that received placebo. In addition, cIL-31 levels were detectable in 57% of dogs with naturally occurring AD (≥ 13 pg/mL) but were below limits of quantification (<13 pg/mL) in normal, nondiseased laboratory or client-owned animals. Canine IL-31 induced pruritic behaviours in dogs. Canine IL-31 was detected in the majority of dogs with naturally occurring AD, suggesting that this cytokine may play an important role in pruritic allergic skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, in this species. © 2013 Pfizer Inc. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  17. Cloning and characterization of canine SHARP1 and its evaluation as a positional candidate for canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2003-07-17

    Canine early retinal degeneration (erd) is an early onset form of canine progressive retinal atrophy phenotypically similar to human retinitis pigmentosa. In a previous study, the locus responsible for erd was mapped to canine chromosome 27 in the region corresponding to HSA12p, a region where no human retinal degeneration loci have been mapped. Canine SHARP1 gene has been localized on CFA27 in the erd interval by RH mapping, and considered as a positional candidate gene for erd. SHARP1 was cloned and sequenced from normal and erd affected dogs, and no disease-causing mutations were identified. Genotyping of 117 dogs from informative pedigrees did not reveal any recombinants between SHARP1 and erd. To date SHARP1 gene is the closest gene-specific marker to erd; genotyping additional informative pedigrees, and sequencing SHARP1 upstream regions from normal and affected dogs will be necessary to establish if SHARP1 is involved in this canine retinal disease.

  18. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca

    2010-10-26

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  20. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures. PMID:27101001

  1. Homogeneous Canine Chest Phantom Construction: A Tool for Image Quality Optimization.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Ana Luiza Menegatti; Rosa, Maria Eugênia Dela; Giacomini, Guilherme; Bacchim Neto, Fernando Antonio; Yamashita, Seizo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa; Miranda, José Ricardo de Arruda; de Pina, Diana Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiographic imaging is increasing in veterinary practice. The use of radiation demands responsibility to maintain high image quality. Low doses are necessary because workers are requested to restrain the animal. Optimizing digital systems is necessary to avoid unnecessary exposure, causing the phenomenon known as dose creep. Homogeneous phantoms are widely used to optimize image quality and dose. We developed an automatic computational methodology to classify and quantify tissues (i.e., lung tissue, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, and bone) in canine chest computed tomography exams. The thickness of each tissue was converted to simulator materials (i.e., Lucite, aluminum, and air). Dogs were separated into groups of 20 animals each according to weight. Mean weights were 6.5 ± 2.0 kg, 15.0 ± 5.0 kg, 32.0 ± 5.5 kg, and 50.0 ± 12.0 kg, for the small, medium, large, and giant groups, respectively. The one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in all simulator material thicknesses (p < 0.05) quantified between groups. As a result, four phantoms were constructed for dorsoventral and lateral views. In conclusion, the present methodology allows the development of phantoms of the canine chest and possibly other body regions and/or animals. The proposed phantom is a practical tool that may be employed in future work to optimize veterinary X-ray procedures.

  2. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B.; Remy, Kenneth E.; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A.; Kelley, Walter E.; Popovsky, Mark A.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Klein, Harvey G.; Natanson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P < .05 for interactions). Washing older units of blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes. PMID:24366359

  3. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P < .05 for interactions). Washing older units of blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  4. [Continuous spectrophotometry as a method to study pulmonary edema in isolated canine pulmonary lobe].

    PubMed

    Palomar Lever, A; Furuya Meguro, M E; Gómez González, A; Martínez Guerra, M L; Gertrudiz Salvador, N; Oppenheimer, L; Sandoval Zárate, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the spectrophotometric method to the study of pulmonary edema in isolated ex-vivo canine pulmonary lobe preparation. This spectrophotometric method is based on the on-line measure of light transmission in a column of blood, that is proportional to hematocrit. A second light is used to follow Evans blue dyed proteins. With this method we were able to measure the amount of edema in 10 isolated canine lobes. Both the filtration and reflection coefficient of the membrane as well as the characteristics of the filtrate could be calculated. The filtration coefficient was 0.6 +/- 0.4 ml/min (1.3 +/- 0.9 ml/min/100 g pulmonary, tissue) at maximum capillary pressure and the reflection coefficient was 0.53 +/- 0.07. With the spectrophotometric method we have the capability to study different aspects of lung edema formation. This method has the advantage of being exact and independent from pressure and volume induced vascular changes. It also allows the measurement of solute transport.

  5. Human and Canine Echinococcosis Infection in Informal, Unlicensed Abattoirs in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413

  6. Characterization of a novel Canine distemper virus causing disease in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jenny P; Miller, Debra L; Riley, Matthew C; Anis, Eman; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a common cause of a multisystemic disease in both domestic dogs and wildlife species, including raccoons and foxes. Outbreaks of CDV in domestic dogs in eastern Tennessee have occurred since 2012, and it was determined that these outbreaks resulted from a novel genotype of CDV. We hypothesized that this virus is also infecting area wildlife and may be a source of the virus for these outbreaks in dogs. From 2013 to 2014, autopsies were performed and tissues collected from raccoons (Procyon lotor; n = 50) and gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus; n = 8) for CDV testing. A real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to document the presence of CDV in tissue samples, and a portion of the virus was subsequently sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. A high percentage of wildlife, both with (86%) and without (55%) clinical signs, tested positive for CDV, with the majority (77%) testing positive for the novel genotype. Microscopic findings, including syncytia in the lungs and viral inclusion bodies in urothelium, astrocytes, neurons, and bronchiolar epithelium, were also consistent with canine distemper. Minimal inflammation in the central nervous system of affected animals was indicative of the acute neurologic form of the disease. Pneumonia and parasitism were also commonly found in CDV-infected animals. Based on these results, CDV appears to be prevalent in eastern Tennessee wildlife. Subclinical or clinically recovered shedders are a potential source of this novel genotype for domestic dogs, and this genotype is genetically distinct from vaccine strains.

  7. Canine treatment with SnET2 for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.; Milligan, Andrew J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Morgan, Alan R.; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1990-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment technique that utilizes the photoactived species of a drug to destroy tumor tissue. To be successful, the drug must localize in tumor tissue preferentially over normal tissue and must be activated by light of a specific wavelength. Currently the only drug to be approved for clinical use is Heinatoporphyrin Derivative (HpD) although a series of new drugs are being developed for use in the near future. One of the drugs belongs to a class called purpurins which display absorp-' tions between 630-711 nm. Along with several other investigators, we are currently exploring the characteristics of a specific purpurin (SnET2) in normal and tumorous canine tissue. The use of this compound has demonstrated increased tumor control rates in spontaneous dog tumors. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies have been performed on 6 normal beagle dogs. SnET2 (2 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 10 minutes and blood was collected at 5, 15, 30, 45 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours following administration for determination of drug concentration and calculation of pharinacokinetic parameters. Skin biopsies were collected at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. Dogs were euthanized at 24 hours and tissues (liver, kidney muscle, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileura, colon, adrenal gland, thyroid, heart, lung, urinary bladder, prostate, pancreas, eye, brain) were collected for drug raeasurement. Drug was shown to persist in liver and kidney for a prolonged period of time coiapared to other tissues. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the drug will greatly add to the ability to treat patients with effective protocols.

  8. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O'Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  9. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss.

  10. Surgery of the canine vagina and vulva.

    PubMed

    Mathews, K G

    2001-03-01

    Accurate diagnosis of canine vaginal abnormalities often requires general anesthesia, vaginoscopy, and contrast radiography. Abdominal ultrasonography, thoracic radiography, computed tomography, and histopathology may also be advised for the workup of mass lesions before surgery. Many procedures such as episioplasty and resection of pedunculated vaginal masses or edematous tissue are easily performed with proper planning and equipment (e.g., electrocautery). Consideration should be given to referring more complicated procedures such as resection of large vaginal masses or vaginal stenoses to a board-certified surgeon. Finally, preoperative placement of a fentanyl patch and pre- or postoperative epidural analgesia are highly recommended for any vulvovaginal surgical procedure.

  11. Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2′5′-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  12. Canine distemper epizootic in Everglades mink.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Shindle, D B; Allison, A B; Terrell, S P; Mead, D G; Owen, M

    2009-10-01

    Four free-ranging mink, Neovison vison, collected between June and September 2004 in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park (FSPSP, Florida, USA), were examined for canine distemper virus (CDV) infection. Microscopic lesions and viral inclusions consistent with CDV infection were observed in three mink. Virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on all mink were positive for CDV. Anecdotal records of mink observations in FSPSP suggest a postepizootic decline in the mink population followed by an apparent recovery. We recommend further research to assess the status of the Everglades mink and the impact of CDV on this and other American mink populations in Florida.

  13. Maxillary canine restoration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morris, G A; Lehman, G A

    1999-09-01

    The replacement of a single tooth with osseointegrated dental implants presents a unique challenge to both the prosthodontist and the surgeon. When anterior teeth are replaced, it is difficult to design an occlusal scheme that will direct forces down the long axis of an implant. This is especially true when the canine is involved. Wide-diameter implants offer advantages, such as increased surface area of implant to bone, stronger prosthetics, stronger implants, and less screw loosening or breakage when compared to standard-diameter implants. The single-stage technique is advantageous in terms of soft-tissue predictability, and it eliminates the need for second-stage surgery.

  14. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  15. Shifting sources of functional limitation following extensive (70%) lung resection.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W; Dane, D Merrill; Estrera, Aaron S; Wagner, Harrieth E; Wagner, Peter D; Johnson, Robert L

    2008-04-01

    We previously found that, following surgical resection of approximately 58% of lung units by right pneumonectomy (PNX) in adult canines, oxygen-diffusing capacity (Dl(O(2))) fell sufficiently to become a major factor limiting exercise capacity, although the decline was mitigated by recruitment, remodeling, and growth of the remaining lung units. To determine whether an upper limit of compensation is reached following the loss of even more lung units, we measured pulmonary gas exchange, hemodynamics, and ventilatory power requirements in adult canines during treadmill exercise following two-stage resection of approximately 70% of lung units in the presence or absence of mediastinal distortion. Results were compared with that in control animals following right PNX or thoracotomy without resection (Sham). Following 70% lung resection, peak O(2) uptake was 45% below normal. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch developed, and pulmonary arterial pressure and ventilatory power requirements became markedly elevated. In contrast, the relationship of Dl(O(2)) to cardiac output remained normal, indicating preservation of Dl(O(2))-to-cardiac output ratio and alveolar-capillary recruitment up to peak exercise. The impairment in airway and vascular function exceeded the impairment in gas exchange and imposed the major limitation to exercise following 70% resection. Mediastinal distortion further reduced air and blood flow conductance, resulting in CO(2) retention. Results suggest that adaptation of extra-acinar airways and blood vessels lagged behind that of acinar tissue. As more lung units were lost, functional compensation became limited by the disproportionately reduced convective conductance rather than by alveolar diffusion disequilibrium.

  16. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 23 by canine soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, M R; Dittmer, K E

    2016-09-01

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome of humans. Some mesenchymal tumours (often resembling haemangiopericytomas) express molecules that normally regulate phosphorus metabolism; most frequently, fibroblast growth factor 23. Patients develop renal phosphate wasting and inappropriately low serum concentrations of 1, 25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 , leading to osteomalacia. Surgical removal of the tumour is curative. The authors examined expression of canine fibroblast growth factor 23 in 49 soft tissue sarcomas, and control tissues from normal adult dogs. RNA extracted from bone or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was analysed by end point and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Fibroblast growth factor 23 expression was detected in bone, lung, kidney, lymph node and thymus. Fifteen of 49 sarcomas (31%) expressed fibroblast growth factor 23, three of these had high relative expression and some features resembling phosphatonin-expressing mesenchymal tumours of humans. Further work is required to determine whether TIO may occur in dogs.

  17. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  18. Molecular characteristics of canine parainfluenza viruses type 5 (CPIV-5) isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Three canine parainfluenza viruses type 5 (CPIV-5) were isolated from lung tissues of 3 Korean dogs with mild pneumonia between 2008 and 2009. The isolates were fully sequenced and compared with published reference sequences. The size of the genome was 15 246 nucleotides long and no remarkable differences were found when compared with previously published reference sequences. In phylogenetic analysis based on the F and P genes, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5) strains were divided into at least 3 subgroups. Three CPIV-5 strains were clustered with CPIV-5 T1, H22 and 78524 strains. All PIV-5 strains were independent of the host species, geographical distribution, and the isolated period. PMID:25673911

  19. Canine tactical field care part three - thoracic and abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Wesley M

    2010-01-01

    Military and law enforcement agencies have seen a dramatic increase in the utilization of working canines both at home and in foreign deployments. Due to the fact that professional veterinary care is sometimes distant from internal disaster or foreign deployment sites, the military medic, police tactical medic, or other first-response medical care provider may be charged with providing emergency or even basic, non-emergency veterinary care to working canines. (Editor's Note: Military veterinary detachments are collocated next to the major human treatment facilities in a deployment environment. In a deployed environment veterinary care is located in areas where they are most needed or where most of the animals are located.) The medical principles involved in treating canines are essentially the same as those for treating humans, but the human healthcare provider needs basic information on canine anatomy and physiology and common emergency conditions in order to provide good basic veterinary care until a higher level of veterinary care can be obtained. This article represents the third in a series of articles designed to provide condensed, basic veterinary information on the medical care of working canines, to include military working dogs (MWDs), police canines, federal agency employed working canines, and search and rescue dogs, to those who are normally charged with tactical or first responder medical care of human patients. This article provides and overview of the diagnosis and treatment of common traumatic injuries to the thorax and abdomen.

  20. Priming effects of lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokines on canine granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenichi; Sakonju, Iwao; Kanda, Aya; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kakuta, Tomoko; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Okano, Shozo; Takase, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    Granulocytes play a pivotal role in natural immunity. Under inflammatory conditions, granulocytes are universally primed by several agents, such as endotoxins and inflammatory cytokines. Primed granulocytes exert potent adhesiveness, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, effectively eliminating invading agents. Reactivity against priming agents is known to vary with species; however, there have been few reports on the effects of priming agents on canine granulocytes. In the present study, we assayed the priming effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant canine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rcTNF-alpha) and recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) on canine granulocyte function in vitro. Isolated recombinant canine were primed with various concentrations of LPS, rcTNF-alpha and rcGM-CSF, and CD11b expression was assayed. Furthermore, actin polymerization, phagocytosis and ROS production were then assayed at primer concentrations where enhancement of CD11b expression was observed. LPS did not enhance canine granulocyte function. Phagocytosis and actin polymerization were not enhanced by priming agents; however, rcTNF-alpha and rcGM-CSF enhanced CD11b expression and ROS production in canine granulocytes. These results suggest that priming effects are mainly reflected in CD11b expression and ROS production, with rcGM-CSF and rcTNF-alpha having a priming effect similar to that observed in humans.

  1. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages.

    PubMed

    Džemidžić, Vildana; Tiro, Alisa; Zukanović, Amila; Redžić, Ismeta; Nakaš, Enita

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years). The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI), as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  4. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Piro, F.; Leonardi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines. PMID:26623359

  5. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  6. Intracellular route of canine parvovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Vihinen-Ranta, M; Kalela, A; Mäkinen, P; Kakkola, L; Marjomäki, V; Vuento, M

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18 degrees C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV.

  7. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  8. Immunohistochemical characterization of canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Mozos, E; Méndez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Martín De Las Mulas, J; Pérez, J

    1996-05-01

    The collective immunohistochemical expression of human lysozyme, human alpha-1-antitrypsin, human CD3 antigen, calf vimentin, human keratins, human lambda light chains,canine immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, and bovine protein S-100 has been analyzed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 25 spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) from both genital and extragenital locations using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique. Lysozyme immunoreactivity was detected in 10/25 CTVT, alpha-1-antitrypsin in 14/25 CTVT, and vimentin in 25/25 CTVT. All CTVT cells were negative to keratins 5 + 8 of the Moll catalogue (RCK-102), S-100 protein, lambda light-chain immunoglobulins, IgG, IgM, and CD3 antigen. The intratumoral T-and B-lymphocyte infiltrate was differentiated using CD3 antigen, lambda light-chain immunoglobulins, IgG, and IgM, and this technique could be useful to evaluate the regressive or progressive growth stage of venereal tumors. Our findings support the hypothesis of a histiocytic immunophenotype for CTVT, and these staining techniques could be used in the differential diagnosis with lymphomas.

