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Sample records for pluvial total interna

  1. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  2. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from pluvial floods by amoebal coculture.

    PubMed

    Schalk, J A C; Docters van Leeuwen, A E; Lodder, W J; de Man, H; Euser, S; den Boer, J W; de Roda Husman, A M

    2012-06-01

    Viable Legionella pneumophila bacteria were isolated by amoebal coculture from pluvial floods after intense rainfall and from water collected at sewage treatment plants. Several isolated L. pneumophila strains belonged to sequence types that have been previously identified in patients.

  3. Preliminary results from two international pluvial flood event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roezer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damages to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. These type of flood events, caused by stormwater being unable to enter urban drainage systems or flowing out of urban drainage systems when capacity is exceeded, often happen with little warning and in areas which are often not obviously prone to flooding. Up to now little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. In this study, results of two telephone surveys are discussed. The surveys comprise interviews with more than 500 flood-affected households in Germany (Münster and Greven) and the Netherlands (Amsterdam), related to the severe rain event of July 28th 2014. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. The questionnaire was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The survey data from the German and Dutch case studies are compared with the goal to identify similarities and differences in damage reducing factors and recovery. Water level data and other hazard characteristics are used to form comparable groups out of the German and Dutch sample. Within these groups, regional distinctions in building topology and use are expected to have the strongest impact on differences between reported damage amounts of the two case studies. The newly collected data will be used in

  4. Systematic Planning of Adaptation Options for Pluvial Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babovic, Filip; Mijic, Ana; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Different elements of infrastructure and the built environment vary in their ability to quickly adapt to changing circumstances. Furthermore, many of the slowest, and often largest infrastructure adaptations, offer the greatest improvements to system performance. In the context of de-carbonation of individual buildings Brand (1995) identified six potential layers of adaptation based on their renewal times ranging from daily to multi-decadal time scales. Similar layers exist in urban areas with regards to Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) and pluvial flood risk. These layers range from appliances within buildings to changes in the larger urban form. Changes in low-level elements can be quickly implemented, but are limited in effectiveness, while larger interventions occur at a much slower pace but offer greater benefits as a part of systemic change. In the context of urban adaptation this multi-layered approach provides information on how to order urban adaptations. This information helps to identify potential pathways by prioritising relatively quick adaptations to be implemented in the short term while identifying options which require more long term planning with respect to both uncertainty and flexibility. This information is particularly critical in the evolution towards more resilient and water sensitive cities (Brown, 2009). Several potential adaptation options were identified ranging from small to large-scale adaptations. The time needed for the adaptation to be implemented was estimated and curves representing the added drainage capacity per year were established. The total drainage capacity added by each option was then established. This methodology was utilised on a case study in the Cranbrook Catchment in the North East of London. This information was able to provide insight on how to best renew or extend the life of critical ageing infrastructure.

  5. Multi-year Droughts and Pluvials over the Southwestern U.S. and Associated Circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, A. A.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The southwestern U.S. is highly vulnerable to climate variability leading to extremes, such as droughts and pluvials, because of its geographic location and climatologic characteristics. These can include multi-year and multi-decadal extremes in precipitation, as occurred in the 1950s drought. Multi-year droughts and pluvials can have severe consequences on water resources management, which makes them events of interest to a major water utility in the region, Denver Water. Denver Water managers are especially interested in 36-month droughts for planning water management, both for maintaining supply and adequate operating revenue. Our analysis is part of an effort to understand the basis for past droughts and pluvials and how they might change in the future. Several indices, based on their sensitivity to drought development at different time scales, data availability and drought types, have been developed for detecting and monitoring drought and pluvial severity. Among them are the Palmer drought severity index, standardized precipitation index (SPI), and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). This study uses 36-month SPEI and SPI to analyze drought and pluvial episodes over the southwestern U.S., with a focus on the region that supplies water for Denver Water. Aims of this study include: 1) characteristics of multi-year droughts and pluvials (e.g., onset, duration, cessation, intensity, and frequency), 2) the contrasts between drought and pluvial characteristics, and 3) atmospheric large-scale features associated with the initiation and maintenance of extended drought and pluvial periods. We find that droughts and pluvials are not simply mirror images of each other in their characteristics, so that one is not simply the opposite phase of the other. This result is particularly true of the large-scale circulation patterns associated with droughts and pluvials. We diagnose how the circulation behavior sustains the very wet and very dry episodes

  6. Morphofunctional changes of phytoplankton community during pluvial anomaly in a tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Câmara, F R A; Rocha, O; Pessoa, E K R; Chellappa, S; Chellappa, N T

    2015-08-01

    The present study focuses on the structure and function of phytoplankton community during periods of marked changes in hydrological traits, influenced by an atypical climatic event (La Niña) and its impact on Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir of Rio Grande do Norte, situated in the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The main questions addressed were: What are the effects of environmental factors on the temporal variation of Morphologically Based Functional Group (MBFG) of phytoplankton community? How does the composition of cyanobacterial species shift in relation to high and low trends of phytoplankton diversity? The samples were collected monthly during 2008-2009 and analyzed for pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen content and the nutrients, such as, nitrate-nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, total nitrogen and orthophosphate. Phytoplankton samples were collected for both qualitative and quantitative analyses to evaluate species richness index and species diversity index. The data was divided into two distinct hydrodynamic periods of instability and stability. The results demonstrate considerable changes in dissolved oxygen content, water transparency and nitrogen nutrients, which directly influenced the MBFG of phytoplankton community in space and time. The instability of reservoir water was caused by heavy rainfall, which exerts atypical external disturbances. The seasonal variation of MBFG demonstrates a change in cyanobacterial composition and their diversity during instability and stability periods. MBFG VII, composed by colonial cyanobacteria with mucilage, was associated with reduced values of electrical conductance and alterations in pH. The predominance of filamentous species with heterocyst (MBFG III) occurs only during the hydrodynamic stability period and did not show significant association with analyzed parameters. The co-dominance of MBGFs III, V and VII along with high species diversity of phytoplankton community

  7. On the Causes and Dynamics of the Early Twentieth Century North American Pluvial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century North American pluvial (1905-1917) was one of the most extreme wet periods of the last five hundred years and directly led to overly generous water allotments in the water-limited American West. Here we examine the causes and dynamics of the pluvial event using a combination of observation-based data sets and general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The character of the moisture surpluses during the pluvial differed by region, alternately driven by increased precipitation (the Southwest), low evaporation from cool temperatures (the Central Plains), or a combination of the two (the Pacific Northwest). Cool temperature anomalies covered much of the west and persisted through most months, part of a globally extensive period of cooler land and sea surface temperatures (SST). Circulation during boreal winter favored increased moisture import and precipitation in the southwest, while other regions and seasons were characterized by near normal or reduced precipitation. Anomalies in the mean circulation, precipitation, and SST fields are partially consistent with the relatively weak El Nino forcing during the pluvial, and also reflect the impact of positive departures in the Arctic Oscillation that occurred in ten of the thirteen pluvial winters. Differences between the reanalysis dataset, an independent statistical drought model, and GCM simulations highlight some of the remaining uncertainties in understanding the full extent of SST forcing of North American hydroclimatic variability.

  8. Impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tsung-Yi; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Cheng, Ke-Sheng; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Hsiang-Kuan; Wu, Yii-Chen; Ho, Hao-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Many metropolises located in lowlands suffer pluvial inundation disaster more than pluvial flood disaster. During the post-inundation period, some water-borne illnesses would be induced from the polluted area. For improving mitigation strategies, population health risk assessment is an important tool of post-inundation disaster management, especially in the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon with high frequency. Locating in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific, Taiwan suffers three to five typhoons annually. Furthermore, the trend of 24 global circulation models (GCMs) shows that climate change would enhance rainfall in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster. This study applies the concept that risk is composed by hazard and vulnerability to assess the risk of the population health associated with pluvial disaster. Stochastic simulation of bi-variate Gamma distribution is developed to downscale the GCMs' monthly data to extreme rainfall event scale in time domain. According to A1B scenario in short-term period of climate change, two-dimensional overland-flow coupled with drainage systems simulation is performed based on a design extreme rainfall event to calculate the impacts of climate change on pluvial hazard to population health, including flood depth, velocity and the duration of flood recession. The environmental vulnerability for population health is carried out according to the factors of resident and environment. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk by composing the inundation hazards and vulnerabilities associated with population health. The Taipei City, the Capital of Taiwan, is selected as the case study because the highest density of population in Taiwan causes high exposure to the risk of water-borne illnesses. Through assessing the impacts of climate change on the population health associated with pluvial disaster of

  9. Pluvial Period over NE Brazil linked to Heinrich Stadial 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, K. A.; Häuselmann, A.; Fleitmann, D.; Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The precise timing and duration of Heinrich Stadials (HS) remains a topic of active debate. Here we present multiple NE Brazilian stalagmites known to grow during HS 4[i]. Using a combination of U/Th dating, confocal microscopy, and stable isotope analysis, we aim to provide additional age constraints on the Brazilian pluvial anomaly associated with HS 4. Stalagmite growth in this region is caused by increased rainfall due to a southerly displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during HS Events. We focus on three stalagmites—TBV40, TBV63, and TBR14—collected from Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR) caves[ii], respectively. TBV40 and TBV63 each contain an aragonite phase U/Th dated from 40.02 to 39.57 ka B.P., followed by a calcitic phase U/Th dated from 39.27 to 38.74 ka B.P., within errors of ±0.1 ka. The switch from aragonite to calcite at approximately 39.57 ka B.P. is characterized by an abrupt 4‰ decrease in the δ18O record of TBV40. We infer that rainfall increased over NE Brazil at this time. TBR14 has a single calcite growth phase from 39.66 to 39.45 ka B.P., which correlates in part with the calcite phases of TBV40 and TBV 63. Stable isotope values for TBR14 are similar in range, trend, and absolute values to the correlative calcite portion of TBR40. Fluorescent banding was discovered in the calcitic portion of all three stalagmites using confocal laser scanning microscopy. If annual, band-counts may add additional constrains to the duration of the HS 4 growth phases. Adopting ice core band-counting methods, an average of 325±128 bands per sample and 17 small hiatuses were identified. The estimated duration of the calcitic HS 4 growth phases is therefore consistent with the U/Th dates. Growth phases may correlate in detail with other global records of HS 4, such as the Hulu Cave record[iii]from China, with the aragonitic portion correlating to the weak monsoon immediately following Chinese Interstadial 9 and the calcitic

  10. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events-including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials-were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced-especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  11. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (~1km) and time (~5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate the potential of nowcasting products for urban inundation applications. One of the most advanced Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) techniques is the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System, which was originally co-developed by the UK Met Office and Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The scheme was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS-BE forecasts are provided at high resolution (1km/5min) with 20 ensemble members with a lead time of up to 2 hours using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. Forecasts' verification was performed over the cities of Leuven and Ghent and biases were found to be small. The hydraulic model consists of the 1D sewer network and an innovative 'nested' 2D surface model to model 2D urban surface inundations at high resolution. The surface components are categorized into three groups and each group is modelled using triangular meshes at different resolutions; these include streets (3.75 - 15 m2), high flood hazard areas (12.5 - 50 m2) and low flood hazard areas (75 - 300 m2). Functions describing urban flood damage and social consequences were empirically derived based on questionnaires to people in the region that were recently affected by sewer floods. Probabilistic urban flood risk maps were prepared based on spatial interpolation techniques of flood inundation. The method has been implemented and tested for the villages Oostakker and Sint-Amandsberg, which are part of the

  12. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    with C-Band and X-Band radars with NWP and pluvial flood prediction models. The RG project deals with the merging and providing synergy of these technologies. Combined effects of BG technologies can totally reduce the risk of surface flooding for low return period events and up to 50-80% for high return periods. Demonstration technology testing sites for both BGD and RG projects will be established in 5 participating countries. Decision Support Systems will enhance full scale implementation of both BGD and RG project deliverables. A BGD efficiency rating scheme and training guidelines and e-learning tools will be developed. Experimental/demo sites for BDG and RG technology development and testing in Rotterdam, Paris, Berlin, Leuven and London and the expected results with concepts of RG and BGD projects and the initial results will be presented in the paper.

  13. Paleowind velocity and paleocurrents of pluvial Lake Manly, Death Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Jeffrey R.; Fantozzi, Joanna M.; Ferguson, Kelly M.; Keller, Summer E.; Nadimi, Khadija; Rath, Carolyn A.; Tarnowski, Jennifer M.; Vitale, Michelle L.

    2012-09-01

    Pluvial lake deposits are found throughout western North America and are frequently used to reconstruct regional paleoclimate. In Death Valley, California, USA, we apply the beach particle technique (BPT) of Adams (2003), Sedimentology, 50, 565-577 and Adams (2004), Sedimentology, 51, 671-673 to Lake Manly deposits at the Beatty Junction Bar Complex (BJBC), Desolation Canyon, and Manly Terraces and calculate paleowind velocities of 14-27 m/s. These wind velocities are within the range of present-day wind velocities recorded in the surrounding area. Sedimentary structures and clast provenance at Desolation Canyon and the Manly Terraces indicate sediment transport from north to south. Lake level, based on the elevation of constructional features, indicates that the hill west of the BJBC was an island and that the BJBC spits formed during simple lake regression. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the present wind regime (velocity and direction) formed the pluvial Lake Manly features.

  14. Modeling of Tropical Forcing of Persistent Droughts and Pluvials over Western North America: 1856 2000(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Herweijer, Celine; Naik, Naomi; Velez, Jennifer

    2005-10-01

    The causes of persistent droughts and wet periods, or pluvials, over western North America are examined in model simulations of the period from 1856 to 2000. The simulations used either (i) global sea surface temperature data as a lower boundary condition or (ii) observed data in just the tropical Pacific and computed the surface ocean temperature elsewhere with a simple ocean model. With both arrangements, the model was able to simulate many aspects of the low-frequency (periods greater than 6 yr) variations of precipitation over the Great Plains and in the American Southwest including much of the nineteenth-century variability, the droughts of the 1930s (the “Dust Bowl”) and 1950s, and the very wet period in the 1990s. Results indicate that the persistent droughts and pluvials were ultimately forced by persistent variations of tropical Pacific surface ocean temperatures. It is argued that ocean temperature variations outside of the tropical Pacific, but forced from the tropical Pacific, act to strengthen the droughts and pluvials. The persistent precipitation variations are part of a pattern of global variations that have a strong hemispherically and zonally symmetric component, which is akin to interannual variability, and that can be explained in terms of interactions between tropical ocean temperature variations, the subtropical jets, transient eddies, and the eddy-driven mean meridional circulation. Rossby wave propagation poleward and eastward from the tropical Pacific heating anomalies disrupts the zonal symmetry, intensifying droughts and pluvials over North America. Both mechanisms of tropical driving of extratropical precipitation variations work in summer as well as winter and can explain the year-round nature of the precipitation variations. In addition, land atmosphere interactions over North America appear important by (i) translating winter precipitation variations into summer evaporation and, hence, precipitation anomalies and (ii) shifting the

  15. Geochronology and paleoenvironment of pluvial Harper Lake, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Anna L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Bright, Jordon

    2014-03-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the paleo-Mojave River and pluvial lake (Harper, Manix, Cronese, and Mojave) system of southern California is critical to understanding paleoclimate and the North American polar jet stream position over the last 500 ka. Previous studies inferred a polar jet stream south of 35°N at 18 ka and at ~ 40°N at 17-14 ka. Highstand sediments of Harper Lake, the upstream-most pluvial lake along the Mojave River, have yielded uncalibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 24,000 to > 30,000 14C yr BP. Based on geologic mapping, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we infer a ~ 45-40 ka age for the Harper Lake highstand sediments. Combining the Harper Lake highstand with other Great Basin pluvial lake/spring and marine climate records, we infer that the North American polar jet stream was south of 35°N about 45-40 ka, but shifted to 40°N by ~ 35 ka. Ostracodes (Limnocythere ceriotuberosa) from Harper Lake highstand sediments are consistent with an alkaline lake environment that received seasonal inflow from the Mojave River, thus confirming the lake was fed by the Mojave River. The ~ 45-40 ka highstand at Harper Lake coincides with a shallowing interval at downstream Lake Manix.

  16. Geochronology and paleoenvironment of pluvial Harper Lake, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Anna L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon; Bright, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the paleo-Mojave River and pluvial lake (Harper, Manix, Cronese, and Mojave) system of southern California is critical to understanding paleoclimate and the North American polar jet stream position over the last 500 ka. Previous studies inferred a polar jet stream south of 35°N at 18 ka and at ~ 40°N at 17–14 ka. Highstand sediments of Harper Lake, the upstream-most pluvial lake along the Mojave River, have yielded uncalibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 24,000 to > 30,000 14C yr BP. Based on geologic mapping, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we infer a ~ 45–40 ka age for the Harper Lake highstand sediments. Combining the Harper Lake highstand with other Great Basin pluvial lake/spring and marine climate records, we infer that the North American polar jet stream was south of 35°N about 45–40 ka, but shifted to 40°N by ~ 35 ka. Ostracodes (Limnocythere ceriotuberosa) from Harper Lake highstand sediments are consistent with an alkaline lake environment that received seasonal inflow from the Mojave River, thus confirming the lake was fed by the Mojave River. The ~ 45–40 ka highstand at Harper Lake coincides with a shallowing interval at downstream Lake Manix.

  17. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events—including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials—were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced—especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna from Bovine Ovarian Follicles during Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna is a specialized stromal layer that envelops each growing ovarian follicle. It contains capillaries, fibroblasts, immune cells and the steroidogenic cells that synthesize androgens for conversion to estradiol by the neighboring granulosa cells. During reproductive life only a small number of follicles will grow to a sufficient size to ovulate, whereas the majority of follicles will undergo regression/atresia and phagocytosis by macrophages. To identify genes which are differentially regulated in the theca interna during follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from healthy (n = 10) and antral atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (<5 mm). Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. A total of 543 probe sets were differentially expressed between the atretic and healthy theca interna. Further analyses of these genes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Toolkit software found most of the genes being expressed were related to cytokines, hormones and receptors as well as the cell cycle and DNA replication. Cell cycle genes which encode components of the replicating chromosome complex and mitotic spindle were down-regulated in atretic theca interna, whereas stress response and inflammation-related genes such as TP53, IKBKB and TGFB1 were up-regulated. In addition to cell cycle regulators, upstream regulators that were predicted to be inhibited included Retinoblastoma 1, E2 transcription factor 1, and hepatocyte growth factor. Our study suggests that during antral atresia of small follicles in the theca interna, arrest of cell cycle and DNA replication occurs rather than up- regulation of apoptosis-associated genes as occurs in granulosa cells. PMID:24956388

  19. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either a fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of a combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims to analyse a fluvial and a pluvial flood hazard individually, but also to develop a method for the analysis of a combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as an example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River, which can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. The fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula-based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. The pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data and a stochastic rainstorm generator. Inundation for all flood scenarios was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. The combined fluvial-pluvial flood scenarios were derived by adding rainstorms to the fluvial flood events during the highest fluvial water levels. The probabilities of occurrence of the combined events were determined assuming independence of the two flood types and taking the seasonality and probability of

  20. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  1. An integrated multi-scale risk analysis procedure for pluvial flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tader, Andreas; Mergili, Martin; Jäger, Stefan; Glade, Thomas; Neuhold, Clemens; Stiefelmeyer, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of or adaptation to the negative impacts of natural processes on society requires a better understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution not only of the processes themselves, but also of the elements at risk. Information on their values, exposures and vulnerabilities towards the expected impact magnitudes/intensities of the relevant processes is needed. GIS-supported methods are particularly useful for integrated spatio-temporal analyses of natural processes and their potential consequences. Hereby, pluvial floods are of particular concern for many parts of Austria. The overall aim of the present study is to calculate the hazards emanating from pluvial floods, to determine the exposure of given elements at risk, to determine their vulnerabilities towards given pluvial flood hazards and to analyze potential consequences in terms of monetary losses. The whole approach builds on data available on a national scale. We introduce an integrated, multi-scale risk analysis procedure with regard to pluvial flooding. Focusing on the risk to buildings, we firstly exemplify this procedure with a well-documented event in the city of Graz (Austria), in order to highlight the associated potentials and limitations. Secondly, we attempt to predict the possible consequences of pluvial flooding triggered by rainfall events with recurrence intervals of 30, 100 and 300 years. (i) We compute spatially distributed inundation depths using the software FloodArea. Infiltration capacity and surface roughness are estimated from the land cover units given by the official cadastre. Various assumptions are tested with regard to the inflow to the urban sewer system. (ii) Based on the inundation depths and the official building register, we employ a set of rules and functions to deduce the exposure, vulnerability and risk for each building. A risk indicator for each building, expressed as the expected damage associated to a given event, is derived by combining the building value and

  2. A multiscale analysis of drought and pluvial mechanisms for the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Jonghun; Sheffield, Justin; Wood, Eric F.

    2014-06-01

    The Southeast (SE) U.S. has experienced several severe droughts over the past 30 years, with the most recent drought during 2006-2008 causing agricultural impacts of $1 billion. However, the mechanisms that lead to droughts over the region and their persistence have been poorly understood due to the region's humid coastal environment and its complex climate. In this study, we carry out a multiscale analysis of drought mechanisms for the SE U.S. over 1979-2008 using the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) to identify conditions associated with drought and contrast with those associated with pluvials. These conditions include land surface drought propagation, land-atmosphere feedbacks, regional moisture sources, persistent atmospheric patterns, and larger-scale oceanic conditions. Typical conditions for SE U.S. droughts (pluvials) are identified as follows: (1) weaker (stronger) southerly meridional fluxes and weaker (stronger) westerly zonal fluxes, (2) strong moisture flux divergence (convergence) by transient eddies, and (3) strong (weak) coupling between the land surface and atmosphere. The NARR demonstrates that historic SE droughts are mainly derived from a combination of a strong North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and Icelandic Low (IL) during summer and winter, respectively, which peak 1 month earlier than the onset of the drought. The land surface plays a moderate role in drought occurrence over the SE via recycling of precipitation, and the oceans show an asymmetric influence on droughts and pluvials depending on the season. This study suggests that the NASH and IL can be used as a predictor for SE droughts at 1 month lead despite the overall that it represents an atmospheric forcing.

  3. Forced and unforced variability of twentieth century North American droughts and pluvials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-09-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  4. Late Quaternary MIS 6-8 shoreline features of pluvial Owens Lake, Owens Valley, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.; Bacon, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    The chronologic history of pluvial Owens Lake along the eastern Sierra Nevada in Owens Valley, California, has previously been reported for the interval of time from ca. 25 calibrated ka to the present. However, the age, distribution, and paleoclimatic context of higher-elevation shoreline features have not been formally documented. We describe the location and characteristics of wave-formed erosional and depositional features, as well as fluvial strath terraces that grade into an older shoreline of pluvial Owens Lake. These pluvial-lacustrine features are described between the Olancha area to the south and Poverty Hills area to the north, and they appear to be vertically deformed -20 ?? 4 m across the active oblique-dextral Owens Valley fault zone. They occur at elevations from 1176 to 1182 m along the lower flanks of the Inyo Mountains and Coso Range east of the fault zone to as high as -1204 m west of the fault zone. This relict shoreline, referred to as the 1180 m shoreline, lies -20-40 m higher than the previously documented Last Glacial Maximum shoreline at -1160 m, which occupied the valley during marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2). Crosscutting relations of wave-formed platforms, notches, and sandy beach deposits, as well as strath terraces on lava flows of the Big Pine volcanic field, bracket the age of the 1180 m shoreline to the time interval between ca. 340 ?? 60 ka and ca. 130 ?? 50 ka. This interval includes marine oxygen isotope stages 8-6 (MIS 8-6), corresponding to 260-240 ka and 185-130 ka, respectively. An additional age estimate for this shoreline is provided by a cosmogenic 36Cl model age of ca. 160 ?? 32 ka on reefal tufa at ???1170 m elevation from the southeastern margin of the valley. This 36Cl model age corroborates the constraining ages based on dated lava flows and refines the lake age to the MIS 6 interval. Documentation of this larger pluvial Owens Lake offers insight to the hydrologic balance along the east side of the southern Sierra

  5. Forced and Unforced Variability of Twentieth Century North American Droughts and Pluvials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  6. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial floods in Japan using rainfall data and socioeconomic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Rajan; Yoshimura, Kei; Seto, Shinta; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Oki, Taikan

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policymakers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately USD 1 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial floods only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  7. The influence of digital elevation model resolution on overland flow networks for modelling urban pluvial flooding.

    PubMed

    Leitão, J P; Boonya-Aroonnet, S; Prodanović, D; Maksimović, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the developments towards the next generation of overland flow modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Using a detailed analysis of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) the developed GIS tools can automatically generate surface drainage networks which consist of temporary ponds (floodable areas) and flow paths and link them with the underground network through inlets. For different commercially-available Rainfall-Runoff simulation models, the tool will generate the overland flow network needed to model the surface runoff and pluvial flooding accurately. In this paper the emphasis is placed on a sensitivity analysis of ponds and preferential overland flow paths creation. Different DEMs for three areas were considered in order to compare the results obtained. The DEMs considered were generated using different acquisition techniques and hence represent terrain with varying levels of resolution and accuracy. The results show that DEMs can be used to generate surface flow networks reliably. As expected, the quality of the surface network generated is highly dependent on the quality and resolution of the DEMs and successful representation of buildings and streets.

  8. Modeling pluvial flooding damage in urban environments: spatial relationships between citizens' complaints and overland catchment areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Santiago; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; van de Giesen, Nick

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as floods and storms are expected to cause severe economic losses in The Netherlands. Cumulative damage due to pluvial flooding can be considerable, especially in lowland areas where this type of floods occurs relatively frequently. Currently, in The Netherlands, water-related damages to property and contents are covered through private insurance. As pluvial flooding is becoming heavier and more likely to occur, sound modelling of damages is required to ensure that insurance systems are able to stand as an adaptation measure. Current damage models based on rainfall intensity, registries of insurance claims, and classifications of building types are unable to fully explain damage variability. Further developments assessing additional explanatory factors and reducing uncertainties, are required in order to significantly explain damage. In this study, urban topography is used as an explanatory factor for modelling of urban pluvial flooding. Flood damage is evaluated based on complaints data, a valuable resource for assessing vulnerability to urban pluvial flooding. Though previous research has shown coincidences between the localization of high complaint counts and large size catchments areas in Rotterdam, additional research is needed to establish the precise spatial relationship of those two variables. This additional task is the focus of the presented work. To that end a data base of complaints, that was made available by the Municipality Administration of the City, will be analysed. It comprises close to 36800 complaints from 2004 to 2011. The geographical position of the registries is aggregated into 4 to 6-digit Postal Code zones, which represents entire streets or relative positions along a street, respectively. The Municipality also provided the DEM, characterized by a spatial resolution of 0.5 m × 0.5 m, a vertical precision of 5 cm, and an accuracy better than two standard deviations of 15 cm. First the localization of complaints

  9. Hyperostosis frontalis interna and androgen suppression.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Natan; Dar, Gali; Abbas, Janan; Medlej, Bahaa; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2010-08-01

    Although hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) has been documented in the medical literature for over 300 years, its etiology remains undetermined. It is generally assumed to be associated with hormonal disturbances of the gonads. The aim of this study was to examine the association between androgen deprivation and development of HFI in males. Two groups of males over 60-years old were compared: a control group that included 180 healthy males, 45 suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and a study group of 127 males with prostate cancer: 67 who received complete androgen block treatment, and 60 who received different treatments or none at all. CT head scans were used to identify and classify HFI (Brilliance 64, Philips Medical Systems, slice thickness 3 mm x 1.5 mm). It was found that males who received a complete androgen block manifested significantly higher prevalence of HFI compared to healthy males. However, no significant difference in HFI prevalence was found between males suffering from BPH and healthy males or males with prostate cancer who had not received a complete androgen block. A positive association between length of hormonal treatment and manifestation of HFI was shown. It can be concluded that BPH does not promote development of HFI; males who are hormonally treated for prostate cancer are at a higher risk of developing HFI compared to healthy males; the longer the duration of hormonal treatment, the higher the risk of developing HFI.

  10. Current and future pluvial flood hazard analysis for the city of Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick; Tabari, Hossein; De Niel, Jan; Van Uytven, Els; Lambrechts, Griet; Wellens, Geert

    2016-04-01

    For the city of Antwerp in Belgium, higher rainfall extremes were observed in comparison with surrounding areas. The differences were found statistically significant for some areas and may be the result of the heat island effect in combination with the higher concentrations of aerosols. A network of 19 rain gauges but with varying records length (the longest since the 1960s) and continuous radar data for 10 years were combined to map the spatial variability of rainfall extremes over the city at various durations from 15 minutes to 1 day together with the uncertainty. The improved spatial rainfall information was used as input in the sewer system model of the city to analyze the frequency of urban pluvial floods. Comparison with historical flood observations from various sources (fire brigade and media) confirmed that the improved spatial rainfall information also improved sewer impact results on both the magnitude and frequency of the sewer floods. Next to these improved urban flood impact results for recent and current climatological conditions, the new insights on the local rainfall microclimate were also helpful to enhance future projections on rainfall extremes and pluvial floods in the city. This was done by improved statistical downscaling of all available CMIP5 global climate model runs (160 runs) for the 4 RCP scenarios, as well as the available EURO-CORDEX regional climate model runs. Two types of statistical downscaling methods were applied for that purpose (a weather typing based method, and a quantile perturbation approach), making use of the microclimate results and its dependency on specific weather types. Changes in extreme rainfall intensities were analyzed and mapped as a function of the RCP scenario, together with the uncertainty, decomposed in the uncertainties related to the climate models, the climate model initialization or limited length of the 30-year time series (natural climate variability) and the statistical downscaling (albeit limited

  11. Age and isotopic constraints on pleistocene pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Crombie, M. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Sturchio, N. C.; El Alfy, Z.; Abu Zeid, K.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority

    1997-01-01

    North Africa has undergone drastic climatic changes over the past several hundred thousand years. The timing of humid intervals called pluvials was investigated by uranium-series disequilibrium dating of travertines from the Kurkur Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The youngest and best dated travertines (70-160 ka) are found in Wadi Kurkur and include spring and lacustrine units exposed as 2 to 3 m high terraces. Travertines having an age of approximately 191-220 ka are exposed by differential erosion as linear mounds produced by spring systems over fracture zones in ancient wadis. The oldest travertines, having ages >260 ka, are extensive, cap limestone units above the oasis, and were deposited in paludal and lacustrine environments. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured for the wadi travertines ({delta}{sup 18}O values ranging from 16.7 to 19.1{per_thousand} SMOW) and for spring mound travertines (18.5-20.5{per_thousand}). Equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation calculations indicate that the Kurkur travertines were deposited from waters having {delta}{sup 18}O values similar to ancient Western Desert groundwaters ({approx} -11{per_thousand}). The ages of the travertines correspond to times of monsoonal maxima, eustatic sea level high stands and interglacial maxima. Rainfall producing these groundwaters (and travertines) was significantly fractionated during atmospheric transport, in contrast to modern meteoric waters (-2.09{per_thousand}), implying a distant source for the pluvial waters. Increased precipitation, recharge of Western Desert groundwaters, and resultant travertine deposition are interpreted to be consequences of Milankovitch insolation cycle forcing, through enhanced Atlantic and Indian Ocean monsoons during interglacial time periods.

  12. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, I; Greenwald, C; Rothschild, B M; Latimer, B; Dutour, O; Jellema, L M; Wish-Baratz, S

    1999-07-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is manifested by the accretion of bone on the inner table of the frontal bone. Despite the vast literature on HFI, ambiguity exists as to its etiology, osteogenesis, demography, and history. This stimulated the present broad-scale study of HFI which included the evaluation of 1,706 early 20th century skulls (1,007 males and 699 females) from the Hamann-Todd and Terry human osteological collections, as well as 2,019 pre-19th century East-Mediterranean, Amerindian, and Central European skulls. In addition, 72 cadavers were dissected for gross inspection and histology. Special attention was paid to the relationship of the brain and meninges to endocranial lesions. HFI is an independent condition, not a symptom of a more generalized syndrome as suggested in the past. It can appear in a variety of forms but each is the result of the same process and probably of the same etiology. Investigators' previous failure to recognize the mild stages of HFI (types A and B) as an early form of the general HFI process led to erroneous statistics and interpretations of observations. HFI should also be considered a phenomenon separate from HCI, hyperostosis cranialis diffusa (HCD), and other endostoses, even when it appears in association with them. To avoid ambiguity and facilitate the description of cranial hyperostoses, uniform nomenclature (HFI, HCD) has been recommended. HFI is rarely seen in historic populations, regardless of geographical origin. It is most commonly found among females and is believed to be associated with prolonged estrogen stimulation. While its magnitude of manifestation and frequency are much higher in females, HFI is not a purely female phenomenon. Males with hormonal disturbances such as atrophic testis were found to manifest HFI type D. HFI is associated with age insofar as it is much less frequent in females under 40 years of age. Although advanced cases of HFI (types C and D) have been observed in individuals as

  13. Pluvial Drainage Patterns and Holocene Desiccation Influenced the Genetic Architecture of Relict Dace, Relictus solitarius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek D.; Evans, R. Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K.

    2015-01-01

    Changing drainage patterns have played a significant role in the evolution of western North American aquatic taxa. Relict dace, Relictus solitarius, is a Great Basin endemic cyprinid with a native range that is restricted to four valleys in eastern Nevada. Relictus solitarius now occupies spring systems that are the remnants of Pleistocene-era pluvial lakes, although it may have occurred in the area for much longer. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to assess range-wide genetic diversity of R. solitarius, and to estimate divergence times to determine whether pluvial drainages played an important role in shaping intraspecific genetic diversity. Genetic diversification within R. solitarius began during the early to mid-Pleistocene, separating populations within two sets of valleys (Butte/Ruby and Goshute/Steptoe). Additional diversification in each of the two sets of valleys occurred more recently, in the mid- to late-Pleistocene. Holocene desiccation has further isolated populations, and each population sampled contains unique mtDNA haplotypes. Pluvial drainage patterns did contribute to the genetic structure observed within R. solitarius, but most of the intraspecific diversification does not appear to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Holocene desiccation has also contributed to the observed genetic structure. The relict dace populations we sampled are all unique, and we recommend that future management efforts should strive to preserve as much of the genetic diversity as possible. PMID:26394395

  14. Pluvial Drainage Patterns and Holocene Desiccation Influenced the Genetic Architecture of Relict Dace, Relictus solitarius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek D; Evans, R Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K

    2015-01-01

    Changing drainage patterns have played a significant role in the evolution of western North American aquatic taxa. Relict dace, Relictus solitarius, is a Great Basin endemic cyprinid with a native range that is restricted to four valleys in eastern Nevada. Relictus solitarius now occupies spring systems that are the remnants of Pleistocene-era pluvial lakes, although it may have occurred in the area for much longer. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to assess range-wide genetic diversity of R. solitarius, and to estimate divergence times to determine whether pluvial drainages played an important role in shaping intraspecific genetic diversity. Genetic diversification within R. solitarius began during the early to mid-Pleistocene, separating populations within two sets of valleys (Butte/Ruby and Goshute/Steptoe). Additional diversification in each of the two sets of valleys occurred more recently, in the mid- to late-Pleistocene. Holocene desiccation has further isolated populations, and each population sampled contains unique mtDNA haplotypes. Pluvial drainage patterns did contribute to the genetic structure observed within R. solitarius, but most of the intraspecific diversification does not appear to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Holocene desiccation has also contributed to the observed genetic structure. The relict dace populations we sampled are all unique, and we recommend that future management efforts should strive to preserve as much of the genetic diversity as possible.

  15. Modelling the impact of land subsidence on urban pluvial flooding: A case study of downtown Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Wilby, Rob

    2016-02-15

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of pluvial flooding to evaluate the impact of land subsidence on flood risks in urban contexts using a hydraulic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D). The pluvial flood event of August 2011 in Shanghai, China is used for model calibration and simulation. Evolving patterns of inundation (area and depth) are assessed over four time periods (1991, 1996, 2001 and 2011) for the downtown area, given local changes in topography and rates of land subsidence of up to 27 mm/yr. The results show that land subsidence can lead to non-linear response of flood characteristics. However, the impact on flood depths is generally minor (<5 cm) and limited to areas with lowest-lying topographies because of relatively uniform patterns of subsidence and micro-topographic variations at the local scale. Nonetheless, the modelling approach tested here may be applied to other cities where there are more marked rates of subsidence and/or greater heterogeneity in the depressed urban surface. In these cases, any identified hot-spots of subsidence and focusing of pluvial flooding may be targeted for adaptation interventions.

  16. Etiopathogenesis of hyperostosis frontalis interna: a mystery still.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Athanasios; Paraskevas, George K; Yusuf, Faisal; Kordali, Panagiota; Meditskou, Soultana; Al-Haj, Abdulatif; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2011-10-20

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna is a morphological pattern characterized by single or multiple bony nodules situated on the inner lamina of the frontal bone. It is seldom found in males, but it is a common phenomenon among post-menopausal females in modern societies but relatively rare in antiquity. The etiopathogenesis of the trait is a matter of debate and ranges from genetic predisposition to epigenetic, while endocrine disturbances, aging, and dietary factors are also listed among the causes. We studied the frequency, characteristic features, and etiopathogenesis of the disease in recent cadaveric and dry skull specimens. The frequency of hyperostosis frontalis interna in cadavers and dry skull materials was almost identical, 12.5% and 12.3%, respectively. In cadavers, 87.5% of severe hyperostosis frontalis interna cases were found in females over 65 years-old. Interestingly, in two cadavers we found hyperostotic lesions spreading onto adjacent tissues such as the dura and falx cerebri. We provide some new aspects that may help in better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hyperostosis frontalis interna. Thereby, we discuss the various etiopathogenesis models found in the literature.

  17. Chemical evolution of shallow playa groundwater in response to post-pluvial isostatic rebound, Honey Lake Basin, California-Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Alan L.; Henderson, Rachel M.; Tingey, David; Webber, William

    2010-05-01

    The 1,750-km2 endorheic Honey Lake basin (California-Nevada, USA) was part of the 22,000-km2 Pleistocene Lake Lahontan pluvial lake system which existed between 5,000 and 40,000 years BP. The basin consists of two subbasins separated by a low elevation divide. Groundwater in the western subbasin has a maximum total dissolved solids (TDS) content of only ˜1,300 mg/L; however eastern subbasin groundwater has a maximum TDS of ˜46,000 mg/L. This TDS distribution is unexpected because 94% of surface water TDS loading is to the western subbasin. In situ reactions and upwelling thermal groundwater contributing to groundwater chemistry were modeled using NETPATH. The TDS difference between the subbasins is attributed to post-Lake Lahontan isostatic rebound about 13,000 years ago. Prior to rebound the subbasins did not exist and the low point of the basin was in the eastern area where hydraulic isolation from the larger Lake Lahontan and frequent desiccation of the basin surface water resulted in evaporite mineral deposition in accumulating sediments. After rebound, the terminal sink for most surface water shifted to the western subbasin. Although most closed basins have not been impacted by isostatic rebound, results of this investigation demonstrate how tectonic evolution can impact the distribution of soluble minerals accumulating in shallow basins.

  18. Geochronology and Stratigraphy of Pluvial Argentinean Lakes: Implications for Quaternary Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, A.

    2009-12-01

    Shoreline deposits of pluvial lake systems can provide direct evidence of the timing and duration of lake high stands. Complemented by careful stratigraphic and geochemical analysis, these records also contain important paleoenvironmental information. Two lake systems were studied as part of a global effort to understand major climatic changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 24-18 ka) and the following deglaciation (18-13 ka). Today, both of the studied regions are arid, and the lake basins contain much smaller lakes than in the past. Laguna Cari-Laufquen is located at 41°S and the modern basin is occupied by two lakes: Cari-Laufquen Grande and Chica. Preserved shorelines and sediments show these two lakes rose and merged multiple times during the Late Quaternary. An extensive radiocarbon geochronology show the lake was the highest during the LGM, with several smaller, more recent lake oscillations in the last thousand years. The second lake system in this study is Laguna Bebedero, located at 33°S in western Argentina. Previous studies show the highest shorelines date to 23-16,000 yrs BP. Our new radiocarbon dates help constrain the timing of the highstands - and show highstands during the deglacial period. Our lake highstand evidence provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct shifts in Atlantic (easterly)- or Pacific (westerly)-driven moisture. Geochemical studies of shell, water chemical analysis, and geospatial analysis also help to constrain hydrologic balance and paleoenvironmental conditions. Comparison of paleohydrologic records in South America. From top: Cariaco Basin - reconstructed sea-surface temperatures from Lea et al., 2003, Bolivian Lakes - Uyuni lake system phases from shoreline data (Placzek et al., 2006), Atacama Wetlands - wet events above local water table (Quade et al., 2008), Laguna Bebedero and Laguna Cari-Laufquen - lake level changes from this study.

