Science.gov

Sample records for pm3 resistance locus

  1. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  2. Intragenic allele pyramiding combines different specificities of wheat Pm3 resistance alleles.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Susanne; Hurni, Severine; Streckeisen, Philipp; Mayr, Gabriele; Albrecht, Mario; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Keller, Beat

    2010-11-01

    Some plant resistance genes occur as allelic series, with each member conferring specific resistance against a subset of pathogen races. In wheat, there are 17 alleles of the Pm3 gene. They encode nucleotide-binding (NB-ARC) and leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domain proteins, which mediate resistance to distinct race spectra of powdery mildew. It is not known if specificities from different alleles can be combined to create resistance genes with broader specificity. Here, we used an approach based on avirulence analysis of pathogen populations to characterize the molecular basis of Pm3 recognition spectra. A large survey of mildew races for avirulence on the Pm3 alleles revealed that Pm3a has a resistance spectrum that completely contains that of Pm3f, but also extends towards additional races. The same is true for the Pm3b and Pm3c gene pair. The molecular analysis of these allelic pairs revealed a role of the NB-ARC protein domain in the efficiency of effector-dependent resistance. Analysis of the wild-type and chimeric Pm3 alleles identified single residues in the C-terminal LRR motifs as the main determinant of allele specificity. Variable residues of the N-terminal LRRs are necessary, but not sufficient, to confer resistance specificity. Based on these data, we constructed a chimeric Pm3 gene by intragenic allele pyramiding of Pm3d and Pm3e that showed the combined resistance specificity and, thus, a broader recognition spectrum compared with the parental alleles. Our findings support a model of stepwise evolution of Pm3 recognition specificities.

  3. Molecular cloning, functional verification, and evolution of TmPm3, the powdery mildew resistance gene of Triticum monococcum L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Z; Li, Y H; Dong, H T; Geng, M M; Liu, W H; Li, F; Ni, Z F; Wang, X J; Xie, C J; Sun, Q X

    2016-04-26

    Powdery mildew (Pm) is one of the most harmful diseases in wheat. Three Pm-resistance genes, Pm3, Pm21, and Pm8, have been cloned but most Pm3/Pm8 alleles have lost their resistance to Pm in hexaploid wheat. In this study, a new Pm3 homolog gene (TmPm3) was isolated from Triticum monococcum L. using a homology-based cloning strategy, being the first report of a functional Pm3 homolog gene from a diploid wheat species. The transient expression of TmPm3 in leaf epidermal cells showed that over-expressed TmPm3 could significantly inhibit the penetration of Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici conidia spores and the formation of haustoria. Sequence analysis of Pm3 alleles shed new light on the evolution of Pm3 genes, providing a better understanding of the molecular basis of disease resistance. This study also suggested that homology-based cloning of resistance genes is a feasible method for the isolation of functional resistance genes from wheat germplasm.

  4. The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is suppressed by its wheat ortholog Pm3.

    PubMed

    Hurni, Severine; Brunner, Susanne; Stirnweis, Daniel; Herren, Gerhard; Peditto, David; McIntosh, Robert A; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm8 derived from rye is located on a 1BL.1RS chromosome translocation in wheat. However, some wheat lines with this translocation do not show resistance to isolates of the wheat powdery mildew pathogen avirulent to Pm8 due to an unknown genetically dominant suppression mechanism. Here we show that lines with suppressed Pm8 activity contain an intact and expressed Pm8 gene. Therefore, the absence of Pm8 function in certain 1BL.1RS-containing wheat lines is not the result of gene loss or mutation but is based on suppression. The wheat gene Pm3, an ortholog of rye Pm8, suppressed Pm8-mediated powdery mildew resistance in lines containing Pm8 in a transient single-cell expression assay. This result was further confirmed in transgenic lines with combined Pm8 and Pm3 transgenes. Expression analysis revealed that suppression is not the result of gene silencing, either in wheat 1BL.1RS translocation lines carrying Pm8 or in transgenic genotypes with both Pm8 and Pm3 alleles. In addition, a similar abundance of the PM8 and PM3 proteins in single or double homozygous transgenic lines suggested that a post-translational mechanism is involved in suppression of Pm8. Co-expression of Pm8 and Pm3 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the two proteins interact. Therefore, the formation of a heteromeric protein complex might result in inefficient or absent signal transmission for the defense reaction. These data provide a molecular explanation for the suppression of resistance genes in certain genetic backgrounds and suggest ways to circumvent it in future plant breeding.

  5. Identification of heat resistant Escherichia coli by qPCR for the locus of heat resistance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Angela; Chui, Linda

    2017-02-01

    Three qPCR assays targeting the locus of heat resistance to identify heat resistant clinical Escherichia coli isolates are described. Of 613 isolates, 3 (0.5%) possessed the locus. The assays are a rapid, highly sensitive and specific alternative to screening by heat shock and can be used in food safety surveillance.

  6. Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum Cyclic Amine Resistance Locus (PfCARL) Confer Multidrug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    LaMonte, Gregory; Lim, Michelle Yi-Xiu; Wree, Melanie; Reimer, Christin; Nachon, Marie; Corey, Victoria; Gedeck, Peter; Plouffe, David; Du, Alan; Figueroa, Nelissa; Yeung, Bryan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum cyclic amine resistance locus (PfCARL) are associated with parasite resistance to the imidazolopiperazines, a potent class of novel antimalarial compounds that display both prophylactic and transmission-blocking activity, in addition to activity against blood-stage parasites. Here, we show that pfcarl encodes a protein, with a predicted molecular weight of 153 kDa, that localizes to the cis-Golgi apparatus of the parasite in both asexual and sexual blood stages. Utilizing clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated gene introduction of 5 variants (L830V, S1076N/I, V1103L, and I1139K), we demonstrate that mutations in pfcarl are sufficient to generate resistance against the imidazolopiperazines in both asexual and sexual blood-stage parasites. We further determined that the mutant PfCARL protein confers resistance to several structurally unrelated compounds. These data suggest that PfCARL modulates the levels of small-molecule inhibitors that affect Golgi-related processes, such as protein sorting or membrane trafficking, and is therefore an important mechanism of resistance in malaria parasites. PMID:27381290

  7. Tomato mutants altered in bacterial disease resistance provide evidence for a new locus controlling pathogen recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, J M; Barker, S J; Carland, F M; Mehta, A Y; Staskawicz, B J

    1994-01-01

    We have employed a genetic approach to study the resistance of tomato to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Resistance to P. s. tomato depends upon expression of the Pto locus in tomato, which encodes a protein with similarity to serine/threonine protein kinases and recognizes pathogen strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. Eleven tomato mutants were isolated with altered resistance to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. We identified mutations both in the Pto resistance locus and in a new locus designated Prf (for Pseudomonas resistance and fenthion sensitivity). The genetic approach allowed us to dissect the roles of these loci in signal transduction in response to pathogen attack. Lines carrying mutations in the Pto locus vary 200-fold in the degree to which they are susceptible to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. The pto mutants retain sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion; this trait segregates with Pto in genetic crosses. This result suggested that contrary to previous hypotheses, the Pto locus controls pathogen recognition but not fenthion sensitivity. Interestingly, mutations in the prf locus result in both complete susceptibility to P. s. tomato and insensitivity to fenthion, suggesting that Prf plays a role in tomato signaling in response to both pathogen elicitors and fenthion. Because pto and prf mutations do not alter recognition of Xanthomonas campestris strains expressing avrBsP, an avirulence gene recognized by all tested tomato cultivars, Prf does not play a general role in disease resistance but possibly functions specifically in resistance against P. s. tomato. Genetic analysis of F2 populations from crosses of pto and prf homozygotes indicated that the Pto and Prf loci are tightly linked. PMID:7911348

  8. Parallel Loss-of-Function at the RPM1 Bacterial Resistance Locus in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Laura; Atwell, Susanna; Grant, Murray; Holub, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    Dimorphism at the Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1 (RPM1) locus is well documented in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and has been portrayed as a long-term balanced polymorphism. The haplotype from resistant plants contains the RPM1 gene, which enables these plants to recognize at least two structurally unrelated bacterial effector proteins (AvrB and AvrRpm1) from bacterial crop pathogens. A complete deletion of the RPM1 coding sequence has been interpreted as a single event resulting in susceptibility in these individuals. Consequently, the ability to revert to resistance or for alternative R-gene specificities to evolve at this locus has also been lost in these individuals. Our survey of variation at the RPM1 locus in a large species-wide sample of A. thaliana has revealed four new loss-of-function alleles that contain most of the intervening sequence of the RPM1 open reading frame. Multiple loss-of-function alleles may have originated due to the reported intrinsic cost to plants expressing the RPM1 protein. The frequency and geographic distribution of rpm1 alleles observed in our survey indicate the parallel origin and maintenance of these loss-of-function mutations and reveal a more complex history of natural selection at this locus than previously thought. PMID:23272006

  9. The sexually linked Mpi locus is presumably involved in imidothiazole resistance in Oesophagostomum dentatum parasites.

    PubMed

    Snábel, V; DeMeeŵs, T; Várady, M; Nansen, P; Bjørn, H; Corba, J

    2000-06-01

    Information about genetic changes during the selection process could indicate mechanisms underlying the spread of resistance to anthelmintic drugs. For clarification of the role of the Mpi locus encoding mannose-phosphate isomerase enzyme in determining resistance, genotyping of Oesophagostomum dentatum strains was performed using an isoelectrofocusing technique. In levamisole- and pyrantel-selected strains the allele associated with resistance has probably been found. Significant values for genetic differentiation between treated and untreated strains of common origin were recorded by F(st) indices (theta = 0.078; P = 0.0008). The specific genomic makeup of a flubendazole-resistant strain, which did not correlate with that of the remaining isolates, might be ascribed to a different action of the anthelmintic or different environmental conditions under which resistance against this drug arose. The absence of heterozygotes in male populations indicated an XX/X0 system of sex determination for the Mpi locus, thus providing a greater potential for the development of resistance. A possible involvement of alleles linked with mannose-phosphate isomerase in alterations of membrane receptors that can be associated with resistance against imidothiazole-based drugs is discussed.

  10. Evolution and selection of Rhg1, a copy-number variant nematode-resistance locus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tong Geon; Kumar, Indrajit; Diers, Brian W; Hudson, Matthew E

    2015-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) resistance locus Rhg1 is a tandem repeat of a 31.2 kb unit of the soybean genome. Each 31.2-kb unit contains four genes. One allele of Rhg1, Rhg1-b, is responsible for protecting most US soybean production from SCN. Whole-genome sequencing was performed, and PCR assays were developed to investigate allelic variation in sequence and copy number of the Rhg1 locus across a population of soybean germplasm accessions. Four distinct sequences of the 31.2-kb repeat unit were identified, and some Rhg1 alleles carry up to three different types of repeat unit. The total number of copies of the repeat varies from 1 to 10 per haploid genome. Both copy number and sequence of the repeat correlate with the resistance phenotype, and the Rhg1 locus shows strong signatures of selection. Significant linkage disequilibrium in the genome outside the boundaries of the repeat allowed the Rhg1 genotype to be inferred using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of 15 996 accessions. Over 860 germplasm accessions were found likely to possess Rhg1 alleles. The regions surrounding the repeat show indications of non-neutral evolution and high genetic variability in populations from different geographic locations, but without evidence of fixation of the resistant genotype. A compelling explanation of these results is that balancing selection is in operation at Rhg1. PMID:25735447

  11. Drug Resistance Is Not Directly Affected by Mating Type Locus Zygosity in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Claude; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael; Soll, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, evidence was presented that in a collection of fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida albicans there was a much higher proportion of homozygotes for the mating type locus (MTL) than in a collection of fluconazole-sensitive isolates, suggesting the possibility that when cells become MTL homozygous they acquire intrinsic drug resistance. To investigate this possibility, an opposite strategy was employed. First, drug susceptibility was measured in a collection of isolates selected for MTL homozygosity. The majority of these isolates had not been exposed to antifungal drugs. Second, the level of drug susceptibility was compared between spontaneously generated MTL-homozygous progeny and their MTL-heterozygous parent strains which had not been exposed to antifungal drugs. The results demonstrate that naturally occurring MTL-homozygous strains are not intrinsically more drug resistant, supporting the hypotheses that either the higher incidence of MTL homozygosity previously demonstrated among fluconazole-resistant isolates involved associated homozygosity of a drug resistance gene linked to the MTL locus, or that MTL-homozygous strains may be better at developing drug resistance upon exposure to the drug than MTL-heterozygous strains. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a switch by an MTL-homozygous strain from the white to opaque phenotype, the latter functioning as the facilitator of mating, does not notably alter drug susceptibility. PMID:12654648

  12. Genetic and molecular characterization of the maize rp3 rust resistance locus.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Craig A; Richter, Todd E; Collins, Nicholas C; Nicolas, Marie; Trick, Harold N; Pryor, Tony; Hulbert, Scot H

    2002-01-01

    In maize, the Rp3 gene confers resistance to common rust caused by Puccinia sorghi. Flanking marker analysis of rust-susceptible rp3 variants suggested that most of them arose via unequal crossing over, indicating that rp3 is a complex locus like rp1. The PIC13 probe identifies a nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) gene family that maps to the complex. Rp3 variants show losses of PIC13 family members relative to the resistant parents when probed with PIC13, indicating that the Rp3 gene is a member of this family. Gel blots and sequence analysis suggest that at least 9 family members are at the locus in most Rp3-carrying lines and that at least 5 of these are transcribed in the Rp3-A haplotype. The coding regions of 14 family members, isolated from three different Rp3-carrying haplotypes, had DNA sequence identities from 93 to 99%. Partial sequencing of clones of a BAC contig spanning the rp3 locus in the maize inbred line B73 identified five different PIC13 paralogues in a region of approximately 140 kb. PMID:12242248

  13. Comment on 'On the locus formed by the maximum heights of projectile motion with air resistance'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Seán M.

    2011-03-01

    We show that a remark made by Hernández-Saldaña in 2010 (Eur. J. Phys. 31 1319) concerning the validity of an expression first presented by us in 2006 (Proc. 17th Biennial Congress of the Australian Institute of Physics Paper 27) for the optimal angle of projection for greatest forward skew in the trajectory of a projectile launched in a linear resisting medium is in error. We also draw attention to an earlier treatment (2006 Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol. 37 411) of the locus of apexes for such a projectile. When expressed in Cartesian form, the locus can be written in terms of the now familiar, though less common, secondary real branch of the Lambert W function.

  14. Locus-specific genetic differentiation at Rw among warfarin-resistant rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations.

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Michael H; Pelz, Hans-Joachim; Wayne, Robert K

    2003-01-01

    Populations may diverge at fitness-related genes as a result of adaptation to local conditions. The ability to detect this divergence by marker-based genomic scans depends on the relative magnitudes of selection, recombination, and migration. We survey rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations to assess the effect that local selection with anticoagulant rodenticides has had on microsatellite marker variation and differentiation at the warfarin resistance gene (Rw) relative to the effect on the genomic background. Initially, using a small sample of 16 rats, we demonstrate tight linkage of microsatellite D1Rat219 to Rw by association mapping of genotypes expressing an anticoagulant-rodenticide-insensitive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR). Then, using allele frequencies at D1Rat219, we show that predicted and observed resistance levels in 27 populations correspond, suggesting intense and recent selection for resistance. A contrast of F(ST) values between D1Rat219 and the genomic background revealed that rodenticide selection has overwhelmed drift-mediated population structure only at Rw. A case-controlled design distinguished these locus-specific effects of selection at Rw from background levels of differentiation more effectively than a population-controlled approach. Our results support the notion that an analysis of locus-specific population genetic structure may assist the discovery and mapping of novel candidate loci that are the object of selection or may provide supporting evidence for previously identified loci. PMID:12871915

  15. Development and validation of a breeder-friendly KASPar marker for wheat leaf rust resistance locus Lr21

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and utilization of genetic markers play a pivotal role in marker assisted breeding of wheat cultivars with pyramids of disease resistance genes. The objective of this study is to develop a closed tube, gel-free assay for high throughput genotyping of leaf rust resistance locus Lr21. Poly...

  16. Dynamics of disease resistance polymorphism at the Rpm1 locus of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stahl, E A; Dwyer, G; Mauricio, R; Kreitman, M; Bergelson, J

    1999-08-12

    The co-evolutionary 'arms race' is a widely accepted model for the evolution of host-pathogen interactions. This model predicts that variation for disease resistance will be transient, and that host populations generally will be monomorphic at disease-resistance (R-gene) loci. However, plant populations show considerable polymorphism at R-gene loci involved in pathogen recognition. Here we have tested the arms-race model in Arabidopsis thaliana by analysing sequences flanking Rpm1, a gene conferring the ability to recognize Pseudomonas pathogens carrying AvrRpm1 or AvrB. We reject the arms-race hypothesis: resistance and susceptibility alleles at this locus have co-existed for millions of years. To account for the age of alleles and the relative levels of polymorphism within allelic classes, we use coalescence theory to model the long-term accumulation of nucleotide polymorphism in the context of the short-term ecological dynamics of disease resistance. This analysis supports a 'trench warfare' hypothesis, in which advances and retreats of resistance-allele frequency maintain variation for disease resistance as a dynamic polymorphism.

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS D is required for systemic acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijayata; Roy, Shweta; Giri, Mrunmay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Ratnesh; Chowdhury, Zulkarnain; Shah, Jyoti; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Localized infection in plants often induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides long-term protection against subsequent infections. A signal originating in the SAR-inducing organ is transported to the distal organs, where it stimulates salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and priming, a mechanism that results in more robust activation of defenses in response to subsequent pathogen infection. In recent years, several metabolites that promote long-distance SAR signaling have been identified. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which plants perceive and respond to the SAR signals are largely obscure. Here, we show that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, the FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD) is required for responding to the SAR signals leading to the systemic accumulation of SA and enhancement of disease resistance. Although the fld mutant was competent in accumulating the SAR-inducing signal, it was unable to respond to the SAR signal that accumulates in petiole exudates of wild-type leaves inoculated with a SAR-inducing pathogen. Supporting FLD's role in systemic SAR signaling, we observed that dehydroabietinal and azelaic acid, two metabolites that, in wild-type plants, promote SAR-associated systemic accumulation of SA and priming, respectively, were unable to promote SAR in the fld mutant. FLD also participates in flowering, where it functions to repress expression of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). However, epistasis analysis indicates that FLD's function in SAR is independent of FLC.

  18. Second locus involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to protease inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Doyon, L; Croteau, G; Thibeault, D; Poulin, F; Pilote, L; Lamarre, D

    1996-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are potent antiviral agents against human immunodeficiency virus type 1. As with reverse transcriptase inhibitors, however, resistance to protease inhibitors can develop and is attributed to the appearance of mutations in the protease gene. With the substrate analog protease inhibitors BILA 1906 BS and BILA 2185 BS, 350- to 1,500-fold-resistant variants have been selected in vitro and were found not only to contain mutations in the protease gene but also to contain mutations in Gag precursor p1/p6 and/or NC (p7)/p1 cleavage sites. Mutations in cleavage sites give rise to better peptide substrates for the protease in vitro and to improved processing of p15 precursors in drug-resistant clones. Importantly, removal of cleavage site mutations in resistant clones leads to a decrease or even an absence of viral growth, confirming their role in viral fitness. Therefore, these second-locus mutations indicate that cleavage of p15 is a rate-limiting step in polyprotein processing in highly resistant viruses. The functional constraint of p15 processing also suggests that additional selective pressure could further compromise viral fitness and maintain the benefits of antiviral therapies. PMID:8648711

  19. Unraveling Genomic Complexity at a Quantitative Disease Resistance Locus in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Jamann, Tiffany M.; Poland, Jesse A.; Kolkman, Judith M.; Smith, Laurie G.; Nelson, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple disease resistance has important implications for plant fitness, given the selection pressure that many pathogens exert directly on natural plant populations and indirectly via crop improvement programs. Evidence of a locus conditioning resistance to multiple pathogens was found in bin 1.06 of the maize genome with the allele from inbred line “Tx303” conditioning quantitative resistance to northern leaf blight (NLB) and qualitative resistance to Stewart’s wilt. To dissect the genetic basis of resistance in this region and to refine candidate gene hypotheses, we mapped resistance to the two diseases. Both resistance phenotypes were localized to overlapping regions, with the Stewart’s wilt interval refined to a 95.9-kb segment containing three genes and the NLB interval to a 3.60-Mb segment containing 117 genes. Regions of the introgression showed little to no recombination, suggesting structural differences between the inbred lines Tx303 and “B73,” the parents of the fine-mapping population. We examined copy number variation across the region using next-generation sequencing data, and found large variation in read depth in Tx303 across the region relative to the reference genome of B73. In the fine-mapping region, association mapping for NLB implicated candidate genes, including a putative zinc finger and pan1. We tested mutant alleles and found that pan1 is a susceptibility gene for NLB and Stewart’s wilt. Our data strongly suggest that structural variation plays an important role in resistance conditioned by this region, and pan1, a gene conditioning susceptibility for NLB, may underlie the QTL. PMID:25009146

  20. Unraveling genomic complexity at a quantitative disease resistance locus in maize.

    PubMed

    Jamann, Tiffany M; Poland, Jesse A; Kolkman, Judith M; Smith, Laurie G; Nelson, Rebecca J

    2014-09-01

    Multiple disease resistance has important implications for plant fitness, given the selection pressure that many pathogens exert directly on natural plant populations and indirectly via crop improvement programs. Evidence of a locus conditioning resistance to multiple pathogens was found in bin 1.06 of the maize genome with the allele from inbred line "Tx303" conditioning quantitative resistance to northern leaf blight (NLB) and qualitative resistance to Stewart's wilt. To dissect the genetic basis of resistance in this region and to refine candidate gene hypotheses, we mapped resistance to the two diseases. Both resistance phenotypes were localized to overlapping regions, with the Stewart's wilt interval refined to a 95.9-kb segment containing three genes and the NLB interval to a 3.60-Mb segment containing 117 genes. Regions of the introgression showed little to no recombination, suggesting structural differences between the inbred lines Tx303 and "B73," the parents of the fine-mapping population. We examined copy number variation across the region using next-generation sequencing data, and found large variation in read depth in Tx303 across the region relative to the reference genome of B73. In the fine-mapping region, association mapping for NLB implicated candidate genes, including a putative zinc finger and pan1. We tested mutant alleles and found that pan1 is a susceptibility gene for NLB and Stewart's wilt. Our data strongly suggest that structural variation plays an important role in resistance conditioned by this region, and pan1, a gene conditioning susceptibility for NLB, may underlie the QTL.

  1. Transcriptome and allele specificity associated with a 3BL locus for Fusarium crown rot resistance in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Zhao, Qiang; Feng, Qi; Cavanagh, Colin; Wang, Penghao; Gardiner, Donald; Choulet, Frédéric; Feuillet, Catherine; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yuming; Yan, Guijun; Han, Bin; Manners, John M; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium pathogens cause two major diseases in cereals, Fusarium crown rot (FCR) and head blight (FHB). A large-effect locus conferring resistance to FCR disease was previously located to chromosome arm 3BL (designated as Qcrs-3B) and several independent sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) have been developed for this locus. In this study, five sets of the NILs were used to examine transcriptional changes associated with the Qcrs-3B locus and to identify genes linked to the resistance locus as a step towards the isolation of the causative gene(s). Of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected between the NILs, 12.7% was located on the single chromosome 3B. Of the expressed genes containing SNP (SNP-EGs) detected, 23.5% was mapped to this chromosome. Several of the DEGs and SNP-EGs are known to be involved in host-pathogen interactions, and a large number of the DEGs were among those detected for FHB in previous studies. Of the DEGs detected, 22 were mapped in the Qcrs-3B interval and they included eight which were detected in the resistant isolines only. The enrichment of DEG, and not necessarily those containing SNPs between the resistant and susceptible isolines, around the Qcrs-3B locus is suggestive of local regulation of this region by the resistance allele. Functions for 13 of these DEGs are known. Of the SNP-EGs, 28 were mapped in the Qcrs-3B interval and biological functions for 16 of them are known. These results provide insights into responses regulated by the 3BL locus and identify a tractable number of target genes for fine mapping and functional testing to identify the causative gene(s) at this QTL.

  2. Fine Mapping of Ur-3, a Historically Important Rust Resistance Locus in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Valentini, Giseli; Gilio, Thiago A. S.; Martins, Alexandre M.; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a devastating disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the Americas and Africa. The historically important Ur-3 gene confers resistance to many races of the highly variable bean rust pathogen that overcome other rust resistance genes. Existing molecular markers tagging Ur-3 for use in marker-assisted selection produce false results. Here, we describe the fine mapping of the Ur-3 locus for the development of highly accurate markers linked to Ur-3. An F2 population from the cross Pinto 114 (susceptible) × Aurora (resistant with Ur-3) was evaluated for its reaction to four different races of U. appendiculatus. A bulked segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBEAN6K_3 placed the approximate location of Ur-3 in the lower arm of chromosome Pv11. Specific SSR and SNP markers and haplotype analysis of 18 sequenced bean varieties positioned Ur-3 in a 46.5 kb genomic region from 46.96 to 47.01 Mb on Pv11. We discovered in this region the SS68 KASP marker that was tightly linked to Ur-3. Validation of SS68 on a panel of 130 diverse common bean cultivars containing all known rust resistance genes revealed that SS68 was highly accurate and produced no false results. The SS68 marker will be of great value in pyramiding Ur-3 with other rust resistance genes. It will also significantly reduce time and labor associated with the current phenotypic detection of Ur-3. This is the first utilization of fine mapping to discover markers linked to rust resistance in common bean. PMID:28031244

  3. Quantitative trait locus analysis of fungal disease resistance factors on a molecular map of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, B M; Salakhutdinov, I; Akkurt, M; Eibach, R; Edwards, K J; Töpfer, R; Zyprian, E M

    2004-02-01

    A full-sibling F1 population comprising 153 individuals from the cross of 'Regent' x 'Lemberger' was employed to construct a genetic map based on 429 molecular markers. The newly-bred red grapevine variety 'Regent' has multiple field-resistance to fungal diseases inherited as polygenic traits, while 'Lemberger' is a traditional fungus-susceptible cultivar. The progeny segregate quantitatively for resistances to Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator, fungal pathogens that threaten viticulture in temperate areas. A double pseudo-testcross strategy was employed to construct the two parental maps under high statistical stringency for linkage to obtain a robust marker frame for subsequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. In total, 185 amplified fragment length polymorphism, 137 random amplified polymorphic DNA, 85 single sequence repeat and 22 sequence characterized amplified region or cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were mapped. The maps were aligned by co-dominant or doubly heterozygous dominant anchor markers. Twelve pairs of homologous linkage groups could be integrated into consensus linkage groups. Resistance phenotypes and segregating characteristics were scored as quantitative traits in three or four growing seasons. Interval mapping reproducibly localized genetic factors that correlated with fungal disease resistances to specific regions on three linkage groups of the maternal 'Regent' map. A QTL for resistance to Uncinula necator was identified on linkage group 16, and QTLs for endurance to Plasmopara viticola on linkage groups 9 and 10 of 'Regent'. Additional QTLs for the onset of berry ripening ("veraison"), berry size and axillary shoot growth were identified. Berry color segregated as a simple trait in this cross of two red varieties and was mapped as a morphological marker. Six markers derived from functional genes could be localized. This dissection of polygenic fungus disease resistance in grapevine allows the development of

  4. A novel locus of resistance to severe malaria in a region of ancient balancing selection.

    PubMed

    Band, Gavin; Rockett, Kirk A; Spencer, Chris C A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2015-10-08

    The high prevalence of sickle haemoglobin in Africa shows that malaria has been a major force for human evolutionary selection, but surprisingly few other polymorphisms have been proven to confer resistance to malaria in large epidemiological studies. To address this problem, we conducted a multi-centre genome-wide association study (GWAS) of life-threatening Plasmodium falciparum infection (severe malaria) in over 11,000 African children, with replication data in a further 14,000 individuals. Here we report a novel malaria resistance locus close to a cluster of genes encoding glycophorins that are receptors for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum. We identify a haplotype at this locus that provides 33% protection against severe malaria (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.76, P value = 9.5 × 10(-11)) and is linked to polymorphisms that have previously been shown to have features of ancient balancing selection, on the basis of haplotype sharing between humans and chimpanzees. Taken together with previous observations on the malaria-protective role of blood group O, these data reveal that two of the strongest GWAS signals for severe malaria lie in or close to genes encoding the glycosylated surface coat of the erythrocyte cell membrane, both within regions of the genome where it appears that evolution has maintained diversity for millions of years. These findings provide new insights into the host-parasite interactions that are critical in determining the outcome of malaria infection.

  5. A major effect quantitative trait locus for whirling disease resistance identified in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Baerwald, M R; Petersen, J L; Hedrick, R P; Schisler, G J; May, B

    2011-01-01

    Whirling disease, caused by the pathogen Myxobolus cerebralis, leads to skeletal deformation, neurological impairment and under certain conditions, mortality of juvenile salmonid fishes. The disease has impacted the propagation and survival of many salmonid species over six continents, with particularly negative consequences for rainbow trout. To assess the genetic basis of whirling disease resistance in rainbow trout, genome-wide mapping was initiated using a large outbred F2 rainbow trout family (n=480) and results were confirmed in three additional outbred F2 families (n=96 per family). A single quantitative trait locus (QTL) region on chromosome Omy9 was identified in the large mapping family and confirmed in all additional families. This region explains 50–86% of the phenotypic variance across families. Therefore, these data establish that a single QTL region is capable of explaining a large percentage of the phenotypic variance contributing to whirling disease resistance. This is the first genetic region discovered that contributes directly to the whirling disease phenotype and the finding moves the field closer to a mechanistic understanding of resistance to this important disease of salmonid fish. PMID:21048672

  6. On the Locus Formed by the Maximum Heights of Projectile Motion with Air Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez-Saldana, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis on the locus formed by the set of maxima of the trajectories of a projectile launched in a medium with linear drag. Such a place, the locus of apexes, is written in terms of the Lambert "W" function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. To characterize the locus, a study of…

  7. The locus of heat resistance (LHR) mediates heat resistance in Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Ryan G; Walker, Brian D; Yang, Xianqin; McMullen, Lynn M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-06-01

    Enterobacteriaceae comprise food spoilage organisms as well as food-borne pathogens including Escherichia coli. Heat resistance in E. coli was attributed to a genomic island called the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This genomic island is also present in several other genera of Enterobacteriaceae, but its function in the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterobacter cloacae is unknown. This study aimed to determine the frequency of the LHR in food isolates of E. coli, and its influence on heat resistance in S. enterica and Enterobacter spp. Cell counts of LHR-positive strains of E. coli, S. enterica and E. cloacae were reduced by less than 1, 1, and 4 log (cfu/mL), respectively, after exposure to 60 °C for 5 min, while cell counts of LHR-negative strains of the same species were reduced by more than 7 log (cfu/mL). Introducing an exogenous copy of the LHR into heat-sensitive enteropathogenic E. coli and S. enterica increased heat resistance to a level that was comparable to LHR-positive wild type strains. Cell counts of LHR-positive S. enterica were reduced by less than 1 log(cfu/mL) after heating to 60 °C for 5 min. Survival of LHR-positive strains was improved by increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4%. Cell counts of LHR-positive strains of E. coli and S. enterica were reduced by less than 2 log (cfu/g) in ground beef patties cooked to an internal core temperature of 71 °C. This study indicates that LHR-positive Enterobacteriaceae pose a risk to food safety.

  8. A Locus at 5q33.3 Confers Resistance to Tuberculosis in Highly Susceptible Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sobota, Rafal S.; Stein, Catherine M.; Kodaman, Nuri; Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Maro, Isaac; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Igo, Robert P.; Magohe, Albert; Malone, LaShaunda L.; Chervenak, Keith; Hall, Noemi B.; Modongo, Chawangwa; Zetola, Nicola; Matee, Mecky; Joloba, Moses; Froment, Alain; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Moore, Jason H.; Scott, William K.; Lahey, Timothy; Boom, W. Henry; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Sirugo, Giorgio; Williams, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression resulting from HIV infection increases the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB) both in individuals newly exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and in those with latent infections. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals who do not develop TB, despite living in areas where it is hyperendemic, provide a model of natural resistance. We performed a genome-wide association study of TB resistance by using 581 HIV-positive Ugandans and Tanzanians enrolled in prospective cohort studies of TB; 267 of these individuals developed active TB, and 314 did not. A common variant, rs4921437 at 5q33.3, was significantly associated with TB (odds ratio = 0.37, p = 2.11 × 10−8). This variant lies within a genomic region that includes IL12B and is embedded in an H3K27Ac histone mark. The locus also displays consistent patterns of linkage disequilibrium across African populations and has signals of strong selection in populations from equatorial Africa. Along with prior studies demonstrating that therapy with IL-12 (the cytokine encoded in part by IL12B, associated with longer survival following MTB infection in mice deficient in CD4 T cells), our results suggest that this pathway might be an excellent target for the development of new modalities for treating TB, especially for HIV-positive individuals. Our results also indicate that studying extreme disease resistance in the face of extensive exposure can increase the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease. PMID:26942285

  9. [Control locus, stress resistance and personal growth of the participants in experiment Mars-500].

    PubMed

    Solcova, I; Vinokhodova, A G

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with positive personal transformations in a simulated space mission. The investigation was focused on the aspects of control locus, stamina, proactive behavior to overcome challenges, and stress-related personal growth. Besides, ingenious psychophysiological techniques designed to select Russian cosmonauts were used for assessing stress-resistance and ability to control own emotions voluntarily. Experiment Mars-500 simulated the basic features of a mission to Mars. The crew consisted of 6 males 27 to 38 years of age who volunteered to spend 520 days in isolation and confinement in the IBMP experimental facility (Moscow). To detect personality changes, the volunteers were tested before the experiment and after its completion. According to the test results, the participants commonly demonstrated the ability to see the bright side of the Mars-500 adversities, which most often was caused by their social growth. Positive changes were particularly pronounced in the crewmembers who possessed a better ability to control own emotions. The simulated challenges were also beneficial for personal growth of the volunteers.

  10. Mapping and Genetic Structure Analysis of the Anthracnose Resistance Locus Co-1HY in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lanfen; Mantri, Nitin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Anthracnose is a destructive disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Andean cultivar Hongyundou has been demonstrated to possess strong resistance to anthracnose race 81. To study the genetics of this resistance, the Hongyundou cultivar was crossed with a susceptible genotype Jingdou. Segregation of resistance for race 81 was assessed in the F2 population and F2:3 lines under controlled conditions. Results indicate that Hongyundou carries a single dominant gene for anthracnose resistance. An allele test by crossing Hongyundou with another resistant cultivar revealed that the resistance gene is in the Co-1 locus (therefore named Co-1HY). The physical distance between this locus and the two flanking markers was 46 kb, and this region included four candidate genes, namely, Phvul.001G243500, Phvul.001G243600, Phvul.001G243700 and Phvul.001G243800. These candidate genes encoded serine/threonine-protein kinases. Expression analysis of the four candidate genes in the resistant and susceptible cultivars under control condition and inoculated treatment revealed that all the four candidate genes are expressed at significantly higher levels in the resistant genotype than in susceptible genotype. Phvul.001G243600 and Phvul.001G243700 are expressed nearly 15-fold and 90-fold higher in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible parent before inoculation, respectively. Four candidate genes will provide useful information for further research into the resistance mechanism of anthracnose in common bean. The closely linked flanking markers identified here may be useful for transferring the resistance allele Co-1HY from Hongyundou to elite anthracnose susceptible common bean lines. PMID:28076395

  11. Characterization of a disease susceptibility locus for exploring an efficient way to improve rice resistance against bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Mao, Weihua; Xie, Wenya; Liu, Qinsong; Cao, Jianbo; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Qinglu; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Shiping

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most harmful bacterial disease of rice worldwide. Previously, we characterized major disease resistance (MR) gene xa25, which confers race-specific resistance to Xoo strain PXO339. The xa25 is a recessive allele of the SWEET13 locus, but SWEET13's interaction with PXO339 and how efficiently using this locus for rice breeding still need to be defined. Here we show that the SWEET13 allele from rice Zhenshan 97 is a susceptibility gene to PXO339. Using this allele's promoter to regulate xa25 resulted in disease, suggesting that the promoter is a key determinant in SWEET13 caused disease in Zhanshan 97 after PXO339 infection. PXO339 transcriptionally induces SWEET13 to cause disease. Partial suppressing SWEET13 expression leads to a high level of resistance to PXO339. Thus, the transcriptionally suppressed SWEET13 functions as xa25 in resistance to PXO339. Hybrid rice is widely grown in many countries. However, recessive MR genes have not been efficiently used for disease resistance breeding in hybrid rice production for both parents of the hybrid have to carry the same recessive gene. However, the suppressed SWEET13 functions dominantly, which will have advantage to improve the resistance of hybrid rice to xa25-incomptible Xoo.

  12. Slow erosion of a quantitative apple resistance to Venturia inaequalis based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus.

    PubMed

    Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno; Al Rifaï, Mehdi; Bellanger, Marie-Noëlle; Comby, Morgane; Denancé, Caroline; Didelot, Frédérique; Expert, Pascale; Kerdraon, Tifenn; Lemarquand, Arnaud; Ravon, Elisa; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative plant resistance affects the aggressiveness of pathogens and is usually considered more durable than qualitative resistance. However, the efficiency of a quantitative resistance based on an isolate-specific Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) is expected to decrease over time due to the selection of isolates with a high level of aggressiveness on resistant plants. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed scab incidence over an eight-year period in an orchard planted with susceptible and quantitatively resistant apple genotypes. We sampled 79 Venturia inaequalis isolates from this orchard at three dates and we tested their level of aggressiveness under controlled conditions. Isolates sampled on resistant genotypes triggered higher lesion density and exhibited a higher sporulation rate on apple carrying the resistance allele of the QTL T1 compared to isolates sampled on susceptible genotypes. Due to this ability to select aggressive isolates, we expected the QTL T1 to be non-durable. However, our results showed that the quantitative resistance based on the QTL T1 remained efficient in orchard over an eight-year period, with only a slow decrease in efficiency and no detectable increase of the aggressiveness of fungal isolates over time. We conclude that knowledge on the specificity of a QTL is not sufficient to evaluate its durability. Deciphering molecular mechanisms associated with resistance QTLs, genetic determinants of aggressiveness and putative trade-offs within pathogen populations is needed to help in understanding the erosion processes.

  13. Correlation between genetic features of the mef(A)-msr(D) locus and erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Luca Agostino; Di Luca, Maria Chiara; Prenna, Manuela; Petrelli, Dezemona

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the genetic variation within mef(A)-msr(D) determinants of efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes and the level of erythromycin resistance. Twenty-eight mef(A)-positive strains were selected according to erythromycin MIC (4-32 μg/mL), and their mef(A)-msr(D) regions were sequenced. Strains were classified according to the bacteriophage carrying mef(A)-msr(D). A new Φm46.1 genetic variant was found in 8 strains out of 28 and named VP_00501.1. Degree of allelic variation was higher in mef(A) than in msr(D). Hotspots for recombination were mapped within the locus that could have shaped the apparent mosaic structure of the region. There was a general correlation between mef(A)-msr(D) sequence and erythromycin resistance level. However, lysogenic conversion of susceptible strains by mef(A)-msr(D)-carrying Φm46.1 indicated that key determinants may not all reside within the mef(A)-msr(D) locus and that horizontal gene transfer could contribute to changes in the level of antibiotic resistance in S. pyogenes.

  14. A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2002-12-01

    The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of approximately 290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves.

  15. A cluster of four receptor-like genes resides in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2002-01-01

    The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of approximately 290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves. PMID:12524365

  16. Identification of a major Quantitative Trait Locus determining resistance to the organophosphate temephos in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Marcelo H S; Lovin, Diane D; Mori, Akio; Melo-Santos, Maria A V; Severson, David W; Ayres, Constância F J

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate insecticides (OP) have extensively been used to control mosquitoes, such as the vector Aedes aegypti. Unfortunately, OP resistance has hampered control programs worldwide. We used Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate temephos resistance in two F1 intercross populations derived from crosses between a resistant Ae. aegypti strain (RecR) and two susceptible strains (MoyoD and Red). A single major effect QTL was identified on chromosome 2 of both segregating populations, named rtt1 (resistance to temephos 1). Bioinformatics analyses identified a cluster of carboxylesterase genes (CCE) within the rtt1 interval. qRT-PCR demonstrated that different CCEs were up-regulated in F2 resistant individuals from both crosses. However, none exceeded the 2-fold expression. Primary mechanisms for temephos resistance may vary between Ae. aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations.

  17. High-resolution mapping of the wheat Lr46 pleiotropic rust resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rust diseases are the most important diseases of wheat globally, and genetic resistance is the most effective method for controlling all three rusts. Numerous resistance genes have been characterized and reported. For typical resistance genes, the mechanism of resistance and the basis of race specif...

  18. The I2C family from the wilt disease resistance locus I2 belongs to the nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat superfamily of plant resistance genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ori, N; Eshed, Y; Paran, I; Presting, G; Aviv, D; Tanksley, S; Zamir, D; Fluhr, R

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. Genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. Members of a new multigene family, complex I2C, were isolated by map-based cloning from the I2 F. o. lycopersici race 2 resistance locus. The genes show structural similarity to the group of recently isolated resistance genes that contain a nucleotide binding motif and leucine-rich repeats. Importantly, the presence of I2C antisense transgenes abrogated race 2 but not race 1 resistance in otherwise normal plants. Expression of the complete sense I2C-1 transgene conferred significant but partial resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. All members of the I2C gene family have been mapped genetically and are dispersed on three different chromosomes. Some of the I2C members cosegregate with other tomato resistance loci. Comparison within the leucine-rich repeat region of I2C gene family members shows that they differ from each other mainly by insertions or deletions. PMID:9144960

  19. Extension of the PDDG/PM3 Semiempirical Molecular Orbital Method to Sulfur, Silicon, and Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Tubert-Brohman, Ivan; Guimarães, Cristiano Ruch Werneck; Jorgensen, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The PDDG/PM3 semiempirical molecular orbital method has been parameterized for molecules, ions, and complexes containing sulfur; the mean absolute error (MAE) for heats of formation, ΔHf, of 6.4 kcal/mol is 35 − 40 % smaller than for PM3, AM1, and MNDO/d. For completeness, parameterization was also carried out for silicon and phosphorous. For 144 silicon-containing molecules, the ΔHf MAE for PDDG/PM3, PM3, and AM1 is 11 − 12 kcal/mol, while MNDO/d yields 9.4 kcal/mol. For the limited set of 43 phosphorus-containing molecules, MNDO/d also yields the best results followed by PDDG/PM3, AM1, and PM3. The benefits of the d-orbitals in MNDO/d for hypervalent compounds are apparent for silicon and phosphorous, while they are masked in the larger dataset for sulfur by large errors for branched compounds. Overall, for 1480 molecules, ions, and complexes containing the elements H, C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl, Br, and I, the MAEs in kcal/mol for ΔHf are 6.5 (PDDG/PM3), 8.7 (PM3), 10.3 (MNDO/d), 10.8 (AM1), and 19.8 (MNDO). PMID:19011692

  20. RPS2, an Arabidopsis disease resistance locus specifying recognition of Pseudomonas syringae strains expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2.

    PubMed Central

    Kunkel, B N; Bent, A F; Dahlbeck, D; Innes, R W; Staskawicz, B J

    1993-01-01

    A molecular genetic approach was used to identify and characterize plant genes that control bacterial disease resistance in Arabidopsis. A screen for mutants with altered resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2 resulted in the isolation of four susceptible rps (resistance to P. syringae) mutants. The rps mutants lost resistance specifically to bacterial strains expressing avrRpt2 as they retained resistance to Pst strains expressing the avirulence genes avrB or avrRpm1. Genetic analysis indicated that in each of the four rps mutants, susceptibility was due to a single mutation mapping to the same locus on chromosome 4. Identification of a resistance locus with specificity for a single bacterial avirulence gene suggests that this locus, designated RPS2, controls specific recognition of bacteria expressing the avirulence gene avrRpt2. Ecotype Wü-0, a naturally occurring line that is susceptible to Pst strains expressing avrRpt2, appears to lack a functional allele at RPS2, demonstrating that there is natural variation at the RPS2 locus among wild populations of Arabidopsis. PMID:8400869

  1. The ace-1 Locus Is Amplified in All Resistant Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes: Fitness Consequences of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Djogbénou, Luc S.; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Makoundou, Patrick; Baba-Moussa, Lamine S.; Fiston-Lavier, Anna-Sophie; Belkhir, Khalid; Labbé, Pierrick; Weill, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    Gene copy-number variations are widespread in natural populations, but investigating their phenotypic consequences requires contemporary duplications under selection. Such duplications have been found at the ace-1 locus (encoding the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides’ target) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (the major malaria vector); recent studies have revealed their intriguing complexity, consistent with the involvement of various numbers and types (susceptible or resistant to insecticide) of copies. We used an integrative approach, from genome to phenotype level, to investigate the influence of duplication architecture and gene-dosage on mosquito fitness. We found that both heterogeneous (i.e., one susceptible and one resistant ace-1 copy) and homogeneous (i.e., identical resistant copies) duplications segregated in field populations. The number of copies in homogeneous duplications was variable and positively correlated with acetylcholinesterase activity and resistance level. Determining the genomic structure of the duplicated region revealed that, in both types of duplication, ace-1 and 11 other genes formed tandem 203kb amplicons. We developed a diagnostic test for duplications, which showed that ace-1 was amplified in all 173 resistant mosquitoes analyzed (field-collected in several African countries), in heterogeneous or homogeneous duplications. Each type was associated with different fitness trade-offs: heterogeneous duplications conferred an intermediate phenotype (lower resistance and fitness costs), whereas homogeneous duplications tended to increase both resistance and fitness cost, in a complex manner. The type of duplication selected seemed thus to depend on the intensity and distribution of selection pressures. This versatility of trade-offs available through gene duplication highlights the importance of large mutation events in adaptation to environmental variation. This impressive adaptability could have a major impact on vector

  2. In Candida albicans, resistance to flucytosine and terbinafine is linked to MAT locus homozygosity and multilocus sequence typing clade 1.

    PubMed

    Odds, Frank C

    2009-10-01

    A panel of 637 isolates of Candida albicans that had been typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, terbinafine and voriconazole was the material for a statistical analysis of possible associations between antifungal susceptibility and other properties. For terbinafine and flucytosine, the greatest proportion of low-susceptibility isolates, judged by two resistance breakpoints, was found in MLST clade 1 and among isolates homozygous at the MAT locus, although only three isolates showed cross-resistance to the two agents. Most instances of low susceptibility to azoles, flucytosine and terbinafine were among oropharyngeal isolates from HIV-positive individuals. Statistically significant correlations were found between terbinafine and azole minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), while correlations between flucytosine MICs and azole MICs were less strong. It is concluded that a common regulatory mechanism may operate to generate resistance to the two classes of agent that inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis, terbinafine and the azoles, but that flucytosine resistance, although still commonly associated with MAT homozygosity, is differently regulated.