  9. Cytology of the canine reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Parry, B W

    1989-09-01

    The methods for semen collection, its laboratory examination, and the interpretation of findings are presented in this article. The lack of comprehensive data for normal dogs and the lack of data associating actual percentages of spermatozoa with specific abnormalities with fertility or infertility are highlighted. Consequently, there is a need for standardization and completeness of semen examination procedures, especially in studies destined for publication. Collection and analysis of prostatic samples then is discussed, and the distinguishing cytological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostatis (including prostatic abscessation), and prostatic cysts are presented. This is followed by an assessment of the clinical usefulness of vaginal cytology, particularly to assist in the management of normal canine reproduction and in the diagnosis of reproductive disorders. The ways in which vaginal smears can facilitate the diagnosis of the stage of the estrous cycle and the diagnosis of abnormalities of the cycle and other disorders of reproduction are presented. Further consideration is given to its use to estimate the time of ovulation retrospectively and estimate the time of whelping prospectively. Finally, two specific diseases that can affect dogs and bitches are reviewed, namely, canine brucellosis and transmissible venereal tumor.

  10. Canine hematopoiesis in a model of combined injury

    SciTech Connect

    MacVittie, T.J.; Monroy, R.L.; Fink, M.; Gruber, D.F.; Patchen, M.L.

    1983-04-29

    The development of a large animal model for CI within the context of a nuclear disaster required that we describe, experimentally, the essential features of the radiobiology of acute effects in the canine. The large-animal model is also appropriate for assessing the immunologic, pharmacologic, and surgical modes of intervention of following CI. The canine model of CI at the AFRRI has stressed three developmental aspects: (a) establishing the radiobiology of the canine hemopoietic system, (b) choosing a relevant model for peritoneal sepsis, and (c) identifying several choices for physical trauma. This paper stresses the relevance of the first aspect, the radiation-induced suppression and recovery of the hemopoietic system.

  11. Canine mammary tumour cell lines established in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E

    1993-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common tumours in the female dog. The tumours have a complex histology and exist in epithelial, mixed and mesenchymal forms. To study the biology of canine mammary tumours, five cell lines have been established and characterized. The results indicate that canine mammary tumours might be derived from mammary stem cells and that the tumour growth is independent of oestrogens. The established canine mammary tumour cell lines will be valuable tools in further studies of the histogenesis and pathogenesis of these tumours.

  12. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).

    PubMed

    Glickman, L T; Appel, M J

    1981-08-01

    Two field trials were conducted during periods of endemic (summer) and epizootic (winter) canine infectious tracheobronchitis activity to evaluate the efficacy of three intranasal vaccines in a closed commercial beagle breeding kennel. A trivalent vaccine containing Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza, and canine adenovirus-2 was administered at 3 weeks of age. The vaccine was 71.2% and 81.8% effective in decreasing the incidence of coughing during the winter and summer trials, respectively. The number of deaths was lower in each of the vaccine groups than in the placebo groups. No adverse reactions were observed with any of the intranasal vaccines.

  13. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT). Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes. Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21), Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3) were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture) positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis. Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran. PMID:28032106

  14. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  16. Reflux and Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Eating Reflux and Lung Disease Reflux and Lung Disease Make an Appointment Ask a Question Find a Doctor Many people with chronic lung disease also suffer from gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). In this ...

  17. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)/Pulmonary Fibrosis Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)/Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Refer ... ILD clinical trials and most effective therapies. Interstitial Lung Disease Care at National Jewish Health At National ...

  18. A candidate gene study of canine joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Short, Andrea D; Barnes, Annette; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ferguson, John F; Butterworth, Steven J; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Pead, Matthew; Bennett, David; Innes, John F; Carter, Stuart D; Ollier, William E R

    2010-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis (OA) commonly occurs in association with articular diseases, such as hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), or cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). We hypothesized that a common genomic risk for the development of canine joint disease and canine OA would be identified by evaluating the allele frequencies of candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dogs with OA associated with different articular diseases when compared with a general population of breed-matched dogs. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers surgically treated for ED, HD, and CCLR and confirmed to have radiographic evidence of OA. One hundred and thirteen SNPs in 20 candidate genes were genotyped. No significant associations were identified for SNPs or haplotypes in the candidate genes for the diseases evaluated. The candidate gene approach for the study of genetic association is unlikely to be successful for complex canine diseases such as OA without prior trait mapping evaluation.

  19. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  20. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  1. Canine heartworm disease: a review and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haddock, K C

    1987-01-01

    Canine heartworm disease is a mosquito vectored illness resulting from parasitization by the filariid worm Dirofilaria immitis. While presenting some danger to humans, the filariid has its greatest impact on the canine population. In recent years the disease has become established throughout much of the United States, perhaps as the result of diffusion from a suspected hearth in the southeastern coastal plain. While its distribution is known in general terms, much research remains to be done to assess the pattern of distribution as well as the impact of D. immitis on canine populations and their human owners for many locales. The present study provides a review of the literature on the parasite; on its distribution, particularly in the United States; and on the ecology of canine heartworm disease. A pilot study is presented which emphasizes the problems encountered in establishing a data base for observations on the disease at the local level.

  2. 41. overall view showing building 158, canine kennels on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. overall view showing building 158, canine kennels on far right, and building 156, Warhead Building, at far left, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  3. The Comparative Diagnostic Features of Canine and Human Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Davis M.; Avery, Anne C.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Linden, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous family of lymphoid malignancies that are among the most common neoplasms of both dogs and humans. Owing to shared molecular, signaling, incidence, and pathologic features, there is a strong framework supporting the utilization of canine lymphoma as a comparative, large animal model of human NHL. In alignment with the biologic similarities, the current approach towards the diagnosis and classification of canine lymphoma is based upon the human World Health Organization guidelines. While this approach has contributed to an increasing appreciation of the potential biological scope of canine lymphoma, it has also become apparent that the most appropriate diagnostic philosophy must be multimodal, namely by requiring knowledge of microscopic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features before establishing a final disease diagnosis. This review seeks to illustrate the comparative similarities and differences in the diagnosis of canine lymphoma through the presentation of the microscopic and immunophenotypic features of its most common forms. PMID:28435836

  4. Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louise H; Hampson, Katie; Fahrion, Anna; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of canine prolactin gene.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Yuka; Kawaminami, Mitsumori; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We isolated canine prolactin cDNA from a dog pituitary cDNA library. The 930-bp nucleotide sequence covered the entire open reading frame encoding the putative 229 amino acids. It was located in chromosome 35, and had five exons. The amino acid sequence was highly homologous to the feline and porcine sequences. To generate recombinant canine prolactin, plasmids for full-length canine prolactin were constructed and transfected into the mammalian HEK293 cell line. The recombinant prolactin was secreted into the medium as an N-linked glycosylated (31 kDa) or non-glycosylated (27 kDa) protein. Western blotting revealed both of these bands were canine pituitary protein extracts.

  6. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  7. The action of sodium cromoglycate on 'C' fibre endings in the dog lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, M.; Jackson, D. M.; Richards, I. M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect has been studied of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on the activity of 'C' fibre sensory nerve endings in the canine lung. Pretreatment with SCG (100 microgram/kg i.v.) reduced the excitation of these endings by capsaicin (10 microgram/kg i.v.) for approximately 45 min. This property of SCG may explain its ability to suppress certain types of bronchoconstrictor responses in man. PMID:6775722

  8. Effects of the zygoma anchorage system on canine retraction.

    PubMed

    Cetinsahin, Alev; Dinçer, Müfide; Arman-Ozçirpici, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Gjessing (PG) retraction spring used with and without the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) on canine retraction. Thirty patients, with an Angle Class I or Class II malocclusion, whose upper first premolars were scheduled for extraction, were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 comprised maximum anchorage cases (nine females and six males with a mean age of 16 years 8 months) in which the ZAS was used to improve posterior anchorage and the PG retraction springs for canine retraction. Moderate anchorage cases (10 females and 5 males with a mean age of 15 years 5 month) were included in group 2 and canine retraction was achieved using only PG retraction springs. Study models and lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained at the initial and final stages of canine retraction were used for comparison of the groups to determine the effects of zygoma anchorage on canine retraction. All measurements were evaluated statistically using a Student's t-test, 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni-adjusted t-test, and Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests according to the normality of the distribution of the variables. Mesial crown movement of the molars was 0.63 mm (P < 0.05) in group 1 and 1.50 mm (P < 0.001) in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups. No significant difference was observed between the groups for the rate of canine retraction or sagittal and vertical movement of the canines. The ZAS is a reliable and successful anchorage reinforcement method for canine retraction in extraction cases.

  9. Cloning and characterization of canine prostate-specific membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sonja; Fracasso, Giulio; Colombatti, Marco; Naim, Hassan Y

    2013-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and a potential target for antibody-based therapeutic strategies. We isolated the canine PSMA cDNA and investigated the cellular and biochemical characteristics of the recombinant protein as a potential target for animal preclinical studies of antibody based-therapies. Canine PSMA cDNA was isolated by PCR, cloned into expression vectors and transfected into COS-1 and MDCK cells. The biosynthesis and glycosylation of the recombinant protein were investigated in pulse-chase experiments, the cellular localization by confocal laser microscopy, the mode of association of PSMA with the membrane with solubilization in different detergents and its quaternary structure in sucrose-density gradients. Canine PSMA shows 91% amino acid homology to human PSMA, whereby the major difference is a longer cytoplasmic tail of canine PSMA compared to its human counterpart. Canine PSMA is trafficked efficiently along the secretory pathway, undergoes homodimerization when it acquires complex glycosylated mature form. It associates with detergent-resistant membranes, which act as platforms along its intracellular trafficking. Confocal analysis revealed canine PSMA at the cell surface, Golgi, and the endoplasmic reticulum. A similar distribution is revealed for human PSMA, yet with reduced cell surface levels. The cloning, expression, biosynthesis, processing and localization of canine PSMA in mammalian cells is described. We demonstrate that canine PSMA reveals similar characteristics to human PSMA rendering this protein useful as a translational model for investigations of prostate cancer as well as a suitable antigen for targeted therapy studies in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alternative lengthening of telomeres does exist in various canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kreilmeier, Theresa; Sampl, Sandra; Deloria, Abigail J; Walter, Ingrid; Reifinger, Martin; Hauck, Marlene; Borst, Luke B; Holzmann, Klaus; Kleiter, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) found in some human tumors such as sarcomas. Canine tumors are not characterized for ALT and the study aim was to identify if the ALT phenotype exists in canine sarcomas. Sixty-four canine sarcoma samples (20 snap-frozen, 44 FFPE) as well as six canine sarcoma cell lines were screened for ALT by C-circle assay. ALT was further evaluated by measuring telomere length via qPCR and telomere restriction-fragments including pulsed-field electrophoresis. ALT-associated proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry. Further, telomerase activity (TA) and gene expression were analyzed by TRAP and qPCR. DNA from 20 human neuroblastomas and 8 sarcoma cell lines served as comparative controls. ALT was detected in 9.4% (6/64) canine sarcomas including aggressive subtypes as hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma. C-circle levels were comparable with human ALT-positive controls. All ALT tumors demonstrated loss of ATRX expression and 5/6 showed strong p53 expression. TA was detected in 93% (14/15) snap-frozen samples including a sarcoma with ALT activity. This tumor showed long heterogeneous telomeres, and a high level of colocalization of DAXX with telomeres. One sarcoma was ALT and TA negative. All canine and human sarcoma cell lines were ALT negative. In this study, we demonstrated that canine sarcomas use ALT. As in humans, ALT was identified in aggressive sarcomas subtypes and coexisted with TA in one tumor. Overall, canine sarcomas seem to share many similarities with their human counterparts and appear an attractive model for comparative telomere research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

  12. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  13. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  14. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  15. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  16. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  17. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  18. Muscle disorders and rehabilitation in canine athletes.

    PubMed

    Steiss, Janet E

    2002-01-01

    Muscle disorders associated with physical exertion in human athletes include delayed-onset muscle soreness, muscle strain, muscle tears, rhabdomyolysis, and acute and chronic compartment syndromes. Given that the structure of muscle is similar among different species, it is reasonable to expect that dogs experience the same phenomena. This article focuses on several of the muscle disorders of bird dogs, namely, coccygeal muscle injury and infraspinatus muscle contracture, and on those of dogs involved in tracking-obedience-protection training, namely, fibrotic myopathy, with an additional discussion of muscle strain. For injury prevention, one important area that can be adapted to canine athletes is the incorporation of warm-up and cool-down into the training program.

  19. Immunohistochemical characteristics of normal canine eyes.

    PubMed

    Labelle, P; Reilly, C M; Naydan, D K; Labelle, A L

    2012-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry is widely utilized in diagnostic laboratories to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Knowledge of the immunohistochemical characteristics of normal tissue is essential for interpretation of immunoreactivity in pathologic conditions. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed with a broad panel of diagnostically relevant antibodies on 4 normal canine globes--namely, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 8/18, cytokeratin 20, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, desmin, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, triple neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, laminin and CD31. Results include cytokeratin immunoreactivity limited to the conjunctival epithelium, corneal epithelium, and retinal pigment epithelium; distinct patterns of immunopositivity of muscle markers; and widespread immunoreactivity for vimentin and most neural/neuroendocrine markers. These findings in normal eyes provide the basis for interpretation of ocular immunohistochemistry in dogs. Published immunophenotypes of primary ocular neoplasms are also reviewed.

  20. Canine renal failure syndrome in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won Il; Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da Hee; Chung, Jae Yong; Yang, Hai Jie; Yuan, Dong Wei; Hong, Il Hwa; Park, Jin Kyu; Goo, Moon Jung; Jeong, Kyu Shik

    2006-09-01

    Three dead dogs were brought to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University for study. Clinically, all the dogs showed emaciation, anorexia, depression, hemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhea for 7-10 days before death. All the clinical signs were first noted for about one month after feeding the dogs with commercial diets. At necropsy, all 3 dogs had severe renal damage with the same green-yellowish colored nephroliths in the renal pelvis. They also showed systemic hemorrhage and calcification of several organs, which might have been induced by uremia. Microscopically, necrosis, calcification and calculi were detected in the renal tubules, and especially in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. These findings were supportive of a mycotoxic effect, and especially on their kidneys. However, the precise cause of the toxic effect in these cases of canine renal failure could not be determined.

  1. Canine inflammatory myopathy: analysis of cellular infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Pumarola, Marti; Moore, Peter F; Shelton, G Diane

    2004-06-01

    Inflammatory myopathies (IMs) occur relatively frequently in dogs, and, with the exception of masticatory muscle myositis (MMM), have not been characterized. This study analyzed the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates in 21 cases of generalized IM, 3 cases of focal IM (MMM), and 1 case with features of both generalized and focal IM, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to cell surface markers. In generalized IM, mononuclear cells showed an endomysial and perimysial distribution with invasion of non-necrotic fibers similar to human IM. T lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR)alphabeta predominated. Distinct differences were seen in MMM including prominent B-cell infiltration, dendritic cells and macrophages in greater numbers than T cells, and numerous T cells with TCRgammadelta. Thus, generalized IM and MMM appear to be distinct diseases with different mechanisms. Canine generalized IM may be an important animal model for human IM.

  2. Calcareous degeneration of the canine cornea.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Jane; Blunden, Tony

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a specific presentation of canine corneal calcification. Fourteen cases are described. In seven cases the corneal lesions were bilaterally symmetrical. In five cases the corneal lesion was unilateral. Two dogs were uniocular, the contralateral eye had been enucleated between 1 and 3 months previously by the referring veterinary surgeon following corneal ulceration and perforation. Of a total of 21 eyes with corneal calcification, 16 eyes had associated ulceration. The ulceration presented as follows: two eyes had descemetocoeles, four eyes had corneal perforations, eight eyes had stromal ulceration, and two eyes had superficial punctate ulceration. The cause of the corneal mineralization remains undetermined but underlying systemic disease, particularly hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Syndrome), is suspected as a possible contributing factor in some of these cases. Histopathology was carried out on three cases following a keratectomy and placement of a conjunctival pedicle flap into the ulcerated lesion.

  3. Ultrasonographic evaluation of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Mistieri, Maria Ligia A; Wigger, Antje; Canola, Julio C; Filho, João G P; Kramer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis is an uncommon finding in dogs. Although its radiographic appearance has been described previously, radiographs alone do not provide detailed information about the tendon parenchyma. Tendon ultrasonography has been widely applied for the diagnosis of human tendinosis, but it remains underused in dogs. This article reviews the ultrasonographic technique and variable appearance of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis observed in 33 tendons. The ultrasonographic findings are described. The most common ultrasonographic finding was a hyperechoic area accompanied by distal acoustic shadowing. No relationship with bicipital tenosynovitis was found. A color Doppler examination was possible in only five of the tendons, revealing no blood flow in those tendons. There was evidence that the presence of a hypoechoic area surrounding the calcification was related to clinical signs of pain, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Ultrasonography was an excellent technique to evaluate lesions of the supraspinatus tendon and it revealed details not apparent on radiographs.