  19. New constrains on Late Glacial pluvial events on the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placzek, C. J.; Quade, J.; Patchett, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Two large paleolakes (33,000 and 60,000 km2) occupied dry basins on the southern Bolivian Altiplano during the Late Glacial, providing evidence of dramatic changes in low-latitude moisture. It is now apparent that the Tauca (18.1-14.1 ka) and Coipasa (13-11 ka) lake cycles are part of a regional wet interval, the Central Andean Pluvial Event (CAPE). Proposed driving mechanisms for CAPE include changes in: summer solar insolation, Pacific SST gradients (ENSO variability), Atlantic SST gradients (the Younger Dryas and Heinrich I), and moisture levels in the eastern lowlands. The region impacted by CAPE may extend from 10 to 26°S. The Southern Altiplano (18-22°S) is at the center of this region. Regional climate histories, however, highlight existing uncertainties and contradictions about the timing, magnitude, and synchrony of the CAPE both across the region and within Altiplano lake basins. Are differing conclusions about the timing and mechanisms of central Andean climate change related to regional variability, or are these differences, instead, a result of different chronological or proxy methods? An improved understanding of climate history on the Southern Bolivian Altiplano is critical to addressing the cause of the CAPE. The Coipasa lake cycle coincides with the Younger Dryas (12.8-11 ka) and new insight into lake extent is aided by distinct 87Sr/86Sr values for this lake cycle. Carbonate crusts from this lake cycle produce exceptionally precise U-Th ages (some with uncertainties <150 years). Sediments associated with the Tauca and Coipasa lake cycles are clearly separated stratigraphically in some locations, but at the highest and lowest elevations these crusts often superimposed in a manner that is not obviously disconformable. Both field and geochemical evidence now suggest that the Coipasa lake cycle was ~55 meters deep (~33,000 km2) and began to expand at 12.8 ka. Quantitative assessment of the precipitation/evaporation balance necessary to maintain

  20. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, D.T.; Ely, L.L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Fenton, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ??? 10,000 m3 s- 1. Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m3 s- 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m3 s- 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m3 s- 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the Columbia River

  1. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Deron T.; Ely, Lisa L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.

    2006-05-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km 3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ˜ 10,000 m 3 s - 1 . Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m 3 s - 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the

  2. Developing the Late Quaternary Record of Pluvial Lake Clover, Northern Great Basin, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laabs, B. J.; Munroe, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Clover was one of numerous closed-basin pluvial lakes that formed in the northern Great Basin during the Pleistocene. The geomorphic record of the lake includes continuous shoreline ridges and spits at altitudes of as much as 25 m above the modern playa surface. The history of Lake Clover is poorly known compared to those of the larger lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, but can provide a useful framework for understanding regional-scale environmental changes during the latest Pleistocene. Shoreline ridges of Lake Clover are preserved at altitudes of ca. 1729, 1725, 1719, and 1715 m asl, which correspond to intervals when the lake attained a surface area of 788, 726, 618, and 524 km2, respectively. Although the chronology of highstands at these altitudes is still being developed (through radiocarbon and luminescence-dating methods), the morphology and orientations of prominent shoreline features provide clues to regional air-circulation patterns during highstands. The highest shoreline is represented by a gravel ridge that can be traced nearly continuously around the perimeter of the lake basin. The ridge is uniformly developed along shorelines of differing aspect, suggesting that the wind field during the ice-free season was not dominated by a single direction. Along the eastern and western shores of the basin, the lower shorelines are manifested by a similar gravel ridge. However, in other sectors of the basin, features associated with progressively lower shorelines reveal an increasing dominance of northward longshore drift. The most dramatic features correspond with the 1719 m shoreline and include 1) a pronounced V-shaped, northward projecting spit at the southern end of the basin, 2) a 3-km long spit projecting to the north-northwest along the northeastern shoreline, and 3) a tombolo connecting a former island to the northern shore. Together these features suggest that dominant wind directions became more southerly during the ice-free season when the lake

  3. Statistical model for economic damage from pluvial flood in Japan using rainfall data and socio-economic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, R.; Yoshimura, K.; Seto, S.; Nakamura, S.; Oki, T.

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of flood risk is important for policy makers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately JPY 100 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial flood only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope, and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.

  4. Evaluating the impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on intra-urban road network: A case study in the city center of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Yin, Zhane; Liu, Min; He, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Urban pluvial flood are attracting growing public concern due to rising intense precipitation and increasing consequences. Accurate risk assessment is critical to an efficient urban pluvial flood management, particularly in transportation sector. This paper describes an integrated methodology, which initially makes use of high resolution 2D inundation modeling and flood depth-dependent measure to evaluate the potential impact and risk of pluvial flash flood on road network in the city center of Shanghai, China. Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationships of Shanghai rainstorm and Chicago Design Storm are combined to generate ensemble rainfall scenarios. A hydrodynamic model (FloodMap-HydroInundation2D) is used to simulate overland flow and flood inundation for each scenario. Furthermore, road impact and risk assessment are respectively conducted by a new proposed algorithm and proxy. Results suggest that the flood response is a function of spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and local characteristics (i.e. drainage and topography), and pluvial flash flood is found to lead to proportionate but nonlinear impact on intra-urban road inundation risk. The approach tested here would provide more detailed flood information for smart management of urban street network and may be applied to other big cities where road flood risk is evolving in the context of climate change and urbanization.

  5. A 9170-year record of decadal-to-multi-centennial scale pluvial episodes from the coastal Southwest United States: a role for atmospheric rivers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Patterson, William P.; Rivera, Jose J.

    2012-07-01

    A well-dated, 9170 calendar year before present (cal yr BP) paleohydrologic reconstruction is presented from Lower Bear Lake in the San Bernardino Mountains of the coastal southwest United States. This new multi-proxy record is characterized by alternating organic-rich/carbonate-rich sediment units, interpreted to reflect hydrologically-forced changes in the lake's depositional environment. Our interpretation of the proxy data indicates nine decadal-to-multi-centennial pluvial episodes (PE) over the past 9170 cal yr BP. Of these nine inferred pluvials, five are interpreted as more pronounced based on their combined proxy interpretations: (PE-V) 9170?-8250, (PE-IV) 7000-6400, (PE-III) 3350-3000, (PE-II) 850-700, and (PE-I) 500-476 (top of core) cal yr BP. The Lower Bear Lake record indicates that the San Bernardino Mountains, source region for the Mojave River and its terminal playa, was wet during the same periods (within dating errors), to several of the major pluvials proposed from the lakes in the sink of the Mojave River. Our comparison extends north also to Tulare Lake, which drains the southcentral-western Sierra Nevada Mountains. This temporally and spatially coherent signal indicates that a similar climate forcing acted to increase regional wetness at various times during the past 9170 cal yr BP. As originally proposed by Enzel, Ely, and colleagues (e.g., Enzel et al., 1989; Enzel, 1992; Ely et al., 1994; Enzel and Wells, 1997), we too contend that Holocene pluvial episodes are associated with changing the frequency of large winter storms that track across a broad region at decadal-to-multi-centennial timescales. We build upon their hypothesis through the addition of new and better-dated site comparisons, recent advances in the understanding of atmospheric rivers, and improved knowledge of the ocean-atmosphere dynamics that caused the early 20th century western United States pluvial.

  6. Quantifying UV-B flux over the Late Triassic Carnian Pluvial Extinction Event (c. 233-229 Ma).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Charlotte; Fraser, Wesley; Jardine, Phil; Kürschner, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The geological record contains numerous episodes of global environmental change associated with pronounced transient perturbations to the global carbon cycle, some of which are closely linked with ocean acidification and mass extinction. Here, we focus on the Late Triassic mass extinction during the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE) which occurred c. 233-229 million-years-ago (Ma). The CPE extinction remains one of the least studied and most controversial biotic crises due primarily to the lack of well-dated sedimentary successions. The CPE interval features a -4 o δ13C excursion, which is interpreted as a massive atmospheric injection of 13C-depleted carbon from the Wrangellia Flood Basalts. The associated increase in atmospheric pCO2 may then have accelerated the hydrological cycle, resulting in increased weathering and enhanced siliciclastic delivery to shallow carbonate basins. Volcanic activity is known to significantly alter the amount of incoming solar UV-B radiation via dimming processes, the destruction of ozone and increased cloud formation via the addition of cloud condensation nuclei to the atmosphere. To reconstruct variations in UV-B flux we have measured the abundance of phenolic components (UV-B absorbing compounds) contained within the cell wall of Ovalipollis pollen grains across the CPE, from samples taken from the Lunz region (Austria). These phenolic components are part of the defensive system of plants, where the abundance of phenolics increases with elevated UV-B flux. Our preliminary data indicate i) that the highest abundance of phenolics occur in the latter stages of the CPE, ii) the abundance of phenolics are highly variable throughout the CPE, and iii) the abundance of phenolics broadly increase towards the end of the Late Triassic. Here we will discuss the significance of the obtained data in terms of palaeoclimatic variability and the impact of volcanism during the Carnian Pluvial Event.

  7. Effects of drought and pluvial periods on fish and zooplankton communities in prairie lakes: systematic and asystematic responses.

    PubMed

    Starks, Elizabeth; Cooper, Ryan; Leavitt, Peter R; Wissel, Björn

    2014-04-01

    The anticipated impacts of climate change on aquatic biota are difficult to evaluate because of potentially contrasting effects of temperature and hydrology on lake ecosystems, particularly those closed-basin lakes within semiarid regions. To address this shortfall, we quantified decade-scale changes in chemical and biological properties of 20 endorheic lakes in central North America in response to a pronounced transition from a drought to a pluvial period during the early 21st century. Lakes exhibited marked temporal changes in chemical characteristics and formed two discrete clusters corresponding to periods of substantially different effective moisture (as Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) explained 90% of variability in fish assemblage composition and showed that fish communities were predicted best by environmental conditions during the arid interval (PDSI <-2). DFA also predicted that lakes could support more fish species during pluvial periods, but their occurrences may be limited by periodic stress due to recurrent droughts and physical barriers to colonization. Zooplankton taxonomic assemblages in fishless lakes were resilient to short-term changes in meteorological conditions, and did not vary between drought and deluge periods. Conversely, zooplankton taxa in fish-populated lakes decreased substantially in biomass during the wet interval, likely due to increased zooplanktivory by fish. The powerful effects of such climatic variability on hydrology and the strong subsequent links to water chemistry and biota indicate that future changes in global climate could result in significant restructuring of aquatic communities. Together these findings suggest that semiarid lakes undergoing temporary climate shifts provide a useful model system for anticipating the effects of global climate change on lake food webs.

  8. A 9000-Year Record of Centennial-to-Multi Centennial Scale Pluvial Events From Lower Bear Lake Sediments (San Bernardino Mtns., Coastal Southwestern North America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, J. J.; Kirby, M. E.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Starratt, S.; Patterson, W. P.; Hiner, C.; Monarrez, P.

    2011-12-01

    Lower Bear Lake is located in the San Bernardino Mountains of coastal southwestern North America (CSWNA). This lake is the natural, pre-dam lake where present day Big Bear Reservoir is located. A single drive, 4.8 m-long sediment core was extracted from Lower Bear Lake in 2005. We present a 9000 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) paleohydrologic reconstruction. This new multi-proxy record (LOI 550°C, 950°C; C:N ratios, microfossils counts, grain size) is well-dated (22 AMS 14C dates on discrete organic material) and is characterized by variable sedimentology. Our results indicate two major features: 1) a long-term Holocene drying trend as observed elsewhere in CSWNA with an abrupt shift from wetter to drier conditions about 6200; and, 2) nine centennial-to-multi-centennial pluvial events over the past 9000 cal yr BP superimposed on the long term drying trend. Of these nine inferred pluvial intervals, five are considered major based on their combined proxy interpretations: 9300?-8250, 7000-6400, 3350-3000, 850-700, and 500-??? cal yr BP. To assess our results in terms of broader, regional paleoclimate records, we compare the timing of the major pluvial intervals at Lower Bear Lake to those identified previously at Lake Elsinore and Tulare Lake. This comparison reveals a similar timing between the three sites and the major pluvials. This temporally and spatially coherent signal indicates that a similar climate forcing acted to increase regional wetness at various times during the past 9000 cal yr BP. As a working hypothesis, we contend that small changes in the dominant patterns of Pacific SSTs modulated atmospheric circulation, thus favoring periods of enhanced atmospheric river storm activity across CSWNA.

  9. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate pluvial floods risk under changing climate: The case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A; Torresan, S; Gallina, V; Coppola, E; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2016-08-15

    Global climate change is likely to pose increasing threats in nearly all sectors and across all sub-regions worldwide (IPCC, 2014). Particularly, extreme weather events (e.g. heavy precipitations), together with changing exposure and vulnerability patterns, are expected to increase the damaging effect of storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding. Developing climate and adaptation services for local planners and decision makers is becoming essential to transfer and communicate sound scientific knowledge about climate related risks and foster the development of national, regional and local adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the effect of climate change on pluvial flood risk and advice adaptation planning, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice. Based on the integrated analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk, RRA allows identifying and prioritizing targets and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood risk due to heavy precipitation events in the future scenario 2041-2050. From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the requests, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. Results of the analysis showed that all targets (i.e. residential, commercial-industrial areas and infrastructures) are vulnerable to pluvial floods due to the high impermeability and low slope of the topography. The spatial pattern of risk mostly reflects the distribution of the hazard and the districts with the higher percentage of receptors' surface in the higher risk classes (i.e. very high, high and medium) are Lido-Pellestrina and Marghera. The paper discusses how risk-based maps and statistics integrate scientific and local knowledge with the final aim to mainstream climate adaptation in the development

  10. How well do models reproduce the ocean-forced teleconnections associated with droughts and pluvials in the Middle East and Southwest Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical sea surface temperatures have been shown to strongly influence the seasonal and multi-year occurrence of both droughts and very wet periods (pluvials) across Southwest Asia and parts of the Middle East. Here, we examine those ocean-forced teleconnections from three perspectives: how their influence varies within this broad region, how well their influence is captured by a range of models, and how closely their influence is linked to societal impacts. This combination of perspectives improves our understanding of these modes, especially in relation to societal impacts, and provides key information for evaluating climate projections. The teleconnections are examined first in observational data, considering differences resulting from focusing on the western part of the region (the Mediterranean coastal Middle East) to the eastern part of the region (the Pamir mountains), and then comparing the observational results to ensemble simulations from a range of models. There are notable differences between models, with important implications for understanding the dynamics of the events and for setting confidence bounds on climate change projections in the region. The relationship between droughts and floods in the region is also considered. The teleconnections associated with pluvials are approximately antisymmetric to those associated with droughts. Floods occur over a considerably shorter time-scale, however, and their variability is examined by analyzing changes to the frequency of floods between pluvial and drought periods, considering floods as recorded in the Dartmouth Flood Observatory and the CRED EM-DAT disaster database.

  11. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: criteria for sexing and aging a skeleton.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Nathan; Dar, Gali; Cohen, Haim; Abbas, Janan; Medlej, Bahaa; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2011-09-01

    Estimation of sex and age in skeletons is essential in anthropological and forensic medicine investigations. The aim of the current study was to examine the potential of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) as a criterion for determining sex and age in forensic cases. Macroscopic examination of the inner aspect of the frontal bone of 768 skulls (326 males and 442 females) aged 1 to 103, which had undergone a head computerized tomography scan, was carried out using the volume rendering technique. HFI was divided into two categories: minor and major. HFI is a sex- and age-dependent phenomena, with females manifesting significantly higher prevalence than males (p<0.01). In both females and males, prevalence of HFI increases as age increases (p<0.01). We present herein the probabilities of designating an unknown skull to a specific sex and age cohort according to the presence of HFI (standardized to age distribution in an Israeli population). Moreover, we present the probability of an individual belonging to a specific sex or age cohort according to age or sex (respectively) and severity of HFI. We suggest a valid, reliable, and easy method for sex and age identification of unknown skulls.

  12. Identifying and classifying hyperostosis frontalis interna via computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    May, Hila; Peled, Nathan; Dar, Gali; Hay, Ori; Abbas, Janan; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize the radiological characteristics of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and to establish a valid and reliable method for its identification and classification. A reliability test was carried out on 27 individuals who had undergone a head computerized tomography (CT) scan. Intra-observer reliability was obtained by examining the images three times, by the same researcher, with a 2-week interval between each sample ranking. The inter-observer test was performed by three independent researchers. A validity test was carried out using two methods for identifying and classifying HFI: 46 cadaver skullcaps were ranked twice via computerized tomography scans and then by direct observation. Reliability and validity were calculated using Kappa test (SPSS 15.0). Reliability tests of ranking HFI via CT scans demonstrated good results (K > 0.7). As for validity, a very good consensus was obtained between the CT and direct observation, when moderate and advanced types of HFI were present (K = 0.82). The suggested classification method for HFI, using CT, demonstrated a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 90.5%, and positive predictive value of 91.3%. In conclusion, volume rendering is a reliable and valid tool for identifying HFI. The suggested three-scale classification is most suitable for radiological diagnosis of the phenomena. Considering the increasing awareness of HFI as an early indicator of a developing malady, this study may assist radiologists in identifying and classifying the phenomena.

  13. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations.

  14. Carbon isotope records reveal synchronicity between carbon cycle perturbation and the "Carnian Pluvial Event" in the Tethys realm (Late Triassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Corso, Jacopo; Gianolla, Piero; Newton, Robert J.; Franceschi, Marco; Roghi, Guido; Caggiati, Marcello; Raucsik, Béla; Budai, Tamás; Haas, János; Preto, Nereo

    2015-04-01

    In the early Late Triassic a period of increased rainfall, named the Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE), is evidenced by major lithological changes in continental and marine successions worldwide. The environmental change seems to be closely associated with a negative carbon isotope excursion that was identified in a stratigraphic succession of the Dolomites (Italy) but the temporal relationship between these phenomena is still not well defined. Here we present organic-carbon isotope data from Carnian deep-water stratigraphic sections in Austria and Hungary, and carbonate petrography of samples from a marginal marine section in Italy. A negative 2-4‰ δ13C shift is recorded by bulk organic matter in the studied sections and is coincident with a similar feature highlighted in higher plant and marine algal biomarker carbon-isotope records from the Dolomites (Italy), thus testifying to a global change in the isotopic composition of the reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon. Our new observations verify that sedimentological changes related to the CPE coincide with the carbon cycle perturbation and therefore occurred synchronously within the western Tethys. Consistent with modern observations, our results show that the injection of 13C-depleted CO2 into the Carnian atmosphere-ocean system may have been directly responsible for the increase in rainfall by intensifying the Pangaean mega-monsoon activity. The consequent increased continental weathering and erosion led to the transfer of large amounts of siliciclastics into the basins that were rapidly filled up, while the increased nutrient flux triggered the local development of anoxia. The new carbonate petrography data show that these changes also coincided with the demise of platform microbial carbonate factories and their replacement with metazoan driven carbonate deposition. This had the effect of considerably decreasing carbonate deposition in shallow water environments.

  15. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate vulnerability and risks of pluvial floods under changing climate: the case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Coppola, Erika; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the intensity and frequency of extreme events (e.g. heat waves, drought, heavy precipitations events) leading to increasing natural disasters and damaging events (e.g. storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding) worldwide. Especially in urban areas, disasters risks can be exacerbated by changes in exposure and vulnerability patterns (i.e. urbanization, population growth) and should be addressed by adopting a multi-disciplinary approach. A Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrating climate and environmental sciences with bottom-up participative processes was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice in order to evaluate the potential consequences of climate change on pluvial flood risk in urban areas. Based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risks, the RRA methodology is a screening risk tool to identify and prioritize major elements at risk (e.g. residential, commercial areas and infrastructures) and to localize sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by flood risk due to heavy precipitation events, in the future scenario (2041-2050). From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach to select and score site-specific vulnerability factors (e.g. slope, permeability of the soil, past flooded areas) and to consider the requests and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region, by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. The main outputs of the assessment are risk and vulnerability maps and statistics aimed at increasing awareness about the potential effect of climate change on pluvial flood risks and at identifying hot-spot areas where future adaptation actions should be required to decrease physical-environmental vulnerabilities or building resilience and coping capacity of human society to climate change. The overall risk assessment methodology and the results

  16. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (I) Standards evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Pérez, R; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Jiménez Contreras, E

    1997-08-01

    The evaluation of scientific journal has become a necessary exercise for a variety of purposes and parties. We evaluated compliance with ISO standards for periodicals by the Spanish biomedical journal An. Med. Interna. Compliance with 136 data items based on different standards was evaluated with the help of a specially developed data sheet, and expressed as overall mean compliance (49.2%) and actual mean compliance (83.4%), i.e., compliance with those items considered necessary for the effective transfer of information via data bases. Items for which standardization was not optimal were examined in detail and specific recommendations for correction were given. We conclude that An. Med. Interna effectively fulfills its mission as an instrument for the communication of research results. In comparison with Spanish journals covering different areas and published by different organizations, compliance with international standards was better in An. Med. Interna.

  17. [Arteriovenous fistula of the A. vertebralis after catheterization of V. jugularis interna (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beeger, R; Grabbe, E; Vogel, H

    1982-09-01

    The article reports on an arteriovenous fistula between the a. vertebralis and the v. vertebralis with blood flowing off via the v. vertebralis, v. cervicalis profunda and v. brachiocephalica. The fistula occurred after application of a central venous catheter to the v. jugularis interna.

  18. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain.

  19. Primera aproximación a la estructura interna de Plutón

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G. A.; Carranza, G. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    En el presente trabajo se propuso estudiar la estructura interna actual del planeta Plutón. El modelo que se planteó es del tipo de estructura no-diferenciada. Se incluyó como fuente de calor interna la radioactividad y como único mecanismo de transporte de la energía a la conducción. Se encontró que el planeta estaría compuesto por una mezcla de roca (65% en masa) y hielo de agua (35%). Este simple modelo permite inferir que una estructura más realista para Plutón debería incluir también a la convección como mecanismo de transporte. Ello además permitiría avanzar de modo más firme en el estado de diferenciación del planeta, que casi seguramente sea más complejo que el adoptado.

  20. Sub-pluvial Saqqara and its possible impact on ancient Egyptian civilization in the Old Kingdom Period (4600 - 4100 yrs BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welc, Fabian; Marks, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    ). A role of these wet intervals is incontestable and they can represent a sub-pluvial episode with two peaks at about 4600 and 4200 yrs BP, presumably of regional significance for north-eastern Africa. The authors suggest to name this relatively wet period the Saqqara Sub-pluvial. Based on the present knowledge, the extremely dynamic terminal phase of the second peak of the Saqqara Sub-pluvial and the following sudden desertification noted in deposits at archaeological sites in Saqqara and in the adjoining area (Abusir, Giza) should be roughly correlated with global climatic perturbation of the 3rd Bond Event or 4.2 ka Rapid Climate Change. The climate change in that time resulted in a collapse of the Egyptian civilization but also in rapid depopulation of Palestine, disintegration of the Acadian Empire in Mesopotamia and the Harappa Civilization in northwest India. Mechanism of this climate change is investigated within the project funded by National Science Centre in Poland (decision no. DEC-2012/05/B/ST10/00558).

  1. Paleoseismology from Paleoshorelines: Combining Lidar Data and Geochronology to Resolve Displacement of Pleistocene Pluvial Shorelines along Normal Faults in the Northwestern Basin and Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.; Ibarra, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoshorelines of pluvial lakes in the Basin and Range are commonly used to determine lake highstands and to assess past climate in a now-arid region. However, because paleoshorelines record a paleohorizontal datum, these features can provide insight into tectonic processes at a variety of scales as well. Deviations of a paleoshorelines from a modern horizontal plane may be caused by isostatic rebound of the crust resulting from lake removal or by offset along faults since a given lake stillstand. While isostatic rebound has a significant effect over large lake basins such as Bonneville and Lahontan, the effect is negligible in smaller lakes that fill a single valley, often within terminal basins. As a result, variability in shoreline elevations can be attributed primarily to offset along normal faults. Pluvial lakes occupied valleys in the Basin and Range between >1 Ma to <12 ka, a time range for which fault slip rates have proven difficult to determine using traditional paleoseismic and geologic records. Trenches provide paleoseismic records across a single fault, but a single valley may contain several seismically active faults, and the time resolution is typically limited by the maximum age of radiocarbon dating and the earthquake recurrence interval. Geologic records typically provide average slip rates over time rather than timing of individual seismic events. In the northwestern Basin and Range, where the strain rate is low and earthquake recurrence intervals are long, it is particularly critical to extend the traditional paleoseismic record as far back as possible. By precisely dating paleoshorelines and using high-resolution topographic data to correlate them across active faults, it is possible to greatly enhance the record of slip rate along normal fault systems. Newly acquired airborne lidar data in Surprise Valley, a small terminal basin in northeastern California, reveals a mappable series of shorelines that occur throughout the valley on both sides

  2. Late Pleistocene ages for the most recent volcanism and glacial-pluvial deposits at Big Pine volcanic field, California, USA, from cosmogenic 36Cl dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Woolford, Jeff M

    2015-01-01

    The Big Pine volcanic field is one of several Quaternary volcanic fields that poses a potential volcanic hazard along the tectonically active Owens Valley of east-central California, and whose lavas are interbedded with deposits from Pleistocene glaciations in the Sierra Nevada Range. Previous geochronology indicates an ∼1.2 Ma history of volcanism, but the eruption ages and distribution of volcanic products associated with the most-recent eruptions have been poorly resolved. To delimit the timing and products of the youngest volcanism, we combine field mapping and cosmogenic 36Cl dating of basaltic lava flows in the area where lavas with youthful morphology and well-preserved flow structures are concentrated. Field mapping and petrology reveal approximately 15 vents and 6 principal flow units with variable geochemical composition and mineralogy. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages for lava flow units from the top, middle, and bottom of the volcanic stratigraphy indicate eruptions at ∼17, 27, and 40 ka, revealing several different and previously unrecognized episodes of late Pleistocene volcanism. Olivine to plagioclase-pyroxene phyric basalt erupted from several vents during the most recent episode of volcanism at ∼17 ka, and produced a lava flow field covering ∼35 km2. The late Pleistocene 36Cl exposure ages indicate that moraine and pluvial shoreline deposits that overlie or modify the youngest Big Pine lavas reflect Tioga stage glaciation in the Sierra Nevada and the shore of paleo-Owens Lake during the last glacial cycle.

  3. Brief communication: unusual finding at Pueblo Bonito: multiple cases of hyperostosis frontalis interna.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, Dawn M; Wilczak, Cynthia A; Dudar, J Christopher

    2006-08-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a disease characterized by excess bone growth on the internal lamina of the frontal bone and, occasionally, other cranial bones. Although the disease is fairly common in modern populations, its etiology is poorly understood. Hyperostosis frontalis interna has been identified in antiquity, primarily in the Old World, but with a much lower frequency than in modern groups. The purpose of the present study is to report multiple cases of HFI at Pueblo Bonito (Chaco Canyon, New Mexico). Twelve out of 37 adults with observable frontal bones exhibited HFI, ranging from mild to severe, including 11 females and one male. This is the first published case report of HFI in archaeological remains from the New World having a frequency comparable with modern groups. Most archaeological cases of HFI are isolated, so comparative data for multiple cases at one site are rare. The results of this study emphasize the importance of looking for HFI in archaeological remains, although it is rarely observed. Possible genetic and environmental factors for the high frequency of HFI at Chaco Canyon are considered, but additional research is needed to discover the etiology and to better understand why HFI sometimes occurs at modern frequencies in ancient populations.

  4. Bilateral Granulomatous and Fibrinoheterophilic Otitis Interna due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Captive Little Bustard ( Tetrax tetrax ).

    PubMed

    Scala, Christopher; Langlois, Isabelle; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A captive juvenile little bustard ( Tetrax tetrax ) was presented for acute onset of right head tilt and right circling. The bird failed to respond to supportive care and systemic antibiotic therapy. A bilateral granulomatous and fibrinoheterophilic otitis interna due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was diagnosed postmortem by histopathologic examination and bacterial culture. In bustards, Pseudomonas species have been documented in the normal bacterial flora of the oropharynx and are frequently reported in upper respiratory tract infections. This is the first report of a peripheral vestibular syndrome due to P aeruginosa otitis interna in a bustard species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa should be included as a possible cause of otitis and peripheral vestibular syndrome in bustards.

  5. Impacts of Evolutionary History on Endangerment in a Changing Climate: Miocene upwelling, Holocene Pluvial Cycles and Endemics at the Mouth of the Colorado River.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    The environmental conditions communities experienced during their diversification and recent geologic history informs us as to which environmental changes are most likely to impact species in those communities. Three examples follow: 1) Recent compilation of molecular and paleontological data document that higher aspects of the trophic chain in the Pacific Northwest, including the salmon genus Onchoyrhynchus, alcid birds (Auks & Puffins) and crabs of the genus Cancer speciated dramatically in response to enhanced upwelling of the mid Miocene (Jacobs et al. 2004). Consistent with this evolutionary origin, population dynamics and endangerment of these taxa are associated with the changing productivity regime of the Pacific as well as more direct human impacts. 2) Pluvials in the Eurasian and African continent respond to the precession cycle, as a result wetland habitats were much more expansive in the early and middle Holocene. Late Holocene wetland habitat contraction combines with increasing anthropogenic manipulation of these cyclically limited hydrologic resources to yield a suite of endangered taxa across these continents as is statistically documented by analysis of Redbook data. 3) Our recent work documents the evolution of endemic fish and Molluscan taxa in association with the Colorado River Delta. These endemic taxa are then vulnerable to the to impacts on the Colorado Delta where anthropogenic use of water resources combine with the threat of climate provide combined threats to this ecosystem. The Environmental/Evolutionary history of lineages clearly has strong implications for how anthropogenic changes impacts and endangers those lineages. Jacobs D.K. et al. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2004. 32:601 52

  6. Intensified pluvial conditions during the twentieth century in the inland Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Burchardt, Iris; Hu, Xiaoli; Kang, Xingcheng

    2010-06-01

    Past streamflow variability is of special significance in the inland river basin, i.e., the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China, where water shortage is a serious environmental and social problem. However, the current knowledge of issues related to regional water resources management and long-term planning and management is limited by the lack of long-term hydro-meteorological records. Here we present a 1009-year annual streamflow (August-July) reconstruction for the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China based on a well-replicated Qilian juniper ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) ring-width chronology. This reconstruction accounts for 46.9% of the observed instrumental streamflow variance during the period 1958-2006. Considerable multidecadal to centennial flow variations below and above the long-term average are displayed in the millennium streamflow reconstruction. These periods 1012-1053, 1104-1212, 1259-1352, 1442-1499, 1593-1739 and 1789-1884 are noteworthy for the persistence of low-level river flow, and for the fact that these low streamflow events are not found in the observed instrumental hydrological record during the recent 50 years. The 20th century witnessed intensified pluvial conditions in the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China in the context of the last millennium. Comparison with other long-term hydrological reconstructions indicates that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in the twentieth century from different regions could be attributable to regional to large-scale temperature increase during this time. Furthermore, from a practical perspective, the streamflow reconstruction can serve as a robust database for the government to work out more scientific and more reasonable water allocation alternatives for the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China.

  7. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna in some osteoarcheological series from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, T; Fóthi, E; Bernert, Zs; Molnár, E; Lovász, G; Kovári, I; Köhler, K; Marcsik, A

    2009-01-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a generalised pathological condition with an unknown etiology and variable clinical association. It is characterized by excess bone growth and manifested on the inner table of the frontal bone, occasionally extending onto the temporals, parietals and the occipital. The etiology of HFI is uncertain: it may be an unknown genetic predisposition, a common environmental exposure, or special metabolic diseases. The purpose of the present study is to report cases of HFI in some osteoarcheological series from Hungary and to emphasize the importance of the investigation of HFI in ancient populations. Twenty out of 803 adults with observable frontal bones exhibited HFI, ranging from early to mid-type, including 15 females and 5 males. Some overgrowths with edges were blending into the endocranial surface, and some were prominently protruding from the surface. Advanced cases of HFI (type C) were observed after age 40-60 years.

  8. Ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna after dye-assisted membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Tobias; Steger, Claudia; Westermann, Martin; Nietzsche, Sandor; Koenigsdoerffer, Ekkehart; Strobel, Juergen; Dawczynski, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the membrana limitans interna (internal limiting membrane, ILM) and to evaluate alterations to the retinal cell layers after membrane peeling with vital dyes. Twenty-five patients (25 eyes) who underwent macular hole surgery were included, whereby 12 indocyanine green (ICG)- and 13 brilliant blue G (BBG)-stained ILM were analyzed using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. Retinal cell fragments on the ILM were identified in both groups using immunohistochemistry. Comparing ICG- and BBG-stained membranes, larger cellular fragments were observed at a higher frequency in the BBG group. Thereby, the findings indicate that ICG permits an enhanced separation of the ILM from the underlying retina with less mechanical destruction. A possible explanation might be seen in the known photosensitivity of ICG, which induces a stiffening and shrinkage of the ILM but also generates retinal toxic metabolites.

  9. Ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior in a dog: keratotomy and extraction of a Cuterebra sp. larva.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Michele L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Kern, Thomas J; Bowman, Dwight D; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    A 1-year-old female spayed mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of acute onset of lethargy and blepharospasm OD. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a segmented larva embedded in the inferonasal iris. Moderate anterior uveitis was present. After pharmacologic dilation, mild vitreal hemorrhage and chorioretinal migration tracks were identified. The dog was treated empirically for uveitis for 5 days, after which a keratotomy and larval foreign body extraction was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully from intraocular surgery and remained visual and comfortable. Parasite evaluation confirmed the larva to be a Cuterebra sp. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine ophthalmomyiasis interna anterior, and the first report of successful surgical removal from the anterior segment in a dog with preservation of vision.

  10. Net Primary Productivity and Edaphic Fertility in Two Pluvial Tropical Forests in the Chocó Biogeographical Region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Mosquera, Harley; Moreno, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is a key process of the carbon cycle and therefore for the mitigation of global climate change. It has been proposed that NPP is limited by the availability of soil nutrients in lowland tropical forests and that belowground NPP decreases as edaphic fertility increases. This hypothesis was evaluated in two localities (Opogodó and Pacurita) of the Chocó Biogeographical region, one of the rainiest of the world, where the aboveground (litter and wood) and belowground (fine and coarse roots) components of NPP were measured. Fertility parameters (pH, nutrients, and texture) were also determined and related to NPP. Total NPP was similar between locations (23.7 vs. 24.2 t ha-1 year-1 for Opogodó and Pacurita, respectively). However, components of NPP showed differences: in Pacurita, with steeper topography, NPP of wood and coarse roots were higher; therefore, differences of topography and drainage between localities probably affected the NPP of wood. On the other hand, soils of Opogodó, where NPP of fine roots was higher, showed higher contents of sand, N+, and organic matter (OM). With the increase of pH, OM, N+, K, Mg, and sand, the NPP of leaves and fine roots as well as the percentage of NPP belowground also increased, which suggests NPP limitation by multiple nutrients. The increase of NPP belowground with the availability of edaphic nutrients evidenced a redistribution of the aboveground and belowground components of NPP with the increase of soil fertility in oligotrophic systems, probably as a mechanism to improve the capture of resources.

  11. Net Primary Productivity and Edaphic Fertility in Two Pluvial Tropical Forests in the Chocó Biogeographical Region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Quinto-Mosquera, Harley

    2017-01-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is a key process of the carbon cycle and therefore for the mitigation of global climate change. It has been proposed that NPP is limited by the availability of soil nutrients in lowland tropical forests and that belowground NPP decreases as edaphic fertility increases. This hypothesis was evaluated in two localities (Opogodó and Pacurita) of the Chocó Biogeographical region, one of the rainiest of the world, where the aboveground (litter and wood) and belowground (fine and coarse roots) components of NPP were measured. Fertility parameters (pH, nutrients, and texture) were also determined and related to NPP. Total NPP was similar between locations (23.7 vs. 24.2 t ha-1 year-1 for Opogodó and Pacurita, respectively). However, components of NPP showed differences: in Pacurita, with steeper topography, NPP of wood and coarse roots were higher; therefore, differences of topography and drainage between localities probably affected the NPP of wood. On the other hand, soils of Opogodó, where NPP of fine roots was higher, showed higher contents of sand, N+, and organic matter (OM). With the increase of pH, OM, N+, K, Mg, and sand, the NPP of leaves and fine roots as well as the percentage of NPP belowground also increased, which suggests NPP limitation by multiple nutrients. The increase of NPP belowground with the availability of edaphic nutrients evidenced a redistribution of the aboveground and belowground components of NPP with the increase of soil fertility in oligotrophic systems, probably as a mechanism to improve the capture of resources. PMID:28114418

  12. 3D-Microarchitectural patterns of Hyperostosis frontalis interna: a micro-computed tomography study in aged women.

    PubMed

    Bracanovic, Djurdja; Djonic, Danijela; Nikolic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Petar; Rakocevic, Zoran; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

    2016-11-01

    Although seen frequently during dissections and autopsies, Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) - a morphological pattern of the frontal bone thickening - is often ignored and its nature and development are not yet understood sufficiently. Current macroscopic classification defines four grades/stages of HFI based on the morphological appearance and size of the affected area; however, it is unclear if these stages also depict the successive phases in the HFI development. Here we assessed 3D-microarchitecture of the frontal bone in women with various degrees of HFI expression and in an age- and sex-matched control group, hypothesizing that the bone microarchitecture bears imprints of the pathogenesis of HFI and may clarify the phases of its development. Frontal bone samples were collected during routine autopsies from 20 women with HFI (age: 69.9 ± 11.1 years) and 14 women without HFI (age: 74.1 ± 9.7 years). We classified the HFI samples into four groups, each group demonstrating different macroscopic type or stage of HFI. All samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography to evaluate 3D bone microarchitecture in the following regions of interest: total sample, outer table, diploe and inner table. Our results revealed that, compared to the control group, the women with HFI showed a significantly increased bone volume fraction in the region of diploe, along with significantly thicker and more plate-like shaped trabeculae and reduced trabecular separation and connectivity density. Moreover, the inner table of the frontal bone in women with HFI displayed significantly increased total porosity and mean pore diameter compared to controls. Microstructural reorganization of the frontal bone in women with HFI was also reflected in significantly higher porosity and lower bone volume fraction in the inner vs. outer table due to an increased number of pores larger than 100 μm. The individual comparisons between the control group and different macroscopic stages of

  13. The Cognitive Role of the Globus Pallidus interna; Insights from Disease States.

    PubMed

    Gillies, M J; Hyam, J A; Weiss, A R; Antoniades, C A; Bogacz, R; Fitzgerald, J J; Aziz, T Z; Whittington, M A; Green, Alexander L

    2017-02-28

    The motor symptoms of both Parkinson's disease and focal dystonia arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and are improved by pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi). However, Parkinson's disease is associated with a greater degree of basal ganglia-dependent learning impairment than dystonia. We attempt to understand this observation in terms of a comparison of the electrophysiology of the output of the basal ganglia between the two conditions. We use the natural experiment offered by Deep Brain Stimulation to compare GPi local field potential responses in subjects with Parkinson's disease compared to subjects with dystonia performing a forced-choice decision-making task with sensory feedback. In dystonic subjects, we found that auditory feedback was associated with the presence of high gamma oscillations nestled on a negative deflection, morphologically similar to sharp wave ripple complexes described in human rhinal cortex. These were not present in Parkinson's disease subjects. The temporal properties of the high gamma burst were modified by incorrect trial performance compared to correct trial performance. Both groups exhibited a robust low frequency response to 'incorrect' trial performance in dominant GPi but not non-dominant GPi at theta frequency. Our results suggest that cellular processes associated with striatum-dependent memory function may be selectively impaired in Parkinson's disease even if dopaminergic drugs are administered, but that error detection mechanisms are preserved.