  3. Identification of Orch3, a locus controlling dominant resistance to autoimmune orchitis, as kinesin family member 1C.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Roxana; McAllister, Ryan D; Meeker, Nathan D; Wall, Emma H; Bond, Jeffrey P; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Tsokos, George C; Tung, Kenneth S K; Teuscher, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), the principal model of non-infectious testicular inflammatory disease, can be induced in susceptible mouse strains by immunization with autologous testicular homogenate and appropriate adjuvants. As previously established, the genome of DBA/2J mice encodes genes that are capable of conferring dominant resistance to EAO, while the genome of BALB/cByJ mice does not and they are therefore susceptible to EAO. In a genome scan, we previously identified Orch3 as the major quantitative trait locus controlling dominant resistance to EAO and mapped it to chromosome 11. Here, by utilizing a forward genetic approach, we identified kinesin family member 1C (Kif1c) as a positional candidate for Orch3 and, using a transgenic approach, demonstrated that Kif1c is Orch3. Mechanistically, we showed that the resistant Kif1c(D2) allele leads to a reduced antigen-specific T cell proliferative response as a consequence of decreased MHC class II expression by antigen presenting cells, and that the L(578) → P(578) and S(1027) → P(1027) polymorphisms distinguishing the BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J alleles, respectively, can play a role in transcriptional regulation. These findings may provide mechanistic insight into how polymorphism in other kinesins such as KIF21B and KIF5A influence susceptibility and resistance to human autoimmune diseases.

  4. Identification of a locus in arabidopsis controlling both the expression of rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) and basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Ton, J; Pieterse, C M; Van Loon, L C

    1999-10-01

    Selected nonpathogenic rhizobacteria with biological disease control activity are able to elicit an induced systemic resistance (ISR) response that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Ten ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were screened for their potential to express rhizobacteria-mediated ISR and pathogen-induced SAR against the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). All ecotypes expressed SAR. However, of the 10 ecotypes tested, ecotypes RLD and Wassilewskija (Ws) did not develop ISR after treatment of the roots with nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r bacteria. This nonresponsive phenotype was associated with relatively high susceptibility to Pst infection. The F1 progeny of crosses between the non-responsive ecotypes RLD and Ws on the one hand, and the responsive ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) on the other hand, were fully capable of expressing ISR and exhibited a relatively high level of basal resistance, similar to that of their WCS417r-responsive parent. This indicates that the potential to express ISR and the relatively high level of basal resistance against Pst are both inherited as dominant traits. Analysis of the F2 and F3 progeny of a Col x RLD cross revealed that inducibility of ISR and relatively high basal resistance against Pst cosegregate in a 3:1 fashion, suggesting that both resistance mechanisms are monogenically determined and genetically linked. Neither the responsiveness to WCS417r nor the relatively high level of basal resistance against Pst were complemented in the F1 progeny of crosses between RLD and Ws, indicating that RLD and Ws are both affected in the same locus, necessary for the expression of ISR and basal resistance against Pst. The corresponding locus, designated ISR1, was mapped between markers B4 and GL1 on chromosome 3. The observed association between ISR and basal resistance against Pst suggests that rhizobacteria-mediated ISR

  5. Drug-resistant tuberculosis can be predicted by Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit locus

    PubMed Central

    Yu-feng, Wen; Chao, Jiang; Xian-feng, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether MIRU-VNTR (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number of Tandem Repeat) is associated with drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of 24 MIRU loci to predict the drug resistance of Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RFP), Streptomycin (SM), Ethambutol (EMB) and Pyrazinamide (PZA). We collected the drug resistance and MIRU loci information of 109 strains of M. tuberculosis from an open database. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that the VNTR polymorphism of MTUB04 was related to INH resistance [odds ratio (OR) = 2.82, P = 0.00], RFP resistance (OR = 1.91, P = 0.02), SM resistance (OR = 1.98, P = 0.01) and EMB resistance (OR = 1.95, P = 0.03). MIRU40 was associated with INH resistance (OR = 2.22, P = 0.00). MTUB21 was connected with INH resistance (OR = 1.63, P = 0.02) and SM resistance (OR = 1.69, P = 0.01). MIRU26 was correlated with SM resistance (OR = 1.52, P = 0.04). MIRU39 was associated with EMB resistance (OR = 4.07, P = 0.02). The prediction power of MIRU loci were 0.84, 0.70, 0.85, and 0.74 respectively for INH (predicted by MTUB04, MIRU20, and MTUB21), RFP (predicted by MTUB04), SM (predicted by MTUB21 and MIRU26) and EMB (MTUB04 and MIRU39) through ROC analysis. Our results showed that MIRU loci were related to anti-tuberculosis drug and could predict the drug resistance of tuberculosis. PMID:25759689

  6. A Two-Locus Model of the Evolution of Insecticide Resistance to Inform and Optimise Public Health Insecticide Deployment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We develop a flexible, two-locus model for the spread of insecticide resistance applicable to mosquito species that transmit human diseases such as malaria. The model allows differential exposure of males and females, allows them to encounter high or low concentrations of insecticide, and allows selection pressures and dominance values to differ depending on the concentration of insecticide encountered. We demonstrate its application by investigating the relative merits of sequential use of insecticides versus their deployment as a mixture to minimise the spread of resistance. We recover previously published results as subsets of this model and conduct a sensitivity analysis over an extensive parameter space to identify what circumstances favour mixtures over sequences. Both strategies lasted more than 500 mosquito generations (or about 40 years) in 24% of runs, while in those runs where resistance had spread to high levels by 500 generations, 56% favoured sequential use and 44% favoured mixtures. Mixtures are favoured when insecticide effectiveness (their ability to kill homozygous susceptible mosquitoes) is high and exposure (the proportion of mosquitoes that encounter the insecticide) is low. If insecticides do not reliably kill homozygous sensitive genotypes, it is likely that sequential deployment will be a more robust strategy. Resistance to an insecticide always spreads slower if that insecticide is used in a mixture although this may be insufficient to outperform sequential use: for example, a mixture may last 5 years while the two insecticides deployed individually may last 3 and 4 years giving an overall ‘lifespan’ of 7 years for sequential use. We emphasise that this paper is primarily about designing and implementing a flexible modelling strategy to investigate the spread of insecticide resistance in vector populations and demonstrate how our model can identify vector control strategies most likely to minimise the spread of insecticide resistance

  7. The wheat Sr50 gene reveals rich diversity at a cereal disease resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identify the wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr50 by physical mapping, mutation and complementation as homologous to barley Mla encoding a Coiled-Coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Leucine-Rich Repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. We show that Sr50 confers a unique resistance specificity, different from Sr31 and oth...

  8. A new soybean rust resistance allele from PI 423972 at the Rpp4 locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a fungal pathogen and the cause of Asian soybean rust (SBR). P. pachyrhizi invaded the continental United States in 2004 and has since been a threat to the soybean industry. There are six described loci that harbor resistance to P. pachyrhizi (Rpp) genes. The resistance of P...

  9. High-resolution linkage map of mouse chromosome 13 in the vicinity of the host resistance locus Lgn1

    SciTech Connect

    Beckers, M.C.; Ernst, E.; Diez, E.

    1997-02-01

    Natural resistance of inbred mouse strains to infection with Legionella pneumophila is controlled by the expression of a single dominant gene on chromosome 13, designated Lgn1. The genetic difference at Lgn1 is phenotypically expressed as the presence or absence of intracellular replication of L. pneumophila in host macrophages. In our effort to identify the Lgn1 gene by positional cloning, we have generated a high-resolution linkage map of the Lgn1 chromosomal region. For this, we have carried out extensive segregation analysis in a total of 1270 (A/J x C57BL/6J) X A/J informative backcross mice segregating the resistance allele of C57BL/6J and the susceptibility allele of A/J. Additional segregation analyses were carried out in three preexisting panels of C57BL/6J X Mus spretus interspecific backcross mice. A total of 39 DNA markers were mapped within an interval of approximately 30 cM overlapping the Lgn1 region. Combined pedigree analyses for the 5.4-cM segment overlapping Lgn1 indicated the locus order and the interlocus distances (in cM): D13Mit128-(1.4)-D13Mit194-(0.1)-D13Mit147-(0.9)-Dl3Mit36-(0.9)-D13Mit146-(0.2)-Lgn1/D 13Mit37-(1.0)-D13Mit70. Additional genetic linkage studies of markers not informative in the A/J X C57BL/6J cross positioned D13Mit30, -72, -195, and -203, D13Gor4, D13Hun35, and Mtap5 in the immediate vicinity of the Lgn1 locus. The marker density and resolution of this genetic linkage map should allow the construction of a physical map of the region and the isolation of YAC clones overlapping the gene. 60 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    PubMed

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  11. Antisense expression of peach mildew resistance locus O (PpMlo1) gene confers cross-species resistance to powdery mildew in Fragaria x ananassa.

    PubMed

    Jiwan, Derick; Roalson, Eric H; Main, Dorrie; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the major plant pathogens. The conventional method of PM control includes frequent use of sulfur-based fungicides adding to production costs and potential harm to the environment. PM remains a major scourge for Rosaceae crops where breeding approaches mainly resort to gene-for-gene resistance. We have tested an alternate source of PM resistance in Rosaceae. Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) has been well studied in barley due to its role in imparting broad spectrum resistance to PM. We identified PpMlo1 (Prunus persica Mlo) in peach and characterized it further to test if a similar mechanism of resistance is conserved in Rosaceae. Due to its recalcitrance in tissue culture, reverse genetic studies involving PpMloI were not feasible in peach. Therefore, Fragaria x ananassa LF9 line, a taxonomic surrogate, was used for functional analysis of PpMlo1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation yielded transgenic strawberry plants expressing PpMlo1 in sense and antisense orientation. Antisense expression of PpMlo1 in transgenic strawberry plants conferred resistance to Fragaria-specific powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis. Phylogenetic analysis of 208 putative Mlo gene copies from 35 plant species suggests a large number of duplications of this gene family prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots, early in eudicot diversification. Our results indicate that the Mlo-based resistance mechanism is functional in Rosaceae, and that Fragaria can be used as a host to test mechanistic function of genes derived from related tree species. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts at testing the potential of using a Mlo-based resistance strategy to combat powdery mildew in Rosaceae.

  12. Identification and mapping of a novel blackleg resistance locus LepR4 in the progenies from Brassica napus × B. rapa subsp. sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengqun; Gugel, Richard K; Kutcher, H Randy; Peng, Gary; Rimmer, S Roger

    2013-02-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica napus worldwide. Two blackleg-resistant lines, 16S and 61446, were developed through interspecific hybridization between B. napus and B. rapa subsp. sylvestris and backcrossing to B. napus. Classical genetic analysis demonstrated that a single recessive gene in both lines conferred resistance to L. maculans and that the resistance alleles were allelic. Using BC(1) progeny derived from each resistant plant, this locus was mapped to B. napus linkage group N6 and was flanked by microsatellite markers sN2189b and sORH72a in an interval of about 10 cM, in a region equivalent to about 6 Mb of B. rapa DNA sequence. This new resistance gene locus was designated as LepR4. The two lines were evaluated for resistance to a wide range of L. maculans isolates using cotyledon inoculation tests under controlled environment conditions, and for stem canker resistance in blackleg field nurseries. Results indicated that line 16S, carrying LepR4a, was highly resistant to all isolates tested on cotyledons and had a high level of stem canker resistance under field conditions. Line 61446, carrying LepR4b, was only resistant to some of the isolates tested on cotyledons and was weakly resistant to stem canker under field conditions.

  13. Evaluation of PM-3 Chemistry Data and Possible Interpretations of 3H Observations, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert; Marutzky, Sam J.

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes the analyses of the groundwater results from sampling of PM-3-1 (deep) and PM-3-2 (shallow), with a particular focus of evaluating the groundwater geochemistry data in comparison to the geochemistry observed in other wells in the Thirsty Canyon area as well as to evaluate the potential source of 3H observed in these piezometers from previous sampling activities, which employed depth-discrete bailers or a Bennett submersible piston pump.

  14. Arabidopsis flowering locus D influences systemic-acquired-resistance- induced expression and histone modifications of WRKY genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijayata; Roy, Shweta; Singh, Deepjyoti; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A plant that is in part infected by a pathogen is more resistant throughout its whole body to subsequent infections--a phenomenon known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mobile signals are synthesized at the site of infection and distributed throughout the plant through vascular tissues. Mechanism of SAR development subsequent to reaching the mobile signal in the distal tissue is largely unknown. Recently we showed that flowering locus D (FLD) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is required in the distal tissue to activate SAR. FLD codes for a homologue of human-lysine-specific histone demethylase. Here we show that FLD function is required for priming (SAR induced elevated expression during challenge inoculation) of WRKY29 and WRKY6 genes. FLD also differentially influences basal and SAR-induced expression of WRKY38, WRKY65 and WRKY53 genes. In addition, we also show that FLD partly localizes in nucleus and influences histone modifications at the promoters of WRKY29 and WRKY6 genes. The results altogether indicate to the possibility of FLD's involvement in epigenetic regulation of SAR.

  15. Genetic variation and evolution of the Pit blast resistance locus in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) gene Pit in rice, encodes a protein with nucleotide binding sites-leucine rich repeat domain (NBS-LRR), prevents infections by strains of M. oryzae in a gene for gene manner. Here, we analyzed the open reading frame (ORF) of Pit in 26 varieties including Aus (AUS), indica (IND), tempe...

  16. Targeted Sequencing of the Rpp2 Asian Soybean Rust Resistance Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, Phakopsora pachyrhizi) have occurred in all major soybean producing countries including the United States. Thus far, only five genes (Rpp1, Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4 and Rpp5) conferring resistance to ASR have been identified. In previous work, Silva et al. (2008) mappe...

  17. Fine mapping of barley locus Rps6 conferring resistance to wheat stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a major disease of wheat that is causing large economic losses in many wheat-growing regions of the world. Deployment of Pst resistance genes has been an effective strategy for controlling this pathogen, but many of these gen...

  18. Leaf rust resistance in wheat line RL6062 is an allele at the Lr3 locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RL6062, a 'Thatcher' backcross line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) derived from a line of common wheat from Iran. RL6062 has an intermediate infection type (IT) of small to moderate uredinia surrounded by distinct chlorosis. RL6062 was cros...

  19. Receptor-like genes in the major resistance locus of lettuce are subject to divergent selection.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, B C; Shen, K A; Rohani, P; Gaut, B S; Michelmore, R W

    1998-01-01

    Disease resistance genes in plants are often found in complex multigene families. The largest known cluster of disease resistance specificities in lettuce contains the RGC2 family of genes. We compared the sequences of nine full-length genomic copies of RGC2 representing the diversity in the cluster to determine the structure of genes within this family and to examine the evolution of its members. The transcribed regions range from at least 7.0 to 13.1 kb, and the cDNAs contain deduced open reading frames of approximately 5. 5 kb. The predicted RGC2 proteins contain a nucleotide binding site and irregular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of resistance genes cloned from other species. Unique features of the RGC2 gene products include a bipartite LRR region with >40 repeats. At least eight members of this family are transcribed. The level of sequence diversity between family members varied in different regions of the gene. The ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous (Ks) nucleotide substitutions was lowest in the region encoding the nucleotide binding site, which is the presumed effector domain of the protein. The LRR-encoding region showed an alternating pattern of conservation and hypervariability. This alternating pattern of variation was also found in all comparisons within families of resistance genes cloned from other species. The Ka /Ks ratios indicate that diversifying selection has resulted in increased variation at these codons. The patterns of variation support the predicted structure of LRR regions with solvent-exposed hypervariable residues that are potentially involved in binding pathogen-derived ligands. PMID:9811792

  20. Genetic mapping reveals that sinefungin resistance in Toxoplasma gondii is controlled by a putative amino acid transporter locus that can be used as a negative selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Michael S; Khan, Asis; Sibley, L David

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies have been integral in identifying and understanding virulence mechanisms in the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In this study, we interrogated a different phenotype by mapping sinefungin (SNF) resistance in the genetic cross between type 2 ME49-FUDR(r) and type 10 VAND-SNF(r). The genetic map of this cross was generated by whole-genome sequencing of the progeny and subsequent identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inherited from the parents. Based on this high-density genetic map, we were able to pinpoint the sinefungin resistance phenotype to one significant locus on chromosome IX. Within this locus, a single nonsynonymous SNP (nsSNP) resulting in an early stop codon in the TGVAND_290860 gene was identified, occurring only in the sinefungin-resistant progeny. Using CRISPR/CAS9, we were able to confirm that targeted disruption of TGVAND_290860 renders parasites sinefungin resistant. Because disruption of the SNR1 gene confers resistance, we also show that it can be used as a negative selectable marker to insert either a positive drug selection cassette or a heterologous reporter. These data demonstrate the power of combining classical genetic mapping, whole-genome sequencing, and CRISPR-mediated gene disruption for combined forward and reverse genetic strategies in T. gondii.

  1. Germostatin resistance locus 1 encodes a PHD finger protein involved in auxin-mediated seed dormancy and germination.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yajin; Gong, Ziying; Lu, Xiao; Miao, Deyan; Shi, Jianmin; Lu, Juan; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are important physiological processes during the life cycle of a seed plant. Recently, auxin has been characterized as a positive regulator that functions during seed dormancy and as a negative regulator during germination. Through chemical genetic screenings, we have identified a small molecule, germostatin (GS), which effectively inhibits seed germination in Arabidopsis. GSR1 (germostatin resistance locus 1) encodes a tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein, identified by screening GS-resistant mutants. Certain PHD fingers of GSR1 are capable of binding unmethylated H3K4, which has been reported as an epigenetic mark of gene transcriptional repression. Biochemical studies show that GSR1 physically interacts with the transcriptional repressor ARF16 and attenuates the intensity of interaction of IAA17/ARF16 by directly interacting with IAA17 to release ARF16. Further results show that axr3-1, arf10 arf16 are hyposensitive to GS, and gsr1 not only resists auxin-mediated inhibition of seed germination but also displays decreased dormancy. We therefore propose that GSR1 may form a co-repressor with ARF16 to regulate seed germination. Besides promoting auxin biosynthesis via upregulating expression of YUCCA1, GS also enhances auxin responses by inducing degradation of DΙΙ-VENUS and upregulating expression of DR5-GFP. In summary, we identified GSR1 as a member of the auxin-mediated seed germination genetic network, and GS, a small non-auxin molecule that specifically acts on auxin-mediated seed germination.

  2. High-resolution linkage map in the proximity of the host resistance locus Cmv1

    SciTech Connect

    Depatie, C.; Muise, E.; Gros, P.

    1997-01-15

    The mouse chromosome 6 locus Cmv1 controls replication of mouse Cytomegalovirus (MCMV) in the spleen of the infected host. In our effort to clone Cmv1, we have constructed a high-resolution genetic linkage map in the proximity of the gene. For this, a total of 45 DNA markers corresponding to either cloned genes or microsatellites were mapped within a 7.9-cM interval overlapping the Cmv1 region. We have followed the cosegregation of these markers with respect to Cmv1 in a total of 2248 backcross mice from a preexisting interspecific backcross panel of 281 (Mus spretus X C57BL/6J)F1 X C57BL/6J and 2 novel panels of 989 (A/J X C57BL6)F1 X A/J and 978 (BALB/c X C57BL/6J)F1 X BALB/c segregating Cmv1. Combined pedigree analysis allowed us to determine the following gene order and intergene distances (in cM) on the distal region of mouse chromosome 6: D6Mit216-(1.9)-D6Mit336-(2.2)-D6Mit218-(1.0)-D6Mit52-(0.5)-D6Mit194-(0.2)-Nkrp1/D6Mit61/135/257/289/338-(0.4)-Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370-(0.3)-Prp/Kap/D6Mit13/111/219-(0.3)-Tel/D6Mit374/290/220/196/195/110-(1.1)-D6Mit25. Therefore, the minimal genetic interval for Cmv1 of 0.7 cM is defined by 13 tightly linked markers including 2 markers, Ly49A and D6Mit370, that did not show recombination with Cmv1 in 1967 meioses analyzed; the proximal limit of the Cmv1 domain was defined by 8 crossovers between Nkrp1/D6Mit61/135/257/289/338 and Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370, and the distal limit was defined by 5 crossovers between Cmv1/Ly49A/D6Mit370 and Prp/Kap/D6Mit13/111/219. This work demonstrates tight linkage between Cmv1 and genes from the natural killer complex (NKC), such as Nkrp1 and Ly49A suggesting that Cmv1 may represent an NK cell recognition structure encoded in the NKC region. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Using SNP markers to dissect linkage disequilibrium at a major quantitative trait locus for resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida on potato chromosome V.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Ute; Paulo, Joao; Ilarionova, Evgenyia; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhard; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    The damage caused by the parasitic root cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major yield-limiting factor in potato cultivation . Breeding for resistance is facilitated by the PCR-based marker 'HC', which is diagnostic for an allele conferring high resistance against G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3 that has been introgressed from the wild potato species Solanum vernei into the Solanum tuberosum tetraploid breeding pool. The major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling this nematode resistance maps on potato chromosome V in a hot spot for resistance to various pathogens including nematodes and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. An unstructured sample of 79 tetraploid, highly heterozygous varieties and breeding clones was selected based on presence (41 genotypes) or absence (38 genotypes) of the HC marker. Testing the clones for resistance to G. pallida confirmed the diagnostic power of the HC marker. The 79 individuals were genotyped for 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10 loci distributed over 38 cM on chromosome V. Forty-five SNPs at six loci spanning 2 cM in the interval between markers GP21-GP179 were associated with resistance to G. pallida. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP markers, six LD groups comprising between 2 and 18 SNPs were identified. The LD groups indicated the existence of multiple alleles at a single resistance locus or at several, physically linked resistance loci. LD group C comprising 18 SNPs corresponded to the 'HC' marker. LD group E included 16 SNPs and showed an association peak, which positioned one nematode resistance locus physically close to the R1 gene family.

  4. Serratia marcescens arn, a PhoP-regulated locus necessary for polymyxin B resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Quei Yen; Tsai, Yi-Lin; Liu, Ming-Che; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2014-09-01

    Polymyxins, which are increasingly being used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, perform poorly against Serratia marcescens. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, Tn5 mutagenesis was performed and two mutants exhibiting increased polymyxin B (PB) susceptibility were isolated. The mutants were found to have Tn5 inserted into the arnB and arnC genes. In other bacteria, arnB and arnC belong to the seven-gene arn operon, which is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification. LPSs of arn mutants had greater PB-binding abilities than that of wild-type LPS. Further, we identified PhoP, a bacterial two-component response regulator, as a regulator of PB susceptibility in S. marcescens. By the reporter assay, we found PB- and low-Mg2+-induced expression of phoP and arn in the wild-type strain but not in the phoP mutant. Complementation of the phoP mutant with the full-length phoP gene restored the PB MIC and induction by PB and low Mg2+ levels, as in the wild type. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) further demonstrated that PhoP bound directly to the arn promoter. The PB challenge test confirmed that pretreatment with PB and low Mg2+ levels protected S. marcescens from a PB challenge in the wild-type strain but not in the phoP mutant. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR also indicated that PB serves as a signal to regulate expression of ugd, a gene required for LPS modification, in S. marcescens through a PhoP-dependent pathway. Finally, we found that PB-resistant clinical isolates displayed greater expression of arnA upon exposure to PB than did susceptible isolates. This is the first report to describe the role of S. marcescens arn in PB resistance and its modulation by PB and Mg2+ through the PhoP protein.

  5. Fertility, segregation at a herbicide-resistance locus, and genome structure in BC hybrids from two important weedy Amaranthus species.

    PubMed

    Trucco, F; Tatum, T; Rayburn, A L; Tranel, P J

    2005-08-01

    Field studies have established high potential for hybridization between two important and often coexisting weedy species, Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus tuberculatus. Prezygotic reproductive barriers between these species are believed to be limited to pollen competition and availability. A greenhouse study showed that a herbicide-resistance gene (ALS) from A. hybridus could be introgressed into an advanced A. tuberculatus background (BC2). However, evidence is lacking in support of such transfer in nature. Postzygotic reproductive barriers may minimize, if not preclude, natural introgression. Indeed, A. hybridus xA. tuberculatus hybrids are characterized by reduced fertility and even floral neuterism. The purpose of this study was to assess hybrid fertility in the BC1 generation and its relationship with genome structure and segregation at ALS. Fertility was assessed by measuring seed output and by pollen evaluation, and segregation at ALS was determined via a molecular marker system. The two parental species have the same ploidy (2n = 32) but differ in DNA content (2C) values, with A. tuberculatus chromosomes being on average 29% greater than those of A. hybridus. Given that most (98%) BC(1)s were homoploid, 2C values were used as indicators of relative genomic constitution. Fertility in the BC1 generation was greater than that of F1s, and 3% of BC1s had seed output similar to that of the parental species. Fertility in the BC1 did not correlate (in a strict way) with reconstitution of parental genomes. Hybrid sterility appeared to be controlled by relatively few loci. Heterozygosity at ALS was negatively correlated with fertility. Also, the A. tuberculatus ALS allele was not observed in the A. hybridus sexual condition, monoecism. Linkage of ALS to a locus associated (directly or via epistasis) with hybrid sterility may explain the fertility penalty observed with ALS introgression. Moreover, this linkage might explain why sequenced herbicide-resistance ALS

  6. A Narrow Quantitative Trait Locus in C. elegans Coordinately Affects Longevity, Thermotolerance, and Resistance to Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Vertino, Anthony; Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Thaden, John J.; Reis, Robert J. Shmookler

    2011-01-01

    By linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci, we previously identified at least 11 natural genetic variants that significantly modulate Caenorhabditis elegans life-span (LS), many of which would have eluded discovery by knock-down or mutation screens. A region on chromosome IV between markers stP13 and stP35 had striking effects on longevity in three inter-strain crosses (each P < 10−9). In order to define the limits of that interval, we have now constructed two independent lines by marker-based selection during 20 backcross generations, isolating the stP13–stP35 interval from strain Bergerac-BO in a CL2a background. These congenic lines differed significantly from CL2a in LS, assayed in two environments (each P < 0.001). We then screened for exchange of flanking markers to isolate recombinants that partition this region, because fine-mapping the boundaries for overlapping heteroallelic spans can greatly narrow the implicated interval. Recombinants carrying the CL2a allele at stP35 were consistently long-lived compared to those retaining the Bergerac-BO allele (P < 0.001), and more resistant to temperature elevation and paraquat (each ∼1.7-fold, P < 0.0001), but gained little protection from ultraviolet or peroxide stresses. Two rounds of recombinant screening, followed by fine-mapping of break-points and survival testing, narrowed the interval to 0.18 Mb (13.35–13.53 Mb) containing 26 putative genes and six small-nuclear RNAs – a manageable number of targets for functional assessment. PMID:22303358

  7. Modeling rare earth complexes: Sparkle/PM3 parameters for thulium(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2006-07-01

    The Sparkle model, recently defined for Tm(III) within AM1 [R.O. Freire, G.B. Rocha, A.M. Simas, Chem. Phys. Lett. 411 (2005) 61], is now extended to PM3. For the same 15 complexes previously used, the Sparkle/PM3 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the Tm(III) ion and the directly coordinating oxygen or nitrogen atoms, is 0.08 Å, a level of accuracy equivalent to the Sparkle/AM1 figure of 0.07 Å, as well as to results from present day ab initio effective core potential calculations. The results thus indicate that both Sparkle/AM1 and Sparkle/PM3 models may prove useful for luminescent Tm(III) complex design.

  8. Evolutionary Changes in Gene Expression, Coding Sequence and Copy-Number at the Cyp6g1 Locus Contribute to Resistance to Multiple Insecticides in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Harrop, Thomas W. R.; Sztal, Tamar; Lumb, Christopher; Good, Robert T.; Daborn, Phillip J.; Batterham, Philip; Chung, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster–D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species. PMID:24416303

  9. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  10. Genetic mapping identifies a major locus spanning P450 clusters associated with pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Anopheles arabiensis from Chad.

    PubMed

    Witzig, C; Parry, M; Morgan, J C; Irving, H; Steven, A; Cuamba, N; Kerah-Hinzoumbé, C; Ranson, H; Wondji, C S

    2013-04-01

    Prevention of malaria transmission throughout much of Africa is dependent on bednets that are impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides. Anopheles arabiensis is the major malaria vector in Chad and efforts to control this vector are threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid resistance. WHO bioassays revealed that An. arabiensis from Ndjamena is resistant to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) but fully susceptible to carbamates and organophosphates. No 1014F or 1014S kdr alleles were detected in this population. To determine the mechanisms that are responsible for resistance, genetic crosses were established between the Ndja strain and an insecticide susceptible population from Mozambique. Resistance was inherited as an autosomal trait and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identified a single major locus on chromosome 2R, which explained 24.4% of the variance in resistance. This QTL is enriched in P450 genes including 25 cytochrome P450s in total. One of these, Cyp6p4 is 22-fold upregulated in the Ndja strain compared with the susceptible. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist and biochemical assays further support a role for P450s in conferring pyrethroid resistance in this population.

  11. Two Seven-Transmembrane Domain MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O Proteins Cofunction in Arabidopsis Root Thigmomorphogenesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongying; Noir, Sandra; Kwaaitaal, Mark; Hartmann, H. Andreas; Wu, Ming-Jing; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sukumar, Poornima; Muday, Gloria; Panstruga, Ralph; Jones, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Directional root expansion is governed by nutrient gradients, positive gravitropism and hydrotropism, negative phototropism and thigmotropism, as well as endogenous oscillations in the growth trajectory (circumnutation). Null mutations in phylogenetically related Arabidopsis thaliana genes MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4 (MLO4) and MLO11, encoding heptahelical, plasma membrane–localized proteins predominantly expressed in the root tip, result in aberrant root thigmomorphogenesis. mlo4 and mlo11 mutant plants show anisotropic, chiral root expansion manifesting as tightly curled root patterns upon contact with solid surfaces. The defect in mlo4 and mlo11 mutants is nonadditive and dependent on light and nutrients. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that the mutant phenotype is independently modulated by the Gβ subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. Analysis of expressed chimeric MLO4/MLO2 proteins revealed that the C-terminal domain of MLO4 is necessary but not sufficient for MLO4 action in root thigmomorphogenesis. The expression of the auxin efflux carrier fusion, PIN1-green fluorescent protein, the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression, and acropetal as well as basipetal auxin transport are altered at the root tip of mlo4 mutant seedlings. Moreover, addition of auxin transport inhibitors or the loss of EIR1/AGR1/PIN2 function abolishes root curling of mlo4, mlo11, and wild-type seedlings. These results demonstrate that the exaggerated root curling phenotypes of the mlo4 and mlo11 mutants depend on auxin gradients and suggest that MLO4 and MLO11 cofunction as modulators of touch-induced root tropism. PMID:19602625

  12. Transfer of the Rsv3 locus from ‘Harosoy’ for resistance to soybean mosaic virus strains C and D in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Takada, Yoshitake; Shimamura, Satoshi; Hirata, Kaori; Sayama, Takashi; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Kikuchi, Akio; Nishio, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is imperative for soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production in the Tohoku region. Molecular markers for SMV resistance were previously reported for U.S. SMV strains, but they cannot be applied because of the differences in strain classification between Japan and the U.S. A U.S. variety ‘Harosoy’ has been used mainly as a donor of resistance to SMV strains C and D in a Japanese breeding program, resulting in resistant varieties such as ‘Fukuibuki.’ Because ‘Harosoy’ harbors the Rsv3 gene conferring resistance to the virulent SMV strain groups, G5 through G7, it appears that the Rsv3 gene confers resistance to strains C and D. In this study, we introduced resistance to the two strains from ‘Fukuibuki’ into a leading variety ‘Ohsuzu’ by recurrent backcrossing with marker-assisted selection. All lines selected with markers near Rsv3 showed resistance to the strains, suggesting that the Rsv3 locus is responsible for the resistance. Three years of trials showed that one of the breeding lines, ‘Tohoku 169,’ was equivalent to ‘Ohsuzu’ with respect to agricultural characteristics such as seed size, maturity date, and seed yield, except for the SMV resistance. PMID:27162503

  13. The novel, major locus Rpi-phu1 for late blight resistance maps to potato chromosome IX and is not correlated with long vegetation period.

    PubMed

    Sliwka, J; Jakuczun, H; Lebecka, R; Marczewski, W; Gebhardt, C; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E

    2006-08-01

    Despite the long history of breeding potatoes resistant to Phytophthora infestans, this oomycete is still economically the most important pathogen of potato worldwide. The correlation of high levels of resistance to late blight with a long vegetation period is one of the bottlenecks for progress in breeding resistant cultivars of various maturity types. Solanum phureja was identified as a source of effective late blight resistance, which was transferred to the cultivated gene pool by interspecific crosses with dihaploids of Solanum tuberosum. A novel major resistance locus, Rpi-phu1, derived most likely from S. phureja and conferring broad-spectrum resistance to late blight, was mapped to potato chromosome IX, 6.4 cM proximal to the marker GP94. Rpi-phu1 was highly effective in detached leaflet, tuber slice and whole tuber tests during 5 years of quantitative phenotypic assessment. The resistance did not show significant correlation with vegetation period length. Our findings provide a well-characterized new source of resistance for breeding early and resistant-to-P. infestans potatoes.

  14. Genomic and Transcriptomic Associations Identify a New Insecticide Resistance Phenotype for the Selective Sweep at the Cyp6g1 Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Battlay, Paul; Schmidt, Joshua M.; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Robin, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scans of the Drosophila melanogaster genome have identified organophosphate resistance loci among those with the most pronounced signature of positive selection. In this study, the molecular basis of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl was investigated using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, and genome-wide association. Recently released full transcriptome data were used to extend the utility of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel resource beyond traditional genome-wide association studies to allow systems genetics analyses of phenotypes. We found that both genomic and transcriptomic associations independently identified Cyp6g1, a gene involved in resistance to DDT and neonicotinoid insecticides, as the top candidate for azinphos-methyl resistance. This was verified by transgenically overexpressing Cyp6g1 using natural regulatory elements from a resistant allele, resulting in a 6.5-fold increase in resistance. We also identified four novel candidate genes associated with azinphos-methyl resistance, all of which are involved in either regulation of fat storage, or nervous system development. In Cyp6g1, we find a demonstrable resistance locus, a verification that transcriptome data can be used to identify variants associated with insecticide resistance, and an overlap between peaks of a genome-wide association study, and a genome-wide selective sweep analysis. PMID:27317781

  15. The Ity/Lsh/Bcg locus: natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites is abrogated by disruption of the Nramp1 gene.

    PubMed

    Vidal, S; Tremblay, M L; Govoni, G; Gauthier, S; Sebastiani, G; Malo, D; Skamene, E; Olivier, M; Jothy, S; Gros, P

    1995-09-01

    In mice, natural resistance or susceptibility to infection with intracellular parasites is determined by a locus or group of loci on chromosome 1, designated Bcg, Lsh, and Ity, which controls early microbial replication in reticuloendothelial organs. We have identified by positional cloning a candidate gene for Bcg, Nramp1, which codes for a novel macrophage-specific membrane transport protein. We have created a mouse mutant bearing a null allele at Nramp1, and we have analyzed the effect of such a mutation on natural resistance to infection. Targeted disruption of Nramp1 has pleiotropic effects on natural resistance to infection with intracellular parasites, as it eliminated resistance to Mycobacterium bovis, Leishmania donovani, and lethal Salmonella typhimurium infection, establishing that Nramp1, Bcg, Lsh, and Ity are the same locus. Comparing the profiles of parasite replication in control and Nramp1-/- mice indicated that the Nramp1Asp169 allele of BcgS inbred strains is a null allele, pointing to a critical role of this residue in the mechanism of action of the protein. Despite their inability to control parasite growth in the early nonimmune phase of the infection, Nramp1-/- mutants can overcome the infection in the late immune phase, suggesting that Nramp1 plays a key role only in the early part of the macrophage-parasite interaction and may function by a cytocidal or cytostatic mechanism distinct from those expressed by activated macrophages.

  16. Genetics and Molecular Mapping of Black Rot Resistance Locus Xca1bc on Chromosome B-7 in Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Brij Bihari; Kalia, Pritam; Yadava, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2016-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pam.) Dowson is the most destructive disease of cauliflower causing huge loss to the farmers throughout the world. Since there are limited sources of resistance to black rot in B. oleracea (C genome Brassica), exploration of A and B genomes of Brassica was planned as these were thought to be potential reservoirs of black rot resistance gene(s). In our search for new gene(s) for black rot resistance, F2 mapping population was developed in Brassica carinata (BBCC) by crossing NPC-17, a susceptible genotype with NPC-9, a resistant genotype. Out of 364 Intron length polymorphic markers and microsatellite primers used in this study, 41 distinguished the parental lines. However, resistant and susceptible bulks could be distinguished by three markers At1g70610, SSR Na14-G02 and At1g71865 which were used for genotyping of F2 mapping population. These markers were placed along the resistance gene, according to order, covering a distance of 36.30 cM. Intron length polymorphic markers At1g70610 and At1g71865 were found to be linked to black rot resistance locus (Xca1bc) at 6.2 and 12.8 cM distance, respectively. This is the first report of identification of markers linked to Xca1bc locus in Brassica carinata on B-7 linkage group. Intron length polymorphic markers provided a novel and attractive option for marker assisted selection due to high cross transferability and cost effectiveness for marker assisted alien gene introgression into cauliflower.

  17. INK4 locus of the tumor-resistant rodent, the naked mole rat, expresses a functional p15/p16 hybrid isoform.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Augereau, Adeline; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Vijg, Jan; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2015-01-27

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived and tumor-resistant rodent. Tumor resistance in the naked mole rat is mediated by the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan of very high molecular weight (HMW-HA). HMW-HA triggers hypersensitivity of naked mole rat cells to contact inhibition, which is associated with induction of the INK4 (inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinase 4) locus leading to cell-cycle arrest. The INK4a/b locus is among the most frequently mutated in human cancer. This locus encodes three distinct tumor suppressors: p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), and ARF (alternate reading frame). Although p15(INK4b) has its own ORF, p16(INK4a) and ARF share common second and third exons with alternative reading frames. Here, we show that, in the naked mole rat, the INK4a/b locus encodes an additional product that consists of p15(INK4b) exon 1 joined to p16(INK4a) exons 2 and 3. We have named this isoform pALT(INK4a/b) (for alternative splicing). We show that pALT(INK4a/b) is present in both cultured cells and naked mole rat tissues but is absent in human and mouse cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that pALT(INK4a/b) expression is induced during early contact inhibition and upon a variety of stresses such as UV, gamma irradiation-induced senescence, loss of substrate attachment, and expression of oncogenes. When overexpressed in naked mole rat or human cells, pALT(INK4a/b) has stronger ability to induce cell-cycle arrest than either p15(INK4b) or p16(INK4a). We hypothesize that the presence of the fourth product, pALT(INK4a/b) of the INK4a/b locus in the naked mole rat, contributes to the increased resistance to tumorigenesis of this species.

  18. Chimerization at the AQP2-AQP3 locus is the genetic basis of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in clinical Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates.

    PubMed

    Graf, Fabrice E; Baker, Nicola; Munday, Jane C; de Koning, Harry P; Horn, David; Mäser, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Aquaglyceroporin-2 is a known determinant of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in Trypanosoma brucei brucei laboratory strains. Recently, chimerization at the AQP2-AQP3 tandem locus was described from melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistant Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from sleeping sickness patients in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Here, we demonstrate that reintroduction of wild-type AQP2 into one of these isolates fully restores drug susceptibility while expression of the chimeric AQP2/3 gene in aqp2-aqp3 null T. b. brucei does not. This proves that AQP2-AQP3 chimerization is the cause of melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance in the T. b. gambiense isolates.

  19. The Brassica napus receptor-like protein RLM2 is encoded by a second allele of the LepR3/Rlm2 blackleg resistance locus.

    PubMed

    Larkan, Nicholas J; Ma, Lisong; Borhan, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) are highly adaptable parts of the signalling apparatus for extracellular detection of plant pathogens. Resistance to blackleg disease of Brassica spp. caused by Leptosphaeria maculans is largely governed by host race-specific R-genes, including the LRR-RLP gene LepR3. The blackleg resistance gene Rlm2 was previously mapped to the same genetic interval as LepR3. In this study, the LepR3 locus of the Rlm2 Brassica napus line 'Glacier DH24287' was cloned, and B. napus transformants were analysed for recovery of the Rlm2 phenotype. Multiple B. napus, B. rapa and B. juncea lines were assessed for sequence variation at the locus. Rlm2 was found to be an allelic variant of the LepR3 LRR-RLP locus, conveying race-specific resistance to L. maculans isolates harbouring AvrLm2. Several defence-related LRR-RLPs have previously been shown to associate with the RLK SOBIR1 to facilitate defence signalling. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation of RLM2-SOBIR1 studies revealed that RLM2 interacts with SOBIR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana when co-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The interaction of RLM2 with AtSOBIR1 is suggestive of a conserved defence signalling pathway between B. napus and its close relative A. thaliana.

  20. Somatic variation plays a key role in the evolution of the Vf gene family residing in the Vf locus that confers resistance to apple scab disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingliang; Korban, Schuyler S

    2004-07-01

    A cluster of four receptor-like genes has been previously identified in the Vf locus of the crabapple Malus floribunda clone 821 that confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the casual agent of apple scab disease. Pairwise comparisons of the four Vf paralogs in both promoter and coding regions reveal their timeline evolutionary history. The four Vf paralogs have evolved from four ancient Vf members resulting from two sequential duplication events of a single Vf progenitor initially present in the Malus genome. The coding sequences of the four Vf paralogs are characterized with high numbers of unique polymorphic nucleotides, a number of short duplications/deletions, various deletions of complete LRR copy units, and a casual insert of a transposon-like element. Significant high ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions, Ka/Ks, are observed in the putative ligand binding residues in the LRR domains. No sequence exchange between the four Vf paralogs is observed. Compared with promoter regions, only nucleotide substitutions are dramatically elevated in the coding regions. The results presented in this study strongly indicate that the Vf locus is under strong and steady horizontal selective pressures imposed by the fungal pathogen V. inaequalis, and divergent selection on somatic variations plays a key role in shaping the resistance specificity.

  1. Generation of mastitis resistance in cows by targeting human lysozyme gene to β-casein locus using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Yongsheng; Tian, Yuchen; Yu, Yuan; Gao, Mingqing; Hu, Guangdong; Su, Feng; Pan, Shaohui; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-04-07

    Mastitis costs the dairy industry billions of dollars annually and is the most consequential disease of dairy cattle. Transgenic cows secreting an antimicrobial peptide demonstrated resistance to mastitis. The combination of somatic cell gene targeting and nuclear transfer provides a powerful method to produce transgenic animals. Recent studies found that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) stimulated the integration of exogenous DNA stretches into a pre-determined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Here, we used ZFNs to target human lysozyme (hLYZ) gene to bovine β-casein locus, resulting in hLYZ knock-in of approximately 1% of ZFN-treated bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs). Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. Gene-targeted BFFs were used in somatic cell nuclear transfer. In vitro assays demonstrated that the milk secreted by transgenic cows had the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. We report the production of cloned cows carrying human lysozyme gene knock-in β-casein locus using ZFNs. Our findings open a unique avenue for the creation of transgenic cows from genetic engineering by providing a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improving the health and welfare of livestock.

  2. Saturated genic SNP mapping identified functional candidates and selection tools for the Pinus monticola Cr2 locus controlling resistance to white pine blister rust.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Sniezko, Richard A; Zamany, Arezoo; Williams, Holly; Wang, Ning; Kegley, Angelia; Savin, Douglas P; Chen, Hao; Sturrock, Rona N

    2017-02-07

    Molecular breeding incorporates efficient tools to increase rust resistance in five-needle pines. Susceptibility of native five-needle pines to white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the non-native invasive fungus Cronartium ribicola (J.C. Fisch.), has significantly reduced wild populations of these conifers in North America. Major resistance (R) genes against specific avirulent pathotypes have been found in several five-needle pine species. In this study, we screened genic SNP markers by comparative transcriptome and genetic association analyses and constructed saturated linkage maps for the western white pine (Pinus monticola) R locus (Cr2). Phenotypic segregation was measured by a hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like response on the needles and disease symptoms of cankered stems post inoculation by the C. ribicola avcr2 race. SNP genotypes were determined by HRM- and TaqMan-based SNP genotyping. Saturated maps of the Cr2-linkage group (LG) were constructed in three seed families using a total of 34 SNP markers within 21 unique genes. Cr2 was consistently flanked by contig_2142 (encoding a ruvb-like protein) and contig_3772 (encoding a delta-fatty acid desaturase) across the three seed families. Cr2 was anchored to the Pinus consensus LG-1, which differs from LGs where other R loci of Pinus species were mapped. GO annotation identified a set of NBS-LRR and other resistance-related genes as R candidates in the Cr2 region. Association of one nonsynonymous SNP locus of an NBS-LRR gene with Cr2-mediated phenotypes provides a valuable tool for marker-assisted selection (MAS), which will shorten the breeding cycle of resistance screening and aid in the restoration of WPBR-disturbed forest ecosystems.

  3. A family of LRR sequences in the vicinity of the Co-2 locus for anthracnose resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris and its potential use in marker-assisted selection.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, V; Creusot, F; Falquet, J; Sévignac, M; Adam-Blondon, A F; Bannerot, H; Gepts, P; Dron, M

    1998-03-01

    Molecular markers offer new opportunities for breeding for disease resistance. Resistance gene pyramiding in a single cultivar, as a strategy for durable resistance, can be facilitated by marker-assisted selection (MAS). A RAPD marker, ROH20(450), linked to the Mesoamerican Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene, was previously transformed into a SCAR marker, SCH20. In the present paper we have further characterized the relevance of the SCH20 SCAR marker in different genetic backgrounds. Since this SCAR marker was found to be useful mainly in the Andean gene pool, we identified a new PCR-based marker (SCAreoli) for indirect scoring of the presence of the Co-2 gene. The SCAreoli SCAR marker is polymorphic in the Mesoamerican as well as in the Andean gene pool and should be useful in MAS. We also report that PvH20, the cloned sequence corresponding to the 450-bp RAPD marker ROH20(450), contains six imperfect leucine-rich repeats, and reveals a family of related sequences in the vicinity of the Co-2 locus. These results are discussed in the context of the recent cloning of some plant resistance genes.

  4. Genetic resistance to soybean rust in PI 567099A is at or near the Rpp3 locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research identified soybean accession PI 567099A as resistant to soybean rust (SBR). The objective of this research was to map the resistance genes(s) of PI 567099A. A population segregating for SBR resistance was evaluated in the 2008 and 2009 seasons in Paraguay. In both seasons F2:3 f...

  5. Modern elite rice varieties of the 'Green Revolution' have retained a large introgression from wild rice around the Pi33 rice blast resistance locus.

    PubMed

    Ballini, Elsa; Berruyer, Romain; Morel, Jean-Benoît; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Nottéghem, Jean-Loup; Tharreau, Didier

    2007-01-01

    During the breeding process of cultivated crops, resistance genes to pests and diseases are commonly introgressed from wild species. The size of these introgressions is predicted by theoretical models but has rarely been measured in cultivated varieties. By combining resistance tests with isogenic strains, genotyping and sequencing of different rice accessions, it was shown that, in the elite rice variety IR64, the resistance conferring allele of the rice blast resistance gene Pi33 was introgressed from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon (accession IRGC101508). Further characterization of this introgression revealed a large introgression at this locus in IR64 and the related variety IR36. The introgressed fragment represents approximately half of the short arm of rice chromosome 8. This is the first report of a large introgression in a cultivated variety of rice. Such a large introgression is likely to have been maintained during backcrossing only if a selection pressure was exerted on this genomic region. The possible traits that were selected are discussed.