  4. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Sullivan, Steven M.; Martins, Luana Maria Rosário; Ávila, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars. PMID:27007769

  5. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start. PMID:25482233

  6. Comparison of the canine and human olfactory receptor gene repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Quignon, Pascale; Kirkness, Ewen; Cadieu, Edouard; Touleimat, Nizar; Guyon, Richard; Renier, Corinne; Hitte, Christophe; André, Catherine; Fraser, Claire; Galibert, Francis

    2003-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs), the first dedicated molecules with which odorants physically interact to arouse an olfactory sensation, constitute the largest gene family in vertebrates, including around 900 genes in human and 1,500 in the mouse. Whereas dogs, like many other mammals, have a much keener olfactory potential than humans, only 21 canine OR genes have been described to date. Results In this study, 817 novel canine OR sequences were identified, and 640 have been characterized. Of the 661 characterized OR sequences, representing half of the canine repertoire, 18% are predicted to be pseudogenes, compared with 63% in human and 20% in mouse. Phylogenetic analysis of 403 canine OR sequences identified 51 families, and radiation-hybrid mapping of 562 showed that they are distributed on 24 dog chromosomes, in 37 distinct regions. Most of these regions constitute clusters of 2 to 124 closely linked genes. The two largest clusters (124 and 109 OR genes) are located on canine chromosomes 18 and 21. They are orthologous to human clusters located on human chromosomes 11q11-q13 and HSA11p15, containing 174 and 115 ORs respectively. Conclusions This study shows a strongly conserved genomic distribution of OR genes between dog and human, suggesting that OR genes evolved from a common mammalian ancestral repertoire by successive duplications. In addition, the dog repertoire appears to have expanded relative to that of humans, leading to the emergence of specific canine OR genes. PMID:14659017

  7. Canine RBC osmotic tolerance and membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Christian, J A; Critser, J K

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cryobiological characteristics of canine red blood cells (RBC). These included the hydraulic conductivity (L(p)), the permeability coefficients (P(s)) of common cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), the associated reflection coefficient (sigma), the activation energies (E(a)) of L(p) and P(s) and the osmotic tolerance limits. By using a stopped-flow apparatus, the changes of fluorescence intensity emitted by intracellularly entrapped 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) were recorded when cells were experiencing osmotic volume changes. After the determination of the relationship between fluorescence intensity and cell volume, cell volume changes were calculated. These volume changes were used in three-parameter fitting calculations to determine the values of L(p), P(s), and sigma for common CPAs. These volume measurements and data analyses were repeated at three different temperatures (22, 14, 7 degrees C). Using the Arrhenius equation, the activation energies of L(p) and P(s) in the presence of CPAs were determined. The osmotic tolerance limits for canine RBC were determined by measuring the percentage of free hemoglobin in NaCl solutions with various osmolalities compared to that released by RBC incubated in double distilled water. The upper and lower osmotic tolerance limits were found to be 150mOsm (1.67V(iso)) and 1200mOsm (0.45V(iso)), respectively. These parameters were then used to calculate the amount of non-permeating solute needed to keep cell volume excursions within the osmotic tolerance limits during CPA addition and removal.

  8. Molecular cloning of the canine fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and Fhit protein expression in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Hiroko; Minami, Koji; Kaneko, Naoki; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2009-05-01

    A fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene has been studied as a tumor-associated gene in humans. The aberrant FHIT gene and its protein expression have been reported in many types of human cancers. The present study explored the canine FHIT gene structure and its protein expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy dogs by RT-PCR, RACE and immunoblot analysis. The obtained canine FHIT gene contained nine small exons and was located on canine chromosome 20. Furthermore, we identified an alternative splicing form of the FHIT transcript. The deduced amino acid sequence was well conserved between species, and anti-human Fhit antibody could be used to detect the canine Fhit protein. These findings will be useful for future research.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Omar Y; Larson, Laurie; Payne, Laurie; Tubbs, Anna; Wasmoen, Terri; Schultz, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The results of this study confirmed that dogs vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multivalent vaccine containing modified-live canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 2b, and canine parainfluenza virus antigens were protected against sequential experimental challenge 55 to 57 months after initial vaccination given at 7 to 8 weeks of age. All 10 vaccinates were protected against clinical diseases and mortality following parvovirus and infectious canine hepatitis experimental infections. All vaccinates were protected against mortality and 90% against clinical disease following distemper challenge. These data support at least a 4-year duration of immunity for these three "core" fractions in the combination vaccine.

  10. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  11. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  12. Improvement of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure.

    PubMed

    Jang, G; Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Fibrianto, Y H; Hossein, M S; Kim, H J; Kim, J J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of the present study on canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was to evaluate the effects of fusion strength, type of activation, culture media and site of transfer on developmental potential of SCNT embryos. We also examined the potential of enucleated bovine oocytes to serve as cytoplast recipients of canine somatic cells. Firstly, we evaluated the morphological characteristics of in vivo-matured canine oocytes collected by retrograde flushing of the oviducts 72 h after ovulation. Secondly, the effectiveness of three electrical strengths (1.8, 2.3 and 3.3 kV/cm), used twice for 20 micros, on fusion of canine cytoplasts with somatic cells were compared. Then, we compared: (1) chemical versus electrical activation (a) after parthenogenetic activation or (b) after reconstruction of canine oocytes with somatic cells; (2) culture of resulting intergeneric (IG) embryos in either (a) mSOF or (b) TCM-199. The exposure time to 6-DMAP was standardized by using bovine oocytes reconstructed with canine somatic cells. Bovine oocytes were used for SCNT after a 22 h in vitro maturation interval. The fusion rate was significantly higher in the 3.3 kV/cm group than in the 1.8 and 2.3 kV/cm treatment groups. After parthenogenesis or SCNT with chemical activation, 3.4 and 5.8%, respectively, of the embryos developed to the morula stage, as compared to none of the embryos produced using electrical activation. Later developmental stages (8-16 cells) were transferred to the uterine horn of eight recipients, but no pregnancy was detected. However, IG cloned embryos (bovine cytoplast/canine somatic cell) were capable of in vitro blastocyst development. In vitro developmental competence of IG cloned embryos was improved after exposure to 6-DMAP for 4 h as compared to 0, 2 or 6h exposure, although the increase was not significantly different among culture media. In summary, for production of canine SCNT embryos, we recommend fusion at 3.3 kV/cm, chemical activation

  13. Ex vivo lung perfusion.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jeremie; Cypel, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Lung transplantation is an established life-saving therapy for patients with end-stage lung disease. Unfortunately, greater success in lung transplantation is hindered by a shortage of lung donors and the relatively poor early-, mid-, and long-term outcomes associated with severe primary graft dysfunction. Ex vivo lung perfusion has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for a more accurate lung assessment and improvement in lung quality. This review outlines the: (i) rationale behind the method; (ii) techniques and protocols; (iii) Toronto ex vivo lung perfusion method; (iv) devices available; and (v) clinical experience worldwide. We also highlight the potential of ex vivo lung perfusion in leading a new era of lung preservation.

  14. [Establishment of prostatic hyperplasia model with castration beagle canines].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Hui; Sun, Zu-Yue; Zhu, Yan; Zhong, En-Hong; He, Gui-Lin; Liu, Gui-Ming

    2003-09-01

    To establish a prostatic hyperplasia model with Beagle canines. Twenty-four two-year-old male Beagle canines were divided into treatment and control groups at random and were administrated testosterone propionate (TP) through intramuscular injection two months after castration. Three treatment groups were given 0.8, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg TP respectively, and the control was given the same volume of vehicle. Two months later, half of the animals were killed and the serum and prostate were prepared. After the wet weight and volume of prostate were measured, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) level of serum and prostate were detected with DHT radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, and paraffine section from canine prostate was stained by the HE methods. Pictures were taken by digital camera under microscope, and all the pictures were analyzed by computer for epithelial cell height and acinar luminal area of prostate with micro image analysis software. The canine prostate volume was measured with ultrasonic diagnosis instrument before castration, at two months after castration and at two months after being given TP. The ultrasonic results showed that the prostate volumes of all the canines were smaller at two months after castration than before castration (P < 0.05), and after having been administrated TP for two months, and the prostate volumes of all treatment groups were larger than those of the control group (P < 0.01). The wet weight of the prostate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and both had dose-dependent relationship. The DHT level of serum and prostate of the canines became higher with the increase of TP dose. The results of micro image analysis showed that the acinar luminal area of prostate was enlarged, and the epithelial cell height increased with larger dose of TP. It is practicable to establish prostatic hyperplasia model in Beagle canines after two months of TP administration.

  15. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  16. Young’s Modulus of Canine Vocal Fold Cover Layers

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Rafizadeh, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to measure the elastic modulus (Young’s modulus) of canine vocal fold cover layers. Study Design Basic science study. Methods Cover layers from vocal folds of eight canine larynges were dissected. Cover layer samples from the mid-membranous, medial vocal fold surface area were used to measure material stiffness using a previously validated indentation method. Cover layers from two human larynges were also measured as control references. Superior and inferior medial cover layers were measured separately. A total of 15 superior medial surface and 17 inferior medial surface specimens from the canine, and 2 and 4 specimens respectively from the human, were tested. Results In the canine larynges, the mean Young’s modulus of the superior medial surface was 4.2 kPa (range 3.0 kPa – 5.4 kPa, SD 0.6 kPa), and of the inferior medial surface was 6.8 kPa (range 5.4 – 8.5 kPa, SD 0.8 kPa). Measurements on human cover samples were 5.0 kPa (range 4.7 – 5.4 kPa, SD 0.5 kPa) and 7.0 kPa (range 6.7 – 7.3 kPa, SD 0.3 kPa) for the superior medial and inferior medial surface, respectively. Human measurements were similar to the previously validated measurements. There was no difference between the stiffness measurements in the human and canine cover layer samples (p>0.05). Conclusions The elastic stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the canine and human vocal fold cover layers is similar. Findings support the use of canine larynx as an externally valid model to study voice production. PMID:24491497

  17. MRI cross sectional atlas of normal canine cervical musculoskeletal structure.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Zindl, C; Allen, M J; Knapik, G G; Fitzpatrick, N; Marras, W S

    2016-12-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for cervical spine injuries in canines, a comprehensive normal MRI anatomy of the canine cervical spine muscles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the normal cross sectional anatomy of the muscles of the canine cervical spine. MRI scans were performed on a canine cadaver using a combination of T1 and T2-weighted images in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes acquired at a slice thickness of 1mm. Muscle contours were traced manually in each slice, using local osseous structures as reference points for muscle identification. Twenty-two muscles were traced in 401 slices in the cervical region. A three dimensional surface model of all the contoured muscles was created to illustrate the complex geometrical arrangement of canine neck muscles. The cross-sectional area of the muscles was measured at the mid-level of each vertebra. The accuracy of the location of the mapped muscles was verified by comparing the sagittal view of the 3D model of muscles with still photographs obtained from anatomic canine cadaver dissection. We believe that this information will provide a unique and valuable resource for veterinary researchers, clinicians and surgeons who wish to evaluate MRI images of the cervical spine. It will also serve as the foundation for ongoing work to develop a computational model of the canine cervical spine in which anatomical information is combined with electromyographic, kinematic and kinetic data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Young's modulus of canine vocal fold cover layers.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Rafizadeh, Sassan

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the elastic modulus (Young's modulus) of canine vocal fold cover layers. Basic science study. Cover layers from vocal folds of eight canine larynges were dissected. Cover layer samples from the mid-membranous, medial vocal fold surface area were used to measure material stiffness using a previously validated indentation method. Cover layers from two human larynges were also measured as control references. Superior and inferior medial cover layers were measured separately. A total of 15 superior medial surface and 17 inferior medial surface specimens from the canine and two and four specimens, respectively, from the human were tested. In the canine larynges, the mean Young's modulus of the superior medial surface was 4.2 kPa (range, 3.0-5.4 kPa; standard deviation [SD], 0.6 kPa) and of the inferior medial surface was 6.8 kPa (range, 5.4-8.5 kPa; SD, 0.8 kPa). Measurements on human cover samples were 5.0 kPa (range, 4.7-5.4 kPa; SD, 0.5 kPa) and 7.0 kPa (range, 6.7-7.3 kPa; SD, 0.3 kPa) for the superior medial and inferior medial surface, respectively. Human measurements were similar to the previously validated measurements. There was no difference between the stiffness measurements in the human and canine cover layer samples (P>0.05). The elastic stiffness (Young's modulus) of the canine and human vocal fold cover layers is similar. Findings support the use of canine larynx as an externally valid model to study voice production. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Canine atopic dermatitis: detailed guidelines for diagnosis and allergen identification.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Patrick; Santoro, Domenico; Favrot, Claude; Hill, Peter; Griffin, Craig

    2015-08-11

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, genetically predisposed, inflammatory and pruritic skin disease. The variation in clinical presentations, due to genetic factors, extent of the lesions, stage of the disease, secondary infections, as well as resemblance to other non-atopic related skin diseases, can complicate a diagnosis of canine AD. A sub-group of the International Committee for Allergic Diseases in Animals (ICADA) was tasked with the development of a set of practical guidelines that can be used to assist practitioners and researchers in the diagnosis of canine AD. Online citation databases and abstracts from international meetings were searched for publications related to the topic, and combined with expert opinion where necessary. The final set of guidelines was approved by the entire ICADA committee. A total of 81 publications relevant for this review were identified. The guidelines generated focus on three aspects of the diagnostic approach: 1. Ruling out of other skin conditions with clinical signs resembling, or overlapping with canine AD. 2. Detailed interpretation of the historical and clinical features of patients affected by canine AD. 3. Allergy testing by intradermal versus allergen-specific IgE serum testing. The diagnosis of canine AD is based on meeting clinical criteria and ruling out other possible causes with similar clinical signs. Flea combing, skin scraping and cytology should be performed, where necessary, as part of a thorough work-up. Elimination diet trials are required for patients with perennial pruritus and/or concurrent gastrointestinal signs. Once a clinical diagnosis of canine AD is made, allergy testing can be performed to identify potential causative allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  20. Expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Chervet, Ludovic; Müller, Eliane J; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Janda, Jozef

    2013-02-01

    In humans, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammation, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), but it is unknown whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of canine AD (CAD). Our aim was to characterize canine TSLP and to assess its expression in CAD. Canine TSLP was identified based on sequence homology with human TSLP and the complementary DNA (cDNA) cloned by RT-PCR. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was established to assess the expression of canine TSLP in cultured canine keratinocytes and in skin biopsy specimens from lesional and nonlesional skin of 12 dogs with CAD and eight healthy control dogs. Partial canine TSLP cDNA was cloned and characterized. It contained four exons that shared 70 and 73% nucleotide identity with human and equine TSLP, respectively, encoding the signal peptide and full-length secreted protein. We found significantly increased TSLP expression in lesional and nonlesional skin of dogs with CAD compared with healthy control dogs (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was measured between lesional and nonlesional samples. In cultured primary canine keratinocytes, we found increased TSLP expression after stimulation with house dust mite allergen extract or Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and poly I:C. Increased TSLP expression in the skin of dogs with CAD supports an involvement of TSLP in the pathogenesis of CAD similar to that in humans. Further studies should elucidate the function and therapeutic potential of TSLP in CAD. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Rohit S; Tandon, Ragni; Chandra, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further

  2. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions.

  3. Antibody responses of red wolves to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, L A; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C; Lucash, C F; Kania, S A; Potgieter, L N

    1997-07-01

    Twenty captive red wolves (Canis rufus), including 16 intended for release into Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cades Cove, Tennessee (USA), and four housed at Knoxville Zoological Gardens, Inc., Knoxville, Tennessee, were evaluated for immunologic response to vaccination between June 1994 and April 1995. Wolves were vaccinated with modified-live (MLV) canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV2). Sera were collected, and immunofluorescent staining was performed for determination of immunoglobulin titers (CDV IgM, CDV IgG, and CPV2 IgG). A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for validation purposes, to confirm the reactivity of our standard diagnostic reagents with red wolf serum. All wolves produced a measurable antibody response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination. Titers against CDV and CPV2 varied widely among individual wolves, but between-litter differences in mean titers were not significant. No consistent response between the degree of response to CDV versus CPV2 vaccination was observed in individual wolves. No differences were seen between IgG responses of pups vaccinated with univalent vaccines given concurrently or during alternating weeks. Pups had an IgG response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination as early as 9 wk of age. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CDV were at or above the level normally measured in vaccinated domestic dogs. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CPV2 were below the level normally measured in domestic dogs. Adult previously-vaccinated wolves had measurable CDV and CPV2 IgG titers more than 1 yr after vaccination, but did not have significant IgG titer increases after revaccination. We conclude that red wolves are capable of producing an antibody response after vaccination with commercial canine products but that their response to CPV2 vaccination was minimal. This response can be assayed using tests developed for domestic dogs.