  14. Globus Pallidus Interna in Tourette Syndrome: Decreased Local Activity and Disrupted Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Liao, Wei; Yu, Yang; Miao, Huan-Huan; Feng, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Kai; Feng, Jian-Hua; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is an effective deep brain stimulation site for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS), and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of TS. To investigate the functional network feature of GPi in TS patients, we retrospectively studied 24 boys with ‘pure’ TS and 32 age-/education-matched healthy boys by resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity were used to estimate the local activity in GPi and its functional coordinate with the whole brain regions, respectively. We found decreased ALFF in patients’ bilateral GPi, which was also negatively correlated with clinical symptoms. Functional connectivity analysis indicated abnormal regions within motor and motor-control networks in patients (inferior part of sensorimotor area, cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, and brain stem). Transcranial magnetic stimulation sites defined by previous studies (“hand knob” area, premotor area, and supplementary motor area) did not show significantly different functional connectivity with GPi between groups. In summary, this study characterized the disrupted functional network of GPi and provided potential regions-of-interest for further basic and clinical studies on TS. PMID:27799898

  15. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in postmenopausal women-Possible relation to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Djonic, Danijela; Bracanovic, Djurdja; Rakocevic, Zoran; Ivovic, Miomira; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

    2016-01-01

    To improve our understanding of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), we investigated whether HFI was accompanied by changes in the postcranial skeleton. Based on head CT scan analyses, 103 postmenopausal women were divided into controls without HFI and those with HFI, in whom we measured the thickness of frontal, occipital, and parietal bones. Women in the study underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to analyze the bone density of the hip and vertebral region and external geometry of the proximal femora. Additionally, all of the women completed a questionnaire about symptoms and conditions that could be related to HFI. Women with HFI had a significantly higher prevalence of headaches, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and a significantly lower prevalence of having given birth. Increased bone thickness and altered bone structure in women with HFI was localized only on the skull, particularly on the frontal bone, probably due to specific properties of its underlying dura. Bone loss in the postcranial skeleton showed the same pattern in postmenopausal women with HFI as in those without HFI. Recording of HFI in medical records can be helpful in distinguishing whether reported disorders occur as a consequence of HFI or are related to other diseases, but does not appear helpful in identifying women at risk of bone loss.

  16. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705-1782).

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-11-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705-1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion.

  17. A case of extensive hyperostosis frontalis interna in an 87-year-old female human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Talarico, Ernest F; Prather, Andrew D; Hardt, Kevin D

    2008-04-01

    Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) is a condition that involves thickening of the inner surface of the frontal bone with sparing of the midline. Little is known about the etiology and clinical presentation of HFI. We report unusual findings in a woman with extensive Type D hyperostosis of the frontal bone and a large hyperostotic nodule in the parietal bone with impingement on the precentral gyrus, distinguishing this from the common form of HFI. The scalp was dissected from the cranial vault, and the calvaria and brain were removed and digitally imaged. Bone specimens were embedded in methyl methacrylate plastic, sectioned, and stained using the Von Kossa Method with MacNeal's tetrachrome. Medical records were reviewed, and additional history was obtained through interviews with the donor's family. The calvaria had extensive, bilateral thickening of the frontal bone with irregular topography and clearly demarcated borders. The dura was adherent to all hyperostotic regions. A 3.5-cm nodule was visible on the inner table of the left parietal bone. The dura and cerebrum showed compression in this region, but it was unclear if this resulted in clinical ramifications. Microscopic analysis revealed a larger proportion of cancellous bone was present in regions of macroscopic hyperostosis. Quantitative analysis of sections through areas of gross hyperostosis demonstrated a lower proportion of lamellar bone than in the control. The patient exhibited symptoms that have been correlated to HFI in previous studies. We suggest that the HFI disease process was responsible for the manifestation of these symptoms in this patient.

  18. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705–1782)

    PubMed Central

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705–1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. PMID:21740437

  19. The pars interna/media anatomy and histology in the human larynx.

    PubMed

    Charpied, George L

    2007-01-01

    The pars interna/media (PIM) is a small muscle found in the human larynx that has not been successfully described in contemporary literature on laryngeal structure. The objective of this study was to describe the PIM's anatomy in detail. Thirteen human larynges obtained from postmortem examination were cleaned and preserved. Exposure of the PIM was through a lateral disarticulation of the cricothyroid joint and reflection of the cricothyroid muscle and the thyroid lamina. In the human, the PIM was found to be strap-like in form and to have two bellies with attachments to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage at the root of the inferior horn and anteriosuperior cricoid arch. It appears to be innervated by a middle division, vestibular branch, of the internal superior laryngeal nerve. The average fiber diameter is 40 mum. Its type 1-to-type 2 fiber ratio places it within the range of other intrinsic laryngeal muscles. A muscle spindle was identified in medial bundle at the PIM's thyroid attachment. Thyroid medial surface attachment is within few millimeters of the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. These data show that the PIM is a robust muscle and deserves attention anatomically. Its orientation within the thyroid and nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve innervations of the human PIM may place it in the vocal fold tensor group rather than the laryngeal sphincter group. It is possible the PIM reports on cricothyroid distance and right versus left cricothyroid joint stresses. Electromyographic examination of the PIM in the Rhesus larynx may help elucidate its physiology to elaborate its human physiology.

  20. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Glister, Claire; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Knight, Philip G.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the ‘follicular’ phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3–6 mm) and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data. PMID:28282394

  1. Hyperostosis frontalis interna - a marker of social status? Evidence from the Bronze-Age "high society" of Qatna, Syria.

    PubMed

    Flohr, S; Witzel, C

    2011-02-01

    In 1719 Morgagni described a condition, today known as hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), as one sign within a triad consisting of HFI, virilism, and obesity. Today, HFI is predominantly found in older women. Although the etiology of HFI has not yet been determined precisely, the condition has been linked to metabolic disorders. HFI is reported to be rare in the archaeological record and the frequency of the condition is thought to have increased during the 19th and 20th centuries. We present preliminary results on the occurrence of HFI in the commingled human bone assemblage from "tomb VII" discovered underneath the Bronze Age royal palace of the ancient city of Qatna, Syria. A preliminary minimal number of individuals of 70 has been estimated for the as yet not fully analyzed skeletal remains. Skull fragments of nine individuals exhibit endocranial bone formations consistent with HFI. Rarity of stress indicators in the skeletons, the rich grave goods, and the burial place within the area of the Royal palace are suggestive of a high social status and an economically favorable situation of the buried individuals. Assuming that their life style included a high calorie diet in combination with little physical activity, acquired metabolic disorders may have been present in many individuals. The comparatively high number of individuals presenting HFI in the studied sample might therefore be viewed as being related to their high social status. Multiple occurrences of HFI in archaeological skeletal assemblages might serve as a proxy for social status.

  2. Rate of occurrence, gross appearance, and age relation of hyperostosis frontalis interna in females: a prospective autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Djonić, Danijela; Zivković, Vladimir; Babić, Dragan; Juković, Fehim; Djurić, Marija

    2010-09-01

    The aim of our study was to determine rate of occurrence and appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) in females and correlation of this phenomenon with ageing. The sample included 248 deceased females: 45 of them with different types of HFI, and 203 without HFI, average age 68.3 +/- 15.4 years (range, 19-93), and 58.2 +/- 20.2 years (range, 10-101), respectively. According to our results, the rate of HFI was 18.14%. The older the woman was, the higher the possibility of HFI occurring (Pearson correlation 0.211, N=248, P=0.001), but the type of HFI did not correlate with age (Pearson correlation 0.229, N=45, P=0.131). Frontal and temporal bone were significantly thicker in women with than in women without HFI (t= -10.490, DF=246, P=0.000, and t= -5.658, DF=246, P=0.000, respectively). These bones became thicker with ageing (Pearson correlation 0.178, N=248, P=0.005, and 0.303, N=248, P=0.000, respectively). The best predictors of HFI occurrence were respectively, frontal bone thickness, temporal bone thickness, and age(Wald. coeff.=35.487, P=0.000; Wald. coeff.=3.288, P=0.070, and Wald.coeff. =2.727, P =0.099). Diagnosis of HFI depends not only on frontal bone thickness, but also on waviness of internal plate of the frontal bone, as well as-the involvement of the inner bone surface.

  3. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  5. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  6. Total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Siopack, J S; Jergesen, H E

    1995-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty, or surgical replacement of the hip joint with an artificial prosthesis, is a reconstructive procedure that has improved the management of those diseases of the hip joint that have responded poorly to conventional medical therapy. In this review we briefly summarize the evolution of total hip arthroplasty, the design and development of prosthetic hip components, and the current clinical indications for this procedure. The possible complications of total hip arthroplasty, its clinical performance over time, and future directions in hip replacement surgery are also discussed. Images PMID:7725707

  7. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  8. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  9. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  10. Total Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Total Health Organization is a holistic care an humanitarian relief agency with special emphasis on Africa and Third World countries. It was founded in 1987 with a focus on hunger relief, health assistance, handicap, habitat and human rights of destitutes, socially disadvantaged persons and communities which it has adopted as the socially forgotten people (SFP). Total Health Organization is a non-political, non-profit, and international non-governmental organization, having official relations with several national, regional and world bodies. Some of the project activities include: free mobile clinics to rural destitutes, AIDS and related health education, an information and research library, and an NGO Development Center. For more information, please contact: Dr. Obi Osisiogu, Founder and President, Total Health International Center, 147 Ikot-Ekpene Road, P.O. Box 1726, Aba, Abia State Nigeria, Tel: 082-222279, Telex: 63311 ANYA NG, Fax: 234-82-227512.

  11. Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total ecosystem metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in ecosystem ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an ecosystem and w...

  12. Total Synthesis of Kopsinine

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Wolfe, Amanda L.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of a powerful intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of an 1,3,4-oxadiazole in the divergent total synthesis of kopsinine (1), featuring an additional unique SmI2-promoted transannular cyclization reaction for formation of the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane central to its hexacyclic ring system, is detailed. PMID:23391149

  13. "Total Deposition (TDEP) Maps"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an update on the use of a hybrid methodology that relies on measured values from national monitoring networks and modeled values from CMAQ to produce of maps of total deposition for use in critical loads and other ecological assessments. Additionally, c...

  14. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  15. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  16. Total portal robotic pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose R

    2013-09-01

    Robotic pulmonary lobectomies have been reported to be technically and oncologically achievable; however, only three robotic pneumonectomy cases have been described. Two of them used a mini thoracotomy. We describe one case of a total portal robotic pneumonectomy without utility incision. We describe the step-by-step process.

  17. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  18. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  19. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  20. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6π electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200 mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  1. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  2. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  3. Total Synthesis of (-)-Conolutinine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyang; Jiang, Guangde; Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Wan, Xiaolong; Gao, Jin-Ming; Lai, Yisheng; Xie, Weiqing

    2015-09-18

    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.

  4. Physician Update: Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    As an integrated prepaid health care system, Kaiser Permanente (KP) is in a unique position to demonstrate that affordability in health care can be achieved by disease prevention. During the past decade, KP has significantly improved the quality care outcomes of its members with preventable diseases. However, because of an increase in the incidence of preventable disease, and the potential long-term and short-term costs associated with the treatment of preventable disease, KP has developed a new strategy called Total Health to meet the current and future needs of its patients. Total Health means healthy people in healthy communities. KP’s strategic vision is to be a leader in Total Health by making lives better. KP hopes to make lives better by 1) measuring vital signs of health, 2) promoting healthy behaviors, 3) monitoring disease incidence, 4) spreading leading practices, and 5) creating healthy environments with our community partners. Best practices, spread to the communities we serve, will make health care more affordable, prevent preventable diseases, and save lives. PMID:24694316

  5. Effect of frozen storage duration and cooking on physical and oxidative changes in M. Gastrocnemius pars interna and M. Iliofiburalis of Rhea americana.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, R S; Gatellier, P; Zambiazi, R C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of frozen storage time (30, 60, 90 or 180 days) and cooking (100 °C, 30 min) on the physical characteristics and oxidative stability of M. Gastrocnemius pars interna (GN) and M. Iliofiburalis (IF) of rhea americana. Physical parameters measured included thawing and cooking loss, colour parameters (L*a*b*), while oxidation was assessed by determining the TBA-RS, carbonyl and aromatic amino acid content. Prolonged frozen storage of rhea meat decreased lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), and increased the discoloration parameter hue angle and redness a*. During storage, muscle IF was more prone to lipid and myoglobin oxidation than muscle GN. Cooking loss declined with the increase of storage time and was higher in GN than in IF muscle. With cooking, TBA-RS, carbonyl content, and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were highly affected, but the extent of oxidation ranged according to muscle and duration of frozen storage.

  6. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration.

  7. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  8. Total photoabsorption in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, N.

    1992-06-01

    The Frascati-Genova collaboration proposes to measure the total photonuclear cross section on a wide range of nuclei between 500 MeV and 2 GeV, to obtain informations on the interaction of baryon resonances with nucleons and on the onset of the shadowing effect. The experiment could be performed in the Hall B as soon as the tagging facility will be ready and before the end of the installation of the CLAS spectrometer. The requirements for the photon beam, like maximum energy, intensity and beam definition, are not so strong so that the experiment would also be a good first test of the tagged photon facility.

  9. Amplified total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dogariu, A; Wang, L J

    2003-02-24

    Totally internal reflected beams can be amplified if the lowerindex medium has gain. We analyze the reflection and refraction of light, and analytically derive the expression for the Goos-Hänchen shifts of a Gaussian beam incident on a lower-index medium, both active and absorptive. We examine the energy flow and the Goos-Hänchen shifts for various cases. The analytical results are consistent with the numerical results. For the TE mode, the Goos-Hänchen shift for the transmitted beam is exactly half of that of the reflected beam, resulting in a "1/2" rule.

  10. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  11. Total ankle joint replacement.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  12. Calcium: total or ionized?

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A; Chew, Dennis J

    2008-05-01

    Measurement of serum total calcium (tCa) has been relied on for assessment of calcium status, despite the fact that it is the ionized calcium (iCa) fraction that has biologic activity. Serum tCa does not accurately predict iCa status in many clinical conditions. For accurate assessment of iCa status, iCa should be directly measured. Anaerobic measurement of serum iCa under controlled conditions provides the most reliable assessment of calcium status; aerobic measurement of iCa with species-specific pH correction is highly correlated with anaerobic measurements.

  13. Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank

    2010-12-15

    Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.

  14. Laparoscopic Total Mesorectum Excision

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, F.A.; Cordeiro, F.; Reis, J.A.; Kagohara, O.; Simões Neto, J.

    2002-01-01

    The main controversy of colon-rectal laparoscopic surgery comes from its use as a cancer treatment. Two points deserve special attention: the incidence of portsite tumor implantation and the possibility of performing radical cancer surgery, such as total mesorectum excision. Once these points are addressed, the laparoscopic approach will be used routinely to treat rectal cancer. To clarify these points, 32 patients with cancer of the lower rectum participated in a special protocol that included preoperative radiotherapy and laparoscopic total mesorectum excision. All data were recorded. At the same time, all data recorded from the experience of a multicenter laparoscopic group (Brazilian Colorectal Laparoscopic Surgeons – 130 patients with tumor of the lower rectum) were analyzed and compared with the data provided by our patients. Analysis of the results suggests that a laparoscopic approach allows the same effective resection as that of conventional surgery and that preoperative irradiation does not influence the incidence of intraoperative complications. The extent of lymph nodal excision is similar to that obtained with open surgery, with an average of 12.3 lymph nodes dissected per specimen. The rate of local recurrence was 3.12%. No port site implantation of tumor was noted in this series of patients with cancer of the lower rectum. PMID:12113422

  15. TOTAL user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  16. Total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Borunda, Delia; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    In recent months, numerous reports concerning total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients have been published, including the guidelines and recommendations of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. The old controversy regarding the use of the enteral versus parenteral route still exists. Although the enteral route is indicated in those patients with normal gastrointestinal function, the parenteral route is obviously beneficial in several clinical conditions and appears to be associated with few procedure-related complications when performed by experienced clinicians. There is also continued interest in the supplementation of parenteral formulas with nutrients that were previously considered nonessential, such as arginine, glutamine, and omega-3 fatty acids, but that may become essential in the setting of critical illness.

  17. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  18. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  19. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  20. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  1. Total Energy CMR Production

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Kolagani, R M

    2008-08-11

    The following outlines the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure used to prepare Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (NSMO) temperature sensors at Towson University (Prof. Rajeswari Kolagani) for the LCLS XTOD Total Energy Monitor. The samples have a sharp metal/insulator transition at T {approx} 200 K and are optimized for operation at T {approx} 180 K, where their sensitivity is the highest. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where these abbreviations are defined in table 1. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} surface layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the attached manuscript accepted for publication in Sensor Letters (G. Yong et al., 2008).

  2. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine.

  3. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  4. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  5. Total Solar Eclipse 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nahide; Hawkins, Isabel

    Evaluation and assessments of informal education programs small or large such as science museum traveling exhibits interpretive kiosks hands-on activities and very large public programs have been challenging due to the diverse nature of objectives setups and expected outcomes of these programs. Almost all institutions that develop and present such programs include in their staff evaluation specialists. However for very large public outreach efforts which include participation of multi institutions located across the country larger evaluation groups/institutions can contribute more objective and extensive evaluation and assessment instruments that will help to identify weather the program was successful and if the learning objectives were achieved. Total Solar Eclipse 2001 event was participated by approximately 42000 people at museums science centers and Planetaria all over the world. I will share with you the results of an evaluation of this event that was surveyed and reported by an independent evaluation company. I will expand further on the properties of this program that helps to determine weather the program was successful or not including the discussion on how personal interest in the content publicity connectivity to a group educational as well as entertainment value and the challenges of using high technology can define success.

  6. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Slaughter, M

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, cardiac surgeons and biomedical engineers pioneered the development of total artificial hearts (TAH) for the treatment of left and right heart failure. As we mark the 10th anniversary of the first implantation of the AbioCor device, the use of TAH has been limited, having failed to reach its envisioned potential and promise as an alternative therapy to heart transplantation. The Syncardia/CardioWest device, originally developed 30 years ago as the Jarvik TAH and later renamed the CardioWest TAH, continues to be used clinically in over 50 centers within the US and Europe having supported over 900 patients worldwide. Syncardia continues to develop TAH technology as evidenced by their recent introduction of a new portable pneumatic driver that enables patients to be discharged from the hospital. In contrast to TAH devices, continuous flow ventricular assist devices (VAD) have made tremendous technological strides and are rapidly gaining widespread clinical acceptance. The VAD technology has demonstrated extraordinary safety and reliability records through evolving technologies, advanced biocompatible materials, and improved patient management. Subsequently, the number of TAH implantations remains low compared to the growth in LVAD implants. Nonetheless, the Syncardia/CardioWest TAH remains an important and viable option for patients with severe biventricular failure and end organ dysfunction. Overall, a 79% survival rate has been achieved in patients supported with a Syncardia/CardioWest TAH as bridge-to-transplantation. In this review article, a brief history on the evolution of TAH devices, their current use and emerging use of evolving continuous flow VAD technology as chronic biventricular and TAH device systems are presented.

  7. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  8. Local resistance patterns to antimicrobials in internal medicine: a focused report from the REGIMEN (REGistro Infezioni in MEdicina INterna) study.

    PubMed

    Cei, Marco; Pardelli, Riccardo; Sani, Spartaco; Mumoli, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    The treatment for infections in hospitalized patients can be summarized in the timely start of empirical therapy, followed by adjustment on the basis of isolates and microbial susceptibilities. Initial therapy may be based on international guidelines. However, to know local frequencies of bacterial and fungal strains together with patterns of drug resistance should be a better approach to therapy. REGIMEN is a retrospective observational study of all consecutive recorded bacterial and fungal isolates, collected between October 2009 and August 2011 from patients admitted in a 53-bedded ward of internal medicine of a non-teaching Italian hospital. We investigated type of samples and of microorganisms, patterns of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 504 samples were examined (244 from urine, 189 from blood and 71 from skin and various exudates). Participants were old (mean age, 83 years), and so overall mortality was high (20 %). There were high frequencies of drug resistance; only 27.9 % of urinary gram-negatives and 52.6 % of blood gram-negatives were susceptible to levofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles compatible with the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 64.2 % of gram-negative strains, and 10.1 % were also resistant to carbapenems. ESKAPE organisms account for a third of all bacterial infections. Local patterns of drug resistance should influence empirical antibiotic therapy for patients admitted in internal medicine wards, where mortality is high.

  9. Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Ileostomy Intestinal obstruction Total abdominal colectomy Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal ... Diseases Colorectal Cancer Crohn's Disease Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Intestinal Obstruction Ulcerative Colitis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  10. Connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus pars interna to regions within the speech network: a meta-analytic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Manes, Jordan L; Parkinson, Amy L; Larson, Charles R; Greenlee, Jeremy D; Eickhoff, Simon B; Corcos, Daniel M; Robin, Donald A

    2014-07-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia connections are involved in a range of behaviors within motor, cognitive, and emotional domains; however, the whole-brain functional connections of individual nuclei are poorly understood in humans. The first aim of this study was to characterize and compare the connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) using meta-analytic connectivity modeling. Structure-based activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses were performed for STN and GPi seeds using archived functional imaging coordinates from the BrainMap database. Both regions coactivated with caudate, putamen, thalamus, STN, GPi, and GPe, SMA, IFG, and insula. Contrast analyses also revealed coactivation differences within SMA, IFG, insula, and premotor cortex. The second aim of this study was to examine the degree of overlap between the connectivity maps derived for STN and GPi and a functional activation map representing the speech network. To do this, we examined the intersection of coactivation maps and their respective contrasts (STN > GPi and GPi > STN) with a coordinate-based meta-analysis of speech function. In conjunction with the speech map, both STN and GPi coactivation maps revealed overlap in the anterior insula with GPi map additionally showing overlap in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Among cortical regions activated by speech tasks, STN was found to have stronger connectivity than GPi with regions involved in cognitive linguistic processes (pre-SMA, dorsal anterior insula, and inferior frontal gyrus), while GPi demonstrated stronger connectivity to regions involved in motor speech processes (middle insula, SMA, and premotor cortex).

  11. Total Quality and Organization Development. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William M.; Petrick, Joseph A.

    As the global business environment becomes more turbulent, quality management seems more indispensable. This book offers strategies for integrating the theory and practice of Total Quality Management (TQM) with organizational-development (OD) theory at all organizational levels. Chapter 1 answers the question "Why Total Quality Management and…

  12. Total Quality Management (TQM) Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    GTE FIE COPY DTIC c" ECTE 8JUL 25 1990u TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) BIBLIOGRAPHY APRIL-1990 Jointly supported by __’__________-_________ Jointly...Arsenal, AL 35898-5241 1I. TITLE (Include Security Classification) TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) BIBL IRAPHY APRIL-1990 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Knott...implementation of the concept of total quality management (TQM). The selected coverage includes books, periodical articles, conference papers and reports. Coded

  13. Scheme for total quantum teleportation

    PubMed

    DelRe; Crosignani; Di Porto P

    2000-03-27

    We address the issue of totally teleporting the quantum state of an external particle, as opposed to studies on partial teleportation of external single-particle states, total teleportation of coherent states and encoded single-particle states, and intramolecular teleportation of nuclear spin states. We find a set of commuting observables whose measurement directly projects onto the Bell basis and discuss a possible experiment, based on two-photon absorption, allowing, for the first time, total teleportation of the state of a single external photon through a direct projective measurement.

  14. Amniotic Fluid Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Soluble Receptor Tunica Interna Endothelial Cell Kinase-2 Levels and Regulation in Normal Pregnancy and Intraamniotic Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Thung, Stephen; Razeq, Sonya S. Abdel-; Rosenberg, Victor; Han, Christina S.; Ali, Unzila A.; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F.; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2 act selectively on endothelial cells by engaging the Tunica interna endothelial cell kinase-2 (Tie2) receptor. A soluble form of Tie2 (sTie2) blocks angiopoietin bioactivity. Objective: The aim of the study was to characterize changes and expression patterns of Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 in amniotic fluid (AF) and placenta during human pregnancy and intraamniotic inflammation (IAI)-induced preterm birth. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary university hospital. Patients: AF levels of Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 were evaluated in 176 women during second trimester (n = 40), third trimester (n = 37), and preterm labor (positive IAI, n = 50; negative IAI, n = 49). Placenta and cord blood of select women were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Ang-1, Ang-2, sTie2, and IL-6 were evaluated by ELISA. Real-time PCR measured Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie2 placental mRNA levels. Placenta was immunostained for Ang-1 and Ang-2. Placental explant cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, Pam3Cys, and modulators of protein synthesis/secretion (cycloheximide, monensin, and brefeldin A). Results: In normal pregnancy, the levels and ratios of AF Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 varied with gestational age (GA) (P < 0.001). PCR revealed corresponding changes in placental Ang-1 and Ang-2, but not Tie2, mRNA. IAI raised AF Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 above the expected level for GA without affecting their placental mRNA. Ang-2 immunoreactivity appeared enhanced in areas of villous edema. AF Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio was an important determinant of cord blood IL-6 (P < 0.001). Ex-vivo, sTie2 release was increased by Golgi disrupting but not bacterial mimic agents. Conclusions: Ang-1, Ang-2, and sTie2 are physiological constituents of AF that are GA and IAI regulated. Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio may play a role in modulating the fetal inflammatory response to IAI. Placental sTie2 shedding likely involves a Golgi-mediated mechanism. PMID:20410222

  15. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  16. March 8 Solar Eclipse Totality

    NASA Video Gallery

    The moon passes in front of the sun, creating a total solar eclipse visible in parts of Southeast Asia. This video. taken from a live broadcast from the Exploratorium Science Center, shows the peri...

  17. Total eclipses of the sun.

    PubMed

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  18. The total synthesis of psymberin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xianhai; Shao, Ning; Palani, Anandan; Aslanian, Robert; Buevich, Alexei

    2007-06-21

    The total synthesis of a new member of the pederin family of natural products, psymberin 1, was accomplished. Using a recently reported novel and efficient PhI(OAc)2 mediated oxidative entry to 2-(N-acylaminal)-substituted tetrahydropyrans as the key step, this total synthesis was executed in a convergent and efficient manner. The longest linear sequence of this synthesis was 22 steps starting from known 6.

  19. Extensions to total variation denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomgren, Peter; Chan, Tony F.; Mulet, Pep

    1997-10-01

    The total variation denoising method, proposed by Rudin, Osher and Fatermi, 92, is a PDE-based algorithm for edge-preserving noise removal. The images resulting from its application are usually piecewise constant, possibly with a staircase effect at smooth transitions and may contain significantly less fine details than the original non-degraded image. In this paper we present some extensions to this technique that aim to improve the above drawbacks, through redefining the total variation functional or the noise constraints.

  20. Total hip and total knee replacement: preoperative nursing management.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Brian

    Total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) surgery are carried out for the relief of hip or knee pain, usually caused by osteoarthritis. This is the first of two articles on THR and TKR. It will outline the different types of replacement used in lower limb joint replacement surgery. Preparation of patients for surgery requires attention to physical, psychological and social factors and these are explored in detail. The organization of services along the patient pathway to ensure comprehensive preparation is considered and the nursing role highlighted. The second article, to be published in the next issue, will discuss recovery and rehabilitation from THR and TKR surgery.

  1. Total Quality in Higher Education. Total Quality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ralph G.; Smith, Douglas H.

    This volume offers a detailed argument for and description of Total Quality Management (TQM) for institutions of higher education. Chapter 1 elaborates on why TQM is good for higher education and includes some warning as to why implementation at colleges and universities may not be easy. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the history of the TQM…

  2. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  3. Totally Ossified Metaplastic Spinal Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kazutoshi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with a very rare case of totally ossified large thoracic spinal metaplastic meningioma, showing progressing myelopathy is presented. Computed tomographic images showed a large totally ossfied intradural round mass occupying the spinal canal on T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T9-10 intradural extramedullary mass that was hypointense to spinal cord on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, partial enhancement was apparent after Gadolinium administration. The spinal cord was severely compressed and displaced toward the right at the level of T9-10. Surgical removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished via the posterior midline approach and the histological diagnosis verified an ossified metaplastic meningioma. The clinical neurological symptoms of patient were improved postoperatively. In this article we discuss the surgical and pathological aspects of rare case of spinal totally ossified metaplastic meningioma. PMID:24278660

  4. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Proffen, Thomas E; Kim, Hyunjeong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  5. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  6. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of (+)-vincristine

    PubMed Central

    Kuboyama, Takeshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    An efficient total synthesis of (+)-vincristine has been accomplished through a stereoselective coupling of demethylvindoline and the eleven-membered carbomethoxyverbanamine presursor. Demethylvindoline was prepared by oxidation of 17-hydroxy-11-methoxytabersonine, followed by regioselective acetylation with mixed anhydride method. Although an initial attempt of coupling by using demethylvindoline formamide was not successful and resulted in recovery of the starting compounds, the reaction using demethylvindoline took place smoothly to furnish the desired bisindole product with the correct stereochemistry at C18′. After formation of the piperidine ring by sequential removal of the protective groups and intramolecular nucleophilic cyclization, the total synthesis of vincristine was completed by formylation of N1. PMID:15141084

  7. A totally implantable electrical heart.

    PubMed

    Jufer, M

    1985-01-01

    A totally implantable artificial heart, electrically actuated by magnetical energy transmission was developed in Switzerland. The pusher-plates and roller-screw model was used for the pump. The main advantages of such a mechanical heart are discussed, in particular, the motor that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy, and allows accurate control of the output and pressures of the artificial ventricles. The system includes the heart, the electronic control of the power supply, the microprocessor for the control of the mechanical heart's performance, a buffer battery, a rectifier and the secondary of the energy transmission. All these elements are implanted. Outside of the body are the main battery, the chopper and the primary of the energy transmission. At present, a left ventricle device for external assistance and a totally artificial heart have both been developed and implanted in calves. An optimized totally artificial heart is in construction, its size being compatible for human implantation; its volume is 500 mL and its total weight is 450 g.

  8. [Hypoparathyroid risk after total thyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Milone, Antonino; Carditello, Antonio; Stilo, Francesco; Paparo, Domenica; Paparo, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    From January 1970 to December 1999, 881 patients with thyroid pathology underwent surgery consisting in 551 subtotal thyroidectomies and 330 total thyroidectomies. Permanent hypocalcaemia was present in 32 patients (3.6%). The importance of accurate isolation and ultraligature of the branches of the inferior thyroid artery in the prevention of parathyroid damage is stressed.

  9. Energy Planning: A Total Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen S. J.

    1975-01-01

    Harvard's energy conservation plan is presented in detail with the hope that it will suggest practical, cost-effective energy-saving ideas to other institutions, and to dispel frequently-expressed fears concerning the feasibility and acceptance problems of this type of program. The total energy plan incorporates numerous specific elements that…

  10. Total Synthesis of Propolisbenzofuran B†

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian T.; Avetta, Christopher T.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2014-01-01

    The first total synthesis of propolisbenzofuran B, a bioactive natural product isolated from honeybee propolis resin, is reported. The convergent synthesis makes use of a silicon-tether controlled oxidative ketone–ketone cross-coupling and a novel benzofuran-generating cascade reaction to deliver the core structure of the natural product from readily prepared precursors. PMID:24976944

  11. Total Quality Management for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Malcolm S.; Gaunt, Helen J.

    Education in the United Kingdom has been shaped by the advent of local school management and the rapid growth of grant-maintained schools. Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a new way of looking at management principles and structures by identifying the needs of both internal and external customers. This book applies principles of TQM…

  12. Total body potassium measurement method

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, F.K.

    1985-09-01

    The body counter facility at Mound was used to measure the total body potassium (TBK) in hypertensive patients. Radioactive /sup 40/K accounts for 0.0118% of natural potassium and can be readily measured in vivo. The normal adult human generally has 80 to 185 g of TBK depending on sex, age, height, etc. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  14. The first Polish total laryngectomies

    PubMed Central

    Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The total removal of the larynx (total laryngectomy), performed in 1872 by the well-known Viennese surgeon Christian A. Theodor Billroth (1829–1894), was an epoch-making event in the history of surgery and laryngology. This paper presents the first surgeons who performed this operation. The first Pole who performed a total laryngectomy (1877) was Julian Kosiński (1833–1914), head of the Surgical Clinic of Imperial University Warsaw. It was the 14th operation of this kind in the world. Several laryngectomies were carried out by Franciszek Ksawery Jawdyński (1851–1896), called the father of Polish head and neck surgery, who was the first Pole to excise a malignant neck cancer together with the lymph nodes. The next total laryngectomies were performed by the following Polish surgeons: Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850–1905), Władysław H.S. Krajewski (1855–1907), Alfred Obaliński (1843–1898). According to Jan Sędziak, by 1897 Poland with 16 laryngectomies (per 188 carried out) had occupied the fourth position in the world. The failures of the first laryngectomies were due to such factors as the ignorance of shock pathophysiology, the inability to ensure the patency of the airways during and after the operation, which would result in lung and mediastinum infections, massive haemorrhages and so on. But the primary cause was the lack of constructive collaboration between the laryngologists and the surgeons. PMID:24592132

  15. Muscle pH and temperature changes in hot- and cold-deboned ostrich (Struthio camelus var. domesticus) Muscularis gastrocnemius, pars interna and Muscularis iliofibularis during the first 23h post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L C; Botha, Suné St C; Britz, T J

    2007-02-01

    Cold-shortening is the response when muscles are exposed to temperatures below 10°C with a pH>6.20. The course of pH within hot-deboned and intact ostrich M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and M. iliofibularis were followed for the first 23-24h post-mortem to investigate the changes in pH as well as to determine the point of minimum pH for ostrich muscles post-mortem. The hot-deboned muscles took longer to reach the point of minimum pH than the intact muscles. There was no significant (P=0.4508) difference in the minimum pH (5.91±0.26) between the hot-deboned and the intact muscles. It was concluded that both the M. gastrocnemius, pars interna and the M. iliofibularis reached a pH<6.20 early post-mortem with muscle temperatures above 10°C; and therefore showed no risk of cold-shortening if these muscles were to be hot-deboned 2-4h post-mortem.

  16. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  17. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    A description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site of utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant, is presented. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes.

  18. Rehabilitation for total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ritterman, Scott; Rubin, Lee E

    2013-05-01

    Total hip and knee replacement are two of the most common and successful elective surgeries preformed in the United States each year. Preoperative medical preparation and postoperative rehabilitation are equally important to a successful outcome. Physical deconditioning, tobacco use, obesity and medical co-morbidities can adversely affect outcomes and should be addressed before any elective procedure. Formal postoperative therapy is geared towards the specific surgery and is aimed at returning the patient to independent activity.

  19. Total synthesis of (+/-)-chartelline C.

    PubMed

    Baran, Phil S; Shenvi, Ryan A

    2006-11-01

    The first total synthesis of (+/-)-chartelline C in a concise 10-step sequence is reported. Highlights of the completion of this decades-old puzzle include (1) chemo- and position-selective installation of the heteroaromatic halogens, (2) halogen-sparing monoreduction of an alkyne linker, (3) a simple strategy for placement of the sensitive beta-chloroenamide, (4) an unusually facile thermolysis of a vinyl carboxylic acid, and (5) a powerful ring contraction whose potential utility in heterocyclic chemistry merits further investigation.

  20. Hinge total knee replacement revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Hugh U.; Hu, Cungen; Vyamont, Didier

    1997-01-01

    Objective To determine if aseptic loosening is a major problem in hinge total knee replacement. Design A cohort study. Setting A university-affiliated institute, specializing in elective orthopedic surgery. Patients Fifty-eight patients, mainly those requiring revision, in whom the conditions were such that it was felt only a totally constrained implant was appropriate. In 7 patients the implant was press-fitted; in the remainder it was cemented. Five patients required fusion or revision, and 8 died less than 2 years after implantation, leaving 45 for review. Follow-up was 2 to 13 years. Intervention Total knee replacement with a Guepar II prosthesis. Main outcome measures Radiolucency determined by the Cameron system and clinical scoring using the Hospital for Special Surgery system. Results Of the cemented components, 91% of femoral stems were type IA (no lucency), 9% were type IB (partial lucency), with no type II or III lucency. Tibial lucency was 87% type IA and 13% type IB, with no type II or III lucency. Of the noncemented components, 58% of femoral components were type IA and 42% type IB. Tibial lucency was 71% type IA and 29% type IB. Lucency was mainly present in zones 1 and 2 adjacent to the knee. Clinical rating was 18% excellent, 20% good, 20% fair and 42% poor. Postoperative complications included infection (13%), aseptic loosening (7%), quadriceps lag (16%) and extensor mechanism problems (16%). Conclusions Aseptic loosening is an uncommon problem in hinge total knee replacement. The complication rate in cases of sufficient severity as to require a hinge replacement remains high. Current indications for a hinge prosthesis are anteroposterior instability with a very large flexion gap, complete absence of the collateral ligaments and complete absence of a functioning extensor mechanism. PMID:9267296

  1. Acceleration using total internal reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1991-06-07

    This report considers the use of a dielectric slab undergoing total internal reflection as an accelerating structure for charged particle beams. We examine the functional dependence of the electromagnetic fields above the surface of the dielectric for polarized incident waves. We present an experimental arrangement for testing the performance of the method, using apparatus under construction for the Grating Acceleration experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Total Pancreatectomy With Islet Autotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melena D.; Gelrud, Andres; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Dunn, Ty B.; Humar, Abhinav; Morgan, Katherine A.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Rastellini, Cristiana; Rickels, Michael R.; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.; Andersen, Dana K.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases focused on research gaps and opportunities in total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for the management of chronic pancreatitis. The session was held on July 23, 2014 and structured into 5 sessions: (1) patient selection, indications, and timing; (2) technical aspects of TPIAT; (3) improving success of islet autotransplantation; (4) improving outcomes after total pancreatectomy; and (5) registry considerations for TPIAT. The current state of knowledge was reviewed; knowledge gaps and research needs were specifically highlighted. Common themes included the need to identify which patients best benefit from and when to intervene with TPIAT, current limitations of the surgical procedure, diabetes remission and the potential for improvement, opportunities to better address pain remission, GI complications in this population, and unique features of children with chronic pancreatitis considered for TPIAT. The need for a multicenter patient registry that specifically addresses the complexities of chronic pancreatitis and total pancreatectomy outcomes and postsurgical diabetes outcomes was repeatedly emphasized. PMID:25599324

  3. Epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chang, Anna Marie; Ho, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shirley H.L.; Yang, Unique

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To understand whether the epithelial phenotype in total sclerocornea is corneal or conjunctival in origin. Methods Four cases of total sclerocornea (male:female = 1:3; mean age = 5.4±4.3; 1–11 years old) who received penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) at our hospital between 2008 and 2011 were included. Corneal buttons obtained during PKP were used for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as immunoconfocal microscopy for cytokeratins 3, 12, and 13, goblet cell mucin MUC5AC, connexin 43, stem cell markers p63 and ABCG2, laminin-5, and fibronectin. Results After a mean follow-up period of 38.8±14.0 (12–54) months, the grafts remained clear in half of the patients. TEM examination revealed a markedly attenuated Bowman’s layer in the scleralized corneas, with irregular and variably thinned collagen lamellar layers, and disorganization and random distribution of collagen fibrils, which were much larger in diameter compared with a normal cornea. Immunoconfocal microscopy showed that keratin 3 was expressed in all four patients, while p63, ABCG2, and MUC5AC were all absent. Cornea-specific keratin 12 was universally expressed in Patients 1 to 3, while mucosa (including conjunctiva)-specific keratin 13 was negative in these patients. Interestingly, keratin 12 and 13 were expressed in Patient 4 in a mutually exclusive manner. Linear expression of laminin-5 in the basement membrane zone and similar expression of fibronectin were observed. Conclusions The epithelia in total sclerocornea are essentially corneal in phenotype, but in the event of massive corneal angiogenesis, invasion by the conjunctival epithelium is possible. PMID:24744607

  4. Total Quality Management in Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    Orviue ’E" an 1-uer price - J--U51ns L~I Figure 1 The Deming chain reaction. Deming describes the awakening of Japanese management to the positive...349Ibid. ’I•Ibid. ""’Ibid., p. 2. I 2Ibid. "ൕIbid. I4 bid. I28 acceptable."𔃺 Parsons’ measurement of quality is the price i of nonconformance or the...practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term

  5. Total Synthesis of (+)-Superstolide A

    PubMed Central

    Tortosa, Mariola; Yakelis, Neal A.; Roush, William R.