  6. Transfer of Fv-1 locus-specific resistance to murine N-tropic and B-tropic retroviruses by cytoplasmic RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, W K; Tennant, R W; Rascati, R J; Otten, J A; Schluter, B; Kiggans, J O; Myer, F E; Brown, A

    1978-01-01

    A standardized bioassay for transfer of Fv-1 gene-specific resistance to N-tropic and B-tropic murine retroviruses was developed using X plaque reduction in SC-1 (Fv-1-) cells inoculated with virus. Testing of subcellular fractions of restrictive cells showed that the resistance transfer activity was present in the cytoplasmic (microsomal and cytosol) fractions. The activity of the cytoplasmic extract was destroyed by treatment with ribonuclease, but not with deoxyribonuclease or proteases. RNA prepared by phenol-chloroform extraction of mouse tissues, including embryos and livers of weanling mice, transferred Fv-1 locus-specific resistance into DEAE-dextran-treated SC-1 cells. The activity of isolated RNA preparations against virus of the appropriate host-range type has been demonstrated to correspond to the Fv-1 genotypes of the cell sources. The specific transfer of resistance with cellular RNA was effective within a 5- to 6-h period from 2 h before to 4 to 5 after virus infection. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the RNA showed that the activity sedimented as a broad peak, with an apparent maximum in the 22S region. Affinity chromatography of whole-cell RNA on polyuridylic acid-Sepharose tended to separate more activity into the polyadenylic acid RNA fraction than the non-polyadenylic acid RNA fraction. Except for the reciprocal inhibitory activity for the two host-range virus types, the RNAs of Fv-1n and Fv-1b specificities showed similar properties in all aspects studied. PMID:211261

  7. The Gene Controlling the Quantitative Trait Locus EPITHIOSPECIFIER MODIFIER1 Alters Glucosinolate Hydrolysis and Insect Resistance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Ober, James A.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Glucosinolates are sulfur-rich plant secondary metabolites whose breakdown products have a wide range of biological activities in plant–herbivore and plant–pathogen interactions and anticarcinogenic properties. In Arabidopsis thaliana, hydrolysis by the enzyme, myrosinase, produces bioactive nitriles, epithionitriles, or isothiocyanates depending upon the plant's genotype and the glucosinolate's structure. A major determinant of this structural specificity is the epithiospecifier locus (ESP), whose protein causes the formation of epithionitriles and nitriles. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3 epistatically affects nitrile formation in combination with ESP; this QTL has been termed EPITHIOSPECIFIER MODIFIER1 (ESM1). We identified a myrosinase-associated protein as the ESM1 QTL in Arabidopsis using map-based cloning with recombinant inbred lines, natural variation transcriptomic analysis, and metabolic profiling. In planta and in vitro analyses with natural ESM1 alleles, ESM1 knockouts, and overexpression lines show that ESM1 represses nitrile formation and favors isothiocyanate production. The glucosinolate hydrolysis profile change influenced by ESM1 is associated with the ability to deter herbivory by Trichoplusia ni. This gene could provide unique approaches toward improving human nutrition. PMID:16679459

  8. Multi-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Typing of Virulent Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli Clones

    PubMed Central

    Naseer, Umaer; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro E.; Woodford, Neil; Dhanji, Hiran; Cantón, Rafael; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Lindstedt, Bjørn-Arne

    2012-01-01

    One hundred E. coli isolates from Norway (n = 37), Sweden (n = 24), UK (n = 20) and Spain (n = 19), producing CTX-M-type - (n = 84), or SHV-12 (n = 4) extended spectrum β-lactamases, or the plasmid mediated AmpC, CMY-2 (n = 12), were typed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Isolates clustered into 33 Sequence Types (STs) and 14 Sequence Type Complexes (STCs), and 58 MLVA-Types (MTs) and 25 different MLVA-Type Complexes (MTCs). A strong agreement between the MLST profile and MLVA typing results was observed, in which all ST131-isolates (n = 39) and most of the STC-648 (n = 10), STC-38 (n = 9), STC-10 (n = 9), STC-405 (n = 8) and STC-23 (n = 6) isolates were clustered distinctly into MTC-29, -36, -20, -14, -10 and -39, respectively. MLVA is a rapid and accurate tool for genotyping isolates of globally disseminated virulent multidrug resistant E. coli lineages, including ST131. PMID:22859970

  9. Pea powdery mildew er1 resistance is associated to loss-of-function mutations at a MLO homologous locus.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Stefano; Schiavulli, Adalgisa; Appiano, Michela; Marcotrigiano, Angelo R; Cillo, Fabrizio; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Lotti, Concetta; Ricciardi, Luigi

    2011-12-01

    The powdery mildew disease affects several crop species and is also one of the major threats for pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivation all over the world. The recessive gene er1, first described over 60 years ago, is well known in pea breeding, as it still maintains its efficiency as a powdery mildew resistance source. Genetic and phytopathological features of er1 resistance are similar to those of barley, Arabidopsis, and tomato mlo powdery mildew resistance, which is caused by the loss of function of specific members of the MLO gene family. Here, we describe the obtainment of a novel er1 resistant line by experimental mutagenesis with the alkylating agent diethyl sulfate. This line was found to carry a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PsMLO1 gene sequence, predicted to result in premature termination of translation and a non-functional protein. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed on the mutation site and shown to be fully co-segregating with resistance in F(2) individuals. Sequencing of PsMLO1 from three powdery mildew resistant cultivars also revealed the presence of loss-of-function mutations. Taken together, results reported in this study strongly indicate the identity between er1 and mlo resistances and are expected to be of great breeding importance for the development of resistant cultivars via marker-assisted selection.

  10. A conserved locus conditioning Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus resistance on 5DL in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is considered one of the most important diseases in winter wheat regions of the central and southeastern United States. Utilization of resistant cultivars is the only practical and environmentally friendly means of control. To identify QTL for SBWMV resistance, ...

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana DM2h (R8) within the Landsberg RPP1-like Resistance Locus Underlies Three Different Cases of EDS1-Conditioned Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana V.; Wagner, Christine; Choudhury, Sayan R.; Wang, Yiming; James, Geo Velikkakam; Griebel, Thomas; Alcázar, Ruben; Tsuda, Kenichi; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Parker, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have a large panel of nucleotide-binding/leucine rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors which monitor host interference by diverse pathogen molecules (effectors) and trigger disease resistance pathways. NLR receptor systems are necessarily under tight control to mitigate the trade-off between induced defenses and growth. Hence, mis-regulated NLRs often cause autoimmunity associated with stunting and, in severe cases, necrosis. Nucleocytoplasmic ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) is indispensable for effector-triggered and autoimmune responses governed by a family of Toll-Interleukin1-Receptor-related NLR receptors (TNLs). EDS1 operates coincidently or immediately downstream of TNL activation to transcriptionally reprogram cells for defense. We show here that low levels of nuclear-enforced EDS1 are sufficient for pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana, without causing negative effects. Plants expressing higher nuclear EDS1 amounts have the genetic, phenotypic and transcriptional hallmarks of TNL autoimmunity. In a screen for genetic suppressors of nuclear EDS1 autoimmunity, we map multiple, independent mutations to one gene, DM2h, lying within the polymorphic DANGEROUS MIX2 cluster of TNL RPP1-like genes from A. thaliana accession Landsberg erecta (Ler). The DM2 locus is a known hotspot for deleterious epistatic interactions leading to immune-related incompatibilities between A. thaliana natural accessions. We find that DM2hLer underlies two further genetic incompatibilities involving the RPP1-likeLer locus and EDS1. We conclude that the DM2hLer TNL protein and nuclear EDS1 cooperate, directly or indirectly, to drive cells into an immune response at the expense of growth. A further conclusion is that regulating the available EDS1 nuclear pool is fundamental for maintaining homeostatic control of TNL immune pathways. PMID:27082651

  12. Fine scale genetic and physical mapping using interstitial deletion mutants of Lr34 /Yr18: a disease resistance locus effective against multiple pathogens in wheat.

    PubMed

    Spielmeyer, W; Singh, R P; McFadden, H; Wellings, C R; Huerta-Espino, J; Kong, X; Appels, R; Lagudah, E S

    2008-02-01

    The Lr34/Yr18 locus has contributed to durable, non-race specific resistance against leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Lr34/Yr18 also cosegregates with resistance to powdery mildew (Pm38) and a leaf tip necrosis phenotype (Ltn1). Using a high resolution mapping family from a cross between near-isogenic lines in the "Thatcher" background we demonstrated that Lr34/Yr18 also cosegregated with stem rust resistance in the field. Lr34/Yr18 probably interacts with unlinked genes to provide enhanced stem rust resistance in "Thatcher". In view of the relatively low levels of DNA polymorphism reported in the Lr34/Yr18 region, gamma irradiation of the single chromosome substitution line, Lalbahadur(Parula7D) that carries Lr34/Yr18 was used to generate several mutant lines. Characterisation of the mutants revealed a range of highly informative genotypes, which included variable size deletions and an overlapping set of interstitial deletions. The mutants enabled a large number of wheat EST derived markers to be mapped and define a relatively small physical region on chromosome 7DS that carried Lr34/Yr18. Fine scale genetic mapping confirmed the physical mapping and identified a genetic interval of less than 0.5 cM, which contained Lr34/Yr18. Both rice and Brachypodium genome sequences provided useful information for fine mapping of ESTs in wheat. Gene order was more conserved between wheat and Brachypodium than with rice but these smaller grass genomes did not reveal sequence information that could be used to identify a candidate gene for rust resistance in wheat. We predict that Lr34/Yr18 is located within a large insertion in wheat not found at syntenic positions in Brachypodium and rice.

  13. The R(Pi-mcd1) locus from Solanum microdontum involved in resistance to Phytophthora infestans, causing a delay in infection, maps on potato chromosome 4 in a cluster of NBS-LRR genes.

    PubMed

    Tan, M Y Adillah; Hutten, Ronald C B; Celis, Carolina; Park, Tae-Ho; Niks, Rients E; Visser, Richard G F; van Eck, Herman J

    2008-07-01

    The distinction between field resistance and resistance based on resistance (R) genes has been proven valid for many plant-pathogen interactions. This distinction does not seem to be valid for the interaction between potato and late blight. In this study, a locus involved in late blight resistance, derived from Solanum microdontum, provides additional evidence for this lack of distinction. The resistance is associated with a hypersensitive response and results in a delay of infection of approximately 1 to 2 weeks. Both a quantitative as well as a qualitative genetic approach were used, based on data from a field assay. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified a QTL on chromosome 4 after correction of the resistance data for plant maturity. A qualitative genetic analysis resulted in the positioning of this locus on the short arm of chromosome 4 in between amplified fragment length polymorphism marker pCTmACG_310 and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers TG339 and T0703. This position coincides with a conserved Phytophthora R gene cluster which includes R2, R(2-like), R(Pi-blb3), and R(Pi-abpt). This implies that R(Pi-mcd1) is the fifth R gene of this nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat cluster. The implications of our results on R-gene-based and field resistance are discussed.

  14. Quantitative trait locus mapping and functional genomics of an organophosphate resistance trait in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is an insect pest of corn, and population suppression with chemical insecticides is an important management tool. Traits conferring organophosphate insecticide resistance have increased in frequency among WCR populations, resulting in...

  15. THE Bct-1 LOCUS FOR RESISTANCE TO BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE RESISTANCE TO BEAN DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host resistance provides effective control of some diseases induced by geminiviruses in common bean. A recessive gene bgm-1 conditions resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and is located on linkage group B3 near the bc-12 gene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus. The dominan...

  16. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, William L.; LaPlant, Kyle E.; Bell, Duane C.; Jahn, Molly M.; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection. PMID:27936008

  17. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  18. PM-3, a benzo-gamma-pyran derivative isolated from propolis, inhibits growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Soh, J W; Xing, W Q; Mao, Y; Matsuno, T; Weinstein, I B

    2001-01-01

    Propolis has numerous biologic activities including antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Several components isolated from propolis have been shown to have anticancer activity. This study demonstrates that the compound PM-3 (3-[2-dimethyl-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzopyran]-6-propenoic acid) isolated from Brazilian propolis markedly inhibits the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. This effect was associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with PM-3 arrested cells in the G1 phase and resulted in a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. PM-3 also inhibited the expression of cyclin D1 at the transcriptional level when examined in cyclin D1 promoter luciferase assays. Induction of apoptosis by PM-3 occurred within 48 hours after treatment of MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 treated cells also displayed a decrease in the level of the estrogen receptor (ER) protein and inhibition of estrogen response element (ERE) promoter activity. Therefore, PM-3 merits further investigation with respect to breast cancer chemoprevention or therapy.

  19. Rapid identification of international multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones by multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis and investigation of their susceptibility to lytic bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Larché, Jérôme; Pouillot, Flavie; Essoh, Christiane; Libisch, Balázs; Straut, Monica; Lee, Je Chul; Soler, Charles; Lamarca, Richard; Gleize, Elodie; Gabard, Jérôme; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated over a period of 12 months in two French hospitals and to test their susceptibility to bacteriophages. A total of 47 MDR isolates recovered from hospitalized patients were genotyped using multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis. The genotypes were distributed into five clones (including 19, 5, 5, 3, and 3 isolates, respectively) and 12 singletons. Comparison to 77 MDR strains from three other countries, and MLST analysis of selected isolates showed the predominance of international MDR clones. The larger clone, CC235, contained 59 isolates displaying different antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including the presence of the GES1, VIM-2, VIM-4, and IMP-1 β-lactamases. Three newly isolated P. aeruginosa bacteriophages were found to lyse 42 of the 44 analyzed strains, distributed into the different clonal complexes. This pilot study suggests that systematic genotyping of P. aeruginosa MDR strains could improve our epidemiological understanding of transmission at both the local (hospital) and the national level and that phage therapy could be an alternative or a complementary treatment to antibiotics for treating MDR-infected patients.

  20. Microfluidic-chip-based multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting with new primer sets for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Sabat, Artur J; Chlebowicz, Monika A; Grundmann, Hajo; Arends, Jan P; Kampinga, Greetje; Meessen, Nico E L; Friedrich, Alexander W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-07-01

    The detection of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and a rapid and accurate identification of sources and routes of transmission should be conducted in hospital settings as early and swiftly as possible. In this study, we investigated the application potential of a new approach based on multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and microfluidics technology for a rapid discrimination of MRSA lineages in outbreak settings. A total of 206 nonrepetitive MRSA isolates recovered from infected patients at the University Medical Center Groningen between 2000 and 2010 were tested. The results obtained by MLVF using microcapillary electrophoresis with newly designed primers were compared to those obtained by spa typing and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). The discriminatory power was 0.980 (107 patterns), 0.969 (85 allelic profiles), and 0.959 (66 types) for MLVF, MLVA, and spa typing, respectively. All methods tested showed a good concordance of results calculated by the adjusted Rand's coefficient method. Comparisons of data obtained by the three approaches allowed us to propose an 88% cutoff value for the similarity between any two MLVF patterns, which can be used in S. aureus epidemiological studies, including analyses of outbreaks and strain transmission events. Of the three tested methods, MLVF is the cheapest, fastest, and easiest to perform. MLVF applied to microfluidic polymer chips is a rapid, cheap, reproducible, and highly discriminating tool to determine the clonality of MRSA isolates and to trace the spread of MRSA strains over periods of many years. Although spa typing should be used due to its portability of data, MLVF has a high added value because it is more discriminatory.

  1. Sequence variation at the rice blast resistance gene Pi-km locus: Implications for the development of allele specific markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recently cloned blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice crops against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene-for-gene manner. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method for an integrated disease management strategy. To facilitate rice breed...

  2. FaRXf1: a locus conferring resistance to angular leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas fragariae in octoploid strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angular leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas fragariae is the only major bacterial disease of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa). While this disease may cause reductions of up to 8 % of marketable yield in Florida winter annual production, no resistant cultivars have been commercialized. Wild acc...

  3. Quantitative trait locus analysis of Verticillium wilt resistance in an introgressed recombinant inbred population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahlia Kleb. The availability of VW-resistant cultivars is vital for control of this economically important disease, but there is a paucity of Upland cotton breeding lines and cul...

  4. Relationship between Pyrazinamide Resistance, Loss of Pyrazinamidase Activity, and Mutations in the pncA Locus in Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mestdagh, M.; Fonteyne, P. A.; Realini, L.; Rossau, R.; Jannes, G.; Mijs, W.; De Smet, K. A. L.; Portaels, F.; Van den Eeckhout, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-two Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were tested for pyrazinamidase activity, and their pyrazinamide susceptibility was determined by the radiometric method. Sequencing of pncA genes in the 23 resistant strains revealed mutations in 16 pyrazinamidase-negative strains, 11 of which had not been previously described. Six isolates containing wild-type pncA might possess alternative resistance mechanisms. PMID:10471589

  5. Sparkle/PM3 Parameters for the Modeling of Neodymium(III), Promethium(III), and Samarium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ricardo O; da Costa, Nivan B; Rocha, Gerd B; Simas, Alfredo M

    2007-07-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to neodymium(III), promethium(III), and samarium(III) complexes. The unsigned mean error, for all Sparkle/PM3 interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is 0.074 Å for Nd(III); 0.057 Å for Pm(III); and 0.075 Å for Sm(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.076 Å, 0.059 Å, and 0.075 Å, respectively, indicating they are all comparable models. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective potential calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Hence, the choice of which model to utilize will depend on the assessment of the effect of either AM1 or PM3 on the quantum chemical description of the organic ligands. Finally, we present a preliminary attempt to verify the geometry prediction consistency of Sparkle/PM3. Since lanthanide complexes are usually flexible, we randomly generated 200 different input geometries for the samarium complex QIPQOV which were then fully optimized by Sparkle/PM3. A trend appeared in that, on average, the lower the total energy of the local minima found, the lower the unsigned mean errors, and the higher the accuracy of the model. These preliminary results do indicate that attempting to find, with Sparkle/PM3, a global minimum for the geometry of a given complex, with the understanding that it will tend to be closer to the experimental geometry, appears to be warranted. Therefore, the sparkle model is seemingly a trustworthy semiempirical quantum chemical model for the prediction of lanthanide complexes geometries.

  6. The Cmv1 host resistance locus is closely linked to the Ly49 multigene family within the natural killer cell gene complex on mouse chromosome 6

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, C.A.; Shellam, G.R.; Scalzo, A.A.

    1997-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in controlling tumor cells and against a range of infectious organisms. Recent studies of mouse NK cell surface receptors, which may be involved in the specificity of NK cells, have shown that many of these molecules are encoded by the Ly49 and Ly55 (Nkrp1) multigene families that map to distal mouse chromosome 6. Also mapping to this NK cell gene complex (NKC) is the resistance locus, Cmv1, which is involved in genetically determined resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The aim of this study was to localize Cmv1 more precisely in relation to other NKC loci by generating a high-resolution genetic map of the region. We have analyzed 1250 backcross mice comprising panels of 700 (BALB/c x C57BL/6J)F{sub 1} X BALB/c and 550 (A/J X C57BL/6J)F{sub 1} X A/J progeny. A total of 25 polymorphic genes or microsatellite markers were analyzed over a region of 10 map units from D6Mit134 to D6Mit59. The Cmv1 phenotypes of mice recombinant in this interval were tested by infection with MCMV. The results obtained indicate that the functionally important NKC region is a tightly linked cluster of loci spanning at least 0.4 map units. Furthermore, Cmv1 maps distal to, but very closely linked to, the Ly49 multigene family (< 0.2 map units), suggesting that MCMV resistance may be conferred by MHC class I-specific NK cell receptors. 49 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. PM3 semi-empirical IR spectra simulations for metal complexes of schiff bases of sulfa drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topacli, C.; Topacli, A.

    2003-06-01

    The molecular structures and infrared spectra of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn complexes of two schiff base ligands, viz N-( o-vanillinidene)sulfanilamide ( oVSaH) and N-( o-vanillinidene)sulfamerazine ( oVSmrzH) are studied in detail by PM3 method. It has been shown that the proposed structures for the compounds derived from microanalytical, magnetic and various spectral data were consistent with the IR spectra simulated by PM3 method. Coordination effects on ν(CN) and ν(C-O) modes in the schiff base ligands are in close agreement with the observed results.

  8. Applicability of PM3 to transphosphorylation reaction path: Toward designing a minimal ribozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manchester, John I.; Shibata, Masayuki; Setlik, Robert F.; Ornstein, Rick L.; Rein, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that RNA can catalyze many of the reactions necessary both for replication of genetic material and the possible transition into the modern protein-based world. However, contemporary ribozymes are too large to have self-assembled from a prebiotic oligonucleotide pool. Still, it is likely that the major features of the earliest ribozymes have been preserved as molecular fossils in the catalytic RNA of today. Therefore, the search for a minimal ribozyme has been aimed at finding the necessary structural features of a modern ribozyme (Beaudry and Joyce, 1990). Both a three-dimensional model and quantum chemical calculations are required to quantitatively determine the effects of structural features of the ribozyme on the reaction it catalyzes. Using this model, quantum chemical calculations must be performed to determine quantitatively the effects of structural features on catalysis. Previous studies of the reaction path have been conducted at the ab initio level, but these methods are limited to small models due to enormous computational requirements. Semiempirical methods have been applied to large systems in the past; however, the accuracy of these methods depends largely on a simple model of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction, or hydrolysis of phosphoric acid. We find that the results are qualitatively similar to ab initio results using large basis sets. Therefore, PM3 is suitable for studying the reaction path of the ribozyme-catalyzed reaction.

  9. Genomic Analysis Reveals a Common Breakpoint in Amplifications of the Plasmodium vivax Multidrug Resistance 1 Locus in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Auburn, Sarah; Serre, David; Pearson, Richard D.; Amato, Roberto; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; To, Sheren; Handayuni, Irene; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Drury, Eleanor; Stalker, Jim; Miotto, Olivo; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Nosten, Francois; Price, Ric N.

    2016-01-01

    In regions of coendemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax where mefloquine is used to treat P. falciparum infection, drug pressure mediated by increased copy numbers of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) may select for mefloquine-resistant P. vivax. Surveillance is not undertaken routinely owing in part to methodological challenges in detection of gene amplification. Using genomic data on 88 P. vivax samples from western Thailand, we identified pvmdr1 amplification in 17 isolates, all exhibiting tandem copies of a 37.6–kilobase pair region with identical breakpoints. A novel breakpoint-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was designed to detect the amplification. The assay demonstrated high sensitivity, identifying amplifications in 13 additional, polyclonal infections. Application to 132 further samples identified the common breakpoint in all years tested (2003–2015), with a decline in prevalence after 2012 corresponding to local discontinuation of mefloquine regimens. Assessment of the structure of pvmdr1 amplification in other geographic regions will yield information about the population-specificity of the breakpoints and underlying amplification mechanisms. PMID:27456706

  10. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-03-07

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, P<0.0001) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC; n=16, P<0.01), whereas only 1 strain belonged to Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 1 to EAEC and 2 to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains. Of the 82 DEC isolates, 22 O and 13H serogroups were detected, including some specific serogroups (O91, O103, O115, O119, O126, and O157) which have been associated with human diarrheal infections. Phylogenetic group A and B1 were predominant among the DEC isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline was most common (49%), followed by nalidixic acid (28%), ampicillin (24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20%), and cephalothin (18%). All isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Of the resistant strains, 44% (22/50) demonstrated resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA

  11. Efficient Modification of the CCR5 Locus in Primary Human T Cells With megaTAL Nuclease Establishes HIV-1 Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Romano Ibarra, Guillermo S; Paul, Biswajit; Sather, Blythe D; Younan, Patrick M; Sommer, Karen; Kowalski, John P; Hale, Malika; Stoddard, Barry; Jarjour, Jordan; Astrakhan, Alexander; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rawlings, David J

    2016-01-01

    A naturally occurring 32-base pair deletion of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 has demonstrated protection against HIV infection of human CD4+ T cells. Recent genetic engineering approaches using engineered nucleases to disrupt the gene and mimic this mutation show promise for HIV therapy. We developed a megaTAL nuclease targeting the third extracellular loop of CCR5 that we delivered to primary human T cells by mRNA transfection. The CCR5 megaTAL nuclease established resistance to HIV in cell lines and disrupted the expression of CCR5 on primary human CD4+ T cells with a high efficiency, achieving up to 80% modification of the locus in primary cells as measured by molecular analysis. Gene-modified cells engrafted at levels equivalent to unmodified cells when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, genetically modified CD4+ cells were preferentially expanded during HIV-1 infection in vivo in an immunodeficient mouse model. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting CCR5 in primary T cells using an engineered megaTAL nuclease, and the potential to use gene-modified cells to reconstitute a patient's immune system and provide protection from HIV infection. PMID:27741222

  12. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    PubMed

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor.

  13. Isolation of TIR and non-TIR NBS--LRR resistance gene analogues and identification of molecular markers linked to a powdery mildew resistance locus in chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2005-09-01

    Toll and interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and non-TIR nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene analogues (RGAs) were obtained from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) by two PCR-based amplification strategies (direct amplification and overlap extension amplification) with degenerate primers designed to the conserved P-loop, kinase-2, and Gly-Leu-Pro-Leu (GLPL) motifs within the NBS domain of plant resistance gene (R gene) products. Thirty-four of 65 cloned PCR fragments contained a continuous open reading frame (ORF) and their predicted protein products showed homology to the NBS-LRR class R proteins in the GenBank database. These 34 predicted protein sequences exhibited a wide range (19.5--99.4%) of sequence identity among them and were classified into two distinct groups by phylogenetic analysis. The first group consisted of 23 sequences and seemed to belong to the non-TIR NBS-LRR RGAs, since they contained group specific motifs (RNBS-A-non-TIR motif) that are often present in the coiled-coil domain of the non-TIR NBS-LRR class R genes. The second group comprised 11 sequences that contained motifs found in the TIR domain of TIR NBS-LRR class R genes. Restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers were developed from some of the RGAs and used for mapping powdery mildew resistance genes in chestnut rose. Three markers, RGA 22 C, RGA 4 A, and RGA 7 B, were identified to be linked to a resistance gene locus, designated CRPM 1 for chestnut rose powdery mildew resistance 1, which accounted for 72% of the variation in powdery mildew resistance phenotype in an F1 segregating population. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation, phylogenetic analysis and potential utilization as genetic markers of RGAs in chestnut rose.

  14. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Late Leaf Spot Resistance and Plant-Type-Related Traits in Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Multi-Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Youlin; Liao, Junhua; Liu, Kede; Li, Qiang; Dong, Yang; Ren, Xiaoping; Chen, Yuning; Huang, Li; Liao, Boshou; Lei, Yong; Yan, Liying; Jiang, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) is one of the most serious foliar diseases affecting peanut worldwide leading to huge yield loss. To understand the genetic basis of LLS and assist breeding in the future, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for LLS and three plant-type-related traits including height of main stem (HMS), length of the longest branch (LLB) and total number of branches (TNB). Significant negative correlations were observed between LLS and the plant-type-related traits in multi-environments of a RIL population from the cross Zhonghua 5 and ICGV 86699. A total of 20 QTLs were identified for LLS, of which two QTLs were identified in multi-environments and six QTLs with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) more than 10%. Ten, seven, fifteen QTLs were identified for HMS, LLB and TNB, respectively. Of these, one, one, two consensus QTLs and three, two, three major QTLs were detected for HMS, LLB and TNB, respectively. Of all 52 unconditional QTLs for LLS and plant-type-related traits, 10 QTLs were clustered in five genetic regions, of which three clusters including five robust major QTLs overlapped between LLS and one of the plant-type-related traits, providing evidence that the correlation could be genetically constrained. On the other hand, conditional mapping revealed different numbers and different extent of additive effects of QTLs for LLS conditioned on three plant-type-related traits (HMS, LLB and TNB), which improved our understanding of interrelationship between LLS and plant-type-related traits at the QTL level. Furthermore, two QTLs, qLLSB6-7 and qLLSB1 for LLS resistance, were identified residing in two clusters of NB-LRR—encoding genes. This study not only provided new favorable QTLs for fine-mapping, but also suggested that the relationship between LLS and plant-type-related traits of HMS, LLB and TNB should be considered while breeding for improved LLS resistance in peanut. PMID:27870916

  15. Population genetic analysis of the DARC locus (Duffy) reveals adaptation from standing variation associated with malaria resistance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Taravella, Angela M.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Sikora, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The human DARC (Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines) gene encodes a membrane-bound chemokine receptor crucial for the infection of red blood cells by Plasmodium vivax, a major causative agent of malaria. Of the three major allelic classes segregating in human populations, the FY*O allele has been shown to protect against P. vivax infection and is at near fixation in sub-Saharan Africa, while FY*B and FY*A are common in Europe and Asia, respectively. Due to the combination of strong geographic differentiation and association with malaria resistance, DARC is considered a canonical example of positive selection in humans. Despite this, details of the timing and mode of selection at DARC remain poorly understood. Here, we use sequencing data from over 1,000 individuals in twenty-one human populations, as well as ancient human genomes, to perform a fine-scale investigation of the evolutionary history of DARC. We estimate the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the most common FY*O haplotype to be 42 kya (95% CI: 34–49 kya). We infer the FY*O null mutation swept to fixation in Africa from standing variation with very low initial frequency (0.1%) and a selection coefficient of 0.043 (95% CI:0.011–0.18), which is among the strongest estimated in the human genome. We estimate the TMRCA of the FY*A mutation in non-Africans to be 57 kya (95% CI: 48–65 kya) and infer that, prior to the sweep of FY*O, all three alleles were segregating in Africa, as highly diverged populations from Asia and ≠Khomani San hunter-gatherers share the same FY*A haplotypes. We test multiple models of admixture that may account for this observation and reject recent Asian or European admixture as the cause. PMID:28282382

  16. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway. PMID:27404993

  17. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-07-12

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a UV-B photoreceptor gene, MdUVR8 (UV Resistance Locus 8), from apple.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cheng; Mao, Ke; You, Chun-Xiang; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hui; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-06-01

    UVR8 (UV Resistance Locus 8) is an ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315nm) light receptor that is involved in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development. UV-B irradiation can increase the development of flower and fruit coloration in many fruit trees, such as grape, pear and apple. Previous investigations of the structure and functions of UVR8 in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis. Here, we isolated the UVR8 gene from apple (Malus domestica) and analyzed its function in transgenic Arabidopsis. Genomic and protein sequence analysis showed that MdUVR8 shares high similarity with the AtUVR8 protein from Arabidopsis, including the conserved seven-bladed β-propeller, the C27 region, the 3 "GWRHT" motifs and crucial amino-acid residues (14 Trps, 2 Args). A point mutation prediction and three-dimensional structural analysis of MdUVR8 indicated that it has a similar structure to AtUVR8 and that the crucial residues are also important in MdUVR8. In terms of transcript levels, MdUVR8 expression was up-regulated by UV-B light, which suggests that its expression follows a 24-h circadian rhythm. Using heterologous expression of MdUVR8 in both uvr8-1 mutant and wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis, we found that MdUVR8 regulates hypocotyl elongation and gene expression under UV-B light. These data provide functional evidence for a role of MdUVR8 in controlling photomorphogenesis under UV-B light and indicate that the function of UVR8 is conserved between Arabidopsis and apple. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between MdUVR8 and MdCOP1 (constitutive photomorphogenic1) using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a co-immunoprecipitation assay. This interaction provides a direction for investigating the regulatory mechanisms of the UV-B-light pathway in apple.

  19. The Soybean Rhg1 Locus for Resistance to the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines Regulates the Expression of a Large Number of Stress- and Defense-Related Genes in Degenerating Feeding Cells1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kandoth, Pramod Kaitheri; Ithal, Nagabhushana; Recknor, Justin; Maier, Tom; Nettleton, Dan; Baum, Thomas J.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2011-01-01

    To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared gene expression profiles of developing syncytia in soybean near-isogenic lines differing at Rhg1 (for resistance to Heterodera glycines), a major quantitative trait locus for resistance, by coupling laser capture microdissection with microarray analysis. Gene expression profiling revealed that 1,447 genes were differentially expressed between the two lines. Of these, 241 (16.8%) were stress- and defense-related genes. Several stress-related genes were up-regulated in the resistant line, including those encoding homologs of enzymes that lead to increased levels of reactive oxygen species and proteins associated with the unfolded protein response. These results indicate that syncytia induced in the resistant line are undergoing severe oxidative stress and imbalanced endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, both of which likely contribute to the resistance reaction. Defense-related genes up-regulated within syncytia of the resistant line included those predominantly involved in apoptotic cell death, the plant hypersensitive response, and salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling; many of these genes were either partially suppressed or not induced to the same level by a virulent soybean cyst nematode population for successful nematode reproduction and development on the resistant line. Our study demonstrates that a network of molecular events take place during Rhg1-mediated resistance, leading to a highly complex defense response against a root pathogen. PMID:21335526

  20. The Soybean Rhg1 locus for resistance to the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines regulates the expression of a large number of stress- and defense-related genes in degenerating feeding cells.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, Pramod Kaitheri; Ithal, Nagabhushana; Recknor, Justin; Maier, Tom; Nettleton, Dan; Baum, Thomas J; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2011-04-01

    To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared gene expression profiles of developing syncytia in soybean near-isogenic lines differing at Rhg1 (for resistance to Heterodera glycines), a major quantitative trait locus for resistance, by coupling laser capture microdissection with microarray analysis. Gene expression profiling revealed that 1,447 genes were differentially expressed between the two lines. Of these, 241 (16.8%) were stress- and defense-related genes. Several stress-related genes were up-regulated in the resistant line, including those encoding homologs of enzymes that lead to increased levels of reactive oxygen species and proteins associated with the unfolded protein response. These results indicate that syncytia induced in the resistant line are undergoing severe oxidative stress and imbalanced endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, both of which likely contribute to the resistance reaction. Defense-related genes up-regulated within syncytia of the resistant line included those predominantly involved in apoptotic cell death, the plant hypersensitive response, and salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling; many of these genes were either partially suppressed or not induced to the same level by a virulent soybean cyst nematode population for successful nematode reproduction and development on the resistant line. Our study demonstrates that a network of molecular events take place during Rhg1-mediated resistance, leading to a highly complex defense response against a root pathogen.

  1. A high-resolution map of the Grp1 locus on chromosome V of potato harbouring broad-spectrum resistance to the cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Danan, Sarah; van Dijk, Thijs; Beyene, Amelework; Bouwman, Liesbeth; Overmars, Hein; van Eck, Herman; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Bakker, Erin

    2009-06-01

    The Grp1 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis and is located in the GP21-GP179 interval on the short arm of chromosome V of potato. A high-resolution map has been developed using the diploid mapping population RHAM026, comprising 1,536 genotypes. The flanking markers GP21 and GP179 have been used to screen the 1,536 genotypes for recombination events. Interval mapping of the resistances to G. pallida Pa2 and G. rostochiensis Ro5 resulted in two nearly identical LOD graphs with the highest LOD score just north of marker TG432. Detailed analysis of the 44 recombinant genotypes showed that G. pallida and G. rostochiensis resistance could not be separated and map to the same location between marker SPUD838 and TG432. It is suggested that the quantitative resistance to both nematode species at the Grp1 locus is mediated by one or more tightly linked R genes that might belong to the NBS-LRR class.

  2. ICESluvan, a 94-Kilobase Mosaic Integrative Conjugative Element Conferring Interspecies Transfer of VanB-Type Glycopeptide Resistance, a Novel Bacitracin Resistance Locus, and a Toxin-Antitoxin Stabilization System

    PubMed Central

    Bjørkeng, Eva K.; Hjerde, Erik; Pedersen, Torunn; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn

    2013-01-01

    A 94-kb integrative conjugative element (ICESluvan) transferable to Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis from an animal isolate of Streptococcus lutetiensis consists of a mosaic of genetic fragments from different Gram-positive bacteria. A variant of ICESluvan was confirmed in S. lutetiensis from a patient. A complete Tn5382/Tn1549 with a vanB2 operon is integrated into a streptococcal ICESde3396-like region harboring a putative bacteriophage exclusion system, a putative agglutinin receptor precursor, and key components of a type IV secretion system. Moreover, ICESluvan encodes a putative MobC family mobilization protein and a relaxase and, thus, in total has all genetic components essential for conjugative transfer. A 9-kb element within Tn5382/Tn1549 encodes, among others, putative proteins similar to the TnpX site-specific recombinase in Faecalibacterium and VanZ in Paenibacillus, which may contribute to the detected low-level teicoplanin resistance. Furthermore, ICESluvan encodes a novel bacitracin resistance locus that is associated with reduced susceptibility to bacitracin when transferred to E. faecium. The expression of a streptococcal pezAT toxin-antitoxin-encoding operon of ICESluvan in S. lutetiensis, E. faecium, and E. faecalis was confirmed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, indicating an active toxin-antitoxin system which may contribute to stabilizing ICESluvan within new hosts. Junction PCR and DNA sequencing confirmed that ICESluvan excised to form a circular intermediate in S. lutetiensis, E. faecalis, and E. faecium. Transfer between E. faecalis cells was observed in the presence of helper plasmid pIP964. Sequence analysis of the original S. lutetiensis donor and enterococcal transconjugants showed that ICESluvan integrates in a site-specific manner into the C-terminal end of the chromosomal tRNA methyltransferase gene rumA. PMID:24078615

  3. Structural, Electronic and Qsar Properties of the Cyfluthrin Molecule:. a Theoretical AM1 and PM3 Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalişir, Emine Deniz; Erkoç, Şakir

    Cyfluthrin is a synthetic cyano-containing pyrethroid insecticide that has both contact and stomach poison action. It is a nonsystemic chemical used to control cutworms, ants, silverfish, cockroaches, mosquitoes, tobacco budworm and many others. Its primary agricultural uses have been for control of chewing and sucking insects on crops such as cotton, turf, ornamentals, hops, cereal, corn, deciduous fruit, peanuts, potatoes, and other vegetables. Cyfluthrin is also used in public health situations and for structural pest control. The structural, vibrational, electronic and QSAR properties of the cyfluthrin molecule in gas phase have been investigated theoretically by performing molecular mechanics method by using MM+ force field, and semi-empirical molecular orbital AM1 and PM3 calculations. The geometry of the molecule has been optimized, infrared spectrum (vibrational modes and intensities) and the electronic properties of the molecule have been calculated in its ground state. According to PM3 calculation, heat of formation of cyfluthrin molecule is about -48.58 kcal/mol (exothermic), which shows that this molecule thermodynamically be stable. The HOMO energy level for this molecule is found to be -9.701 eV and the LUMO energy level is -0.660 eV giving rise to a gap of 9.041 eV, which also indicates that cyfluthrin is thermodynamically stable.

  4. The wheat Phs-A1 pre-harvest sprouting resistance locus delays the rate of seed dormancy loss and maps 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes in UK germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Shorinola, Oluwaseyi; Bird, Nicholas; Simmonds, James; Berry, Simon; Henriksson, Tina; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gerjets, Tanja; Scholefield, Duncan; Balcárková, Barbara; Valárik, Miroslav; Holdsworth, M. J.; Flintham, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-01-01

    The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties. PMID:27217549

  5. A single-amino acid substitution in a gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor locus is associated with cyclodiene insecticide resistance in Drosophila populations.

    PubMed Central

    ffrench-Constant, R H; Steichen, J C; Rocheleau, T A; Aronstein, K; Roush, R T

    1993-01-01

    Resistance to cyclodiene insecticides, documented in at least 277 species, is perhaps the most common kind of resistance to any pesticide. By using cyclodiene resistance to localize the responsible gene, a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor/chloride ion-channel gene was previously cloned and sequenced from an insecticide-susceptible Drosophila melanogaster strain. We now describe the molecular genetics of the resistance allele. A single-base-pair mutation, causing a single-amino acid substitution (Ala-->Ser) within the second membrane-spanning region of the channel, was found to be the only consistent difference between resistant and susceptible strains of D. melanogaster. Some resistant strains of Drosophila simulans show the same mutation, whereas others show an alternative single-base-pair mutation in the same codon, resulting in the substitution of a different amino acid (glycine). These constitute single-box-pair mutations in insects that confer high levels of resistance to insecticides. The presence of the resistance mutations was then tested in a much larger set of strains by the PCR and subsequent digestion with a diagnostic restriction endonuclease. Both resistance-associated mutations cause the loss of a Hae II site. This site was invariably present in 122 susceptible strains but absent in 58 resistant lines of the two species sampled from five continents. PCR/restriction endonuclease treatment was also used to examine linkage of an EcoRI polymorphism in a neighboring intron in D. melanogaster, which was found associated with resistance in all but 3 of 48 strains examined. These PCR-based techniques are widely applicable to examination of the uniqueness of different resistance alleles in widespread populations, the identification of resistance mechanisms in different species, and the determination of resistance frequencies in monitoring. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 PMID:8095336

  6. CAPS markers in an eIF4E gene are linked to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant locus in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important virus infecting cucurbits worldwide. Genetic sources of resistance to ZYMV have been identified in wild watermelon germplasm where a single recessive gene (zym) confers ZYMV resistance. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) would greatly fa...

  7. Mapping of a stem rust resistance locus effective against Ug99 on wheat chromosome 7AL using a RAD-Seq approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust is responsible for major production losses around the world. The development of resistant cultivars is an effective way to manage the disease, but outbreaks can occur when new pathogen races overcome the existing resistances. Ug99 (race TTKSK), and related newly-emerged, highly virul...

  8. Relationship between Yield Components and Partial Resistance to Lecanicillium fungicola in the Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Assessed by Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Anne; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Dry bubble, caused by Lecanicillium fungicola, is one of the most detrimental diseases affecting button mushroom cultivation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that breeding for resistance to this pathogen is quite challenging due to its quantitative inheritance. A second-generation hybrid progeny derived from an intervarietal cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar was characterized for L. fungicola resistance under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to determine the locations, numbers, and effects of genomic regions associated with dry-bubble resistance. Four traits related to resistance were analyzed. Two to four QTL were detected per trait, depending on the experiment. Two genomic regions, on linkage group X (LGX) and LGVIII, were consistently detected in the three experiments. The genomic region on LGX was detected for three of the four variables studied. The total phenotypic variance accounted for by all QTL ranged from 19.3% to 42.1% over all traits in all experiments. For most of the QTL, the favorable allele for resistance came from the wild parent, but for some QTL, the allele that contributed to a higher level of resistance was carried by the cultivar. Comparative mapping with QTL for yield-related traits revealed five colocations between resistance and yield component loci, suggesting that the resistance results from both genetic factors and fitness expression. The consequences for mushroom breeding programs are discussed. PMID:22247161

  9. Relationship between yield components and partial resistance to Lecanicillium fungicola in the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, assessed by quantitative trait locus mapping.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Rodier, Anne; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2012-04-01

    Dry bubble, caused by Lecanicillium fungicola, is one of the most detrimental diseases affecting button mushroom cultivation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that breeding for resistance to this pathogen is quite challenging due to its quantitative inheritance. A second-generation hybrid progeny derived from an intervarietal cross between a wild strain and a commercial cultivar was characterized for L. fungicola resistance under artificial inoculation in three independent experiments. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was used to determine the locations, numbers, and effects of genomic regions associated with dry-bubble resistance. Four traits related to resistance were analyzed. Two to four QTL were detected per trait, depending on the experiment. Two genomic regions, on linkage group X (LGX) and LGVIII, were consistently detected in the three experiments. The genomic region on LGX was detected for three of the four variables studied. The total phenotypic variance accounted for by all QTL ranged from 19.3% to 42.1% over all traits in all experiments. For most of the QTL, the favorable allele for resistance came from the wild parent, but for some QTL, the allele that contributed to a higher level of resistance was carried by the cultivar. Comparative mapping with QTL for yield-related traits revealed five colocations between resistance and yield component loci, suggesting that the resistance results from both genetic factors and fitness expression. The consequences for mushroom breeding programs are discussed.

  10. The Solanum pimpinellifolium Cf-ECP1 and Cf-ECP4 genes for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum are located at the Milky Way locus on the short arm of chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Soumpourou, Eleni; Iakovidis, Michael; Chartrain, Laetitia; Lyall, Verity; Thomas, Colwyn M

    2007-11-01

    The interaction between tomato and the leaf mould pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is an excellent model to study gene-for-gene interactions and plant disease resistance gene evolution. Most Cf genes were introgressed into cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from wild relatives such as S. pimpinellifolium and novel Cf-ECP genes were recently identified in this species. Our objective is to isolate Cf-ECP1, Cf-ECP2, Cf-ECP4 and Cf-ECP5 to increase our understanding of Cf gene evolution, and the molecular basis for recognition specificity in Cf proteins. The map locations of Cf-ECP2 and Cf-ECP5 have been reported previously and we report here that Cf-ECP1 and Cf-ECP4 map to a different locus on the short arm of chromosome 1. The analysis of selected recombinants and allelism tests showed both genes are located at Milky Way together with Cf-9 and Cf-4. Our results emphasise the importance of this locus in generating novel Cf genes for resistance to C. fulvum. Candidate genes for Cf-ECP1 and Cf-ECP4 were also identified by DNA gel blot analysis of bulked segregant pools. In addition, we generated functional cassettes for expression of the C. fulvum ECP1, ECP2, ECP4 and ECP5 proteins using recombinant Potato Virus X, and three ECPs were also expressed in stable transformed plants. Using marker-assisted selection we have also identified recombinants containing Cf-ECP1, Cf-ECP2, Cf-ECP4 or Cf-ECP5 in cis with a linked T-DNA carrying the non-autonomous Zea mays transposon Dissociation. Using these resources it should now be possible to isolate all four Cf-ECPs using transposon tagging, or a candidate gene strategy.

  11. Image simulation using LOCUS

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Roberts, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The LOCUS data base program has been used to simulate images and to solve simple equations. This has been accomplished by making each record (which normally would represent a data entry)represent sequenced or random number pairs.

  12. Study of the relationship between decomposition energies of various heterocycles derived by using the PM3 method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, V. A.; Bogdanova, S. E.; Yakimansky, A. V.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and circumstantial data were employed to assess the reliability of PM3-calculated energies of heterocycle decompositions which result in a biradical and a molecule with a closed shell. Calculated decomposition energies ( ED) reproduced the relationship between experimental ED for oxazole, imidazole and thiazole although the calculated ED values were lower than the experimental ones. In the case of the heterocycles (HCs) containing carbonyl groups (malemide, oxazinone, etc.) the variations in ED values calculated for distinct HCs and different decomposition pathways of the same HC correlated in many cases with variations in the stabilities of the biradicals formed during the HC decompositions. The differences in relative stabilities of the resulting molecules with a closed shell, the variations in the capacity for decomposition between five- and six-membered HCs, and the differences in the heats of formation for isomeric HCs were also found to affect the ED values for HCs containing carbonyl groups. ED values for six-membered HCs containing only nitrogen atoms as heteroatoms were higher than those for other HCs considered but lower than that for benzene. A decrease in ED with an increase in the number of nitrogen atoms in such HCs seemed to be caused by the known capacity of nitrogen atoms to draw the electron density off an aromatic ring thereby weakening the bond strengths of the ring.