  4. Improved efficiency of canine nucleus transfer using roscovitine-treated canine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oh, H J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Kang, J T; Kim, M J; Kim, M K; Kang, S K; Kim, D Y; Jang, G; Lee, B C

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether roscovitine (the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor) effectively induces synchronization of the donor cell cycle at G0/G1 and to examine the effect of donor cell cycle synchronization protocols on canine somatic cell nucleus transfer. Canine fibroblasts were obtained from skin biopsy cultures taken from a 7-yr-old retriever. The donor cell cycle was synchronized either by culturing cells to reach confluency or by treating cells with 15 microg/mL roscovitine for 24h. Cell cycle stages and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. After synchronization of the donor cell cycle, cells were placed with enucleated in vivo-matured dog oocytes, fused by electric stimulation, activated, and transferred into 18 naturally estrus-synchronized surrogates. There was no significant difference in cell cycle synchronization and apoptosis rates between the confluent and roscovitine groups. After transfer of reconstructed embryos, pregnancy was detected in three of nine surrogates that received cloned embryos reconstructed with roscovitine-treated cells, whereas only one of nine surrogates was pregnant after transfer of cloned embryos reconstructed with confluent cells. One pregnant female from the confluent cell group delivered one live and one dead pup, but the live one died within 5 days after birth. Three pregnant females from the roscovitine-treated cell group delivered eight live pups and one dead pup, and one of eight live pups died within 6 days after birth. In conclusion, the current results demonstrated that reconstructing embryos with roscovitine-treated cells resulted in increased efficiency of canine somatic cell nucleus transfer.

  5. Cloning and establishment of canine desmocollin-1 as a major autoantigen in canine pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Bizikova, Petra; Dean, Gregg A; Hashimoto, Takashi; Olivry, Thierry

    2012-10-15

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is the most common antibody-mediated autoimmune skin disease of dogs. Desmoglein-1 (DSG1), the major human PF antigen, represents only a minor autoantigen in canine PF (cPF). A recent immunomapping study proposed desmocollin-1 (DSC1) as a relevant candidate autoantigen for cPF. To investigate this hypothesis, 85 cPF sera were screened for the presence of anti-DSC1 IgG using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on live canine DSC1-transfected 293T cells. Seventy-five sera contained detectable antikeratinocyte IgG on IIF using footpad substrate (IIFpos cPF), while 10 did not (IIFneg cPF). Sera from 35 healthy dogs, eight from exfoliative superficial pyoderma (ESP)-affected dogs and 21 dogs with non-PF autoimmune blistering skin diseases served as controls. All sera were tested concurrently by IIF on canine DSG1-transfected as well as nontransfected cells. None of the healthy dog or ESP sera labelled any of the transfected or nontransfected cells. Fifty-seven of 75 IIFpos cPF (86%) and 7/10 of IIFneg cPF sera (70%) contained detectable anti-DSC1 IgG. None of these sera recognized nontransfected cells. Five cPF sera (6%) recognized DSG1 in addition to DSC1. Finally, 5/21 (24%) sera from dogs with non-PF autoimmune blistering diseases contained low anti-DSC1 IgG titers. In 7/10 dogs (70%), from whom serial serum samples were collected during treatment, anti-DSC1 IgG titers decreased in parallel with the reduction in disease clinical severity. Altogether, these findings suggest that DSC1 is a major autoantigen in cPF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogenetic analyses of dimorphism in primates: evidence for stronger selection on canine size than on body size.

    PubMed

    Thorén, Sandra; Lindenfors, Patrik; Kappeler, Peter M

    2006-05-01

    Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to analyze the consequences of sexual selection on canine size and canine size dimorphism in primates. Our analyses of previously published body mass and canine size data revealed that the degree of sexual selection is correlated with canine size dimorphism, as well as with canine size in both sexes, in haplorhine but not in strepsirrhine primates. Consistent with these results, male and female canine size was found to be highly correlated in all primates. Since canine dimorphism and canine size in both sexes in haplorhines were found to be not only related to mating system but also to body size and body size dimorphism (characters which are also subject to or the result of sexual selection), it was not apparent whether the degree of canine dimorphism is the result of sexual selection on canine size itself, or whether canine dimorphism is instead a consequence of selection on body size, or vice versa. To distinguish among these possibilities, we conducted matched-pairs analyses on canine size after correcting for the effects of body size. These tests revealed significant effects of sexual selection on relative canine size, indicating that canine size is more important in haplorhine male-male competition than body size. Further analyses showed, however, that it was not possible to detect any evolutionary lag between canine size and body size, or between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. Additional support for the notion of special selection on canine size consisted of allometric relationships in haplorhines between canine size and canine size dimorphism in males, as well as between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. In conclusion, these analyses revealed that the effects of sexual selection on canine size are stronger than those on body size, perhaps indicating that canines are more important than body size in haplorhine male-male competition.

  7. Ciprofloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Clinical Canine Patients.

    PubMed

    Papich, M G

    2017-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin generic tablets approved for human use frequently are administered to dogs for treatment of bacterial infections because they are inexpensive and readily available. However, previous work indicated low and variable oral absorption in healthy research dogs. To examine orally administered ciprofloxacin in a group of clinical canine patients using population pharmacokinetics in order to identify minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) that potentially could be achieved with orally administered ciprofloxacin in dogs. Thirty-four clinical canine patients; mean weight, 22.95 kg (range, 4.6-57 kg). Ciprofloxacin generic tablets intended for human use were administered to dogs in a prospective study (mean dose, 23.5 mg/kg). Sparse blood sampling was used to obtain population pharmacokinetic results with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. These data were used to estimate a breakpoint for susceptible bacteria. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the probability of target attainment (PTA) for an area under the curve (AUC)/MIC ratio of ≥100, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target for fluoroquinolones. The values for volume of distribution, peak concentration, and half-life were 10.7 L/kg (11.7%), 1.9 μg/mL (11.66%), and 4.35 hours (7.62%), respectively (mean, % coefficient of variation [CV]). The size of the dog was an important covariate with larger dogs achieving lower plasma drug concentrations than smaller dogs, despite a similar mg/kg dose. Ninety percent PTA was obtained for a MIC ≤ 0.06 μg/mL. A breakpoint (susceptible) of ≤0.06 μg/mL should be considered when ciprofloxacin tablets are administered to dogs at a dose of 25 mg/kg once daily, which is much lower than the breakpoint of ≤1 μg/mL in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Sexual selection and canine dimorphism in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Plavcan, J M; Glander, K E; Wright, P C

    1988-11-01

    Social and ecological factors are important in shaping sexual dimorphism in Anthropoidea, but there is also a tendency for body-size dimorphism and canine dimorphism to increase with increased body size (Rensch's rule) (Rensch: Evolution Above the Species Level. London: Methuen, 1959.) Most ecologist interpret Rensch's rule to be a consequence of social and ecological selective factors that covary with body size, but recent claims have been advanced that dimorphism is principally a consequence of selection for increased body size alone. Here we assess the effects of body size, body-size dimorphism, and social structure on canine dimorphism among platyrrhine monkeys. Platyrrhine species examined are classified into four behavioral groups reflecting the intensity of intermale competition for access to females or to limiting resources. As canine dimorphism increases, so does the level of intermale competition. Those species with monogamous and polyandrous social structures have the lowest canine dimorphism, while those with dominance rank hierarchies of males have the most canine dimorphism. Species with fission-fusion social structures and transitory intermale breeding-season competition fall between these extremes. Among platyrrhines there is a significant positive correlation between body size and canine dimorphism However, within levels of competition, no significant correlation was found between the two. Also, with increased body size, body-size dimorphism tends to increase, and this correlation holds in some cases within competition levels. In an analysis of covariance, once the level of intermale competition is controlled for, neither molar size nor molar-size dimorphism accounts for a significant part of the variance in canine dimorphism. A similar analysis using body weight as a measure of size and dimorphism yields a less clear-cut picture: body weight contributes significantly to the model when the effects of the other factors are controlled. Finally, in a

  9. The Effect of Using a Modified Dentoalveolar Distractor on Canine Angulation following Rapid Canine Retraction: A Split-mouth Design Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Ainawi, Khaled I; Al-Mdalal, Yaser; Hajeer, Mohammad Y

    2016-01-01

    New studies have been published and aimed to retract canines by means of distraction osteogenesis to reduce treatment time. Although a great care has been given to achieve a bodily movement of the canines, a significant amount of tipping of the canines has been observed. This trial aimed to assess the effect of applying a modified distractor on canine angulation. The sample of the study consisted of 14 canines in seven patients (16-25 years). After the osteotomy procedure, two distractors were applied (one distractor on each side). After 5 days of a latency period, the two distractors were activated at a rate of 1 mm/day. There was a significant difference between the two distractors regarding the time required to retract the canines (p = 0.008) and the observed change in canine angulation following retraction (p = 0.028). The change in the overjet and the mandibular plane angle was statistically insignificant. Eight out of 14 distracted canines reacted positively to the pulp vitality tester after 3 months of completion of distraction. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any canine. Within the limits of this study, the modified distractor caused a bodily movement of the canine with a minimal tipping. Further research is required on a long-term basis on a larger group of patients to gain more insight on the observed changes.

  10. A novel trauma model: naturally occurring canine trauma.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kelly E; Sharp, Claire R; Adams, Cynthia R; Beilman, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    In human trauma patients, most deaths result from hemorrhage and brain injury, whereas late deaths, although rare, are the result of multiple organ failure and sepsis. A variety of experimental animal models have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of traumatic injury and evaluate novel interventions. Similar to other experimental models, these trauma models cannot recapitulate conditions of naturally occurring trauma, and therefore therapeutic interventions based on these models are often ineffective. Pet dogs with naturally occurring traumatic injury represent a promising translational model for human trauma that could be used to assess novel therapies. The purpose of this article was to review the naturally occurring canine trauma literature to highlight the similarities between canine and human trauma. The American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Committee on Trauma has initiated the establishment of a national network of veterinary trauma centers to enhance uniform delivery of care to canine trauma patients. In addition, the Spontaneous Trauma in Animals Team, a multidisciplinary, multicenter group of researchers has created a clinical research infrastructure for carrying out large-scale clinical trials in canine trauma patients. Moving forward, these national resources can be utilized to facilitate multicenter prospective studies of canine trauma to evaluate therapies and interventions that have shown promise in experimental animal models, thus closing the critical gap in the translation of knowledge from experimental models to humans and increasing the likelihood of success in phases 1 and 2 human clinical trials.

  11. Discriminant canine index – a novel approach in sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Chennoju Sai; Ramaswamy, Pachigolla; Swathi, Erva; Smitha, Balla; Sudhakar, Shankaran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Context Assessment of sex has significant contribution in construction of a physical profile of the decedent along with other parameters like race, stature and age. Sex determination with aid of skeletal remains is difficult procedure when, only a part of the body is obtainable. To solve this difficulty, tooth size standards based on odontometric data can be used in age and sex determination. The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the reliability of sex determination using discriminant canine index (DCI). Methods A total of 120 subjects, with healthy periodontium and between the age groups of 15 to 40 years were selected randomly. Subjects with hard tissue abnormalities were excluded from the study. The maximum mesiodistal widths of left mandibular canines were measured intraorally with the help of divider and digital vernier caliper. Data was collected and analyzed statistically. Results A significant increase in the mesiodistal width of canines in males (7.21 ± 0.45 mm) when compared to females (6.77 ± 0.29 mm) was observed. The discriminant canine index (DCI) has identified 68.3% of males and 76.7% of females correctly with an overall accuracy rate of 72.5%. Conclusion The present study indicated that the DCI can produce reliable results and can be used as an alternative for mandibular canine index (MCI), for sex determination. PMID:26330903

  12. Stem cell growth factor receptor in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Wolfesberger, Birgitt; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Hlavaty, Juraj; Meyer, Florian R.; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Gebhard, Christiane; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is considered the most common bone cancer in cats and dogs, with cats having a much better prognosis than dogs, since the great majority of dogs with osteosarcoma develop distant metastases. In search of a factor possibly contributing to this disparity, the stem cell growth factor receptor KIT was targeted, and the messenger (m)RNA and protein expression levels of KIT were compared in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas, as well as in normal bone. The mRNA expression of KIT was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was observed to be significantly higher in canine (n=14) than in feline (n=5) osteosarcoma samples (P<0.001). KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, which revealed that 21% of canine osteosarcoma samples did not exhibit KIT staining in their neoplastic cells, while in 14% of samples, a score of 1 (<10% positive tumour cells) was observed, and in 50% and 14% of samples, a score of 2 (10–50% positivity) and 3 (>50% positivity), respectively, was observed. By contrast, the cancer cells of all the feline bone tumour samples analysed were entirely negative for KIT. Notably, canine and feline osteocytes of healthy bone tissue lacked any KIT expression. These results could be the first evidence that KIT may be involved in the higher aggressiveness of canine osteosarcoma compared with feline osteosarcoma. PMID:27698817

  13. Eliminating canine rabies: the role of public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louise

    2013-05-01

    Canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, but infected dogs remain the principal source of human infections in the developing world. Despite the availability of effective tools for prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis, canine rabies inflicts a heavy burden on the poorest people of Africa, Asia and Latin America, resulting in more than 60,000 deaths each year. Public-private partnerships offer a new approach to the challenge of eliminating canine rabies in the developing world, by bringing together stakeholders to share responsibilities and reduce costs. The leading partnership for rabies control, the Partners for Rabies Prevention, is an informal international group that includes representatives of major health organizations (WHO, PAHO, FAO, OIE), the European Commission, universities, nongovernmental organizations, the human and animal health industries, and private global health institutions. This article describes how the Partners for Rabies Prevention is working toward the global elimination of canine rabies. It forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies.

  14. Alpha basic crystallin expression in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, Tolga; Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca Betil; Karayigit, Onder; Sozmen, Mahmut

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic and/or diagnostic factors of canine mammary tumors by immunohistochemically analyzing the expression of alpha basic crystallin (αB-c). For this, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of 51 naturally-occurring canine mammary tumors (11 benign and 40 malignant) were used. Tissue from eight normal canine mammary glands were served as a control. Immunohistochemically, in the control mammary tissues, a few luminal epithelial cells were αB-c positive but myoepithelial cells were negative. In benign or simple type malignant tumors, αB-c expression was observed in luminal epithelial cells while the myoepithelial basal cells were negative. In benign or complex type malign tumors, positive staining was predominantly found in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Immunoreactivity of αB-c was also observed in neoplastic myoepithelial cells. Statistically, the number of cells immunolabeled with αB-c was found to be significantly different among tissues from normal canine mammary glands, benign lesions, and malignant tumors (p < 0.05). αB-c immunoreactivity was higher in malignant tumors than the control mammary tissues (p < 0.001). Data obtained in the current study revealed a strong association between high expression levels of αB-c and primary mammary gland tumors in canines.

  15. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments.

  16. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  17. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  18. Three-dimensional canine heart model for cardiac elastography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Varghese, Tomy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A three-dimensional finite element analysis based canine heart model is introduced that would enable the assessment of cardiac function. Methods: The three-dimensional canine heart model is based on the cardiac deformation and motion model obtained from the Cardiac Mechanics Research Group at UCSD. The canine heart model is incorporated into ultrasound simulation programs previously developed in the laboratory, enabling the generation of simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data to evaluate algorithms for cardiac elastography. The authors utilize a two-dimensional multilevel hybrid method to estimate local displacements and strain from the simulated cardiac radiofrequency data. Results: Tissue displacements and strains estimated along both the axial and lateral directions (with respect to the ultrasound scan plane) are compared to the actual scatterer movement obtained using the canine heart model. Simulation and strain estimation algorithms combined with the three-dimensional canine heart model provide high resolution displacement and strain curves for improved analysis of cardiac function. The use of principal component analysis along parasternal cardiac short axis views is also presented. Conclusions: A 3D cardiac deformation model is proposed for evaluating displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithms for cardiac strain imaging. Validation of the model is shown using ultrasound simulations to generate axial and lateral displacement and strain curves that are similar to the actual axial and lateral displacement and strain curves. PMID:21158300

  19. Ontogenetic bases of canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Buchanan, Laurel S

    2005-07-01

    This study tests hypotheses regarding the ontogeny of canine tooth size dimorphism in five anthropoid primate species (Saguinus fuscicollis, Macaca mulatta, Cercocebus atys, Papio hamadryas, and Mandrillus sphinx). Canine measurements and chronological age data are analyzed to determine if bimaturism, a sex difference in the age at which eruption ceases, accounts for canine tooth sexual dimorphism. Canine height measurements are evaluated through a variety of regression techniques. Results show a lack of sexual dimorphism in Saguinus. While size dimorphism is absent in the deciduous teeth of all species analyzed, the adult teeth in cercopithecines become increasingly dimorphic through ontogeny. Female adult tooth eruption regularly precedes male tooth eruption, and regression-based eruption trajectories for both sexes intersect at about the age at which the female tooth reaches adult size. Males erupt the tooth later and more rapidly than females. Males also reach a larger adult size than females by erupting the tooth for much longer periods of time. Bimaturism is primary in the production of dimorphism, but rates of eruption show modest variation. These results point to the scheduling of sexual selection through intermale competition as a primary factor determining male eruption timing, rates of eruption, and adult size. Life history factors may play a role in determining the relations between the scheduling of intrasexual competition and canine eruption. Female contributions to sexual dimorphism are apparent in these species, suggesting that similar levels of dimorphism can be attained through diverse ontogenetic pathways.