    2009-01-01

    A convergent and highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-superstolide A is described. Key features of this synthesis include the use of bimetallic linchpin 36b for uniting the C(1)-C(15) (43) and the C(20)-C(27) (38) fragments of the natural product, a late-stage Suzuki macrocyclization of 49, and a highly diastereoselective transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic octanene 4. In contrast, the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of pentaenal 5 provided the desired cycloadduct with lower stereoselectivity (6:1:1). PMID:18956845

  6. Characterization of total flare energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that the estimates of total energy in the prime flares lie well below the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor upper limits. This is consistent with our knowledge of the energy distribution in solar flares. Insufficient data exist for us to be very firm about this conclusion, however, and major energetic components could exist undetected, especially in the EUV-XUV and optical bands. In addition, the radiant energy cannot quantitatively be compared at this time with non-radiant terms because of even larger uncertainties in the latter.

  7. Malnutrition and Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Bridget; Kamath, Atul F.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Malnutrition has been shown to be an independent risk factor for multiple postsurgical complications following TJA in addition to increasing postoperative mortality. In the current healthcare environment, it is important to recognize and correct modifiable risk factors preoperatively to minimize perioperative complications and improve patient outcomes. Recently, multiple studies have been published focusing on the association between malnutrition and perioperative complications following TJA. The findings of these studies are summarized in this review. Further research is required to determine if optimization of nutritional status preoperatively influence surgical outcomes in the elective TJA patient. PMID:27376151

  8. Development of a totally implantable total artificial heart controller.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Choi, W W; Min, B G

    1991-01-01

    Using a one chip microcontroller, 87C196 (One chip EPROM), and an erasable and programmable logic device (EPLD), an implantable control system to drive a pendulum type electromechanical total artificial heart was developed. This control system consists of four parts: a main management system, a motor driver with power regulator, a state monitoring system, and a communication portion. The main system has a speed detector, proportional and integral (PI) control, pulse width modulation (PWM) generation, serial communication, and an analog data processor. Two kinds of power system are used, separated by eight photocoupler arrays to improve system stability. When the performance of each compartment was compared with that of the previously used Z80 microprocessor based control system, good correspondence was shown. Logic power consumption was reduced to one third that of the previous controller. Using mock circulation tests, the overall performance of the control system was evaluated.

  9. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    PubMed

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  10. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  11. Total ozone trend over Cairo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, G. K. Y.

    1994-01-01

    A world wide interest in protecting ozone layer against manmade effects is now increasing. Assessment of the ozone depletion due to these activities depends on how successfully we can separate the natural variabilities from the data. The monthly mean values of total ozone over Cairo (30 05N) for the period 1968-1988, have been analyzed using the power spectral analysis technique. The technique used in this analysis does not depend on a pre-understanding of the natural fluctuations in the ozone data. The method depends on increasing the resolution of the spectral peaks in order to obtain the more accurate sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. Also it handles the possible sinusoidal fluctuations with wavelength equal to or less than record length. The results show that it is possible to detect some of the well known national fluctuations in the ozone record such as annual, semiannual, quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations. After separating the natural fluctuations from the ozone record, the trend analysis of total ozone over Cairo showed that a decrease of about -1.2% per decade has occurred since 1979.

  12. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  13. "Total IBA" - Where are we?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, C.; Bailey, M. J.; Bright, N. J.; Christopher, M. E.; Grime, G. W.; Jones, B. N.; Palitsin, V. V.; Webb, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The suite of techniques which are available with the small accelerators used for MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) range from broad beams, microbeams or external beams using the various particle and photon spectrometries (including RBS, EBS, ERD, STIM, PIXE, PIGE, NRA and their variants), to tomography and secondary particle spectrometries like MeV-SIMS. These can potentially yield almost everything there is to know about the 3-D elemental composition of types of samples that have always been hard to analyse, given the sensitivity and the spacial resolution of the techniques used. Molecular and chemical information is available in principle with, respectively, MeV-SIMS and high resolution PIXE. However, these techniques separately give only partial information - the secret of "Total IBA" is to find synergies between techniques used simultaneously which efficiently give extra information. We here review how far "Total IBA" can be considered already a reality, and what further needs to be done to realise its full potential.

  14. An assessment of the isotopic (2H/18O) integrity of water samples collected and stored by unattended precipitation totalizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzer, Stefan; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Douence, Cedric; Araguas-Araguas, Luis

    2016-04-01

    -in-funnel collector. For the submerged-tube sampler, the evaporative effect depended on the amount of stored water: 100 ml showed unacceptable isotopic enrichment, whereas the SEE of 500 ml stored water was acceptable. These data allowed us to estimate the impact of secondary evaporative enrichment on a device-specific basis as a function of PET. Based on global PET grids (e.g. CGIAR data), and benchmarking the expected SEE against the reasonable uncertainty of isotope spectrometry (< ±0.1‰ for δ18O), these findings reveal the most suitable totalizer device for any given climatic condition. Under extreme conditions (e.g. high aridity, little precipitation vs. high PET), a paraffin-oil based rain totalizer is most appropriate for monthly collections. Submerged-tube samplers may be considered if either a higher frequency of collection were possible, or monthly under pluvial/temperate climate conditions. The use of ball-in-funnel type totalizers are not recommended at all, unless samples could be collected on a daily basis.

  15. Pluvials, Droughts, the Mongol Empire, and Modern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the connections between climate, ecosystems, and society during historical and modern climatic transitions requires annual resolution records with high fidelity climate signals. Many studies link the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate conditions, but few have investigated the connection between climate, surplus energy, and the rise of empires. Inner Asia in the 13th century underwent a major political transformation requiring enormous energetic inputs that altered human history. The Mongol Empire, centered on the city of Karakorum, became the largest contiguous land empire in world history (Fig. 1 inset). Powered by domesticated grazing animals, the empire grew at the expense of sedentary agriculturalists across Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Although some scholars and conventional wisdom agree that dry conditions spurred the Mongol conquests, little paleoenvironmental data at annual resolution are available to evaluate the role of climate in the development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 2600 year tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season, self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), a measure of water balance, derived from 107 live and dead Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees growing on a Holocene lava flow in central Mongolia. Trees growing on the Khorgo lava flow today are stunted and widely spaced, occurring on microsites with little to no soil development. These trees are extremely water-stressed and their radial growth is well-correlated with both drought (scPDSI) and grassland productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)). Our reconstruction, calibrated and validated on instrumental June-September scPDSI (1959-2009) accounts for 55.8% of the variability in the regional scPDSI when 73% of the annual rainfall occurs. Our scPDSI reconstruction places historic and modern social change in Mongolia in the context of the range of climatic variability during the Common Era. Our record, in combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, shows that the climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khaan's (Ghengis Khan) 13th century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. Tree-ring and meteorological data combined suggest that the early 21st century drought was the hottest drought in the last 1000 years, consistent with model projections of warming in Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar 'heat droughts', with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia.

  16. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Edward R.; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J.; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M.; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other “Old World” climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the “Old World Drought Atlas” (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability. PMID:26601136

  17. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan; Briffa, Keith R; Büntgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Krusic, Paul J; Tegel, Willy; van der Schrier, Gerard; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Baillie, Mike; Baittinger, Claudia; Bleicher, Niels; Bonde, Niels; Brown, David; Carrer, Marco; Cooper, Richard; Čufar, Katarina; Dittmar, Christoph; Esper, Jan; Griggs, Carol; Gunnarson, Björn; Günther, Björn; Gutierrez, Emilia; Haneca, Kristof; Helama, Samuli; Herzig, Franz; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Janda, Pavel; Kontic, Raymond; Köse, Nesibe; Kyncl, Tomáš; Levanič, Tom; Linderholm, Hans; Manning, Sturt; Melvin, Thomas M; Miles, Daniel; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Nicolussi, Kurt; Nola, Paola; Panayotov, Momchil; Popa, Ionel; Rothe, Andreas; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Svarva, Helene; Svoboda, Miroslav; Thun, Terje; Timonen, Mauri; Touchan, Ramzi; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Trouet, Valerie; Walder, Felix; Ważny, Tomasz; Wilson, Rob; Zang, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other "Old World" climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the "Old World Drought Atlas" (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability.

  18. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-03-25

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan's (Genghis Khan's) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia.

  19. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E.; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan’s (Genghis Khan’s) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia. PMID:24616521

  20. Self-Boring Pressuremeter in Pluvially Deposited Sands.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    OF TABLES TABLE 1: SUMMARY OF INSTALLATION CONDITIONS DURING SELF-BORING TABLE 2: SUMMARY OF GENERAL CALIBRATION CHAMBER CONDITIONS AFTER SAMPLE...CANKOMETER MARK VIII FIG. 4: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TICINO AND HOKKSUND SAND FIG. 5: SCHEMATIC OUTLINE OF SAND SPREADER FIG. 6: SCHEMATIC OUTLINE...COMPARISON OF CALCULATED #Ps ROM SBPT AND EQUIVALENT O FROM TRIAXIAL TESTS 04 LIST OF APPENDIXES APP. I : EXAMPLE OF COMPUTER GENERATED PLOTS FOR

  1. Pluvials, droughts, the Mongol Empire, and modern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy E.; Baatarbileg, Nachin; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Di Cosmo, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Although many studies have associated the demise of complex societies with deteriorating climate, few have investigated the connection between an ameliorating environment, surplus resources, energy, and the rise of empires. The 13th-century Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Although drought has been proposed as one factor that spurred these conquests, no high-resolution moisture data are available during the rapid development of the Mongol Empire. Here we present a 1,112-y tree-ring reconstruction of warm-season water balance derived from Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) trees in central Mongolia. Our reconstruction accounts for 56% of the variability in the regional water balance and is significantly correlated with steppe productivity across central Mongolia. In combination with a gridded temperature reconstruction, our results indicate that the regional climate during the conquests of Chinggis Khan's (Genghis Khan's) 13th-century Mongol Empire was warm and persistently wet. This period, characterized by 15 consecutive years of above-average moisture in central Mongolia and coinciding with the rise of Chinggis Khan, is unprecedented over the last 1,112 y. We propose that these climate conditions promoted high grassland productivity and favored the formation of Mongol political and military power. Tree-ring and meteorological data also suggest that the early 21st-century drought in central Mongolia was the hottest drought in the last 1,112 y, consistent with projections of warming over Inner Asia. Future warming may overwhelm increases in precipitation leading to similar heat droughts, with potentially severe consequences for modern Mongolia.

  2. Total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP).

    PubMed

    Kuthe, A; Mainik, F; Flade-Kuthe, R

    2014-04-01

    One can no longer think about modern hernia surgery without mentioning endoscopic techniques. But due to their high technical demands the learning curve is comparatively long. And by technical mistakes and their consequences (pain, recurrence, complications) the benefits of the endoscopic techniques can easily be turned to drawbacks. The following text explains the steps of the total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP) technique in detail pointing out alternatives and risks. From preparation, indication and positioning, from trocar placement to extraperitoneal dissection and mesh placement, the principles of TEP are elucidated in respect of local anatomy and possible complications. The text as well as the accompanying video in the Mediathek are based on the authors' 20 years of experience in the TEP technique. Both of them may help in safe TEP application to minimise the complication rate as well as recurrences. Then patients can benefit from the advantages of this technique.

  3. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  4. Concise total synthesis of glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Cristian; Wang, Tina; Spiegel, David A

    2015-10-16

    Glucosepane is a structurally complex protein posttranslational modification that is believed to exist in all living organisms. Research in humans suggests that glucosepane plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both diabetes and human aging, yet comprehensive biological investigations of this metabolite have been hindered by a scarcity of chemically homogeneous material available for study. Here we report the total synthesis of glucosepane, enabled by the development of a one-pot method for preparation of the nonaromatic 4H-imidazole tautomer in the core. Our synthesis is concise (eight steps starting from commercial materials), convergent, high-yielding (12% overall), and enantioselective. We expect that these results will prove useful in the art and practice of heterocyclic chemistry and beneficial for the study of glucosepane and its role in human health and disease.

  5. NAVIGATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    da Mota e Albuquerque, Roberto Freire

    2015-01-01

    Navigation was the most significant advance in instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty over the last decade. It provides surgeons with a precision tool for carrying out surgery, with the possibility of intraoperative simulation and objective control over various anatomical and surgical parameters and references. Since the first systems, which were basically used to control the alignment of bone cutting referenced to the mechanical axis of the lower limb, many other surgical steps have been incorporated, such as component rotation, ligament balancing and arranging the symmetry of flexion and extension spaces, among others. Its efficacy as a precision tool with an effective capacity for promoting better alignment of the lower-limb axis has been widely proven in the literature, but the real value of optimized alignment and the impact of navigation on clinical results and the longevity of arthroplasty have yet to be established. PMID:27026979

  6. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and

  7. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  8. Total chemical synthesis of crambin.

    PubMed

    Bang, Duhee; Chopra, Neeraj; Kent, Stephen B H

    2004-02-11

    Crambin is a small (46 amino acids) protein isolated from the seeds of the plant Crambe abyssinica. Crambin has been extensively used as a model protein for the development of advanced crystallography and NMR techniques and for computational folding studies. We set out to establish synthetic access to crambin. Initially, we synthesized the 46 amino acid polypeptide by native chemical ligation of two distinct sets of peptide segments (15 + 31 and 31 + 15 residues). The synthetic polypeptide chain folded in good yield to give native crambin containing three disulfide bonds. The chemically synthesized crambin was characterized by LC-MS and by 2D-NMR. However, the 31-residue peptide segments were difficult to purify, and this caused an overall low yield for the synthesis. To overcome this problem, we synthesized crambin by the native chemical ligation of three segments (15 + 16 + 15 residues). Total synthesis using the ligation of three segments gave more than a 10-fold increase in yield and a protein product of exceptionally high purity. This work demonstrates the efficacy of chemical protein synthesis by the native chemical ligation of three segments and establishes efficient synthetic access to the important model protein crambin for experimental studies of protein folding and stability.

  9. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  10. A Practical Total Integrated Scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, John M.

    1989-03-01

    Universal acceptance of a proposed standard measurement method can depend not only upon how soundly it is based in scientific theory but on its cost and technical implementation as well. A total integrated scatterometer for the optical shop is described with emphasis on economy, rapid measurement, repeatability, and ergonomic packaging as controlling design criteria. The advent of low-cost microvolt resolution in digital multimeters allows the use of large-area silicon photovoltaic cells for detection of the scatter and specular light from the sample. The thin cell profile permits placement of the scatter detector closer to the sample port for minimal scatter obscuration. The large cell area accepts the blur circle from an inexpensive molded acrylic dome for scatter collection. A dedicated pocket computer and printer calculates, displays and prints sample RMS roughness, average, and standard de-viation for multiple measurements; it also controls laser user-access, prints a tutorial, and identifies sample, operator and date/time. The laser is a 2mW HeNe (633 nm); safety issues are addressed. The specular beam reflects off the specular detector and onto an alignment target screen, ensuring sample alignment and measurement repeatability. The inverted design provides a gravity-loading sample stage that is completely accessible; custom sample mounts are readily added. Component sources are provided. Performance and correlation to other scatterometer and roughness measurement techniques such as optical and mechanical profilers are presented.

  11. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    PubMed

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  12. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement.

    PubMed

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  13. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovill, J. E.; Ellis, J. S.; Luther, F. M.; Sullivan, T. J.; Weichel, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented.

  14. Trends in total column ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, F. S.; Angell, J.; Attmannspacher, W.; Bloomfield, P.; Bojkov, R. D.; Harris, N.; Komhyr, W.; Mcfarland, M.; Mcpeters, R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    It is important to ensure the best available data are used in any determination of possible trends in total ozone in order to have the most accurate estimates of any trends and the associated uncertainties. Accordingly, the existing total ozone records were examined in considerable detail. Once the best data set has been produced, the statistical analysis must examine the data for any effects that might indicate changes in the behavior of global total ozone. The changes at any individual measuring station could be local in nature, and herein, particular attention was paid to the seasonal and latitudinal variations of total ozone, because two dimensional photochemical models indicate that any changes in total ozone would be most pronounced at high latitudes during the winter months. The conclusions derived from this detailed examination of available total ozone can be split into two categories, one concerning the quality and the other the statistical analysis of the total ozone record.

  15. Arthroscopic treatment of unstable total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Ricardo; Aguinaga, Iñaki; Corcuera, Irene; Ponte, Juan; Usabiaga, Jaime

    2010-06-01

    Hip arthroscopy may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of apparently well-implanted but unstable total hip replacement prostheses. We present 2 cases of arthroscopically assisted capsular tightening in unstable total hip replacements. Both cases had significant capsular laxity. Case 2 had impingement of the lower part of the acetabulum with the lesser trochanter that caused hip dislocation. Early revision surgery can be avoided with the use of this technique in selected cases of unstable total hip replacements.

  16. Total solar eclipse of 3 November 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1993-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from the southern half of the Western Hemisphere on 3 November 1994. The path of the Moon's shadow passes through Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include tables of geographic coordinates of the path of totality, local circumstances for hundreds of cities, maps of the path of total and partial eclipse, weather prospects, and the lunar limb profile.

  17. Tissue sparing total femoral arthroplasty: technical note.

    PubMed

    Willimon, Samuel Clifton; Bolognesi, Michael P; Attarian, David E

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that the number of revision hip and knee arthroplasties will double by the years 2026 and 2015, respectively. As the burden of end-stage prosthetic disease increases, there will be a greater potential need for total femoral arthroplasty. This report describes a patient with a femoral neck fracture nonunion with an ipsilateral multiply revised failed total knee arthroplasty treated by a tissue sparing total femoral arthroplasty. The technique is described, and potential benefits are reviewed.

  18. Total Synthesis of Mycolactones A and B

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengbin; Fidanze, Steve; Benowitz, Andrew B.; Kishi, Yoshito

    2007-01-01

    First and second generation total syntheses of mycolactones A and B are reported. The first generation total synthesis unambiguously confirmed our earlier assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry of mycolactones A and B. Knowledge of the chemical properties of the mycolactones accumulated through the first generation total synthesis allowed us to implement several major improvements to the original synthesis, including: (1) optimizing the choice of protecting groups, (2) eliminating the unnecessary adjustment of protecting groups, and (3) improving the overall stereoselectivity and synthetic efficiency. The second generation total synthesis consists of 21 longest linear steps, with 8.8% overall yield. PMID:17940589

  19. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xi; Miao, Rong-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  20. The Total Quality Movement in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuenberger, John A.; Whitaker, Sheldon V., Jr.

    The total quality movement began as a result of the desire of W. Edwards Deming, an American statistician, to permit the economic system to maintain its edge in a growing global market. The 14 points Deming listed as essential to "total quality management" have recently been adapted to the field of education. The success of the total…

  1. Total Quality Management in Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallis, Edward

    Quality is at the top of most agendas, and improving quality is probably the most important task facing any institution. In addition, quality is difficult to define or measure. This book, the second edition of "Total Quality Management in Education," introduces the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and demonstrates how they…

  2. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  3. Total Cost Management: Analyzing Operational Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    Total cost management, an innovation useful in higher education, is best implemented in the institution's support services. Total cost management is the practice of analyzing and improving an institution's financial and qualitative performance when producing a particular product or service, paying attention to the complete work process and all…

  4. Airway Complications of Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Vikas; Donovan, Colin; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    The total artificial heart is the mechanical device which is used as a bridge to the heart transplant in patients with biventricular failure. Due to the mechanical nature of the device, patients receiving total artificial heart (TAH) require to be on anticoagulation therapy. Hemorrhage and coagulopathy are few of the known complications of TAH. PMID:28250605

  5. 'Total disability' and the wrongness of killing.

    PubMed

    Omelianchuk, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Franklin G Miller recently argued that the wrongness of killing is best explained by the harm that comes to the victim, and that 'total disability' best explains the nature of this harm. Hence, killing patients who are already totally disabled is not wrong. I maintain that their notion of total disability is ambiguous and that they beg the question with respect to whether there are abilities left over that remain relevant for the goods of personhood and human worth. If these goods remain, then something more is lost in death than in 'total disability,' and their explanation of what makes killing wrong comes up short. But if total disability is equivalent with death, then their argument is an interesting one.

  6. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  7. Total body calcium analysis. [neutron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Nelp, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to quantitate total body calcium in humans is developed. Total body neutron irradiation is utilized to produce argon 37. The radio argon, which diffuses into the blood stream and is excreted through the lungs, is recovered from the exhaled breath and counted inside a proportional detector. Emphasis is placed on: (1) measurement of the rate of excretion of radio argon following total body neutron irradiation; (2) the development of the radio argon collection, purification, and counting systems; and (3) development of a patient irradiation facility using a 14 MeV neutron generator. Results and applications are discussed in detail.

  8. [Total amitraz residues in bee honeys].

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, C; Augustyniak, B; Risto, C

    1991-01-01

    A total of 330 bee honey samples was analysed in 1986-1990, and the results are reported. Analysis was performed according to the method for the amitraz total residue determination by hydrolysis and steam distillation as described. 60% of the honeys were practically not contamined (total residue content amounting to 0.01 mg/kg), 8.5% of the honeys contained more than 0.05 mg/kg. Maximal values of 0.2-0.5 mg/kg were stated. 54% of the rape-honeys contained more than 0.01 mg/kg, 19% more than 0.05 mg/kg.

  9. Total solar eclipse of 1995 October 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1994-01-01

    A total eclipse of the sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 24 Oct. 1995. The path of the moon's shadow begins in the Middle East and sweeps across India, Southeast Asia, and the waters of the Indonesian archipelago before ending at sunset in the Pacific. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality.

  10. Total ankle replacement - surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Krogulec, Zbigniew; Turski, Piotr; Przepiórski, Emil; Małdyk, Paweł; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Functions of the ankle joint are closely connected with the gait and ability to maintain an upright position. Degenerative lesions of the joint directly contribute to postural disorders and greatly restrict propulsion of the foot, thus leading to abnormal gait. Development of total ankle replacement is connected with the use of the method as an efficient treatment of joint injuries and continuation of achievements in hip and knee surgery. The total ankle replacement technique was introduced as an alternative to arthrodesis, i.e. surgical fixation, which made it possible to preserve joint mobility and to improve gait. Total ankle replacement is indicated in post-traumatic degenerative joint disease and joint destruction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, total ankle replacement and various types of currently used endoprostheses are discussed. The authors also describe principles of early postoperative rehabilitation as well as rehabilitation in the outpatient setting.

  11. Dermabond efficacy in total joint arthroplasty wounds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam G; Swank, Michael L

    2010-10-01

    The goals of wound closure are a low infection rate and timely healing. Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) requires mobile recovery, and, therefore, a high-tension wound care environment. We conducted a study to compare the efficacy of high-viscosity Dermabond (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) and the efficacy of surgical staples in healing high-tension, mobile surgical sites of TJA. Of 236 total knee arthroplasties and 223 total hip arthroplasties (459 surgeries total), 250 were performed with Dermabond and 209 with staples. According to χ2 analysis, case and control infection rates were equivalent. Signs of acute inflammation (redness, drainage, dehiscence) also were statistically equivalent. Absence of staples accounted for a significant decrease in tape blisters and skin abscesses. Dermabond is superior to staples in high-tension wound care.

  12. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  13. Safety Precautions for Total Release Foggers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Total release foggers, also known as bug bombs, are pesticide products containing aerosol propellants that release their contents at once to fumigate an area. They can pose a hazard if used incorrectly. Find safety information and videos on this page.

  14. Outdoor Activities for a Total Lunar Eclipse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes several activities involving a total eclipse of the moon. Included are observations with binoculars, naked eye, and telescope; timing activities and observations of color changes during penumbral and umbral phases; and photography activities. (CS)

  15. Total Synthesis of the Proposed Banyasin A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuguang; Ren, Qi; Choi, Sun; Xu, Zhengshuang; Ye, Tao

    2015-03-01

    The first total synthesis of four possible isomers of a molecule possessing the stereochemistry proposed for banyasin A is described. The structure synthesized appears to be different from that of the natural product.

  16. [What's new about total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Dao Trong, Mai Lang; Helmy, Näder

    2013-10-30

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most common problems in the orthopedic practice and its surgical technique is still challenging. This Mini-Review presents patient specific cutting blocks for the implantation of a total knee arthroplasty.

  17. Revised Total Coliform Webinar for Primacy Agencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar was created to assist Primacy Agencies in the implementation of the Revised Total Coliform Rule. It provides an overview of the requirements in the rule and implementation guidance for Primacy Agencies.

  18. Total Coliform Rule (TCR) Federal Register Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides the FR notice to 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Drinking Water: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Total Coliforms (Including Fecal Coliforms and E. Coli); Final Rule (26 pp, 5 M).

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  1. Rainfall Total Estimates for Southeastern US Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    IMERG estimated total rainfall from Dec. 30, 2016, through early Jan. 3, 2017. This analysis of rainfall over the Southeast indicates that more than 12 inches (305 mm) of rain fell over the southea...

  2. [Treatment of infected total hip endoprostheses].

    PubMed

    Zilkens, K W; Forst, R; Casser, H R

    1989-07-01

    In total hip arthroplasty the most serious complication besides aseptic loosening is infection. The results observed in 42 cases of infected hip arthroplasties are presented. In contrast to early superficial infection, deep infection following total hip replacement is difficult to treat. Depending on the general condition of the patient, a well-defined, adequate treatment is required. In patients at vital risk the provocation of a permanent fistula can be recommended as an alternative method in preference to revision arthroplasty.

  3. Total Quality Management (TQM). Implementers Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-15

    approaches and methods for planning, organizing, and launching TOM within OSD functions. 1-3 . .. TOTAL QUALITY I Ii N MANAGEMENT Implementers Workshop...TOM Review COMMON THEMES OF TQM EXPERTS - Customer defines quality . - Quality becomes prevention-based. - Team approach to problem-solving...different in approaches , all advocate the quality path to productivity. 2-5 a gg. Z - TOTAL QUALITY J LI VI MANAGEMENT Implementers Workshop TQM Review

  4. NEW BEARING SURFACES IN TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes; de Freitas Spinelli, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is being increasingly indicated for younger and more active patients, in addition to a naturally growing demand for the procedure because of increasing life expectancy among patients. The high costs of this surgery and the controversies regarding implant performance have made this topic the subject of constant research, seeking new materials with better resistance to wear and better biocompatibility. The present article provides a review of new surfaces in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27042614

  5. Effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550

  6. Femoral osteolysis following total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Dattani, R

    2007-01-01

    Total hip replacement represents the most significant advance in orthopaedic surgery in the 20th century. Periprosthetic osteolysis remains the most significant long‐term complication with total hip replacement. It has been reported with all materials and prosthetic devices in use or that have been used to date. This paper reviews the current thinking on the aetiology, pathogenesis, management and future treatment options for osteolysis. PMID:17488859

  7. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    During 1990, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in Mississippi was about 3,600 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, 91 percent, or 3,300 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from freshwater sources. Of the total freshwater withdrawals, about 82 percent, or 2,700 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from ground-water sources. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi in 1990 for eight categories of use were as follows: irrigation, 1,900 Mgal/d; thermoelectric power, 700 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 400 Mgal/d; public supply, 320 Mgal/d; industrial and mining, 270 Mgal/d; domestic, 33 Mgal/d; commercial, 16 Mgal/d; and livestock, 16 Mgal/d. Overall, total withdrawals increased by 20 percent from 1985 to 1990, although the total population decreased about 2 percent. During the same period, total freshwater withdrawals increased by about 17 percent. Total saline with- drawals increased by about 60 percent from 1985 due to an increase in salin withdrawals for thermo- electric power generation. Total fresh and saline surface-water withdrawals decreased by about 6 percent from 1985, due to decrease in surface-water withdrawals for irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals in Mississippi increased by about 33 percent, primarily due to an increase in irrigation. Since 1960, total ground- and surface-water with- drawals increased 70 percent for the same period. Irrigation had the greatest increase in with- drawals since 1960, with a 269 percent increase. Public supply had the second greatest, with a 178 percent increase.

  8. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  10. Total hip arthroplasty after lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Amanatullah, Derek F; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-05-01

    There are approximately 1.6 million lower extremity amputees in the United States. Lower extremity amputees are subject to increased physical demands proportional to their level of amputation. Lower extremity amputees have a 6-fold higher risk of developing radiographic osteoarthritis in the ipsilateral hip and a 2-fold risk of developing radiographic osteoarthritis in contralateral hip when compared with the non-amputee population. Additionally, there is a 3-fold increased risk of developing radiographic osteoarthritis in the ipsilateral hip after an above knee amputation when compared with a below knee amputation. The authors retrospectively reviewed 35 total hip arthroplasties after lower extremity amputation. The mean clinical follow-up was 5.3±4.0 years. The mean time from lower extremity amputation to total hip arthroplasty was 12.2±12.8 years after a contralateral amputation and 5.4±6.0 years after an ipsilateral amputation (P=.050). The mean time to total hip arthroplasty was 15.6±15.4 years after an above knee amputation and 6.4±6.1 years after a below knee amputation (P=.021). There was a statistically significant improvement in the mean Harris Hip Score from 35.9±21.8 to 76.8±12.8 with total hip arthroplasty after a contralateral amputation (P<.001). There also was a statistically significant improvement in the mean Harris Hip Score from 25.4±21.7 to 78.6±17.1 with total hip arthroplasty after an ispilateral amputation (P<.001). Three (17.7%) total hip arthroplasties after a contralateral amputation and 2 (11.1%) total hip arthroplasties after an ipsilateral amputation required revision total hip arthroplasty. Patients with an ipsilateral amputation or a below knee amputation progress to total hip arthroplasty faster than those with a contralateral amputation or an above knee amputation, respectively. Lower extremity amputees experience clinically significant improvements with total hip arthroplasty after lower extremity amputation.

  11. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are met. (3) Ratings of total disability on history. In the case of disabilities which have undergone... incapacitating will be regarded as permanently and totally disabling when the probability of...

  12. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... are met. (3) Ratings of total disability on history. In the case of disabilities which have undergone... incapacitating will be regarded as permanently and totally disabling when the probability of...

  13. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... are met. (3) Ratings of total disability on history. In the case of disabilities which have undergone... incapacitating will be regarded as permanently and totally disabling when the probability of...

  14. Risk assessment tools used to predict outcomes of total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Joseph F; Hansen, Viktor J; Rubash, Harry E; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews recently proposed clinical tools for predicting risks and outcomes in total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty patients. Additionally, we share the Massachusetts General Hospital experience with using the Risk Assessment and Prediction Tool to predict the need for an extended care facility after total joint arthroplasty.

  15. Totally semi-continuous and semi totally-continuous functions in double fuzzy topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood Mohammed, Fatimah; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce new classes of functions called totally-continuous functions and its variants totally semi-continuous functions and semi totally-continuous functions in double fuzzy topological spaces. Their characterizations, examples and relationship with other notions of continuous functions in this space are provided.

  16. Current status of permanent total artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Davis, P K; Rosenberg, G; Snyder, A J; Pierce, W S

    1989-01-01

    Pneumatic total artificial heats, although demonstrating utility as temporary mechanical circulatory support devices, have not demonstrated a great deal of promise as permanent cardiac replacements. The increasing number of patients who would be candidates for total heart replacement suggests a large role for a permanent implantable total artificial heart. To that end, the Pennsylvania State University is developing an electric motor-driven total artificial heart; the results with implants in calves are encouraging. In this device, a roller-screw mechanism is used to translate the rotation of a brushless direct-current motor into rectilinear motion of a pusher-plate assembly, which in turn empties the blood sacs. The total artificial heart of the future will function under automatic control without percutaneous leads, and this should provide the patient with a nearly normal life-style. Although further experimental efforts are necessary to prepare the device for clinical trials, the technology to provide a safe and reliable electric blood-pump system is at hand.

  17. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  18. Total microwave processing using microwave technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.J.; Kingston, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of total microwave processing of samples involves all processes after the collection of a sample up to but not including the analysis. These processes are often time consuming and a primary source of critical analytical errors. The use of microwave technology has been shown to improve sample digestion while also reducing contamination. However, microwave technology can also be used in the preparation of representative samples and matrix modifications; essentially total sample preparation. The concept of total microwave processing will be discussed as applied to the routine analysis of samples according to proposed Environmental Protection Agency Method 3052. This method requires microwave digestion and provides for several methods of post-digestion removal of hydrofluoric acid. Microwave technologies will be shown to efficiently dry, digest, and perform matrix modifications.

  19. Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2004-01-01

    On 2006 March 29, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in Brazil and extends across the Atlantic, northern Africa, and central Asia where it ends at sunset in western Mongolia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the northern two thirds of Africa, Europe, and central Asia.Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse of 2008 August 01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, F.; Anderson, J.

    2007-01-01

    On 2008 August 01, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses half the Earth. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in northern Canada and extends across Greenland, the Arctic, central Russia, Mongolia, and China. A partial eclipse is seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, most of Europe and Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 308 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  1. Total quality management in orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Atta, A E

    1999-12-01

    Quality is the buzz word for the new Millennium. Patients demand it, and we must serve it. Yet one must identify it. Quality is not imaging or public relations; it is a business process. This short article presents quality as a balance of three critical notions: core clinical competence, perceived values that our patients seek and want, and the cost of quality. Customer satisfaction is a variable that must be identified for each practice. In my practice, patients perceive quality as communication and time, be it treatment or waiting time. Time is a value and cost that must be managed effectively. Total quality management is a business function; it involves diagnosis, design, implementation, and measurement of the process, the people, and the service. Kazien is a function that reduces value services, eliminates waste, and manages time and cost in the process. Total quality management is a total commitment for continuous improvement.

  2. Uncommon indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Yoon Suk; Huri, Gazi; Garbis, Nickolas G; McFarland, Edward G

    2013-12-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

  3. Uncommon Indications for Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Yoon Suk; Huri, Gazi; Garbis, Nickolas G.

    2013-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty and shoulder hemiarthroplasty have been the traditional method for treating a variety of shoulder conditions, including arthritis, cuff tear arthropathy, and some fracture types. However, these procedures did not provide consistently good results for patients with torn rotator cuffs. The development of the reverse prosthesis by Grammont in the late 20th century revolutionized the treatment of the rotator-cuff-deficient shoulder with arthritis. The main indication for the reverse prosthesis remains the patient with cuff tear arthropathy who has pain and loss of motion. Because the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty produced such good results in these patients, the indications for the reverse prosthesis have expanded to include other shoulder conditions that have previously been difficult to treat successfully and predictably. This review discusses and critically reviews these newer indications for the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. PMID:24340143

  4. Total Solar Eclipse of 2002 December 04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    2001-01-01

    On 2002 December 04, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, and ends at sunset in southern Australia. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes the southern two thirds of Africa, Antarctica, Indian Ocean and Australia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Information on safe eclipse viewing and eclipse photography is included.

  5. Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Arwin, Hans; Poksinski, Michal; Johansen, Knut

    2004-05-20

    A concept for a measurement technique based on ellipsometry in conditions of total internal reflection is presented. When combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects, this technique becomes powerful for monitoring and analyzing adsorption and desorption on thin semitransparent metal films as well as for analyzing the semitransparent films themselves. We call this technique total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The theory of ellipsometry under total internal reflection combined with SPR is discussed for some simple cases. For more advanced cases and to prove the concept, simulations are performed with the Fresnel formalism. The use of TIRE is exemplified by applications in protein adsorption, corrosion monitoring, and adsorption from opaque liquids on metal surfaces. Simulations and experiments show greatly enhanced thin-film sensitivity compared with ordinary ellipsometry.

  6. Total Solar Eclipse of 2001 June 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1999-01-01

    On 2001 June 21, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Southern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the South Atlantic, crosses southern Africa and Madagascar, and ends at sunset in the Indian Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern South America and the southern two thirds of Africa. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 350 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  7. Total Solar Eclipse of 1997 March 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1995-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from Asia and the Pacific Ocean on 1997 March 9. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in eastern Kazakhstan and travels through Mongolia and eastern Siberia, where it swings northward to end at sunset in the Arctic Ocean. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes eastern Asia, the northern Pacific, and the northwest corner of North America. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for 280 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  8. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  9. Total Solar Eclipse of 1999 August 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, Jay

    1997-01-01

    On 1999 August 11, a total eclipse of the Sun will be visible from within a narrow corridor which traverses the Eastern Hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow begins in the Atlantic and crosses central Europe, the Middle East, and India, where it ends at sunset in the Bay of Bengal. A partial eclipse will be seen within the much broader path of the Moon's penumbral shadow, which includes northeastern North America, all of Europe, northern Africa, and the western half of Asia. Detailed predictions for this event are presented and include besselian elements, geographic coordinates of the path of totality, physical ephemeris of the umbra, topocentric limb profile corrections, local circumstances for approximately 1400 cities, maps of the eclipse path, weather prospects, the lunar limb profile, and the sky during totality. Tips and suggestions are also given on how to safely view and photograph the eclipse.

  10. Total artificial hearts: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cohn, William E; Timms, Daniel L; Frazier, O H

    2015-10-01

    A practical artificial heart has been sought for >50 years. An increasing number of people succumb to heart disease each year, but the number of hearts available for transplantation remains small. Early total artificial hearts mimicked the pumping action of the native heart. These positive-displacement pumps could provide adequate haemodynamic support and maintain the human circulation for short periods, but large size and limited durability adversely affected recipients' quality of life. Subsequent research into left ventricular assist devices led to the use of continuous-flow blood pumps with rotating impellers. Researchers have attempted to integrate this technology into modern total artificial hearts with moderate clinical success. The importance of pulsatile circulation remains unclear. Future research is, therefore, needed into positive-displacement and rotary total artificial hearts.

  11. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  12. Imaging Total Stations - Modular and Integrated Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauth, Stefan; Schlüter, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: 3D-Metrology, Engineering Geodesy, Digital Image Processing Initialized in 2009, the Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology i3mainz, Mainz University of Applied Sciences, forces research towards modular concepts for imaging total stations. On the one hand, this research is driven by the successful setup of high precision imaging motor theodolites in the near past, on the other hand it is pushed by the actual introduction of integrated imaging total stations to the positioning market by the manufacturers Topcon and Trimble. Modular concepts for imaging total stations are manufacturer independent to a large extent and consist of a particular combination of accessory hardware, software and algorithmic procedures. The hardware part consists mainly of an interchangeable eyepiece adapter offering opportunities for digital imaging and motorized focus control. An easy assembly and disassembly in the field is possible allowing the user to switch between the classical and the imaging use of a robotic total station. The software part primarily has to ensure hardware control, but several level of algorithmic support might be added and have to be distinguished. Algorithmic procedures allow to reach several levels of calibration concerning the geometry of the external digital camera and the total station. We deliver insight in our recent developments and quality characteristics. Both the modular and the integrated approach seem to have its individual strengths and weaknesses. Therefore we expect that both approaches might point at different target applications. Our aim is a better understanding of appropriate applications for robotic imaging total stations. First results are presented. Stefan Hauth, Martin Schlüter i3mainz - Institut für Raumbezogene Informations- und Messtechnik FH Mainz University of Applied Sciences Lucy-Hillebrand-Straße 2, 55128 Mainz, Germany

  13. An Operational Perspective of Total Lightning Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.

    2009-01-01

    The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total lightning networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total lightning and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total lightning information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total lightning information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total lightning can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize

  14. Collagenase Total Occlusion-1 (CTO-1) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Bradley H.; Osherov, Azriel B.; Radhakrishnan, Sam; Mancini, G.B. John; Manners, Allison; Sparkes, John D.; Chisholm, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Percutaneous interventions for chronic total occlusions have low success rates, primarily because of failure of guide wire crossing. Collagen-rich matrix constitutes the main barrier to chronic total occlusion crossing. In preclinical studies, local delivery of a bacterial collagenase formulation improved guide wire crossing. The Collagenase Total Occlusion-1 (CTO-1) Trial is a phase I, dose-escalation trial to assess the safety and efficacy of collagenase therapy to facilitate guide wire crossing in coronary artery chronic occlusions. Methods and Results Twenty subjects with ≥1 previous failure of chronic total occlusion guide wire crossing were enrolled at 2 sites. Subjects were treated in 4 distinct cohorts of 5 patients, with escalation of collagenase dose in each cohort from 300 to 1200 μg. Collagenase was locally delivered into the occlusions with either an over-the-wire balloon system (n=8) or a fine-cross microcatheter (n=12) for a period of 30 minutes. Subjects were brought back to the catheterization laboratory for guide wire crossing and angioplasty the next day. Guide wire crossing was successfully achieved in 15 subjects (75%). A soft-tip guide wire (Whisper, Pilot-50, Fielder XT) was either the sole or predominant guide wire used in 75% of successful crossings. Non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarctions occurred in 3 patients as a result of side-branch ischemia during stenting. Computed tomographic angiography at 3 months showed no late complications and patent stents in successfully treated chronic total occlusion. Anginal improvement occurred with a reduction in Canadian Cardiovascular Society class from baseline to 3 months (2.5±0.6 versus 0.9±0.9; P<0.001). Conclusion Local delivery of collagenase into coronary chronic total occlusion is feasible and safe with encouraging guide wire crossing results in previously failed cases. Larger clinical trials are required to determine efficacy. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http

  15. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  16. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  17. Biomechanics of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Berliner, Jonathan L; Regalado-Magdos, Ashton; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an effective procedure for treatment of glenohumeral joint disease among patients with severe rotator cuff deficiency. Improvements in prosthetic design are the result of an evolved understanding of both shoulder and joint replacement biomechanics. Although modern generations of the reverse shoulder prosthesis vary in specific design details, they continue to adhere to Grammont's core principles demonstrated by his original Delta III prosthesis. This review article discusses the biomechanics of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty with a focus on elements of implant design and surgical technique that may affect stability, postoperative complications, and functional outcomes.