  13. The Nematode Resistance Allele at the rhg1 Locus Alters the Proteome and Primary Metabolism of Soybean Roots1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Ahmed J.; Natarajan, Aparna; Saini, Navinder; Iqbal, M. Javed; Geisler, Matt; El Shemy, Hany A.; Mungur, Rajsree; Willmitzer, Lothar; Lightfoot, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), causes the most damaging chronic disease of soybean (Glycine max). Host resistance requires the resistance allele at rhg1. Resistance destroys the giant cells created in the plant's roots by the nematodes about 24 to 48 h after commencement of feeding. In addition, 4 to 8 d later, a systemic acquired resistance develops that discourages later infestations. The molecular mechanisms that control the rhg1-mediated resistance response appear to be multigenic and complex, as judged by transcript abundance changes, even in near isogenic lines (NILs). This study aimed to focus on key posttranscriptional changes by identifying proteins and metabolites that were increased in abundance in both resistant and susceptible NILs. Comparisons were made among NILs 10 d after SCN infestation and without SCN infestation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis resolved more than 1,000 protein spots on each gel. Only 30 protein spots with a significant (P < 0.05) difference in abundance of 1.5-fold or more were found among the four treatments. The proteins in these spots were picked, trypsin digested, and analyzed using quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identifications could be made for 24 of the 30 spots. Four spots contained two proteins, so that 28 distinct proteins were identified. The proteins were grouped into six functional categories. Metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 131 metabolites, among which 58 were altered by one or more treatment; 28 were involved in primary metabolism. Taken together, the data showed that 17 pathways were altered by the rhg1 alleles. Pathways altered were associated with systemic acquired resistance-like responses, including xenobiotic, phytoalexin, ascorbate, and inositol metabolism, as well as primary metabolisms like amino acid synthesis and glycolysis. The pathways impacted by the rhg1 allelic state and SCN infestation agreed with

  14. Molecular tagging of the Bph1 locus for resistance to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) through representational difference analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Soo; Song, Min-Young; Park, Soo-Kwon; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Jong-Hee; Song, Song-Yi; Eun, Moo Young; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Sohn, Jae-Keun; Yi, Gihwan; Nam, Min-Hee; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2008-08-01

    During brown planthopper (BPH) feeding on rice plants, we employed a modified representational difference analysis (RDA) method to detect rare transcripts among those differentially expressed in SNBC61, a BPH resistant near-isogenic line (NIL) carrying the Bph1 resistance gene. This identified 3 RDA clones: OsBphi237, OsBphi252 and OsBphi262. DNA gel-blot analysis revealed that the loci of the RDA clones in SNBC61 corresponded to the alleles of the BPH resistant donor Samgangbyeo. Expression analysis indicated that the RDA genes were up-regulated in SNBC61 during BPH feeding. Interestingly, analysis of 64 SNBC NILs, derived from backcrosses of Samgangbyeo with a BPH susceptible Nagdongbyeo, using a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker indicated that OsBphi252, which encodes a putative lipoxygenase (LOX), co-segregates with BPH resistance. Our results suggest that OsBphi252 is tightly linked to Bph1, and may be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to BPH.

  15. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Simple Resistance Locus in a Crop–Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C.; Gill, Bikram

    2009-01-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F2 progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse “dead” alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a “death–recycle” model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop–weed complexes contributes to this process. PMID:19364806

  16. Identification of a CAPS marker in an eIF4E gene Linked to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant locus in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes that encode eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4E and iso(4E) have been associated with the recessively inherited resistance to potyviruses in a number of plant species. Using previously developed degenerate primers, partial eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E gene sequence regions were obtained through po...

  17. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Single Resistance Locus in a Crop-Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21, present in modern varieties of hexaploid wheat, originated in goatgrass Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of wheat. The goatgrass donor was collected in Iran where it grows as a weed in wheat fields as part of the native agricultural ecosystem. In order to ...

  18. Quantitative trait locus mapping for Verticillium wilt resistance in a backcross inbred line population of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense) based on RGA-AFLP analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most important diseases in cotton. Development and growing of VW resistant cultivars is the most effective and economic strategy in controlling the disease. However, little is currently known on the genetic basis of VW resistanc...

  19. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  20. Genotype-by-sequencing facilitates genetic mapping of a stem rust resistance locus in Aegilops umbellulata, a wild relative of cultivated wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wild relatives of wheat play a significant role in wheat improvement as a source of genetic diversity. Stem rust disease of wheat causes significant yield losses at the global level and stem rust pathogen race TTKSK (Ug99) is virulent to most previously deployed resistance genes. Therefo...

  1. Genetic Analysis Using an Isogenic Mating Pair of Aspergillus fumigatus Identifies Azole Resistance Genes and Lack of MAT Locus's Role in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Losada, Liliana; Sugui, Janyce A; Eckhaus, Michael A; Chang, Yun C; Mounaud, Stephanie; Figat, Abigail; Joardar, Vinita; Pakala, Suman B; Pakala, Suchitra; Venepally, Pratap; Fedorova, Natalie; Nierman, William C; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2015-04-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) due to Aspergillus fumigatus is a major cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of highly fertile strains of A. fumigatus opened the possibility to merge classical and contemporary genetics to address key questions about this pathogen. The merger involves sexual recombination, selection of desired traits, and genomics to identify any associated loci. We constructed a highly fertile isogenic pair of A. fumigatus strains with opposite mating types and used them to investigate whether mating type is associated with virulence and to find the genetic loci involved in azole resistance. The pair was made isogenic by 9 successive backcross cycles of the foundational strain AFB62 (MAT1-1) with a highly fertile (MAT1-2) progeny. Genome sequencing showed that the F9 MAT1-2 progeny was essentially identical to the AFB62. The survival curves of animals infected with either strain in three different animal models showed no significant difference, suggesting that virulence in A. fumigatus was not associated with mating type. We then employed a relatively inexpensive, yet highly powerful strategy to identify genomic loci associated with azole resistance. We used traditional in vitro drug selection accompanied by classical sexual crosses of azole-sensitive with resistant isogenic strains. The offspring were plated under varying drug concentrations and pools of resulting colonies were analyzed by whole genome sequencing. We found that variants in 5 genes contributed to azole resistance, including mutations in erg11A (cyp51A), as well as multi-drug transporters, erg25, and in HMG-CoA reductase. The results demonstrated that with minimal investment into the sequencing of three pools from a cross of interest, the variation(s) that contribute any phenotype can be identified with nucleotide resolution. This approach can be applied to multiple areas of interest in A. fumigatus or other heterothallic pathogens, especially for virulence

  2. The IGF2 Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  3. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P < 0.05. Syntenic relationships between Medicago truncatula and L. albus were complex. Forty-five orthologous markers that mapped between M. truncatula and L. albus identified 17 small syntenic blocks, and each M. truncatula chromosome aligned to between one and six syntenic blocks in L. albus. Genetic mapping of three important traits: anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  4. Putrescine production via the ornithine decarboxylation pathway improves the acid stress survival of Lactobacillus brevis and is part of a horizontally transferred acid resistance locus.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A; Lucas, Patrick M

    2014-04-03

    Decarboxylation pathways are widespread among lactic acid bacteria; their physiological role is related to acid resistance through the regulation of the intracellular pH and to the production of metabolic energy via the generation of a proton motive force and its conversion into ATP. These pathways include, among others, biogenic amine (BA) production pathways. BA accumulation in foodstuffs is a health risk; thus, the study of the factors involved in their production is of major concern. The analysis of several lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from different environments, including fermented foods and beverages, revealed that the genes encoding these pathways are clustered on the chromosome, which suggests that these genes are part of a genetic hotspot related to acid stress resistance. Further attention was devoted to the ornithine decarboxylase pathway, which affords putrescine from ornithine. Studies were performed on three lactic acid bacteria belonging to different species. The ODC pathway was always shown to be involved in cytosolic pH alkalinisation and acid shock survival, which were observed to occur with a concomitant increase in putrescine production.

  5. Emergence of a multidrug-resistant (ASSuTTm) strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT120 in England in 2011 and the use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis in supporting outbreak investigations.

    PubMed

    Paranthaman, Karthikeyan; Haroon, Sophie; Latif, Samia; Vinnyey, Natalie; de Souza, Valerie; Welfare, William; Tahir, Mamoona; Cooke, Edward; Stone, Kirsten; Lane, Chris; Peters, Tansy; Puleston, Richard

    2013-10-01

    In summer 2011, two outbreaks of a unique, multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type 120 (DT120) occurred mainly in the Midlands, England. The first outbreak occurred among guests attending a wedding in July 2011 ('Wedding outbreak'), followed by a more geographically dispersed outbreak in August and September 2011 ('Midlands outbreak'). Fifty-one cases were confirmed. Detailed epidemiological and environmental health investigations suggested that pork was the most likely source of both outbreaks. All human samples and one pork sample showed the specific multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 3-11-12-NA-0211, with at most two loci variations. Trace-back investigations suggested a link to a butcher's shop and a pig farm in the East Midlands. The investigations highlight the utility of molecular analysis (MLVA) in supporting epidemiological investigations of outbreaks caused by S. Typhimurium DT120. Safe handling and cooking of pork by food business operators and consumers are key interventions to prevent future outbreaks.

  6. Molecular analysis of the mouse agouti gene and the role of dominant agouti-locus mutations in obesity and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P.; Wilkinson, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    The lethal yellow (A{sup y/-}) and viable yellow (A{sup vy/-}) mouse agouti mutants have a predominantly yellow pelage and display a complex syndrome that includes obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance, hallmark features of obesity-associated noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in humans. A new dominant agouti allele, A{sup iapy}, has recently been identified; like the A{sup vy} allele, it is homozygous viable and confers obesity and yellow fur in heterozygotes. The agouti gene was cloned and characterized at the molecular level. The gene is expressed in the skin during hair growth and is predicted to encode a 131 amino acid protein, that is likely to be a secreted factor. In both Ay/- and A{sup iapy}/- mice, the obesity and other dominant pleiotropic effects are associated with an ectopic expression of agouti in many tissues where the gene product is normally not produced. In Ay, a 170-kb deletion has occurred that causes an upstream promoter to drive the ectopic expression of the wild-type agouti coding exons. In A{sup iapy}, the coding region of the gene is expressed from a cryptic promoter within the LTR of an intracisternal A-particle (IAP), which has integrated within the region just upstream of the first agouti coding exon. Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing the cloned agouti gene under the influence of the beta-actin and phosphoglycerate kinase promoters display obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and yellow coat color. This demonstrates unequivocally that ectopic expression of agouti is responsible for the yellow obese syndrome.

  7. A suppressor locus for MODY3-diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Carette, Claire; Bagattin, Alessia; Chiral, Magali; Makinistoglu, Munevver Parla; Garbay, Serge; Prévost, Géraldine; Madaras, Cécile; Hérault, Yann; Leibovici, Michel; Pontoglio, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 3 (MODY3), linked to mutations in the transcription factor HNF1A, is the most prevalent form of monogenic diabetes mellitus. HNF1alpha-deficiency leads to defective insulin secretion via a molecular mechanism that is still not completely understood. Moreover, in MODY3 patients the severity of insulin secretion can be extremely variable even in the same kindred, indicating that modifier genes may control the onset of the disease. With the use of a mouse model for HNF1alpha-deficiency, we show here that specific genetic backgrounds (C3H and CBA) carry a powerful genetic suppressor of diabetes. A genome scan analysis led to the identification of a major suppressor locus on chromosome 3 (Moda1). Moda1 locus contains 11 genes with non-synonymous SNPs that significantly interacts with other loci on chromosomes 4, 11 and 18. Mechanistically, the absence of HNF1alpha in diabetic-prone (sensitive) strains leads to postnatal defective islets growth that is remarkably restored in resistant strains. Our findings are relevant to human genetics since Moda1 is syntenic with a human locus identified by genome wide association studies of fasting glycemia in patients. Most importantly, our results show that a single genetic locus can completely suppress diabetes in Hnf1a-deficiency. PMID:27667715

  8. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  9. Locus of Control and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, C. A.; Strongman, K. T.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed delinquent and nondelinquent male adolescents (N=43) on locus of control and intellectual achievement responsibilty. Results supported a multidimensional model. There was no difference in expectancy of control for negative academic events between delinquents and nondelinquents. Birth order and delinquency were the most important…

  10. Locus of Control and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Predicted that an external locus of control would characterize undersocialization. Tested this hypothesis on a random sample of secondary school children (N=97). Scores from the Child Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Scale were found to predict undersocialization in the expected direction. Suggested several possible interpretations of this…

  11. Novel polycarboxylated EDTA-type cyclodextrins as ligands for lanthanide binding: study of their luminescence, relaxivity properties of Gd(iii) complexes, and PM3 theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Maffeo, Davide; Lampropoulou, Maria; Fardis, Michael; Lazarou, Yannis G; Mavridis, Irene M; Mavridou, Despoina A I; Urso, Elena; Pratsinis, Harris; Kletsas, Dimitris; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina

    2010-04-21

    Novel -type cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, , and , bearing 6, 7 and 8 bis(carboxymethyl)amino (iminodiacetic acid) groups, respectively, were prepared, and their complexation with Eu(iii), Tb(iii) and Gd(iii) ions was studied. Luminescence titrations and mass spectrometry showed formation of multimetal complexes ( 2 to 3, mainly 3 and exactly 4 metal ions), whereas luminescence lifetime measurements revealed the presence of exchangeable water molecules. Semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations, performed by the PM3 method and assessed by DFT calculations on model ligands, indicated efficient multi-metal complexation, in agreement with the experiment. The structures showed coordination of the metal ions in the outer primary side of the CDs via 4 carboxylate O atoms, 2 N atoms and a glucopyranose O atom per metal ion. Coordination of water molecules was also predicted, in accordance with experimental results. Calculated bond lengths and angles were in agreement with literature experimental values of lanthanide complexes. Calculated energies showed that complex stability decreases in the order > > . (1)H NMR molecular relaxivity measurements for the Gd(iii) complexes of , or in water afforded values 4 to 10 times higher than the relaxivity of a commercial contrast agent at 12 MHz, and 6 to 20 times higher at 100 MHz. Solutions of and Gd(iii) complexes in human blood plasma displayed relaxivity values at 100 MHz 7 and 12 times, respectively, higher than the commercial agent. MTT tests of the Gd(iii) complexes using human skin fibroblasts did not show toxicity. Attempts to supramolecularly sensitize the luminescence of the lanthanide complexes using various aromatic CD guests were ineffective, evidently due to large guest-metal distances and inefficient inclusion. The described lanthanide complexes, could be useful as contrast agents in MRI.

  12. Locus of Control and Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Miriam Roza; Haller, Archibald O.

    Utilizing data derived from 277 rural, male respondents initially enrolled in Lenawee County, Michigan high schools, the Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was employed to test the hypothesis that locus of control will have interactive rather than additive effects on the process of status attainment. Locus of control was defined as…

  13. Which Sry locus is the hypertensive Y chromosome locus?

    PubMed

    Turner, Monte E; Farkas, Joel; Dunmire, Jeff; Ely, Daniel; Milsted, Amy

    2009-02-01

    The Y chromosome of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) contains a genetic component that raises blood pressure compared with the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) Y chromosome. This research tests the Sry gene complex as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome. The Sry loci were sequenced in 1 strain with a hypertensive Y chromosome (SHR/Akr) and 2 strains with a normotensive Y chromosome (SHR/Crl and WKY/Akr). Both SHR strains have 7 Sry loci, whereas the WKY strain has 6. The 6 loci in common between SHR and WKY strains were identical in the sequence compared (coding region, 392-bp 5' prime flanking, 1200-bp 3' flanking). Both SHR strains have a locus (Sry3) not found in WKY rats, but this locus is different between SHR/Akr and SHR/Crl rats. Six mutations have accumulated in Sry3 between the SHR strains, whereas the other 6 Sry loci are identical. This pattern of an SHR-specific locus and mutation in this locus in SHR/Crl coinciding with the loss of Y chromosome hypertension is an expected pattern if Sry3 is the Y chromosome-hypertensive component. The SHR/y strain showed a significant increase in total Sry expression in the kidney between 4 and 15 weeks of age. There are significant differences in Sry expression between adrenal glands and the kidney (15 to 30 times higher in kidneys) but no significant differences between strains. These results, along with previous studies demonstrating an interaction of Sry with the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and increased blood pressure with exogenous Sry expression, suggest the Sry loci as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the α-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Results Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. Conclusions We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD

  15. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-11-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.

  16. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pathogens of Arabidopsis and a bacterial locus determining avirulence on both Arabidopsis and soybean.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, M C; Innes, R W; Bent, A F; Staskawicz, B J

    1991-01-01

    To develop a model system for molecular genetic analysis of plant-pathogen interactions, we studied the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Pst strains were found to be virulent or avirulent on specific Arabidopsis ecotypes, and single ecotypes were resistant to some Pst strains and susceptible to others. In many plant-pathogen interactions, disease resistance is controlled by the simultaneous presence of single plant resistance genes and single pathogen avirulence genes. Therefore, we tested whether avirulence genes in Pst controlled induction of resistance in Arabidopsis. Cosmids that determine avirulence were isolated from Pst genomic libraries, and the Pst avirulence locus avrRpt2 was defined. This allowed us to construct pathogens that differed only by the presence or absence of a single putative avirulence gene. We found that Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0 was susceptible to Pst strain DC3000 but resistant to the same strain carrying avrRpt2, suggesting that a single locus in Col-0 determines resistance. As a first step toward genetically mapping the postulated resistance locus, an ecotype susceptible to infection by DC3000 carrying avrRpt2 was identified. The avrRpt2 locus from Pst was also moved into virulent strains of the soybean pathogen P. syringae pv glycinea to test whether this locus could determine avirulence on soybean. The resulting strains induced a resistant response in a cultivar-specific manner, suggesting that similar resistance mechanisms may function in Arabidopsis and soybean. PMID:1824334

  17. Factors Determining Adolescent Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen F.; And Others

    Previous research has demonstrated an association between locus of control in adolescence and a successful transition to adulthood. Having an external locus of control has been implicated as an important factor in adolescent behaviors such as teenage pregnancy and delinquency, and has been found to be negatively related to school achievement. This…

  18. Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) co-ordination properties and tautomerism of 1,8-bis-phenylazo-2,7-dihydroxy naphthalene. A spectroscopic and semiempirical AM1/PM3 study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arancibia, J. A.; Olivieri, A. C.; Escandar, G. M.

    2000-04-01

    As a continuation of a study on the prototropic properties of aromatic α,α'-dihydroxy-bis-azocompounds, 1,8-bis-phenylazo-2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene (PHADN) has been studied through 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, electronic absorption and semiempirical molecular orbital methods. In addition, the metal binding properties of this compound were evaluated and related with its tautomeric forms. The equilibrium constants for Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II)-PHADN complexes were spectrophotometrically determined in dioxane-water 50% v/v solutions. The structures of the evaluated chelates were proposed on the basis of spectral analysis and PM3 semiempirical calculations.

  19. Locus of Control as a Mediator of College Students' Reactions to Teacher Compliance Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Robert A.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of student locus of control on perceptions of and resistance to teacher influence attempts. Subjects, 302 college students, were provided with 22 sets of Behavior Alteration Messages and were instructed to rate on a 1-5 scale "how frequently your teacher uses statements of each type to get you to…

  20. Evaluation of two multi-locus sequence typing schemes for commensal Escherichia coli from dairy cattle in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sara; Besser, Thomas E; Call, Douglas R; Weissman, Scott J; Jones, Lisa P; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a useful system for phylogenetic and epidemiological studies of multidrug-resistant Escherichiacoli. Most studies utilize a seven-locus MLST, but an alternate two-locus typing method (fumC and fimH; CH typing) has been proposed that may offer a similar degree of discrimination at lower cost. Herein, we compare CH typing to the standard seven-locus method for typing commensal E. coli isolates from dairy cattle. In addition, we evaluated alternative combinations of eight loci to identify combinations that maximize discrimination and congruence with standard seven-locus MLST among commensal E. coli while minimizing the cost. We also compared both methods when used for typing uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). CH typing was less discriminatory for commensal E. coli than the standard seven-locus method (Simpson's Index of Diversity=0.933 [0.902-0.964] and 0.97 [0.96-0.979], respectively). Combining fimH with housekeeping gene loci improved discriminatory power for commensal E. coli from cattle but resulted in poor congruence with MLST. We found that a four-locus typing method including the housekeeping genes adk, purA, gyrB and recA could be used to minimize cost without sacrificing discriminatory power or congruence with Achtman seven-locus MLST when typing commensal E. coli.

  1. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...NUMBER Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0445 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...can be found on next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS schwannomatosis, tumor suppressor gene, NF2, molecular genetics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  2. Suppression among alleles encoding nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat resistance proteins interferes with resistance in F1 hybrid and allele-pyramided wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Stirnweis, Daniel; Milani, Samira D; Brunner, Susanne; Herren, Gerhard; Buchmann, Gabriele; Peditto, David; Jordan, Tina; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The development of high-yielding varieties with broad-spectrum durable disease resistance is the ultimate goal of crop breeding. In plants, immune receptors of the nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) class mediate race-specific resistance against pathogen attack. When employed in agriculture this type of resistance is often rapidly overcome by newly adapted pathogen races. The stacking of different resistance genes or alleles in F1 hybrids or in pyramided lines is a promising strategy for achieving more durable resistance. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism which can negatively interfere with the allele-pyramiding approach. We show that pairwise combinations of different alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3 in F1 hybrids and stacked transgenic wheat lines can result in suppression of Pm3-based resistance. This effect is independent of the genetic background and solely dependent on the Pm3 alleles. Suppression occurs at the post-translational level, as levels of RNA and protein in the suppressed alleles are unaffected. Using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana, the LRR domain was identified as the domain conferring suppression. The results of this study suggest that the expression of closely related NB-LRR resistance genes or alleles in the same genotype can lead to dominant-negative interactions. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the frequently observed ineffectiveness of resistance genes introduced from the secondary gene pool into polyploid crop species and mark an important step in overcoming this limitation.

  3. Fine Mapping and Introgressing a Fissure Resistance Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring is a major concern of both rice producers and millers. Fissures are small cracks in rice kernels that increase breakage among kernels when transported or milled, which decrease the value of processed rice. This study employed molecular gene tagging methods to ...

  4. Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus.

    PubMed

    Bultman, S J; Michaud, E J; Woychik, R P

    1992-12-24

    The agouti (a) locus acts within the microenvironment of the hair follicle to regulate coat color pigmentation in the mouse. We have characterized a gene encoding a novel 131 amino acid protein that we propose is the one gene associated with the agouti locus. This gene is normally expressed in a manner consistent with a locus function, and, more importantly, its structure and expression are affected by a number of representative alleles in the agouti dominance hierarchy. In addition, we found that the pleiotropic effects associated with the lethal yellow (Ay) mutation, which include pronounced obesity, diabetes, and the development of neoplasms, are accompanied by deregulated overexpression of the agouti gene in numerous tissues of the adult animal.

  5. Evolutionary analysis of RB/Rpi-blb1 locus in the Solanaceae family.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengqing; Si, Weina; Gao, Rongchao; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Sihai

    2015-12-01

    Late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans is one of the most severe threats to potato production worldwide. Numerous studies suggest that the most effective protective strategy against the disease would be to provide potato cultivars with durable resistance (R) genes. However, little is known about the origin and evolutional history of these durable R-genes in potato. Addressing this might foster better understanding of the dynamics of these genes in nature and provide clues for identifying potential candidate R-genes. Here, a systematic survey was executed at RB/Rpi-blb1 locus, an exclusive broad-spectrum R-gene locus in potato. As indicated by synteny analysis, RB/Rpi-blb1 homologs were identified in all tested genomes, including potato, tomato, pepper, and Nicotiana, suggesting that the RB/Rpi-blb1 locus has an ancient origin. Two evolutionary patterns, similar to those reported on RGC2 in Lactuca, and Pi2/9 in rice, were detected at this locus. Type I RB/Rpi-blb1 homologs have frequent copy number variations and sequence exchanges, obscured orthologous relationships, considerable nucleotide divergence, and high non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions (Ka/Ks) between or within species, suggesting rapid diversification and balancing selection in response to rapid changes in the oomycete pathogen genomes. These characteristics may serve as signatures for cloning of late blight resistance genes.

  6. The role of the hok/sok locus in bacterial response to stressful growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Chukwudi, Chinwe U; Good, Liam

    2015-02-01

    The hok/sok locus is renowned for its plasmid stabilization effect via post-segregational killing of plasmid-free daughter cells. However, the function(s) of the chromosome-encoded loci, which are more abundant in pathogenic strains of a broad range of enteric bacteria, are yet to be understood. Also, the frequent occurrence of this toxin/antitoxin addiction system in multi-drug resistance plasmids suggests additional roles. In this study, the effects of the hok/sok locus on the growth of bacteria in stressful growth-limiting conditions such as high temperature and antibiotic burden were investigated using hok/sok plasmids. The results showed that the hok/sok locus prolonged the lag phase of host cell cultures, thereby enabling the cells to adapt, respond to the stress and eventually thrive in these growth-limiting conditions by increasing the growth rate at exponential phase. The hok/sok locus also enhanced the survival and growth of cells in low cell density cultures irrespective of unfavourable growth conditions, and may complement existing or defective SOS mechanism. In addition to the plasmid stabilization function, these effects would enhance the ability of pathogenic bacteria to establish infections and propagate the antibiotic resistance elements carried on these plasmids, thereby contributing to the virulence of such bacteria.

  7. Dental Outpatients: Health Locus of Control Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludenia, Krista; Donham, Greg W.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among specific personality variables, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales, and criterion-based ratings by staff dentists with dental outpatients (N=101). Found a consistent relationship between the perception that health is maintained by engaging in health-related behaviors and individual difference measures…

  8. The Preconscious: Locus for Significant Written Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Alvin D.

    1979-01-01

    The author suggests that the preconscious is the true locus of significant prose because of its greater amount of freedom to gather, compare, and rearrange ideas, and that the ultimate challenge to teachers of composition is to give freedom to their students' preconscious processes. (KC)

  9. Exercise Adherence and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geshuri, Yosef; Glahn, Ronald

    In 1990, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between students' locus of control and the extent to which they participated in a voluntary exercise program. First-time participants in the "Shape Up" program offered at the Porterville College Fitness Center during the summer and fall semesters of 1990 were identified through the…

  10. Intrahaplotype polymorphism at the Brassica S locus.

    PubMed Central

    Miege, C; Ruffio-Châble, V; Schierup, M H; Cabrillac, D; Dumas, C; Gaude, T; Cock, J M

    2001-01-01

    The S locus receptor kinase and the S locus glycoproteins are encoded by genes located at the S locus, which controls the self-incompatibility response in Brassica. In class II self-incompatibility haplotypes, S locus glycoproteins can be encoded by two different genes, SLGA and SLGB. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of these genes in several independently isolated plants, all of which carry the same S haplotype (S(2)). Two groups of S(2) haplotypes could be distinguished depending on whether SRK was associated with SLGA or SLGB. Surprisingly, SRK alleles from the two groups could be distinguished at the sequence level, suggesting that recombination rarely occurs between haplotypes of the two groups. An analysis of the distribution of polymorphisms along the S domain of SRK showed that hypervariable domains I and II tend to be conserved within haplotypes but to be highly variable between haplotypes. This is consistent with these domains playing a role in the determination of haplotype specificity. PMID:11606555

  11. Locus of Control, Social Class, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, James A.

    The relationship between locus of control, social class, and learning processes were reviewed by analyzing: (1) externality as a function of socioeconomic status, i.e., the lower the status, the greater the degree of externality; (2) the impact of the early home environment on the child's learning and development; (3) classroom and teacher…

  12. Evidence for balancing selection at the DAB locus in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Richman, A D; Herrera, G; Reynoso, V H; Méndez, G; Zambrano, L

    2007-12-01

    The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been characterized as immunodeficient, and the absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II polymorphism has been cited as a possible explanation. Here we present evidence for considerable allelic polymorphism at the MHC class II DAB locus for a sample of wild-caught axolotls. Evidence that these sequences are the product of balancing selection for disease resistance is discussed.

  13. Locus of control and the fundamental dimensions of moods.

    PubMed

    Henson, H N; Chang, E C

    1998-06-01

    The present study examined the association between locus of control and positive and negative moods in 253 college students. Using the PANAS-X, designed by Watson and Clark, individuals scoring high on internal locus of control also scored higher across different dimensions of positive mood. Conversely, individuals scoring high on external locus of control had higher scores across different dimensions of negative mood.

  14. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  15. Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Locus of Control and Positive Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonky, Edward; Reihman, Jacqueline

    This study tests the hypothesis that individual differences in locus of control orientation may mediate elementary school students' responses to positive verbal feedback. A total of 30 kindergarten through fourth grade subjects were assessed for locus of control orientation using the Bialer Children's Locus of Control Questionnaire. To establish a…

  16. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  17. Excited-State Studies of Polyacenes: A Comparative Picture Using EOMCCSD, CR-EOMCCSD(T), Range-Separated (LR/RT)-TDDFT, TD-PM3, and TD-ZINDO.

    PubMed

    Lopata, K; Reslan, R; Kowalska, M; Neuhauser, D; Govind, N; Kowalski, K

    2011-11-08

    The low-lying excited states (La and Lb) of polyacenes from naphthalene to heptacene (N = 2-7) are studied using various time-dependent computational approaches. We perform high-level excited-state calculations using equation of motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles (EOMCCSD) and completely renormalized equation of motion coupled cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) and use these results to evaluate the performance of various range-separated exchange-correlation functionals within linear-response (LR) and real-time (RT) time-dependent density functional theories (TDDFT). As has been reported recently, we find that the range-separated family of functionals addresses the well-documented TDDFT failures in describing these low-lying singlet excited states to a large extent and are as about as accurate as results from EOMCCSD on average. Real-time TDDFT visualization shows that the excited state charged densities are consistent with the predictions of the perimeter free electron orbital (PFEO) model. This corresponds to particle-on-a-ring confinement, which leads to the well-known red-shift of the excitations with acene length. We also use time-dependent semiempirical methods like TD-PM3 and TD-ZINDO, which are capable of handling very large systems. Once reparametrized to match the CR-EOMCCSD(T) results, TD-ZINDO becomes roughly as accurate as range-separated TDDFT, which opens the door to modeling systems such as large molecular assemblies.

  18. β-Lactam antibiotics. Spectroscopy and molecular orbital (MO) calculations . Part I: IR studies of complexation in penicillin-transition metal ion systems and semi-empirical PM3 calculations on simple model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupka, Teobald

    1997-12-01

    IR studies were preformed to determine possible transition metal ion binding sites of penicillin. the observed changes in spectral position and shape of characteristic IR bands of cloxacillin in the presence of transition metal ions (both in solutions and in the solid state) indicate formation of M-L complexes with engagement of -COO - and/or -CONH- functional groups. The small shift of νCO towards higher frequencies rules out direct M-L interaction via β-lactam carbonyl. PM3 calculations on simple model compounds (substituted formamide, cyclic ketones, lactams and substituted monocyclic β-lactams) have been performed. All structures were fully optimized and the calculated bond lengths, angles, heats of formation and CO stretching frequencies were discussed to determine the β-lactam binding sites and to explain its susceptibility towards nucleophilic attack (hydrolysis in vitro) and biological activity. The relative changes of calculated values were critically compared with available experimental data and same correlation between structural parameters and in vivo activity was shown.

  19. Molecular structures and conformations of 1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-alkoxypyrrolidines with anti-amnesic activity. X-ray, 1H-NMR and quantum mechanical (PM3) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Maria E.; Bandoli, Giuliano; Dolmella, Alessandro; Grassi, Antonio; Pappalardo, Giuseppe C.; Toja, Emilio

    1991-04-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of the nootropic agents RU-47001 ((±) 1-(4-nitrobenzenesulphonyl)-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine) and RU-47064 ((±) 1-(4-nitrobenzenesulphonyl)-2-oxo-5-isopropyloxypyrrolidine) have been determined by X-ray analysis and their solution conformation has been investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy. The conformations of these molecules together with those of their analogues RU-35929 ((±) 1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine), RU-47010 ((±) 1-(3-pyridinylsulphonyl)-2-oxo-5-ethoxypyrrolidine) and RU-35965 ((±) 1-benzenesulphonyl-2-oxo-5-isopropyloxypyrrolidine) have been deduced from semi-quantitative PM3 type theoretical calculations. The main feature of all compounds consists of a common envelope conformation with C (4) at the flap of the pyrrolidinone ring in the solid, that in solution changes into the analogous, but opposite, possible puckered conformational isomer. The 5-alkoxy groups were found rather flexible in solution. Theoretical preferred conformations about NS and SC bonds were in acceptable agreement with those of the solid state. The calculated torsional energetics suggested that 1- 5 do not undergo conformational interconversion.

  20. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...COVERED (Leave blank) July 2004 Annual (1 Jul 2003 - 30 Jun 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis...linkage and loss of heterozygosity analyses. 3. To determine the molecular mechanism of tumor formation in these patients using complementary molecular

  1. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. A cluster of noncoding RNAs activates the ESR1 locus during breast cancer adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Saori; Abdalla, Mohamed Osama Ali; Fujiwara, Saori; Matsumori, Haruka; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Saitoh, Noriko; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-04-29

    Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells.

  3. A cluster of noncoding RNAs activates the ESR1 locus during breast cancer adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Saori; Abdalla, Mohamed Osama Ali; Fujiwara, Saori; Matsumori, Haruka; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Saitoh, Noriko; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells. PMID:25923108

  4. Locus Adh of Drosophila melanogaster under selection for delayed senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Khaustova, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    Dynamics of the Adh activity and frequencies of alleles Adh{sup F} and Adh{sup S} were analyzed under selection for delayed senescence. The experiments were performed on Drosophila melanogaster. Lines Adh{sup S}cn and Adh{sup F}vg and experimental populations cn` and vg`, selected for an increased duration of reproductive period (late oviposition) were used. Analysis of fertility, longevity, viability and resistance to starvation showed that selection for late oviposition resulted in delayed senescence of flies of the experimental populations. Genetic structure of population vg` changed considerably with regard to the Adh locus. This was confirmed by parameters of activity, thermostability, and electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme isolated from flies after 30 generations of selection. Analysis of frequencies of the Adh alleles showed that in both selected populations, which initially had different genetic composition, accumulated allele Adh{sup S}, which encodes the isozyme that is less active but more resistant to inactivation. Genetic mechanism of delayed senescence in Drosophila is assumed to involve selection at vitally important enzyme loci, including Adh. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Single-stranded DNA conformation polymorphism at the Rdl locus in Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Borsa, P; Coustau, C

    1996-02-01

    The homologue of the resistance to dieldrin gene (Rdl) in Drosophila melanogaster was cloned and sequenced in the scolytid beetle Hypothenemus hampei, a coffee pest resistant to cyclodiene insecticides in New Caledonia. The amino acid sequence of the Rdl exon no. 7 protein product in H. hampei was identical to that in D. melanogaster and showed the same amino acid change as that characterizing susceptible vs. resistant D. melanogaster. Samples from natural H. hampei populations (from Asia, the Pacific Islands, Africa and Central America), from reference susceptible (S) and resistant (R) laboratory strains, and from their hybrid progenies, were analysed at the Rdl locus using single-stranded DNA conformation polymorphism on polymerase chain reaction products. The susceptible allele was the only allele present in all samples from natural populations except in the only resistant population known to date (Ponerihouen, New Caledonia). Females and some males obtained at F1 from R x S crosses were heterozygous at the Rdl locus, confirming that this local mate competing species is diplo-diploid.

  6. Regulatory organization of the staphylococcal sae locus.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Novick, Richard P

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the complex internal regulatory circuitry of the staphylococcal sae locus and the impact of modifying this circuitry on the expression of external genes in the sae regulon. The sae locus contains four genes, the saeR and S two-component signalling module (TCS), and saeP and Q, two upstream genes of hitherto unknown function. It is expressed from two promoters, P(A)sae, which transcribes only the TCS, and P(C)sae, which transcribes the entire locus. A bursa aurealis (bursa) transposon insertion in saeP in a derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 has a profound effect on sae function. It modifies the activity of the TCS, changing the expression of many genes in the sae regulon, even though transcription of the TCS (from P(A)sae) is not interrupted. Moreover, these effects are not due to disruption of saeP since an in-frame deletion in saeP has essentially no phenotype. The phenotype of S. aureus strain Newman is remarkably similar to that of the saeP : : bursa and this similarity is explained by an amino acid substitution in the Newman saeS gene that is predicted to modify profoundly the signalling function of the protein. This concurrence suggests that the saeP : : bursa insertion affects the signalling function of saeS, a suggestion that is supported by the ability of an saeQR clone, but not an saeR clone, to complement the effects of the saeP : : bursa insertion.

  7. A root locus based flutter synthesis procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, P.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient generalized constraint is proposed in the context of a nonlinear mathematical programming approach for the minimum weight design of wing structures for flutter considerations. The approach is based on a root locus analysis procedure that is better suited for flutter redesign than the conventionally used V-g method. The proposed flutter constraint does not require an actual computation of the flutter speed, allows prescription of meaningful margins of safety in the optimized design and lends itself to elegant computation of sensitivity information. The approach is implemented and results presented for representative structural models.

  8. Root Locus Algorithms for Programmable Pocket Calculators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Two algorithms are described which allow the plotting of individual points on a root locus diagram with or without time delay. The development was performed during the design of a continuous phase shifter used in the Baseband Antenna Combiner for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The algorithms, which are expected to be useful in similar DSN efforts, are simple enough to be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator. The coordinates of the open-loop zeros and poles, the gain constant K, and the time delay T are the data inputs.

  9. CTCF-mediated reduction of vigilin binding affects the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Yan; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Wen-Quan; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Yang

    2014-05-02

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been implicated in numerous aspects of chromosome biology, and vigilin, a multi-KH-domain protein, participates in heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. We previously showed that CTCF interacts with vigilin. Here, we show that human vigilin, but not CTCF, colocalizes with HP1α on heterochromatic satellite 2 and β-satellite repeats. CTCF up-regulates the transcription of satellite 2, while vigilin down-regulates it. Vigilin depletion or CTCF overexpression reduces the binding of HP1α on the satellite 2 locus. Furthermore, overexpression of CTCF resists the loading of vigilin onto the satellite 2 locus. Thus CTCF may regulate vigilin behavior and thus indirectly influence the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

  10. Lipooligosaccharide locus class of Campylobacter jejuni: sialylation is not needed for invasive infection.

    PubMed

    Ellström, P; Feodoroff, B; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse enteropathogen that is commonly detected worldwide. It can sometimes cause bacteraemia, but the bacterial characteristics facilitating bloodstream infection are not known. A total of 73 C. jejuni isolates, consecutively collected from blood-borne infections during a 10-year period all over Finland and for which detailed clinical information of the patients were available, were included. We screened the isolates by PCR for the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus class and for the presence of the putative virulence genes ceuE, ciaB, fucP, and virB11. The isolates were also tested for γ-glutamyl transpeptidase production. The results were analysed with respect to the clinical characteristics of the patients, and the multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) and serum resistance of the isolates. LOS locus classes A, B, and C, which carry genes for sialylation of LOS, were detected in only 23% of the isolates. These isolates were not more resistant to human serum than those with the genes of non-sialylated LOS locus classes, but were significantly more prevalent among patients with underlying diseases (p 0.02). The fucose permease gene fucP was quite uncommon, but was associated with the isolates with the potential to sialylate LOS (p <0.0001). LOS locus classes and some of the putative virulence factors were associated with MLST clonal complexes. Although some of the bacterial characteristics studied here have been suggested to be important for the invasiveness of C. jejuni, they did not explain why the clinical isolates in the present study were able to cause bacteraemia.

  11. Relationships between locus of control and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Newby, Robert W; Davis, Jessica Boyette

    2004-06-01

    The present study investigated the associations between scores on paranormal beliefs, locus of control, and certain psychological processes such as affect and cognitions as measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Analysis yielded significant correlations between scores on Locus of Control and two subscales of Tobacyk's (1988) Revised Paranormal Beliefs Scale, New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs. A step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that Locus of Control was significantly related to New Age Philosophy. Other correlations were found between Tobacyk's subscales, Locus of Control, and three processes measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count.

  12. Impact of locus of control on health message effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying; Shen, Fuyuan

    2011-10-01

    This article examined how individuals' locus of control might moderate the effect of health message frames. An experiment was conducted whereby participants read either individual- or social-responsibility message frames after their locus of control was primed. Results indicated that messages presented in individual-responsibility frames were more persuasive when people were primed with internal locus of control, whereas social-responsibility framed appeals were more persuasive when people were primed with external locus of control. These results were found for individuals in both high and low cognitive load conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J.; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A.; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C.; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W.; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus (LC) is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, LC-TH+ neurons project more profusely than VTA-TH+ neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of LC-TH+ neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by VTA inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of LC-TH+ photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D1/D5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptors blockade – memory enhancement and long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, LC-TH+ neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in hippocampus. PMID:27602521

  14. The Mycobacterium marinum mel2 locus displays similarity to bacterial bioluminescence systems and plays a role in defense against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

    PubMed Central

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Mehta, Parmod K; Cirillo, Suat LG; Cirillo, Jeffrey D

    2007-01-01

    Background Mycobacteria have developed a number of pathways that provide partial protection against both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). We recently identified a locus in Mycobacterium marinum, mel2, that plays a role during infection of macrophages. The molecular mechanism of mel2 action is not well understood. Results To better understand the role of the M. marinum mel2 locus, we examined these genes for conserved motifs in silico. Striking similarities were observed between the mel2 locus and loci that encode bioluminescence in other bacterial species. Since bioluminescence systems can play a role in resistance to oxidative stress, we postulated that the mel2 locus might be important for mycobacterial resistance to ROS and RNS. We found that an M. marinum mutant in the first gene in this putative operon, melF, confers increased susceptibility to both ROS and RNS. This mutant is more susceptible to ROS and RNS together than either reactive species alone. Conclusion These observations support a role for the M. marinum mel2 locus in resistance to oxidative stress and provide additional evidence that bioluminescence systems may have evolved from oxidative defense mechanisms. PMID:17239244

  15. The Shc locus regulates insulin signaling and adiposity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tomilov, Alexey A.; Ramsey, Jon J.; Hagopian, Kevork; Giorgio, Marco; Kim, Kyoungmi M.; Lam, Adam; Migliaccio, Enrica; Lloyd, Kent C.; Berniakovich, Ina; Prolla, Tomas A.; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Longevity of a p66Shc knockout strain (ShcP) was previously attributed to increased stress resistance and altered mitochondria. Microarrays of ShcP tissues indicated alterations in insulin signaling. Consistent with this observation, ShcP mice were more insulin sensitive and glucose tolerant at organismal and tissue levels, as was a novel p66Shc knockout (ShcL). Increasing and decreasing Shc expression in cell lines decreased and increased insulin sensitivity, respectively – consistent with p66Shc's function as a repressor of insulin signaling. However, differences between the two p66Shc knockout strains were also observed. ShcL mice were fatter and susceptible to fatty diets, and their fat was more insulin sensitive than controls. On the other hand, ShcP mice were leaner and resisted fatty diets, and their adipose was less insulin sensitive than controls. ShcL and ShcP strains are both highly inbred on the C57Bl/6 background, so we investigated gene expression at the Shc locus, which encodes three isoforms, p66, p52, and p46. Isoform p66 is absent in both strains; thus, the remaining difference to which to attribute the ‘lean’ phenotype is expression of the other two isoforms. ShcL mice have a precise deletion of p66Shc and normal expression of p52 and p46Shc isoforms in all tissues; thus, a simple deletion of p66Shc results in a ‘fat’ phenotype. However, ShcP mice in addition to p66Shc deletion have a fourfold increase in p46Shc expression in white fat. Thus, p46Shc overexpression in fat, rather than p66Shc deletion, is the likely cause of decreased adiposity and reduced insulin sensitivity in the fat of ShcP mice, which has implications for the longevity of the strain. PMID:21040401

  16. The Cajal Body and Histone Locus Body

    PubMed Central

    Nizami, Zehra; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gall, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cajal body (CB) is a nuclear organelle present in all eukaryotes that have been carefully studied. It is identified by the signature protein coilin and by CB-specific RNAs (scaRNAs). CBs contain high concentrations of splicing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and other RNA processing factors, suggesting that they are sites for assembly and/or posttranscriptional modification of the splicing machinery of the nucleus. The histone locus body (HLB) contains factors required for processing histone pre-mRNAs. As its name implies, the HLB is associated with the genes that code for histones, suggesting that it may function to concentrate processing factors at their site of action. CBs and HLBs are present throughout the interphase of the cell cycle, but disappear during mitosis. The biogenesis of CBs shows the features of a self-organizing structure. PMID:20504965

  17. Identifying a novel locus for psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Budu-Aggrey, Ashley; Bowes, John

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have identified genetic risk loci for PsA, the majority of which also confer risk for psoriasis. The stronger heritability of PsA in comparison with psoriasis suggests that there should be risk loci that are specific for PsA. Identifying such loci could potentially inform therapy development to provide more effective treatments for PsA patients, especially with a considerable proportion being non-responsive to current therapies. Evidence of a PsA-specific locus has been previously found at HLA-B27 within the MHC region. A recent study has provided evidence of non-HLA risk loci that are specific for PsA at IL23R, PTPN22 and on chromosome 5q31. Functional characterization of these loci will provide further understanding of the pathways underlying PsA, and enable us to apply genetic findings for patient benefit. PMID:26255310

  18. Acculturation and Health Locus of Control among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby

    1998-01-01

    Health locus of control was investigated across culture of origin (Mexicanism), mainstream culture (Americanism), and bicultural linguistic-acculturation domains among 424 Mexican-American adolescents. Belief in powerful others' external control was the strongest explanation of locus of control in the culture-of-origin domain; internal control was…

  19. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  20. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  1. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The correlations and…

  2. Externality and Locus of Control in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbitsky, Joyce Renee; White, Donna Romano

    1981-01-01

    Significant sex differences indicated that boys generally ate more than girls and held more internal locus of control expectancies. However, obese and normal-weighted children were not differentiated by their performance on either food-related measures nor by their locus of control expectancies. (Author/MP)

  3. Effects of preferred retinal locus placement on text navigation and development of advantageous trained retinal locus.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gale R; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William R; Watkins, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Sixty readers were evaluated for visual function and text-navigation ability. The visual field and preferred retinal locus (PRL) were measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). We found significant differences in text-navigation ability based on scotoma and PRL placement. Readers with a PRL to the left of or above a scotoma had significantly less text-navigation abilities. Readers with a PRL to the left of a scotoma tended to misread words with similar beginnings and omit the last word on a line. Readers with a PRL above a scotoma tended to skip a line or reread the same line twice. In a follow-up study, seven subjects with a nonadvantageous PRL quickly developed a trained retinal locus (TRL) during instruction with an SLO. Although the readers developed the TRL in about 15 minutes, they read slower with the TRL than the PRL. This TRL research provides promising pilot data.

  4. A gene locus for targeted ectopic gene integration in Zymoseptoria tritici☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M.; Latz, M.; Das Gupta, S.; Steinberg, N.; Fones, H.; Gurr, S.J.; Talbot, N.J.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the cellular organization and biology of fungal pathogens requires accurate methods for genomic integration of mutant alleles or fluorescent fusion-protein constructs. In Zymoseptoria tritici, this can be achieved by integrating of plasmid DNA randomly into the genome of this wheat pathogen. However, untargeted ectopic integration carries the risk of unwanted side effects, such as altered gene expression, due to targeting regulatory elements, or gene disruption following integration into protein-coding regions of the genome. Here, we establish the succinate dehydrogenase (sdi1) locus as a single “soft-landing” site for targeted ectopic integration of genetic constructs by using a carboxin-resistant sdi1R allele, carrying the point-mutation H267L. We use various green and red fluorescent fusion constructs and show that 97% of all transformants integrate correctly into the sdi1 locus as single copies. We also demonstrate that such integration does not affect the pathogenicity of Z. tritici, and thus the sdi1 locus is a useful tool for virulence analysis in genetically modified Z. tritici strains. Furthermore, we have developed a vector which facilitates yeast recombination cloning and thus allows assembly of multiple overlapping DNA fragments in a single cloning step for high throughput vector and strain generation. PMID:26092798

  5. Locus of Control Orientation: Parents, Peers, and Place.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Eileen M; Lobo Antunes, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    An internal locus of control contributes to positive youth outcomes such as a general well-being and academic success, while also serving as a protective factor against exposure to community violence and reducing negative behaviors like violence. Despite these benefits, very little is known about antecedents of an internal locus of control orientation. Without an understanding of what factors contribute to the development of an internal locus of control, it is not clear how to best encourage its formation. This study uses data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine whether various mesosystem variables (family management strategies, peer interactions, neighborhood context, and individual-level characteristics) are associated with an internal locus of control orientation among 1,076 youth ages 9-19 living in 78 Chicago neighborhoods. Study participants were Hispanic (46 %), African American (34 %), and White (15 %), and 50 % were female. The findings suggest that, while most levels of the mesosystem influence locus of control orientation, family management strategies are more prominent determinants of an internal locus of control than peers, neighborhood context, or individual characteristics. Parental supervision over the time a youth spends at home and family socioeconomic status are consistent predictors of an internal locus of control, while harsh discipline is associated with an external locus of control. The discussion examines the import of various parenting techniques in shaping an internal locus of control and considers future avenues for research to further unpack how antecedents of locus of control can vary across youth.