  20. Fluctuating asymmetry, sexual selection and canine teeth in primates.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Chamberlain, A T

    1993-02-22

    Fluctuating asymmetry arises as small deviations from symmetry which can be expressed on either side of the body. Increases in fluctuating asymmetry can suggest genomic stress such as results from directional selection. It has been argued that epigamic structures and weapons should show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry because sexual selection is essentially directional in nature. We tested this prediction by examining the expression of fluctuating asymmetry in the upper canines of 21 species of Old World primates. We found, for males but not for females, that asymmetry was correlated with measures of sexual selection including canine dimorphism, canine size, mass dimorphism, and intra-male competition. However, there was no significant correlation with diet type and body mass, which are only weakly associated with sexual selection. Phylogenetic inertia did not account for the association between fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. We also found that species with high values of canine dimorphism and intra-male competition tended to have a negative correlation between asymmetry and mean canine height, and this latter effect was present in both males and females. The implications of these findings for sexual selection theory are discussed.

  1. Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of canine interferon-λ1.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tomonori; Asano, Atsushi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-15

    Interferon (IFN)-λs, members of the type III IFN group, were recently identified in several vertebrates. Although IFN-λs have the potential to be utilized as antiviral and antitumor agents in veterinary medicine, the biological properties of IFN-λs have not yet been studied in companion animals. In this study, we analyzed the expression of canine IFN-λs and their receptors, produced a recombinant canine IFN-λ1 protein, and investigated its antiviral and antiproliferative activities using a canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK cells. MDCK cells were found to express type III IFN molecules, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3, and the receptors, IFNλR1 and IL10R2. IFN-λ1 was induced faster than IFN-λ3 by stimulation with poly (I:C). His-tagged IFN-λ1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited cytolytic plaque formation by influenza A virus infection, and induced the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, Mx1 and OAS1, in MDCK cells. In addition, recombinant IFN-λ1 inhibited the proliferation of MDCK cells slightly. These effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that canine IFN-λ1 has antiviral effect, and suggest the potential applicability of canine IFN-λ1 as a therapeutic agent.

  2. Predicted primary and antigenic structure of canine corticotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Mol, J A; van Wolferen, M; Kwant, M; Meloen, R

    1994-07-01

    Although the dog has been recognized as a useful model for the study of the cerebrospinal and peripheral actions of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) the exact amino acid composition of canine CRH is still unknown. In the present study the structure of canine CRH was predicted from the partial sequence of the gene encoding canine CRH. The CRH gene was amplified from genomic DNA obtained from white blood cells by a polymerase chain reaction and subsequently sequenced using the dideoxy method. The likely structure of canine CRH is: SEEPPISLDLTFHLLREVLEMARAEQLAQQAHSNRKLMEII-NH2, which is identical to the structure of human, rat and equine CRH. PEPSCAN analysis of 3 different CRH antisera predicted an antiserum raised against a conjugate of human CRH and CNBr -activated thyroglobulin to be the antiserum of choice for the measurement of CRH in the dog. Preliminary data confirmed the existence of the highest cross-reactivity of a canine hypothalamus extract, known to have a high content of CRH, with antisera directed against human, rat CRH. As a result of the present study immunological tools for CRH estimations are characterized. Also, a homologous DNA probe for in situ hybridizations has become available for further investigations.

  3. Biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Guo; Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe the difference of biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser with different power and different irradiation time. Methods: The canine bladder was irradiated with different power and different irradiation time. The effects of ablation and thermal coagulation in different laser settings were observed. The damage scale was evaluated macroscopically, with microscope and with electroscope. Results: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on the canine bladder by irradiation of Nd:YAP laser on. Pathology vision shows the thermal coagulation dose on perforation is 10W、6s;20W、4s;30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s;the dose of whole audience wear through is 10W、6s 20W、4s 30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s. Conclusions: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on biological effect of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder. The better safety dose is power 10W、duration time less than 6s; power 20W、duration time less than 4s. power 30W、time less than 3s. power 40W、time less than 2s. The ablation and thermal coagulation effects of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder is homocercal of power and time.

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  5. Heterotypic mouse models of canine osteosarcoma recapitulate tumor heterogeneity and biological behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyasu, Hirotaka; Garbe, John R.; Cornax, Ingrid; Amaya, Clarissa; O'Sullivan, M. Gerard; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteosarcoma (OS) is a heterogeneous and rare disease with a disproportionate impact because it mainly affects children and adolescents. Lamentably, more than half of patients with OS succumb to metastatic disease. Clarification of the etiology of the disease, development of better strategies to manage progression, and methods to guide personalized treatments are among the unmet health needs for OS patients. Progress in managing the disease has been hindered by the extreme heterogeneity of OS; thus, better models that accurately recapitulate the natural heterogeneity of the disease are needed. For this study, we used cell lines derived from two spontaneous canine OS tumors with distinctly different biological behavior (OS-1 and OS-2) for heterotypic in vivo modeling that recapitulates the heterogeneous biology and behavior of this disease. Both cell lines demonstrated stability of the transcriptome when grown as orthotopic xenografts in athymic nude mice. Consistent with the behavior of the original tumors, OS-2 xenografts grew more rapidly at the primary site and had greater propensity to disseminate to lung and establish microscopic metastasis. Moreover, OS-2 promoted formation of a different tumor-associated stromal environment than OS-1 xenografts. OS-2-derived tumors comprised a larger percentage of the xenograft tumors than OS-1-derived tumors. In addition, a robust pro-inflammatory population dominated the stromal cell infiltrates in OS-2 xenografts, whereas a mesenchymal population with a gene signature reflecting myogenic signaling dominated those in the OS-1 xenografts. Our studies show that canine OS cell lines maintain intrinsic features of the tumors from which they were derived and recapitulate the heterogeneous biology and behavior of bone cancer in mouse models. This system provides a resource to understand essential interactions between tumor cells and the stromal environment that drive the progression and metastatic propensity of OS. PMID

  6. Clones of Streptococcus zooepidemicus from Outbreaks of Hemorrhagic Canine Pneumonia and Associated Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Velineni, Sridhar; Russell, Kim; Hamlen, Heidi J.; Pesavento, Patricia; Fortney, William D.; Crawford, P. Cynda

    2014-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus has emerged as a major disease of shelter dogs and greyhounds. S. zooepidemicus strains differing in multilocus sequence typing (MLST), protective protein (SzP), and M-like protein (SzM) sequences were identified from 9 outbreaks in Texas, Kansas, Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, and Pennsylvania. Clonality based on 2 or more isolates was evident for 7 of these outbreaks. The Pennsylvania and Nevada outbreaks also involved cats. Goat antisera against acutely infected lung tissue as well as convalescent-phase sera reacted with a mucinase (Sz115), hyaluronidase (HylC), InlA domain-containing cell surface-anchored protein (INLA), membrane-anchored protein (MAP), SzP, SzM, and extracellular oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA). The amino acid sequences of SzP and SzM of the isolates varied greatly. The szp and szm alleles of the closely related Kansas clone (sequence type 129 [ST-129]) and United Kingdom isolate BHS5 (ST-123) were different, indicating that MLST was unreliable as a predictor of virulence phenotype. Combinations of conserved HylC and serine protease (ScpC) and variable SzM and SzP proteins of S. zooepidemicus strain NC78 were protectively immunogenic for mice challenged with a virulent canine strain. Thus, although canine pneumonia outbreaks are caused by different strains of S. zooepidemicus, protective immune responses were elicited in mice by combinations of conserved or variable S. zooepidemicus proteins from a single strain. PMID:24990905

  7. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Sanekata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Morino, Hirofumi; Lee, Cheolsung; Maeda, Ken; Araki, Kazuko; Otake, Toru; Kawahata, Takuya; Shibata, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating >or= 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH.

  8. The Effect of a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (AR-42) on Canine Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Elshafae, Said M; Kohart, Nicole A; Altstadt, Lucas A; Dirksen, Wessel P; Rosol, Thomas J

    2017-05-01

    Canine prostate cancer (PCa) is an excellent preclinical model for human PCa. AR-42 is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) developed at The Ohio State University that inhibits the proliferation of several cancers, including multiple myeloma, lung, and hepatocellular cancer. In this study, we investigated whether AR-42 would prevent or decrease. The growth and metastasis of a canine PCa (Ace-1 cells) to bone in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation, cell viability, invasion, and metastasis of a canine prostate cancer cell line (Ace-1) were measured following treatment with AR-42. Expression of anoikis resistance, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and stem cell-related markers were also evaluated. To assess the efficacy of AR-42 on prevention of PCa metastasis to bone, Ace-1 cells were injected in the left cardiac ventricle of nude mice, mice were treated with AR-42, and the incidence and growth of bone metastasis were measured. Bioluminescence was performed to monitor the bone metastases in nude mice. AR-42 inhibited the in vitro proliferation of Ace-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The IC50 concentration of AR-42 for Ace-1 cells was 0.42 μM after 24 hr of treatment. AR-42 induced apoptosis, decreased cell migration, and increased the stem cell properties of Ace-1 cells in vitro. AR-42 downregulated E-cadherin, N-cadherin, TWIST, MYOF, anoikis resistance, and osteomimicry genes, while it upregulated SNAIL, PTEN, FAK, and ZEB1 gene expression in Ace-1 cells. Importantly, AR-42 decreased the bioluminescence and incidence of bone metastasis in nude mice. In addition, AR-42 induced apoptosis and altered the tumor cell morphology to an irregular cell phenotype with condensed chromatin in the bone metastases. AR-42 decreased PCa growth and bone metastasis, induced apoptosis, and downregulated osteomimicry genes in PCa cells in the bone microenvironment. Prostate 77:776-793, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection.

  10. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-01-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. Images PMID:1313899

  11. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  12. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E.; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a “butterfly” glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma. PMID:27458589

  13. Investigation of nanodiamonds interactions in canine blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WÄ sowicz, Michał; Marek, Kulka; Cićkiewicz, Maciej; Cymerman, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    The whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets suspended in plasma. In the following study we investigated an impact of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time.The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy canines (Canis lupus f. domestica) of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were conducted by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds (SND), modified O2 (SO2) suspended in 0,9% NaCl. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time periods for individual specimens was scarce. In the examined microscopic image a summary was made for 100 white blood cells. Following cells were included in said group: band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes with granulates, stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes with vacuoles, metamielocytes and smudge cells. The impact of the three diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. After the diamonds mixed with white blood cells, atypical cells came into being, in the range of agranulocytes in stimulated form or with granulates and/or vacuoles. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a stimulation and vacuolisation takes place, because of the function of the cells.

  14. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. The molecular defect underlying canine fucosidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, B J; Sargan, D R; Herrtage, M E; Winchester, B G

    1996-01-01

    Fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease which affects humans and English springer spaniel dogs. The disease is recessively inherited in both species and results from a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase. We have recently cloned and sequenced the canine fucosidase gene (EMBL sequence admission number X92448 (cDNA) and X92671-X92678 (individual exonic data)). The gene spans 12 kb and consists of eight exons. SSCP based mutation analysis of affected animals was carried out on the coding region of this gene both with exonic primers, and intronic primer pairs for each exon. A 14 base pair deletion of the cDNA was identified at the 3' end of exon 1 in fucosidosis affected animals. Surprisingly, PCR based genomic cloning of DNA from these animals showed an identical deletion in this DNA, ending at the start of intron 1. This change causes a frameshift and, in consequence, 25 novel codons are transcribed in exon 2 before the first of two adjacent premature stop codons is encountered. Images PMID:8730282

  16. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  17. Leishmania (infantum) chagasi in canine urinary sediment.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara

    2015-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DPP® for CVL and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CVL, parasitological exams of bone marrow and lymph nodes and urine sediment cultures. Leishmania was detected in the bone marrow and/or lymph node of 61.0% of the animals (43/70), and urine sediment culture was positive in 9.30% (4/43) of these animals. In the serological exams, 70.0% (49/70) were reactive using the DPP and 78.2% (55/70) were reactive using ELISA. The goal of this study was to diagnose the presence of L. (infantum) chagasi in a culture of urinary sediment.

  18. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a "butterfly" glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  19. Experimental columnar metaplasia in the canine oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Gillen, P; Keeling, P; Byrne, P J; West, A B; Hennessy, T P

    1988-02-01

    Regeneration of canine oesophageal mucosa was studied under basal conditions and in the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux. In normal circumstances mucosal defects in the oesophagus regenerate by squamous epithelium. In the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux of either acid or a combination of acid and bile, regeneration was frequently by columnar epithelium (Barrett's oesophagus). This columnar regeneration was not seen with bile reflux alone. By the use of squamous barriers to proximal migration of columnar epithelium in the stomach, it was demonstrated that columnar re-epithelialization may occur from cells intrinsic to the oesophagus and is not dependent on proximal migration of cardiac columnar epithelium. The cell of origin of this epithelium may be located in oesophageal gland ducts and is likely to be a multipotential stem cell since the regenerated columnar epithelium may contain goblet and parietal cells not normally found in the oesophagus. This epithelium is morphologically distinct on mucin histochemistry from cardiac columnar epithelium. These findings support the concept that Barrett's epithelium is metaplastic.

  20. Gastrin biosynthesis in canine G cells.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Vinzenz; Sugano, Kentaro; Yamada, Tadataka; Park, Jung; Dickinson, Chris J

    2002-05-01

    Gastrin requires extensive posttranslational processing for full biological activity. It is presumed that progastrin is cleaved at pairs of basic amino acids by a prohormone convertase to form a glycine-extended intermediate (G-Gly) that serves as a substrate for peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), resulting in COOH-terminally amidated gastrin. To confirm the nature of progastrin processing in a primary cell line, we performed [(35)S]methionine-labeled pulse-chase biosynthetic experiments in canine antral G cells. Radiolabeled progastrin reached a peak earlier than observed for G-Gly or amidated gastrin. G-Gly radioactivity accumulated in G cells and preceded the appearance of radioactivity in amidated gastrin. The conversion of G-Gly to amidated gastrin was enhanced by the PAM cofactor ascorbic acid. To determine whether one member of the prohormone convertase family (PC2) was responsible for progastrin cleavage, G cells were incubated with PC2 antisense oligonucleotide probes. Cells treated with antisense probes had reduced PC2 expression, an accumulation of radiolabeled progastrin, and a delay in the formation of amidated gastrin. Progastrin in antral G cells is cleaved via PC2 to form G-Gly that is converted to amidated gastrin via the actions of PAM.

  1. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous.

  2. In vivo canine muscle function assay.

    PubMed

    Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kornegay, Joe N

    2011-04-05

    We describe a minimally-invasive and reproducible method to measure canine pelvic limb muscle strength and muscle response to repeated eccentric contractions. The pelvic limb of an anesthetized dog is immobilized in a stereotactic frame to align the tibia at a right angle to the femur. Adhesive wrap affixes the paw to a pedal mounted on the shaft of a servomotor to measure torque. Percutaneous nerve stimulation activates pelvic limb muscles of the paw to either push (extend) or pull (flex) against the pedal to generate isometric torque. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation activates tibiotarsal extensor muscles. Repeated eccentric (lengthening) contractions are induced in the tibiotarsal flexor muscles by percutaneous peroneal nerve stimulation. The eccentric protocol consists of an initial isometric contraction followed by a forced stretch imposed by the servomotor. The rotation effectively lengthens the muscle while it contracts, e.g., an eccentric contraction. During stimulation flexor muscles are subjected to an 800 msec isometric and 200 msec eccentric contraction. This procedure is repeated every 5 sec. To avoid fatigue, 4 min rest follows every 10 contractions with a total of 30 contractions performed.

  3. Phonation instability flow in excised canine larynges

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Rieves, Adam L.; Budde, Adam J.; Surender, Ketan; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Disordered voices are often associated with abnormal changes in aerodynamic parameters of subglottal pressure and airflow. Phonation instability pressure (PIP) has been previously proposed to evaluate subglottal pressure at the onset of chaotic phonation. We propose the concept of and measure phonation instability flow (PIF), the airflow at which phonation becomes chaotic. Phonation flow range (PFR), PIF minus phonation threshold flow (PTF), is proposed to assess the range over which normal vocal fold vibration occurs. Study Design Repeated measures with each ex vivo larynx serving as its own control. Methods Pressure and airflow were measured at phonation onset and chaos onset in seven excised canine larynges under three experimental conditions: 0% elongation with no glottal gap; 20% elongation with no glottal gap; 20% elongation with a 3 mm posterior glottal gap. Paired t-tests were performed to determine if experimental measurements differed between elongations (0% and 20%) or degrees of abduction (20% elongation with and without a 3 mm glottal gap). Results Both PIF and PFR were dependent on abduction but not elongation. PIP was not significantly dependent on either condition. PIF and PFR showed greater differences for abduction than either phonation threshold pressure (PTP) or PTF. Conclusions PIF and PFR may be useful parameters in the experimental or clinical settings, particularly when evaluating disorders characterized by a glottal gap such as vocal fold paralysis and presbylaryngis. PMID:21555205

  4. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 μg/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis.