  18. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  19. Antegrade Techniques for Chronic Total Occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Michael C.L.

    2015-01-01

    By convention, a total obstruction of the coronary artery with no flow at the occluded segment that has been present for at least 3 months is termed as chronic total occlusion or CTO. This is to be distinguished from a sudden occlusion of the coro-nary artery lumen by a thrombus during an acute myocardial infarction. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO is increasingly being performed by interventional cardiologists with improved success rates. In this article, the focus will be on antegrade techniques that will assist the operator to maximise the success rates and to minimise the complications.

  20. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Freund, H; Atamian, S; Fischer, J E

    1979-02-02

    Chromium is required for maintenance of normal glucose tolerance. After complete bowel resection and five months of total parenteral nutrition, severe glucose intolerance, weight loss, and a metabolic encephalopathy-like confusional state developed in a patient. Serum chromium levels were at the lowest normal level. Supplementation of 150 microgram of chromium per day reversed the glucose intolerance, reduced insulin requirements, and resulted in weight gain and the disappearance of encephalopathy. The low levels of chromium and response to chromium supplementation suggest that chromium deficiency can arise in long-term total parenteral nutrition.

  1. 2 CFR 170.330 - Total compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Total compensation. 170.330 Section 170.330 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved REPORTING SUBAWARD...

  2. 2 CFR 170.330 - Total compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Total compensation. 170.330 Section 170.330 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY...

  3. Total Quality Management in Libraries: A Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Rosanna M., Comp.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) brings together the best aspects of organizational excellence by driving out fear, offering customer-driven products and services, doing it right the first time by eliminating error, and maintaining inventory control without waste. Libraries are service organizations which are constantly trying to improve service.…

  4. Applying Total Quality Management to Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel J.; Koenig, Harold F.

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 390 business school alumni (60%) show that students want educators to consider their opinions about their overall educational experience and what happens after graduation. A total quality management approach can help discover customer/student needs, establish a focus on improvement, and implement a process orientation. (SK)

  5. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  6. Total Quality Management in Libraries. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Denise G.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is "a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers." Key components of TQM are employee involvement and training, problem-solving teams, statistical methods, long-term goals and thinking, and recognition that the system, not people, produces…

  7. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  8. Total Quality Management: Implications for Educational Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Stuart C.

    1992-01-01

    Deming's "System of Profound Knowledge" is even more fundamental than his 14-principle system transformation guide and is based on 4 elements: systems theory, statistical variation, a theory of knowledge, and psychology. Management should revamp total system processes so that quality of product is continually improved. Implications for…

  9. Total main rotor isolation system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankewitsch, V.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements, preliminary design, and verification procedures for a total main rotor isolation system at n/rev are presented. The fuselage is isolated from the vibration inducing main rotor at one frequency in all degrees of freedom by four antiresonant isolation units. Effects of parametric variations on isolation system performance are evaluated.

  10. 2 CFR 170.330 - Total compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Total compensation. 170.330 Section 170.330... or more in Federal funds that does not include Recovery funds (as defined in section 1512(a)(2) of... definitions in paragraph e. of this award term). 2. Where and when to report. i. You must report...

  11. Invariant Ordering of Item-Total Regressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    A new observable consequence of the property of invariant item ordering is presented, which holds under Mokken's double monotonicity model for dichotomous data. The observable consequence is an invariant ordering of the item-total regressions. Kendall's measure of concordance "W" and a weighted version of this measure are proposed as measures for…

  12. Total Quality Management: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.; Julius, Daniel J., Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers describing the implementation of Total Quality Management in a variety of higher education settings. Following a Foreword by Peter Likins and a Preface by Daniel J. Julius, the chapter titles and authors are: (1) "TQM: Implications for Higher Education--A Look Back to the Future" (Allan M. Hoffman and Randall…

  13. How to calculate total purchase cost.

    PubMed

    Harding, M L

    1998-05-01

    Companies wanting to implement a total cost-based supplier selection process often stumble over how to include nonmonetary issues such as delivery and quality performance, lead time, services, and social policies. This article describes a process that allows a company to include any issue it deems relevant and to determine its cost factor.

  14. Revitalizing Space Operations through Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the reader what total quality management (TQM) is and how to apply TQM in the space systems and management arena. TQM is easily understood, can be implemented in any type of business organization, and works.

  15. Application of Total Quality Management in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, M. S.; Akhtar, M. S.; Ullah, S. Zia; Memon, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet …

  16. Coordinating Council. Ninth Meeting: Total Quality Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the 9th meeting of the STI Coordinating Council. The council listened to the speakers' understanding of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles and heard stories of successful applications of these principles. Definitions of quality stated were focused on customer satisfaction. Reports presented by the speakers are also included.

  17. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  18. Total synthesis of zincophorin methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Defosseux, Magali; Blanchard, Nicolas; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2003-10-30

    [reaction: see text]. A convergent total synthesis of the methyl ester of zincophorin, an ionophore antibiotic, has been realized relying on a diastereoselective titanium-mediated aldol coupling between the C1-C12 and C13-C25 subunits. The latter fragment was prepared by using a Carroll-Claisen rearrangement.

  19. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: research models

    PubMed Central

    PETRILLO, STEFANO; LONGO, UMILE GIUSEPPE; GULOTTA, LAWRENCE V.; BERTON, ALESSANDRA; KONTAXIS, ANDREAS; WRIGHT, TIMOTHY; DENARO, VINCENZO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the past decade has seen a considerable increase in the use of research models to study reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Nevertheless, none of these models has been shown to completely reflect real in vivo conditions. Methods we performed a systematic review of the literature matching the following key words: “reverse total shoulder arthroplasty” or “reverse total shoulder replacement” or “reverse total shoulder prosthesis” and “research models” or “biomechanical models” or “physical simulators” or “virtual simulators”. The following databases were screened: Medline, Google Scholar, EMBASE, CINAHIL and Ovid. We identified and included all articles reporting research models of any kind, such as physical or virtual simulators, in which RTSA and the glenohumeral joint were reproduced. Results computer models and cadaveric models are the most commonly used, and they were shown to be reliable in simulating in vivo conditions. Bone substitute models have been used in a few studies. Mechanical testing machines provided useful information on stability factors in RTSA. Conclusion because of the limitations of each individual model, additional research is required to develop a research model of RTSA that may reduce the limitations of those presently available, and increase the reproducibility of this technique in the clinical setting. PMID:28217660

  20. A Campus Is a Total Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    Described are the various components of the total college or university community and their associated environmental health and safety problems. Included are food service, insect and rodent control, multi-use athletic facilities, housing, laboratory animal facilities, laboratory biosafety, radiological health, fire protection, and emergency…

  1. Learning Language through Total Physical Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlatt, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    The Total Physical Response (TPR) method of language instruction is introduced, and guidelines for designing and implementing TPR lessons for students with hearing impairments are provided. In TPR instruction, students develop understanding before speech or signing, understanding is demonstrated through actions, and new vocabulary is developed…

  2. Total Quality Management: The Emperor's Tailor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Gary C.; Keeler, Carolyn M.

    Conversations among educators, business leaders, legislators, and educational reformers have generated support for the application of Total Quality Management (TQM) to education. This paper considers whether TQM is indeed the solution to education's problems. After a brief explanation of TQM theory, the paper is organized around four broad issues…

  3. Periprosthetic fractures around total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, SS; Patel, S; Reading, G; El-Husseiny, M; Douglas, S; Haddad, FS

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The number of total knee arthroplasties performed continues to rise annually and it would be expected that complications, which include periprosthetic fractures, will also therefore become more commonplace. This article reviews the current literature regarding this injury and identifies the treatment principles that enable patients to regain optimal function. METHODS A comprehensive search of the Pubmed and Embase™ databases was performed to identify relevant articles. Keywords and MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms included in the search strategy were ‘periprosthetic fracture(s)’, ‘femur’, ‘tibia’, ‘patella(r)’, ‘complication(s)’, ‘failure(s)’, ‘risk(s)’, ‘prevalence’, ‘incidence’, ‘epidemiology’ and ‘classification(s)’. The search was limited to all articles published in English and reference lists from the original articles were reviewed to identify pertinent articles to include in this review. A total number of 43 studies were identified. RESULTS Common treatment aims have been identified when managing patients with a periprosthetic fracture around total knee arthoplasty. The main criterion that determines which option to choose is the degree of remaining bone stock and the amount of fracture displacement. CONCLUSIONS Treatment of a periprosthetic fracture around total knee arthroplasty will either be non-operative, osteosynthesis or revision arthroplasty. It is imperative that a suitable option is chosen and based on the published literature, pathways are outlined to aid the surgeon. PMID:22943223

  4. Applying Total Quality Management in Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredendall, Lawrence D.; Lippert, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    South Carolina's Agricultural Service Laboratory received responses from 252 of 500 farmers who currently use the soil testing service; 97% were pleased with accuracy, 89% with turnaround time, 18% thought the fee too high. Nonusers (100 of 520) were mainly dissatisfied with turnaround time. Total quality management methods were used to improve…

  5. Neutron Total Scattering Analysis of Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffen, Th.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are entering many aspects of our lives as they often possess properties their bulk counterparts lack. The arsenal of structural characterization techniques for bulk materials is well established. In the case of nanomaterials these tools are just starting to emerge. In this paper the total scattering approach applied to nanomaterials and the promises it holds are discussed.

  6. Total Quality Management Goes to Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCosmo, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article details the four-year implementation of Total Quality Management at Delaware County Community College (Pennsylvania) to conserve resources, improve effectiveness, assure quality, and increase participation in decision making. Reported are planning, execution, and monitoring activities of the Implementation Team; specific problems…

  7. Total Quality Management (TQM) in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael F.

    This document consists largely of paper versions of the transparencies used by the author to give his conference paper on Total Quality Management (TQM) in the college and university setting. An introduction lists a series of definitional phrases, a list of what TQM is not, and 11 fundamental principles describing what TQM is. The three major…

  8. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOEpatents

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  9. Estimating Total Deposition Using NADP & CASTNET Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than 40 years, efforts have been made to estimate total sulfur and nitrogen deposition in the United States using a combination of measured concentrations in precipitation and in the air, precipitation amounts for wet deposition, and various modeled or estimated depositi...

  10. Knee disarticulation after total-knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Lambregts, S A M; Hitters, W M G C

    2002-12-01

    An 89-year-old woman who had a total-knee replacement in the past, underwent a knee disarticulation of the same leg because of an ischaemic foot. Eight (8) months postoperatively the stump is fully weight-bearing and the patient is able to walk safely, using a prosthesis and a walking frame.

  11. Total Synthesis of (+)-Condylocarpine, (+)-Isocondylocarpine, and (+)Tubotaiwine

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Nakamura, Seiichi; Otte, Ralf; Overman, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    The first enantioselective total syntheses of indolealk aloids of the condylocarpine type are reported. (+)-Condylocarpine, (+)-isocondylocarpine, and (+)-tubotaiwine were prepared in high enantiomeric purity (er >99:1) from (1 S,5 R)-hexahydro-1,5-methano-1 H-azocino[4,3 -b]indole-12-one 7b by way of five or six isolated intermediates. PMID:21133399

  12. The technology behind Colgate Total Advanced Fresh.

    PubMed

    Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    In the early 1990s, a breakthrough toothpaste, Colgate Total, was launched with documented long-lasting activity against plaque, gingivitis, calculus, tooth decay, and bad breath. The technology behind this toothpaste is the combination of triclosan, a polyvinylmethylether/maleic acid copolymer, and sodium fluoride. The copolymer ensures maximal oral retention and subsequent release of the antibacterial triclosan. Effective levels of triclosan have been observed in the oral cavity 12 hours after brushing the teeth, allowing prolonged control of oral bacteria that may cause the most common dental problems, including bad breath. Similarly, the enhanced retention of triclosan to oral surfaces after using this revolutionary toothpaste for up to 2 years has led to significantly reduced incremental coronal caries compared to an American Dental Association-Approved anticavity fluoride toothpaste. Furthermore, significantly less calcium remained in dental plaque after brushing the teeth with the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste, resulting in the formation of less tartar. In keeping with the multiple oral health benefits provided by Colgate Total, consumers are now offered a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, which provides the numerous therapeutic and esthetic benefits that are the hallmark of Colgate Total. The new dentifrice, which contains an impactful breath-freshening flavor, has been documented to provide sustained control of bad breath over 12 hours.

  13. The Total Solar Eclipse, March 1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the circumstances of the total and partial solar eclipse of March 7, 1970 in certain American cities. Also discussed are (1) a classroom demonstration of the cause of solar eclipses, (2) techniques for safely observing the eclipse, and (3) what to observe during the eclipse. Bibliography. (LC)

  14. Student Involvement: A Bridge to Total Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This document, prepared by students involved in the Task Force on Student Involvement program, provides guidelines for administrators who are attempting to enhance constructive student participation in the total educational program. An outline of specific recommendations for dealing with high school unrest is followed by general recommendations…

  15. Total Quality Management. ERIC Digest, Number 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Tyler

    The Japanese success story has made W. Edwards Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory increasingly popular among American managers, from car manufacturers to educational leaders. TQM is based on two tenets: the primacy of customer satisfaction and the necessity of tapping nontraditional sources (especially employee ideas) to institute…

  16. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Large Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Lakhotia, Smita; Mahajan, Chaitali; Manaktala, Gayatri; Shah, Parul

    2009-01-01

    Aim: In this review, we assessed the feasibility of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in cases of very large uteri weighing more than 500 grams. We have analyzed whether it is possible for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon to perform efficient total laparoscopic hysterectomy for large myomatous uteri regardless of the size, number and location of the myomas. Design: Retrospective review (Canadian Task Force Classification II-1) Setting: Dedicated high volume Gynecological laparoscopy centre. Patients: 173 women with symptomatic myomas who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy at our center. There were no exclusion criteria based on the size number or location of myomas. Intervention: TLH and modifications of performing the surgery by ligating the uterine arteries prior, myomectomy followed by hysterectomy, direct morcellation after uterine artery ligation. Results: 72% of patients had previous normal vaginal delivery and 28% had previous cesarean section. Average clinical size of the uterus was 18 weeks (10, 32). The average weight of the specimen was 700 grams (500, 2240). The average duration of surgery was 107 min (40, 300) and the average blood loss was 228 ml (10, 3200). Conclusion: Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a technically feasible procedure. It can be performed by experienced surgeons for large uteri regardless of the size, number or location of the myomas. PMID:22442509

  17. A Fix by Total Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, D. H.

    In anticipation of the TOTAL Solar Eclipse on 11 August 1999 (see the January/February issue of Navigation News), it seemed very appropriate to repeat this short article by one of the Institute's most respected Fellows. It was first published in Vol. VII, October 1954.A TOTAL eclipse of the Sun provides an opportunity, rare though it may be, of obtaining an instantaneous fix from the Sun alone. Eclipses vary greatly in character, in position on the Earth, in the width of the path of totality, in the duration, and also in the direction of the path. However, the shadow of the Moon cast by the Sun is always a right circular cone which, in the case of a total eclipse, intersects the Earth's surface at some point before its vertex. Owing to the motion of the Moon in its orbit round the Earth, the shadow moves at a speed of about 2000 m.p.h. from west to east (it varies considerably according to the distance of the Moon from the Earth). The intersection of this cone with the Earth's surface is an ellipse, which moves over the surface at speeds which are very high when the cone is nearly tangential (i.e. when the Sun's altitude is low) and at speeds as low as about 1000 m.p.h., when the eclipse is central over the equator at noon and the Earth's rotation has its maximum effect. The speed of the shadow is generally low enough to give a position line of considerable accuracy from the observed time of either second or third contacts, that is the beginning or ending of the total phase. An error of 1 second corresponds, in the most favourable case, to about one-third of a mile. The position line is, of course, the portion of the elliptic shadow corresponding to the observed phase and time; these can be precomputed.

  18. Early Predictors of Hypocalcemia After Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Genther, Dane J.; Lopez, Michael; Agrawal, Nishant; Tufano, Ralph P.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Postoperative hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy, and perioperative monitoring of serum calcium levels is arguably the primary reason for overnight hospitalization. Confidently predicting which patients will not develop significant hypocalcemia may allow for a safe earlier discharge. OBJECTIVE To examine associations of patient characteristics with hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH) level after total thyroidectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy by a single high-volume surgeon between February 1, 2010, and November 30, 2012. Postoperative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), calcium, and IPTH levels were tested within 6 to 8 hours after surgery. Mild hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.4 to 8.0 mg/dL. Significant hypocalcemia was defined as any postoperative serum calcium level of less than 8.0 mg/dL or the development of hypocalcemia-related symptoms. INTERVENTIONS Total thyroidectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Associations of patient demographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory values with postoperative mild and significant hypocalcemia were examined using univariate analysis, and independent predictors of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, and IPTH level were determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS Overall, 304 total thyroidectomies were performed. Mild and significant hypocalcemia occurred in 68 (22.4%) and 91 (29.9%) patients, respectively, of which the majority were female (P = .003). The development of significant hypocalcemia was associated with postoperative IPTH level (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, males had a decreased risk of developing mild (odds ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.16–0.85]) and significant (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.09–0.78]) hypocalcemia. Every 10-pg/mL increase in postoperative IPTH level

  19. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there were no significant discrepancies of TLR, TTA. These results are due to the compensation effect of KJRA. However, excessive external rotation of the femoral component beyond the compensation effect of prosthetic knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  20. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  1. Total body irradiation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Dinshaw, K.A.; Nair, C.N.; Ramakrishnan, G.

    1983-04-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI), given as 10 rad daily for five days a week for a total dose of 150 rad has been used in an attempt to control the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Thirteen patients with CML received fractionated TBI leading to rapid and good control of WBC count without any adverse reaction. The chronic phase of CML could also be controlled with TBI, even in three patients who were resistant to busulfan. Following TBI, WBC count remained under control for a period of 32 weeks as compared to 40 weeks following vusulfan alone. Repeat TBI was also well tolerated with good response. It appears that TBI is an effective and safe therapy for controlling the chronic phase of CML.

  2. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  3. Total synthesis of palau'amine

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kaihara, Yukari; Oda, Masataka; Nakayama, Akira; Nakayama, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanino, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Palau'amine has received a great deal of attention in the past two decades as an attractive synthetic target by virtue of its intriguing molecular architecture and significant immunosuppressive activity. Here we report the total synthesis of palau'amine characterized by the construction of an ABDE tetracyclic ring core including a trans-bicylo[3.3.0]octane skeleton at a middle stage of total synthesis. The ABDE tetracyclic ring core is constructed by a cascade reaction of a cleavage of the N–N bond, including simultaneous formation of imine, the addition of amide anion to the resulting imine (D-ring formation) and the condensation of pyrrole with methyl ester (B-ring formation) in a single step. The synthetic palau'amine is confirmed to exhibit excellent immunosuppressive activity. The present synthetic route has the potential to help elucidate a pharmacophore as well as the mechanistic details of immunosuppressive activity. PMID:26530707

  4. [J-pouch after total gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Prete, F; Montemurro, S; Rucci, A; Rinaldi, S; Liguori, P

    1992-04-01

    The Authors report their initial experience with the construction of a J-pouch as restorative surgery following total gastrectomy (TG) for malignant neoplasms. In the last 10 months of the 1990 upon 52 interventions for gastric cancer 31 TG were performed, and in 13 cases a J-pouch on the proximal end of the jejunal segment was constructed. No mortality or specific morbidity was registered using the totally stapled technique. Within one month 3/4 of the patients had normal meals as far as quantity and quality; also the foamy regurgitation seemed to be minimal. The ease of the reconstructive technique and the short term results obtained encourage the use of such approach.

  5. Total variation projection with first order schemes.

    PubMed

    Fadili, Jalal M; Peyre, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    This article proposes a new algorithm to compute the projection on the set of images whose total variation is bounded by a constant. The projection is computed through a dual formulation that is solved by first order non-smooth optimization methods. This yields an iterative algorithm that applies iterative soft thresholding to the dual vector field, and for which we establish convergence rate on the primal iterates. This projection algorithm can then be used as a building block in a variety of applications such as solving inverse problems under a total variation constraint, or for texture synthesis. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the usefulness and potential applicability of our TV projection algorithm on various examples including denoising, texture synthesis, inpainting, deconvolution and tomography problems. We also show that our projection algorithm competes favorably with state-of-the-art TV projection methods in terms of convergence speed.

  6. Acute arterial occlusion after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Patricia C; Rogic, Roselyn; Eddington, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    There are a number of complications associated with total knee-joint arthroplasty. These include deep venous thromboses, peroneal palsy, infection, anemia, and Ogilvie's syndrome. An uncommon but potentially limb-threatening complication is acute arterial occlusion. Approximately 35 cases have been reported in the orthopedic literature. Prompt recognition and treatment intervention are the keys to successful outcome. We describe the case of one patient who had mild peroneal palsy and developed acute arterial occlusion 9 days postoperatively while on the inpatient rehabilitation service. Prompt aggressive management restored arterial circulation to the lower limb. Careful management of patients after total knee arthroplasty requires an understanding that arterial occlusion is a rare limb-threatening complication of surgery, but that it is treatable with prompt, deliberate management. Physiatrists should be aware that this condition exists in postoperative knee-joint arthroplasty patients. They should pay careful attention to any patient with a history of peripheral vascular disease or postoperative peroneal palsy.

  7. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  8. A Modern Approach to Total Wellbeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzic, Maja; Chen, Meifania; Brouwer, Rick; Dillon, Tharam

    The events of the last decades have impacted our lives and our health significantly. We expected that the technology boom will improve our lives. While this may be true in a specific context, generally speaking our societies are suffering from moral decays, terrorism fears, wars, financial crisis and unpredictable acts of nature that are increasing in frequency and in intensity. The complex nature of the world we live is impacting our health and wellbeing considerably. Our health is not only determined by our physical health but is the end product of the interplay of the physical, mental, emotional, financial, relational and spiritual events of a lifetime. In this paper we develop a framework that will help us define and measure total wellbeing of individuals in our volatile societies. This framework will help us better understand the complex nature of total wellbeing and develop effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  9. Total ankle replacement. Design evolution and results.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Alexander; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Dereymaeker, Greta

    2010-04-01

    The ankle joint has unique anatomical, biomechanical and cartilaginous structural characteristics that allow the joint to withstand the very high mechanical stresses and strains over years. Any minor changes to any of these features predispose the joint to osteoarthritis. Total ankle replacement (TAR) is evolving as an alternative to ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Initial implant designs from the early 1970s had unacceptably high failure and complication rates. As a result many orthopaedic surgeons have restricted the use of TAR in favour of ankle arthrodesis. Long term follow-up studies following ankle arthrodesis show risks of developing adjacent joint osteoarthritis. Therefore research towards a successful ankle replacement continues. Newer designs and longer-term outcome studies have renewed the interest in ankle joint replacement. We present an overview of the evolution, results and current concepts of total ankle replacement.

  10. The totally constrained model: three quantization approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Olmedo, Javier

    2014-08-01

    We provide a detailed comparison of the different approaches available for the quantization of a totally constrained system with a constraint algebra generating the non-compact group. In particular, we consider three schemes: the Refined Algebraic Quantization, the Master Constraint Programme and the Uniform Discretizations approach. For the latter, we provide a quantum description where we identify semiclassical sectors of the kinematical Hilbert space. We study the quantum dynamics of the system in order to show that it is compatible with the classical continuum evolution. Among these quantization approaches, the Uniform Discretizations provides the simpler description in agreement with the classical theory of this particular model, and it is expected to give new insights about the quantum dynamics of more realistic totally constrained models such as canonical general relativity.

  11. Bladder tear during revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Jonathan N; Halim, Andrea; Keggi, Kristaps J

    2014-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and revision total hip arthroplasty are among the most commonly performed orthopedic procedures. There are many reported complications of THA, but intrapelvic complications are a rare subset. Bladder injuries have infrequently been described in association with this common procedure. We present an unusual case of a bladder tear occurring intraoperatively during a revision THA. It is suspected that the patient's history of multiple prior hip procedures caused adhesions of the bladder to the pelvic floor and predisposed the bladder to injury during acetabular revision. Previous reports of bladder injury relating to THA have described thermal necrosis, component migration, and occasional direct perforation. There are no prior case reports describing bladder tears related to adhesions occurring intraoperatively during revision THA. This case report highlights the importance of surgeon awareness of an unusual complication. In this case, intraoperative and postoperative recognition of a hematuria diagnosis led to the appropriate treatment, and this patient had an acceptable outcome.

  12. Assessing Operational Total Lightning Visualization Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total lightning data from the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total lightning networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total lightning data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total lightning networks to streamline training and

  13. Total Quality Management (TQM), an Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    TYPE AND DATES COVERED ISeptember 1991 In-Hfouse 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM), AN OVERVIEW PE - 62702F PR...proposed a 14 step approach to quality : 1. Management commitment 2. Quality improvement team 3. Quality measurement (defect rates) 4. Cost of quality ...evaluation 5 . Quality awareness 6. Corrective action 7. Ad hoc committee for zero defects program 8. Supervisor training 9. Zero defects day 10. Goal

  14. Total Quality Management: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    pp. 35-38. Perine, James L . "The Quest for Quality." ( Mission of the Federal Quality Institute) BUREAUCRAT, Vol. 19, Summer 1990, pp. 47-48. Reynolds...ELECTRONICS, Vol. 24, January 1992, pp. 49-52. Calfee, David L . "Get Your Mission Statement Working!" MANAGEMENT REVIEW, Vol. 82, January 1993, pp. 54...AD-A262 902 Total Quality Management A Selected Bibliography ......... 3APP4 , The United States, as an industrialized nation, has no choice about

  15. Tantalum Cones in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric G; Patel, Nirav K; Chughtai, Morad; Elmallah, Randa D K; Delanois, Ronald E; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-11-01

    The best strategy to address large bony defects in revision total knee arthroplasty has yet to be determined. The relatively recent development of porous tantalum cones and their use to address massive bone loss in knee arthroplasty has shown promising short- and intermediate-term results. The purpose of this review is to present the current literature on: (1) basic science of porous tantalum, (2) classification and treatment for bone loss, (3) clinical results, and (4) evolution of newer generation cones.

  16. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Described here are the accomplishments of NASA as a result of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM). The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories of TQM discussed here are top management leadership and support, strategic planning, focus on the customer, employee training and recognition, employee empowerment and teamwork, measurement and analysis, and quality assurance.

  17. NASA total quality management 1990 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's efforts in Total Quality Management are based on continuous improvement and serve as a foundation for NASA's present and future endeavors. Given here are numerous examples of quality strategies that have proven effective and efficient in a time when cost reduction is critical. These accomplishment benefit our Agency and help to achieve our primary goal, keeping American in the forefront of the aerospace industry.

  18. Economics of a total maintenance coatings program

    SciTech Connect

    Poncio, S.; Adkison, P. )

    1994-08-01

    Coating costs are escalating due to increased awareness of the environment and safety and health issues. Owners can reduce the overall cost of maintenance painting projects through the implementation of a total quality program. This program should encompass project pre-planning, evaluation of safety and quality assurance programs, and analysis of employee absenteeism and turnover. The information presented is a case history of one utility's experience managing a maintenance painting program during a five-year period.

  19. Total Hip Joint Replacement Biotelemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, J. F.; Postal, R. B.; Luntz, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a biotelemetry system that is hermetically sealed within a total hip replacement implant is reported. The telemetry system transmits six channels of stress data to reconstruct the major forces acting on the neck of the prosthesis and uses an induction power coupling technique to eliminate the need for internal batteries. The activities associated with the telemetry microminiaturization, data recovery console, hardware fabrications, power induction systems, electrical and mechanical testing and hermetic sealing test results are discussed.

  20. The benefits of total quality management.

    PubMed

    Geraedts, H P; Montenarie, R; van Rijk, P P

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we will review the implementation of the ISO 9000 quality system in the Department of Nuclear Medicine. We will also discuss the benefits of working with the ISO 9000 standards and explain why we have shifted our focus from ISO 9000 towards the EFQM model. After an introduction concerning Total Quality Management and the EFQM model, we will describe how we have used the EFQM model to date and how we intend to implement TQM in the future.

  1. Unintentional parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Fang, Qigen; Zhang, Xu; Cui, Meng; Zhao, Ming; Lou, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we investigated incidental parathyroidectomy during total thyroidectomy surgery that required central lymph node dissection and the potential risk factors. Patients requiring total thyroidectomy and tracheoesophageal groove node dissection were enrolled in the study from January 2013 to June 2015 and we obtained all medical information, including pathology reports. Furthermore, we recorded the parathyroid hormone level in all patients prior to operation and then 3 further times: 1 day, 1 week, and 3 months after surgery. A total of 341 patients (66 male and 275 female) were enrolled in the study. Microscopic examination of postoperative specimens revealed that incidental parathyroidectomy existed in 35 (10.3%) cases: 32 (91.4%) patients had 1 parathyroid gland excised, 3 (8.6%) patients had 2 parathyroid glands excised, and no patients had 3 or more parathyroid glands resected. The mean size of the resected glands was 4.6 mm. Parathyroid tissue from 16 (42.1%) cases was located in the intrathyroidal position, 6 glands were located in central lymphatic adipose tissue, and 16 glands were located within or along with thymus tissue. Lateral neck dissection significantly increased the risk of incidental parathyroidectomy (P < 0.001). No other factors including age, sex, and postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia were significantly associated with incidental parathyroidectomy (all P > 0.05), though incidental parathyroidectomy tended to cause transient hypoparathyroidism (P = 0.051). Therefore, the risk of incidental parathyroidectomy in total thyroidectomy is relatively low; the majority of the resected parathyroid tissue is situated outside the thyroid, therefore we suggest future operations focus on preserving the parathyroid gland when the node dissection is close to the thymus. Incidental parathyroidectomy appears to have an effect on the expression of parathyroid hormone and it is significantly associated with lateral cervical

  2. Multi sensor reanalysis of total ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der A, R. J.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Eskes, H. J.

    2010-11-01

    A single coherent total ozone dataset, called the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR), has been created from all available ozone column data measured by polar orbiting satellites in the near-ultraviolet Huggins band in the last thirty years. Fourteen total ozone satellite retrieval datasets from the instruments TOMS (on the satellites Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe), SBUV (Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11 and NOAA-16), GOME (ERS-2), SCIAMACHY (Envisat), OMI (EOS-Aura), and GOME-2 (Metop-A) have been used in the MSR. As first step a bias correction scheme is applied to all satellite observations, based on independent ground-based total ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center. The correction is a function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time (trend), and effective ozone temperature. As second step data assimilation was applied to create a global dataset of total ozone analyses. The data assimilation method is a sub-optimal implementation of the Kalman filter technique, and is based on a chemical transport model driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. The chemical transport model provides a detailed description of (stratospheric) transport and uses parameterisations for gas-phase and ozone hole chemistry. The MSR dataset results from a 30-year data assimilation run with the 14 corrected satellite datasets as input, and is available on a grid of 1× 1 1/2° with a sample frequency of 6 h for the complete time period (1978-2008). The Observation-minus-Analysis (OmA) statistics show that the bias of the MSR analyses is less than 1% with an RMS standard deviation of about 2% as compared to the corrected satellite observations used.

  3. Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc.

    PubMed

    Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2015-12-15

    The total baroreflex arc [the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP)] is known to exhibit nonlinear behaviors. However, few studies have quantitatively characterized its nonlinear dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop a nonlinear model of the sympathetically mediated total arc without assuming any model form. Normal rats were studied under anesthesia. The vagal and aortic depressor nerves were sectioned, the carotid sinus regions were isolated and attached to a servo-controlled piston pump, and the AP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were measured. CSP was perturbed using a Gaussian white noise signal. A second-order Volterra model was developed by applying nonparametric identification to the measurements. The second-order kernel was mainly diagonal, but the diagonal differed in shape from the first-order kernel. Hence, a reduced second-order model was similarly developed comprising a linear dynamic system in parallel with a squaring system in cascade with a slower linear dynamic system. This "Uryson" model predicted AP changes 12% better (P < 0.01) than a linear model in response to new Gaussian white noise CSP. The model also predicted nonlinear behaviors, including thresholding and mean responses to CSP changes about the mean. Models of the neural arc (the system relating CSP to SNA) and peripheral arc (the system relating SNA to AP) were likewise developed and tested. However, these models of subsystems of the total arc showed approximately linear behaviors. In conclusion, the validated nonlinear model of the total arc revealed that the system takes on an Uryson structure.

  4. Complications of Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanasundaram, Arun; Lombardi, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Chronic Total Occlusions (CTO) is an accepted revascularization procedure. These complex procedures carry with them certain risks and potential complications. Complications of PCI such as contrast induced renal dysfunction, radiation, etc, assume more relevance given the length and complexity of these procedures. Further, certain complications such as donor vessel injury, foreign body entrapment are unique to CTO PCI. A thorough understanding of the potential complications is important in mitigating risk during these complex procedures.

  5. Measured flexion following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mai, Kenny T; Verioti, Christopher A; Hardwick, Mary E; Ezzet, Kace A; Copp, Steven N; Colwell, Clifford W

    2012-10-01

    Postoperative flexion is an important factor in the outcome of total knee arthroplasty. Although normal activities of daily living require a minimum of 105° to 110° of flexion, patients from non-Western cultures often engage in activities such as kneeling and squatting that require higher flexion. The desire to achieve greater flexion serves as the driving force for prosthetic modifications, including high-flexion designs. Techniques used to measure knee flexion and knee position during measurement are not often described or are different depending on the examiner. The purpose of this study was to compare active (self) and passive (assisted) flexion after successful total knee arthroplasty for 5 prostheses (2 standard and 3 high-flexion) using clinical (goniometer) and radiographic (true lateral radiograph) measurement techniques by different independent examiners.At a mean follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 1-5.6 years), a total of 108 patients (144 total knee arthroplasties) had completed the study. Mean postoperative active flexion was 111° clinically and 109° radiographically for the standard designs and 114° clinically and 117° radiographically for the high-flexion designs. Adding passive flexion increased flexion to 115° clinically and 117° radiographically for the standard designs and 119° clinically and 124° radiographically for the high-flexion designs. Flexion differences between the 2 measurement techniques (active vs passive and clinically vs radiographically) were statistically significant (P<.05). These findings demonstrate the importance of describing how flexion is measured in studies and understanding how the method of measurement can affect the findings.

  6. Total synthesis of (+)-antroquinonol and (+)-antroquinonol D.

    PubMed

    Sulake, Rohidas S; Chen, Chinpiao

    2015-03-06

    The first total synthesis of (+)-antroquinonol and (+)-antroquinonol D, two structurally unique quinonols with a sesquiterpene side chain, is described. The route features an iridium-catalyzed olefin isomerization-Claisen rearrangement reaction (ICR), lactonization, and Grubbs olefin metathesis. The requisite α,β-unsaturation was achieved via the selenylation/oxidation protocol and elimination of β-methoxy group to provide two natural products from a common intermediate.

  7. Total Synthesis of Hapalindoles J and U

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Ryan J.; Williams, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of D,L-hapalindoles J and U has been accomplished. Hapalindole J was prepared in 11% overall yield over eleven synthetic steps and hapalindole U was prepared in 25% overall yield over thirteen synthetic steps from commercially available materials. The route employs a novel silyl ether-based strategy for accessing the 6:5:6:6 ring system of the hapalindoles rapidly and in good yields. PMID:22126131

  8. Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc

    PubMed Central

    Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The total baroreflex arc [the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP)] is known to exhibit nonlinear behaviors. However, few studies have quantitatively characterized its nonlinear dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop a nonlinear model of the sympathetically mediated total arc without assuming any model form. Normal rats were studied under anesthesia. The vagal and aortic depressor nerves were sectioned, the carotid sinus regions were isolated and attached to a servo-controlled piston pump, and the AP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were measured. CSP was perturbed using a Gaussian white noise signal. A second-order Volterra model was developed by applying nonparametric identification to the measurements. The second-order kernel was mainly diagonal, but the diagonal differed in shape from the first-order kernel. Hence, a reduced second-order model was similarly developed comprising a linear dynamic system in parallel with a squaring system in cascade with a slower linear dynamic system. This “Uryson” model predicted AP changes 12% better (P < 0.01) than a linear model in response to new Gaussian white noise CSP. The model also predicted nonlinear behaviors, including thresholding and mean responses to CSP changes about the mean. Models of the neural arc (the system relating CSP to SNA) and peripheral arc (the system relating SNA to AP) were likewise developed and tested. However, these models of subsystems of the total arc showed approximately linear behaviors. In conclusion, the validated nonlinear model of the total arc revealed that the system takes on an Uryson structure. PMID:26354845

  9. Measurement of total organic concentration in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, E.

    1978-01-01

    Instrument for determining total organic concentration in water uses no corrosive reagents or gases. Instead continuous ultraviolet photolysis process converts organic compounds to carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 electrode is used to measure CO2 content. Only reagent necessary is oxygen, generated in situ by electrolyzing some water. In addition to application in aerospace industry, system has potential uses in pollution monitoring and in laboratory analyses.

  10. Total quality management -- Remedial actions planning program

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, J.L.; Horne, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the management approach being taken within the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Support Contractor Office (SCO) to ensure quality of services in a highly competitive waste management environment. An overview is presented of the contractor support role assigned to Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) national program for managing hazardous waste. The HAZWRAP SCO mission, organizational structure, and major programs are outlined, with emphasis on waste management planning for the DOE Work for Others (WFO) Program. The HAZWRAP SCO provides waste management technical support, via interagency agreements between DOE and various Department of Defense (DOD) agencies for DOD sponsors planning remedial response actions. The remainder of the paper focuses on how the concept of Total Quality Management is applied to the HAZWRAP Remedial Actions Planning (RAP) Program. The management challenge is to achieve quality on a ''system'' basis where all functional elements of program management synergistically contribute to the total quality of the effort. The quality assurance (QA) program requirements applied to the RAP Program and its subcontractors are discussed. The application of management principles in the areas of program management, procurement, and QA to achieve total quality is presented. 3 refs.

  11. Advanced lymphosarcoma treated by total body irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Chaffey, J. T.; Rosenthal, D. S.; Pinkus, F.; Hellman, S.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of clinical Stage III and Stage IV lymphosarcoma primarily treated by total body irradiation (TBI) are reported. Fifteen cases demonstrated nodular histology and 10 demonstrated diffuse histology by the Rappaport criteria. Treatments were 15 rad given twice weekly, calculated to midpelvis, to a total dose of 150 rad. Toxicity was confined to thrombocytopenia, one-third of patients requiring interruptions in the treatment course to allow platelet count recovery. Five patients had additional local irradiation. Complete responses were seen in 80% of patients and partial responses in 20%. Sixteen patients (64%) have been in continuous, unmaintained remission since treatments for variable periods to 39 months. Of 9 patients with clinically recurrent disease, 3 received further TBI and are in remission, 3 are in remission on chemotherapy, one patient has died, failing on all therapy, and 2 have not been treated. One patient died of pneumonia at 12 months, without clinical evidence of disease. Overall, actuarial survival is 87% at 2 years and compares well with survival in a sequential combination drug treated group of patients matched for age, sex, and histology, though differences are not statistically significant in these small groups. Total body irradiation is an effective systemic agent in the management of advanced lymphosarcoma and should be considered in treating this disease. PMID:810155

  12. Dicke phase transition without total spin conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Torre, Emanuele G.; Shchadilova, Yulia; Wilner, Eli Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Demler, Eugene

    2016-12-01

    We develop a fermionic path-integral formalism to analyze the phase diagram of open nonequilibrium systems. The formalism is applied to analyze an ensemble of two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode optical cavity, described by the Dicke model. While this model is often used as the paradigmatic example of a phase transition in driven-dissipative systems, earlier theoretical studies were limited to the special case when the total spin of the atomic ensemble is conserved. This assumption is not justified in most experimental realizations. Our approach allows us to analyze the problem in a more general case, including the experimentally relevant case of dissipative processes that act on each atom individually and do not conserve the total spin. We obtain a general expression for the position of the transition, which contains as special cases the two previously known regimes: (i) nonequilibrium systems with losses and conserved spin and (ii) closed systems in thermal equilibrium and with the Gibbs-ensemble averaging over the values of the total spin. We perform a detailed study of different types of baths and point out the possibility of a surprising nonmonotonic dependence of the transition on the baths' parameters.