  6. [Development of a CAPS marker for the Verticillium wilt resistance in tomatoes].

    PubMed

    Kuklev, M Iu; Fesenko, I A; Karlov, G I

    2009-05-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Verticillium wilt resistance locus of resistant and susceptible tomato genotypes were cloned and analyzed. The nucleotide sequences displaying high degree of homology to the earlier cloned Ve1 and Ve2 genes were detected in the tomato forms susceptible to Verticillium wilt. The polymorphism at this locus between the resistant and susceptible plants was detected and used to elaborate a highly efficient CAPS marker.

  7. Genome wide analysis of inbred mouse lines identifies a locus containing Ppar-gamma as contributing to enhanced malaria survival.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Selina E R; Ramachandran, Vandana; Henson, Kerstin; Luzader, Angelina; Lindstrom, Merle; Spooner, Muriel; Steffy, Brian M; Suzuki, Oscar; Janse, Chris; Waters, Andrew P; Zhou, Yingyao; Wiltshire, Tim; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-28

    The genetic background of a patient determines in part if a person develops a mild form of malaria and recovers, or develops a severe form and dies. We have used a mouse model to detect genes involved in the resistance or susceptibility to Plasmodium berghei malaria infection. To this end we first characterized 32 different mouse strains infected with P. berghei and identified survival as the best trait to discriminate between the strains. We found a locus on chromosome 6 by linking the survival phenotypes of the mouse strains to their genetic variations using genome wide analyses such as haplotype associated mapping and the efficient mixed-model for association. This new locus involved in malaria resistance contains only two genes and confirms the importance of Ppar-gamma in malaria infection.

  8. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    near future. We describe the current instrument configuration of LOCUS, and give a first preview of the expected science return such a mission would yield. The LOCUS instrument concept calls for four spectral bands, a first band at 4.7 THz to target atomic oxygen (O), a second band at 3.5 THz to target hydroxyl (OH), a third band at 1.1 THz to cover several diatomic species (NO, CO, O3, H2O) and finally a fourth band at 0.8 THz to retrieve pointing information from molecular oxygen (O2). LOCUS would be the first satellite instrument to measure atomic oxygen on a global scale with a precision that will allow the retrieval of the global O distribution. It would also be the first time that annual and diurnal changes in O are measured. This will be a significant step forward in understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the MLT. Current indications (derived from CRISTA measurement) lead us to believe that current models only give a poor representation of upper atmospheric O. The secondary target species can help us to address additional scientific questions related to both Climate (distribution of climate relevant gases, highly geared cooling of the MLT in response to Climate change, increased occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), etc) and Space Weather (precipitation of electrically charged particles and impact on NOx chemistry, fluctuations of solar Lyman-alpha flux through shown in the the distribution of photochemically active species, etc).

  9. AKT as locus of fragility in robust cancer system.

    PubMed

    Radisavljevic, Ziv

    2008-08-15

    Metastatic cancer is a complex positive feedback loop system. Such as system has a tendency to acquire extreme robustness. Signaling pathways controlling that robustness can fail completely if an essential element from the signaling is removed. That element is a locus of fragility. Targeting that locus represents the best way to target the cancer robustness. This prospect presents another locus of fragility in signaling complex system network, controlling the cell cycle progression through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/RAN pathway and cell migration and angiogenesis through the VEGF/PI3K/AKT/NO/ICAM-1 pathway. The locus of fragility of these pathways is AKT, which is regulated by a balance of catalase/H2O2 or by AKT inhibitor. Tiny and trivial perturbations such as change in redox state in the cells by antioxidant enzyme catalase, scavenging H2O2 signaling molecule, regulates robust signaling molecule AKT, abolishing its phosporilation and inducing cascading failure of robust signaling pathways for cell growth, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. An anticancer effect of the antioxidant is achieved through the AKT locus, by abolishing signals from growth factors VEGF, HGF, HIF-1alpha and H2O2. Previously reported locus of fragility nitric oxide (NO) and locus AKT are close in the complex signaling interactome network, but they regulate distinct signaling modules. Simultaneously targeted loci represents new principles in cancer robustness chemotherapy by blocking cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and inducing rather slow then fast apoptosis leading to slow eradication of cancer.

  10. Identification of a new locus conferring antixenosis to the brown planthopper in rice cultivar Swarnalata (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y F; Cheng, L; Liu, F; Li, R B

    2013-08-29

    The brown planthopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stål); BPH] has caused severe damage to rice production. The identification of resistance genes and the development of BPH-resistant varieties are economical and effective ways to manage this pest. Using an F2 population from a cross between the Indica cultivars 93-11 and Swarnalata, we mapped the Qbph-8 locus to a 7.3-cM region on chromosome 8 in two tests, flanked by the markers RM339 and RM515. In this population, Qbph-8 explained 7.7 and 6.6% of the phenotypic variance of BPH preference in both tests. In the BPH host choice test, the average number of settled BPHs on the Qbph-8 plants was less than that on the 93-11 plants over the 24- to 120-h observation period. Furthermore, less BPH insects were observed on the BPH6+Qbph-8 plant compared with the BPH6 plant or Qbph-8 plant, indicating a stronger antixenotic effect shown in the gene pyramiding plants. Hence, this locus can be pyramided with other BPH resistance genes and applied to breed-resistant varieties, which possibly can improve the resistance level and durable resistance to the BPH.

  11. Validation of a major quantitative trait locus associated with host response to experimental infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious diseases are costly to the swine industry and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most devastating. In earlier work, a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV was identified on Sus scrofa chromosome 4 (SSC4) using ~560 exp...

  12. A NK complex-linked locus restricts the spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the brains of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kastrukoff, Lorne F; Lau, Allen S; Takei, Fumio; Carbone, Francis R; Scalzo, Anthony A

    2015-11-01

    The most frequent cause of sporadic viral encephalitis in western countries is Herpes simplex virus (HSV). Despite treatment, mortality rates reach 20-30% while survivors often suffer from significant morbidity. In mice, resistance to lethal Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is multifactorial and influenced by mouse and virus strain as well as route of infection. The ability to restrict viral spread in the brain is one factor contributing to resistance. After infection of the oral mucosa with HSV type 1 (HSV-1), virus spreads throughout the brains of susceptible strains but is restricted in resistant C57BL/6 mice. To further investigate restriction of viral spread in the brain, mendelian analysis was combined with studies of congenic, intra-natural killer complex (intra-NKC) recombinant and antibody-depleted mice. Results from mendelian analysis support the restriction of viral spread as a dominant trait and consistent with a single gene effect. In congenic mice, the locus maps to the NKC on chromosome 6 and is provisionally termed Herpes Resistance Locus 2 (Hrl2). In intra-NKC recombinants, the locus is further mapped to the segment Cd69 through D6Wum34; a different location from previously identified loci (Hrl and Rhs1) also associated with HSV-1 infection. Studies with antibody-depleted mice indicate the effect of this locus is mediated by NK1.1(+) expressing cells. This model increases our knowledge of lethal HSE, which may lead to new treatment options.

  13. Relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, David L; Bacon, Calvin M

    2009-12-01

    The relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control was assessed in a sample of 286 college students (52% men; M age = 24 yr.) who worked an average of 26 hr. per week. Measures were Spector's Work Locus of Control Scale and Podsakoff, et al.'s Organization Citizenship Behavior scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated positive association of scores on work locus of control with scores on each of the four tested dimensions of organizational citizenship, as well as total organizational citizenship behavior.

  14. Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Mark F; Purpura, Dominick P

    2009-03-01

    Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit improved behaviors and enhanced communication during febrile episodes. We hypothesize that febrigenesis and the behavioral-state changes associated with fever in autism depend upon selective normalization of key components of a functionally impaired locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system. We posit that autistic behaviors result from developmental dysregulation of LC-NA system specification and neural network deployment and modulation linked to the core behavioral features of autism. Fever transiently restores the modulatory functions of the LC-NA system and ameliorates autistic behaviors. Fever-induced reversibility of autism suggests preserved functional integrity of widespread neural networks subserving the LC-NA system and specifically the subsystems involved in mediating the cognitive and behavioral repertoires compromised in ASD. Alterations of complex gene-environmental interactions and associated epigenetic mechanisms during seminal developmental critical periods are viewed as instrumental in LC-NA dysregulation as emphasized by the timing and severity of prenatal maternal stressors on autism prevalence. Our hypothesis has implications for a rational approach to further interrogate the interdisciplinary etiology of ASD and for designing novel biological detection systems and therapeutic agents that target the LC-NA system's diverse network of pre- and postsynaptic receptors, intracellular signaling pathways and dynamic epigenetic remodeling processes involved in their regulation and functional plasticity.

  15. THE LOCUS COERULEUS AND CENTRAL CHEMOSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Gargaglioni, Luciane H.; Hartzler, Lynn K.; Putnam, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) lies in the dorsal pons and supplies noradrenergic (NA) input to many regions of the brain, including respiratory control areas. The LC may provide tonic input for basal respiratory drive and is involved in central chemosensitivity since focal acidosis of the region stimulates ventilation and ablation reduces CO2-induced increased ventilation. The output of LC is modulated by both serotonergic and glutamatergic inputs. A large percentage of LC neurons are intrinsically activated by hypercapnia. This percentage and the magnitude of their response are highest in young neonates and decrease dramatically after postnatal day P10. The cellular bases for intrinsic chemosensitivity of LC neurons are comprised of multiple factors, primary among them being reduced extracellular and intracellular pH, which inhibit inwardly rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels, and activate L-type Ca2+ channels. Activation of KCa channels in LC neurons may limit their ultimate response to hypercapnia. Finally, the LC mediates central chemosensitivity and contains pH-sensitive neurons in amphibians, suggesting that the LC has a long-standing phylogenetic role in respiratory control. PMID:20435170

  16. Locus of control and cerebral asymmetry.

    PubMed

    De Brabander, B; Boone, C; Gerits, P

    1992-08-01

    Data about the lack of synchronism of flexor carpi ulnaris peak EMG values of bimanual reactions during a semantic and during a visuospatial discrimination reaction time task are reported. The effects of type of task as well as the presence or absence of an unexpected stimulus preceding the reaction stimulus on lack of synchronism clearly depend upon the locus of control of the subjects, as measured on Rotter's I-E scale. On the basis of several arguments it is proposed that the measure of lack of synchronism reflects in an opposite sense the amount of dopaminergic activation or motor readiness in the sense in which Pribram and McGuinness in 1975 and Tucker and Williamson in 1984 have defined these concepts. The results for 15 women and 18 men show that more internally oriented subjects are more activated by a semantic task and by an unexpected preparatory stimulus in this type of task than more externally oriented subjects. The opposite appears to hold on the visuospatial task and unexpected preparatory stimuli therein. Together with earlier findings about reaction times and a number of relevant findings in the literature, the results are interpreted as indicative of basic differences in asymmetric tonic activation of the cerebral hemispheres between more internally and more externally oriented subjects. A model is proposed to explain phasic activating effects which ensue when tonically more left- or right-activated subjects perform left- or right-hemisphere tasks and when supplementary irrelevant stimuli are received.

  17. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  18. Is Racial Attitude Change a Function of Locus of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Vijay

    1977-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between counselors' locus of control and the degree of change on racial attitudes followed by a structured awareness program and counseling experience on racial and multi-ethnic cultures. (Author)

  19. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables.

  20. The internet and locus of control in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert J.; Harris, Kimberly D.; Wabby, James

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how training older adults to find medical information using the Internet affects their locus of control. METHODS: Quantitative methods were utilized. Specifically, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control survey was distributed at the onset of each seminar and again at the conclusion. RESULTS: Paired t-tests revealed that the subjects did not change their locus of control regarding their health beliefs over the period of the seminar. However, there was statistical significance with regard to eight specific questions. CONCLUSION: Subjects scored high on their level of internal locus of control coming into the study. The majority of subjects had already learned to use the computer, owned a home computer, and had access to the Internet, but had not used the Internet to search for healthcare information. The challenge continues to be reaching those older adults who have not encountered the computer and the Internet. PMID:12463794

  1. Fine structure of the FMR-1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.L.; Eichler, E.E.; Richards, S.; Gibbs, R.A.

    1994-07-15

    The fragile X syndrome is due to a CGG triplet expansion in the first exon of FMR-1, resulting in hypermethylation and extinction of gene expression. To further understanding of the gene`s involvement in the syndrome, we have determined the physical structure of this locus. A high resolution restriction map of cosmids from the region has been prepared encompassing approximately 50 kb. Using exon-exon PCR and restriction analysis, the FMR-1 gene has been determined to consist of 17 exons spanning 38 kb of Xq27.3. Each intron-exon boundary has been sequenced. In general, the splice donors and acceptors located in the 5{prime} portion of the gene demonstrate greater adherence to consensus than those in the 3{prime} end, providing a possible explanation for the finding of alternative splicing in FMR-1. Sequence analysis of the region immediately flanking the CGG triplet repeat demonstrated both tetranucleotide and dinucleotide repeats. Additional sequence is being obtained from the overlapping cosmids spanning the gene, and extending 20 kb proximal and approximately 30 kb distal as part of a larger project to determine sequence on the megabase scale in the Xq27.3-q28 region. These sequences are being characterized from normal and affected individuals to assess polymorphisms and the role (if any) of peculiar sequences in the generation of fragile X CGG instability. The elucidation of the structure and composition of the FMR-1 gene as well as its flanking region will enhance detection of other mutations possible in fragile X phenocopy individuals.

  2. Two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tienari, P.J. Univ. of Helsinki ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. ); Palo, J. ); Peltonen, L. )

    1994-01-15

    One of the major challenges in genetic linkage analyses is the study of complex diseases. The authors demonstrate here the use of two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial disease with a complex mode of inheritance. In a set of Finnish multiplex families, they have previously found evidence for linkage between MS susceptibility and two independent loci, the myelin basic protein gene (MBP) on chromosome 18 and the HLA complex on chromosome 6. This set of families provides a unique opportunity to perform linkage analysis conditional on two loci contributing to the disease. In the two-trait-locus/two-marker-locus analysis, the presence of another disease locus is parametrized and the analysis more appropriately treats information from the unaffected family member than single-disease-locus analysis. As exemplified here in MS, the two-locus analysis can be a powerful method for investigating susceptibility loci in complex traits, best suited for analysis of specific candidate genes, or for situations in which preliminary evidence for linkage already exists or is suggested. 41 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Strategies for conditional two-locus nonparametric linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Angquist, Lars; Hössjer, Ola; Groop, Leif

    2008-01-01

    In this article we deal with two-locus nonparametric linkage (NPL) analysis, mainly in the context of conditional analysis. This means that one incorporates single-locus analysis information through conditioning when performing a two-locus analysis. Here we describe different strategies for using this approach. Cox et al. [Nat Genet 1999;21:213-215] implemented this as follows: (i) Calculate the one-locus NPL process over the included genome region(s). (ii) Weight the individual pedigree NPL scores using a weighting function depending on the NPL scores for the corresponding pedigrees at speci fi c conditioning loci. We generalize this by conditioning with respect to the inheritance vector rather than the NPL score and by separating between the case of known (prede fi ned) and unknown (estimated) conditioning loci. In the latter case we choose conditioning locus, or loci, according to prede fi ned criteria. The most general approach results in a random number of selected loci, depending on the results from the previous one-locus analysis. Major topics in this article include discussions on optimal score functions with respect to the noncentrality parameter (NCP), and how to calculate adequate p values and perform power calculations. We also discuss issues related to multiple tests which arise from the two-step procedure with several conditioning loci as well as from the genome-wide tests.

  4. Fixation probability in a two-locus intersexual selection model.

    PubMed

    Durand, Guillermo; Lessard, Sabin

    2016-06-01

    We study a two-locus model of intersexual selection in a finite haploid population reproducing according to a discrete-time Moran model with a trait locus expressed in males and a preference locus expressed in females. We show that the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a male ornament introduced at random at the trait locus given any initial frequency state at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and recombination, weak or strong. Moreover, this probability exceeds the initial frequency of the mutant allele even in the case of a costly male ornament if intersexual selection is not too weak. On the other hand, the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a female preference towards a male ornament introduced at random at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and weak recombination if the female preference is not costly, and is strong enough in the case of a costly male ornament. The analysis relies on an extension of the ancestral recombination-selection graph for samples of haplotypes to take into account events of intersexual selection, while the symbolic calculation of the fixation probabilities is made possible in a reasonable time by an optimizing algorithm.

  5. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation.

  6. Inheritance of Cry1F resistance, cross-resistance and frequency of resistant alleles in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Vélez, A M; Spencer, T A; Alves, A P; Moellenbeck, D; Meagher, R L; Chirakkal, H; Siegfried, B D

    2013-12-01

    Transgenic maize, Zea maize L., expressing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis has been registered for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) control since 2003. Unexpected damage to Cry1F maize was reported in 2006 in Puerto Rico and Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda was documented. The inheritance of Cry1F resistance was characterized in a S. frugiperda resistant strain originating from Puerto Rico, which displayed >289-fold resistance to purified Cry1F. Concentration-response bioassays of reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible parental populations indicated that resistance is recessive and autosomal. Bioassays of the backcross of the F1 generation crossed with the resistant parental strain suggest that a single locus is responsible for resistance. In addition, cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa and Vip3Aa was assessed in the Cry1F-resistant strain. There was no significant cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ba and Cry2Aa, although only limited effects were observed in the susceptible strain. Vip3Aa was highly effective against susceptible and resistant insects indicating no cross-resistance with Cry1F. In contrast, low levels of cross-resistance were observed for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Because the resistance is recessive and conferred by a single locus, an F1 screening assay was used to measure the frequency of Cry1F-resistant alleles from populations of Florida and Texas in 2010 and 2011. A total frequency of resistant alleles of 0.13 and 0.02 was found for Florida and Texas populations, respectively, indicating resistant alleles could be found in US populations, although there have been no reports of reduced efficacy of Cry1F-expressing plants.

  7. armA and aminoglycoside resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C; Moreno, Miguel A; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-06-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant.

  8. armA and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C.; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant. PMID:15963296

  9. The Salmonella typhimurium mar locus: molecular and genetic analyses and assessment of its role in virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Sulavik, M C; Dazer, M; Miller, P F

    1997-01-01

    The marRAB operon is a regulatory locus that controls multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli. marA encodes a positive regulator of the antibiotic resistance response, acting by altering the expression of unlinked genes. marR encodes a repressor of marRAB transcription and controls the production of MarA in response to environmental signals. A molecular and genetic study of the homologous operon in Salmonella typhimurium was undertaken, and the role of marA in virulence in a murine model was assessed. Expression of E. coli marA (marAEC) present on a multicopy plasmid in S. typhimurium resulted in a multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) phenotype, suggesting that a similar regulon exists in this organism. A genomic plasmid library containing S. typhimurium chromosomal sequences was introduced into an E. coli strain that was deleted for the mar locus and contained a single-copy marR'-'lacZ translational fusion. Plasmid clones that contained both S. typhimurium marR (marRSt) and marA (marASt) genes were identified as those that were capable of repressing expression of the fusion and which resulted in a Mar phenotype. The predicted amino acid sequences of MarRSt, MarASt, and MarBSt were 91, 86, and 42% identical, respectively, to the same genes from E. coli, while the operator/promoter region of the operon was 86% identical to the same 98-nucleotide-upstream region in E. coli. The marRAB transcriptional start sites for both organisms were determined by primer extension, and a marRABSt transcript of approximately 1.1 kb was identified by Northern blot analysis. Its accumulation was shown to be inducible by sodium salicylate. Open reading frames flanking the marRAB operon were also conserved. An S. typhimurium marA disruption strain was constructed by an allelic exchange method and compared to the wild-type strain for virulence in a murine BALB/c infection model. No effect on virulence was noted. The endogenous S. typhimurium plasmid that is associated with virulence

  10. Organization of the murine Cd22 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Che-Leung; Torres, R.M.; Sundeberg, H.A.; Clark, E.A ); Parkhouse, R.M.E. ); Brannan, C.I.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-07-01

    Murine CD22 (mCD22) is a B cell-associated adhesion protein with seven extracellular Ig-like domains that has 62% amino acid identify to its human homologue. Southern analysis on genomic DNA isolated from tissues and cell lines from several mouse strains using mCD22 cDNA demonstrated that the Cd22 locus encoding mCD22 is a single copy gene of [le]30 kb. Digestion of genomic DNA preparations with four restriction endonucleases revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H strains vs DBA/2j, NZB, and NZC strains, suggesting the presence of two or more Cd22 alleles. Using a mCD22 cDNA clone derived from the BALB/c strain, the authors isolated genomic clones from a DBA/2 genomic library that contained all the exons necessary to encode the full length mCD22 cDNA. Fifteen exons, including exon 3 that encodes the translation start codon, were identified. Each extracellular Ig-like domain of mCD22 is encoded by a single exon. A comparison between the nucleotide sequences of the BALB/c CD22 cDNA and the exons of the DBA/2j CD22 genomic clones revealed an 18-nucleotide deletion in exon 4 (encoding the most distal Ig-like domain 1 of mCD22) of the DBA/2j genomic sequence in addition to a number of substitutions, insertions, and deletions in other exons. These nucleotide differences were also present in a cDNA clone isolated from total RNA of LPS-activated DBA/2j splenocytes mosome 7, a region sytenic to human chromosome 19q, close to the previously reported loci, Lyb-8 and Mag (a homologue of Cd22). An antibody (CY34) against the Lyb-8.2 B cell marker reacted with a BHK transfectant expressing the full length mCd22 cDNA, thus demonstrating that Lyb-8 and Cd22 loci are identical. Furthermore, a rat anti-mCD22 mAb, NIM-R6, bound to slgM[sup +] DBA/2j B cells, confirming the expression of a CD22 protein by the Cd22[sup a]/lyb-8[sup a] allele. 63 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Variation in the OC Locus of Acinetobacter baumannii Genomes Predicts Extensive Structural Diversity in the Lipooligosaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Johanna J.; Nigro, Steven J.; Hall, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a complex surface structure that is linked to many pathogenic properties of Acinetobacter baumannii. In A. baumannii, the genes responsible for the synthesis of the outer core (OC) component of the LOS are located between ilvE and aspS. The content of the OC locus is usually variable within a species, and examination of 6 complete and 227 draft A. baumannii genome sequences available in GenBank non-redundant and Whole Genome Shotgun databases revealed nine distinct new types, OCL4-OCL12, in addition to the three known ones. The twelve gene clusters fell into two distinct groups, designated Group A and Group B, based on similarities in the genes present. OCL6 (Group B) was unique in that it included genes for the synthesis of L-Rhamnosep. Genetic exchange of the different configurations between strains has occurred as some OC forms were found in several different sequence types (STs). OCL1 (Group A) was the most widely distributed being present in 18 STs, and OCL6 was found in 16 STs. Variation within clones was also observed, with more than one OC locus type found in the two globally disseminated clones, GC1 and GC2, that include the majority of multiply antibiotic resistant isolates. OCL1 was the most abundant gene cluster in both GC1 and GC2 genomes but GC1 isolates also carried OCL2, OCL3 or OCL5, and OCL3 was also present in GC2. As replacement of the OC locus in the major global clones indicates the presence of sub-lineages, a PCR typing scheme was developed to rapidly distinguish Group A and Group B types, and to distinguish the specific forms found in GC1 and GC2 isolates. PMID:25247305

  12. Detection of the signature of natural selection in humans: evidence from the Duffy blood group locus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, M T; Di Rienzo, A

    2000-01-01

    The Duffy blood group locus, which encodes a chemokine receptor, is characterized by three alleles-FY*A, FY*B, and FY*O. The frequency of the FY*O allele, which corresponds to the absence of Fy antigen on red blood cells, is at or near fixation in most sub-Saharan African populations but is very rare outside Africa. The FST value for the FY*O allele is the highest observed for any allele in humans, providing strong evidence for the action of natural selection at this locus. Homozygosity for the FY*O allele confers complete resistance to vivax malaria, suggesting that this allele has been the target of selection by Plasmodium vivax or some other infectious agent. To characterize the signature of directional selection at this locus, we surveyed DNA sequence variation, both in a 1.9-kb region centered on the FY*O mutation site and in a 1-kb region 5-6 kb away from it, in 17 Italians and in a total of 24 individuals from five sub-Saharan African populations. The level of variation across both regions is two- to threefold lower in the Africans than in the Italians. As a result, the pooled African sample shows a significant departure from the neutral expectation for the number of segregating sites, whereas the Italian sample does not. The FY*O allele occurs on two major haplotypes in three of the five African populations. This finding could be due to recombination, recurrent mutation, population structure, and/or mutation accumulation and drift. Although we are unable to distinguish among these alternative hypotheses, it is likely that the two major haplotypes originated prior to selection on the FY*O mutation. PMID:10762551

  13. Transposon-derived small RNA is responsible for modified function of WRKY45 locus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Tao, Zeng; Hong, Hanming; Chen, Zhihui; Wu, Changyin; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Wang, Shiping

    2016-02-29

    Transposable elements (TEs) are an important source for generating small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in plants and animals. Although TE-siRNA-induced silencing of TEs by RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in the maintenance of genome integrity has been intensively studied, it is unknown whether this type of silencing occurs in suppressing endogenous non-TE genes during host-pathogen interactions. Here we show that a TE-siRNA, TE-siR815, causes opposite functions for the two alleles, WRKY45-1 and WRKY45-2, of the WRKY45 transcription factor in rice resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, which causes the most devastating bacterial disease in rice worldwide. Expression of WRKY45-1, but not WRKY45-2, generated TE-siR815, which in turn repressed ST1, an important component in WRKY45-mediated resistance, by RdDM. Suppression of ST1 abolished WRKY45-mediated resistance leading to pathogen susceptibility. These results suggest that TE-siR815 contributes to the natural variation of the WRKY45 locus and TE-siR815-induced suppression of ST1 results in the negative role of WRKY45-1 but positive role of WRKY45-2 in regulating disease resistance.

  14. A quantitative assay of mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO/HGPRT system): development and definition of the system.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J P; Brimer, P A; Machanoff, R; Hirsch, G P; Hsie, A W

    1977-10-01

    An assay is described for the measurement of mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells utilizing resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG). Optimal selection conditions are defined for such parameters as phenotypic expression time prior to selection, and TG concentration and cell density which permits maximum mutant recovery. The nature of the TG-resistant mutants is characterized by several physiological and biochemical methods. The data demonstrate that more than 98% of the mutant clones isolated by this selection procedure contain altered HGPRTase activity. The CHO/HGPRT system thus shows the specificity necessary for a specific gene locus mutational assay.

  15. TaXA21-A1 on chromosome 5AL is associated with resistance to multiple pests in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative trait locus QYr.osu-5A on the long arm of chromosome 5A in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=6x=42; AABBDD) was previously reported to confer consistent resistance in adult plants to predominant stripe rust races, but the gene causing the quantitative trait locus (QTL) is not know...

  16. Organization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lindsay A; Luo, Liqun

    2015-11-02

    The release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine throughout the mammalian brain is important for modulating attention, arousal, and cognition during many behaviors. Furthermore, disruption of norepinephrine-mediated signaling is strongly associated with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders in humans, emphasizing the clinical importance of this system. Most of the norepinephrine released in the brain is supplied by a very small, bilateral nucleus in the brainstem called the locus coeruleus. The goal of this minireview is to emphasize the complexity of the locus coeruleus beyond its primary definition as a norepinephrine-producing nucleus. Several recent studies utilizing innovative technologies highlight how the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system can now be targeted with increased accuracy and resolution, in order to better understand its role in modulating diverse behaviors.

  17. Tension versus ecological zones in a two-locus system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2005-08-01

    Previous theories show that tension and ecological zones are indistinguishable in terms of gene frequency clines. Here I analytically show that these two types of zones can be distinguished in terms of genetic statistics other than gene frequency. A two-locus cline model is examined with the assumptions of random mating, weak selection, no drift, no mutation, and multiplicative viabilities. The genetic statistics for distinguishing the two types of zones are the deviations of one- or two-locus genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) or from random association of gametes (RAG), and the deviations of additive and dominance variances from the values at HWE. These deviations have a discontinuous distribution in space and different extents of interruptions in the ecological zone with a sharp boundary, but exhibit a continuous distribution in the tension zone. Linkage disequilibrium enhances the difference between the deviations from HWE and from RAG for any two-locus genotypic frequency.

  18. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait. PMID:22408732

  19. Imprinting on chromosome 20: tissue-specific imprinting and imprinting mutations in the GNAS locus.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Gavin

    2010-08-15

    The GNAS locus on chromosome 20q13.11 is the archetypal complex imprinted locus. It comprises a bewildering array of alternative transcripts determined by differentially imprinted promoters which encode distinct proteins. It also provides the classic example of tissue-specific imprinted gene expression, in which the canonical GNAS transcript coding for Gsalpha is expressed predominantly from the maternal allele in a set of seemingly unrelated tissues. Functionally, this rather obscure imprinting is nevertheless of considerable clinical significance, as it dictates the nature of the disease caused by inactivating mutations in Gsalpha, with end organ hormone resistance specifically on maternal transmission (pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a, PHP1a). In addition, there is a bona fide imprinting disorder, PHP1b, which is caused specifically by DNA methylation defects in the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that determine tissue-specific monoallelic expression of GNAS. Although the genetic defect in PHP1a and the disrupted imprinting in PHP1b both essentially result in profound reduction of Gsalpha activity in tissues with monoallelic GNAS expression, and despite a growing awareness of the overlap in these two conditions, there are important pathophysiological differences between the two whose basis is not fully understood. PHP1b is one of the only imprinted gene syndromes in which cis-acting mutations have been discovered that disrupt methylation of germline-derived imprint marks; such imprinting mutations in GNAS are helping to provide important new insights into the mechanisms of imprinting establishment generally.

  20. Balancing Selection at a Frog Antimicrobial Peptide Locus: Fluctuating Immune Effector Alleles?

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing selection is common on many defense genes, but it has rarely been reported for immune effector proteins such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We describe genetic diversity at a brevinin-1 AMP locus in three species of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens, Rana blairi, and Rana palustris). Several highly divergent allelic lineages are segregating at this locus. That this unusual pattern results from balancing selection is demonstrated by multiple lines of evidence, including a ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous polymorphism significantly higher than 1, the ZnS test, incongruence between the number of segregating sites and haplotype diversity, and significant Tajima's D values. Our data are more consistent with a model of fluctuating selection in which alleles change frequencies over time than with a model of stable balancing selection such as overdominance. Evidence for fluctuating selection includes skewed allele frequencies, low levels of synonymous variation, nonneutral values of Tajima's D within allelic lineages, an inverse relationship between the frequency of an allelic lineage and its degree of polymorphism, and divergent allele frequencies among populations. AMP loci could be important sites of adaptive genetic diversity, with consequences for host–pathogen coevolution and the ability of species to resist disease epidemics. PMID:18799711

  1. Accessory Gene Regulator-1 Locus Is Essential for Virulence and Pathogenesis of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Odo, Chioma; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is responsible for most of the definable cases of antibiotic- and hospital-associated diarrhea worldwide and is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in older patients. C. difficile, a multidrug-resistant anaerobic pathogen, causes disease by producing toxins A and B, which are controlled by an accessory gene regulator (Agr) quorum signaling system. Some C. difficile strains encode two Agr loci in their genomes, designated agr1 and agr2. The agr1 locus is present in all of the C. difficile strains sequenced to date, whereas the agr2 locus is present in a few strains. The functional roles of agr1 and agr2 in C. difficile toxin regulation and pathogenesis were unknown until now. Using allelic exchange, we deleted components of both agr loci and examined the mutants for toxin production and virulence. The results showed that the agr1 mutant cannot produce toxins A and B; toxin production can be restored by complementation with wild-type agr1. Furthermore, the agr1 mutant is able to colonize but unable to cause disease in a murine CDI model. These findings have profound implications for CDI treatment because we have uncovered a promising therapeutic target for the development of nonantibiotic drugs to treat this life-threatening emerging pathogen by targeting the toxins directly responsible for disease. PMID:27531912

  2. Multi-locus sequence type analysis of Shigellas pp. isolates from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahsavan, Shadi; Nobakht, Maliheh; Rastegar-Lari, Abdolaziz; Owlia, Parviz; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Strains of Shigella spp. can cause shigellosis, or bacillary dysentery. that is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure and genetic relatedness of multidrug resistant S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolated during a one year period from children with diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 Shigella spp. were detected during the study period. Twenty MDR isolates of Shigella spp. were randomly selected and used in this study. Bacterial identification was performed by conventional biochemical and serological and confirmed by molecular method. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, we used Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for subtyping isolates. Results: We found 14 Shigella sonnei and 6 Shigella flexneri isolates. Results of MLST showed five sequence types (ST) (145, 152, 241, 245, 1502) and BURST analysis revealed the largest number of single locus variant (SLV) and highest frequency (FREQ) for ST152. ST 152 with nine members was predicted as the founder by BURST. Frequency for ST 1502 and ST 245 was four isolates and the least frequency was seen for ST 241 and 145 with one and two members, respectively. ST 145 and ST 245 were described as singletons in BURST. All isolates with ST145 and ST245 were identified as Shigella flexneri. Conclusion: Annual Multi locus sequence typing of MDR Shigella would help us in better understanding of dominant species and comparing our results with the same studies in other countries especially our neighbor countries in source tracking purposes. PMID:28149488

  3. Molecular characterisation of camptothecin-induced mutations at the hprt locus in Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed

    Balestrieri, E; Zanier, R; Degrassi, F

    2001-05-09

    The capacity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT) to induce single locus mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) gene and the DNA changes underlying induced mutations were analysed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Camptothecin treatments increased hprt mutations up to 50-fold over the spontaneous levels at highly cytotoxic doses. Genomic DNA was isolated from 6-thioguanine resistant clones and subjected to multiplex PCR to screen for gross alterations in the gene structure. The molecular analysis revealed that deletion mutants represented 80% of the analysed clones, including total hprt deletion, multiple and single exon deletions. Furthermore, a fraction of the analysed clones showed deletions of more than one exon that were characterised by the absence of non-contiguous exons. These data show that single locus mutations induced by camptothecin are characterised by large deletions or complex rearrangements rather than single base substitutions and suggest that the recombinational repair of camptothecin-induced strand breaks at replication fork may be involved in the generations of these alterations at the chromatin structure level.

  4. Developmental cell interactions in Myxococcus xanthus and the spoC locus.

    PubMed

    Shimkets, L J; Gill, R E; Kaiser, D

    1983-03-01

    The product(s) of the Myxococcus xanthus spoC locus is required for two multicellular activities in fruiting body development, rippling and sporulation. Ripples, which are formed early in development, are spatially separated ridges of cells that move synchronously. Myxospores are heat-resistant resting cells that are formed near the end of the developmental process. To investigate the function of spoC, it was cloned in an Escherichia coli plasmid, then transferred to M. xanthus by specialized transduction with coliphage P1. The plasmid, which cannot replicate in M. xanthus, integrated into the M. xanthus chromosome, producing two copies of the spoC locus in tandem. Cells containing one copy of a mutant allele and one copy of the wild-type allele displayed the wild-type phenotype. Cells containing two different mutant alleles failed to ripple or sporulate, implying that all four independent spoC mutations are in the same gene or unit of transcription. Homozygous mutant duplications arose from constructions in which DNA from a spo(+) donor was transduced into a spoC recipient, or vice versa, at an average frequency of 14%, indicating that gene conversion was a frequent event.

  5. Role of the sar locus of Staphylococcus aureus in induction of endocarditis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, A L; Yeaman, M R; Sullam, P M; Witt, M D; Bayer, A S

    1994-01-01

    A regulatory locus on the Staphylococcus aureus chromosome, designated sar, is involved in the expression of cell wall proteins, some of which are potentially important in the pathogenesis of endocarditis. For instance, mutant 11D2 (sar::Tn917LTV1) was found to bind substantially less to matrix proteins (i.e., fibrinogen and fibronectin) than parent strain DB. Remarkably, these two strains did not differ in other phenotypes considered important in the initiation of endocarditis (e.g., binding to platelets and resistance to platelet-derived microbicidal proteins). The isogenic pair were compared for pathogenicity in a rabbit endocarditis model. There were significant differences in infectivity rates between the two strains (71 and 88% for DB versus 17 and 42% for mutant 11D2 at inocula of 10(3) and 10(4) CFU, respectively). In early adherence studies, parent DB adhered substantially better than the mutant to valvular vegetations at an inoculum of 10(6) CFU (P = 0.05). Southern blot analysis of colonies indicated that the location of the Tn917LTV1 insert in mutant 11D2 remained stable after animal passage. In vitro adherence assays revealed that mutant 11D2 was less adherent to cultured human endothelium than parent DB. These studies suggest that the sar locus is involved in the initial adherence of S. aureus to the fibrin-platelet-endothelium matrix on damaged valvular endothelium. Images PMID:8168933

  6. Controlling-Element Events at the Shrunken Locus in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Burr, B.; Burr, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    We have examined insertions of the controlling element Ds at the Shrunken locus of maize. A cDNA probe complementary to a portion of the Shrunken locus mRNA was prepared. This probe recognizes a unique sequence in maize DNA. Using lines carrying derivatives of the same short arm of chromosome 9, we have detected modifications at the nucleic acid level caused by Ds. The changes appear to be large insertions, one of which may be more than 20 kilobase pairs in length. These observations provide a basis for the isolation and molecular characterization of one of the maize controlling elements. PMID:17249083

  7. Neighborhood Vigilance, Health Locus of Control, and Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Lahoti, Sejal; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Wetter, David W.; Waters, Andrew J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether health locus of control mediated relations of self-reported neighborhood vigilance and biochemically verified, continuous short-term smoking abstinence among 200 smokers enrolled in a cohort study. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation. Results Health locus of control-chance mediated relations between neighborhood vigilance and smoking abstinence in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco dependence (p < .05). Greater vigilance was associated with greater attributions that health was affected by chance, which was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking abstinence. Conclusions Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions influence residents’ attributions for health outcomes, which can affect smoking abstinence. PMID:23985180

  8. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Goriaux, Coline; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets.

  9. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coline, Goriaux; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways were identified in 1998. As a result of the detailed genetic analyses performed by certain laboratories and of the sophisticated genetic tools they developed, this locus has played a major role in our understanding of piRNA mediated TE repression in animals. Here we review the first discovery of this locus and retrace decades of studies that led to our current understanding of the relationship between genomes and their TE targets. PMID:25136352

  10. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  11. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. ); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. )

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Relationships among Impulsiveness, Locus of Control, Sex, and Music Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miksza, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study is an investigation of relationships among impulsiveness, locus of control, sex, observed practice behaviors, practice effectiveness, and self-reported practice habits in a sample of 40 college brass players. Practice effectiveness was defined by the amount of change in pretest and posttest performance achievement scores over one…

  13. Reminiscences of a mouse specific-locus test addict.

    PubMed

    Russell, W L

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the historical events surrounding the development of and achievements with the mouse specific-locus test in radiation and chemical mutagenesis. Some ongoing and future contributions of the test to research in molecular genetics are also mentioned.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of sil Locus in Clinical Streptococcus pyogenes Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plainvert, Céline; Dinis, Márcia; Ravins, Miriam; Hanski, Emanuel; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Fouet, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. Mutations in regulatory components have been implicated in the switch from colonization to invasive phenotypes. The inactivation of the sil locus, composed of six genes encoding a quorum-sensing complex, gives rise to a highly invasive strain. However, studies conducted on limited collections of GAS strains suggested that sil prevalence is around 15%; furthermore, whereas a correlation between the presence of sil and the genetic background was suggested, no link between the presence of a functional sil locus and the invasive status was assessed. We established a collection of 637 nonredundant strains covering all emm genotypes present in France and of known clinical history; 68%, 22%, and 10% were from invasive infections, noninvasive infections, and asymptomatic carriage, respectively. Among the 637 strains, 206 were sil positive. The prevalence of the sil locus varied according to the emm genotype, being present in >85% of the emm4, emm18, emm32, emm60, emm87, and emm90 strains and absent from all emm1, emm28, and emm89 strains. A random selection based on 2009 French epidemiological data indicated that 16% of GAS strains are sil positive. Moreover, due to mutations leading to truncated proteins, only 9% of GAS strains harbor a predicted functional sil system. No correlation was observed between the presence or absence of a functional sil locus and the strain invasiveness status. PMID:24671796

  15. Relationship between Locus of Control and Health-Related Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graffeo, Lisa Cotlar; Silvestri, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    Locus of Control (LOC) deals with an individual's personal attribution of successful or failure. Those with internal LOC believe that events in their lives are under their personal control while individuals with external LOC feel that their lives are dominated by the environment. The theory has been applied to achievement and health-related issues…

  16. Dealing with Malfunction: Locus of Control in Web-Conferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how students deal with malfunctions that occur during the use of web conferencing systems in learning arrangements. In a survey among participants in online courses that make use of a web-conferencing system (N = 129), the relationship between a preference for internal or external locus of control and the perception of…

  17. Molecular genetic analysis of the Phaseolus vulgaris P locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean market classes are distinguished by their many seed colors, patterns, and size. At least 23 genes, acting independently or in an epistatic manner, affect the seed coat color and pattern. The P locus which is described as the “ground factor” by Emerson, has multiple alleles and controls a...

  18. The Locus of the Focus of a Rolling Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Anurag; Marengo, James

    2010-01-01

    The catenary is usually introduced as the shape assumed by a hanging flexible cable. This is a "physical" description of a catenary. In this article we give a "geometrical" description of a catenary. Specifically we show that the catenary is the locus of the focus of a certain parabola as it rolls on the x-axis.

  19. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  20. Relationships Among Locus of Control, Grades, and Student Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Steven V.; Froman, Robin D.

    This research examines the interaction between college students' control orientation and a discrepancy score of GPA minus expected grade in course, on the dependent measure of 13 student rating items. It was hypothesized that students with an external locus of control who also showed a discrepancy between expected and actual grades would distort…

  1. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  2. Locus of Control Correlates in an Alcoholic Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Hopper, Allen E.

    1974-01-01

    Assesses the locus of control orientation within an alcoholic population and relates this orientation to the degree of cognitive dysfunction. Results suggest that female alcoholics, specifically those who need inpatient treatment, may be a relatively more disturbed group compared to alcoholic male inpatients. (Author/PC)

  3. Attitudes toward Nutrition, Locus of Control and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, V. Kilian; And Others

    Research has shown that many behaviors previously thought to be purely psychological in origin do, in fact, have a physiological basis. To examine the relationship of smoking behavior to locus of control, and to attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behavior with respect to nutrition, 116 Canadian undergraduate students completed the Nutrition…

  4. Fetal Health Locus of Control Scale: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labs, Sharon M.; Wurtele, Sandy K.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development of the Fetal Health Locus of Control scale, the scale's utility in predicting maternal health-related behavior during pregnancy, normative data, and information on factor structure and internal consistency. Reports that cigarette and caffeine consumption during pregnancy, and women's intentions to participate in prepared…

  5. Locus of Control and Completion in an Adult Retraining Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    Since attrition is often a problem in adult training programs, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between locus of control and course completion of adults enrolled in a retraining program. Rotter's Social Learning Theory of Personality was used as a starting point for the study. The study population was a sample of 108…

  6. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  7. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  8. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    PubMed Central

    Presciuttini, Silvano; Toni, Chiara; Tempestini, Elena; Verdiani, Simonetta; Casarino, Lucia; Spinetti, Isabella; Stefano, Francesco De; Domenici, Ranieri; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2002-01-01

    Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi) depend on locus heterozygosity (H), and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals. PMID:12441003

  9. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  10. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  11. Validation of a Five-Level Locus of Control Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Genevieve; Jeanrie, Chantale

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 1,011 students and employed adults explored seven work-related themes: decision making, self-knowledge, meaning of work, career planning, social/work environment, educational institutions, and job market. Results supported the validity of the Vocational Locus of Control Scale. (SK)

  12. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.

  13. Disruption of a novel regulatory locus results in decreased Bdnf expression, obesity, and type 2 diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Sha, Haibo; Xu, Jingyue; Tang, Jing; Ding, Jun; Gong, Jianfeng; Ge, Xiaomei; Kong, Dong; Gao, Xiang

    2007-10-22

    Mutants of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are associated with obesity. However, the regulatory mechanism of BDNF expression is still unclear. We developed a novel mutant mouse line, transgenic insertional mutants with obesity, named Timo, in which a potential regulatory locus of Bdnf was disrupted by transgene insertion. The insertion site was identified and lies 857 kb upstream of the Bdnf gene. The disrupted genomic locus is conserved across the mouse, rat, dog, and human genome and contains several highly conserved elements that are able to upregulate reporter gene expression in vitro. Along with downregulation of BDNF to approximately 30% of wild-type animals, Timo/Timo mice exhibited increased body weight and fat content with hepatic steatosis and elevated serum levels of leptin, cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol. These mutant mice also showed obesity-independent insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, age-dependent hyperglycemia, and shortened life span. Molecular and phenotype analysis of Timo/Timo mice indicated the existence of a genome locus, lying 857 kb upstream of the Bdnf gene, that regulates BDNF expression, body weight, and glucose homeostasis.

  14. Loss of heterozygosity at the SS receptor type 5 locus in human GH- and TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Filopanti, M; Ballarè, E; Lania, A G; Bondioni, S; Verga, U; Locatelli, M; Zavanone, L M; Losa, M; Gelmini, S; Peri, A; Orlando, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2004-11-01

    SS receptor types 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) are involved in the control of secretion and proliferation of normal and tumoral somatotrophs and thyrotrophs. The mechanisms leading to reduced responsiveness to SS analogues in patients with pituitary tumors are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to verify the possible loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the sst5 gene locus in somatotroph and thyrotroph adenomas by screening leukocyte and tumor DNA for two single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. C1004T leading to P335L change and T-461C in the 5'-upstream region. Among the 13 informative samples, 1 GH- and 1 TSH-secreting adenoma showed LOH at sst5 gene locus with the retention of Leu335 variant. By analyzing other polymorphic markers spanning from telomere to 16p13.3-13.2 boundaries, DNA deletion of at least 1 megabase was found in both tumors. LOH in thyrotroph adenoma was associated with unusual tumor aggressiveness that required a second surgery and resistance to SS analogs, while no obvious phenotype was identified in the case of the somatotroph adenoma. In conclusions, LOH at the sst5 gene locus is a rare phenomenon, occurring in about 10% of pituitary tumors, that seems to be associated with an aggressive phenotype, at least in thyrotroph adenomas. Further studies are required to confirm this association and to identify the genes, in addition to sst5, lost in these tumors.