  6. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C

    2008-01-01

    Viral diseases can influence the population dynamics of wild carnivores and can have effects on carnivore conservation. Hence, a serologic survey was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 137 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (Canis lupus) in Spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and against canine parvovirus (CPV) by indirect ELISA. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 18.7% of the analyzed animals and antibodies against CPV in 17.2%. There was no difference in antibody prevalence to CDV between both species, even in the same region (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference in antibody prevalence to CPV between foxes (5.1%) and wolves (62.2%) (P<0.05). In fox populations there was a significant difference in antibody prevalence to CDV between geographic areas (Aragón 26.4%, La Mancha 7.8%, P<0.05). In wolf populations there was significantly higher antibody prevalence against CPV (P<0.05) in Castilla y León (100%) than in the Cantabric region (53.3%). There was no significant sex or age-related difference in the antibody prevalence against CDV or CPV in foxes. These results indicate that contact with CDV is widespread among wild canid populations in Spain and that CPV is endemic in the Iberian wolf population. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.

  7. Functional vascularized lung grafts for lung bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Dorrello, N. Valerio; Guenthart, Brandon A.; O’Neill, John D.; Kim, Jinho; Cunningham, Katherine; Chen, Ya-Wen; Biscotti, Mauer; Swayne, Theresa; Wobma, Holly M.; Huang, Sarah X. L.; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    End-stage lung disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 400,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with lung disease, new therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting lung repair and increasing the number of donor lungs available for transplantation are being explored. Because of the extreme complexity of this organ, previous attempts at bioengineering functional lungs from fully decellularized or synthetic scaffolds lacking functional vasculature have been largely unsuccessful. An intact vascular network is critical not only for maintaining the blood-gas barrier and allowing for proper graft function but also for supporting the regenerative cells. We therefore developed an airway-specific approach to removing the pulmonary epithelium, while maintaining the viability and function of the vascular endothelium, using a rat model. The resulting vascularized lung grafts supported the attachment and growth of human adult pulmonary cells and stem cell–derived lung-specified epithelial cells. We propose that de-epithelialization of the lung with preservation of intact vasculature could facilitate cell therapy of pulmonary epithelium and enable bioengineering of functional lungs for transplantation. PMID:28875163

  8. Expression of the tumor suppressor genes NF2, 4.1B, and TSLC1 in canine meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Surace, E I; Cambell, M; Higgins, R J; Leutenegger, C M; Bollen, A W; LeCouteur, R A; Gutmann, D H

    2009-09-01

    Meningiomas are common primary brain tumors in dogs; however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms involved in their tumorigenesis. Several tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in meningioma pathogenesis in humans, including the neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), protein 4.1B (4.1 B), and tumor suppressor in lung cancer-1 (TSLC1) genes. We investigated the expression of these tumor suppressor genes in a series of spontaneous canine meningiomas using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (NF2; n = 25) and western blotting (NF2/merlin, 4.1B, TSLC1; n = 30). Decreased expression of 4.1B and TSLC1 expression on western blotting was seen in 6/30 (20%) and in 15/30 (50%) tumors, respectively, with 18/30 (60%) of meningiomas having decreased or absent expression of one or both proteins. NF2 gene expression assessed by western blotting and RT-PCR varied considerably between individual tumors. Complete loss of NF2 protein on western blotting was not seen, unlike 4.1B and TSLC1. Incidence of TSLC1 abnormalities was similar to that seen in human meningiomas, while perturbation of NF2 and 4.1B appeared to be less common than reported for human tumors. No association was observed between tumor grade, subtype, or location and tumor suppressor gene expression based on western blot or RT-PCR. These results suggest that loss of these tumor suppressor genes is a frequent occurrence in canine meningiomas and may be an early event in tumorigenesis in some cases. In addition, it is likely that other, as yet unidentified, genes play an important role in canine meningioma formation and growth.

  9. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    PubMed Central

    XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

  10. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Pain, discomfort, and use of analgesics following the extraction of primary canines in children with palatally displaced canines.

    PubMed

    Naoumova, Julia; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Kurol, Jüri; Mohlin, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Pain following the extraction of the primary canine in children with palatally displaced canines (PDC) as an interceptive treatment has not been investigated. AIMS. To describe pain, discomfort, dental anxiety, and use of analgesics following the extraction of primary canines in children with PDC. DESIGN. Forty-four children, aged 10-13 with PDC, were included. Pain intensity, discomfort, and analgesic consumption were rated the first evening and 1 week after the extraction of the primary canine. Dental anxiety was assessed pre-extraction, using the dental anxiety scale (DAS). A matched reference group also completed the DAS. RESULTS. No significant differences were found between the study and the reference group regarding the pre-extraction assessments. Post-extraction pain and discomfort was low. The experience of the injection was graded worse than the extraction, and more pain was rated at the evening post-extraction than during the extraction. Analgesics were used only the first evening. High correlation was detected between DAS and pain during injection and extraction. CONCLUSIONS. The experience of pain and discomfort during and after extraction of the primary canines is low, despite that 42% of the children used analgesics. Therefore, appropriate analgesics and recommendation doses pre- and post-extraction should be prescribed.

  12. The anatomy and internal aerodynamics of canine olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Paterson, Eric; Settles, Gary

    2007-11-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nasal airway of a large dog reveal an intricate scrollwork of nasal conchae providing large surface area for heat, moisture, and odorant transfer. From these anatomical scans we reconstruct a 3-D surface model of the nasal passage and extract detailed morphometric data providing insight into the internal airflows of canine olfaction. A complicated airway network is revealed, wherein the branched maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate scrolls are structurally distinct. 3-D airway connectivity also reveals separate respiratory and olfactory flow paths. Knowing the approximate airflow rate and frequency of canine sniffing, we find Reynolds numbers that are, surprisingly, well below the turbulent-flow threshold. Finally, the internal aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are considered via non-dimensional analysis and initially-simple theoretical and computational models. (To appear in the Anatomical Record.)

  13. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted.

  14. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses. PMID:22312347

  15. Feline and canine coronaviruses: common genetic and pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  16. Assessment of canine neonatal viability-the Apgar score.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal mortality is relatively high in dogs, with deaths peaking around the time of birth and during the first week of age. Among the several causes of canine perinatal mortality, whelping is the greatest cause. Therefore, early neonatal assistance at birth should be mandatory with dogs. In comparison with human neonatology, knowledge and technological ability in canine neonatology is tremendously scarce. The Apgar score for the newborn viability assessment at birth represents a feasible method for the prompt recognition of newborns that will need special assistance immediately after birth. The five parameters of the Apgar score were adapted to the canine species by different studies. Advantages and limits, as well as clinical applications, are presented and discussed in further detail. It was concluded that the Apgar score represents the easiest and simplest, non-invasive and reliable method, that could be performed under every clinical and practical condition, for newborn puppies viability evaluations and short-term survival prognosis.

  17. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared.

  18. Glucosamine and chondroitin use in canines for osteoarthritis: A review.

    PubMed

    Bhathal, Angel; Spryszak, Meredith; Louizos, Christopher; Frankel, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive and debilitating disease that affects canines of all breeds. Pain and decreased mobility resulting from osteoarthritis often have a negative impact on the affected canine's quality of life, level of comfort, daily functioning, activity, behaviour, and client-pet companionship. Despite limited and conflicting evidence, the natural products glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) and chondroitin sulfate are commonly recommended by veterinarians for treating osteoarthritis in dogs. There is a paucity of well-designed clinical veterinary studies investigating the true treatment effect of glucosamine and chondroitin. The purposes of this review article are to provide a brief background on glucosamine and chondroitin use in canine osteoarthritis and to critically review the available literature on the role of these products for improving clinical outcomes. Based on critical review, recommendations for practice are suggested and a future study design is proposed.

  19. Canine Leishmaniasis in North America: Emerging or Newly Recognized?

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Christine A.; Barr, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Canine Leishmaniasis is a fatal zoonotic visceralizing disease usually associated with tropical areas. The etiologic agent is an obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum. In 1999, an outbreak of a canine leishmaniasis was reported in a Foxhound kennel in New York, and since that report, several other outbreaks have occurred across the United States in additional Foxhound kennels. Because of the high mortality and transmissibility associated with these outbreaks, it is essential that clinicians be aware of this disease to permit its rapid recognition and institution of control measures. Cases with a travel history may suggest imported disease, these are mainly observed from Southern Europe (south of France, Spain, Italy). Breeds from these and other endemic areas may be at higher risk of infection with Leishmania due to vertical transmission. The purpose of this report is to discuss the clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, control and treatment of canine leishmaniasis with focus on the aspects of this disease within North America. PMID:19932363

  20. Serotonin transporter activity in platelets and canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Belén; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; Palacio, Jorge; Chacón, Gema; Villegas, Ainara; Alcalde, Ana I

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have suggested an inhibitory action of the serotonergic system in the regulation of canine aggression, but the role of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) has not been investigated. Platelet 5-HT uptake has been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain 5-HTT. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between platelet 5-HTT activity and canine aggression by measuring the rate of 5-HT uptake mediated by 5-HTT in platelets and serum concentrations of 5-HT in both aggressive (n=14) and non-aggressive dogs (n=17). Aggressive dogs showed significantly higher 5-HT uptake by 5-HTT in platelets and lower serum concentrations of 5-HT, compared with the control group. These results suggested an association between an alteration in the serotonergic system and canine aggression, possibly mediated by an increased 5-HT transport.

  1. Dose-dependent radiation-induced hypotension in the canine

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Hampton, J.D.; Doyle, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced early transient incapacitation (ETI) is often accompanied by severe systemic hypotension. However, postradiation hypotension does not occur with equal frequency in all species and is not reported with consistency in the canine. In an attempt to clarify the differences in reported canine post-radiation blood pressures, canine systemic blood pressures were determined both before and after exposure to gamma radiation of either 80 or 100 Gy. Data obtained from six sham-radiated beagles and 12 radiated beagles indicated that 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure while 80-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation did not. Analysis of this data could be consistent with a quantal response to a gamma radiation dose between 80 Gy and 100 Gy.

  2. Expression and significance of PTEN in canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changwei; Lin, Degui; Wang, Jinqiu; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-01

    To explore the expression and clinical importance of the anti-oncogene phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in canine mammary gland tumours, PTEN expression was compared in 50 cases of canine mammary tumour and four examples of normal mammary tissue using real-time quantitative PCR. PTEN expression was similar in benign mammary tumours and normal mammary tissues (P>0.05), but was lower in malignant tumours than in normal mammary tissues or benign mammary tumours (P<0.001). PTEN expression was also low in the lymph node metastases of malignant mammary tumours. The expression profile of PTEN in malignant mammary tumours compared to those without lymph node metastasis varied significantly. Low-level PETN expression might play an important role in carcinogenesis and the progression of canine mammary tumours, and PTEN protein detection might be useful in evaluating tumour development and prognosis.

  3. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  4. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-07-15

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bathen-Noethen, A; Stein, V M; Puff, C; Baumgaertner, W; Tipold, A

    2008-09-01

    Demyelination is the prominent histopathological hallmark in the acute stage of canine distemper virus infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is an important diagnostic tool in human beings to determine demyelination in the brain, for example in multiple sclerosis. Five young dogs with clinically suspected canine distemper virus infection were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Hyperintense lesions and loss of contrast between grey and white matter were detected in T2-weighted images in the cerebellum and/or in the brainstem of three dogs, which correlated with demyelination demonstrated in histopathological examination. Furthermore, increased signal intensities in T2-weighted images were seen in the temporal lobe of four dogs with no evidence of demyelination. Magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a sensitive tool for the visualisation of in vivo myelination defects in dogs with acute canine distemper virus infection. Postictal oedema and accumulation of antigen positive cells have to be considered an important differential diagnosis.

  6. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Botelho, Clarisse Vieira; Ferreira, Caroline Gracielle Torres; Scherer, Paulo Oldemar; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies. PMID:23193403

  7. Canine tip wear in male and female anthropoids.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1998-09-01

    One component of the "dual selection hypothesis" (Greenfield [1992a] Year. Phys. Anthropol. 35:153-185) is that the tips of female canines are commonly blunted and more frequently so than those of conspecific males. Data derived from two randomly selected age-graded samples of Macaca fascicularis (n = 70) and Colobus badius (n = 59) show that at least 80% of the females exhibit tip blunting on one or both canines and that frequencies of blunting are far greater than those of conspecific males in both jaws. Sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine morphology and wear and other recently critiqued aspects of the "dual selection hypothesis" (Plavcan and Kelley [1996] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 99:379-387.) are also discussed.

  8. Canine dysautonomia in a litter of Havanese puppies.

    PubMed

    Hull, Noah C; O'Toole, Donal; Miller, Myrna M; Shoults, Hannah; Deck, Robin; Jones, Warren; Johnson, Gayle C; Shaw, Daniel P; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-09-01

    Canine dysautonomia is a sporadic, generally fatal disease that rarely affects groups of related animals. Four 10-week-old Havanese puppies from a litter of 5 developed clinical signs of canine dysautonomia. The 4 affected dogs were exposed to an outdoor environment, whereas the fifth littermate was not exposed to the outdoors and remained clinically healthy. Clinical signs of dysautonomia developed 10-16 days after going outside the house. An unrelated dog also developed dysautonomia after exposure to 1 of the affected Havanese littermates. All 5 dogs had morphological changes consistent with dysautonomia (widespread neuronal degeneration in autonomic ganglia, select brainstem nuclei, and ventral horn motor neurons). Differential diagnoses were excluded through negative toxicological evaluation, fecal parasite screening, negative Canine distemper virus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent antibody testing, attempted virus isolation, and electron microscopy. The 5 affected dogs were in the Kansas City, Missouri area, where there is a high incidence of dysautonomia.

  9. [Infectious canine hepatitis in 4 dogs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Decaro, N; Keller, S; Quante, S; Tschuor, F; Wenger, M; Reusch, C

    2010-02-01

    Infectious canine hepatitis in 4 Dogs in Switzerland. Four dogs presented with nonspecific symptoms of lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and weakness. Laboratory results were consistent with hepatopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Three dogs died, one survived. In the three deceased dogs, a diagnosis of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) was made based on histological findings and positive immunhistochemistry results for canine adenovirus-1 (CAV-1). In the surviving dog, an antemortem diagnosis of ICH was determined via positive polymerase chain reaction results from blood, occular, nasal and preputial discharge as well as from urine. Since the introduction of widespread vaccination, the incidence of CAV-1 infection in dogs is low. However, the disease has not been eradicated and should be considered when clinical signs consistent with ICH are present.

  10. Toward a framework linkage map of the canine genome.

    PubMed

    Langston, A A; Mellersh, C S; Wiegand, N A; Acland, G M; Ray, K; Aguirre, G D; Ostrander, E A

    1999-01-01

    Selective breeding to maintain specific physical and behavioral traits has made the modern dog one of the most physically diverse species on earth. One unfortunate consequence of the common breeding practices used to develop lines of dogs with the desired traits is amplification and propagation of genetic diseases within distinct breeds. To map disease loci we have constructed a first-generation framework map of the canine genome. We developed large numbers of highly polymorphic markers, constructed a panel of canine-rodent hybrid cell lines, and assigned those markers to chromosome groups using the hybrid cell lines. Finally, we determined the order and spacing of markers on individual canine chromosomes by linkage analysis using a reference panel of 17 outbred pedigrees. This article describes approaches and strategies to accomplish these goals.

  11. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease A nagging cough or slight wheeze may ... prepare for you next office visit. Questions about Lung Health? Call our Lung HelpLine. Get free counseling ...

  12. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Origgi, F C; Plattet, P; Sattler, U; Robert, N; Casaubon, J; Mavrot, F; Pewsner, M; Wu, N; Giovannini, S; Oevermann, A; Stoffel, M H; Gaschen, V; Segner, H; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2012-11-01

    An ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in Switzerland in the spring of 2009. Compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. Here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (CDV) strain detected in and/or isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), stone (Martes foina) and pine (Martes martes) martens, from a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and a domestic dog. The main lesions included interstitial to bronchointerstitial pneumonia and meningopolioencephalitis, whereas demyelination--the classic presentation of CDV infection--was observed in few cases only. In the brain lesions, viral inclusions were mainly in the nuclei of the neurons. Some significant differences in brain and lung lesions were observed between foxes and mustelids. Swiss CDV isolates shared together with a Hungarian CDV strain detected in 2004. In vitro analysis of the hemagglutinin protein from one of the Swiss CDV strains revealed functional and structural differences from that of the reference strain A75/17, with the Swiss strain showing increased surface expression and binding efficiency to the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). These features might be part of a novel molecular signature, which might have contributed to an increase in virus pathogenicity, partially explaining the high morbidity and mortality, the rapid spread, and the large host spectrum observed in this outbreak.