  13. The Planar Ising Model and Total Positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    A matrix is called totally positive (resp. totally nonnegative) if all its minors are positive (resp. nonnegative). Consider the Ising model with free boundary conditions and no external field on a planar graph G. Let a_1,dots ,a_k,b_k,dots ,b_1 be vertices placed in a counterclockwise order on the outer face of G. We show that the k× k matrix of the two-point spin correlation functions M_{i,j} = < σ _{a_i} σ _{b_j} rangle is totally nonnegative. Moreover, det M > 0 if and only if there exist k pairwise vertex-disjoint paths that connect a_i with b_i. We also compute the scaling limit at criticality of the probability that there are k parallel and disjoint connections between a_i and b_i in the double random current model. Our results are based on a new distributional relation between double random currents and random alternating flows of Talaska [37].

  14. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.

    2009-01-01

    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  15. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  16. 257 Incidental Appendectomies During Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deidre T.; O'Holleran, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective observational report analyzes the demographics, blood loss, length of surgical duration, number of days in the hospital, and complications for 821 consecutive patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy over a 11-year period stratified by incidental appendectomy. Methods: A retrospective chart abstraction was performed. ANOVA and chi-square tests were performed with significance preset at P<0.05. Results: Of 821 consecutive patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 257 underwent elective appendectomy with the ultrasonic scalpel, either as part of their staging, treatment for pelvic pain, or prophylaxis against appendicitis. Comparing the 2 groups, no difference existed in mean age of 50±10 years or mean BMI of 27.6±6.7. Both groups had a similar mean blood loss of 130 mL. Surgery took less time (137 vs 118 minutes, P<0.0012) and the hospital stay was shorter in the appendectomy group (1.5 vs 1.2, P<0.0001) possibly because it was performed incidentally in most cases. No complications were attributable to the appendectomy, and complication types and rates in both groups were similar. Though all appendicies appeared normal, pathology was documented in 9%, including 3 carcinoid tumors. Conclusions: Incidental appendectomy during total laparoscopic hysterectomy is not associated with significant risk and can be routinely offered to patients planning elective gynecologic laparoscopic procedures, as is standard for open procedures. PMID:18237505

  17. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    SciTech Connect

    Cranston, J.S.; Taglianetti, J.N.; Schaeffer, D.G.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities` specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost.

  18. [Total temporomandibular joint replacement with alloplastic prosthesis].

    PubMed

    García-Huerta, Marco Antonio; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Mena-Gómez, Eddy

    2012-01-01

    Three total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement surgeries were performed on two patients with TMJ ankylosis using W. Lorenz system. The first surgery was performed on a female patient with osseous ankylosis who had no mandibular movement since she was 18 months old. The second surgery was on a patient with fibrous ankylosis who had an interincisive opening distance of 12 mm. Her condition was the result of a three year old subcondylar fracture which didn't receive any treatment. The first patient had total replacement of both TMJs, while the other just one TMJ. The follow up until today has been of eight months with an interincisive opening of 29 mm in the first patient and 34 mm in the other. There has not been any mandibular deviation during opening, nor postoperative pain in both cases. Facial nerve affection was not permanent in both patients. For all of this, we can conclude that total TMJ replacement is an effective treatment with stable results in patients with TMJ ankylosis.

  19. The Development of Total Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K

    2017-01-01

    The first patient to receive complete nourishment of a patient by intravenous infusion independent of the alimentary tract was an infant girl born with near-total small bowel atresia. Total parenteral nutrition, the intravenous infusion of nutrients, has been attempted since Harvey's description of the circulatory system in the early 17th century. The modern era of parenteral nutrition began in the early 20th century, when infusions of glucose, plasma, and emulsified fat into humans proved feasible. Robert Elman, working in the 1930s and 1940s, demonstrated that carefully prepared protein hydrolysates could be safely infused intravenously and incorporated by the body. Stanley Dudrick and Douglas Wilmore, surgeon researchers at the University of Pennsylvania, worked through the many details of preparation, administration, and clinical monitoring in beagle puppies before testing them on adult patients malnourished from a variety of surgical complications and gastrointestinal conditions. They applied their techniques and formulations on a newborn wasting away from congenital absence of the small bowel, the baby growing and developing for several months while being nourished completely by total parenteral nutrition. Their techniques, inspired by patients with progressive malnutrition from devastating intestinal conditions and malformations, form the basis of the practice of intravenous nutrition practiced today.

  20. Observation of the total solar eclipsis. L'observation des eclipses totales solaires

    SciTech Connect

    Koutchmy, S.

    1987-03-01

    A brief historical account of the solar-total-eclipses events is presented to show their importance, including their use for the scientific analysis of the solar corona, since 1848. The main parameters and a schema of the eclipses are given. Several examples of investigations performed during a solar total eclipse are discussed.

  1. Bilateral chylothorax after transsternal total thymectomy: resolution with short period of fasting and total parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinsik; Kim, Su Wan; Lee, Seogjae

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chylothorax after transsternal total thymectomy is very rare, but can be a serious complication. Disruption of minor lymphatic channels in the anterior mediastinum which is remote from thoracic duct is considered to be the cause of chylothorax. We report the case of bilateral chylothorax followed by thymectomy which was treated with pleural drainage, total parenteral nutrition, and fasting without octreotide injection. PMID:27076983

  2. Intraday Variability in total and polarized intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabanyi, Krisztina Eva; Krichbaum, Thomas; Marchili, Nicola

    The phenomenon of Intraday Variability (IDV) is the rapid flux density variations of blazars over large range of radio frequencies. The characteristic variability time scale ranges from half an hour to a few days. The peak-to-trough variability amplitude is typically between a few percents and a few tens of percent in total intensity, however it can be as high as 50% to 100% in polarized intensity. Using causality and the common light-travel time argument, the variability time scales translate into source sizes on the µas scale and consequently into brightness temperatures in the range of 1015 - 1021 K. These values are far in excess of the inverse Compton-limit brightness temperature. Relativistic boosting with high Doppler factors (>> 50) would be required to reduce these brightness temperatures to the inverse Compton-limit. However, such high Doppler factors were not observed in kinetic studies of the relativistic jets of blazars. The source-extrinsic interpretation of IDV however, attributes the rapid amplitude variations to interstellar scintillation (ISS) caused by the intervening ionized interstellar medium of the Milky Way. In this interpretation, the above mentioned extreme brightness temperatures are avoided. In the context of this propagation theory, the different variability patterns in total and linearly polarized flux density are explained by the existence of differently polarized sub-components in the source. The (soon-to-be-launched) second generation orbiting radio antenna, ASTRO-G will be able to observe polarization, moreover it will be possible to calibrate the measurements via observing close-by polarized sources. The radio interferometric array consisting of the orbiting antenna and ground-based radio antennas will provide sub-mas scale resolution. Thus, it will be possible to observe these polarized sub-components. Several aspects of total intensity and polarization variability will be demonstrated on an ex-ample IDV source, J1128+592.

  3. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  4. Assessment of total efficiency in adiabatic engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitianiec, W.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents influence of ceramic coating in all surfaces of the combustion chamber of SI four-stroke engine on working parameters mainly on heat balance and total efficiency. Three cases of engine were considered: standard without ceramic coating, fully adiabatic combustion chamber and engine with different thickness of ceramic coating. Consideration of adiabatic or semi-adiabatic engine was connected with mathematical modelling of heat transfer from the cylinder gas to the cooling medium. This model takes into account changeable convection coefficient based on the experimental formulas of Woschni, heat conductivity of multi-layer walls and also small effect of radiation in SI engines. The simulation model was elaborated with full heat transfer to the cooling medium and unsteady gas flow in the engine intake and exhaust systems. The computer program taking into account 0D model of engine processes in the cylinder and 1D model of gas flow was elaborated for determination of many basic engine thermodynamic parameters for Suzuki DR-Z400S 400 cc SI engine. The paper presents calculation results of influence of the ceramic coating thickness on indicated pressure, specific fuel consumption, cooling and exhaust heat losses. Next it were presented comparisons of effective power, heat losses in the cooling and exhaust systems, total efficiency in function of engine rotational speed and also comparison of temperature inside the cylinder for standard, semi-adiabatic and full adiabatic engine. On the basis of the achieved results it was found higher total efficiency of adiabatic engines at 2500 rpm from 27% for standard engine to 37% for full adiabatic engine.

  5. Total Quality Management. A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    serialization. 5 pts. QUALITY PROGRESS, Vol. 26, January 1993, pp. 73-75; Vol. 26, February 1993, pp. 55-57; Vol. 26, March 1993, pp. 91-94; Vol. 26...34 Quality in Services." 4 articles. Pp. 131-145: " Quality in the Public Sector." 5 articles. Pp. 147-164: " Quality in R&D." 6 articles. Pp. 169-216...Massachu- setts Institute of Technology, Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1986. 507pp. (HD70 USD45 1986) Feigenbaum , A.V. TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL

  6. Total Quality Management: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Jossey-Bass, 1987. 204pp. (HD58.7 B58 1987) BLUEPRINTS FOR SERVICE QUALITY : THE FEDERAL EXPRESS APPROACH . New York: American Management Association...1990s. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1990. 248pp. (TS156 T62 1990) Feigenbaum , A.V. TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL. 3d ed, rev. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991...FORD, XEROX, AND GM. New York: Times Books/Random House, 1990. 326pp. (TS156 G3 1990) Garvin , David A. MANAGING QUALITY : THE STRATEGIC AND COMPETI

  7. On the total variation dictionary model.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tieyong; Ng, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical study of a total variation (TV) dictionary model. Based on the properties of convex analysis and bounded variation functions, the existence of solutions of the TV dictionary model is proved. We then show that the dual form of the model can be given by the minimization of the sum of the l(1) -norm of the dual solution and the Bregman distance between the curvature of the primal solution and the subdifferential of TV norm of the dual solution. This theoretical result suggests that the dictionary must represent sparsely the curvatures of solution image in order to obtain a better denoising performance.

  8. Solar total energy project summary description

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, R W; Leonard, J A

    1983-03-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) at Shenandoah, GA is described. A summary description of the energy system, its location, and the project site are presented. The system is further described including design criteria and requirements, performance criteria, and operating requirements. The major subsystems of the STEP--the Solar Collection Subsystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES)--are described, including their major components. Specific features of the control and instrumentation provisions for the system and subsystem operational modes are also described and the costs of construction presented.

  9. Iterative methods for total variation denoising

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.R.; Oman, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Total variation (TV) methods are very effective for recovering ``blocky,`` possibly discontinuous, images from noisy data. A fixed point algorithm for minimizing a TV-penalized least squares functional is presented and compared with existing minimization schemes. A variant of the cell-centered finite difference multigrid method of Ewing and Shen is implemented for solving the (large, sparse) linear subproblems. Numerical results are presented for one- and two-dimensional examples; in particular, the algorithm is applied to actual data obtained from confocal microscopy.

  10. PERIPROSTHETIC FRACTURES IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar, Paulo Gilberto Cimbalista; De Bortoli, Giovani; Ventura Vieira, Inácio Facó; Uliana, Christiano Saliba

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of total knee arthroplasties, in combination with the population's longer life expectancy, has led to a greater number of long-term complications. These add to the poor bone quality of elderly patients and often culminate in periprosthetic fractures. This complex orthopedic problem has a great diversity of clinical presentation. It may affect any of the bones in the knee and, because of the difficulty in finding solutions, may lead to disastrous outcomes. Its treatment requires that orthopedists should have broad knowledge both of arthroplasty techniques and of osteosynthesis, as well as an elaborate therapeutic arsenal including, for example, access to a bone bank. PMID:27022546

  11. Total synthesis and biological investigation of (-)-promysalin.

    PubMed

    Steele, Andrew D; Knouse, Kyle W; Keohane, Colleen E; Wuest, William M

    2015-06-17

    Compounds that specifically target pathogenic bacteria are greatly needed, and identifying the method by which they act would provide new avenues of treatment. Herein we report the concise, high-yielding total synthesis (eight steps, 35% yield) of promysalin, a natural product that displays antivirulence phenotypes against pathogenic bacteria. Guided by bioinformatics, four diastereomers were synthesized, and the relative and absolute stereochemistries were confirmed by spectral and biological analysis. Finally, we show for the first time that promysalin displays two antivirulence phenotypes: the dispersion of mature biofilms and the inhibition of pyoverdine production, hinting at a unique pathogenic-specific mechanism of action.

  12. Total Ankle Arthroplasty: An Imaging Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Rae; Potter, Hollis G.; Li, Angela E.; Chun, Ka-Young; Jung, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin-Su; Young, Ki-Won

    2016-01-01

    With advances in implant technology, total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has become an increasingly popular alternative to arthrodesis for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis. However, reports in the literature do not focus on the imaging features of TAA. Through a literature review, we demonstrate basic design features of the current ankle arthroplasty system, and the normal and abnormal postoperative imaging features associated with such devices. Pre- and postoperative evaluations of ankle arthroplasty mainly include radiography; in addition, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide further characterization of imaging abnormalities. Familiarization with multimodal imaging features of frequent procedural complications at various postoperative intervals is important in radiological practice. PMID:27134529

  13. Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Bhende, Harish; Laud, Nanadkishore; Deore, Sandeep; Shashidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    In Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients. PMID:26538765

  14. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lyngbyabellin M

    PubMed Central

    Pirovani, Rodrigo V.; Brito, Gilmar A.; Barcelos, Rosimeire C.; Pilli, Ronaldo A.

    2015-01-01

    Lyngbyabellin M is a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase derived metabolite isolated from the cyanobacterium M. bouillonii displaying thiazole rings and a distinct chlorinated octanoic acid chain. Its absolute configuration was proposed based on the comparison of its spectroscopic data with those of other representatives of this family of marine natural products, as well as degradation and derivatization studies. Here the first total synthesis of (+)-lyngbyabellin M is described based on the coupling of three key intermediates: two chiral thiazole moieties and an anti hydroxycarboxylic acid prepared stereoselectively via a boron enolate mediated aldol reaction directed by Masamune’s chiral auxiliary. PMID:26023838

  15. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  16. A completely implantable total artificial heart system.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A; Rosenberg, G; Weiss, W; Pierce, W; Pae, W; Marlotte, J; Nazarian, R; Ford, S

    1991-01-01

    The authors developed, built, and tested in vivo a completely implanted total artificial heart (TAH) system. The system used a reduced size version of a roller screw energy converter and mating sac blood pumps. The motor drive, pumps, and a compliance chamber were implanted intrathoracically. A canister containing controlling electronics and an emergency battery was implanted in the abdomen. The secondary coil of an inductive energy transmission and telemetry system was placed over the ribs. The system was implanted in three calves, that survived 0.5-13 days with the system. The system maintained safe left atrial pressures and adequate cardiac outputs during each animal's entire course.

  17. Total Elbow Arthroplasty for Distal Humerus Fractures.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Luke S; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2015-11-01

    Total elbow arthroplasty is a good treatment alternative for selected patients with distal humerus fractures. Its attractiveness is related to several factors, including the possibility of performing the procedure; leaving the extensor mechanism intact; faster, easier rehabilitation compared with internal fixation; and overall good outcomes reported in terms of both pain relief and function. Implant failure leading to revision surgery does happen, and patients must comply with certain limitations to extend the longevity of their implant. Development of high-performance implants may allow expanding the indications of elbow arthroplasty for fractures.

  18. Perioperative pain management for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2014-01-01

    Pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be challenging. Inadequate pain management following TKA may inhibit rehabilitation, increase morbidity and mortality, decrease patient satisfaction, and lead to chronic persistent postsurgical pain. Traditionally the mainstay of postoperative pain management was opioids; however, the current recommendations to pain management emphasize a multimodal approach and minimizing opioids whenever possible. With careful planning and a multimodal analgesic approach instituted perioperatively, appropriate pain management following TKA can be achieved. Utilizing an extensive review of the literature, this article discusses the analgesic techniques available for the perioperative management of TKA.

  19. Total Synthesis of (-)-Salvinorin A.

    PubMed

    Line, Nathan J; Burns, Aaron C; Butler, Sean C; Casbohm, Jerry; Forsyth, Craig J

    2016-12-12

    Salvinorin A (1) is natural hallucinogen that binds the human κ-opioid receptor. A total synthesis has been developed that parlays the stereochemistry of l-(+)-tartaric acid into that of (-)-1 via an unprecedented allylic dithiane intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction to obtain the trans-decalin scaffold. Tsuji allylation set the C9 quaternary center and a late-stage stereoselective chiral ligand-assisted addition of a 3-titanium furan upon a C12 aldehyde/C17 methyl ester established the furanyl lactone moiety. The tartrate diol was finally converted into the C1,C2 keto-acetate.

  20. Total synthesis of incarviditone and incarvilleatone.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick D; Willis, Anthony C; Sherburn, Michael S; Lawrence, Andrew L

    2012-09-07

    The total synthesis of the racemic natural products (±)-incarviditone and (±)-incarvilleatone has been accomplished in three steps via biomimetic dimerization of (±)-rengyolone. Homochiral dimerization of (±)-rengyolone affords (±)-incarviditone through a domino oxa-Michael/Michael sequence. Heterochiral dimerization, involving a domino oxa-Michael/Michael/aldol reaction sequence, affords (±)-incarvilleatone. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of a derivative of (±)-incarviditone has resulted in revision of the originally proposed structure.

  1. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Ieodomycin B

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuangjie; Zhang, Jianting; Zhang, Zhibin; Xu, Tianxiang; Huang, Shuangping; Wang, Xiaoji

    2017-01-01

    Ieodomycin B, which shows in vitro antimicrobial activity, was isolated from a marine Bacillus species. A novel asymmetric total synthetic approach to ieodomycin B using commercially available geraniol was achieved. The approach involves the generation of 1,3-trans-dihydroxyl at C-3 and C-5 positions via a Crimmins-modified Evans aldol reaction and a chelation-controlled Mukaiyama aldol reaction of a p-methoxybenzyl-protected aldehyde, as well as the generation of a lactone ring in a deprotection–lactonization one-pot reaction. PMID:28106760

  2. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  3. Gap balancing in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bottros, John; Gad, Bishoy; Krebs, Viktor; Barsoum, Wael K

    2006-06-01

    It is well known that the success of total knee arthroplasty is collectively dependent on the proper recreation of the joint line, appropriate soft tissue balancing, and respectful management of the extensor mechanism. One of the most decisive factors within the surgeon's control is the reestablishment of proper knee kinematics through both medial-lateral and flexion-extension ligamentous balancing. This can be accomplished only by a comprehensive intraoperative evaluation in full flexion, mid flexion, and full extension to minimize potential gap mismatches. Most of the discussion will focus on this aspect of soft tissue balancing, but this does not undermine the importance of the other aforementioned principles of successful knee arthroplasty.

  4. Gas extrusion in natural products total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shi, Lei; Liu, Hui; Khan, Akbar H; Chen, Jason S

    2012-11-14

    The thermodynamic driving force from the release of a gaseous molecule drives a broad range of synthetic transformations. This review focuses on gas expulsion in key reactions within natural products total syntheses, selected from the past two decades. The highlighted examples survey transformations that generate sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbonyl sulfide, or nitrogen through polar, radical, pericyclic, photochemical, or organometallic mechanisms. Of particular interest are applications wherein the gas extrusion enables formation of a synthetically challenging motif, such as an unusually hindered or strained bond.

  5. Total-variation regularization with bound constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2009-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.

  6. Pathologic Processing of the Total Mesorectal Excision

    PubMed Central

    Campa-Thompson, Molly; Weir, Robert; Calcetera, Natalie; Quirke, Philip; Carmack, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the current optimal surgical treatment for patients with rectal carcinoma. A complete TME is related to lower local recurrence rates and increased patient survival. Many confounding factors in the patient's anatomy and prior therapy can make it difficult to obtain a perfect plane, and thus a complete TME. The resection specimen can be thoroughly evaluated, grossly and microscopically, to identify substandard surgical outcomes and increased risk of local recurrence. Complete and accurate data reporting is critical for patient care and helps surgeons improve their technique. PMID:25733973

  7. Cervical total disk replacement: complications and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Salari, Behnam; McAfee, Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion for neurologic deficits, radicular arm pain, and neck pain refractory to conservative management are successful. The approach and procedure were first described in 1955 and have become the anterior cervical standard of care for orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. Advancements and innovations have addressed disease processes of the cervical spine with motion-preserving technology. The possibility of obtaining anterior cervical decompression while maintaining adjacent segment motion led to the advent of cervical total disk replacement. The Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 cervical devices with other investigational device exemption trials under way.

  8. Total body nitrogen analysis. [neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of two potential in vivo neutron activation methods for determining total and partial body nitrogen in animals and humans are described. A method using the CO-11 in the expired air as a measure of nitrogen content was found to be adequate for small animals such as rats, but inadequate for human measurements due to a slow excretion rate. Studies on the method of measuring the induced N-13 in the body show that with further development, this method should be adequate for measuring muscle mass changes occurring in animals or humans during space flight.

  9. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a total laryngectomy patient

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pulkit; Siwach, Amit; Arora, Gurleen; Agarwal, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental objective in restoring a defect created after total laryngectomy with a custom made silicone prosthesis is to enable the patient to cope better with the difficult process of rehabilitation after a major surgery has been performed. A cosmetically acceptable prosthesis that reproduces the color and form and allows the patient to return to his/her accustomed lifestyle. A sequence of steps for construction of custom-made laryngeal prosthesis is outlined in this case report using the readily available materials and method which any prosthodontist can readily understand and deliver. PMID:26929545

  10. The infected total knee: management options.

    PubMed

    Cuckler, John M

    2005-06-01

    The management of infection after total knee arthroplasty depends on the chronicity of the infection, host factors, and sensitivity of the infecting bacteria. Two-stage salvage consisting of removal of implants and cement, placement of an antibiotic spacer, and appropriate intravenous antibiotic therapy followed by reimplantation with an antibiotic-impregnated cement appears to be the predominant approach to managing this complication. The use of articulated spacers consisting of the sterilized femoral and polyethylene components with antibiotic cement allows maintenance of motion and bone stock. This report details the author's experience with 44 infected knee arthroplasties.

  11. The Total Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Steven; Nevens, Stijn

    2016-10-01

    We present the composite measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) as measured by an ensemble of space instruments. The measurements of the individual instruments are put on a common absolute scale, and their quality is assessed by intercomparison. The composite time series is the average of all available measurements. From 1984 April to the present the TSI shows a variation in phase with the 11 yr solar cycle and no significant changes of the quiet-Sun level in between the three covered solar minima.

  12. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Mahajan, Chaitali; Raje, Shweta; Kadam, Pratima; Rao, Gayatri; Shitut, Prachi

    2011-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.

  13. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Mahajan, Chaitali; Raje, Shweta; Kadam, Pratima; Rao, Gayatri; Shitut, Prachi

    2011-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision. PMID:21197248

  14. Dual mobility cups in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Ivan; Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios Konstantinos; Sculco, Peter Keyes; Sculco, Thomas Peter

    2014-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is considered one of the most successful surgical procedures in orthopaedics. With the increase in the number of THAs performed in the world in the next decades, reducing or preventing medical and mechanical complications such as post-operative THA instability will be of paramount importance, particularly in an emerging health care environment based on quality control and patient outcome. Dual mobility acetabular component (also known as unconstrained tripolar implant) was introduced in France at the end of the 1970s as an alternative to standard sockets, to reduce the risk of THA dislocation in patients undergoing primary THA in France. Dual mobility cups have recently gained wider attention in the United States as an alternative option in the prevention and treatment of instability in both primary and revision THA and offer the benefit of increased stability without compromising clinical outcomes and implant longevity. In this article, we review the use of dual mobility cup in total hip arthroplasty in terms of its history, biomechanics, outcomes and complications based on more than 20 years of medical literature. PMID:25035820

  15. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  16. Annular and Total Solar Eclipses of 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Anderson, J.

    2008-01-01

    While most NASA eclipse bulletins cover a single eclipse, this publication presents predictions for two solar eclipses during 2010. This has required a different organization of the material into the following sections. Section 1 -- Eclipse Predictions: The section consists of a general discussion about the eclipse path maps, Besselian elements, shadow contacts, eclipse path tables, local circumstances tables, and the lunar limb profile. Section 2 -- Annular Solar Eclipse of 2010 Ja n 15: The section covers predictions and weather prospects for the annular eclipse. Section 3 -- Total Solar Eclipse of 2010 Jul 11: The se ction covers predictions and weather prospects for the total eclipse. Section 4 -- Observing Eclipses: The section provides information on eye safety, solar filters, eclipse photography, and making contact timings from the path limits. Section 5 -- Eclipse Resources: The final section contains a number of resources including information on the IAU Working Group on Eclipses, the Solar Eclipse Mailing List, the NASA eclipse bulletins on the Internet, Web sites for the two 2010 eclipses, and a summary identifying the algorithms, ephemerides, and paramete rs used in the eclipse predictions.

  17. Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal Hernia Repair Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bresnahan, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has become increasingly popular as an alternative to open surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the laparoscopic total extraperitoneal procedure with the use of staple fixation and polypropylene mesh. Methods: A retrospective chart review examined outcomes of 1240 laparoscopic hernia operations in 783 patients, focusing on intraoperative and early postoperative complications, pain, and time until return to work and normal physical activities. Results: There were no intraoperative complications in this series; 106 patients experienced early postoperative complications across 8 evaluated categories: urinary retention (4.1%), seroma (3.0%), testicular/hemiscrotal swelling (1.9%), testicular atrophy (0%), hydrocele (0.6%), mesh infection (0.1%), and neurological symptoms (transient, 1.0%; persistent, 0.2%). Patients used an average of 5.6 Percocet pills after the procedure, and mean times until return to work and normal activities, including their routine exercise regimen, were 3.0 and 3.8 days, respectively. Conclusion: Complication rates and convalescence times were considered equivalent or superior to those found in other studies assessing both laparoscopic and open techniques. The usage of multiple Endostaples did not result in increased neurologic complications in the early postoperative period when compared with findings in the literature. In the hands of an experienced surgeon, total extraperitoneal repair is a safe, effective alternative to open inguinal hernia repair. PMID:27493471

  18. Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Bao, Ning; Paris, Leela L.; Geahlen, Robert L.; Lu, Chang

    2009-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has been widely used to explore biological events that are close to the cell membrane by illuminating fluorescent molecules using the evanescent wave. However, TIRFM is typically limited to the examination of a low number of cells and the results do not reveal potential heterogeneity in the cell population. In this report, we develop an analytical tool referred to as total internal reflection fluorescence flow cytometry (TIRF-FC) to examine the region of the cell membrane with a throughput of ~100–150 cells/s and single cell resolution. We use an elastomeric valve that is partially closed to force flowing cells in contact with the glass surface where the evanescent field resides. We demonstrate that TIRF-FC is able to detect the differences in the subcellular location of an intracellular fluorescent protein. Proper data processing and analysis allows TIRF-FC to be quantitative. With the high throughput, TIRF-FC will be a very useful tool for generating information on cell populations with events and dynamics close to the cell surface. PMID:19007249

  19. Methods development for total organic carbon accountability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Brian L.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the efforts completed during the contract period beginning November 1, 1990 and ending April 30, 1991. Samples of product hygiene and potable water from WRT 3A were supplied by NASA/MSFC prior to contract award on July 24, 1990. Humidity condensate samples were supplied on August 3, 1990. During the course of this contract chemical analyses were performed on these samples to qualitatively determine specific components comprising, the measured organic carbon concentration. In addition, these samples and known standard solutions were used to identify and develop methodology useful to future comprehensive characterization of similar samples. Standard analyses including pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC) were conducted. Colorimetric and enzyme linked assays for total protein, bile acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose were also performed. Gas chromatographic procedures for non-volatile fatty acids and EPA priority pollutants were also performed. Liquid chromatography was used to screen for non-volatile, water soluble compounds not amenable to GC techniques. Methods development efforts were initiated to separate and quantitate certain chemical classes not classically analyzed in water and wastewater samples. These included carbohydrates, organic acids, and amino acids. Finally, efforts were initiated to identify useful concentration techniques to enhance detection limits and recovery of non-volatile, water soluble compounds.

  20. Low frequency oscillations in total ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, X. H.; Stanford, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Low frequency oscillations with periods of approximately one to two months are found in eight years of global grids of total ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite instrument. The low frequency oscillations corroborate earlier analyses based on four years of data. In addition, both annual and seasonal one-point correlation maps based on the 8-year TOMS data are presented. The results clearly show a standing dipole in ozone perturbations, oscillating with 35 to 50 day periods over the equatorial Indian Ocean-west Pacific region. This contrasts with the eastward moving dipole reported in other data sets. The standing ozone dipole appears to be a dynamical feature associated with vertical atmospheric motions. Consistent with prior analyses based on lower stratospheric temperature fields, large-scale standing patterns are also found in the extratropics of both hemispheres, correlated with ozone fluctuations over the equatorial west Pacific. In the Northern Hemisphere, a standing pattern is observed extending from the tropical Indian Ocean to the north Pacific, across North America, and down to the equatorial Atlantic Ocean region. This feature is most pronounced in the NH summer.

  1. Orientation of birds in total darkness.

    PubMed

    Stapput, Katrin; Thalau, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2008-04-22

    Magnetic compass orientation of migratory birds is known to be light dependent, and radical-pair processes have been identified as the underlying mechanism. Here we report for the first time results of tests with European robins, Erithacus rubecula, in total darkness and, as a control, under 565 nm green light. Under green light, the robins oriented in their normal migratory direction, with southerly headings in autumn and northerly headings in spring. By contrast, in darkness they significantly preferred westerly directions in spring as well as autumn. This failure to show the normal seasonal change characterizes the orientation in total darkness as a "fixed direction" response. Tests in magnetic fields with the vertical or the horizontal component inverted showed that the preferred direction depended on the magnetic field but did not involve the avian inclination compass. A high-frequency field of 1.315 MHz did not affect the behavior, whereas local anesthesia of the upper beak resulted in disorientation. The behavior in darkness is thus fundamentally different from normal compass orientation and relies on another source of magnetic information: It does not involve the radical-pair mechanism but rather originates in the iron-containing receptors in the upper beak.

  2. Lubrication regimes in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, A; Shepherd, D E T

    2007-08-01

    A number of total disc arthroplasty devices have been developed. Some concern has been expressed that wear may be a potential failure mode for these devices, as has been seen with hip arthroplasty. The aim of this paper was to investigate the lubrication regimes that occur in lumbar total disc arthroplasty devices. The disc arthroplasty was modelled as a ball-and-socket joint. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory was used to calculate the minimum film thickness of the fluid between the bearing surfaces. The lubrication regime was then determined for different material combinations, size of implant, and trunk velocity. Disc arthroplasties with a metal-polymer or metal-metal material combination operate with a boundary lubrication regime. A ceramic-ceramic material combination has the potential to operate with fluid-film lubrication. Disc arthroplasties with a metal-polymer or metal-metal material combination are likely to generate wear debris. In future, it is worth considering a ceramic-ceramic material combination as this is likely to reduce wear.

  3. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.

  4. Spatial modelling of total storm rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Cox, D. R.; Eagleson, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    The spatial structure of the depth of rainfall from a stationary storm event is investigated by using point process techniques. Cells are assumed to be stationary and to be distributed in space either independently according to a Poisson process, or with clustering according to a Neyman-Scott scheme. Total storm rainfall at the centre of each cell is a random variable and rainfall is distributed around the centre in a way specified by a spread function that may incorporate random parameters. The mean, variance and covariance structure of the precipitation depth at a point are obtained for different spread functions. For exponentially distributed centre depth and a spread function having quadratically exponential decay, the total storm depth at any point in the field is shown to have a gamma distribution. The probability of zero rainfall at a point is investigated, as is the stochastic variability of model parameters from storm to storm. Data from the Upper Rio Guaire basin in Venezuela are used in illustration.

  5. Kelvin waves in total column ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical Kelvin waves have been observed previously in ozone mixing ratio data from the SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) instruments on board the Nimbus-7 satellite. The present study investigates Kelvin wave features in total column ozone, using version 6 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument (also on Nimbus-7). Results show eastward-propagating zonal waves 1-2 with periods approx. 5-15 days, amplitudes approx. 3-5 Dobson Units (1-2% of the time mean), and latitudinal symmetry typical of Kelvin waves. The analyses and a linear model in this study suggest that the primary source of the perturbations is slow Kelvin waves in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. Maximum Kelvin wave signatures occur in conjunction with westward lower-to-middle stratospheric equatorial zonal winds (a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wind modulation effect). The significance of these results is that the TOMS data are shown to be useful for investigations with global coverage of a major component of tropical stratospheric dynamics, Kelvin waves. The TOMS data set with its excellent coverage and high quality should be useful in validating model studies in the relatively data sparse and dynamically difficult tropical region.

  6. Solar Total Energy Project final test report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.F.; Abney, L.O.; Towner, M.L. )

    1990-09-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP), a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Georgia Power Company (GPC) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, has undergone several design modifications based on experience from previous operations and test programs. The experiences encountered were discussed in detail in the Solar Total Energy Project Summary Report'' completed in 1987 for DOE. Most of the proposed changes discussed in this report were installed and tested in 1987 as part of two 15-day test programs (SNL Contract No. 06-3049). However, several of the suggested changes were not completed before 1988. These plant modifications include a new distributed control system for the balance of plant (BOP), a fiber a optical communications ring for the field control system, and new control configuration reflecting the new operational procedures caused by the plant modifications. These modifications were tested during a non-consecutive day test, and a 60-day field test conducted during the autumn of 1989. These test were partially funded by SNL under Contract No. 42-4859, dated June 22, 1989. Results of these tests and preliminary analysis are presented in this test summary report. 9 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Calculation of the total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I. ); Stelbovics, A.T. )

    1994-04-01

    The total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen are calculated by applying the convergent-close-coupling method to the model where positronium-formation channels are omitted. This model accurately describes the physics of the scattering whenever the positronium formation cross section is negligible, in particular, above 100 eV for this system. The total ionization cross section results in this energy region are in excellent agreement with the recent measurements of Jones [ital et] [ital al]. [J. Phys. B 26, L483 (1993)], and so lie below the earlier measurements of Spicher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1019 (1990)], and the recent calculations of Acacia [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)]. The total cross section is in very good agreement with the recent measurements of Zhou [ital et] [ital al]. (unpublished) down to 30 eV.

  8. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2014-01-28

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.

  9. Implications for rehabilitation after total wrist arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lockard, Margery A

    2004-09-01

    Achieving satisfactory, long-term functional outcomes after total wrist arthroplasty surgery has proved more complicated than with arthroplasties in joints such as the hip or knee. However, improvements in implant design and surgical technique have resulted in recent successes and evidence that wrist arthroplasty may be an appropriate choice to improve function in select patients. This article reviews factors that therapists must consider in planning, implementing, and progressing individual patients' rehabilitation programs after wrist arthroplasty surgery. Therapists must be knowledgeable about the specifics of each patient's surgery so that the rehabilitation program can be customized appropriately and can contribute to achieving pain-free stable wrist movement that allows patients to perform their desired functional activities.

  10. Total quality management in clinical virology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Tibbets, M W; Gomez, R; Kannangai, R; Sridharan, G

    2006-10-01

    The diagnostic laboratories in India are progressively promoting higher standards and are moving towards accreditation and international acceptance. Hence, the concept of "Quality" will need to be understood and implemented. Total quality management (TQM) in a laboratory is an integrated program involving all laboratory staff and management. TQM is a framework to operate and it is aiming for integration, consistency, increase in efficiency and a continuous drive for improvement. A well structured clinical virology service will include serology setup, cell culture facility and capacity for molecular diagnosis. The quality of results from the laboratory is significantly influenced by many pre-analytical and post-analytical factors which needed attention. The end goal of the TQM should be to provide the best care possible for the patient.

  11. Total quality management issues in managed care.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D

    1997-01-01

    The implementation of total quality management (TQM) in health care has gone on in parallel with the growth of managed care. What is the interaction between the two? Key issues are the ascendance of cost control over quality in many areas, erosion of employee commitment and loyalty, and a short-run orientation. Associated with this is an emphasis on organizational learning rather than learning by autonomous professionals. Both TQM and managed care acknowledge the dynamic nature of clinical processes and the ability and responsibility of both institutions and clinicians to improve their processes. Both are consistent with efforts to identify and implement best practices. However, these similarities should not mask fundamental differences. Continuous improvement must shift its focus from avoiding unnecessary variation to facilitating rapid organizational learning and institutionalizing mass customization into the delivery of health services.

  12. Total Mercury in Six Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Sleadd, Isaac M; Gundersen, Deke T; Kohl, Kristina; Buckley, Bradley A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed white muscle samples from six species of Antarctic fish (suborder Notothenioidei) collected in 2011 from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica, to assess levels of total mercury (THg). Gymnodraco acuticeps and Trematomus bernacchii exhibited the highest concentrations of THg followed by Trematomus pennellii, Trematomus nicolai, Trematomus newnesi and Pagothenia borchgrevinki, (71.3, 53.9±32.1, 45.8±27.3, 37.2±18.6, 35.7±23.6, and 21.9±2.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively). The results from this study suggest that THg has the potential to bioaccumulate from various marine Antarctic ecosystems into biota.

  13. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Betty P. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    NASA and contractor employees achieved many notable improvements in 1989. The highlights of those improvements, described in this seventh annual Accomplishments Report, demonstrate that the people who support NASA's activities are getting more involved in quality and continuous improvement efforts. Their gains solidly support NASA's and this Nation's goal to remain a leader in space exploration and in world-wide market competition, and, when communicated to others through avenues such as this report, foster improvement efforts across government and industry. The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories in this report reflect NASA principles set forth in the 1980's and are more commonly known today as Total Quality Management (TQM): top management leadership and support; strategic planning; focus on the customer; employee training and recognition; employee empowerment and teamwork; measurement and analysis; and quality assurance.

  14. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  15. Radiological evaluation of painful total hip replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Jamshid, T.; Schneider, R.; Freiberger, R.H.

    1981-11-01

    Ninety-four cases of clinically failed, cemented, total hip prostheses requiring surgery were reviewed to determine the accuracy of preoperative plain radiography, culture of aspirated fluid, arthrography, and bone scanning. When radiopaque cement had been used to embed the prosthesis, plain radiography was highly accurate in detecting a loose femoral component, less so in detecting a loose acetabular component. Culture of aspirated fluid was accurate in diagnosing infection. A positive arthrogram identified loosening with good accuracy; however, a negative arthrogram did not reliably exclude loosening. /sup 99/mTc bone scans frequently differentiated loosening from loosening with infection. The suggested sequence of diagnostic tests is plain radiography followed by bone scanning. If the bone scan shows diffuse augmented uptake, culture of aspirated fluid followed by arthrography is indicated.

  16. Radiological evaluation of painful total hip replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Schneider, R.; Freiberger, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-four cases of clinically failed, cemented, total hip prostheses requiring surgery were reviewed to determine the accuracy of preoperative plain radiography, culture of aspirated fluid, arthrography, and bone scanning. When radiopaque cement had been used to embed the prosthesis, plain radiography was highly accurate in detecting a loose femoral component, less so in detecting a loose acetabular component. Culture of aspirated fluid was accurate in diagnosing infection. A positive arthrogram identified loosening with good accuracy; however, a negative arthrogram did not reliably exclude loosening. /sup 99/mTc bone scans frequently differentiated loosening from loosening with infection. The suggested sequence of diagnostic tests is plain radiography followed by bone scanning. If the bone scan shows diffuse augmented uptake, culture of aspirated fluid followed by arthrography is indicated.

  17. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  18. Total nitrogen content of deep sea basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, T. L.; Schaeffer, O. A.