  15. [Drug compliance and health locus of control in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Combes, C; Feral, F

    2011-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a frequent disorder since it affects about 1% of the general population. Drug compliance, that is to say patients' adherence to their treatment, remains rather poor concerning this disease with, on an average, one patient out of two not complying with his/her medication. Among the factors influencing drug compliance, we focused on patients' beliefs in terms of health control, a concept known as health locus of control. This is a concept that originated from social psychology and derived from the Rotters' original concept of locus of control: it corresponds to the type of connexion established by an individual between subsequent events in the history of his/her disease and internal (personal abilities) or external factors (chance, powerful others). Nowadays, the tridimensional structure of this concept is commonly admitted as being in three dimensions: internality, chance externality and powerful others externality, the latter group being divided between doctors and others. We have assumed that there is a correlation between the degree of drug compliance and the internal and/or doctors' external health locus of control. For this purpose, we have determined the quality of drug compliance by using the Medical Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) and the type of health locus of control by using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale among 65 schizophrenic patients. We have also considered it was important to evaluate patients' insight by using the Amador's scale (Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder) because many researchers have established a strong correlation between insight and drug compliance in schizophrenia. Associations between the four dimensions of health locus of control ("internal", "chance external", "others external" and "doctors' external") and drug compliance were assessed by estimating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) and its degree of significance (p). These associations were judged significant at an alpha

  16. Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Raquel O.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is plastic and represents the world according to the significance of sensory stimuli. However, cortical networks are embodied within complex circuits including neuromodulatory systems such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, providing information about internal state and behavioral relevance. While norepinephrine is important for cortical plasticity, it is unknown how modulatory neurons themselves respond to changes of sensory input. Here we examine how locus coeruleus neurons are modified by experience, and the consequences of locus coeruleus plasticity on cortical representations and sensory perception. We made whole-cell recordings from rat locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex (AI), pairing sounds with locus coeruleus activation. Although initially unresponsive, locus coeruleus neurons developed and maintained auditory responses afterwards. Locus coeruleus plasticity induced changes in AI responses lasting at least hours and improved auditory perception for days to weeks. Our results demonstrate that locus coeruleus is highly plastic, leading to substantial changes in regulation of brain state by norepinephrine. PMID:26301326

  17. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  18. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-07-28

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes.

  19. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  20. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  1. Adolescent Values Clarification: A Positive Influence on Perceived Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark R.

    1990-01-01

    Used locus of control assessments to monitor specific aspect of adolescent chemical dependency treatment program. Used song lyric analysis activities to note short-term modifications in experimental group's (N=10) perceived locus of control. No improvements were noted in matched control group's locus of control. Findings suggest that addictions…

  2. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.

    2015-01-01

    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  3. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    PubMed

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  4. Overexpression of the pathogen-inducible wheat TaWRKY45 gene confers disease resistance to multiple fungi in transgenic wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Bahrini, Insaf; Ogawa, Taiichi; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Handa, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    Recently we cloned and characterized the gene for the wheat transcription factor TaWRKY45 and showed that TaWRKY45 was upregulated in response to benzothiadiazole (BTH) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) and that its overexpression conferred enhanced resistance against F. graminearum. To characterize the functional role of TaWRKY45 in the disease resistance of wheat, in the present study we conducted expression analyses of TaWRKY45 with inoculations of powdery mildew and leaf rust and evaluated TaWRKY45-overexpressing wheat plants for resistance to these diseases. TaWRKY45 was upregulated in response to infections with Blumeria graminis, a causal fungus for powdery mildew, and Puccinia triticina, a causal fungus for leaf rust. Constitutive overexpression of the TaWRKY45 transgene conferred enhanced resistance against these two fungi on transgenic wheat plants grown under greenhouse conditions. However, the expression of two resistance-related genes, Pm3 and Lr34, was not induced by the inoculation with powdery mildew in TaWRKY45-overexpressing wheat plants. These results suggest that TaWRKY45 is involved in the defense responses for multiple fungal diseases in wheat but that resistance involving TaWRKY45 differs from at least Pm3 and/or Lr34-related resistance. Our present and previous studies indicate that TaWRKY45 may be potentially utilized to improve a wide range of disease resistance in wheat.

  5. Overexpression of the pathogen-inducible wheat TaWRKY45 gene confers disease resistance to multiple fungi in transgenic wheat plants

    PubMed Central

    Bahrini, Insaf; Ogawa, Taiichi; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Handa, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Recently we cloned and characterized the gene for the wheat transcription factor TaWRKY45 and showed that TaWRKY45 was upregulated in response to benzothiadiazole (BTH) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) and that its overexpression conferred enhanced resistance against F. graminearum. To characterize the functional role of TaWRKY45 in the disease resistance of wheat, in the present study we conducted expression analyses of TaWRKY45 with inoculations of powdery mildew and leaf rust and evaluated TaWRKY45-overexpressing wheat plants for resistance to these diseases. TaWRKY45 was upregulated in response to infections with Blumeria graminis, a causal fungus for powdery mildew, and Puccinia triticina, a causal fungus for leaf rust. Constitutive overexpression of the TaWRKY45 transgene conferred enhanced resistance against these two fungi on transgenic wheat plants grown under greenhouse conditions. However, the expression of two resistance-related genes, Pm3 and Lr34, was not induced by the inoculation with powdery mildew in TaWRKY45-overexpressing wheat plants. These results suggest that TaWRKY45 is involved in the defense responses for multiple fungal diseases in wheat but that resistance involving TaWRKY45 differs from at least Pm3 and/or Lr34-related resistance. Our present and previous studies indicate that TaWRKY45 may be potentially utilized to improve a wide range of disease resistance in wheat. PMID:23136468

  6. AVR1-CO39 is a predominant locus governing the broad avirulence of Magnaporthe oryzae 2539 on cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan; Zheng, Wenhui; Lin, Fucheng; Zhang, Ying; Yi, Yunping; Wang, Baohua; Lu, Guodong; Wang, Zonghua; Wu, Weiren

    2011-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae 2539 was previously found to be avirulent to most rice cultivars and, therefore, was assumed to carry many avirulence (AVR) genes. However, only one AVR gene, AVR1-CO39, which corresponds to a resistance (R) gene Pi-CO39(t) in rice cv. CO39, has been found from 2539 thus far. In order to identify more AVR genes, we isolated 228 progeny strains from a cross between 2539 and Guy11, an M. oryzae strain with strong virulence on rice, and inoculated these strains onto 23 rice accessions (22 individual cultivars and a mixture of 14 cultivars) that are all resistant to 2539 but susceptible to Guy11. Unexpectedly, the experimental results indicated that the avirulence of 2539 on these rice cultivars appeared to be controlled only by the AVR1-CO39 locus. Consistent with this result, we further found that all except one of the rice cultivars were resistant to two transformed Guy11 strains carrying a 1.05-kb fragment containing the AVR1-CO39 gene from 2539. These results suggest that AVR1-CO39 is a predominant locus controlling the broad avirulence of 2539 on cultivated rice. Based on the results of this study and other previous studies, we infer that AVR1-CO39 is a species-wise rather than a cultivar-wise host-specific AVR locus of M. oryzae for rice.

  7. Confirmation By QTL mapping Of The Malus Robusta (Cv. Robusta 5) derived powdery mildew resistance gene Pl1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has made extensive use of Malus robusta cv. Robusta 5 as a source of resistance to fire blight. Robusta 5 has also been used as the source of powdery mildew resistance by other breeding programs and a single locus Pl1 has been associated with this resist...

  8. In vivo and in vitro analysis of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Ousmane; Myrick, Alissa; Daily, Johanna; Diop, Bernard M; Dieng, Therese; Ndir, Omar; Sow, Pape Salif; Mboup, Souleymane; Wirth, Dyann F

    2005-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of chloroquine (CQ) resistance markers in Senegal, Plasmodium falciparum DNA polymorphisms in pfmdr1and pfcrt were examined in relation to clinical outcome. Despite CQ treatment, 17% of patients had parasitemia after 28 days. Examination of molecular markers of CQ resistance revealed that 64% of all isolates had the T76 resistant allele at the pfcrt locus, while 30% carried the Y86 resistant allele at the pfmdr1 locus. The pfcrt T76 allele was present not only in all in vivo resistant isolates, 89% of in vitro resistant isolates, but also in 35% of in vitro sensitive isolates. The pfmdr1 N86Y polymorphism did not correlate with in vitro or in vivo CQ resistance. Our data suggest that the pfcrt T76 allele alone is required but not a sufficient predictor for in vivo CQ resistance.

  9. An investigation on the mediating role of coping strategies on locus of control-- wellbeing relationship.

    PubMed

    Thiruchelvi, Arunachalam; Supriya, Mangatvadakkeveetil V

    2012-03-01

    The relationship among coping strategies, locus of control, and workplace wellbeing is examined. The model hypothesizes that coping strategies mediate the relationship between locus of control and work place well being. To test the model, data was collected from 154 software professionals using separate tools to assess coping strategies, locus of control and work place wellbeing. Model fit for the collected data was examined using structural equation modeling technique with the help of AMOS. Results support the view that coping strategies mediate the relationship between locus of control and work place wellbeing. While the path between locus of control and wellbeing is significant, the path between coping distraction and wellbeing is not significant.

  10. Teacher psychological needs, locus of control and engagement.

    PubMed

    Betoret, Fernando Doménech

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among psychological needs, locus of control and engagement in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher needs were identified based on the study of Bess (1977) and on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2002). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the construct selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by conducting hierarchical regression analyses. An analysis of teacher responses using hierarchical regression reveals that psychological needs have significant positive effects on the three engagement dimensions (vigor, dedication and absorption). Furthermore, the results show the moderator role played by locus of control in the relationship between teacher psychological needs and the so-called core of engagement (vigor and dedication). Finally, practical implications are discussed.

  11. The locus of microRNA-10b

    PubMed Central

    Biagioni, Francesca; Bossel Ben-Moshe, Noa; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Yarden, Yosef; Domany, Eytan; Blandino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary microRNA research has led to significant advances in our understanding of the process of tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs participate in different events of a cancer cell’s life, through their ability to target hundreds of putative transcripts involved in almost every cellular function, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation. The relevance of these small molecules is even more evident in light of the emerging linkage between their expression and both prognosis and clinical outcome of many types of human cancers. This identifies microRNAs as potential therapeutic modifiers of cancer phenotypes. From this perspective, we overview here the miR-10b locus and its involvement in cancer, focusing on its role in the establishment (miR-10b*) and spreading (miR-10b) of breast cancer. We conclude that targeting the locus of microRNA 10b holds great potential for cancer treatment. PMID:23839045

  12. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the reptile Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Gambón Deza, Francisco; Sánchez Espinel, Christian; Magadán Mompó, Susana

    2009-05-01

    We describe the entire immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus from the reptile Anolis carolinensis. The heavy chain constant (C(H)) region includes C mu, C delta and C upsilon genes. This is the first description of a C upsilon gene in the reptilian class. Variable (V(H)), diversity (D(H)) and joining (J(H)) genes are located 5' from the constant (C(H)) chain complex locus. The C mu and C upsilon genes encode antibodies with four immunoglobulin domains. The C delta gene encoded an 11 domain delta heavy chain as in Eublepharis macularius. Seventy V(H) genes, belonging to 28 families, were identified, and they can be sorted into five broader groups. The similarity of the organization of the reptilian genes with those of amphibians and mammals suggests the existence of a process of heavy chain genomic reorganization before the radiation of tetrapod vertebrates.

  13. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F.; Gal, A.

    1996-07-12

    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  14. A locus affecting nucleoid segregation in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, M B

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen temperature-sensitive lethal mutations of Salmonella typhimurium map near metC at 65 min and form the clmF (conditional lethal mutation) locus. The mutations in this region were ordered by three-point transduction crosses. After a shift to the nonpermissive temperature, many of these clmF mutants failed to complete the segregation of nucleoids into daughter cells; daughter nucleoids appeared incompletely separated and asymmetrically positioned within cells. Some clmF mutants showed instability of F' episomes at permissive growth temperatures yet showed no detectable defect with smaller multicopy plasmids such as pSC101 or pBR322. In addition, many of the clmF mutants rapidly lost viability yet continued DNA replication at the nonpermissive temperature. These results suggest that the clmF locus encodes at least one indispensable gene product that is required for faithful partitioning of the bacterial nucleoid and F-plasmid replicons. Images PMID:2203751

  15. Locus-specific gene repositioning in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leshner, Marc; Devine, Michelle; Roloff, Gregory W.; True, Lawrence D.; Misteli, Tom; Meaburn, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Genes occupy preferred spatial positions within interphase cell nuclei. However, positioning patterns are not an innate feature of a locus, and genes can alter their localization in response to physiological and pathological changes. Here we screen the radial positioning patterns of 40 genes in normal, hyperplasic, and malignant human prostate tissues. We find that the overall spatial organization of the genome in prostate tissue is largely conserved among individuals. We identify three genes whose nuclear positions are robustly altered in neoplastic prostate tissues. FLI1 and MMP9 position differently in prostate cancer than in normal tissue and prostate hyperplasia, whereas MMP2 is repositioned in both prostate cancer and hyperplasia. Our data point to locus-specific reorganization of the genome during prostate disease. PMID:26564800

  16. The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).

    PubMed

    Gambón-Deza, F; Sánchez-Espinel, C; Magadán-Mompó, S

    2009-08-01

    Immunoglobulins loci in mammals are well known to be organized within a translocon, however their origin remains unresolved. Four of the five classes of immunoglobulins described in humans and rodents (immunoglobulins M, G, E and A-IgM, IgG, IgE and IgA) were found in marsupials and monotremes (immunoglobulin D-IgD was not found) thus showing that the genomic structure of antibodies in mammals has remained constant since its origin. We have recently described the genomic organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in reptiles (IGHM, IGHD and IGHY). These data and the characterization of the IGH locus in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), allow us to elucidate the changes that took place in this genomic region during evolution from reptile to mammal. Thus, by using available genome data, we were able to detect that platypus IGH locus contains reptilian and mammalian genes. Besides having an IGHD that is very similar to the one in reptiles and an IGHY, they also present the mammal specific antibody genes IGHG and IGHE, in addition to IGHA. We also detected a pseudogene that originated by recombination between the IGHD and the IGHM (similar to the IGHD2 found in Eublepharis macularius). The analysis of the IGH locus in platypus shows that IGHY was duplicated, firstly by evolving into IGHE and then into IGHG. The IGHA of the platypus has a complex origin, and probably arose by a process of recombination between the IGHM and the IGHY. We detected about 44 VH genes (25 were already described), most of which comprise a single group. When we compared these VH genes with those described in Anolis carolinensis, we find that there is an evolutionary relationship between the VH genes of platypus and the reptilian Group III genes. These results suggest that a fast VH turnover took place in platypus and this gave rise to a family with a high VH gene number and the disappearance of the earlier VH families.

  17. Mechanisms Underlying the Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus Mcs5a

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Mcs5a2) down regulates the expression of the Fbxo10 gene in the T cells and that this reduced expression is associated with reduced mammary tumor...in primary T cells is conserved between rat and human. We demonstrate that the function of the non-coding Mcs5a locus likely is repressive gene ...regulation. We present a model that begins to explain how the Fbxo10 gene could be regulated in T cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mammary carcinogenesis

  18. The SCL gene is formed from a transcriptionally complex locus.

    PubMed Central

    Aplan, P D; Begley, C G; Bertness, V; Nussmeier, M; Ezquerra, A; Coligan, J; Kirsch, I R

    1990-01-01

    We describe the structural organization of the human SCL gene, a helix-loop-helix family member which we believe plays a fundamental role in hematopoietic differentiation. The SCL locus is composed of eight exons distributed over 16 kb. SCL shows a pattern of expression quite restricted to early hematopoietic tissues, although in malignant states expression of the gene may be somewhat extended into later developmental stages. A detailed analysis of the transcript(s) arising from the SCL locus revealed that (i) the 5' noncoding portion of the SCL transcript, which resides within a CpG island, has a complex pattern of alternative exon utilization as well as two distinct transcription initiation sites; (ii) the 5' portions of the SCL transcript contain features that suggest a possible regulatory role for these segments; (iii) the pattern of utilization of the 5' exons is cell lineage dependent; and (iv) all of the currently studied chromosomal aberrations that affect the SCL locus either structurally or functionally eliminate the normal 5' transcription initiation sites. These data suggest that the SCL gene, and specifically its 5' region, may be a target for regulatory interactions during early hematopoietic development. Images PMID:2247063

  19. Characterization of frequently deleted 6q locus in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Srikantan, Vasantha; Ma, Lanfeng; Li, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Makarem, Mazen; Strovel, Jeffrey W; Horrigan, Stephen G; Augustus, Meena; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Moul, Judd W; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Zou, Zhiqiang; Srivastava, Shiv

    2006-11-01

    The long arm of chromosome 6 is frequently deleted in diverse human neoplasms. Our previous study showed a minimum deletion region between markers D6S1056 and D6S300 on chromosome 6q in primary prostate cancer (CaP). In this study, we further refined a 200-kb minimal region of deletion (6qTSG1) centered around D6S1013 marker. The 6qTSG1 transcripts contained complex multiple splicing variants with low or absent expression in CaP cells. None of the transcripts identified contained open reading frames that code for a protein in the NCBI database. The expression of 6qTSG transcripts revealed interesting hormonal regulation relevant to CaP biology. Expression of 6q TSG transcript was induced in LNCaP cells that were cultured in charcoal-stripped serum medium suggesting an upregulation of 6qTSG transcript by androgen ablation and cell growth inhibition/apoptosis. Induction of 6qTSG1 expression in response to androgen ablation was abrogated in androgen-independent derivatives of LNCaP cells. In summary, we have defined a candidate CaP suppressor locus on chromosome 6q16.1, and deletions of this locus are frequently associated with prostate tumorigenesis. In the light of emerging role of noncoding RNAs in cancer biology including CaP, future investigations of 6qTSG11 locus is warranted.

  20. Genomic characterization of the Atlantic cod sex-locus

    PubMed Central

    Star, Bastiaan; Tørresen, Ole K.; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Pampoulie, Christophe; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    A variety of sex determination mechanisms can be observed in evolutionary divergent teleosts. Sex determination is genetic in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), however the genomic location or size of its sex-locus is unknown. Here, we characterize the sex-locus of Atlantic cod using whole genome sequence (WGS) data of 227 wild-caught specimens. Analyzing more than 55 million polymorphic loci, we identify 166 loci that are associated with sex. These loci are located in six distinct regions on five different linkage groups (LG) in the genome. The largest of these regions, an approximately 55 Kb region on LG11, contains the majority of genotypes that segregate closely according to a XX-XY system. Genotypes in this region can be used genetically determine sex, whereas those in the other regions are inconsistently sex-linked. The identified region on LG11 and its surrounding genes have no clear sequence homology with genes or regulatory elements associated with sex-determination or differentiation in other species. The functionality of this sex-locus therefore remains unknown. The WGS strategy used here proved adequate for detecting the small regions associated with sex in this species. Our results highlight the evolutionary flexibility in genomic architecture underlying teleost sex-determination and allow practical applications to genetically sex Atlantic cod. PMID:27499266

  1. Genetic analysis of the claret locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, W.; Nelson, C.R.; Szauter, P. )

    1989-11-01

    The claret (ca) locus of Drosophila melanogaster comprises two separately mutable domains, one responsible for eye color and one responsible for proper disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis and early cleavage divisions. Previously isolated alleles are of three types: (1) alleles of the claret (ca) type that affect eye color only, (2) alleles of the claret-nondisjunctional (ca{sup nd}) type that affect eye color and chromosome behavior, and (3) a meiotic mutation, non-claret disjunctional (ncd), that affects chromosome behavior only. In order to investigate the genetic structure of the claret locus, the authors have isolated 19 radiation-induced alleles of claret on the basis of the eye color phenotype. Two of these 19 new alleles are of the ca{sup nd} type, while 17 are of the ca type, demonstrating that the two domains do not often act as a single target for mutagenesis. This suggests that the two separately mutable functions are likely to be encoded by separate or overlapping genes rather than by a single gene. One of the new alleles of the ca{sup nd} type is a chromosome rearrangement with a breakpoint at the position of the claret locus. If this breakpoint is the cause of the mutant phenotype and there are no other mutations associated with the rearrangement, the two functions must be encoded by overlapping genes.

  2. Measurement methodology in children's health locus of control.

    PubMed

    Bases, Hugh; Schonfeld, David J

    2002-06-01

    Health locus of control scales for children are often constructed in an agree/disagree format. It was hypothesized that the structure of the instrument may be in part responsible for the finding that young children (7-8 yr) have an external health locus of control relevant to children several years older. The original version and a revised version, using a choice of attribution format, were both administered to 444 students (98% of eligible students) attending 10 second-grade classes. Although the mean scores for the two formats were the same, 32.0 (SD = 3.3), item level analyses showed poor agreement (kappa, -.005-.41) and significant bias in disagreements on 15 of the 20 items. Changes in the wording of the questions led to different results, indicating possible limitations in either format. The observation that young children likely have a mixed health locus of control indicates that health educators may benefit from employing both internal and external sources of reinforcement to promote healthy behaviors in young children.

  3. Congenic mapping and sequence analysis of the Renin locus

    PubMed Central

    Flister, Michael J.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Reddy, Prajwal; Jacob, Howard J.; Moreno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Renin was the first blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapped by linkage analysis in the rat. Subsequent BP linkage and congenic studies capturing different portions of the renin region have returned conflicting results, suggesting that multiple interdependent BP loci may be residing in the chromosome 13 BP QTL that includes Renin. We used SS-13BN congenic strains to map 2 BP loci in the Renin region (chr13:45.2–49.0 Mb). We identified a 1.1 Mb protective Brown Norway (BN) region around Renin (chr13:46.1–47.2 Mb) that significantly decreased BP by 32 mmHg. The Renin protective BP locus was offset by an adjacent hypertensive locus (chr13:47.2–49.0 Mb) that significantly increased BP by 29 mmHg. Sequence analysis of the protective and hypertensive BP loci revealed 1,433 and 2,063 variants between Dahl salt-sensitive/Mcwi (SS) and BN rats, respectively. To further reduce the list of candidate variants, we re-genotyped an overlapping SS-13SR congenic strain (S/renrr) with a previously reported BP phenotype. Sequence comparison between SS, Dahl R (SR), and BN reduced the number of candidate variants in the 2 BP loci by 42% for further study. Combined with previous studies, these data suggest that at least 4 BP loci reside within the 30 cM chromosome 13 BP QTL that includes Renin. PMID:23460292

  4. Transvection at the vestigial locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Alistair B; Nolan, Nadia; Bell, John B; Hilliker, Arthur J

    2005-08-01

    Transvection is a phenomenon wherein gene expression is effected by the interaction of alleles in trans and often results in partial complementation between mutant alleles. Transvection is dependent upon somatic pairing between homologous chromosome regions and is a form of interallelic complementation that does not occur at the polypeptide level. In this study we demonstrated that transvection could occur at the vestigial (vg) locus by revealing that partial complementation between two vg mutant alleles could be disrupted by changing the genomic location of the alleles through chromosome rearrangement. If chromosome rearrangements affect transvection by disrupting somatic pairing, then combining chromosome rearrangements that restore somatic pairing should restore transvection. We were able to restore partial complementation in numerous rearrangement trans-heterozygotes, thus providing substantial evidence that the observed complementation at vg results from a transvection effect. Cytological analyses revealed this transvection effect to have a large proximal critical region, a feature common to other transvection effects. In the Drosophila interphase nucleus, paired chromosome arms are separated into distinct, nonoverlapping domains. We propose that if the relative position of each arm in the nucleus is determined by the centromere as a relic of chromosome positions after the last mitotic division, then a locus will be displaced to a different territory of the interphase nucleus relative to its nonrearranged homolog by any rearrangement that links that locus to a different centromere. This physical displacement in the nucleus hinders transvection by disrupting the somatic pairing of homologous chromosomes and gives rise to proximal critical regions.

  5. Interarticulator phasing, locus equations, and degree of coarticulation.

    PubMed

    Löfqvist, A

    1999-10-01

    A locus equation plots the frequency of the second formant at vowel onset against the target frequency of the same formant for the vowel in a consonant-vowel sequence, across different vowel contexts. It has generally been assumed that the slope of the locus equation reflects the degree of coarticulation between the consonant and the vowel, with a steeper slope showing more coarticulation. This study examined the articulatory basis for this assumption. Four subjects participated and produced VCV sequences of the consonants /b, d, g/ and the vowels /i, a, u/. The movements of the tongue and the lips were recorded using a magnetometer system. One articulatory measure was the temporal phasing between the onset of the lip closing movement for the bilabial consonant and the onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel in a VCV sequence. A second measure was the magnitude of the tongue movement during the oral stop closure, averaged across four receivers on the tongue. A third measure was the magnitude of the tongue movement from the onset of the second vowel to the tongue position for that vowel. When compared with the corresponding locus equations, no measure showed any support for the assumption that the slope serves as an index of the degree of coarticulation between the consonant and the vowel.

  6. The Effects of Locus of Control and Task Difficulty on Procrastination.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Tracy; Carton, John S

    1999-12-01

    The authors investigated the effects of locus of control expectancies and task difficulty on procrastination. Forty-two college students were administered an academic locus of control scale and a task that was similar to a typical college homework assignment. The students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 task difficulty levels. Although none of the results involving task difficulty was significant, several results involving locus of control were significant. Specifically, analyses revealed that students with internal locus of control expectancies tended to begin working on the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control expectancies. In addition, students with internal locus of control completed and returned the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control. The results are discussed within the context of J. B. Rotter's (1966, 1975, 1982) social learning theory.

  7. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Brozyna, Jeremy R; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by "nutritional immunity" to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking "nutritional immunity".

  8. Competing for Iron: Duplication and Amplification of the isd Locus in Staphylococcus lugdunensis HKU09-01 Provides a Competitive Advantage to Overcome Nutritional Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Heilbronner, Simon; Brozyna, Jeremy R.; Heinrichs, David E.; Skaar, Eric P.; Peschel, Andreas; Foster, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative bacterial pathogen that is particularly associated with severe cases of infectious endocarditis. Unique amongst the coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. lugdunensis harbors an iron regulated surface determinant locus (isd). This locus facilitates the acquisition of heme as a source of nutrient iron during infection and allows iron limitation caused by “nutritional immunity” to be overcome. The isd locus is duplicated in S. lugdunensis HKU09-01 and we show here that the duplication is intrinsically unstable and undergoes accordion-like amplification and segregation leading to extensive isd copy number variation. Amplification of the locus increased the level of expression of Isd proteins and improved binding of hemoglobin to the cell surface of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, Isd overexpression provided an advantage when strains were competing for a limited amount of hemoglobin as the sole source of iron. Gene duplications and amplifications (GDA) are events of fundamental importance for bacterial evolution and are frequently associated with antibiotic resistance in many species. As such, GDAs are regarded as evolutionary adaptions to novel selective pressures in hostile environments pointing towards a special importance of isd for S. lugdunensis. For the first time we show an example of a GDA that involves a virulence factor of a Gram-positive pathogen and link the GDA directly to a competitive advantage when the bacteria were struggling with selective pressures mimicking “nutritional immunity”. PMID:27575058

  9. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. ); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. ); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. )

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Cia27 is a novel non-MHC arthritis severity locus on rat chromosome 10 syntenic to the rheumatoid arthritis 17q22-q25 locus.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Laragione, T; Yarlett, N C; Li, W; Mello, A; Gulko, P S

    2006-07-01

    Cia27 on rat chromosome 10 is a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) severity quantitative trait locus originally identified in a study of (DA x ACI) F2. As an initial step towards the positional cloning of the Cia27 gene, a 17 cM (21 Mb) interval from the DA strain (arthritis-susceptible) containing the two-logarithm of odds support interval comprising Cia27 was introgressed into the ACI (arthritis-resistant) background through genotype-guided congenic breeding. ACI.DA(Cia27) congenics developed a significantly more severe form of arthritis (CIA), with a 5.9-fold increase in median arthritis severity index, a parameter known to correlate with synovial inflammation, and cartilage and bone erosions, compared with ACI (P< or =0.001). The arthritis severity enhancing effect could be detected from day 21 onwards. Rats heterozygous at the congenic interval developed a disease similar to ACI rats, suggesting that DA alleles operate in a recessive manner. Levels of autoantibodies anti-rat type II collagen did not correlate with arthritis severity. Synovial tissue mRNA levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) were significantly increased in ACI.DA(Cia27) congenics compared with ACI. These results demonstrate that Cia27 harbors a novel arthritis severity regulatory gene. The identification of this gene should facilitate the identification of the rheumatoid arthritis gene mapped to the human syntenic region on chromosome 17q22-q25.

  11. Regulation of daunorubicin production in Streptomyces peucetius by the dnrR2 locus.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S L; Ferguson, J; Hutchinson, C R

    1995-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the dnrR2 locus from the cluster of daunorubicin biosynthesis genes in Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 has revealed the presence of two divergently transcribed open reading frames, dnrN and dnrO. The dnrN gene appears to encode a response regulator protein on the basis of conservation of the deduced amino acid sequence relative to those of known response regulators and the properties of the dnrN::aphII mutant. Surprisingly, amino acid substitutions (glutamate and asparagine) at the putative site of phosphorylation (aspartate 55) resulted in a reduction rather than a complete loss of DnrN activity. The deduced DnrO protein was found to be similar to the Streptomyces glaucescens tetracenomycin C resistance gene repressor (TcmR) and to two Escherichia coli repressors, the biotin operon repressor (BirA) and the tetracycline resistance gene repressor (TetR). The dnrN::aphII mutation was suppressed by introduction of the dnrI gene on a plasmid. Since the introduction of dnrN failed to restore antibiotic production to a dnrI::aphII mutant, these data suggest the presence of a regulatory cascade in which dnrN activates the transcription of dnrI, which in turn activates transcription of the daunorubicin biosynthesis genes. PMID:7868594

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in the family Streptomycetaceae using multi-locus sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Labeda, David P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Doroghazi, James R; Ju, Kou-San; Metcalf, William W

    2017-04-01

    The family Streptomycetaceae, notably species in the genus Streptomyces, have long been the subject of investigation due to their well-known ability to produce secondary metabolites. The emergence of drug resistant pathogens and the relative ease of producing genome sequences has renewed the importance of Streptomyces as producers of new natural products and resulted in revived efforts in isolating and describing strains from novel environments. A previous large study of the phylogeny in the Streptomycetaceae based on 16S rRNA gene sequences provided a useful framework for the relationships among species, but did not always have sufficient resolution to provide definitive identification. Multi-locus sequence analysis of 5 house-keeping genes has been shown to provide improved taxonomic resolution of Streptomyces species in a number of previous reports so a comprehensive study was undertaken to evaluate evolutionary relationships among species within the family Streptomycetaceae where type strains are available in the ARS Culture Collection or genome sequences are available in GenBank. The results of the analysis supported the distinctiveness of Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus as validly named genera since they cluster outside of the phylogenetic radiation of the genus Streptomyces. There is also support for the transfer of a number of Streptomyces species to the genus Kitasatospora as well for reducing at least 31 species clusters to a single taxon. The multi-locus sequence database resulting from the study is a useful tool for identification of new isolates and the phylogenetic analysis presented also provides a road map for planning future genome sequencing efforts in the Streptomycetaceae.

  13. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Confers BRG1 Dependency on the CIITA Locus.

    PubMed

    Abou El Hassan, Mohamed; Yu, Tao; Song, Lan; Bremner, Rod

    2015-05-15

    CIITA (or MHC2TA) coordinates constitutive and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II genes. IFN-γ responsiveness of CIITA requires BRG1 (SMARCA4), the ATPase engine of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex (also called BAF). SWI/SNF is defective in many human cancers, providing a mechanism to explain IFN-γ resistance. BRG1 dependency is mediated through remote elements. Short CIITA reporters lacking these elements respond to IFN-γ, even in BRG1-deficient cells, suggesting that BRG1 counters a remote repressive influence. The nature of this distal repressor is unknown, but it would represent a valuable therapeutic target to reactivate IFN-γ responsiveness in cancer. In this article, we show that the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components EZH2 and SUZ12, as well as the associated histone mark H3K27me3, are codetected at interenhancer regions across the CIITA locus. IFN-γ caused a BRG1-dependent reduction in H3K27me3, associated with nucleosome displacement. SUZ12 knockdown restored IFN-γ responsiveness in BRG1-null cells, and it mimicked the ability of BRG1 to induce active histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me) at the -50-kb enhancer. Thus, PRC2 confers BRG1 dependency on the CIITA locus. Our data suggest that, in addition to its known roles in promoting stemness and proliferation, PRC2 may inhibit immune surveillance, and it could be targeted to reactivate CIITA expression in SWI/SNF deficient cancers.

  14. Extensive genetic diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger 1 transporter protein implicated in quinine resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Sumiti; Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; Upadhyay, Mala; Das, Manoj K; Dev, Vas; Singh, Neeru; Dash, Aditya P; Sharma, Yagya D

    2007-12-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (Pfnhe-1) locus at chromosome 13 and another locus at chromosome 9 have recently been proposed to influence quinine resistance. Here, we sequenced the ms4760 locus of the Pfnhe-1 gene from 244 P. falciparum isolates collected from five different regions of India. A total of 16 different ms4760 alleles (with one to five DNNND repeats) were observed among these isolates. Interestingly, areas with a high prevalence of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance showed more Pfnhe-1 DNNND repeats compared to low drug resistance areas. The extent of genetic diversity at the ms4760 locus also varied from one region to another, with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.47 to 0.88.

  15. Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Sonja; Blanquart, François; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Turner, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance. In this work, we propose a mechanism for maintaining coexistence at the resistance locus: linkage to a second locus that is under balancing selection and that modulates the fitness effect of resistance. We show that duration of carriage plays such a role, with long duration of carriage increasing the fitness advantage gained from resistance. We therefore predict that resistance will be more common in strains with a long duration of carriage and that mechanisms maintaining diversity in duration of carriage will also maintain diversity in antibiotic resistance. We test these predictions in S. pneumoniae and find that the duration of carriage of a serotype is indeed positively correlated with the prevalence of resistance in that serotype. These findings suggest heterogeneity in duration of carriage is a partial explanation for the coexistence of sensitive and resistant strains and that factors determining bacterial duration of carriage will also affect the prevalence of resistance. PMID:28096340

  16. Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Sonja; Blanquart, François; Croucher, Nicholas J; Turner, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-31

    Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance. In this work, we propose a mechanism for maintaining coexistence at the resistance locus: linkage to a second locus that is under balancing selection and that modulates the fitness effect of resistance. We show that duration of carriage plays such a role, with long duration of carriage increasing the fitness advantage gained from resistance. We therefore predict that resistance will be more common in strains with a long duration of carriage and that mechanisms maintaining diversity in duration of carriage will also maintain diversity in antibiotic resistance. We test these predictions in S. pneumoniae and find that the duration of carriage of a serotype is indeed positively correlated with the prevalence of resistance in that serotype. These findings suggest heterogeneity in duration of carriage is a partial explanation for the coexistence of sensitive and resistant strains and that factors determining bacterial duration of carriage will also affect the prevalence of resistance.

  17. Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chun; Yu, Kangfu; Xie, Weilong; Perry, Gregory; Navabi, Alireza; Pauls, K Peter; Miklas, Phillip N; Fourie, Deidré

    2012-11-01

    Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region markers BC420 and SU91, are located at chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. Using map-based cloning approach, four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BC420-QTL locus and one BAC clone containing SU91 were sequenced by Roche 454 technique and subsequently assembled using merged assemblies from three different programs. Based on the quality of the assembly, only the sequences of BAC 32H6 and 4K7 were used for candidate gene marker (CGM) development and candidate gene (CG) selection. For the BC420-QTL locus, 21 novel genes were predicted in silico by FGENESH using Medicago gene model, whereas 16 genes were identified in the SU91-QTL locus. For each putative gene, one or more primer pairs were designed and tested in the contrasting near isogenic lines. Overall, six and nine polymorphic markers were found in the SU91- and BC420-QTL loci, respectively. Afterwards, association mapping was conducted in a breeding population of 395 dry bean lines to discover marker-trait associations. Two CGMs per each locus showed better association with CBB resistance than the BC420 and SU91 markers, which include BC420-CG10B and BC420-CG14 for BC420_QTL locus, and SU91-CG10 and SU91-CG11 for SU91_QTL locus. The strong associations between CBB resistance and the CGs 10 and 14 from BC420_QTL locus and the CGs 10 and 11 from SU91_QTL locus indicate that the genes 10 and 14 from the BC420 locus are potential CGs underlying the BC420_QTL locus, whereas the genes 10 and 11 from the SU91 locus are potential CGs underlying the SU91_QTL locus. The superiority of SU91-CG11 was further validated in a recombinant inbred line population Sanilac × OAC 09-3. Thus, co-dominant CGMs, BC420-CG14 and

  18. Parallel evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin resistance in lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Simon W; Badenes-Pérez, Francisco R; Morrison, Anna; Vogel, Heiko; Crickmore, Neil; Kain, Wendy; Wang, Ping; Heckel, David G; Jiggins, Chris D

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prominent and worldwide use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins in agriculture, knowledge of the mechanism by which they kill pests remains incomplete. Here we report genetic mapping of a membrane transporter (ABCC2) to a locus controlling Bt Cry1Ac toxin resistance in two lepidopterans, implying that this protein plays a critical role in Bt function.

  19. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  20. Resistance-Resistant Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    New antibiotics are needed because as drug resistance is increasing, the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. Here, we discuss six possible approaches to develop ‘resistance-resistant’ antibiotics. First, multi-target inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy due to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, re-purposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multi-target therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and in some cases suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored, in otherwise drug resistant organisms. PMID:25458541

  1. Characterization of rice blast resistance gene Pi61(t) in rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of resistance (R) genes to races of Magnaporthe oryzae in rice germplasm is essential for the development of rice cultivars with long lasting blast resistance. In the present study, one major quantitative trait locus, qPi93-3, was fine mapped using a recombinant inbred line (RIL), F8 ...

  2. A spontaneous segmental deletion from chromosome arm 3DL enhances Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much effort has been directed at identifying sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. We sought to identify molecular markers for what we hypothesized was a new major FHB resistance locus originating from the wheat cultivar 'Freedom' and introgressed into the susceptible wheat c...

  3. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  4. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  5. Locus minimization in breed prediction using artificial neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Iquebal, M A; Ansari, M S; Sarika; Dixit, S P; Verma, N K; Aggarwal, R A K; Jayakumar, S; Rai, A; Kumar, D

    2014-12-01

    Molecular markers, viz. microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms, have revolutionized breed identification through the use of small samples of biological tissue or germplasm, such as blood, carcass samples, embryos, ova and semen, that show no evident phenotype. Classical tools of molecular data analysis for breed identification have limitations, such as the unavailability of referral breed data, causing increased cost of collection each time, compromised computational accuracy and complexity of the methodology used. We report here the successful use of an artificial neural network (ANN) in background to decrease the cost of genotyping by locus minimization. The webserver is freely accessible (http://nabg.iasri.res.in/bisgoat) to the research community. We demonstrate that the machine learning (ANN) approach for breed identification is capable of multifold advantages such as locus minimization, leading to a drastic reduction in cost, and web availability of reference breed data, alleviating the need for repeated genotyping each time one investigates the identity of an unknown breed. To develop this model web implementation based on ANN, we used 51,850 samples of allelic data of microsatellite-marker-based DNA fingerprinting on 25 loci covering 22 registered goat breeds of India for training. Minimizing loci to up to nine loci through the use of a multilayer perceptron model, we achieved 96.63% training accuracy. This server can be an indispensable tool for identification of existing breeds and new synthetic commercial breeds, leading to protection of intellectual property in case of sovereignty and bio-piracy disputes. This server can be widely used as a model for cost reduction by locus minimization for various other flora and fauna in terms of variety, breed and/or line identification, especially in conservation and improvement programs.

  6. Role of a Putative Polysaccharide Locus in Bordetella Biofilm Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Gina; Mishra, Meenu; Itoh, Yoshikane; Romeo, Tony; Deora, Rajendar

    2007-01-01

    Bordetellae are gram-negative bacteria that colonize the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. We and others have recently shown that these bacteria are capable of living as sessile communities known as biofilms on a number of abiotic surfaces. During the biofilm mode of existence, bacteria produce one or more extracellular polymeric substances that function, in part, to hold the cells together and to a surface. There is little information on either the constituents of the biofilm matrix or the genetic basis of biofilm development by Bordetella spp. By utilizing immunoblot assays and by enzymatic hydrolysis using dispersin B (DspB), a glycosyl hydrolase that specifically cleaves the polysaccharide poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (poly-β-1,6-GlcNAc), we provide evidence for the production of poly-β-1,6-GlcNAc by various Bordetella species (Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, and B. parapertussis) and its role in their biofilm development. We have investigated the role of a Bordetella locus, here designated bpsABCD, in biofilm formation. The bps (Bordetella polysaccharide) locus is homologous to several bacterial loci that are required for the production of poly-β-1,6-GlcNAc and have been implicated in bacterial biofilm formation. By utilizing multiple microscopic techniques to analyze biofilm formation under both static and hydrodynamic conditions, we demonstrate that the bps locus, although not essential at the initial stages of biofilm formation, contributes to the stability and the maintenance of the complex architecture of Bordetella biofilms. PMID:17114249

  7. Genetic Locus for Streptolysin S Production by Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Nizet, Victor; Beall, Bernard; Bast, Darrin J.; Datta, Vivekananda; Kilburn, Laurie; Low, Donald E.; De Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 66:1671–1679, 1998). Using transposon mutagenesis, chromosomal walking steps, and data from the GAS genome sequencing project (www.genome.ou.edu/strep.html), we have now identified a contiguous nine-gene locus (sagA to sagI) involved in SLS production. The sag locus is conserved among GAS strains regardless of M protein type. Targeted plasmid integrational mutagenesis of each gene in the sag operon resulted in an SLS-negative phenotype. Targeted integrations (i) upstream of the sagA promoter and (ii) downstream of a terminator sequence after sagI did not affect SLS production, establishing the functional boundaries of the operon. A rho-independent terminator sequence between sagA and sagB appears to regulate the amount of sagA transcript produced versus transcript for the entire operon. Reintroduction of the nine-gene sag locus on a plasmid vector restored SLS activity to the nonhemolytic sagA knockout mutant. Finally, heterologous expression of the intact sag operon conferred the SLS beta-hemolytic phenotype to the nonhemolytic Lactococcus lactis. We conclude that gene products of the GAS sag operon are both necessary and sufficient for SLS production. Sequence homologies of sag operon gene products suggest that SLS is related to the bacteriocin family of microbial toxins. PMID:10858242

  8. Genetic locus for streptolysin S production by group A streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Nizet, V; Beall, B; Bast, D J; Datta, V; Kilburn, L; Low, D E; De Azavedo, J C

    2000-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 66:1671-1679, 1998). Using transposon mutagenesis, chromosomal walking steps, and data from the GAS genome sequencing project (www.genome.ou.edu/strep. html), we have now identified a contiguous nine-gene locus (sagA to sagI) involved in SLS production. The sag locus is conserved among GAS strains regardless of M protein type. Targeted plasmid integrational mutagenesis of each gene in the sag operon resulted in an SLS-negative phenotype. Targeted integrations (i) upstream of the sagA promoter and (ii) downstream of a terminator sequence after sagI did not affect SLS production, establishing the functional boundaries of the operon. A rho-independent terminator sequence between sagA and sagB appears to regulate the amount of sagA transcript produced versus transcript for the entire operon. Reintroduction of the nine-gene sag locus on a plasmid vector restored SLS activity to the nonhemolytic sagA knockout mutant. Finally, heterologous expression of the intact sag operon conferred the SLS beta-hemolytic phenotype to the nonhemolytic Lactococcus lactis. We conclude that gene products of the GAS sag operon are both necessary and sufficient for SLS production. Sequence homologies of sag operon gene products suggest that SLS is related to the bacteriocin family of microbial toxins.

  9. Platinum coat color locus in the deer mouse.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K M; Dawson, W D; Van Ooteghem, S O; Cushing, B S; Haigh, G R

    1987-01-01

    Platinum coat color in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, is an autosomal recessive trait marking a locus, pt, distinct from silver (si), albino (c), blonde (bl), brown (b), and agouti (a). Platinum deer mice are conspicuously pale, with light ears and tail stripe. The pewter trait is allelic with and phenotypically identical to platinum, and represents an independent recurrence of this mutant. The rate of recoveries of coat color mutations from wild deer mice is consistent with available data for recurring mutation rates balanced by strong selection against the recessive phenotype.

  10. Semiparametric approach to match probability calculations using single locus probes.

    PubMed

    Cao, R; Alemany, J; Cabrero, C; Carracedo, A; Díez, A; Valverde, E

    1996-01-01

    A semiparametric approach to match probability calculations using single locus probes has been developed and compared graphically with other standard methods by a one-sample simulation. The density functions obtained using this method are closer to the real distributions than those obtained by conventional approaches. Our method does not need to establish an arbitrary match threshold, which has been a source of problems in practical applications of standard methods. Moreover, it can be adjusted to any particular conditions by setting the experimental error and correlation of each laboratory. To assess the practical performance of this method we carried out a comparison experiment using a sample of 229 individuals analysed in duplicate.

  11. Recent advances of flowering locus T gene in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

  12. Locus of control and home mortgage loan behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingji; Chen, Hong; Wang, Lei

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of locus of control on home mortgage loan behaviours. The results showed that participants with stronger external control were more likely to purchase a lower priced home, have a lower ratio of mortgage loan amount to the total home value, and have a shorter term of mortgage loan. Moreover, among participants who have owned a home, those not using mortgage loans showed more external control than those using mortgage loans; among participants who have not owned a home but want to buy a home, those not planning to use mortgage loans showed more external control than those planning to use mortgage loans.

  13. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  14. Role of health locus of control between uncertainty and uncertainty appraisal among patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Younhee

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of health locus of control in the model of uncertainty in illness among patients with atrial fibrillation. This study employed a descriptive, correlational survey. A total of 81 patients with atrial fibrillation were recruited from two large medical centers in the United States. Only the interaction term of uncertainty and internal health locus of control had a significant moderating effect on appraisal of danger. Greater internal health locus of control was associated with greater appraisal of danger at the given degree of uncertainty. Therefore, the internal health locus of control played a significant role in magnifying the relationship of uncertainty on appraisal of danger. However, health locus of control did not moderate the relationship between uncertainty and appraisal of opportunity. Finally, this study concluded that internal health locus of control had a moderating effect on the relationship between uncertainty and appraisal of danger.

  15. Preserving rice quality: fine mapping and introgressing a fissure resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring is a major concern of both rice producers and millers. Fissures are small cracks in the rice kernels that increase the percentage of breakage among the kernels when they are transported and milled, which decreases the value of processed rice. This study employ...