  13. Cloning of the canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA, mutation identification in canine MPS VII, and retroviral vector-mediated correction of MPS VII cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Bouvet, A; DeSanto, C; Fyfe, J C; Xu, D; Wolfe, J H; Aguirre, G D; Patterson, D F; Haskins, M E; Henthorn, P S

    1998-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an inherited disease resulting from deficient activity of the lysosomal acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) and has been reported in humans, mice, cats, and dogs. To characterize canine MPS VII, we have isolated and sequenced the canine GUSB cDNA from normal and affected animals. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the GUSB cDNA derived from MPS VII dogs. This guanosine to adenine base change at nucleotide position 559 in the canine cDNA sequence causes an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 166. Introduction of the G to A substitution at position 559 in a mammalian expression vector containing the normal canine GUSB cDNA nearly eliminated the GUSB enzymatic activity, demonstrating that this mutation is the cause of canine MPS VII. A retroviral vector expressing the full-length canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA corrected the deficiency in MPS VII cells.

  14. Oncolytic virotherapy in veterinary medicine: current status and future prospects for canine patients.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep S; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Nolte, Ingo; Ogilvie, Gregory; Szalay, Aladar A

    2012-01-04

    Oncolytic viruses refer to those that are able to eliminate malignancies by direct targeting and lysis of cancer cells, leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus strains, canine distemper virus and vaccinia virus strains have been used for canine cancer therapy in preclinical studies. However, in contrast to human studies, clinical trials with oncolytic viruses for canine cancer patients have not been reported. An 'ideal' virus has yet to be identified. This review is focused on the prospective use of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of canine tumors - a knowledge that will undoubtedly contribute to the development of oncolytic viral agents for canine cancer therapy in the future.

  15. Improved yield of canine islet isolation from deceased donors.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Stephen; Williams, S Janette; Otte, Vern; Barchman, Sally; Jones, Cheryl; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2017-08-22

    Canine diabetes is a strikingly prevalent and growing disease, and yet the standard treatment of a twice-daily insulin injection is both cumbersome to pet owners and only moderately effective. Islet transplantation has been performed with repeated success in canine research models, but has unfortunately not been made available to companion animals. Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment. Unfortunately, these processes are prohibitively complex and expensive for veterinary use. The aim of the study was to develop a simplified approach for isolating canine islets that is compatible with the financial and logistical restrictions inherent to veterinary medicine for the purpose of translating islet transplantation to a clinical treatment for canine diabetes. Here, we describe simplified strategies for isolating quality islets from deceased canine donors without vascular preservation and with up to 90 min of cold ischemia time. An average of more than 1500 islet equivalents per kg of donor bodyweight was obtained with a purity of 70% (N = 6 animals). Islets were 95% viable and responsive to glucose stimulation for a week. We found that processing only the body and tail of the pancreas increased isolation efficiency without sacrificing islet total yield. Islet yield per gram of tissue increased from 773 to 1868 islet equivalents when the head of the pancreas was discarded (N = 3/group). In summary, this study resulted in the development of an efficient and readily accessible method for obtaining viable and functional canine islets from deceased donors. These strategies provide an ethical means for obtaining donor islets.

  16. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S; Agger, J F G; Eriksen, T

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P < 0 · 001) risk of pulp exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0 · 8% in dogs without pulp exposure (n = 133) resulting in a significant (relative risk, 109 · 5; P < 0 · 001) risk of periapical pathology in teeth with pulp exposure compared to teeth without pulp exposure. The high risk of periapical pathology observed in teeth with pulp exposure confirms that these teeth should not be neglected in affected dogs. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Canine Central Nervous System Neoplasm Phenotyping Using Tissue Microarray Technique.

    PubMed

    Spitzbarth, I; Heinrich, F; Herder, V; Recker, T; Wohlsein, P; Baumgärtner, W

    2017-05-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm. Tumor cells were phenotyped using a panel of 28 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group neoplasms according to similarities in their expression profiles. Hierarchical clustering generally grouped cases with similar histologic diagnoses; however, gliomas especially exhibited a considerable heterogeneity in their positivity scores. Multiple tumor groups, such as astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, significantly differed in the proportion of positive immunoreaction for certain markers such as p75(NTR), AQP4, GFAP, and S100 protein. The study highlights AQP4 and p75(NTR) as novel markers, helping to discriminate between canine astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Furthermore, the results suggest that p75(NTR) and proteolipid protein may represent useful markers, whose expression inversely correlates with malignant transformation in canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, respectively. Tissue microarray was demonstrated to be a useful and time-saving tool for the simultaneous immunohistochemical characterization of multiple canine CNS neoplasms. The present study provides a detailed overview of the expression patterns of different types of canine CNS neoplasms.

  18. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05 by MANOVA analysis) upregulation in cancerous samples. The ten canine miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas.

  19. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview.

    PubMed

    Harrus, Shimon; Waner, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis.

  20. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine

  1. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing.

  2. Retraction of canines using bonded tube-brackets.

    PubMed

    Davis, H D

    1983-10-01

    Investigations using a Force Analyser were carried out to test the characteristics of retractor springs fitted to a removable appliance and designed for insertion into a tube-bracket, bonded to the buccal surface of a canine. The retractors were shown to produce a counter-rotation couple when activated on the typodont. This type of canine retraction was then used clinically, and was found to produce less distal tilting than is noted with the single-point contact of a cantilever spring. Some spontaneous reduction in overjet was found to occur in each case of a small series. Possible mechanisms to account for this effect are discussed.

  3. Metallothionein expression in benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Erginsoy, S D; Sozmen, M; Caldin, M; Furlanello, T

    2006-08-01

    The presence of metallothioneins (MTs) were demonstrated immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody (E9) against a conserved epitope of I and II isoforms in canine mammary tumours. In a semiquantitative analysis MT expression in the tumour cells was observed in 54/54 cases of benign and 32/40 malignant mammary neoplasms. A statistically significant difference at the level of P<0.01 was observed for MT expression between benign and malign mammary tumours in terms of immunoreactivity score. It is concluded that immunohistochemically demonstrated MT expression is significantly associated with benign canine mammary tumours.

  4. Role of platelets in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    From, A H; Fong, J S; Chiu, T; Good, R A

    1976-01-01

    Endotoxin-platelet interactions are thought to be of major importance in the response of dogs and other species to bacterial endotoxin; the mechanisms postulated are: (i) the release of vasoactive substances, (ii) the formation of occlusive platelet aggregates, and (iii) induction of intravascular coagulation. The role of platelets in canine endotoxin shock was examined in animals with thrombocytopenia induced by estrogen pretreatment (less than 10,000 platelets/mm3) and in controls. After intravenously administered endotoxin, the hemodynamic responses, mortality, and gross necropsy findings were similar in both groups. These data indicate that endotoxin-platelet interactions are not determinative in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:786877

  5. Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

  6. Lung needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition that causes the right side ...

  7. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  8. Ex vivo lung perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Tiago N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is an established treatment option for eligible patients with end-stage lung disease. Nevertheless, the imbalance between suitable donor lungs available and the increasing number of patients considered for LTx reflects in considerable waitlist mortality. Among potential alternatives to address this issue, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has emerged as a modern preservation technique that allows for more accurate lung assessment and also improvement of lung function. Its application in high-risk donor lungs has been successful and resulted in safe expansion of the donor pool. This article will: (I) review the technical details of EVLP; (II) the rationale behind the method; (III) report the worldwide clinical experience with the EVLP, including the Toronto technique and others; (IV) finally, discuss the growing literature on EVLP application for donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. PMID:25132972

  9. Lung cancer screening update

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Loewen, Gregory; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality globally and the American cancer society estimates approximately 226,160 new cases and 160,340 deaths from lung cancer in the USA in the year 2012. The majority of lung cancers are diagnosed in the later stages which impacts the overall survival. The 5-year survival rate for pathological st age IA lung cancer is 73% but drops to only 13% for stage IV. Thus, early detection through screening and prevention are the keys to reduce the global burden of lung cancer. This article discusses the current state of lung cancer screening, including the results of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial, the consideration of implementing computed tomography screening, and a brief overview of the role of bronchoscopy in early detection and potential biomarkers that may aid in the early diagnosis of lung cancer. PMID:23599684

  10. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Critical Care & Sleep Medicine Interstitial Lung Disease Program Sarcoidosis Program Autoimmune Lung Center Rebecca C. Keith, MD, ... Syndromes Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis LAM Lupus Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Sarcoidosis Overview Scleroderma (SSC) Systemic Vasculitis Reasons to Visit ...

  11. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This is most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... it may mean any of the following problems: Sarcoidosis (disease in which inflammation occurs in the lungs ...

  12. Xenotransfusion with canine blood in the feline species: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bovens, Catherine; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim

    2013-02-01

    Xenotransfusion (the transfusion of blood from another species) of canine blood to cats has been historically performed commonly and is still performed nowadays in some countries. Considering the current lack of commercial availability of haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution (Oxyglobin), there may be rare occasions when treating an anaemic cat when compatible feline blood cannot be obtained, and where a transfusion with canine blood may need to be considered as a life-saving procedure. This article reviews the published evidence about feline xenotransfusion with canine blood and the results that can be expected with this procedure. Published evidence in a limited number of cases (62 cats) indicates that cats do not appear to have naturally-occurring antibodies against canine red blood cell antigens: compatibility tests prior to the first transfusion did not demonstrate any evidence of agglutination or haemolysis of canine red cells in feline serum or plasma. No severe acute adverse reactions have been reported in cats receiving a single transfusion with canine whole blood. Anaemic cats receiving canine blood are reported to improve clinically within hours. However, antibodies against canine red blood cells are produced rapidly and can be detected within 4-7 days of the transfusion, leading to the destruction of the transfused canine red cells in a delayed haemolytic reaction. The average lifespan of the transfused canine red cells is less than 4 days. Any repeated transfusion with canine blood later than 4-6 days after the first transfusion causes anaphylaxis, which is frequently fatal.

  13. SURVEILLANCE FOR ANTIBODIES AGAINST SIX CANINE VIRUSES IN WILD RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-10-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus type 2 were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (<1 yr old) were more frequently seropositive than older raccoons. Because raccoons belong to the suborder Caniformia, similar to dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  14. [Root anatomy and root canal morphology of mandibular canines in Israeli population].

    PubMed

    Shemesh, A; Levin, A; Katzenell, V; Itzhak, J B; Avraham, Z; Levinson, O; Solomonov, M

    2016-01-01

    Furcated root and root canal separation are anatomic variations of mandibular canines. Other studies found that up to 20% of mandibular canines have root canal separation and up to 6.8% are bifurcated teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two-rooted mandibular canines and the root canal morphology of mandibular canines. A total of 1,020 Israeli patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were screened and evaluated. A total of 1,981 mandibular canines were examined and the prevalence of furcated mandibular canines and root canal separation was recorded and analyzed. The overall prevalence of furcated mandibular canines and root canal separation in mandibular canines were 1.9% and 10.3% respectively. The bilateral prevalence of furcated mandibular canines was 22.5%. Statistically significant difference was detected by the side of occurrence (left vs right side, p < 0.05) and by gender in right mandibular canine (p < 0.05). the prevalence of furcated roots and root canal separation in mandibular canines was not frequent. Clinicians should be aware of the special characteristic of those anatomic variations.

  15. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia and Canine Elbow Dysplasia in Bernese Mountain Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED.

  17. Infection and Pathogenesis of Canine, Equine, and Human Influenza Viruses in Canine Tracheas

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F.; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W.; Perez, Daniel R.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV

  18. Infection and pathogenesis of canine, equine, and human influenza viruses in canine tracheas.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W; Perez, Daniel R; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R

    2014-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV emergence was likely

  19. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  20. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  1. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  2. Chromatography purification of canine adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Segura, María Mercedes; Puig, Meritxell; Monfar, Mercè; Chillón, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Canine adenovirus vectors (CAV2) are currently being evaluated for gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. Despite the need for increasing volumes of purified CAV2 preparations for preclinical and clinical testing, their purification still relies on the use of conventional, scale-limited CsCl ultracentrifugation techniques. A complete downstream processing strategy for CAV2 vectors based on membrane filtration and chromatography is reported here. Microfiltration and ultra/diafiltration are selected for clarification and concentration of crude viral stocks containing both intracellular and extracellular CAV2 particles. A DNase digestion step is introduced between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations. At these early stages, concentration of vector stocks with good recovery of viral particles (above 80%) and removal of a substantial amount of protein and nucleic acid contaminants is achieved. The ability of various chromatography techniques to isolate CAV2 particles was evaluated. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Fractogel propyl tentacle resin was selected as a first chromatography step, because it allows removal of the bulk of contaminating proteins with high CAV2 yields (88%). An anion-exchange chromatography step using monolithic supports is further introduced to remove the remaining contaminants with good recovery of CAV2 particles (58-69%). The main CAV2 viral structural components are visualized in purified preparations by electrophoresis analyses. Purified vector stocks contained intact icosahedral viral particles, low contamination with empty viral capsids (10%), and an acceptable total-to-infectious particle ratio (below 30). The downstream processing strategy that was developed allows preparation of large volumes of high-quality CAV2 stocks.

  3. Detection of Bacteriuria by Canine Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maureen; McCulloch, Michael; Willey, Angel M.; Hirsch, Wendi; Dewey, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant medical problem , particularly for patients with neurological conditions and the elderly. Detection is often difficult in these patients, resulting in delayed diagnoses and more serious infections such as pyelonephritis and life-threatening sepsis. Many patients have a higher risk of UTIs because of impaired bladder function, catheterization, and lack of symptoms. Urinary tract infections are the most common nosocomial infection; however, better strategies are needed to improve early detection of the disease. Methods. In this double-blinded, case-control, validation study, we obtained fresh urine samples daily in a consecutive case series over a period of 16 weeks. Dogs were trained to distinguish urine samples that were culture-positive for bacteriuria from those of culture-negative controls, using reward-based clicker and treat methods. Results. Samples were obtained from 687 individuals (from 3 months to 92 years of age; 86% female and 14% male; 34% culture-positive and 66% culture-negative controls). Dogs detected urine samples positive for 100 000 colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli (N = 250 trials; sensitivity 99.6%, specificity 91.5%). Dilution of E coli urine with distilled water did not affect accuracy at 1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91.1%) or 0.1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.6%) concentration. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to Enterococcus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.9%), Klebsiella (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 95.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 96.3%). All dogs performed with similarly high accuracy: overall sensitivity was at or near 100%, and specificity was above 90%. Conclusions. Canine scent detection is an accurate and feasible method for detection of bacteriuria. PMID:27186578

  4. A 3-year follow-up study of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers.

    PubMed

    Artun, J; Spadafora, A T; Shapiro, P A

    1997-10-01

    The present study was performed to test the tendency for plaque and calculus build-up along the wire of different types of bonded orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers, whether the presence of such retainers causes any damage to the teeth involved, the failure rate of the retainers, and any changes in incisor alignment during a 3-year period of retention. The four test groups received either retainers made of thick plain wire bonded only to the canines (n = 11); thick spiral wire bonded only to the canines (n = 13); thin, flexible spiral wire bonded to each tooth (n = 11); or removable retainers (n = 14). Accumulation of plaque and calculus along the gingival margin, gingival inflammation and probing attachment level were scored in lingual areas from canine to canine at the time of fixed appliance removal and again 3 years after retainer insertion. Incisor irregularity was measured on plaster models made at the same time periods. Accumulation of plaque and calculus and development of caries along the wire were scored at follow-up. Retainer failures were recorded whenever they occurred. The results revealed no intergroup differences in changes between baseline and follow-up examinations or status along the retainer wire for any of the variables. Gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were scored less frequently after 3 years in retention than at the time of debonding. No signs of caries were seen adjacent to the wire. Failures were observed of one, four and three of the fixed retainer types, respectively. These patients showed a greater increase in incisor irregularity than the other patients.

  5. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer

  6. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and Respiratory System A ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20,000 ...

  7. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China.