    1982-01-01

    An estimate of the total nitrogen content of the earth's mantle, aimed at furnishing a further constraint for earth atmosphere origin and evolution models, was attempted through thermal neutron activation analysis via N-14(n,p)C-14 for the case of deep sea basalt glasses from the East Pacific Rise, the Mid-Atlantic Rift, and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The increased nitrogen abundance of matrix material from the same samples as the glasses may be due to the incorporation of chemically-bound nitrogen from sea water, rather than dissolved molecular nitrogen. A discussion is presented of factors affecting observed basalt nitrogen content and its interpretation in terms of mantle nitrogen abundance. A 2 ppm N lower limit is estimated for the mantle.

  19. Treatment of an adolescent with total ankyloglossia.

    PubMed

    Hamamci, Nihal; Özer, Törün; Hamamci, Orhan; Tümen, Emin Caner; Ağaçkiran, Engin

    2010-01-01

    This is a report about the orthodontic treatment of a 13-year, 10-month-old boy with total ankyloglossia combined with a Class III occlusion. The patient's tongue was fixed to the floor of his mouth and could not be elevated at all. He had a maxillary deficiency and a mandibular protrusion with a negative overjet. However, he was able to retrude his mandible to an edge-to-edge position. Before orthodontic treatment, the ankyloglossia was surgically rectified. Orthodontic treatment was initiated to improve the patient's occlusion and facial appearance by correcting his retruded maxilla by means of a face mask, fixed appliances, and Class III elastics. This led to a functional occlusion and an acceptable facial appearance.

  20. Frustrated total internal reflection of laser eigenstates

    SciTech Connect

    Balcou, P.; Dutriaux, L.; Bretenaker, F.; Le Floch, A.

    1996-07-01

    The role of frustrated total internal reflection in the dynamics of laser eigenstates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. We first derive the Jones matrix of a frustrating element for a realistic Gaussian beam in a single-pass geometry. We point out the existence of three different angular regimes, namely, a pure frustration regime, an intermediate regime, and a quasi-Fabry{endash}Perot regime. We then explore in each case the nature and the competition between the laser polarization eigenstates. A novel spiraling behavior of the laser parameters is demonstrated when the frustrating gap is varied, along with puzzling polarization-flipping effects, that may modify strongly the conditions that optimize the laser-output power. Experimental results agree with a theoretical model. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  1. UPRE method for total variation parameter selection

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlberg, Brendt; Lin, Youzuo

    2008-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) Regularization is an important method for solving a wide variety of inverse problems in image processing. In order to optimize the reconstructed image, it is important to choose the optimal regularization parameter. The Unbiased Predictive Risk Estimator (UPRE) has been shown to give a very good estimate of this parameter for Tikhonov Regularization. In this paper we propose an approach to extend UPRE method to the TV problem. However, applying the extended UPRE is impractical in the case of inverse problems such as de blurring, due to the large scale of the associated linear problem. We also propose an approach to reducing the large scale problem to a small problem, significantly reducing computational requirements while providing a good approximation to the original problem.

  2. Total quality management in health care.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S C

    1994-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM), continuous quality improvement (CQI) and quality control are terms that are becoming very familiar to workers in the health care environment. The purpose of this article is to discuss these terms and the concepts they describe. The origins of TQM and the keen interest in its application to the health care environment today are addressed. In other environments, TQM has shown significant increases in productivity while increasing effectiveness. Its application to the health care environment is the provision of the best possible care through continuously improving service to meet or exceed the needs and expectations of the customer. The customer in the health care environment could be the patient, staff, physician and community serviced by the hospital. Characteristics of the new organizational structure are reviewed. Established techniques and processes are commonly used to identify process-improvement opportunities to assist the manager in continuously evaluating quality trends.

  3. Total hip arthroplasty in the ankylosed hip.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Megan A; Huo, Michael H

    2011-12-01

    Altered biomechanics secondary to hip ankylosis often result in degeneration of the lumbar spine, ipsilateral knee, and contralateral hip and knee. Symptoms in these joints may be reduced with conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) of the ankylosed hip. THA in the ankylosed hip is a technically challenging procedure, and the overall clinical outcome is generally less satisfactory than routine THA performed for osteoarthritis and other etiologies. Functional integrity of the hip abductor muscles is the most important predictor of walking ability following conversion THA. Many patients experience persistent limp, and it can take up to 2 years to fully assess final functional outcome. Risk factors cited for increased risk of failed THA include prior surgical ankylosis and age <50 years at the time of conversion THA.

  4. Blood Management Strategies in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Michael; Martinez Martos, Sara; Beller, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A perioperative blood management program is one of a number of important elements for successful patient care in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and surgeons should be proactive in its application. The aims of blood conservation are to reduce the risk of blood transfusion whilst at the same time maximizing hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period, leading to a positive effect on outcome and cost. An individualized strategy based on patient specific risk factors, anticipated blood loss and comorbidities are useful in achieving this aim. Multiple blood conservation strategies are available in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods and can be employed in various combinations. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of preoperative Hb optimization, minimizing blood loss and evidence-based transfusion guidelines. Given TKA is an elective procedure, a zero allogenic blood transfusion rate should be the aim and an achievable goal. PMID:27595070

  5. A challenging case of total phalloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, R; Jayaraman, V.

    2012-01-01

    Plastic surgery continues to maintain a prominent presence in the evolution of male genital reconstruction. In this case report, we are presenting a case of post-electric burn with a total loss of penis. Sustaining other major injuries following an electric burn with loss of right upper limb and extensive tissue damage to left upper limb, abdomen and both thighs, this young male patient was initially managed from life-threatening problems. With many options closed following a major electric burn and its acute management, penile and urethral reconstruction was a unique and a great challenge in this patient. Heeding to the patient's wish of male pattern micturition, we had performed a successful reconstruction of urethra and entire phallus with groin flap. PMID:22754174

  6. Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Abashin, Maxim; Blair, John; Wu, Qi; Park, Wounjhang; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Summers, Christopher J

    2007-06-25

    An integrated total internal reflection prism is demonstrated that generates a transversely localized evanescent wave along the boundary between a photonic crystal and an etched out trench. The reflection can be described by either the odd symmetry of the Bloch wave or a tangential momentum matching condition. In addition, the Bloch wave propagates through the photonic crystal in a negative refraction regime, which manages diffraction within the prism. A device with three input channels has been fabricated and tested that illuminates different regions of the reflection interface. The reflected wave is then sampled by a photonic wire array, where the individual channels are resolved. Heterodyne near field scanning optical microscopy is used to characterize the spatial phase variation of the evanescent wave and its decay constant.

  7. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6π-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  8. Total variation regularization with bounded linear variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    One of the most known techniques for signal denoising is based on total variation regularization (TV regularization). A better understanding of TV regularization is necessary to provide a stronger mathematical justification for using TV minimization in signal processing. In this work, we deal with an intermediate case between one- and two-dimensional cases; that is, a discrete function to be processed is two-dimensional radially symmetric piecewise constant. For this case, the exact solution to the problem can be obtained as follows: first, calculate the average values over rings of the noisy function; second, calculate the shift values and their directions using closed formulae depending on a regularization parameter and structure of rings. Despite the TV regularization is effective for noise removal; it often destroys fine details and thin structures of images. In order to overcome this drawback, we use the TV regularization for signal denoising subject to linear signal variations are bounded.

  9. Neck after total laryngectomy: CT study

    SciTech Connect

    DiSantis, D.J.; Balfe, D.M.; Hayden, R.E.; Sagel, S.S.; Sessions, D.; Lee, J.K.T.

    1984-12-01

    Computed tomographic scans in 23 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy were analyzed retrospectively to determine normal postoperative appearance and to evaluate the role of CT in assessing recurrent neoplasm. Nine patients without clinical evidence of recurrence illustrated the normal postoperative changes: a round or ovoid neopharynx connecting the base of the tongue with the cervical esophagus and intact fat planes surrounding the neopharynx, neurovascular bundles, and sternocleidomastoid muscles. In the 12 patients with recurrent neoplasm, the CT manifestations included masses involving the internal jugular lymph node chain, tracheostomy site, or paratracheal region. CT supplemented physical examination and indirect mirror examination, providing data regarding presence and extent of recurrent tumor and aiding in planning the mode and scope of therapy.

  10. Total synthesis of zyzzyanones A-D

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Dwayaja H.; Murugesan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Zyzzyanones A-D is a group of biologically active marine alkaloids isolated from Australian marine sponge Zyzzya fuliginosa. They contain a unique bispyrroloquinone ring system as the core structure. The first total synthesis of all four zyzzyanones is described here. The synthesis of these alkaloids started from a previously known 6-benzylamino indole-4,7-quinone derivative and involves 6–7 steps. The key step in the synthesis involves the construction of a pyrrole ring in one step using a Mn(OAc)3 mediated oxidative free radical cyclization reaction of a 6-benzylamino indole-4,7-quinone derivative with 4-benzyloxyphenyl acetaldehyde diethyl acetal in CH3CN. PMID:23956468

  11. Total knee arthroplasty closure with barbed sutures.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, Tom; Quane, Erika

    2010-09-01

    Bidirectional barbed sutures, which do not require the tying of knots, have the potential to reduce closure times of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) wounds without adverse effect to wound security, cosmesis, or infection risk. In this retrospective study, data were reviewed from TKAs performed between January 2007 and September 2008. For 88 of these procedures, conventional absorbable sutures were used for interrupted closure of the retinacular and subcutaneous layers and for running closure of the subcuticular layer. For 90 procedures, bidirectional barbed absorbable sutures were used for running closure of the retinacular and subcutaneous layers. Surgeries performed with barbed sutures were significantly faster than those performed with conventional sutures (mean times of 74.3 minutes and 85.8 minutes, respectively, p < 0.001) with no detrimental clinical effects.

  12. Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects.

    PubMed

    De Beni, R; Cornoldi, C

    1988-10-01

    Research on totally blind subjects performing tasks that involve visual imagery has often shown that they do not behave differently from matched sighted subjects, even when their blindness is congenital. If visual imagery is based on visual perception, such tasks may not required visual imagery. In the present article visual images are considered as representations maintaining some properties of visible objects and constructed on the basis of information from various sources. Owing to the absence of visual experience, the limitations of such representations are explored in a series of experiments requiring memorization of single nouns, pairs of nouns, or triplets of nouns associated with a cue noun. Recall by blind subjects was impaired when multiple interactive images (with noun pairs and triplets) are formed. The poorer recall of blind subjects reflected also loss of order information. Recall was better for both groups with locative noun cues and high-imagery targets.

  13. Microextraction of total lipid from mesopelagic animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenbichler, Kim R.; Bailey, Thomas G.

    1991-10-01

    A modification of the Bligh and Dyer lipid extraction method ( Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37, 911-917, 1959) is described. The technique utilizes commercially available Teflon membrane microfiltration units that permit filtration and solvent separation to occur simultaneously. Thus, rapid and efficient microextraction of total lipid (20-200 μg) can be accomplished from tissue homogenates at reduced solvent volumes. The primary advantages of this modification include increased accuracy for small samples, increased productivity and reduced exposure to solvent fumes. Extraction efficiencies ranged from 95 to 100% for standards and naturally occurring lipid extracts of two midwater fish species. Precision of the method, measured as per cent standard deviation between replicate extracts of whole fish homogenates, range from 0.7 to 2.7%.

  14. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  15. Fracture Blisters After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Halawi, Mohamad J

    2015-08-01

    Fracture blisters are tense vesicles that arise on markedly swollen skin overlying traumatized soft tissue. While this relatively uncommon complication has been well described in the trauma literature, this article reports for the first time a case of fracture blisters after primary total knee arthroplasty. The fracture blisters developed within 36 hours of surgery and were associated with profound swelling and erythema. There was no evidence of vascular injury, compartment syndrome, iatrogenic fracture, or deep venous thrombosis. The patient was treated with leg elevation, loosely applied nonadhesive dressings, and a short course of oral antibiotics after skin desquamation. Blood-filled blisters required longer time to reepithelialization than fluid-filled blisters. Knee stiffness developed because of pain and fear of participation with physical therapy, but the patient was able to resume intensive rehabilitation after resolution of the blisters. Patient factors, surgical factors, and review of the literature are discussed.

  16. Iliopsoas bursitis following total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y M; Gupte, C M; Beverly, M J

    2004-12-01

    We report the imaging features of a 52-year-old man presenting with a groin mass and gross lower limb oedema secondary to venous occlusion by massive cystic enlargement of the iliopsoas bursa 4 years after uncemented primary total hip replacement. Ultrasonography of the groin mass demonstrated a large cystic lesion extending into the pelvis. CT showed displacement of the external iliac vessels with venous compression. Bursography showed the bursa's margins and no communication with the hip joint. Diagnostic aspiration excluded infection, but fluid recollection occurred subsequently. Complete resolution of symptoms, including limb swelling, followed surgical excision with no recurrence at the 5-year follow-up. We believe iliopsoas bursitis occurred as a tissue response to polyethylene wear within the prosthetic hip and occurred even in the absence of loosening or a direct communication between bursa and joint.

  17. [Total ethmoidectomy by frontal and transmaxillary approach].

    PubMed

    Desaulty, A; Lozes, G; Gelaude, A; Vankemmel, B; Jomin, M

    1987-01-01

    Four patients with cancer of ethmoid with extension to base of skull were treated by total ethmoidectomy through a subfrontal and transmaxillary approach, the complementary paralateronasal approach being necessary in only one case. Apart from the approach routes, particular features of the technique used were essentially the size of the frontal flap extending to orbital roof, and mainly the confection of a pericranial flap formed of epicranial aponeurosis lined with frontoparietal periosteum and pedunculated at the orbital border. Exposure of the tumor by the neurosurgical and sublabial transmaxillary route allows correct excision of cancers extending to cribriform plate. The pericranial plate completes the traditional base of skull plastic operation and appears to reduce risk of cerebromeningeal complications. The technique is proposed for cancer infiltrating meninges: it is valid whatever the age of patients.

  18. Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: in opposition.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, David S

    2004-06-01

    At the Knee Society Winter Meeting in 2003, Seth Greenwald and I debated about whether there should be new standards (ie, regulations) applied to the release of information to the public on "new developments." I argued for the public's "right to know" prior to the publication of peer-reviewed literature. He argued for regulatory constraint or "proving by peer-reviewed publication" before alerting the public. It is not a contradiction for me to currently argue against the public advertising of minimally invasive (MIS) total hip arthroplasty as not yet being in the best interest of the public. It is hard to remember a concept that has so captured both the public's and the surgical community's fancy as MIS. Patients are "demanding" MIS without knowing why. Surgeons are offering it as the next best, greatest thing without having developed the skill and experience to avoid the surgery's risks. If you put "minimally invasive hip replacement" into the Google search engine (http://www.google.com), you get 5,170 matches. If you put the same words in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi), referencing the National Library of Medicine database, you get SEVENTEEN; none is really a peer-reviewed article. Most are 1 page papers in orthopedics from medical education meetings. On the other hand, there are over 6,000 peer-reviewed articles on total hip arthroplasty. Dr. Thomas Sculco, my couterpart in this debate, wrote an insightful editorial in the American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery in which he stated: "Although these procedures have generated incredible interest and enthusiasm, I am concerned that they may be performed to the detriment of our patients." I couldn't agree with him more. Smaller is not necessarily better and, when it is worse, it will be the "smaller" that is held accountable.

  19. Total Percutaneous Aortic Repair: Midterm Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Clare L. Fotiadis, Nikolas; Renfrew, Ian; Walsh, Michael; Brohi, Karim; Kyriakides, Constantinos; Matson, Matthew

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and midterm outcomes of percutaneous endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic pathology. Between December 2003 and June 2005, 21 patients (mean age: 60.4 {+-} 17.1 years; 15 males, 6 females) underwent endovascular stent-graft insertion for thoracic (n = 13) or abdominal aortic (n = 8) pathology. Preprocedural computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to assess the suitability of aorto-iliac and common femoral artery (CFA) anatomy, including the degree of CFA calcification, for total percutaneous aortic stent-graft repair. Percutaneous access was used for the introduction of 18- to 26-Fr delivery devices. A 'preclose' closure technique using two Perclose suture devices (Perclose A-T; Abbott Vascular) was used in all cases. Data were prospectively collected. Each CFA puncture site was assessed via clinical examination and CTA at 1, 6, and 12 months, followed by annual review thereafter. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. Outcome measures evaluated were rates of technical success, conversion to open surgical repair, complications, and late incidence of arterial stenosis at the site of Perclose suture deployment. A total of 58 Perclose devices were used to close 29 femoral arteriotomies. Outer diameters of stent-graft delivery devices used were 18 Fr (n = 5), 20 Fr (n = 3), 22 Fr (n = 4), 24 Fr (n = 15), and 26 Fr (n = 2). Percutaneous closure was successful in 96.6% (28/29) of arteriotomies. Conversion to surgical repair was required at one access site (3.4%). Mean follow-up was 50 {+-} 8 months. No late complications were observed. By CT criteria, no patient developed a >50% reduction in CFA caliber at the site of Perclose deployment during the study period. In conclusion, percutaneous aortic stent-graft insertion can be safely performed, with a low risk of both immediate and midterm access-related complications.

  20. Development of a totally implantable artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Rowles, J R; Khanwilkar, P S; Diegel, P D; Hansen, A C; Bearnson, G B; Smith, K D; Tatsumi, E; Olsen, D B

    1992-01-01

    The first generation of an integrated, totally implantable electrohydraulic total artificial heart was designed for long-term cardiac replacement. The system consists of an elliptical blood pump with an interatrial shunt, Medtronic-Hall 27 mm and 25 mm inflow and outflow valves, respectively, an energy converter consisting of an axial-flow, hydraulic pump driven by a brushless DC motor, and an electronics system with transcutaneous energy transmission and telemetry. Energy is supplied by internal nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries that supply power for 20 min and external silver-zinc batteries that are designed to supply energy to run the system for 5 hr. The blood pump consists of a single layer diaphragm cast from Biolon, with joined right and left ventricles sharing a common base. The dynamic stroke volume is 84 ml, and maximum cardiac output is 9.2 L/min at a heart rate of 110 beats/min on the mock circulation. A 4.3 mm diameter interatrial shunt is used to balance the volumetrically coupled ventricles. The energy converter pumps hydraulic fluid alternately between ventricles, with controlled, active filling in one ventricle during the systolic phase of the other ventricle. Internal or external controllers adjust the heart rate and motor speed to maintain normal atrial filling pressures and full stroke. Electromagnetic induction is used to transfer energy through the skin and a bidirectional infrared data link incorporated within the transcutaneous energy transmission coils is used to transmit information. The entire system is being assembled and refined for long-term animal implant studies.

  1. Image-guided total marrow and total lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, Timothy E. . E-mail: Schultheiss@coh.org; Wong, Jeffrey; Liu, An; Olivera, Gustavo; Somlo, George

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a treatment technique to spare normal tissue and allow dose escalation in total body irradiation (TBI). We have developed intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques for the total marrow irradiation (TMI), total lymphatic irradiation, or total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation using helical tomotherapy. Methods and Materials: For TBI, we typically use 12 Gy in 10 fractions delivered at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). Using helical tomotherapy, it is possible to deliver equally effective doses to the bone marrow and lymphatics while sparing normal organs to a significant degree. In the TMI patients, whole body skeletal bone, including the ribs and sternum, comprise the treatment target. In the total lymphatic irradiation, the target is expanded to include the spleen and major lymph node areas. Sanctuary sites for disease (brain and testes) are included when clinically indicated. Spared organs include the lungs, esophagus, parotid glands, eyes, oral cavity, liver, kidneys, stomach, small and large intestine, bladder, and ovaries. Results: With TBI, all normal organs received the TBI dose; with TMI, total lymphatic irradiation, and total bone marrow plus lymphatic irradiation, the visceral organs are spared. For the first 6 patients treated with TMI, the median dose to organs at risk averaged 51% lower than would be achieved with TBI. By putting greater weight on the avoidance of specific organs, greater sparing was possible. Conclusion: Sparing of normal tissues and dose escalation is possible using helical tomotherapy. Late effects such as radiation pneumonitis, veno-occlusive disease, cataracts, neurocognitive effects, and the development of second tumors should be diminished in severity and frequency according to the dose reduction realized for the organs at risk.

  2. Total and inorganic arsenic in foods of the first Hong Kong total diet study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen Wai-cheung; Lam, Chi-ho; Chan, Benny Tsz-pun

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that occurs in different inorganic and organic forms, which are found in the environment from both natural occurrence and anthropogenic activity. The inorganic forms of As (iAs) are more toxic as compared with the organic As, but so far most of the occurrence data in food collected in the framework of official food control are still reported as total As without differentiating the various As species. In this paper, total As and iAs contents of 600 total diet study (TDS) samples, subdivided into 15 different food groups, were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP/MS) and hydride generation (HG) ICP/MS respectively. The method detection limits for both total As and iAs were 3 μg As kg(-1). As the samples were prepared for TDS, food items were purchased directly from the market or prepared as for normal consumption, i.e. table ready, in the manner most representative of and consistent with cultural habits in Hong Kong as far as practicable. The highest total As and iAs content were found in 'fish, seafood and their products' and 'vegetables and their products' respectively. Besides, this paper also presents the ratios of iAs and total As content in different ready-to-eat food items. The highest ratio of iAs to total As was found in 'vegetables and their products'. It is likely that iAs in vegetables maintained its status even after cooking.

  3. Totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: literature review and comparison of the procedure of esophagojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Akira; Koeda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Hisataka; Kimura, Yusuke; Iwaya, Takeshi; Akiyama, Yuji; Wakabayashi, Go

    2015-04-01

    There has been a recent increase in the use of totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG) for gastric cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence to determine which esophagojejunostomy (EJS) technique is the best. In addition, both short- and long-term oncological results of TLTG are inconsistent. We reviewed 25 articles about TLTG for gastric cancer in which at least 10 cases were included. We analyzed the short-term results, relationships between EJS techniques and complications, long-term oncological results, and comparative study results of TLTG. TLTG was performed in a total of 1170 patients. The mortality rate was 0.7%, and the short-term results were satisfactory. Regarding EJS techniques and complications, circular staplers (CSs) methods were significantly associated with leakage (4.7% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001) and stenosis (8.3% vs. 1.8%, p < 0.001) of the EJS as compared with the linear stapler method. The long-term oncological prognosis was acceptable in patients with early gastric cancers and without metastases to lymph nodes. Although TLTG tended to increase surgical time compared with open total gastrectomy and laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy, it reduced intraoperative blood loss and was expected to shorten postoperative hospital stay. TLTG is found to be safer and more feasible than open total gastrectomy and laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy. At present, there is no evidence to encourage performing TLTG for patients with advanced gastric cancer from the viewpoint of long-term oncological prognosis. Although the current major EJS techniques are CS and linear stapler methods, in this review, CS methods are significantly associated with leakage and stenosis of the EJS.

  4. Coronal Dynamics at Recent Total Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Lucas, R.; Babcock, B. A.; Dantowitz, R.; Gaintatzis, P.; Seeger, C. H.; Malamut, C.; Steele, A.

    2014-12-01

    Our composite images of the solar corona based on extensive imaging at the total solar eclipses of 2010 (Easter Island), 2012 (Australia), and 2013 (Gabon) reveal several coronal mass ejections and other changes in coronal streamers and in polar plumes. Our resultant spatial resolution is finer than that available in imaging from spacecraft, including that from SOHO/LASCO or STEREO. We trace the eruptions back to their footpoints on the sun using imaging from SDO and SWAP, and follow them upwards through the corona, measuring velocities. The high-resolution computer compositing by Miloslav Druckmüller and Hana Druckmüllerová (2010 and 2013) and Pavlos Gaintatzis (2012) allows comparison of our images with those taken at intervals of minutes or hours along the totality path. Williams College's 2013 eclipse expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from National Geographic Society/Committee for Research and Exploration. Our work on the 2012 eclipse is supported in part by grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS. V.R. and M.S. were partially supported by the VEGA grant agency project 2/0098/10 and 2/0003/13 (Slovak Academy of Sciences) and Grant 0139-12 from NG/CRE, and Hana Druckmüllerová by grant 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation. M.L. was supported by Sigma Xi. C.M. was a Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium Summer Fellow, supported at Williams College by REU/NSF grant AST-1005024. Partial support was provided by U.S. Department of Defense's ASSURE program. J.M.P. thanks Caltech's Planetary Sciences Department for hospitality. Support for D.B.S. and SWAP came from PRODEX grant C90345 managed by ESA in collaboration with the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in support of the PROBA2/SWAP mission, and from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant 218816 (SOTERIA project, www.soteria-space.eu). SWAP is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by

  5. Efficient oil palm total RNA extraction with a total RNA extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Habib, S H; Saud, H M; Kausar, H

    2014-04-03

    Oil palm tissues are rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites; these can co-precipitate with RNA, causing problems for downstream applications. We compared two different methods (one conventional and a kit-based method - Easy-Blue(TM) Total RNA Extraction Kit) to isolate total RNA from leaves, roots and shoot apical meristems of tissue culture derived truncated leaf syndrome somaclonal oil palm seedlings. The quality and quantity of total RNA were compared through spectrophotometry and formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The specificity and applicability of the protocols were evaluated for downstream applications, including cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR analysis. We found that the conventional method gave higher yields of RNA but took longer, and it was contaminated with genomic DNA. This method required extra genomic DNA removal steps that further reduced the RNA yield. The kit-based method, on the other hand, produced good yields as well as well as good quality RNA, within a very short period of time from a small amount of starting material. Moreover, the RNA from the kit-based method was more suitable for synthesizing cDNA and RT-PCR amplification than the conventional method. Therefore, we conclude that the Easy-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit method is suitable and superior for isolation of total RNA from oil palm leaf, root and shoot apical meristem.

  6. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy Compared to Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    De Paoli, Sania; Fasolino, Luigi; Fasolino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare peri-operative results of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) with those of laparoscopic total hysterectomy (TLH). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology at a teaching hospital. A group of 157 patients who underwent TLH was compared with a group of 157 patients who underwent LSH with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Both groups had similar baseline characteristics and comparable surgical indications. Results: We reviewed our 7-year experience with laparoscopic hysterectomies performed at our department between October 2000 and November 2007. The similarities between patient characteristics were tested by using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Statistics. Patient and surgery characteristics as well as surgery outcomes were analyzed with descriptive statistics showing medians and 95% CIs. Women who underwent LSH had a shorter operation time compared with women in the TLH group (100 min vs. 110 min). Major complication rates were higher in the TLH group than in the LSH group (4.5% vs. 1.3%). Minor complication rates were 13.3% in the TLH group compared with 13.4% in the LSH group. Conclusions: Our data and experience provide specific information about the perioperative performance of LSH compared with TLH. In our experience, LSH proved to be a valid alternative to TLH in the absence of specific indications for TLH. Adequate counseling concerning the risk of cyclical bleeding and reoperation is mandatory. PMID:19793479

  7. Total quality management in blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Smit-Sibinga, C T

    2000-01-01

    Quality management is an ongoing development resulting in consistency products and services and ever increasing customer satisfaction. The ultimum is Total Quality Management. Quality systems and quality management in transfusion medicine have gained considerable attention since the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic. Where product orientation has long been applied through quality control, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles were introduced, shifting the developments in the direction of process orientation. Globally, and particularly in the more industrialised world people and system orientation has come along with the introduction of the ISO9001 concept. Harmonisation and a degree of uniformity are needed to implement a universally applicable Quality System and related Quality Management. Where the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) is the professional organisation with the most extensive experience in quality systems in blood transfusion, the European Union and the Council of Europe now are in the process to design a quality system and management applicable to a larger variety of countries, based on a hybrid of current GMP and ISO9001 principles. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has developed a more universally to implement Quality Manual, with a pilot project in Honduras. It is recommendable to harmonise the various designs and bring the approaches under one common denominator.

  8. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references.

  9. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lachiewicz, Paul F; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2016-02-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Some reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted.

  10. CMB anisotropies: Total angular momentum method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wayne; White, Martin

    1997-07-01

    A total angular momentum representation simplifies the radiation transport problem for temperature and polarization anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Scattering terms couple only the quadrupole moments of the distributions and each moment corresponds directly to the observable angular pattern on the sky. We develop and employ these techniques to study the general properties of anisotropy generation from scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations to the metric and the matter, both in the cosmological fluids and from any seed perturbations (e.g., defects) that may be present. The simpler, more transparent form and derivation of the Boltzmann equations brings out the geometric and model-independent aspects of temperature and polarization anisotropy formation. Large angle scalar polarization provides a robust means to distinguish between isocurvature and adiabatic models for structure formation in principle. Vector modes have the unique property that the CMB polarization is dominated by magnetic-type parity at small angles (a factor of 6 in power compared with 0 for the scalars and 8/13 for the tensors) and hence potentially distinguishable independent of the model for the seed. The tensor modes produce a different sign from the scalars and vectors for the temperature-polarization correlations at large angles. We explore conditions under which one perturbation type may dominate over the others including a detailed treatment of the photon-baryon fluid before recombination.

  11. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acutumine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Tartakoff, Samuel S.; Castle, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    An account of the total synthesis of the tetracyclic alkaloid (−)-acutumine is presented. A first-generation approach to the spirocyclic subunit was unsuccessful due to incorrect regioselectivity in a radical cyclization. However, this work spawned a second-generation strategy in which the spirocycle was fashioned via a radical–polar crossover reaction. This process merged an intramolecular radical conjugate addition with an enolate hydroxylation, and created two stereocenters with excellent diastereoselectivity. The reaction was promoted by irradiation with a sunlamp, and a ditin reagent was required for aryl radical formation. These facts suggest that the substrate may function as a sensitizer, thereby facilitating homolytic cleavage of the ditin reagent. The propellane motif of the target was then installed via annulation of a pyrrolidine ring onto the spirocycle. The sequence of reactions used included a phenolic oxidation, an asymmetric ketone allylation mediated by Nakamura’s chiral allylzinc reagent, an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement, a one-pot ozonolysis–reductive amination, and a Lewis acid promoted cyclization of an amine onto an α,β-unsaturated dimethyl ketal. Further studies of the asymmetric ketone allylation demonstrated the ability of the Nakamura reagent to function well in a mismatched situation. A TiCl4-catalyzed regioselective methyl enol etherification of a 1,3-diketone completed the synthesis. PMID:19904909

  12. Process optimized minimally invasive total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, Philipp; Oszwald, Markus; Ishaque, Bernd; Ahmed, Gaffar; Blessing, Recha; Thorey, Fritz; Ottersbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse a new concept of using the the minimally invasive direct anterior approach (DAA) in total hip replacement (THR) in combination with the leg positioner (Rotex- Table) and a modified retractor system (Condor). We evaluated retrospectively the first 100 primary THR operated with the new concept between 2009 and 2010, regarding operation data, radiological and clinical outcome (HOOS). All surgeries were perfomed in a standardized operation technique including navigation. The average age of the patients was 68 years (37 to 92 years), with a mean BMI of 26.5 (17 to 43). The mean time of surgery was 80 min. (55 to 130 min). The blood loss showed an average of 511.5 mL (200 to 1000 mL). No intra-operative complications occurred. The postoperative complication rate was 6%. The HOOS increased from 43 points pre-operatively to 90 (max 100 points) 3 months after surgery. The radiological analysis showed an average cup inclination of 43° and a leg length discrepancy in a range of +/− 5 mm in 99%. The presented technique led to excellent clinic results, showed low complication rates and allowed correct implant positions although manpower was saved. PMID:22577504

  13. Total residual chlorine as a regulatory tool

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Inherent in the choice of total residual chlorine (TRC) as a basis for establishing water quality criteria or effluent guidelines for chlorine are assumptions that components of TRC are roughly equivalent in toxicity to aquatic species and that the toxicities of these components are additive. Most of the studies of this assumption involved comparisons of mixtures of residual chlorine components and thus led to conflicting conclusions. In addition, studies designed to avoid the mixture problem omitted one or more of the most likely products of chlorination from the comparison(s). On the other hand, the assumption of additive toxicity of residual chlorine species has largely been ignored. In view of the continuing controversy that focused on the levels of residual chlorine which can be discharged without deleterious impact on receiving waters, it is important that these assumptions be evaluated comprehensively. New data on the toxicities to the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, of inorganic monochloramine, inorganic dichloramine, a mixture of these two compounds, and two mixtures with free chlorine are reported. These and other data on the toxicity of residual chlorine species to mosquitofish are then used to examine the questions of toxicity equivalence and additivity of species of residual chlorine. (ERB)

  14. Extensor tendon ruptures after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, M; Lustig, S; Huten, D

    2016-02-01

    Extensor tendon rupture is a rare but serious complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that impairs active knee extension, thereby severely affecting knee function. Surgery is usually required. Surgical options range from simple suturing to allograft reconstruction of the entire extensor mechanism and include intermediate methods such as reconstruction using neighbouring tendons or muscles, synthetic ligament implantation, and partial allograft repair. Simple suturing carries a high failure rate and should therefore be routinely combined with tissue augmentation using a neighbouring tendon or a synthetic ligament. After allograft reconstruction, outcomes are variable and long-term complications common. Salvage procedures for managing the most severe cases after allograft failure involve reconstruction using gastrocnemius or vastus flaps. Regardless of the technique used, suturing must be performed under tension, with the knee fully extended, and rehabilitation must be conducted with great caution. Weaknesses of available case-series studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity, and inadequate follow-up duration. All treatment options are associated with substantial failure rates. The patient should be informed of this fact and plans made for a salvage option. Here, the main techniques and their outcomes are discussed, and a therapeutic strategy is suggested.

  15. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices.

  16. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged.

  17. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  18. Nineteen-Step Total Synthesis of (+)-Phorbol

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Chu, Hang; Felding, Jakob; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-01-01

    Phorbol, the flagship member of the tigliane diterpene family, has been known for over 80 years and has attracted attention from scores of chemists and biologists due to its intriguing chemical structure and the medicinal potential of phorbol esters.1 Access to useful quantities of phorbol and related analogs has relied upon isolation from natural sources and semisynthesis. Despite relentless efforts spanning 40 years, chemical synthesis has been unable to compete with these strategies due to its sheer complexity and unusual oxidation pattern. In fact, purely synthetic enantiopure phorbol has remained elusive and efforts on the synthetic biology side have not led to even the simplest members of this terpene family. Recently the chemical syntheses of eudesmanes,2 germacrenes,3 taxanes,4,5 and ingenanes6-8 have all benefited from a strategy inspired by the logic of two-phase terpene biosynthesis where powerful C–C bond constructions and C–H bond oxidations go hand in hand. In this manuscript, we show how a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy can be enlisted to achieve the first enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene. The purpose of this route is not to displace isolation/semisynthesis as a means to generate the natural product per se, but rather to enable access to analogs containing unique oxidation patterns that are otherwise inaccessible. PMID:27007853

  19. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-03-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using /sup 15/N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats.

  20. Evolution of the reverse total shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Reza; Kwon, Young W

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has gained significant popularity due to its ability to address difficult reconstructive shoulder problems that could not be adequately treated in the past. The concept of the reverse shoulder prosthesis was introduced in the 1970s, but the initial attempts were associated with high complication and implant failure rates. The pioneering work of Paul Grammont (shifting the center of rotation medially and distally) and the development of the DELTA prosthesis have been fundamental to all subsequent reverse shoulder arthroplasty systems. These semiconstrained prostheses utilize the deltoid to improve function and stability of the shoulder joint by coupling a convex glenoid with a concave humeral component. Modern generations of reverse shoulder prosthesis continue to evolve on the fundamentals of Grammont. Though results of these new prosthesis demonstrate promising outcomes, many controversies and challenges continue to be refined. An historical review of the evolution of reverse shoulder arthroplasty is presented, as well as the currently expanding indications for its application.

  1. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  2. SynCardia: the total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Anelechi; Zucchetta, Fabio; Gerosa, Gino

    2014-01-01

    The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) currently provides the most definitive option for patients with biventricular failure who are not candidates for isolated left ventricular (LV) assist device placement. The techniques for implantation are adaptable to almost all patients with advanced heart failure, including those with severe biventricular cardiomyopathy, complex congenital heart disease, failed LV assist devices, failed transplantations, and acquired structural heart defects that have failed or are not amenable to conventional surgical treatment. Over the years, the implantation technique has evolved in order to minimize the surgical invasiveness of the procedure, in anticipation of additional future surgery. Meticulous hemostasis with double layer sutures, use of Gore-Tex sheets around the TAH and the pericardial cavity, and use of tissue expanders to avoid contraction of pericardial cavity around the device are discussed in detail in the following report. Additionally, we will provide our experience with implantation of TAH in various challenging scenarios, such as patients with a small chest cavity, congenital heart defects, and simultaneous use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). PMID:25512904

  3. [Total quality management in laboratory medicine].

    PubMed

    Vogt, W

    1998-12-01

    The German Public Health will be continuously challenged in the future. It has to be assumed that modified managed care will not only take place sporadically. Thus, quality aspects of services gain more and more significance. Only suppliers will be successful who can offer services of highest quality at lowest prices. Quality in a comprehensive sense has to be substantiated in the near future. It is recommended to apply industry proven models also in public health service. Medical laboratories can be pioneers in this field as they have been already in the past. All previously proposed procedures can not describe quality of results comprehensively. They are based to a high degree on external control. Total quality management, however, represents a comprehensive approach. Principles are zero-defect approach, customer orientation and system management. Quality is given in the sense of TQM if the customer is permanently satisfied with the service of the supplier. In such a way, the customer defines quality of service. A customer is everyone who receives products or services. TQM overcomes the drawbacks of quality management systems, which are strongly formal and oriented by external control, as accreditation (EN 45,000) or certification (ISO 9000). Competition between hospitals is a declared goal of German health politics because usually quality is increased and cost decreased as a consequence. Competition means also comparison of services. TQM emphasizes benchmarking especially among the best suppliers.

  4. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lachiewicz, Paul F.; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Anecdotal reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted. PMID:26752739

  5. Acetabular blood flow during total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    ElMaraghy, Amr W.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Waddell, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effect of reaming and insertion of the acetabular component with and without cement on periacetabular blood flow during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design A clinical experimental study. Setting A tertiary referral and teaching hospital in Toronto. Patients Sixteen patients (9 men, 7 women) ranging in age from 30 to 78 years and suffering from arthritis. Intervention Elective primary THA with a cemented (8 patients) and noncemented (8 patients) acetabular component. All procedures were done by a single surgeon who used a posterior approach. Main outcome measure Acetabular bone blood-flow measurements made with a laser Doppler flowmeter before reaming, after reaming and after insertion of the acetabular prosthesis. Results Acetabular blood flow after prosthesis insertion was decreased by 52% in the noncemented group (p < 0.001) and 59% in the cemented group (p < 0.001) compared with baseline (prereaming) values. Conclusion The significance of these changes in periacetabular bone blood flow during THA may relate to the extent of bony ingrowth, periprosthetic remodelling and ultimately the incidence of implant failure because of aseptic loosening. PMID:10851413

  6. [Total trapezometacarpal prostheses: concepts and classification study].

    PubMed

    Comtet, J J; Rumelhart, C

    2001-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to classify the different types of trapezio-metacarpal total prostheses according to their bio-mechanical principle and to compare the bio-mechanics of these prostheses to that of the normal trapeziometacarpal joint. The trapeziometacarpal joint has two approximate centres of rotation (one in the proximal metacarpal, one in the trapezium), two degrees of freedom and two arc of mobility about 70 degrees. The mechanical model of the trapeziometacarpal joint is a universal-joint called "cardan" with three constraint forces (one axial compression force, and two shear forces, radial and posterior) and one constraint moment around the longitudinal axis. The trapeziometacarpal prostheses may be classified in two main categories: the most frequently used are the "ball and socket" prostheses. Several prostheses, including the surface replacement prostheses have the mechanical characteristics of an universal joint (cardan). Ball and socket prostheses have one centre of rotation, 3 degrees of freedom, three constraint forces in three directions and no constraint moment when "cardan" or surface prostheses have two centres of rotation and 2 degrees of freedom; three constraint forces and one constraint moment. Trapeziometacarpal prostheses may also be classified according to their arc of mobility, or according to their mode of primary fixation (cemented, non-cemented), "press-fit", expansion and to their secondary fixation (hydroxyapatite).