  16. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  17. Genome-wide association study for type 2 diabetes in Indians identifies a new susceptibility locus at 2q21.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Rubina; Chauhan, Ganesh; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Mahajan, Anubha; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaur, Ismeet; Bandesh, Khushdeep; Singh, Tejbir; Mathai, Benan John; Pandey, Yogesh; Chidambaram, Manickam; Sharma, Amitabh; Chavali, Sreenivas; Sengupta, Shantanu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Aggarwal, Sanjay K; Ghosh, Saurabh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Srinath, Reddy K; Saxena, Madhukar; Banerjee, Monisha; Mathur, Sandeep; Bhansali, Anil; Shah, Viral N; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Marwaha, Raman K; Basu, Analabha; Scaria, Vinod; McCarthy, Mark I; Venkatesan, Radha; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2013-03-01

    Indians undergoing socioeconomic and lifestyle transitions will be maximally affected by epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of T2D in 12,535 Indians, a less explored but high-risk group. We identified a new type 2 diabetes-associated locus at 2q21, with the lead signal being rs6723108 (odds ratio 1.31; P = 3.32 × 10⁻⁹). Imputation analysis refined the signal to rs998451 (odds ratio 1.56; P = 6.3 × 10⁻¹²) within TMEM163 that encodes a probable vesicular transporter in nerve terminals. TMEM163 variants also showed association with decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, indicating a plausible effect through impaired insulin secretion. The 2q21 region also harbors RAB3GAP1 and ACMSD; those are involved in neurologic disorders. Forty-nine of 56 previously reported signals showed consistency in direction with similar effect sizes in Indians and previous studies, and 25 of them were also associated (P < 0.05). Known loci and the newly identified 2q21 locus altogether explained 7.65% variance in the risk of T2D in Indians. Our study suggests that common susceptibility variants for T2D are largely the same across populations, but also reveals a population-specific locus and provides further insights into genetic architecture and etiology of T2D.

  18. A new and simple method to construct root locus of general fractional-order systems.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mukesh D; Vyawahare, Vishwesh A; Bhole, Manisha K

    2014-03-01

    Recently fractional-order (FO) differential equations are widely used in the areas of modeling and control. They are multivalued in nature hence their stability is defined using Riemann surfaces. The stability analysis of FO linear systems using the technique of Root Locus is the main focus of this paper. Procedure to plot root locus of FO systems in s-plane has been proposed by many authors, which are complicated, and analysis using these methods is also difficult and incomplete. In this paper, we have proposed a simple method of plotting root locus of FO systems. In the proposed method, the FO system is transformed into its integer-order counterpart and then root locus of this transformed system is plotted. It is shown with the help of examples that the root locus of this transformed system (which is obviously very easy to plot) has exactly the same shape and structure as the root locus of the original FO system. So stability of the FO system can be directly deduced and analyzed from the root locus of the transformed IO system. This proposed procedure of developing and analyzing the root locus of FO systems is much easier and straightforward than the existing methods suggested in the literature. This root locus plot is used to comment about the stability of FO system. It also gives the range for the amplifier gain k required to maintain this stability. The reliability of the method is verified with analytical calculations.

  19. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  20. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training.

  1. Role of Oculoproprioception in Coding the Locus of Attention.

    PubMed

    Odoj, Bartholomaeus; Balslev, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    The most common neural representations for spatial attention encode locations retinotopically, relative to center of gaze. To keep track of visual objects across saccades or to orient toward sounds, retinotopic representations must be combined with information about the rotation of one's own eyes in the orbits. Although gaze input is critical for a correct allocation of attention, the source of this input has so far remained unidentified. Two main signals are available: corollary discharge (copy of oculomotor command) and oculoproprioception (feedback from extraocular muscles). Here we asked whether the oculoproprioceptive signal relayed from the somatosensory cortex contributes to coding the locus of attention. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over a human oculoproprioceptive area in the postcentral gyrus (S1EYE). S1EYE-cTBS reduces proprioceptive processing, causing ∼1° underestimation of gaze angle. Participants discriminated visual targets whose location was cued in a nonvisual modality. Throughout the visual space, S1EYE-cTBS shifted the locus of attention away from the cue by ∼1°, in the same direction and by the same magnitude as the oculoproprioceptive bias. This systematic shift cannot be attributed to visual mislocalization. Accuracy of open-loop pointing to the same visual targets, a function thought to rely mainly on the corollary discharge, was unchanged. We argue that oculoproprioception is selective for attention maps. By identifying a potential substrate for the coupling between eye and attention, this study contributes to the theoretical models for spatial attention.

  2. The Locus analytical framework for indoor localization and tracking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, Olga E.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining location information can be of paramount importance in the context of pervasive and context-aware computing applications. Many systems have been proposed to date, e.g. GPS that has been proven to offer satisfying results in outdoor areas. The increased effect of large and small scale fading in indoor environments, however, makes localization a challenge. This is particularly reflected in the multitude of different systems that have been proposed in the context of indoor localization (e.g. RADAR, Cricket etc). The performance of such systems is often validated on vastly different test beds and conditions, making performance comparisons difficult and often irrelevant. The Locus analytical framework incorporates algorithms from multiple disciplines such as channel modeling, non-uniform random number generation, computational geometry, localization, tracking and probabilistic modeling etc. in order to provide: (a) fast and accurate signal propagation simulation, (b) fast experimentation with localization and tracking algorithms and (c) an in-depth analysis methodology for estimating the performance limits of any Received Signal Strength localization system. Simulation results for the well-known Fingerprinting and Trilateration algorithms are herein presented and validated with experimental data collected in real conditions using IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee modules. The analysis shows that the Locus framework accurately predicts the underlying distribution of the localization error and produces further estimates of the system's performance limitations (in a best-case/worst-case scenario basis).

  3. Novel Locus FER Is Associated With Serum HMW Adiponectin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Menzaghi, Claudia; Salvemini, Lucia; De Bonis, Concetta; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is a predominant isoform of circulating adiponectin and has been related to type 2 diabetes. Previous linkage studies suggest that different genetic components might be involved in determining HMW and total adiponectin levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum HMW adiponectin levels in individuals of European ancestry drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) (N = 1,591). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the GWAS analysis were replicated in an independent cohort of Europeans (N = 626). We examined the associations of the identified variations with diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome. RESULTS We identified a novel locus near the FER gene (5q21) at a genome-wide significance level, best represented by SNP rs10447248 (P = 4.69 × 10−8). We also confirmed that variations near the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus (3q27) were related to serum HMW adiponectin levels. In addition, we found that FER SNP rs10447248 was related to HDL cholesterol levels (P = 0.009); ADIPOQ variation was associated with fasting glucose (P = 0.04), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.04), and a metabolic syndrome score (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that different loci may be involved in regulation of circulating HMW adiponectin levels and provide novel insight into the mechanisms that affect HMW adiponectin homeostasis. PMID:21700879

  4. Geographic distribution of haplotype diversity at the bovine casein locus

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Oliver C; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Özbeyaz, Ceyhan; Zaragoza, Pilar; Williams, John L; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Lenstra, Johannes A; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katy; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the casein locus in cattle was studied on the basis of haplotype analysis. Consideration of recently described genetic variants of the casein genes which to date have not been the subject of diversity studies, allowed the identification of new haplotypes. Genotyping of 30 cattle breeds from four continents revealed a geographically associated distribution of haplotypes, mainly defined by frequencies of alleles at CSN1S1 and CSN3. The genetic diversity within taurine breeds in Europe was found to decrease significantly from the south to the north and from the east to the west. Such geographic patterns of cattle genetic variation at the casein locus may be a result of the domestication process of modern cattle as well as geographically differentiated natural or artificial selection. The comparison of African Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds allowed the identification of several Bos indicus specific haplotypes (CSN1S1*C-CSN2*A2-CSN3*AI/CSN3*H) that are not found in pure taurine breeds. The occurrence of such haplotypes in southern European breeds also suggests that an introgression of indicine genes into taurine breeds could have contributed to the distribution of the genetic variation observed. PMID:15040901

  5. The locus for bovine dilated cardiomyopathy maps to chromosome 18.

    PubMed

    Guziewicz, K E; Owczarek-Lipska, M; Küffer, J; Schelling, C; Tontis, A; Denis, C; Eggen, A; Leeb, T; Dolf, G; Braunschweig, M H

    2007-06-01

    Bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (BDCMP) is a severe and terminal disease of the heart muscle observed in Holstein-Friesian cattle over the last 30 years. There is strong evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for BDCMP. The objective of this study was to genetically map BDCMP, with the ultimate goal of identifying the causative mutation. A whole-genome scan using 199 microsatellite markers and one SNP revealed an assignment of BDCMP to BTA18. Fine-mapping on BTA18 refined the candidate region to the MSBDCMP06-BMS2785 interval. The interval containing the BDCMP locus was confirmed by multipoint linkage analysis using the software loki. The interval is about 6.7 Mb on the bovine genome sequence (Btau 3.1). The corresponding region of HSA19 is very gene-rich and contains roughly 200 genes. Although telomeric of the marker interval, TNNI3 is a possible positional and a functional candidate for BDCMP given its involvement in a human form of dilated cardiomyopathy. Sequence analysis of TNNI3 in cattle revealed no mutation in the coding sequence, but there was a G-to-A transition in intron 6 (AJ842179:c.378+315G>A). The analysis of this SNP using the study's BDCMP pedigree did not conclusively exclude TNNI3 as a candidate gene for BDCMP. Considering the high density of genes on the homologous region of HSA19, further refinement of the interval on BTA18 containing the BDCMP locus is needed.

  6. Histamine excites noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Tatiana M; Sergeeva, Olga A; Ponomarenko, Alexei A; Haas, Helmut L

    2005-07-01

    Histamine is implicated in the control of many brain functions, in particular the control of arousal. Histaminergic neurons send dense projections through the entire brain, including the locus coeruleus (LC)--the main noradrenergic (NAergic) nucleus. In this study, we have examined the effect of bath-applied histamine on cells in the LC by single-unit recordings in slices and the expression of histamine receptors in this area by single-cell RT-PCR. Histamine (10 microM) increased the firing of NAergic cells to 130+/-9% of control, 100 microM to 256+/-58% of control. This excitation was unaffected by blocking synaptic transmission. Histamine-mediated excitation was blocked by an H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, in 78% of cells and by cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, in 42% of cells, but not by the H3 receptor antagonist, thioperamide. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA for the H1 receptor was expressed in 77% of isolated LC neurons, mRNA for the H2 receptor in 41% of LC neurons and H3 receptors in 29%. These findings underline the coordination between aminergic systems and suggest that the arousal induced by the histamine system could involve excitation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus.

  7. Locus equations and coarticulation in three Australian languages.

    PubMed

    Graetzer, Simone; Fletcher, Janet; Hajek, John

    2015-02-01

    Locus equations were applied to F2 data for bilabial, alveolar, retroflex, palatal, and velar plosives in three Australian languages. In addition, F2 variance at the vowel-consonant boundary, and, by extension, consonantal coarticulatory sensitivity, was measured. The locus equation slopes revealed that there were place-dependent differences in the magnitude of vowel-to-consonant coarticulation. As in previous studies, the non-coronal (bilabial and velar) consonants tended to be associated with the highest slopes, palatal consonants tended to be associated with the lowest slopes, and alveolar and retroflex slopes tended to be low to intermediate. Similarly, F2 variance measurements indicated that non-coronals displayed greater coarticulatory sensitivity to adjacent vowels than did coronals. Thus, both the magnitude of vowel-to-consonant coarticulation and the magnitude of consonantal coarticulatory sensitivity were seen to vary inversely with the magnitude of consonantal articulatory constraint. The findings indicated that, unlike results reported previously for European languages such as English, anticipatory vowel-to-consonant coarticulation tends to exceed carryover coarticulation in these Australian languages. Accordingly, on the F2 variance measure, consonants tended to be more sensitive to the coarticulatory effects of the following vowel. Prosodic prominence of vowels was a less significant factor in general, although certain language-specific patterns were observed.

  8. Drosophila histone locus bodies form by hierarchical recruitment of components

    PubMed Central

    White, Anne E.; Burch, Brandon D.; Yang, Xiao-cui; Gasdaska, Pamela Y.; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear bodies are protein- and RNA-containing structures that participate in a wide range of processes critical to genome function. Molecular self-organization is thought to drive nuclear body formation, but whether this occurs stochastically or via an ordered, hierarchical process is not fully understood. We addressed this question using RNAi and proteomic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify and characterize novel components of the histone locus body (HLB), a nuclear body involved in the expression of replication-dependent histone genes. We identified the transcription elongation factor suppressor of Ty 6 (Spt6) and a homologue of mammalian nuclear protein of the ataxia telangiectasia–mutated locus that is encoded by the homeotic gene multisex combs (mxc) as novel HLB components. By combining genetic manipulation in both cell culture and embryos with cytological observations of Mxc, Spt6, and the known HLB components, FLICE-associated huge protein, Mute, U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, and MPM-2 phosphoepitope, we demonstrated sequential recruitment and hierarchical dependency for localization of factors to HLBs during development, suggesting that ordered assembly can play a role in nuclear body formation. PMID:21576393

  9. Mox: a novel modifier of the tomato Xa locus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, P W; Yoder, J I

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated a novel mutation that caused variegated leaf color in a tomato plant which had multiple maize Ac transposable elements and the tomato Xa allele. Xa is a previously characterized semi-dominant mutation that causes tomato leaves to be bright yellow when heterozygous (Xa/xa+). The mutation responsible for the new phenotype was named Mox (Modifier of Xa). The Mox mutation modified the Xa/xa+ yellow leaf phenotype in two ways: it compensated for the Xa allele resulting in a plant with a wildtype green color, and it caused somatic variegation which appeared as white and yellow sectors on the green background. Somatic variegation was visible only if the plant contained both the Mox and Xa loci. Genetic studies indicated that the Mox locus was linked in repulsion to Xa and that the Mox locus was genetically transmitted at a reduced frequency through the male gamete. Molecular characterization of the Ac elements in lines segregating for Mox identified an Ac insertion that appeared to cosegregate with Mox variegation. We propose a model in which the Mox mutation consists of a duplication of the xa+ allele and subsequent Ac-induced breakage of the duplicated region causes variegation.

  10. Synaptic potentials in locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Williams, J T; Bobker, D H; Harris, G C

    1991-01-01

    Neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) fire action potentials spontaneously in vitro in the absence of any stimulation. This spontaneous activity is thought to arise from intrinsic membrane properties that include a balance between at least two ion conductances. One is a persistent inward sodium current that is active near the threshold for action potential generation. The second is a calcium-dependent potassium current that is activated following the entry of calcium during the action potential, is responsible for the after-hyperpolarization following the action potential, and decays over a period of 1-2 sec following the action potential. The spontaneous activity of LC neurons can be altered by both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. One excitatory input has been described that is mediated by glutamate receptors of both the non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. Inhibitory synaptic potentials include those mediated by GABA (acting on GABAA-receptors), glycine (acting on a strychnine-sensitive receptor) and noradrenaline (acting on alpha 2-adrenoceptors). The presence of synaptic potentials mediated by these transmitters, studied in vitro, correlate with studies made in vivo and with histochemical identification of synaptic inputs to the locus coeruleus.

  11. LET and ion-species dependence for mutation induction and mutation spectrum on hprt locus in normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Suzuki, Masao; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2004-11-01

    We have been studying LET and ion species dependence of RBE in mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of deletion pattern of exons in hprt locus. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with heavy-ion beams, such as carbon- (290 MeV/u and 135 MeV/u), neon- (230 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u), silicon- (490 MeV/u) and iron- (500 MeV/u) ion beams, generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at national Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Mutation induction in hprt locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine resistant colonies and deletion spectrum of exons was analyzed by multiplex PCR. The LET-RBE curves of mutation induction for carbon- and neon-ion beams showed a peak around 75 keV/micrometers and 155 keV/micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, there observed no clear peak for silicon-ion beams. The deletion spectrum of exons was different in induced mutants among different ion species. These results suggested that quantitative and qualitative difference in mutation occurred when using different ion species even if similar LET values.

  12. A high-resolution linkage map of the vicinity of the rice submergence tolerance locus Sub1.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Xu, X; Ronald, P C; Mackill, D J

    2000-05-01

    Resistance to submergence stress is an important breeding objective in areas where rice cultivars are subjected to complete inundation for a week or more. The present study was conducted to develop a high-resolution map of the region surrounding the submergence tolerance gene Sub1 in rice, which derives from the Indian cultivar FR13A. Submergence screening of 8-day-old plants of F3 families kept for 14 days submerged in 60 cm of water allowed an accurate classification of Sub1 phenotypes. Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify AFLP markers linked to Sub1. A population of 2950 F2 plants segregating for Sub1 was screened with two RFLP markers flanking the Sub1 locus, 2.4 and 4.9 cM away. Submergence tolerance was measured in the recombinant plants, and AFLP markers closely linked to Sub1 were mapped. Two AFLP markers cosegregated with Sub1 in this large population, and other markers were localized within 0.2 cM of Sub1. The high-resolution map should serve as the basis for map-based cloning of this important locus, as it will permit the identification of BAC clones spanning the region.

  13. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa.

  14. High-frequency deletion event at aprt locus of CHO cells: detection and characterization of endpoints.

    PubMed

    Dewyse, P; Bradley, W E

    1989-01-01

    Two mechanisms are implicated in generating recessive drug resistance mutants at the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) locus of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, one of which is a spontaneous high-frequency deletion of the entire gene. We have isolated and mapped a 19-kb fragment carrying aprt and its flanking sequences. A Southern blot study of 198 independent deletion mutants revealed that two different mutants have one of their breakpoints within the 19-kb region analyzed. One of these has an upstream breakpoint which could be narrowed down to a 4-kb fragment containing repetitive sequences. The other mutant has a breakpoint within a 410-bp sequence located 8.5 kb downstream of the aprt gene and which carries several elements similar to those signaling V-(D)-J joining in immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. In each case the other breakpoint lay outside of the analyzed region. These results support the previous indications that the deletions created by this spontaneous event are large.

  15. Fine-Mapping the Wheat Snn1 Locus Conferring Sensitivity to the Parastagonospora nodorum Necrotrophic Effector SnTox1 Using an Eight Founder Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross Population.

    PubMed

    Cockram, James; Scuderi, Alice; Barber, Toby; Furuki, Eiko; Gardner, Keith A; Gosman, Nick; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Phan, Huyen P; Rose, Gemma A; Tan, Kar-Chun; Oliver, Richard P; Mackay, Ian J

    2015-09-28

    The necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of one of the world's most economically important cereal crops, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). P. nodorum produces necrotrophic protein effectors that mediate host cell death, providing nutrients for continuation of the infection process. The recent discovery of pathogen effectors has revolutionized disease resistance breeding for necrotrophic diseases in crop species, allowing often complex genetic resistance mechanisms to be broken down into constituent parts. To date, three effectors have been identified in P. nodorum. Here we use the effector, SnTox1, to screen 642 progeny from an eight-parent multiparent advanced generation inter-cross (i.e., MAGIC) population, genotyped with a 90,000-feature single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The MAGIC founders showed a range of sensitivity to SnTox1, with transgressive segregation evident in the progeny. SnTox1 sensitivity showed high heritability, with quantitative trait locus analyses fine-mapping the Snn1 locus to the short arm of chromosome 1B. In addition, a previously undescribed SnTox1 sensitivity locus was identified on the long arm of chromosome 5A, termed here QSnn.niab-5A.1. The peak single-nucleotide polymorphism for the Snn1 locus was converted to the KASP genotyping platform, providing breeders and researchers a simple and cheap diagnostic marker for allelic state at Snn1.

  16. Fine-Mapping the Wheat Snn1 Locus Conferring Sensitivity to the Parastagonospora nodorum Necrotrophic Effector SnTox1 Using an Eight Founder Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross Population

    PubMed Central

    Cockram, James; Scuderi, Alice; Barber, Toby; Furuki, Eiko; Gardner, Keith A.; Gosman, Nick; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Phan, Huyen P.; Rose, Gemma A.; Tan, Kar-Chun; Oliver, Richard P.; Mackay, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of one of the world’s most economically important cereal crops, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). P. nodorum produces necrotrophic protein effectors that mediate host cell death, providing nutrients for continuation of the infection process. The recent discovery of pathogen effectors has revolutionized disease resistance breeding for necrotrophic diseases in crop species, allowing often complex genetic resistance mechanisms to be broken down into constituent parts. To date, three effectors have been identified in P. nodorum. Here we use the effector, SnTox1, to screen 642 progeny from an eight-parent multiparent advanced generation inter-cross (i.e., MAGIC) population, genotyped with a 90,000-feature single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The MAGIC founders showed a range of sensitivity to SnTox1, with transgressive segregation evident in the progeny. SnTox1 sensitivity showed high heritability, with quantitative trait locus analyses fine-mapping the Snn1 locus to the short arm of chromosome 1B. In addition, a previously undescribed SnTox1 sensitivity locus was identified on the long arm of chromosome 5A, termed here QSnn.niab-5A.1. The peak single-nucleotide polymorphism for the Snn1 locus was converted to the KASP genotyping platform, providing breeders and researchers a simple and cheap diagnostic marker for allelic state at Snn1. PMID:26416667

  17. Hitch-hiking to a locus under balancing selection: high sequence diversity and low population subdivision at the S-locus genomic region in Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Maria Valeria; Jacquemin, Bertrand; Castric, Vincent; Vekemans, Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Hitch-hiking to a site under balancing selection is expected to produce a local increase in nucleotide polymorphism and a decrease in population differentiation compared with the background genomic level, but empirical evidence supporting these predictions is scarce. We surveyed molecular diversity at four genes flanking the region controlling self-incompatibility (the S-locus) in samples from six populations of the herbaceous plant Arabidopsis halleri, and compared their polymorphism with sequences from five control genes unlinked to the S-locus. As a preliminary verification, the S-locus flanking genes were shown to co-segregate with SRK, the gene involved in the self-incompatibility reaction at the pistil level. In agreement with theory, our results demonstrated a significant peak of nucleotide diversity around the S-locus as well as a significant decrease in population genetic structure in the S-locus region compared with both control genes and a set of seven unlinked microsatellite markers. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that balancing selection is increasing the effective migration rate in subdivided populations. Although only four S-locus flanking genes were investigated, our results suggest that these two signatures of the hitch-hiking effect are localized in a very narrow genomic region.

  18. [Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies: molecular structure and function].

    PubMed

    Khodiuchenko, T A; Krasikova, A V

    2014-01-01

    The review provides modern classification of evolutionarily conserved coilin-containing nuclear bodies of somatic and germ cells that is based on the characteristic features of their molecular composition and the nature of their functions. The main differences between Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies, which are involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear spliceosomal and nucleolar RNAs and in the 3'-end processing of histone precursor messenger RNA, respectively, are considered. It is shown that a significant contribution to the investigation of the diversity of coilin-containing bodies was made by the studies on the architecture of the RNA processing machinery in oocyte nuclei in a number of model organisms. The characteristics features of the molecular composition of coilin-containing bodies in the nuclei of growing oocytes (the so-called germinal vesicles) of vertebrates, including amphibians and birds, are described.

  19. Cajal bodies and histone locus bodies in Drosophila and Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Z F; Deryusheva, S; Gall, J G

    2010-01-01

    The organization of the cell nucleus into specialized compartments is important for nuclear function. We address the significance of compartmentalization by studying the Cajal body, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear organelle proposed to be involved in such diverse functions as assembly of the spliceosome, assembly of the transcription machinery, and modification of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs. The Cajal body is typically identified by the presence of coilin, a protein of poorly defined function. Here, we demonstrate that coilin is not a unique Cajal body marker but also occurs in a related yet distinct nuclear organelle known as the histone locus body in both Drosophila and Xenopus. We stress the importance of multiple markers not only for identification of nuclear bodies but also for assessing their functional significance.

  20. Haplotype mapping of the bronchiolitis susceptibility locus near IL8.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy; Rowlands, Kate; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Sharland, Mike; Moore, Catrin; Hanchard, Neil; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2004-02-01

    Susceptibility to viral bronchiolitis, the commonest cause of infant admissions to hospital in the industrialised world, is associated with polymorphism at the IL8 locus. Here we map the genomic boundaries of the disease association by case-control analysis and TDT in 580 affected UK infants. Markers for association mapping were chosen after determining patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the surrounding region of chromosome 4q, a 550-kb segment containing nine genes, extending from AFP to PPBP. The region has three major clusters of high linkage disequilibrium and is notable for its low haplotypic diversity. We exclude adjacent chemokine genes as the cause of the association, and identify a disease-associated haplotype that spans a 250-kb region from AFM to IL8. In between these two genes there is only one structural feature of interest, a novel gene RASSF6, which is predicted to encode a Ras effector protein.

  1. Evolution of an expanded sex-determining locus in Volvox.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Patrick; Olson, Bradley J S C; De Hoff, Peter L; Douglass, Stephen; Casero, David; Prochnik, Simon; Geng, Sa; Rai, Rhitu; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Nishii, Ichiro; Hamaji, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Pellegrini, Matteo; Umen, James G

    2010-04-16

    Although dimorphic sexes have evolved repeatedly in multicellular eukaryotes, their origins are unknown. The mating locus (MT) of the sexually dimorphic multicellular green alga Volvox carteri specifies the production of eggs and sperm and has undergone a remarkable expansion and divergence relative to MT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a closely related unicellular species that has equal-sized gametes. Transcriptome analysis revealed a rewired gametic expression program for Volvox MT genes relative to Chlamydomonas and identified multiple gender-specific and sex-regulated transcripts. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor homolog MAT3 is a Volvox MT gene that displays sexually regulated alternative splicing and evidence of gender-specific selection, both of which are indicative of cooption into the sexual cycle. Thus, sex-determining loci affect the evolution of both sex-related and non-sex-related genes.

  2. Evolution of an Expanded Sex Determining Locus in Volvox

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Patrick; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.; De Hoff, Peter L.; Douglass, Stephen; Diaz-Cano, David Casero; Prochnik, Simon; Geng, Sa; Rai, Rhitu; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Nishii, Ichiro; Hamaji, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Pellegrini, Matteo; Umen, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Although dimorphic sexes have evolved repeatedly in multicellular eukaryotes, their origins are unknown. The mating locus (MT) of the sexually dimorphic multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri, specifies the production of eggs and sperm and has undergone a remarkable expansion and divergence relative to MT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a closely related unicellular species that has equal-sized gametes. Transcriptome analysis revealed a rewired gametic expression program for Volvox MT genes relative to Chlamydomonas, and identified multiple gender-specific and sex-regulated transcripts. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor homolog MAT3 is a Volvox MT gene that displays sexually regulated alternative splicing and evidence of gender-specific selection, both indicative of cooption into the sexual cycle. Thus, sex-determining loci impact the evolution of both sex-related and non-sex-related genes. PMID:20395508

  3. Search for a schizophrenia susceptibility locus of human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Hoff, M.; Holik, J.

    1994-06-15

    We used 10 highly informative DNA polymorphic markers and genetic linkage analysis to examine whether a gene locus predisposing to schizophrenia is located on chromosome 22, in 105 families with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The LOD score method, including analysis for heterogeneity, provided no conclusive evidence of linkage under a dominant, recessive, or penetrance free model of inheritance. Affected sib-pair analysis was inconclusive. Affected Pedigree Member (APM) analysis gave only suggestive evidence for linkage. Multipoint APM analysis, using 4 adjacent loci including D22S281 and IL2RB, a region of interest from the APM analysis, gave non-significant results for the three different weighting functions. 18 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  4. Chromosomal locus that affects pathogenicity of Rhodococcus fascians.

    PubMed

    Vereecke, Danny; Cornelis, Karen; Temmerman, Wim; Jaziri, Mondher; Van Montagu, Marc; Holsters, Marcelle; Goethals, Koen

    2002-02-01

    The gram-positive plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians provokes leafy gall formation on a wide range of plants through secretion of signal molecules that interfere with the hormone balance of the host. Crucial virulence genes are located on a linear plasmid, and their expression is tightly controlled. A mutant with a mutation in a chromosomal locus that affected virulence was isolated. The mutation was located in gene vicA, which encodes a malate synthase and is functional in the glyoxylate shunt of the Krebs cycle. VicA is required for efficient in planta growth in symptomatic, but not in normal, plant tissue, indicating that the metabolic requirement of the bacteria or the nutritional environment in plants or both change during the interaction. We propose that induced hyperplasia on plants represents specific niches for the causative organisms as a result of physiological alterations in the symptomatic tissue. Hence, such interaction could be referred to as metabolic habitat modification.

  5. Heterologous transposon tagging of the DRL1 locus in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, I; Jones, J D; Dean, C

    1993-01-01

    The development of heterologous transposon tagging systems has been an important objective for many laboratories. Here, we demonstrate the use of a Dissociation (Ds) derivative of the maize transposable element Activator (Ac) to tag the DRL1 locus of Arabidopsis. The drl1 mutant shows highly abnormal development with stunted roots, few root hairs, lanceolate leaves, and a highly enlarged, disorganized shoot apex that does not produce an inflorescence. The mutation was shown to be tightly linked to a transposed Ds, and somatic instability was observed in the presence of the transposase source. Some plants showing somatic reversion flowered and produced large numbers of wild-type progeny. These revertant progeny always inherited a DRL1 allele from which Ds had excised. Analysis of the changes in DNA sequence induced by the insertion and excision of the Ds element showed that they were typical of those induced by Ac and Ds in maize. PMID:8392411

  6. CSGRqtl: A Comparative Quantitative Trait Locus Database for Saccharinae Grasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Conventional biparental quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has led to some successes in the identification of causal genes in many organisms. QTL likelihood intervals not only provide "prior information" for finer-resolution approaches such as GWAS but also provide better statistical power than GWAS to detect variants with low/rare frequency in a natural population. Here, we describe a new element of an ongoing effort to provide online resources to facilitate study and improvement of the important Saccharinae clade. The primary goal of this new resource is the anchoring of published QTLs for this clade to the Sorghum genome. Genetic map alignments translate a wealth of genomic information from sorghum to Saccharum spp., Miscanthus spp., and other taxa. In addition, genome alignments facilitate comparison of the Saccharinae QTL sets to those of other taxa that enjoy comparable resources, exemplified herein by rice.

  7. Multipoint mapping of the central core disease locus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmle, S.; Wolff, K.; Grimm, T.; Mueller, C.R. ); Palmucci, L.M. ); Lehmann-Horn, F. ); Huebner, Ch. ); Hauser, E. ); Iles, D.E. ); MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-07-01

    A linkage analysis with 12 DNA markers from proximal 19q was performed in eight families with central core disease (CCO). Two-point analysis gave a peak lod score of Z = 4.95 at [theta] = 0.00 for the anonymous marker D19S190 and of Z = 2.53 at [theta] = 0.00 for the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) candidate gene. Multipoint linkage data place the CCO locus at 19q13.1, flanked proximally by D19S191/D19S28 and distally by D19S47. This map location includes the RYR1 gene. The results of the linkage study present no evidence for genetic heterogeneity of CCO. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A strabismus susceptibility locus on chromosome 7p

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vaishali; Shugart, Yin Yao; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Zhang, Jie; Li, Lan; Williams, John; Hayden, David; Craig, Brian; Capo, Hilda; Chamblee, Denise; Chen, Cathy; Collins, Mary; Dankner, Stuart; Fiergang, Dean; Guyton, David; Hunter, David; Hutcheon, Marcia; Keys, Marshall; Morrison, Nancy; Munoz, Michelle; Parks, Marshall; Plotsky, David; Protzko, Eugene; Repka, Michael X.; Sarubbi, Maria; Schnall, Bruce; Siatkowski, R. Michael; Traboulsi, Elias; Waeltermann, Joanne; Nathans, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Strabismus has been known to have a significant genetic component, but the mode of inheritance and the identity of the relevant genes have been enigmatic. This paper reports linkage analysis of nonsyndromic strabismus. The principal results of this study are: (i) the demonstrated feasibility of identifying and recruiting large families in which multiple members have (or had) strabismus; (ii) the linkage in one large family of a presumptive strabismus susceptibility locus to 7p22.1 with a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 4.51 under a model of recessive inheritance; and (iii) the failure to observe significant linkage to 7p in six other multiplex families, consistent with genetic heterogeneity among families. These findings suggest that it will be possible to localize and ultimately identify strabismus susceptibility genes by linkage analysis and mutation screening of candidate genes. PMID:14519848

  9. Criterion-Related Validity of the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale with Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Gary D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the relationships between student locus of control and academic achievement in grades five through eight. The Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (NSLOCS) was used to measure motivation, and the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) to assess academic achievement. Results indicated moderate inverse relationships between level of…

  10. The Effect of Locus of Control on Message Acceptance and Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Catherine A.; Singh, Surendra

    Locus of control is a personality trait that influences human behavior in many situations. Internal-external control reactions to a persuasive message and the recall of the message were examined in two studies. In the first study, 35 undergraduate students' locus of control was measured using Duttweiler's Internal Control Measure. On the basis of…

  11. Predictors of Parental Locus of Control in Mothers of Pre- and Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Parental locus of control refers to parents' perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8 to 14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were…

  12. Internal-External Locus of Control in Middle and Later Life: The Search for Construct Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielby, Denise D.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    This study validates the developmental nature of internal-external locus of control in middle and old age. Longitudinal stability of locus of control in the face of particular changes in social milieu common during the transition from middle to late life was contrasted with that of verbal intelligence, a known stable characteristic, and that of…

  13. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  14. Student Locus of Control and Response to Expectations About Self and Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Undergraduate subjects with either an internal or external locus of control were used to investigate the relationship between locus of control and responsiveness to expectations regarding their own and their teacher's competence. As predicted, internal subjects were more receptive to the expectation regarding self than external subjects.…

  15. Locus of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming: Evidence from Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Disagreement exists regarding the functional locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming. This effect is a cornerstone of modern psycholinguistic models of word production, which assume that it arises in lexical response-selection. However, recent evidence from studies of dual-task performance suggests a locus in…

  16. Social Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control, and Internet Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…

  17. Locus of Control, Attributional Style and Discipline Problems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tony, Tam Shui Kee

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study hypothesizing that school discipline problems are a maladaptive response to the demand of the school environment as a result of deficits in the area of locus of control and attributional style. The findings indicate that an external orientation of locus of control and a passive pattern of attribution…

  18. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    PubMed

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  19. Health Locus of Control and Preventive Behaviour among Students of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spahn, Claudia; Burger, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Horst; Seidenglanz, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated health locus of control, preventive behaviour and previous playing-related health problems of music students; 326 students of music (58% female, mean age 22 years) filled in the Locus of Control Inventory for Illness and Health (Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) and the Epidemiological Questionnaire for Musicians (Spahn,…

  20. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  1. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  2. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  3. Differences in Self-Concept and Locus of Control among Women Who Seek Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda V.; Robinson, Sharon E.

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of women who varied in abortion status were formed to investigate the self-concept and locus of control of a total of 90 women. No significant differences in self-concept were found among the three groups, nor was there a relationship between locus of control and repeated abortion. (Author/ABB)

  4. Registration of near-isogenic winter wheat germplasm contrasting in Fhb1 for fusarium head blight resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese wheat Ning7840 (Triticum aestivum L.) contains Fhb1, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, and has been widely used as a resistant parent in breeding programs worldwide, but due to its poor adaptation in the US, its progenies usually exhibit re...

  5. Genetic and physical mapping of root-knot nematode resistance on chromosome 11 of Acala NemX cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita resistance in Gossypium hirsutum ‘Acala NemX’ cotton is conferred by the recessive gene rkn1 (locus Mi-2h-C11) on chromosome 11. The concentration of RKN, reniform nematode and other disease resistance factors on chromosome 11 indicates that much can be...

  6. Genetic and Physical Mapping of Meloidogyne Incognita Resistance on Chromosome 11 of Acala NemX Cotton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) resistance in Gossypium hirsutum ‘Acala NemX’ cotton is conferred by the recessive gene rkn1 (locus Mi2h-C11) on chromosome 11. The concentration of RKN, reniform nematode and other disease resistance determinants on chromosome 11 indicates that much c...

  7. A biochemical specific locus mutation system in mice.

    PubMed

    Malling, H V; Valcovic, L R

    1977-09-21

    Two mouse strains DBA/2J and C57BL/6J are heteromorphic with respect to the electrophoretic mobility of at least 8 enzymes and the beta-hemoglobin chain. The genotype of DBA/2J for these markers is: Es-1, Es-3, Gpd-1, Gpi-1, Id-1, Mod-1, Pmg-1, Dip-1 and Hbb; and of C57B1/6J: Es-1, Es-3, Gpd-1, Gpi-1, Id-1, Mod-1, Pgm-1, Dip-1 and Hbb. Electrophoresis on tissues of interstrain hybrids will show the two parental bands and additional hybrid bands if the enzyme is a polymeric structure. In specific locus mutations which result in loss of activity (deletions, nonsense mutations), the hybrid resembles the non-mutated parent. In the mutation results in a change in electrophoretic mobility, some of the bands on the gel will either run faster or slower compared to the hybrid bands in a normal F1 animal. Fifty DBA/2J males were irradiated with gamma-rays from a Co60 source with two doses of 500 R at 24-h intervals at a dose rate of 95 R/min. After this irradiation the males were sterile for approximately 3 months. After the males regained their fertility, they were continuously mated to C57BL/6 females. Thus far somewhat over 2600 animals have been tested and four new mutations detected, giving a frequency of approximately 1.7 X 10(-4) mutations per locus per generation. The four mutations are: two independent mutations at Hbb, one at Mod-1 and one at Id-1.

  8. Role of CTCF Protein in Regulating FMR1 Locus Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lanni, Stella; Goracci, Martina; Borrelli, Loredana; Mancano, Giorgia; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Moscato, Umberto; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation). An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1), starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM) alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT) alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis. PMID:23874213

  9. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-12-28

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N{O}) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N{O} and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs.

  10. Role of CTCF protein in regulating FMR1 locus transcription.

    PubMed

    Lanni, Stella; Goracci, Martina; Borrelli, Loredana; Mancano, Giorgia; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Moscato, Umberto; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation). An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1), starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM) alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT) alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis.

  11. A novel third chromosomal locus controls susceptibility to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Mon, Hiroaki; Li, Zhiqing; Zhu, Li; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Banno, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Kaito; Lee, Jae Man

    2014-04-01

    Baculovirus demonstrates specific infection spectrums and thus one certain host exhibits particular response to single baculovirus isolate. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is considered to be not an innate pathogen to Bombyx mori, but some silkworm strains have been identified to be permissive to AcMNPV, indicating the positive or negative involvement of certain host factors in baculovirus replications in vivo. To provide a fundamental knowledge of this process, we performed large-scale screening to investigate the responses of 448 silkworm strains against recombinant AcMNPV inoculation. By genetic analysis between permissive and resistant strains identified, we further confirmed that a potential corresponding locus on chromosome 3 regulates host responses to AcMNPV in silkworm. Additionally, we found that it is available for AcMNPV-silkworm baculovirus expression vector system to produce proteins of interest.

  12. Genetic studies of the Fv-1 locus of mice: linkage with Gpd-1 in recombinant inbred lines.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, B A; Bedigian, H G; Meier, H

    1977-01-01

    Multiple recombinant inbred lines, derived from crosses between strains permissive to N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (Fv-1n) and strains permissive to B-tropic murine leukemia viruses (Fv-1b), have been characterized as to Fv-1 genotype and other chromosome 4 markers, including the closely linked hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase isozyme locus (Gpd-1). Only one recombinant between Fv-1 and Gpd-1 was found among 45 lines tested. On this basis, the distance between Fv-1 and Gpd-1 is estimated to be 0.6 centimorgans. None of the lines was either resistant or susceptible to both N- and B-tropic viruses. Nineteen other inbred strains, previously untested, were characterized as either Fv-1n or Fv-1b. PMID:196096

  13. [Application of VNTR D17S30 locus polymorphism in the paternity test].

    PubMed

    Feng, M; Feng, Z; Lu, Q; Zhang, Y; Yang, Y; Ji, Y; Chen, R

    1998-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid PCR-based technique was adopted to genotype the VNTR D17S30 locus. It was confirmed through the genetic analysis of 20 normal families that the inheritance of D17S30 locus coincides with Mendelian law as simple co-dominant. Retrospective analysis of 100 paternity cases demonstrated that D17S30 locus could be used in forensic paternity test in our country. The exclusion probability estimated from allele frequencies of D17S30 locus (74.04%) does not differ significantly from the observed rate of exclusion (80.00%) in these cases. In all excluded paternity cases there are two in which the exclusion evidence is solely provided by the D17S30 locus.

  14. Biochemical Analysis of Genome Functions Using Locus-Specific Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    To isolate specific genomic regions that retain their molecular interactions, allowing direct identification of chromatin-bound molecules, we developed two locus-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation (locus-specific ChIP) technologies, insertional ChIP (iChIP) and engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated ChIP (enChIP) using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system or transcription activator-like (TAL) proteins. Essentially, a locus-specific ChIP consists of locus-tagging and affinity purification and can be combined with downstream analyses to identify molecules associated with the target genomic regions. In this review, we discuss the applications of locus-specific ChIP to analyze the genome functions, including transcription and epigenetic regulation. PMID:26819551

  15. Is the novel SCKL3 at 14q23 the predominant Seckel locus?

    PubMed

    Kilinç, Mehmet Okyay; Ninis, Vasiliki Ninidu; Ugur, Sibel Aylin; Tüysüz, Beyhan; Seven, Mehmet; Balci, Sevim; Goodship, Judith; Tolun, Aslihan

    2003-11-01

    Seckel syndrome (SCKL) is a rare disease with wide phenotypic heterogeneity. A locus (SCKL1) has been identified at 3q and another (SCKL2) at 18p, both in single kindreds afflicted with the syndrome. We report here a novel locus (SCKL3) at 14q by linkage analysis in 13 Turkish families. In total, 18 affected and 10 unaffected sibs were included in the study. Of the 10 informative families, nine with parental consanguinity and one reportedly nonconsanguineous but with two affected sibs, five were indicative of linkage to the novel locus. One of those families also linked to the SCKL1 locus. A consanguineous family with one affected sib was indicative of linkage to SCKL2. The novel gene locus SCKL3 is 1.18 cM and harbors ménage a trois 1, a gene with a role in DNA repair.

  16. Influence of locus of control on mood state disturbance after short-term sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hill, D W; Welch, J E; Godfrey, J A

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-eight healthy university students were classified as having either an internal (n = 14) or external (n = 14) locus of control. Before and after 26-30 hours of sleep deprivation, their mood state was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. There was a significant sleep status x locus of control interaction effect on mood state disturbance (p = 0.049). In the individuals with an external locus of control, there was an increase (p < 0.001) in total mood disturbance from (mean +/- standard deviation) 115 +/- 23 during baseline testing to 148 +/- 22 after sleep loss (effect size = 1.4). Sleep loss did not significantly affect total mood disturbance in the subjects with an internal locus of control (115 +/- 26 vs. 128 +/- 34). These results suggest that locus of control is a factor that influences the degree of mood state disturbance caused by short-term sleep deprivation.

  17. A 27-locus STR assay to meet all United States and European law enforcement agency standards.

    PubMed

    Schumm, James W; Gutierrez-Mateo, Cristina; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Different national and international agencies have selected specific STR sets for forensic database use. To enhance database comparison across national and international borders, a 27-locus multiplex system was developed comprising all 15 STR loci of the European standard set, the current 13 STR loci of the CODIS core, the proposed 22 STR loci of the expanded CODIS core, 4 additional commonly used STR loci, and the amelogenin locus. Development required iterative primer design to resolve primer-related artifacts, amplicon sizing, and locus-to-locus balance issues. The 19.5-min assay incorporated newly developed six-dye chemistry analyzed using a novel microfluidic electrophoresis instrument capable of simultaneous detection and discrimination of 8 or more fluorescent dyes. The 27-locus multiplex offers the potential for a new international STR standard permitting laboratories in any jurisdiction to use a single reaction to determine profiles for loci they typically generate plus an expanded common STR profiling set of global interest.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... these products really help. To Learn More about Antibiotic Resistance Get Smart About Antibiotics (Video) Fact Sheets ...

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections caused by such bacteria untreatable. Resistance in tuberculosis (TB) WHO estimates that, in 2014, there were about 480 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), a form of tuberculosis that is ...

  20. Identification of Genetic Loci Affecting the Severity of Symptoms of Hirschsprung Disease in Rats Carrying Ednrbsl Mutations by Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Torigoe, Daisuke; Lei, Chuzhao; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Sasaki, Nobuya; Wang, Jinxi; Agui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disease in neonates characterized by the absence of the enteric ganglia in a variable length of the distal colon. This disease results from multiple genetic interactions that modulate the ability of enteric neural crest cells to populate developing gut. We previously reported that three rat strains with different backgrounds (susceptible AGH-Ednrbsl/sl, resistant F344-Ednrbsl/sl, and LEH-Ednrbsl/sl) but the same null mutation of Ednrb show varying severity degrees of aganglionosis. This finding suggests that strain-specific genetic factors affect the severity of HSCR. Consistent with this finding, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the severity of HSCR on chromosome (Chr) 2 was identified using an F2 intercross between AGH and F344 strains. In the present study, we performed QTL analysis using an F2 intercross between the susceptible AGH and resistant LEH strains to identify the modifier/resistant loci for HSCR in Ednrb-deficient rats. A significant locus affecting the severity of HSCR was also detected within the Chr 2 region. These findings strongly suggest that a modifier gene of aganglionosis exists on Chr 2. In addition, two potentially causative SNPs (or mutations) were detected upstream of a known HSCR susceptibility gene, Gdnf. These SNPs were possibly responsible for the varied length of gut affected by aganglionosis. PMID:25790447

  1. Whence Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Stephen W.; Metzger, Rosemarie; Swenson, Brian R.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Antimicrobial resistance results from a complex interaction between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, antimicrobial pressure, and genes, which together comprise the total body of potential resistance elements. The purpose of this study is to review and evaluate the importance of antimicrobial pressure on the development of resistance in a single surgical intensive care unit. Methods: We reviewed a prospectively collected dataset of all intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections in surgical and trauma patients over a 6-y period at a single hospital. Resistant gram-negative pathogens (rGNR) included those resistant to all aminoglycosides, quinolones, penicillins, cephalosporins, or carbapenems; resistant gram-positive infections (rGPC) included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Each resistant infection was evaluated for prior or concomitant antibiotic use, previous treatment for the same (non-resistant) organism, and concurrent infection with the same organism (genus and species, although not necessarily resistant) in another ICU patient. Results: Three hundred and thirty resistant infections were identified: 237 rGNR and 93 rGPC. Infections with rGNR occurred frequently while receiving antibiotic therapy (65%), including the sensitive form of the subsequent resistant pathogen (42.2%). Infections with rGPC were also likely to occur on antimicrobial therapy (50.6%). Treatment of a different patient for an infection with the same resistant pathogen in the ICU at the time of diagnosis, implying potential patient-to-patient transmission occurred more frequently with rGNR infections (38.8%). Conclusion: Antimicrobial pressure exerts a substantial effect on the development of subsequent infection. Our data demonstrate a high estimated rate of de novo emergence of resistance after treatment, which appears to be more common than patient-to-patient transmission. These data support

  2. Identification of Soybean Proteins and Genes Differentially Regulated in Near Isogenic Lines Differing in Resistance to Aphid Infestation.

    PubMed

    Brechenmacher, Laurent; Nguyen, Tran Hong Nha; Zhang, Ning; Jun, Tae-Hwan; Xu, Dong; Mian, M A Rouf; Stacey, Gary

    2015-10-02

    Soybean aphid is an important pest causing significant yield losses. The Rag2 locus confers resistance to soybean aphid biotypes 1 and 2. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were done over a 48 h period after aphid infestation using near isogenic lines (NILs) differing at the Rag2 locus. Comparing the Rag2 and/or rag2 lines identified 3445 proteins, of which 396 were differentially regulated between the two lines, including proteins involved in cell wall metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and stress response. RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis identified 2361 genes significantly regulated between the resistant and susceptible lines. Genes upregulated in the Rag2 line were annotated as being involved in cell wall, secondary, and hormone metabolism as well as in stress, signaling, and transcriptional responses. Genes downregulated in the Rag2 line were annotated as being involved in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. Interestingly, two genes (unknown and mitochondrial protease) located within the defined Rag2 locus were expressed significantly higher in the resistant genotype. The expression of a putative NBS-LRR resistant gene within the Rag2 locus was not different between the two soybean lines, but a second NBL-LRR gene located just at the border of the defined Rag2 locus was. Therefore, this gene may be a candidate R gene controlling aphid resistance.