  8. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  9. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  10. Detection of thromboembolism with ⁹⁹mTc-labeled F(ab)₂ fragment of anti-glycoprotein IIIa chimeric monoclonal antibody in beagle canines.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shundong; Fang, Wei; Dong, Ningzheng; He, Zuoxiang; Ruan, Changgeng

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and timely diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is important to improve patient outcome. The goal of this study was using (99m)Tc-chSZ21-F(ab)(2), F(ab)(2) fragment of anti-glycoprotein IIIa chimeric monoclonal antibody, to image experimental thromboembolism (DVT and PE) in dogs. Flow cytometry assay and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulated platelet aggregation was performed to determine the specificity and affinity of chSZ21-F(ab)(2) to the GPIIb/IIIa receptor on human or canine platelets. Both PE and DVT were induced in 12 beagle canines by catheter under X-ray direction. After (99m)Tc-chSZ21-F(ab)(2) injection,animals were imaged for up to 3 hours then heparinized and sacrificed. Specific binding of chSZ21-F (ab)(2) to GPIIb/IIIa on human or canine platelets was verified by flow cytometry assay. chSZ21-F (ab)(2) inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation with a dose-dependent manner, the concentration required to inhibit 50% (IC(50)) of platelet aggregation was 11.6 ± 7.9 nM and 24.9 ± 18.8 nM for human and canine, respectively. In vivo, focal uptake was observed in planar images as early as 30 min (DVT) and 60 min (PE), and became clearer within 3 hours after injection. Lesion-to-background ratio averaged 12.8 (PE-to-lung), 7.2 (DVT-to-blood), and 117.0(DVT-to-muscle), respectively. These results suggested that (99m)Tc-chSZ21-F(ab)(2) with high DVT and PE uptake is a promising agent for imaging vascular thrombosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular Uptake and Infection by Canine Parvovirus Involves Rapid Dynamin-Regulated Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis, Followed by Slower Intracellular Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Parker, John S. L.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2000-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small, nonenveloped virus that is a host range variant of a virus which infected cats and changes in the capsid protein control the ability of the virus to infect canine cells. We used a variety of approaches to define the early stages of cell entry by CPV. Electron microscopy showed that virus particles concentrated within clathrin-coated pits and vesicles early in the uptake process and that the infecting particles were rapidly removed from the cell surface. Overexpression of a dominant interfering mutant of dynamin in the cells altered the trafficking of capsid-containing vesicles. There was a 40% decrease in the number of CPV-infected cells in mutant dynamin-expressing cells, as well as a ∼40% decrease in the number of cells in S phase of the cell cycle, which is required for virus replication. However, there was also up to 10-fold more binding of CPV to the surface of mutant dynamin-expressing cells than there was to uninduced cells, suggesting an increased receptor retention on the cell surface. In contrast, there was little difference in virus binding, virus infection rate, or cell cycle distribution between induced and uninduced cells expressing wild-type dynamin. CPV particles colocalized with transferrin in perinuclear endosomes but not with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, a marker for fluid-phase endocytosis. Cells treated with nanomolar concentrations of bafilomycin A1 were largely resistant to infection when the drug was added either 30 min before or 90 min after inoculation, suggesting that there was a lag between virus entering the cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and escape of the virus from the endosome. High concentrations of CPV particles did not permeabilize canine A72 or mink lung cells to α-sarcin, but canine adenovirus type 1 particles permeabilized both cell lines. These data suggest that the CPV entry and infection pathway is complex and involves multiple vesicular components. PMID:10644365

  12. Detection of canine distemper virus antigen in canine serum and its application to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Soma, T; Ishii, H; Hara, M; Ohe, K; Hagimori, I; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    2003-10-18

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen was detected in the serum of dogs by an ELISA and the results of this assay were compared with an anti-CDV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody test. In paired sera from 26 naturally infected dogs, the antigen-positive rate was 26.9 per cent at the first examination and 11.5 per cent at the second examination two to three weeks later. The antigen was detected in three of the 10 dogs which were negative for anti-CDV IgM antibody at the first examination. It could also be detected in the serum of between eight and two of 40 specific pathogen-free dogs vaccinated against CDV, for up to four weeks after they were vaccinated.

  13. Comparative analyses of canine distemper viral isolates from clinical cases of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Inomata, A; Furuya, Y; Uchida, K; Sugano, S; Tateyama, S

    2006-06-15

    Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of three isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) isolated from three dogs with a vaccination history were compared with the same analyses of vaccine virus isolated from a vaccine used for dogs. The three dogs showed clinical signs of a recent major type of CD in Japan, including oculonasal discharge and diarrhea, and pathological findings including non-suppurative encephalitis, pneumonia, mild gastroenteritis and lymphoid depletion. Inclusion bodies were in the stomach without inflammation and encephalitis was without clinical signs. One of the highest titers of CDV in different organs of the three dogs was commonly systemic lymphatic organs, including the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils. New isolates of CDV joined to the clades of the Asia 1 group that is far from the vaccine group. These results surely indicate that wild strains of CDV from dogs with a vaccination history were not reversed vaccine virus, and that the dogs showed characteristics of recent CD in Japan.

  14. Effect of Pulmonary Blood Flow upon Lung Mechanics*

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Stanley; Ayres, Stephen M.; Buehler, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Airway pressure was continuously recorded in an isolated horizontally mounted canine heart-lung preparation during abrupt, stepwise 100-200 ml inflations to 20-25 cm water pressure, and subsequent deflations. With each change in volume there was a steep rise or fall in pressure, followed by stress relaxation to a static equilibrium airway pressure. Comparison was made between the nonperfused state and during perfusion with whole blood at 100 ml/kg dog wt per min, and left atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg. Pressure tracings were similar during deflation in the perfused and the nonperfused lung. During inflation, in the middle range of lung inflation volumes, the peak inflation and equilibrium airway pressures were greater in the nonperfused state; maximum difference of static pressures in nine preparations averaged 146% of perfused values and the average stress relaxation difference from eight of these was 276%. Lung distensibility was the same with packed red cells or plasma perfusates and was not changed by varying the perfusion rate up to 220 ml/kg per min. During cyclic ventilation, dynamic compliance was similarly greater in the perfused than in the nonperfused state in the middle range of inflation volumes. Static distention of the vascular bed produced similar results with progressive improvement in distensibility in mid-inflation range up to a hydrostatic pressure of 15 cm blood. These data suggest that the distended pulmonary vascular bed provides structural airway support which facilitates entry of gas into the terminal respiratory units at diminished pressure. PMID:6061740

  15. Ultrastructural findings in natural canine hepatozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Hervás, J; Carrasco, L; Sierra, M A; Méndez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    1997-04-01

    The ultrastructure of several stages of Hepatozoon canis found in dogs with clinically and histologically diagnosed infections was determined using transmission electron microscopy. Merozoites, macro- and microschizonts and gamonts were found in spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs. Macro- and micromeronts were characterized by their size and by the presence of intracytoplasmic amylopectin granules. Gamonts, which provide the basis for clinical diagnosis of the disease, were observed within mononuclear cells (monocytes/macrophages); they were butterfly-shaped and exhibited varying electron densities. On the basis of the microscopic observations reported here, it is clear that the life cycle of H. canis is a complex one.

  16. Detection of canine pneumovirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward J; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-12-01

    Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relationship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Within the pet dog population, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall estimated seroprevalence of 50% (n = 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n = 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n = 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P <0001). Dogs that were seronegative on entry but seroconverted while in the kennel were 4 times more likely to develop severe respiratory disease than those that did not seroconvert (P < 0.001), and dogs with preexisting antibodies to CnPnV on the day of entry were significantly less likely to develop respiratory disease than immunologically naive dogs (P < 0.001). CnPnV was detected in the tracheal tissues of 29/205 kenneled dogs. Detection was most frequent in dogs with mild to moderate respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratory disease compared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that CnPnV is present in the United Kingdom dog population; there is a strong association between exposure to CnPnV and CIRD in the kennel studied and a potential benefit in vaccinating against CnPnV as part of a wider disease prevention strategy.

  17. Detection of Canine Pneumovirus in Dogs with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Renshaw, Randall W.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relationship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Within the pet dog population, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall estimated seroprevalence of 50% (n = 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n = 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n = 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P <0001). Dogs that were seronegative on entry but seroconverted while in the kennel were 4 times more likely to develop severe respiratory disease than those that did not seroconvert (P < 0.001), and dogs with preexisting antibodies to CnPnV on the day of entry were significantly less likely to develop respiratory disease than immunologically naive dogs (P < 0.001). CnPnV was detected in the tracheal tissues of 29/205 kenneled dogs. Detection was most frequent in dogs with mild to moderate respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratory disease compared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that CnPnV is present in the United Kingdom dog population; there is a strong association between exposure to CnPnV and CIRD in the kennel studied and a potential benefit in vaccinating against CnPnV as part of a wider disease prevention strategy. PMID:24088858

  18. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  19. Controlled oxygen reperfusion protects the lung against early ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypasses by downregulating high mobility group box 1.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Kai; Chen, Guang-Xian; Liang, Meng-Ya; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Huang, Wei-Ming

    2012-05-01

    Restricting oxygen delivery during the reperfusion phase of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protects the heart, but effects on lung ischemia reperfusion (IR) in CPB are unknown. We examined whether extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediated inflammation during early lung IR injury in CPB. Fourteen healthy canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest, followed by 90 minutes reperfusion. Following surgery, the animals were randomized into control (n = 7) or test (n = 7) groups. Control animals received a constant level of 80% FiO(2) during the entire procedure, and the test group received a gradual increase in FiO(2) during the first 25 minutes of reperfusion. In the test group, the FiO(2) was initiated at 40% and increased by 10% every 5 minutes, to 80%. Histology, lung injury variables, HMGB1 expression, and inflammatory responses were assessed at baseline (T1) and at 25 minutes (T2) and 90 minutes (T3) after starting reperfusion. Treatment with controlled oxygen significantly suppressed lung pathologies, lung injury variables, and inflammatory responses (all P < .001). After lung IR injury, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the controlled oxygen group (all P < .001). Controlled oxygen reperfusion is protective in the early stages of lung IR injury in a canine CPB model, and this protection is linked to HMGB1 downregulation.

  20. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  1. The lung in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim

    2005-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, which induces gradients in ventilation, blood flow, and gas exchange. Studies of lungs in microgravity provide a means of elucidating the effects of gravity. They suggest a mechanism by which gravity serves to match ventilation to perfusion, making for a more efficient lung than anticipated. Despite predictions, lungs do not become edematous, and there is no disruption to, gas exchange in microgravity. Sleep disturbances in microgravity are not a result of respiratory-related events; obstructive sleep apnea is caused principally by the gravitational effects on the upper airways. In microgravity, lungs may be at greater risk to the effects of inhaled aerosols.

  2. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  3. Ultrasonography of the canine shoulder joint and its pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Piórek, A; Adamiak, Z

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present and discuss the available data on canine shoulder joint ultrasonography. The paper presents the method of ultrasonographic examination of the shoulder joint area, describes the normal structure of the shoulder joint in dogs, and discusses the most frequently encountered shoulder joint pathologies.

  4. Detection of six novel papillomavirus sequences within canine pigmented plaques

    PubMed Central

    Luff, Jennifer A.; Affolter, Verena K.; Yeargan, Bret; Moore, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    In dogs, papillomaviruses are thought to cause oral and cutaneous papillomas and pigmented plaques. Eight canine papillomaviruses have been fully sequenced to date. Four of these canine papillomaviruses, including Canis familiaris papillomavirus (CPV)-3, CPV-4, CPV-5, and CPV-8, were amplified from pigmented plaques. Given this recent identification of several different canine papillomaviruses within pigmented plaques, it is likely that there are additional papillomavirus sequences that have not been previously identified. The aim of this study was to detect papillomavirus DNA sequences from pigmented plaques and identify potentially novel PV sequences through nucleotide sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify DNA sequences of the papillomavirus L1 gene from 27 pigmented plaques. Identification of novel papillomavirus sequences was based upon less than 90% shared DNA homology to any known papillomavirus. Ten different papillomaviruses were detected within the pigmented plaques, including 6 novel PV sequences. CPV-4 was detected within 41% (11/27) of the pigmented plaques, while CPV-5 was identified within 2 pigmented plaques and CPV-3 within a single pigmented plaque. A previously identified novel papillomavirus sequence was identified within 2 pigmented plaques in this study. The remaining 11 pigmented plaques contained 6 papillomavirus DNA sequences that have not been previously reported. These novel PV sequences were most similar to papillomaviruses that have been detected within canine pigmented plaques. PMID:22529129

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus Type 10

    PubMed Central

    Luff, Jennifer; Moore, Peter; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Jingang; Usuda, Yukari; Affolter, Verena; Schlegel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic, nonenveloped, circular, double-stranded DNA viruses within the family Papillomaviridae that are associated with benign and malignant tumors in humans and animals. We report the complete genome sequence of canine papillomavirus type 10 identified from a pigmented plaque located on the head of a mixed-breed bloodhound. PMID:22997424

  6. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans. PMID:28221113

  7. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  8. In vitro canine platelet aggregation caused by Dirofilaria immitis extract

    PubMed Central

    TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro; ONODA, Isako; CHIOU, Shin-Pin; KITOH, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. This aggregation ability of the HW extract was not mediated by the adenosine diphosphate receptor. In addition, the mechanisms of aggregation did not require cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways, and the aggregating activity of substances contained in the HW extract was heat stable; therefore, the active substances may be different from collagen. Furthermore, the platelet aggregating activity remained within the molecular weight (MW)≥100,000 fraction obtained by ultrafiltrating the HW extract. In contrast, the MW <100,000 fraction also had a platelet aggregation ability, but the aggregation pattern was reversible and the maximum extent decreased, compared with the MW≥100,000 fraction response. Our experiments have been conducted using a whole body extract from adult HWs to determine with certainty the aggregating activity of HW elements on canine platelets. More studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the metabolic products released from live adult worms in pulmonary arteries and the symbiont bacterium Wolbachia-derived antigens on canine platelet aggregation. PMID:28049921

  9. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  10. A three-dimensional culture model of canine uterine glands.

    PubMed

    Stadler, K; Handler, J; Schoenkypl, S; Walter, I

    2009-01-01

    The canine endometrium is frequently affected by severe alterations with unclear pathogenesis and is, therefore, an important subject of research in veterinary gynecology. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish a three-dimensional in vitro system of the canine endometrium suitable for experimental approaches. For this reason, intact uterine glands were isolated from canine uteri and placed together with stromal cells on culture dishes coated with several extracellular matrix components (collagen I, IV, fibronectin, laminin, gelatin, Matrigel) for up to 4 d to support differentiation of cultured cells. Immunohistochemical detection of laminin on freshly isolated glands showed a partial preservation of the basement membrane--an important factor for epithelial differentiation. Glandular structures were differentiated and polarized during culture time as shown by electron microscopy. Signs of degeneration and loss of cell-cell adhesions as seen occasionally on day 4 depended on the individual dog. In general, morphology was best preserved on Matrigel matrix. No significant changes of cultured glandular explants were observed concerning proliferation and steroid receptor (estrogen, progesterone) expression when compared with the original uterine tissue as assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Lectin histochemistry revealed comparable results for the in vivo endometrial glands and the cultured glandular explants during the whole culture period. This in vitro reconstitution of the canine endometrium is a promising tool to study the cyclic events in the normal endometrium as well as alterations in the affected uterus.

  11. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were most frequent on postexposure day 11. Seven dogs passed frank blood in their stools on one or more occasions and seven dogs vomited sporadically. Pyrexia was noted in 71.6% of the dogs on postexposure day 6 and lymphopenia was detected on postexposure day 5 or 6 in 50% of the dogs monitored. In contrast, four dogs not starved at the time of challenge remained free of gastrointestinal signs apart from one dog which passed a soft stool with scant mucus on one day, postexposure day 6. Also four dogs vaccinated with a killed canine parvovirus-2 vaccine preparation and subsequently starved at the time of challenge, remained clinically healthy. Apart from these last mentioned four dogs, all others shed canine parvovirus-2 in their feces following challenge. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6280819

  12. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K; Coulibaly, Amy P; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-05-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006-2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country.

  13. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  14. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine...

  15. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine...

  16. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  17. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  18. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine...

  19. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  20. Cloning of canine GM-CSF and SCF genes.

    PubMed

    Shin, I S; Nam, M J; Park, S J; Youn, H Y; Han, H R

    2001-12-01

    Cytokines have pleiotropic regulatory effects on hematopoietic cells and many other cell types that participate in host defence and repair processes. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediates the growth and differentiation of granulocytes and macrophages and regulates the biological functions expressed by mature cells of these lineages. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in hematopoiesis, melanogenesis and gametogenesis. In order to determine the complementary DNA (cDNA) of canine GM-CSF and canine SCF, cDNA clones were generated from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow cells by reverse transcription PCR amplification. The canine GM-CSF cDNA obtained in this study contains an open reading frame encoding 144 amino acid residues and has 53-75% homology with those of human, cat, sheep, pig, cow and mouse, Canine SCF cDNA consist of an open reading frame encoding 274 amino acid residues and shares 81-92% homology with those of human, cat, pig, cow and mouse.