  7. Total Artificial Heart and Physical Therapy Management

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the total artificial heart (TAH) device as a bridge to heart transplantation (BTT), and related physical therapy management, while comparisons to left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are made. Summary: The SynCardia CardioWest Temporary TAH System is the only TAH approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Health Canada and Consultants Europe (CE) for BTT. CardioWest implantation involves cardiectomy thus avoiding pulmonary hypertension, right heart failure, inotropic or anti-arrhythmic agents, myocardial and valve related problems. CardioWest has a fixed beat rate and cardiac output is dependent upon venous return and preload. Both TAH and LVADs are adaptive with exercise, increasing cardiac output during activities, allowing for conditioning to occur peripherally. Left ventricular assist devices have portable drivers permitting discharge home, while the CardioWest's large driver console necessitates inpatient therapy. Exercise progression, positioning, and monitoring of exercise intolerance are similar with LVAD and TAH. Ventricular fill volumes in TAH dictate cardiac output and require close attention. Cardiectomy in TAH prevents electrocardiography, telemetry, and native pulse rate monitoring. Conclusion: While mechanical differences exist between TAH and LVAD, physical therapists can provide evidence-based treatment for patients with TAH using previously established guidelines for patients with heart failure and mechanical circulatory support. PMID:20520759

  8. The Helmholtz Total Artificial Heart Labtype.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1994-07-01

    To perform the first experimental tests for validation of a new gear unit concept, the pump chamber, diaphragm, and pusher plate design of an orthotopic electromechanical total artificial heart (TAH) (Helmholtz Labtype) was manufactured. In its early stage of development, it provides some of the most important features of the conceptual final artificial heart. The new gear unit transforms a uniform unidirectional rotational motor movement into translatory pusher plate movements, with resting phase in the end-diastolic position, and the angled pump chamber orientation determines the available space for the motor and gear unit. Furthermore, this labtype provides flexibility with regard to use of different types of structural parts for experimental investigations. The first in vitro test results, obtained with specially designed circulatory mockloops that simulate physiological preload and afterload conditions, are presented. They comprise pressure and flow generation, motor performance, efficiency, and energy consumption. The results prove the feasibility of the new gear unit concept for an electromechanical artificial heart and allow a reliable determination of the necessary performance of the future brushless DC motor for the first in vivo TAH model.

  9. Pneumatic compression hemodynamics in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Westrich, G H; Specht, L M; Sharrock, N E; Sculco, T P; Salvati, E A; Pellicci, P M; Trombley, J F; Peterson, M

    2000-03-01

    A crossover study was performed to evaluate the effect of several pneumatic compression devices and active dorsoplantar flexion in 10 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Using the Acuson 128XP/10 duplex ultrasound unit with a 5-MHz linear array probe, peak venous velocity and venous volume were assessed above and below the greater saphenous vein and common femoral vein junction. A computer generated randomization table was used to determine the order of the test conditions. The pneumatic compression devices evaluated included two foot pumps, one foot and calf pump, one calf pump, and three calf and thigh pumps. Statistical analyses included analysis of variance and analysis of variance with covariance between devices and patients. The covariates tested were the baseline measurements and the order in which the devices were tested. Differences between devices relate in part to the frequency and rate of inflation and the location and type of compression. Pulsatile calf and foot and calf pneumatic compression with a rapid inflation time produced the greatest increase in peak venous velocity, whereas compression of the calf and thigh showed the greatest increase in venous volume. Because patient and nursing compliance is essential to the success of mechanical prophylaxis for thromboembolic disease, the more simple, yet efficacious, devices that are easier to apply and less cumbersome appear to have a greater likelihood of success. In the active and alert patient, active dorsoplantar flexion should be encouraged.

  10. Hyperammonemia during total parenteral nutrition in children.

    PubMed

    Seashore, J H; Seashore, M R; Riely, C

    1982-01-01

    Serial blood ammonia (NH3) determinations in 19 low birth weight (LBW) infants, 14 term neonates and 12 children receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) have shown that 73% of patients had one or more elevated NH3 values (greater than 150 micrograms/dl). The mean blood NH3 was 220 +/- 13 micrograms/dl in LBW infants, 180 +/- 9 micrograms/dl in 10 infants, and 140 +/- 7 micrograms/dl in children. All of these values are significantly higher than normal (p less than 0.001). There was no difference in incidence or mean blood ammonia concentration between patients receiving casein hydrolysate and those receiving a crystalline amino acid solution. Only four patients were symptomatic and several infants remained fully alert despite blood NH3 concentration in excess of 400 micrograms/dl. One infant who had sustained hyperammonemia was given another amino acid source (Travasol) containing 1.2 mmol/dl of arginine; blood NH3 promptly fell to the normal range. However, six of seven additional infants had hyperammonemia while receiving Travasol (mean = 184 micrograms/dl). Hyperammonemia is common during TPN in children, often is not recognized clinically, and occurs with equal frequency in infants and older children. The high levels observed in LBW infants may be due to hepatic immaturity. Blood NH3 concentration should be monitored frequently during TPN. Persistent hyperammonemia should be treated by decreasing protein content of the infusate. The role of supplemental arginine is unclear.

  11. Metabolic consequences of (regional) total pancreatectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Dresler, C M; Fortner, J G; McDermott, K; Bajorunas, D R

    1991-01-01

    Little information has been reported on the metabolic characteristics of the totally pancreatectomized patient or the efficacy of medical management after radical pancreatic surgery. The prospective evaluation of 49 such patients, with 31% followed for 48 or more months, forms the basis of this report. The major immediate postoperative challenge is control of diarrhea and weight stabilization. Chronically patients have an increased daily caloric requirement (mean +/- SE, 56 +/- 1 kcal/kg), not wholly explained by moderate steatorrhea (fecal fat excretion, 16% +/- 2% of unrestricted fat intake). Despite persistent malabsorption, deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamin, magnesium, and trace element serum levels can be prevented in most patients. Pancreatogenic diabetes is characterized by (1) absence of the major glucoregulatory hormones insulin and glucagon, (2) instability, and (3) frequent hypoglycemia, with the latter parameters improving with rigorous home glucose monitoring. No patient has developed clinically overt diabetic micro- or macrovascular disease. Performance status in long-term survivors has been reasonable. However adverse chronic sequelae of the operation occur and include an unusual frequency of liver disease, characterized by accelerated fatty infiltration, and osteopenia, with an 18% reduction in radial bone mineral content noted in pancreatectomized patients studied more than 5 years after surgery. Images Fig. 3. PMID:1867520

  12. Total and inorganic arsenic in Iranian rice.

    PubMed

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Burló, Francisco; Hojjati, Mohammad; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that arsenic (As) exposure, particularly to inorganic species (i-As), has adverse effects on humans. Nowadays, the European Union (EU) has still not regulated the maximum residue limit of As in commercial samples of rice and rice-based products, although it is actively working on the topic. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is collecting data on total arsenic (t-As) and i-As from different rice-producing regions not only from EU countries but also from other parts of the world to finally set up this maximum threshold. As Iran is a rice-producing country, the aim of this work was to evaluate the contents of t-As and i-As in 15 samples of Iranian white, nonorganic, and aromatic rice collected from the most important rice-producing regions of the country. The means of t-As and i-As were 120 and 82 μg/kg, respectively. The experimental i-As mean in Iranian rice was below the Chinese standard for the i-As in rice, 150 μg/kg, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) limit, 200 μg/kg. Therefore, Iranian rice seems to have reasonable low i-As content and it is safe to be marketed in any market, including China and the EU.

  13. Constrained Implants in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for pain relief and functional restoration in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The number of TKRs is increasing, and this has led to an increase in revision surgeries. The key to long-term success in both primary and revision TKR is stability, as well as adequate and stable fixation between components and underlying bone. In the vast majority of primary TKRs and in some revision cases, a posterior cruciate retaining or a posterior cruciate substituting device can be used. In some primary cases with severe deformity or ligamentous instability and in most of the revision cases, a more constrained implant is required. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the use of condylar constrained knee (CCK) and rotating hinge (RH) implants in primary and revision cases focusing on the indications and results. According to this review, although excellent and very good results have been reported, there are limitations of the existing literature concerning the indications for the use of constrained implants, the absence of long-term results, and the limited comparative studies.

  14. Total Solar Eclipse to Introduce Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    We are designing an experiment to record time lapse slit-less flash spectra of solar chromosphere and corona before, during and after the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE). As the moon gradually covers different heights of chromosphere and corona, the time lapse spectra would provide high hight-resolution information about the line formation starting at very close proximity to the solar limb. The flash spectrum will be recored with a slit-less spectrograph consisting of a transmission grating of 300 lines/mm, blazed at 5000 Å, and an 135 mm f/3.5 telephoto lens. Based on earlier such instruments, the system's efficiency is expected to be about 60% at 5303 Å (Fe XIV emission line) and 20% at 6374 Å (Fe X emission line) (Voulgaris, 2010). We shall place the grating before the telephoto lens on a wedge shaped. The full range of the visible spectrum, from 3900 Å to 6700 Å will be projected on the CCD sensor of the digital camera. The resolution of the spectrograph is expected to be 0.5 Å/pixel at 5215 Å. The diameter of the Sun would corresponded to 275 pixels or 6.87''/pixel. By turning the grating, the direction of the ruling shall be set parallel to the direction of the last visible elongated crescent of the Sun; which will play the role of the "slit" in the slitless spectrograph. The spectrograph will be mounted on a solar tracker to observe the sun during TSE.

  15. Patellar options in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rorabeck, Cecil H; Mehin, Ramin; Barrack, Robert L

    2003-11-01

    There are numerous options that need to be considered by the surgeon at the time of revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One needs to consider the reason for the revision, the type of patella in place, and the length of time the patella has been in place. The surgeon also needs to consider the status of the patellar bone stock, the stability of the patellar component (well-fixed or loose), and the component type (cemented or metal-backed). Assuming that the existing prosthesis is not metal-backed and has minimal PE wear, then it is preferable to retain a well-fixed all-PE cemented patellar button. However, if the button is metal-backed, then it probably is best to remove the button and replace it with an all-PE domed patellar component. Assuming more than 8 mm of patellar bone stock is remaining, it usually is best to cement an all-PE dome-shaped patella. However, if less than 8 mm is remaining, then that patient can be left with a patelloplasty, recognizing that this individual is going to continue with a high likelihood of anterior knee pain, subluxation, and poor functional results. In that situation, it may be preferable to consider a bone stock augmentation.

  16. Patient perspective survey of total hip vs total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Justin; Petruccelli, Danielle; Adili, Anthony; Piccirillo, Liz; Wismer, David; Winemaker, Mitch

    2012-06-01

    A 42-item survey was developed and administered to determine patient perception of and satisfaction with total hip arthroplasty (THA) vs total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 153 patients who had both primary THA and TKA for osteoarthritis with 1-year follow-up were identified. Survey response rate was 72%. Patients were more satisfied with THA meeting expectations for improvement in function and quality of life (P < .05), whereas pain relief expectations were equivalent. Most patients (70.9%) reported that TKA required more physiotherapy. One-year Oxford score and improvement in Oxford score from preoperative to 1 year were superior for THAs (P = .000). Despite equivalent pain relief, THAs trend toward higher satisfaction compared with TKAs. THA is more likely to "feel normal" with greater improvement in Oxford score. Recovery from TKA requires more physiotherapy and a longer time to achieve a satisfactory recovery status. Patients should be counseled accordingly.

  17. New Total Ozone Algorithm for Application to the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellemeyer, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Taylor, S. L.; Qin, W.; Flynn, L.; Seftor, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) series comprises four instruments providing a total of 25 years of daily global stratospheric ozone data over the sunlit portion of the Earth. A new retrieval algorithm has been developed for TOMS, designated Version 8. The algorithm is based on differential absorption across a pair of wavelength channels chosen close together to minimize the impact of wavelength dependent forward modeling errors. Version 8 enhancements include correction for the presence of tropospheric aerosols and sun glint from water surfaces, a better treatment of variability due to tropospheric ozone and temperature dependence, and an improved forward model, particularly in regions of persistent snow and ice. Among other things, the Version 8 enhancements have reduced latitudinal dependence seen previously in TOMS - Dobson comparisons, predominantly in the Southern Hemisphere's summer, when the tropospheric ozone, temperature, and snow/ice corrections are additive. The basic components of the algorithm and its impact on derived total ozone will be discussed.

  18. Durability of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Dion, Neil T; Bragdon, Charles; Muratoglu, Orhun; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the history of the development of highly cross-linked polyethylene and provides an in-depth review of the clinical results regarding the durability of highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The use of polyethylene as a bearing surface has contributed to the success of THA and TKA; however, polyethylene wear and osteolysis can lead to failure. Ongoing clinical and retrieval studies are required to analyze outcomes at longer-term follow-up.

  19. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  20. Total research productivity in a pathology discipline

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicki, A S; Reynolds, T M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the research productivity of all staff in chemical pathology. Methods: Chemical pathologists or biochemical scientists were identified from publicly available sources. All journals, their impact factors (IFs), and individual publications over the period of 1995 to 1999 were identified from electronic databases. Each publication was subclassified with respect to type of publication, number and position of author, and subspecialty to which the article referred. Results: Research output over the period comprised 6162 articles, originating from 1399 individuals, 264 of whom were medically qualified. Specialty initiated research accounted for 26% of the total publications and 80% of the research was performed in teaching hospitals. Research output was highly skewed because 49% of individuals published a letter or more, 20% published one original piece of research over five years, but only 4% were research active, as defined by one publication each year. International standard research, defined as one paper each year in journals with IF > 4, was achieved by 1% of the profession, mostly aged > 55 years. Skewed distributions of publication rates were found in all age deciles. The possession of higher research degrees correlated with higher output in all age deciles. Conclusions: Those working in chemical pathology are active in initiating and conducting research, although at a low level. Because longterm activity in research correlates with the possession of higher research degrees and the opportunity to carry out research from early in career pathways, priority should be given to encouraging research in training, given the small and ageing profile of international quality research in the profession in the UK. PMID:12101192

  1. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  2. Glucagon deficiency and hyperaminoacidemia after total pancreatectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Boden, G; Master, R W; Rezvani, I; Palmer, J P; Lobe, T E; Owen, O E

    1980-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to investigate whether totally pancreatectomized patients are glucagon deficient and if so, to what degree. Immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) concentrations in peripheral plasma of nine pancreatectomized patients were not significantly different from those of 10 normal controls as measured by two antisera (30-K and RCS-5) both detecting the COOH-terminal portion of the molecule and one (RCS-5) postulated to be specific for pancreatic glucagon. Plasma from six of nine pancreatectomized patients were fractionated over Sephadex G-50 and IRG was measured with both antisera in the column eluates. Using 30-K, 80.8 +/- 9% of the IRG eluted within the void volume. This material was rechromatographed on Sephadex G-200 and found to have an apparent mol wt of approximately 200,000. Only 18.3 +/- 9% eluted in the IRG3500 region. IRG3500 was significantly reduced in pancreatectomized patients as compared to normal controls (49 +/- 9 vs. 18 +/- 9 pg/ml, P less than 0.05). Using RCS-5, all IRG (corresponding to 20 +/- 6 pg/ml of plasma) eluted in the IRG3500 region. The second goal of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic glucagon deficiency on plasma amino acids. In the nine pancreatectomized patients studied, postabsorptive plasma concentrations of serine, alanine, arginine, glycine, threonine, citrulline, alpha-aminobutyrate, and tryosine were significantly elevated compared to values obtained from 20 normal controls. Physiological glucagon increments produced in two pancreatectomized patients by infusion of glucagon (6.25 and 8.0 microgram/h, respectively) resulted in normalization of the hyperaminoacidemia within 22 h. We conclude (a) that pancreatectomized patients are partially glucagon deficient because of diminished basal as well as diminished stimulated glucagon secretion; (b) that fasting concentrations of certain glucogenic amino acids are elevated in pancreatectomized patients probably as result of reduce; hepatic

  3. Future Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  5. Periprosthetic Bone Remodelling in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    GEORGEANU, Vlad; ATASIEI, Tudor; GRUIONU, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical studies have shown that the displacement of the prosthesis components, especially of the tibial one is higher during the first year, after which it reaches an equilibrum position compatible with a good long term functioning. This displacement takes place due to bone remodelling close to the implant secondary to different loading concentrations over different areas of bone. Material and Method: Our study implies a simulation on a computational model using the finite element analysis. The simulation started taking into account arbitrary points because of non-linear conditions of bone-prosthesis interface and it was iterative.. A hundred consecutive situations corresponding to intermediate bone remodelling phases have been calculated according to given loadings. Bone remodelling was appreciated as a function of time and bone density for each constitutive element of the computational model created by finite element method. For each constitutive element a medium value of stress during the walking cycle was applied. Results: Analyse of proximal epiphysis-prosthesis complex slices showed that bone density increase is maintained all over the stem in the immediately post-operative period. At 10 months, the moment considered to be the end of bone remodelling, areas with increased bone density are fewer and smaller. Meanwhile, their distribution with a concentration toward the internal compartment in the distal metaphysis is preserved. Conclusions: After the total knee arthroplasty the tibial bone suffered a process of remodelling adapted to the new stress conditions. This bone remodelling can influence, sometimes negatively, especially in the cases with tibial component varus malposition, the fixation, respectively the survival of the prosthesis. This process has been demonstrated both by clinical trials and by simulation, using the finite elements method of periprosthetic bone remodelling. PMID:25553127

  6. [Total thyroidectomy treatment of bening multinodular goiter].

    PubMed

    Palas, César; Álvarez, Facundo; Ferreira, Gastón; Gramática, Luis h

    2014-01-01

    Introducción. El tratamiento del bocio multinodular beningo (BMNB) es motivo de continuo debate en las últimas décadas pese a la evidencia de que la tiroidectomía total (TT) está relacionada a una reducción significativa en la recurrencia de la enfermedad y a una mínima morbilidad en manos entrenadas. Objetivo. Determinar la recurrencia del BMNB al cabo de 10 años en 100 pacientes tratados con TT y evaluar las complicaciones relacionadas a la técnica.Diseño. Prospectivo no randomizado.Material y métodos. Desde marzo del 1999 a marzo del 2001, cien pacientes, 95 del sexo femenino, con un promedio de edad de 42,4 años (rango: 23-67), fueron sometidos a una TT por padecer un BMNB, el cual fue confirmado por la ecografía cervical, la que además sirvió de guía para realizar la punción aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF). En todos los casos se realizó un laringoscopía inderecta pre y post postquirúrgica. Resultados. El tiempo operatorio promedio fue de 49 minutos (rango: 35-58). Registramos una parálisis recurrencial (1%) y cinco hipoparatiroidismos (5%), ambos transitorios y ningún caso definitivo. Todos los pacientes fueron dados de alta antes de las 24 horas de la cirugía. No objetivamos ninguna recurrencia del BMNB en un período de seguimiento de más de 10 años.Conclusión. La TT es el tratamiento elección del BMNB, por ser un procedimiento eficaz, seguro, con mínimas tasas de complicaciones y por evitar o reducir significativamente la recurrencia de esta enfermedad.

  7. Future bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jun-Dong

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important issues in the modern total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the bearing surface. Extensive research on bearing surfaces is being conducted to seek an ideal bearing surface for THA. The ideal bearing surface for THA should have superior wear characteristics and should be durable, bio-inert, cost-effective, and easy to implant. However, bearing surfaces that are currently being implemented do not completely fulfill these requirements, especially for young individuals for whom implant longevity is paramount. Even though various new bearing surfaces have been investigated, research is still ongoing, and only short-term results have been reported from clinical trials. Future bearing surfaces can be developed in the following ways: (1) change in design, (2) further improvement of polyethylene, (3) surface modification of the metal, (4) improvement in the ceramic, and (5) use of alternative, new materials. One way to reduce wear and impingement in THA is to make changes in its design by using a large femoral head, a monobloc metal shell with preassembled ceramic liner, dual mobility cups, a combination of different bearing surfaces, etc. Polyethylene has improved over time with the development of highly crosslinked polyethylene. Further improvements can be made by reinforcing it with vitamin E or multiwalled carbon nanotubes and by performing a surface modification with a biomembrane. Surface modifications with titanium nitride or titanium niobium nitride are implemented to try to improve the metal bearings. The advance to the fourth generation ceramics has shown relatively promising results, even in young patients. Nevertheless, further improvement is required to reduce fragility and squeaking. Alternative materials like diamond coatings on surfaces, carbon based composite materials, oxidized zirconium, silicon nitride, and sapphire are being sought. However, long-term studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of these surfaces after enhancements

  8. 10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis. Patients and methods Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus. Results Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons. Interpretation The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results. PMID:22066551

  9. 20 CFR 410.412 - “Total disability” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.412 “Total disability” defined. (a) A miner shall be considered totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis if:...

  10. 20 CFR 410.412 - “Total disability” defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.412 “Total disability” defined. (a) A miner shall be considered totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis if:...

  11. Quantitative analysis of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in thirty Hypericum taxa.

    PubMed

    Pilepić, Kroata Hazler; Males, Zeljan; Crkvencić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    The content of total flavonoids and total phenolic acids in the aerial parts of thirty Hypericum taxa collected over two consecutive seasons was investigated by spectrophotometric methods. All taxa examined contained flavonoids and phenolic acids in different quantities, although the differences between species and year's harvest were not found to be significant. The quantity of total flavonoids ranged from 0.1 to 1.6%. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the samples of H. japonicum (1.6%) and H. perforatum (1.5%), while the samples of H. androsaemum and H. balearicum comprised the lowest flavonoid amount (0.13%). The content of total phenolic acids in the investigated samples was found to be between 1.1-10.4%. The samples of H. perforatum were found to contain the highest quantity of phenolic acids (10.4% and 10.2%), whereas the sample ofH. linarifolium showed the lowest amount of phenolic acids (1.1%).

  12. "Total Physical Response": Un apprentissage non conventionnel ("Total Physical Response": An Unconventional Way to Learn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafayette, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the Total Physical Response method of second language instruction places the concept within the context of other unconventional language learning methods, reviews the rationale behind the approach, and outlines the classroom procedures used. A sampling of useful commands for classroom use is included. (19 references) (MSE)

  13. TICMR: Total Image Constrained Material Reconstruction via Nonlocal Total Variation Regularization for Spectral CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiulong; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Gao, Hao

    2016-12-01

    This work develops a material reconstruction method for spectral CT, namely Total Image Constrained Material Reconstruction (TICMR), to maximize the utility of projection data in terms of both spectral information and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This is motivated by the following fact: when viewed as a spectrally-integrated measurement, the projection data can be used to reconstruct a total image without spectral information, which however has a relatively high SNR; when viewed as a spectrally-resolved measurement, the projection data can be utilized to reconstruct the material composition, which however has a relatively low SNR. The material reconstruction synergizes material decomposition and image reconstruction, i.e., the direct reconstruction of material compositions instead of a two-step procedure that first reconstructs images and then decomposes images. For material reconstruction with high SNR, we propose TICMR with nonlocal total variation (NLTV) regularization. That is, first we reconstruct a total image using spectrally-integrated measurement without spectral binning, and build the NLTV weights from this image that characterize nonlocal image features; then the NLTV weights are incorporated into a NLTV-based iterative material reconstruction scheme using spectrally-binned projection data, so that these weights serve as a high-SNR reference to regularize material reconstruction. Note that the nonlocal property of NLTV is essential for material reconstruction, since material compositions may have significant local intensity variations although their structural information is often similar. In terms of solution algorithm, TICMR is formulated as an iterative reconstruction method with the NLTV regularization, in which the nonlocal divergence is utilized based on the adjoint relationship. The alternating direction method of multipliers is developed to solve this sparsity optimization problem. The proposed TICMR method was validated using both simulated

  14. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2–60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of −3 to −4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for

  15. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-05-15

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 January through 31 March of 2006. (1) Work in Progress: Minntac Mine--Graphical analysis of drill monitor data moved from two-dimensional horizontal patterns to vertical variations in measured and calculated parameters. The rock quality index and the two dimensionless ({pi}) indices developed by Kewen Yin of the University of Minnesota are used by Minntac Mine to design their blasts, but the drill monitor data from any given pattern is obviously not available for the design of that shot. Therefore, the blast results--which are difficult to quantify in a short time--must be back-analyzed for comparison with the drill monitor data to be useful for subsequent blast designs. {pi}{sub 1} indicates the performance of the drill, while {pi}{sub 2} is a measure of the rock resistance to drilling. As would be expected, since a drill tends to perform better in rock that offers little resistance, {pi}{sub 1} and {pi}{sub 2} are strongly inversely correlated; the relationship is a power function rather than simply linear. Low values of each Pi index tend to be quantized, indicating that these two parameters may be most useful above certain minimum magnitudes. (2) Work in Progress: Hibtac Mine--Statistical examination of a data set from Hibtac Mine (Table 1) shows that incorporating information on the size distribution of material feeding from the crusher to the autogenous mills improves the predictive capability of the model somewhat (43% vs. 44% correlation coefficient), but a more important component is production data from preceding days (26% vs. 44% correlation coefficient), determined using exponentially weighted moving average predictive variables. This lag effect likely reflects the long and varied residence times of the different size fragments in the grinding mills. The rock sizes are also correlated with the geologic

  16. Total probabilities of ensemble runoff forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olav Skøien, Jon; Bogner, Konrad; Salamon, Peter; Smith, Paul; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Ensemble forecasting has for a long time been used as a method in meteorological modelling to indicate the uncertainty of the forecasts. However, as the ensembles often exhibit both bias and dispersion errors, it is necessary to calibrate and post-process them. Two of the most common methods for this are Bayesian Model Averaging (Raftery et al., 2005) and Ensemble Model Output Statistics (EMOS) (Gneiting et al., 2005). There are also methods for regionalizing these methods (Berrocal et al., 2007) and for incorporating the correlation between lead times (Hemri et al., 2013). Engeland and Steinsland Engeland and Steinsland (2014) developed a framework which can estimate post-processing parameters which are different in space and time, but still can give a spatially and temporally consistent output. However, their method is computationally complex for our larger number of stations, and cannot directly be regionalized in the way we would like, so we suggest a different path below. The target of our work is to create a mean forecast with uncertainty bounds for a large number of locations in the framework of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS - http://www.efas.eu) We are therefore more interested in improving the forecast skill for high-flows rather than the forecast skill of lower runoff levels. EFAS uses a combination of ensemble forecasts and deterministic forecasts from different forecasters to force a distributed hydrologic model and to compute runoff ensembles for each river pixel within the model domain. Instead of showing the mean and the variability of each forecast ensemble individually, we will now post-process all model outputs to find a total probability, the post-processed mean and uncertainty of all ensembles. The post-processing parameters are first calibrated for each calibration location, but assuring that they have some spatial correlation, by adding a spatial penalty in the calibration process. This can in some cases have a slight negative

  17. Change in preoperative expectations in patients undergoing staged bilateral primary total knee or total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Poultsides, Lazaros A; Ghomrawi, Hassan M K; Lyman, Stephen; Aharonoff, Gina B; Mancuso, Carol A; Sculco, Thomas P

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare preoperative expectation scores between stages in patients with bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). For patients with TKA (57), ICC was 0.449, indicating fair agreement between stages; expectations did not change for 31% of patients, whereas 40% had higher and 29% had lower expectations. For patients with THA (55), ICC was 0.663, indicating moderate agreement; expectations did not change for 42% of patients, whereas 38% had higher and 20% had lower expectations. In multivariable analyses controlling for first expectation score, second expectation score was associated with better Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index stiffness score for TKA and with worse Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index function score for patients with THA. For most patients, expectations changed between staged bilateral TKA and THA, but the direction of change was not uniform.

  18. Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoids, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Scrophularia Striata Boiss Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Boland Nazar, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrophularia striata (Scrophulariaceae family) is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used for treatment of microbial infections. Objectives Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of different extracts (methanolic, ethanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate) from S. striata aerial parts was evaluated. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity of different extracts from S. striata was evaluated against a large number of bacteria and fungi by micro broth dilution. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured and their antioxidant activities evaluated by DPPH assay and beta carotene linoleic acid test. Results Antimicrobial screening exhibited the positive relation between the total phenolic content and its antimicrobial activity but their antioxidant activity had a negative relation. Conclusions Further studies are recommended against clinical isolate of sensitive bacteria and deep investigation on flavonoid and phenolic compounds of S. striata and detecting the antioxidant portion in aqueous extract. PMID:24624181

  19. Changes in total body water and extracellular fluid volume in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Coran, A G; Drongowski, R A; Wesley, J R

    1984-12-01

    The nature of weight gain seen in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition continues to be controversial. The debate centers around whether or not the weight gain represents an increase in body mass or water retention. The following study was carried out to answer this question. Eighteen infants receiving peripheral or central intravenous nutrition following major surgery were studied for periods ranging from 1 to 17 weeks. The following studies were carried out after receiving informed consent from the parents and in accordance with the standards established by the Human Use Committee. Total body water was measured using the nonradioactive isotope, deuterium oxide; extracellular fluid volume was assayed using the nonradioactive isotope, sodium bromide. Both body fluid compartments were calculated using the Fick principle of dye dilution. Following double vacuum distillation, serum deuterium oxide was assayed using the falling drop technique. Serum bromide was measured by a technique developed in our laboratory that involves the complexing of bromide with gold chloride and the measurement of this chemical complex colorimetrically. Weight gain was observed in all patients. Total body water percent body weight was 82% +/- 15% prior to the initiation of intravenous nutrition; it decreased within the first week to 71% +/- 12% and then stabilized for the remainder of the study period at 75% +/- 7%. The extracellular fluid volume percent body weight was 56% +/- 15% prior to the start of intravenous nutrition; it fell to 47% +/- 10% during the first week of parenteral nutrition, and then stabilized at 40% +/- 9%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 20 CFR 410.422 - Determining total disability: General criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining total disability: General... HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.422 Determining total disability: General criteria. (a) A determination of total...

  1. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total disability-speech... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862....1635 Total protein test system. (a) Identification. A total protein test system is a device intended to measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. 20 CFR 410.422 - Determining total disability: General criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining total disability: General... HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.422 Determining total disability: General criteria. (a) A determination of total...

  7. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Total disability-speech... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life...

  8. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Total disability-speech... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life...

  9. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Total disability-speech... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life...

  10. 38 CFR 8.18 - Total disability-speech.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Total disability-speech... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.18 Total disability—speech. The organic loss of speech shall be deemed to be total disability under National Service Life...

  11. 26 CFR 1.801-5 - Total reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required by State law. In determining total reserves, a company is permitted to make use of the highest... TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-5 Total reserves. (a) Total reserves defined. For purposes of... required by law. The term “total reserves” does not, however, include deficiency reserves (within...

  12. Physical rehabilitation after total joint arthroplasty in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Doyle, Nancy D; Pyke, Joanna Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have total joint arthroplasty have varying needs related to rehabilitation. In the short term, rehabilitation should be used in all dogs to identify high-risk patients and to minimize the likelihood of postoperative complications. Many patients undergoing total hip replacement recover uneventfully without needing long-term physiotherapy. All patients undergoing total knee replacement and total elbow replacement need rehabilitation to restore limb use and maximize their functional recovery. This article presents rehabilitation considerations for companion animals undergoing total hip replacement, total knee replacement, and total elbow replacement; postoperative complications and how to mitigate risks; and anticipated patient outcomes.

  13. Evaluation of total oxidative status and total antioxidant capacity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Icli, Atilla; Aksoy, Fatih; Bas, Hasan Aydin; Sutcu, Recep; Ersoy, Ismail Hakki; Varol, Simge; Ozaydin, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with endemic fluorosis. A total of 79 (35 males and 44 females; mean age 44.0 ± 11.9 years) patients with endemic fluorosis and 55 (23 males and 32 females; mean age 48.3 ± 8.5 years) age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The urine fluoride levels and plasma TOS and TAC levels were measured. The urine fluoride levels of fluorosis patients were significantly higher than control subjects as expected (1.91 ± 0.15 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 mg/L, respectively; p < 0.001). TOS was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (17.55 ± 3.82 vs. 15.06 ± 4.31 μmol H(2)O(2) Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.001). TAC was significantly lower in fluorosis group than in control group (1.60 ± 0.36 vs. 1.82 ± 0.51 mmol Trolox Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.004). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (11.5 ± 3.8 vs. 8.8 ± 3.7, respectively; p < 0.001). Correlation analysis in all the groups indicated that TAC was negatively correlated with urine fluoride (r = -0.25, p = 0.003), TOS was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and OSI was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the endemic fluorosis.

  14. Total synthesis of phorboxazole A via de novo oxazole formation: convergent total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Hansen, T Matthew; Weyer, Lynn; Wu, Dimao; Wang, Ting; Christmann, Mathias; Lu, Yingtao; Ying, Lu; Engler, Mary M; Cink, Russell D; Lee, Chi-Sing; Ahmed, Feryan; Forsyth, Craig J

    2011-02-09

    The phorboxazoles are mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthase/polyketide synthase biosynthetic products that embody polyketide domains joined via two serine-derived oxazole moieties. Total syntheses of phorboxazole A and analogues have been developed that rely upon the convergent coupling of three fragments via biomimetically inspired de novo oxazole formation. First, the macrolide-containing domain of phorboxazole A was assembled from C3-C17 and C18-C30 building blocks via formation of the C16-C18 oxazole, followed by macrolide ring closure involving an intramolecular Still-Genarri olefination at C2-C3. Alternatively, a ring-closing metathesis process was optimized to deliver the natural product's (2Z)-acrylate with remarkable geometrical selectivity. The C31-C46 side-chain domain was then appended to the macrolide by a second serine amide-derived oxazole assembly. Minimal deprotection then afforded phorboxazole A. This generally effective strategy was then dramatically abbreviated by employing a total synthesis approach wherein both of the natural product's oxazole moieties were installed simultaneously. A key bis-amide precursor to the bis-oxazole was formed in a chemoselective one-pot, bis-amidation sequence without the use of amino or carboxyl protecting groups. Thereafter, both oxazoles were formed from the key C18 and C31 bis-N-(1-hydroxyalkan-2-yl)amide in a simultaneous fashion, involving oxidation-cyclodehydrations. This synthetic strategy provides a total synthesis of phorboxazole A in 18% yield over nine steps from C3-C17 and C18-C30 synthetic fragments. It illustrates the utility of a synthetic design to form a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthase/polyketide synthase biosynthetic product based upon biomimetic oxazole formation initiated by amide bond formation to join synthetic building blocks.

  15. Total management of short gut secondary to midgut volvulus without prolonged total parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Tepas, J J; MacLean, W C; Kolbach, S; Shermeta, D W

    1978-12-01

    Absorption studies in rats have shown that intestinal adaptation after catastrophic injury can be stimulated by early enteral feeding. Using this concept, we have devised a technique of early initiation and advancement of oral feedings that begins with Cho-Free and Polycose and gradually adds sucrose and MCT in increasing proportions. The increasing complexity and caloric density of this diet provide sufficient nutrition to allow weaning from total parenteral alimentation within 2--3 wk. Our preliminary experience in babies with midgut volvulus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and gastroschisis has been successful and uncomplicated. These patients have demonstrated consistent weight gain and have been spared the complications associated with prolonged parenteral alimentation.

  16. Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Activity of Some Red Fruits Teas.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; Hosu, Anamaria; David, Luminita; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Fruits represent one of the main dietary sources of bioactive compounds. Due to their remarkable health benefits, many functional foods of fruit origin, including fruit teas, are present on the market and there is an increased interest regarding the investigation of their nutritional parameters and quality. The aims of our study were: 1) to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), antioxidant activity (AA), the scavenging capacity (IC50), the pro-oxidant activity (Pro-ox) and Pro-Antidex of 12 commercially available red fruit teas, 2) to classify the analysed teas and 3) to evaluate the similarities between samples. The TPC was between 12.5 and 29.3 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g tea, the TAC varied between 2.6 and 5.6 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-glu)/g tea and AA was in the range of 10.9-19.1 mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/g tea. The Pro-ox activity varied between 3.9 and 10.0 mg/mL tea extract and Pro-Antidex was between 3.3 and 7.3.

  17. Outcomes of Surgery for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return without Total Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngok; Cho, Joon Yong; Kwon, O Young; Jang, Woo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent developments in surgical techniques and hospital care have led to improved outcomes following total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) repair. However, the surgical repair of TAPVR remains associated with a high risk of mortality and need for reoperation. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate mid-term outcomes following in situ TAPVR repair without total circulatory arrest (TCA), and to identify the risk factors associated with surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 29 cases of surgical intervention for TAPVR conducted between April 2000 and July 2015. All patients were newborns or infants who underwent in situ TAPVR repair without TCA. Results Four anatomic subtypes of TAPVR were included in this study: supracardiac (20 cases, 69.0%), cardiac (4 cases, 13.8%), infracardiac (4 cases, 13.8%), and mixed (1 case, 3.4%). The median follow-up period for all patients was 42.9 months. Two (6.9%) early mortalities occurred, as well as 2 (6.9%) cases of postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO). Preoperative ventilator care (p=0.027) and preoperative PVO (p=0.002) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. Conclusion In situ repair of TAPVR without TCA was associated with encouraging mid-term outcomes. Preoperative ventilator care and preoperative PVO were found to be independent risk factors for mortality associated with TAPVR repair. PMID:27733992

  18. One piece ultracompact totally implantable electromechanical total artificial heart for permanent use.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Setsuo; Sakamoto, Tohru; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Arai, Hirokuni

    2002-01-01

    An ultracompact, one piece, totally implantable electromechanical total artificial heart (TAH) has been developed as a permanent replacement for failing hearts. It consists of left and right pusher plate blood pumps (stroke volume 55 ml) made of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb) sandwiching a miniaturized electromechanical actuator between them. The diameter of the TAH is 90 mm, with a thickness of 70 mm, yielding an overall volume of 400 ml. It weighs 450 g. Although it is miniaturized, it provided a maximum pump output of 8 L/min against a left afterload of 100 mm Hg. It required approximately 12 watts to provide a pump output of 6.5 L/min with maximum efficiency of 13.5%. To balance left and right flow, the right stroke length was made 10% shorter than the left, and an auxiliary compliance chamber was used to compensate for additional flow differences between them. Motor commutation pulses and a Hall effect pusher plate sensor signal were used in the controller to implement the left master alternate variable rate mode. The calf fitting study revealed excellent anatomic compatibility, and the first successful survivor was obtained in December 2001. Studies of system endurance and biocompatibility are required to ensure long-term reliability. This TAH is promising for permanent replacement of the failing heart as well as for bridge to heart transplantation for the smaller size group of end-stage cardiac patients.

  19. Kinematics of total facet replacement (TFAS-TL) with total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Funk, Michael; Carandang, Gerard; Zindrick, Daniel; Rosler, David M.; Patwardhan, Avinash G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Total disc replacement (TDR) and total facet replacement (TFR) have been the focus of recent kinematics evaluations. Yet their concurrent function as a total joint replacement of the lumbar spine's 3-joint complex has not been comprehensively reported. This study evaluated the effect of a TFR specifically designed to replace the natural facets and supplement the function with the natural disc and with TDR. The ability to replace degenerated facets to complement a pre-existing or simultaneously implanted TDR may allow surgeons to completely address degenerative pathologies of the 3-joint complex of the lumbar spine. We hypothesized that TFR would reproduce the biomechanical function of the natural facets when implanted in conjunction with TDR. Methods Lumbar spines (L1-5, 51.3 ± 14.2 years, N = 6) were tested sequentially as follows: (1) intact, (2) after TDR implantation, and (3) after TFR implantation in conjunction with TDR, all at L3-4. Specimens were tested in flexion-extension (+ 8 Nm to − 6 Nm), lateral bending (± 6 Nm), and axial rotation (± 5 Nm). A 400 N compressive follower preload was applied during flexion-extension tests. Three-dimensional segmental motion was recorded and analyzed using analysis of variance in Systat (Systat Software Inc., Chicago, Illinois) and multiple comparisons with Bonferroni correction. Results The TDR implantation (TDR + natural facets) allowed similar lateral bending (P = .66), but it generally increased flexion-extension (P = .06) and axial rotation (P < .05) range of motion (ROM) at the implanted level compared to intact. The TFR + TDR (following replacement of the natural facets with TFR) decreased ROM to levels similar to intact in lateral bending (P = .70) and axial rotation (P = .23). The TFR + TDR flexion-extension ROM was reduced in comparison to intact and TDR + natural facets (P < .05). Conclusions The TFR with TDR was able to restore stability to the lumbar segment after bilateral facetectomy, while

  20. GPM Shows Large Rainfall Totals from Typhoon Dujuan

    NASA Video Gallery

    GPM showed that Taiwan's heaviest rainfall totals of over 275 mm (10.8 inches) were located along the coast south of where Typhoon Dujuan made landfall. The highest rainfall totals were found over ...