  3. Gene targeting in the Ig kappa locus: efficient generation of lambda chain-expressing B cells, independent of gene rearrangements in Ig kappa.

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Y R; Takeda, S; Rajewsky, K

    1993-01-01

    The production of lambda chain-expressing B cells was studied in mice in which either the gene encoding the constant region of the kappa chain (C kappa) or the intron enhancer in the Ig kappa locus was inactivated by insertion of a neomycin resistance gene. The two mutants have similar phenotypes: in heterozygous mutant mice the fraction of lambda chain-bearing B cells is twice that in the wildtype. Homozygous mutants produce approximately 7 times more lambda-expressing B cells (and about 2.3 times fewer total B cells) in the bone marrow than their normal counterparts, suggesting that B cell progenitors can differentiate into either kappa- or lambda-producing cells and do the latter in the mutants. Whereas gene rearrangements in the Ig kappa locus are blocked in the case of enhancer inactivation, they still occur in that of the C kappa mutant, although in this mutant RS rearrangement is lower than in the wildtype. This indicates that gene rearrangements in the Ig lambda locus can occur in the absence of a putative positive signal resulting from gene rearrangements in Ig kappa, including RS recombination. Complementing these results, we also present data indicating that in normal B cell development kappa chain rearrangement can be preceded by lambda chain rearrangement and that the frequency of kappa/lambda double producers is small and insufficient to explain the massive production of lambda chain-expressing B cells in the mutants. Images PMID:8458339

  4. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  5. Genotypic diversity of multidrug-, quinolone- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Disratthakit, Areeya; Meada, Shinji; Prammananan, Therdsak; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Doi, Norio; Chaiprasert, Angkana

    2015-06-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), which includes multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), quinolone-resistant (QR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), is a serious threat to TB control. We aimed to characterize the genotypic diversity of drug-resistant TB clinical isolates collected in Thailand to establish whether the emergence of drug-resistant TB is attributable to transmitted resistance or acquired resistance. We constructed the first molecular phylogeny of MDR-TB (n=95), QR-TB (n=69) and XDR-TB (n=28) in Thailand based on spoligotyping and proposed 24-locus multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Clustering analysis was performed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Spoligotyping identified the Beijing strain (SIT1) as the most predominant genotype (n=139; 72.4%). The discriminatory power of 0.9235 Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI) with the 15-locus variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing was improved to a 0.9574 HGDI with proposed 24-locus MLVA, thereby resulting in the subdivision of a large cluster of Beijing strains (SIT1) into 17 subclusters. We identified the spread of drug-resistant TB clones caused by three different MLVA types in the Beijing strain (SIT1) and a specific clone of XDR-TB caused by a rare genotype, the Manu-ancestor strain (SIT523). Overall, 49.5% of all isolates were clustered. These findings suggest that a remarkable transmission of drug-resistant TB occurred in Thailand. The remaining 50% of drug-resistant TB isolates were unique genotypes, which may have arisen from the individual acquisition of drug resistance. Our results suggest that transmitted and acquired resistance have played an equal role in the emergence of drug-resistant TB. Further characterization of whole genome sequences of clonal strains could help to elucidate the mycobacterial genetic factors relevant for drug resistance, transmissibility and virulence.

  6. Gsα activity is reduced in erythrocyte membranes of patients with psedohypoparathyroidism due to epigenetic alterations at the GNAS locus.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Celia; Thiele, Susanne; Martín, Cesar; Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Werner, Ralf; Garin, Intza; Hiort, Olaf; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar

    2011-08-01

    In pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), PTH resistance results from impairment of signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors caused by a deficiency of the Gsα-cAMP signaling cascade due to diminished Gsα activity in maternally imprinted tissues. In PHP-Ia, inactivating mutations of the GNAS gene lead to haploinsufficiency in some tissues with biallelic expression, so in addition to PHP, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is also present. In PHP-Ib, caused by methylation defects at the GNAS locus, diminished Gsα activity was thought to be limited to maternally imprinted tissues, such as the renal proximal tubule and the thyroid, leading to a lack of AHO. Recently, we demonstrated methylation defects in patients with AHO signs, indicating a connection between epigenetic changes and AHO. Our objective was to determine Gsα activity in erythrocyte membranes in patients with epigenetic defects at the GNAS locus compared to normal controls and patients with inactivating GNAS mutations. Gsα activity and expression, mutation of the GNAS locus, and methylation status were studied in patients with PHP and mild signs of AHO (PHP-Ia: 12; PHP-Ib: 17, of which 8 had some features of AHO). Then, we statistically compared the Gsα activity of the different PHP subtypes. Patients with methylation defects at the GNAS locus show a significant decrease in erythrocyte Gsα activity compared to normal controls (PHP-Ib versus controls, p < .001). This was significantly lower in patients with AHO signs (PHP-Ib + mild-AHO versus PHP-Ib, p < .05). Our research shows that PHP-Ia and PHP-Ib classification is not only overlapped genetically, as reported, but also in terms of Gsα activity. Reduced expression of GNAS due to methylation defects could downregulate Gsα activity in other tissues beyond those described and could also be causative of AHO.

  7. Dynamic evolution of resistance gene analogs in the orthologous genomic regions of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 in Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops tauschii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is one of the most important staple grain crops in the world. Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici can result in significant losses in both grain yield and quality in wheat. In this study, the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW170 locus located on the short ...

  8. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis four rag locus genotypes in patients of orthodontic gingivitis and periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (p<0.01). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis/rag locus and gingival index. rag-3 and rag-4 were the predominant genotypes in the patients of orthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis.

  9. The X-linked F cell production locus: Genetic mapping and role in fetal hemoglobin production

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.C.; Smith, K.D.; Moore, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    Postnatal fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) production is confined to a subset of erythocytes termed F-cells. There is a 10-20 fold variation in F-cell production in sickle cell disease (SCD) and normal individuals. Most of the variation in F-cell production has been attributed to a diallelic (High, Low) X-linked gene, the F-cell production (FCP) locus that we recently mapped to Xp22.2-22.3 (LOD=4.56, theta=0.04). Using multiple regression analysis in 262 Jamaican SCD patients we determined the relative contribution of the FCP locus and other variables previously associated with variation in Hb F level (gender, age, beta-globin haplotypes, number of alpha-globin genes and the FCP locus phenotypes). When the FCP locus is in the regression model, the FCP locus alone accounts for approximately 40% of the variation in Hb F level while the contribution of age, alpha-globin gene number, and beta-globin haplotypes was insignificant. When individuals with High FCP allele are removed from the analysis, the beta globin haplotype now contribute to >10% of the Hb F variation. We conclude that the X-linked FCP locus is the major determinant of all known variables in Hb F production. Using 4 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markers that we identified from cosmids in Xp22.2-22.3, have localized the FCP locus to a 1 Mb minimal candidate region between DXS143 and DXS410.

  10. Comparative mapping reveals partial conservation of synteny at the apomixis locus in Paspalum spp.

    PubMed

    Pupilli, F; Martinez, E J; Busti, A; Calderini, O; Quarin, C L; Arcioni, S

    2004-01-01

    In plants, gametophytic apomixis is a form of asexual reproduction that leads to the formation of seed-derived offspring that are genetically identical to the mother plant. A common set of RFLP markers, including five rice anchor markers previously shown to be linked to apomixis in Paspalum simplex, were used to detect linkage with apomixis in P. notatum and P. malacophyllum. A comparative map of the region around the apomixis locus was constructed for the three Paspalum species, and compared to the rice map. The locus that controls apomixis in P. simplex was almost completely conserved in the closely related species P. malacophyllum, whereas it was only partially represented in the distantly related species P. notatum. Although strong synteny of markers was noted between this locus and a portion of rice chromosome 12 in both P. simplex and P. malacophyllum, the same locus in P. notatum was localized to a hybrid chromosome which carries markers that map to rice chromosomes 2 and 12. All three Paspalum species showed recombination suppression at the apomixis locus; in the case of P. notatum, this might be due to a heterozygosity for a translocation that most probably negatively interferes with chromosomal pairing near the locus. A common set of markers that show linkage with apomixis in all three Paspalum species define a portion of the apomixis-controlling locus that is likely to contain genes critical for apomictic reproduction.

  11. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Four rag Locus Genotypes in Patients of Orthodontic Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (p<0.01). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis/rag locus and gingival index. rag-3 and rag-4 were the predominant genotypes in the patients of orthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis. PMID:23593379

  12. Confirmation of the SCA-2 locus as an alternative locus for dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias and refinement of the candidate region

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cendes, I.; Rouleau, G.A. ); Andermann, E.; Andermann, F. ); Attig, E. ); Bosch, S.; Wagner, M. )

    1994-05-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. To date, two SCA loci have been identified - one locus (SCA-1) on the short arm of chromosome 6 and the second locus (SCA-2) on the long arm of chromosome 12. The authors have studied two large kindreds from different ethnic backgrounds, segregating an autosomal dominant form of SCA. A total of 207 living individuals, including 50 affected, were examined, and blood was collected. Linkage analysis was performed using anonymous DNA markers which flank the two previously described loci. The results demonstrate that the two kindreds, one Austrian-Canadian and one French-Canadian, are linked to SCA-2 (chromosome 12q). Multipoint linkage analysis places the SCA-2 locus within a region of approximately 16 cM between the microsatellites D12S58 and D12S84/D12S105 (odds ratio 2,371:1 in favor of this position). The authors show that the SCA-2 locus is not a private gene and represents an alternative SCA locus. 51 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Content and organization of the human Ig VH locus: definition of three new VH families and linkage to the Ig CH locus.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, J E; Mellis, S J; Pollock, R; Smith, C L; Suh, H; Heinke, B; Kowal, C; Surti, U; Chess, L; Cantor, C R

    1988-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the content and organization of the human immunoglobulin VH locus. Human VH genes representing five distinct families were isolated, including novel members belonging to two out of three of the known VH gene families (VH1 and VH3) as well as members of three new families (VH4, VH5, and VH6). We report the nucleotide sequence of 21 novel human VH genes, many of which belong to the three new VH gene families. In addition, we provide a preliminary analysis of the organization of these gene segments over the full extent of the locus. We find that the five multi-segment families (VH1-5) have members interspersed over nearly the full 1500-2000 kb of the VH locus, and estimate that the entire heavy chain locus covers 2500 kb or less. Finally, we provide the first report of the physical linkage of the variable and constant loci of a human Ig gene family by demonstrating that the most proximal known human VH segments lie within 100 kb of the constant region locus. Images PMID:3396540

  14. Locus of the intensity effect in simple reaction time tasks.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Kurczewska, Marta; Nowik, Agnieszka; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Verleger, Rolf

    2007-11-01

    Evidence is still inconclusive regarding the locus of the stimulus intensity effect on information processing in reaction tasks. Miller, Ulrich, and Rinkenauer (1999) addressed this question by assessing the intensity effect on stimulus- and response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) as indices of the sensory and motor parts of reaction time (RT). In the case of visual stimuli, they observed that application of brighter stimuli resulted in a shortening of RT and stimulus-locked LRP (S-LRP), but not of response-locked LRP (R-LRP). The results for auditory stimuli, however, were unclear. In spite of a clear RT reduction due to increased loudness, neither S-LRP nor R-LRP onset was affected. A reason for this failure might have been a relatively small range of intensity variation and the type of task. To check for this possibility, we performed three experiments in which broader ranges of stimulus intensities and simple, rather than choice, response tasks were used. Although the intensity effect on the R-LRP was negligible, S-LRP followed RT changes, irrespective of stimulus modality. These findings support the conclusion that stimulus intensity exerts its effect before the start of motoric processes. Finally, S-LRP and R-LRP findings are discussed within a broader information-processing perspective to check the validity of the claim that S-LRP and R-LRP can, indeed, be considered as pure estimates of the duration of sensory and motor processes.

  15. Mutations Affecting Expression of the rosy Locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong Sung; Curtis, Daniel; McCarron, Margaret; Love, Carol; Gray, Mark; Bender, Welcome; Chovnick, Arthur

    1987-01-01

    The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Previous studies defined a "control element" near the 5' end of the gene, where variant sites affected the amount of rosy mRNA and protein produced. We have determined the DNA sequence of this region from both genomic and cDNA clones, and from the ry+10 underproducer strain. This variant strain had many sequence differences, so that the site of the regulatory change could not be fixed. A mutagenesis was also undertaken to isolate new regulatory mutations. We induced 376 new mutations with 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) and screened them to isolate those that reduced the amount of XDH protein produced, but did not change the properties of the enzyme. Genetic mapping was used to find mutations located near the 5' end of the gene. DNA from each of seven mutants was cloned and sequenced through the 5' region. Mutant base changes were identified in all seven; they appear to affect splicing and translation of the rosy mRNA. In a related study (T. P. Keith et al. 1987), the genomic and cDNA sequences are extended through the 3' end of the gene; the combined sequences define the processing pattern of the rosy transcript and predict the amino acid sequence of XDH. PMID:3036645

  16. A role for locus coeruleus in Parkinson tremor

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Marzegan, Alberto; Pezzoli, Gianni; Marotta, Giorgio; Canesi, Margherita; Biella, Gabriele E. M.; Volkmann, Jens; Cavallari, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed rest tremor, one of the etiologically most elusive hallmarks of Parkinson disease (PD), in 12 consecutive PD patients during a specific task activating the locus coeruleus (LC) to investigate a putative role of noradrenaline (NA) in tremor generation and suppression. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed in all subjects by reduced dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) binding values investigated by single photon computed tomography imaging (SPECT) with [123I] N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane (FP-CIT). The intensity of tremor (i.e., the power of Electromyography [EMG] signals), but not its frequency, significantly increased during the task. In six subjects, tremor appeared selectively during the task. In a second part of the study, we retrospectively reviewed SPECT with FP-CIT data and confirmed the lack of correlation between dopaminergic loss and tremor by comparing DAT binding values of 82 PD subjects with bilateral tremor (n = 27), unilateral tremor (n = 22), and no tremor (n = 33). This study suggests a role of the LC in Parkinson tremor. PMID:22287946

  17. Pupil diameter covaries with BOLD activity in human locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Peter R; O'Connell, Redmond G; O'Sullivan, Michael; Robertson, Ian H; Balsters, Joshua H

    2014-08-01

    The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) neuromodulatory system has been implicated in a broad array of cognitive processes, yet scope for investigating this system's function in humans is currently limited by an absence of reliable non-invasive measures of LC activity. Although pupil diameter has been employed as a proxy measure of LC activity in numerous studies, empirical evidence for a relationship between the two is lacking. In the present study, we sought to rigorously probe the relationship between pupil diameter and BOLD activity localized to the human LC. Simultaneous pupillometry and fMRI revealed a relationship between continuous pupil diameter and BOLD activity in a dorsal pontine cluster overlapping with the LC, as localized via neuromelanin-sensitive structural imaging and an LC atlas. This relationship was present both at rest and during performance of a two-stimulus oddball task, with and without spatial smoothing of the fMRI data, and survived retrospective image correction for physiological noise. Furthermore, the spatial extent of this pupil/LC relationship guided a volume-of-interest analysis in which we provide the first demonstration in humans of a fundamental characteristic of animal LC activity: phasic modulation by oddball stimulus relevance. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential for utilizing pupil diameter to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the role of the LC-NA system in human cognition.

  18. A Quantitative Trait Locus on chr.4 Regulates Thymic Involution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ritu; Avagyan, Serine

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying age-associated thymic involution are unknown. In mice, thymic involution shows mouse strain–dependent genetic variation. Identification of the underlying genes would provide mechanistic insight into this elusive process. We previously showed that responsiveness of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to transforming growth factor-beta 2, a positive regulator of HSPC proliferation, is regulated by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chr. 4, Tb2r1. Interestingly, Tgfb2+/− mice have delayed thymic involution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a QTL on chr. 4 might regulate thymic involution. Aged, but not young, B6.D2-chr.4 congenic mice, where the telomeric region of chr. 4 was introgressed from DBA/2 to C57BL/6 mice, had larger thymi, and better maintenance of early thymic precursors than C57BL/6 control mice. These observations unequivocally demonstrate that the telomeric region of chr. 4 contains a QTL, Ti1 (thymic involution 1) that regulates thymic involution, and suggest the possibility that Ti1 may be identical to Tb2r1. PMID:20371546

  19. Locus of control patterns in headaches and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Franco, Luis; López-Jiménez, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Locus of control (LOC) is related to the impact of headaches and chronic pain; however, literature evidence regarding LOC is not always consistent. Several authors consider this to be due, in part, to the separate interpretation of LOC factors, during which the interaction among them is ignored. In 1982, Wallston and Wallston proposed eight possible LOC health patterns depending on whether the individual scored high or low in each of three dimensions. OBJECTIVE: To identify these LOC patterns in patients with headaches and chronic pain, and to validate them in terms of their association with a selection of the main pain indicators. METHODS: A total of 228 individuals were recruited at three public centres in Seville, Spain. Participants completed a semistructured clinical interview and several questionnaires assessing psychological variables related to pain. The main statistical analyses used were two-step cluster analysis and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The six-cluster solution was optimal. The patterns observed coincided with: the believer in control; the yea-sayer; the pure chance; the pure internal; the pure professional; and the nay-sayer clusters. The double external or type VI clusters were not observed. Clusters could be classified from the best to the worst adjustment to chronic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the empirical validity of the theoretical model of LOC patterns proposed in 1982 by Wallston and Wallston among a chronic pain population. The analysis of patterns provides more accurate information regarding the adjustment to pain compared with analysis of the LOC factors separately. PMID:23936894

  20. The achromatic locus: effect of navigation direction in color space.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Tushar; Perales, Esther; Xiao, Kaida; Hird, Emily; Karatzas, Dimosthenis; Wuerger, Sophie

    2014-01-24

    An achromatic stimulus is defined as a patch of light that is devoid of any hue. This is usually achieved by asking observers to adjust the stimulus such that it looks neither red nor green and at the same time neither yellow nor blue. Despite the theoretical and practical importance of the achromatic locus, little is known about the variability in these settings. The main purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether achromatic settings were dependent on the task of the observers, namely the navigation direction in color space. Observers could either adjust the test patch along the two chromatic axes in the CIE u*v* diagram or, alternatively, navigate along the unique-hue lines. Our main result is that the navigation method affects the reliability of these achromatic settings. Observers are able to make more reliable achromatic settings when adjusting the test patch along the directions defined by the four unique hues as opposed to navigating along the main axes in the commonly used CIE u*v* chromaticity plane. This result holds across different ambient viewing conditions (Dark, Daylight, Cool White Fluorescent) and different test luminance levels (5, 20, and 50 cd/m(2)). The reduced variability in the achromatic settings is consistent with the idea that internal color representations are more aligned with the unique-hue lines than the u* and v* axes.

  1. The functional organization of the vestigial locus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Williams, J A; Atkin, A L; Bell, J B

    1990-03-01

    Vestigial mutants are associated with imaginal disc cell death which results in the deletion of adult wing and haltere structures. The vestigial locus has previously been cloned, and mutational lesions associated with a number of vg alleles were mapped within a 19 kb DNA region defined as essential for vg function. Herein we report the identification and characterization of a developmentally regulated 3.8 kb vg transcript which is spliced from exons distributed throughout the essential interval defined above. All the characterized classical alleles have predictable effects on this transcription unit, and the severity of this effect is directly proportional to the severity of the wing phenotype. A repetitive domain within this transcription unit was identified and may serve as a tag to isolate other genes with functions related to vg. We also report an exceptional vg allele (vg83b27) that produces an extreme wing and haltere phenotype, but which defines a second vg complementation unit. This allele is associated with a 4 kb deletion entirely within a 4.5 kb vg intron as defined by the 3.8 kb transcription unit. Molecular and genetic evidence indicates that the vg83b27 mutation has a functional 3.8 kb transcription unit, thus accounting for its ability to complement classical alleles. The results indicate that sequences within a vg intron are essential for normal wing and haltere development.

  2. Analysis of Recombination Sites within the Maize Waxy Locus

    PubMed Central

    Okagaki, R. J.; Weil, C. F.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic fine structure analysis of the maize wx locus has determined that the ratio of genetic to physical distance within wx was one to two orders of magnitude higher than the average for the maize genome. Similar results have been found at other maize loci. In this study, we examined several mechanisms that could account for this pattern. First, crossovers in two other maize genes resolve preferentially at specific sites. By mapping exchanges between wx-B1 and wx-I relative to a polymorphic SstI site, we found no evidence for such a hotspot at wx. Second, deletion of promoter sequences from wx alleles had little effect on recombination frequencies, in contrast to results in yeast where promoter sequences are important for initiating recombination in some genes. Third, high levels of insertion polymorphism may suppress intergenic recombination. However, the presence of a 2-kb Ds element 470 bp upstream of the wx transcription start site did not further suppress recombination between Ds insertions in nearby wx sequences. Thus, none of these mechanisms is sufficient to explain the difference between intergenic and intragenic recombination rates at wx. PMID:9335616

  3. Conserved Arrangement of Nested Genes at the Drosophila Gart Locus

    PubMed Central

    Henikoff, Steven; Eghtedarzadeh, Mohammad K.

    1987-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster Gart gene encodes three enzymatic activities in the pathway for purine de novo synthesis. Alternative processing of the primary transcript leads to the synthesis of two overlapping polypeptides. The coding sequence for both polypeptides is interrupted by an intron that contains a functional cuticle protein gene encoded on the opposite DNA strand. Here we show that this nested organization also exists at the homologous locus of a distantly related species, Drosophila pseudoobscura. In both species, the intronic cuticle gene is expressed in wandering larvae and in prepupae. Remarkably, there are 24 different highly conserved noncoding segments within the intron containing the cuticle gene. These are found upstream of the transcriptional start, at the 3' end, and even within the single intronic gene intron. Other introns in the purine gene, including the intron at which alternative processing occurs, show no such homologies. It seems likely that at least some of the conserved noncoding regions are involved in specifying the high level developmental expression of the cuticle gene. We discuss the possibility that shared cis-acting regulatory sites might enhance transcription of both genes and help explain their nested arrangement. PMID:3123310

  4. A locus regulating bronchial hyperresponsiveness maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, R.C.; Meyers, D.A.; Bleecker, E.R.

    1994-09-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is one of the hallmarks of asthma. BHR correlates well with asthmatic symptoms and the response to treatment. Moreover, BHR appears to be closely related to airways inflammation. Numerous studies have demonstrated a familial aggregation; however, this phenotype is not likely inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. BHR is also closely associated with total serum IgE levels, as are allergy and asthma. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there are a number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q potentially important in producing BHR, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes regulate IgE production and the cellular elements that are likely involved in inflammation associated with BHR, allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Linkage of BHR with markers on 5q was tested using a model free sib-pair method. The data suggest a locus for BHR maps near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in producing susceptibility to BHR and possibly to asthma.

  5. A Quantitative Trait Locus Influencing Anxiety in the Laboratory Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Escorihuela, Rosa M.; Gray, Jeffrey A.; Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Tobeña, Adolf; Bhomra, Amarjit; Nicod, Alison; Mott, Richard; Driscoll, Peter; Dawson, Gerard R.; Flint, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    A critical test for a gene that influences susceptibility to fear in animals is that it should have a consistent pattern of effects across a broad range of conditioned and unconditioned models of anxiety. Despite many years of research, definitive evidence that genetic effects operate in this way is lacking. The limited behavioral test regimes so far used in genetic mapping experiments and the lack of suitable multivariate methodologies have made it impossible to determine whether the quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected to date specifically influence fear-related traits. Here we report the first multivariate analysis to explore the genetic architecture of rodent behavior in a battery of animal models of anxiety. We have mapped QTLs in an F2 intercross of two rat strains, the Roman high and low avoidance rats, that have been selectively bred for differential response to fear. Multivariate analyses show that one locus, on rat chromosome 5, influences behavior in different models of anxiety. The QTL influences two-way active avoidance, conditioned fear, elevated plus maze, and open field activity but not acoustic startle response or defecation in a novel environment. The direction of effects of the QTL alleles and a coincidence between the behavioral profiles of anxiolytic drug and genetic action are consistent with the QTL containing at least one gene with a pleiotropic action on fear responses. As the neural basis of fear is conserved across species, we suggest that the QTL may have relevance to trait anxiety in humans. PMID:11932246

  6. Mutations affecting expression of the rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Curtis, D.; McCarron, M.; Love, C.; Gray, M.; Bender, W.; Chovnick, A.

    1987-05-01

    The rosy locus in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Previous studies defined a control element near the 5' end of the gene, where variant sites affected the amount of rosy mRNA and protein produced. The authors have determined the DNA sequence of this region from both genomic and cDNA clones, and from the ry/sup +10/ underproducer strain. This variant strain had many sequence differences, so that the site of the regulatory change could not be fixed. A mutagenesis was also undertaken to isolate new regulatory mutations. They induced 376 new mutations with 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) and screened them to isolate those that reduced the amount of XDH protein produced, but did not change the properties of the enzyme. Genetic mapping was used to find mutations located near the 5' end of the gene. DNA from each of seven mutants was cloned and sequenced through the 5' region. Mutant base changes were identified in all seven; they appear to affect splicing and translation of the rosy mRNA. In a related study, the genomic and cDNA sequences are extended through the 3' end of the gene; the combined sequences define the processing pattern of the rosy transcript and predict the amino acid sequence of XDH.

  7. Polarized gene conversion at the bz locus of maize.

    PubMed

    Dooner, Hugo K; He, Limei

    2014-09-23

    Nucleotide diversity is greater in maize than in most organisms studied to date, so allelic pairs in a hybrid tend to be highly polymorphic. Most recombination events between such pairs of maize polymorphic alleles are crossovers. However, intragenic recombination events not associated with flanking marker exchange, corresponding to noncrossover gene conversions, predominate between alleles derived from the same progenitor. In these dimorphic heterozygotes, the two alleles differ only at the two mutant sites between which recombination is being measured. To investigate whether gene conversion at the bz locus is polarized, two large diallel crossing matrices involving mutant sites spread across the bz gene were performed and more than 2,500 intragenic recombinants were scored. In both diallels, around 90% of recombinants could be accounted for by gene conversion. Furthermore, conversion exhibited a striking polarity, with sites located within 150 bp of the start and stop codons converting more frequently than sites located in the middle of the gene. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to recent data from genome-wide studies in other plants.

  8. Molecular characterization of a region of DNA associated with mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bultman, S J; Russell, L B; Gutierrez-Espeleta, G A; Woychik, R P

    1991-09-15

    Molecular characterization of a radiation-induced agouti (a)-locus mutation has resulted in the isolation of a segment of DNA that maps at or near the a locus on chromosome 2 in the mouse. This region of DNA is deleted in several radiation- or chemical-induced homozygous-lethal a-locus mutations and is associated with specific DNA structural alterations in two viable a-locus mutations. We propose that DNA probes from this region of chromosome 2 will be useful for ultimately characterizing the individual gene or genes associated with a-locus function.

  9. Resistance mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cag, Yasemin; Caskurlu, Hulya; Fan, Yanyan; Cao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    By definition, the terms sepsis and septic shock refer to a potentially fatal infectious state in which the early administration of an effective antibiotic is the most significant determinant of the outcome. Because of the global spread of resistant bacteria, the efficacy of antibiotics has been severely compromised. S. pneumonia, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas are the predominant pathogens of sepsis and septic shock. It is common for E. coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to be resistant to multiple drugs. Multiple drug resistance is caused by the interplay of multiple resistance mechanisms those emerge via the acquisition of extraneous resistance determinants or spontaneous mutations. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and quinolone resistance determinants are typically external and disseminate on mobile genetic elements, while porin-efflux mechanisms are activated by spontaneous modifications of inherited structures. Porin and efflux mechanisms are frequent companions of multiple drug resistance in Acinetobacter and P. aeruginosa, but only occasionally detected among E. coli and Klebsiella. Antibiotic resistance became a global health threat. This review examines the major resistance mechanisms of the leading microorganisms of sepsis. PMID:27713884

  10. 12q24 locus association with type 1 diabetes: SH2B3 or ATXN2?

    PubMed

    Auburger, Georg; Gispert, Suzana; Lahut, Suna; Omür, Ozgür; Damrath, Ewa; Heck, Melanie; Başak, Nazlı

    2014-06-15

    Genetic linkage analyses, genome-wide association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms, copy number variation surveys, and mutation screenings found the human chromosomal 12q24 locus, with the genes SH2B3 and ATXN2 in its core, to be associated with an exceptionally wide spectrum of disease susceptibilities. Hematopoietic traits of red and white blood cells (like erythrocytosis and myeloproliferative disease), autoimmune disorders (like type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, hypothyroidism and vitiligo), also vascular pathology (like kidney glomerular filtration rate deficits, serum urate levels, plasma beta-2-microglobulin levels, retinal microcirculation problems, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and hypertension, cardiovascular infarction), furthermore obesity, neurodegenerative conditions (like the polyglutamine-expansion disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, Parkinson's disease, the motor-neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and progressive supranuclear palsy), and finally longevity were reported. Now it is important to clarify, in which ways the loss or gain of function of the locally encoded proteins SH2B3/LNK and ataxin-2, respectively, contribute to these polygenic health problems. SH2B3/LNK is known to repress the JAK2/ABL1 dependent proliferation of white blood cells. Its null mutations in human and mouse are triggers of autoimmune traits and leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia-like), while missense mutations were found in erythrocytosis-1 patients. Ataxin-2 is known to act on RNA-processing and trophic receptor internalization. While its polyglutamine-expansion mediated gain-of-function causes neuronal atrophy in human and mouse, its deletion leads to obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Thus, it is conceivable that the polygenic pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is enhanced

  11. 12q24 locus association with type 1 diabetes: SH2B3 or ATXN2?

    PubMed Central

    Auburger, Georg; Gispert, Suzana; Lahut, Suna; Ömür, Özgür; Damrath, Ewa; Heck, Melanie; Başak, Nazlı

    2014-01-01

    Genetic linkage analyses, genome-wide association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms, copy number variation surveys, and mutation screenings found the human chromosomal 12q24 locus, with the genes SH2B3 and ATXN2 in its core, to be associated with an exceptionally wide spectrum of disease susceptibilities. Hematopoietic traits of red and white blood cells (like erythrocytosis and myeloproliferative disease), autoimmune disorders (like type 1 diabetes, coeliac disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, hypothyroidism and vitiligo), also vascular pathology (like kidney glomerular filtration rate deficits, serum urate levels, plasma beta-2-microglobulin levels, retinal microcirculation problems, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and hypertension, cardiovascular infarction), furthermore obesity, neurodegenerative conditions (like the polyglutamine-expansion disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, Parkinson’s disease, the motor-neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and progressive supranuclear palsy), and finally longevity were reported. Now it is important to clarify, in which ways the loss or gain of function of the locally encoded proteins SH2B3/LNK and ataxin-2, respectively, contribute to these polygenic health problems. SH2B3/LNK is known to repress the JAK2/ABL1 dependent proliferation of white blood cells. Its null mutations in human and mouse are triggers of autoimmune traits and leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myeloid leukemia-like), while missense mutations were found in erythrocytosis-1 patients. Ataxin-2 is known to act on RNA-processing and trophic receptor internalization. While its polyglutamine-expansion mediated gain-of-function causes neuronal atrophy in human and mouse, its deletion leads to obesity and insulin resistance in mice. Thus, it is conceivable that the polygenic pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is

  12. Identification of a locus controlling Verticillium disease symptom response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Paola; Narasimhan, Meena L; Stevenson, Rebecca A; Zhu, Jian-K; Weller, Stephen C; Subbarao, Krishna V; Bressan, Ray A

    2003-09-01

    Verticillium dahliae Klebahn is a soil-borne fungal pathogen causing vascular diseases. The pathogen penetrates the host through the roots, spreads through the xylem, and systemically colonizes both resistant and susceptible genotypes. To elucidate the genetic and molecular bases of plant-Verticillium interactions, we have developed a pathosystem utilizing Arabidopsis thaliana and an isolate of V. dahliae pathogenic to both cruciferous and non-cruciferous crops. Relative tolerance (based on symptom severity) but no immunity was found in a survey of Arabidopsis ecotypes. Anthocyanin accumulation, stunting, and chlorosis were common symptoms. Specific responses of the more susceptible ecotype Columbia were induction of early flowering and dying. The more tolerant ecotype C-24 was characterized by pathogen-induced delay of transition to flowering and mild chlorosis symptoms. Genetic analysis indicated that a single dominant locus, Verticillium dahliae-tolerance (VET1), likely functioning also as a negative regulator of the transition to flowering, was able to convey increased tolerance. VET1 was mapped on chromosome IV. The differential symptom responses observed between ecotypes were not correlated with different rates of fungal tissue colonization or with differential transcript accumulation of PR-1 and PDF1.2 defense genes whose activation was not detected during the Arabidopsis-V. dahliae interaction. Impairment in salicylic acid (SA)- or jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent signaling did not cause hypersensitivity to the fungal infection, whereas ethylene insensitivity led to reduced chlorosis and ABA deficiency to reduced anthocyanin accumulation. The results of this study clearly indicated that the ability of V. dahliae to induce disease symptoms is also connected to the genetic control of development and life span in Arabidopsis.

  13. Relationship among prospective parents' locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Windwer, C

    1977-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship among locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis (PPM). It was hypothesized that internal locus of control and low social desirability would correlate significantly with the choice of PPM by husbands and wives; that externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who did not participate; and that locus of control and social desirability, when taken together, would be better predictors of choice of PPM than either taken separately. Ninety-eight middle-class nulliparous couples, participant and non-participant, were studied in the seventh or eighth month of the wife's pregnancy. Rotter's I-E Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were used to measure locus of control and social desirability. Study findings did not support the hypotheses.

  14. Mapping genetic determinants of viral traits with FST and quantitative trait locus (QTL) approaches.

    PubMed

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Thébaud, Gaël; Vuillaume, Florence; Peterschmitt, Michel; Urbino, Cica

    2015-10-01

    The genetic determinism of viral traits can generally be dissected using either forward or reverse genetics because the clonal reproduction of viruses does not require the use of approaches based on laboratory crosses. Nevertheless, we hypothesized that recombinant viruses could be analyzed as sexually reproducing organisms, using either a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach or a locus-by-locus fixation index (FST). Locus-by-locus FST analysis, and four different regressions and interval mapping algorithms of QTL analysis were applied to a phenotypic and genotypic dataset previously obtained from 47 artificial recombinant genomes generated between two begomovirus species. Both approaches assigned the determinant of within-host accumulation-previously identified using standard virology approaches-to a region including the 5׳ end of the replication-associated protein (Rep) gene and the upstream intergenic region. This study provides a proof of principle that QTL and population genetics tools can be extended to characterize the genetic determinants of viral traits.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity in benign familial neonatal convulsions: Identification of a new locus on chromosome 8q

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.B.; Leach, R.J.; O'Connell, P.; Ryan, S.G. ); Ward, K. )

    1993-09-01

    The syndrome of benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures in the first weeks of life. One locus for BFNC has been mapped to chromosome 20 in several pedigrees, but the authors have excluded linkage to chromosome 20 in one large kindred. In order to identify this novel BFNC locus, dinucleotide repeat markers distributed throughout the genome were used to screen this family. Maximum pairwise LOD scores of 4.43 were obtained with markers D8S284 and D8S256 on chromosome 8q. Multipoint analysis placed the BFNC locus in the interval spanned by D8S198-D8S274. This study establishes the presence of a new BFNC locus and confirms genetic heterogeneity of this disorder. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effects of Locus of Control and Type of Reinforcement on Programmed Instruction Performance of Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Mary K.

    1976-01-01

    Students with an internal locus of control functioned well under a variety of conditions while students needing extrinsic reinforcement functioned well only when feedback was provided by the experimenter. (MM)

  17. Evolution of recombination rates in a multi-locus, haploid-selection, symmetric-viability model.

    PubMed

    Chasnov, J R; Ye, Felix Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    A fast algorithm for computing multi-locus recombination is extended to include a recombination-modifier locus. This algorithm and a linear stability analysis is used to investigate the evolution of recombination rates in a multi-locus, haploid-selection, symmetric-viability model for which stable equilibria have recently been determined. When the starting equilibrium is symmetric with two selected loci, we show analytically that modifier alleles that reduce recombination always invade. When the starting equilibrium is monomorphic, and there is a fixed nonzero recombination rate between the modifier locus and the selected loci, we determine analytical conditions for which a modifier allele can invade. In particular, we show that a gap exists between the recombination rates of modifiers that can invade and the recombination rate that specifies the lower stability boundary of the monomorphic equilibrium. A numerical investigation shows that a similar gap exists in a weakened form when the starting equilibrium is fully polymorphic but asymmetric.

  18. Homozygosity mapping of the locus responsible for renal tubular dysplasia of cattle on bovine chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Y; Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Asahina, S; Nishimori, K; Yoneda, K; Kunieda, T; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Renal tubular dysplasia is a hereditary disease of Japanese black cattle showing renal failure and growth retardation with an autosomal recessive trait. In the present study, we mapped the locus responsible for the disease (RTD) by linkage analysis with an inbred paternal half-sib pedigree obtained from commercial herds. By analyzing segregation of microsatellite markers in the half-sibs, significant linkage was observed between the RTD locus and markers on bovine Chromosome (Chr) 1 with the highest lod score of 11.4. Homozygosity mapping with the inbred pedigree further defined the localization of the RTD locus in a 4-cM region between microsatellite markers BMS4003 and INRA119. Mapping of the RTD locus on bovine Chr 1 will facilitate cloning and characterization of the gene responsible for this disease.

  19. The Relationship between Adjustment and Perceived Locus of Control for Female Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youkilis, Hildreth D.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the longitudinal relationship between internal-external locus of control and adjustment using independent measures within two dissimilar treatment environments: a traditional ward and a token economy ward. Subjects were 65 female psychiatric inpatients. (CM)

  20. A robust multiple-locus method for quantitative trait locus analysis of non-normally distributed multiple traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Möttönen, J; Sillanpää, M J

    2015-12-01

    Linear regression-based quantitative trait loci/association mapping methods such as least squares commonly assume normality of residuals. In genetics studies of plants or animals, some quantitative traits may not follow normal distribution because the data include outlying observations or data that are collected from multiple sources, and in such cases the normal regression methods may lose some statistical power to detect quantitative trait loci. In this work, we propose a robust multiple-locus regression approach for analyzing multiple quantitative traits without normality assumption. In our method, the objective function is least absolute deviation (LAD), which corresponds to the assumption of multivariate Laplace distributed residual errors. This distribution has heavier tails than the normal distribution. In addition, we adopt a group LASSO penalty to produce shrinkage estimation of the marker effects and to describe the genetic correlation among phenotypes. Our LAD-LASSO approach is less sensitive to the outliers and is more appropriate for the analysis of data with skewedly distributed phenotypes. Another application of our robust approach is on missing phenotype problem in multiple-trait analysis, where the missing phenotype items can simply be filled with some extreme values, and be treated as outliers. The efficiency of the LAD-LASSO approach is illustrated on both simulated and real data sets.

  1. Hysteresis zone or locus - Aerodynamic of bulbous based bodies at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data are presented which seem to suggest that a well-defined hysteresis locus on bulbous based bodies at low speeds does not exist. Instead, if the experiment is repeated several times, the entire hysteresis region seems to fill with data rather than trace out a specific hysteresis locus. Data obtained on an oscillating model even at low reduced frequencies may be well defined but when applied to arbitrary motion lead to less accurate results than desired.

  2. A second locus for Rieger syndrome maps to chromosome 13q14

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.C.; Del Bono, E.A.; Pralea, A.M.

    1996-09-01

    Rieger syndrome is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder typically characterized by malformations of the eyes, teeth, and umbilicus. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and exhibits significant variable expressivity. One locus associated with this disorder has been mapped to 4q25. Using a large four-generation pedigree, we have identified a second locus for Rieger syndrome located on chromosome 13q14. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Managing Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  4. 204 POTENTIAL OF GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN LOCUS FOR GENE EDITING IN DNA TRANSPOSON-PRODUCED TRANSGENIC CATTLE.

    PubMed

    Yum, S-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, H-M; Lee, C-I; Kim, H-S; Kim, H-J; Choi, W-J; Hahn, S-E; Lee, J-H; Kim, S-J; Jang, G

    2016-01-01

    demonstrated that transgenic cattle via transposon are healthy to date and germ-line competence was confirmed. The GFP locus will be used as the target region for future gene engineering via genome-editing technology. Finally, all those animals could be a valuable agricultural and veterinary science resource for studying the effects of gene manipulation on disease resistance and food production.

  5. The genetic basis of resistance and matching-allele interactions of a host-parasite system: The Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa model.

    PubMed

    Bento, Gilberto; Routtu, Jarkko; Fields, Peter D; Bourgeois, Yann; Du Pasquier, Louis; Ebert, Dieter

    2017-02-21

    Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. We fine-map one locus associated with D. magna resistance to P. ramosa and genetically characterize two haplotypes of the Pasteuria resistance (PR-) locus using de novo genome and transcriptome sequencing. Sequence comparison of PR-locus haplotypes finds dramatic structural polymorphisms between PR-locus haplotypes including a large portion of each haplotype being composed of non-homologous sequences resulting in haplotypes differing in size by 66 kb. The high divergence of PR-locus haplotypes suggest a history of multiple, diverse and repeated instances of structural mutation events and restricted recombination. Annotation of the haplotypes reveals striking differences in gene content. In particular, a group of glycosyltransferase genes that is present in the susceptible but absent in the resistant haplotype. Moreover, in natural populations, we find that the PR-locus polymorphism is associated with variation in resistance to different P. ramosa genotypes, pointing to the PR-locus polymorphism as being responsible for the matching-allele interactions that have been previously described for this system. Our results conclusively identify a genetic basis for the matching-allele interaction observed in a coevolving host-parasite system and provide a first insight into its molecular basis.

  6. The genetic basis of resistance and matching-allele interactions of a host-parasite system: The Daphnia magna-Pasteuria ramosa model

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter D.; Bourgeois, Yann; Du Pasquier, Louis; Ebert, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. We fine-map one locus associated with D. magna resistance to P. ramosa and genetically characterize two haplotypes of the Pasteuria resistance (PR-) locus using de novo genome and transcriptome sequencing. Sequence comparison of PR-locus haplotypes finds dramatic structural polymorphisms between PR-locus haplotypes including a large portion of each haplotype being composed of non-homologous sequences resulting in haplotypes differing in size by 66 kb. The high divergence of PR-locus haplotypes suggest a history of multiple, diverse and repeated instances of structural mutation events and restricted recombination. Annotation of the haplotypes reveals striking differences in gene content. In particular, a group of glycosyltransferase genes that is present in the susceptible but absent in the resistant haplotype. Moreover, in natural populations, we find that the PR-locus polymorphism is associated with variation in resistance to different P. ramosa genotypes, pointing to the PR-locus polymorphism as being responsible for the matching-allele interactions that have been previously described for this system. Our results conclusively identify a genetic basis for the matching-allele interaction observed in a coevolving host-parasite system and provide a first insight into its molecular basis

  7. Analysis of the Lr34/Yr18 rust resistance region in wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insertion/deletion size variant located at the csLV34 locus on chromosome 7D within an intron sequence of a sulphate transporter-like gene tightly linked to the Lr34/Yr18 dual rust resistance was used to examine a global collection of wheat cultivars, landraces and D genome containing diploid and...

  8. Identification of a genetic locus controlling bacteria-driven colitis and associated cancer through effects on innate inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Boulard, Olivier; Kirchberger, Stefanie; Royston, Daniel J.; Maloy, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine has been associated with an elevated risk of developing colorectal cancer. Recent association studies have highlighted the role of genetic predisposition in the etiology of colitis and started to unravel its complexity. However, the genetic factors influencing the progression from colon inflammation to tumorigenesis are not known. We report the identification of a genetic interval Hiccs that regulates Helicobacter hepaticus–induced colitis and associated cancer susceptibility in a 129.RAG−/− mouse model. The 1.7-Mb congenic interval on chromosome 3, containing eight genes and five microRNAs, renders susceptible mice resistant to colitis and reduces tumor incidence and multiplicity. Bone marrow chimera experiments showed that resistance is conferred by the hematopoietic compartment. Moreover, the Hiccs locus controls the induction of the innate inflammatory response by regulating cytokine expression and granulocyte recruitment by Thy1+ innate lymphoid cells. Using a tumor-promoting model combining chronic Helicobacter hepaticus infection and the carcinogen azoxymethane, we found that Hiccs also regulates the frequency of colitis-associated neoplasia. Our study highlights the importance of innate immune cells and their genetic configuration in driving progression from inflammation toward cancer and opens the door for analysis of these pathways in human inflammatory disorders and associated cancers. PMID:22734048

  9. Genetic relationship between lodging and lodging components in barley (Hordeum vulgare) based on unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, W Y; Liu, Z M; Deng, G B; Pan, Z F; Liang, J J; Zeng, X Q; Tashi, N M; Long, H; Yu, M Q

    2014-03-17

    Lodging (LD) is a major constraint limiting the yield and forage quality of barley. Detailed analyses of LD component (LDC) traits were conducted using 246 F2 plants generated from a cross between cultivars ZQ320 and 1277. Genetic relationships between LD and LDC were evaluated by unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Ultimately, 53 unconditional QTL related to LD were identified on seven barley chromosomes. Up to 15 QTL accounted for over 10% of the phenotypic variation, and up to 20 QTL for culm strength were detected. Six QTL with pleiotropic effects showing significant negative correlations with LD were found between markers Bmag353 and GBM1482 on chromosome 4H. These alleles and alleles of QTL for wall thickness, culm strength, plant height, and plant weight originated from ZQ320. Conditional mapping identified 96 additional QTL for LD. Conditional QTL analysis demonstrated that plant height, plant height center of gravity, and length of the sixth internode had the greatest contribution to LD, whereas culm strength and length of the fourth internode, and culm strength of the second internode were the key factors for LD-resistant. Therefore, lodging resistance in barley can be improved based on selection of alleles affecting culm strength, wall thickness, plant height, and plant weight. The conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between LD and LDC while efficiently and precisely determining counteracting QTL, which will help in understanding the genetic basis of LD in barley.

  10. [BLG gene knockout and hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus in goat by TALENs].

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Zhu, Mengmin; Yuan, Yuguo; Rong, Yao; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Si; Mei, Junyan; Cheng, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To knock out β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and insert human lactoferrin (hLF) coding sequence at BLG locus of goat, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated recombination was used to edit the BLG gene of goat fetal fibroblast, then as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We designed a pair of specific plasmid TALEN-3-L/R for goat BLG exon III recognition sites, and BLC14-TK vector containing a negative selection gene HSV-TK, was used for the knock in of hLF gene. TALENs plasmids were transfected into the goat fetal fibroblast cells, and the cells were screened three days by 2 μg/mL puromycin. DNA cleavage activities of cells were verified by PCR amplification and DNA production sequencing. Then, targeting vector BLC14-TK and plasmids TALEN-3-L/R were co-transfected into goat fetal fibroblasts, both 700 μg/mL G418 and 2 μg/mL GCV were simultaneously used to screen G418-resistant cells. Detections of integration and recombination were implemented to obtain cells with hLF gene site-specific integration. We chose targeting cells as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. The mutagenicity of TALEN-3-L/R was between 25% and 30%. A total of 335 reconstructed embryos with 6 BLG-/hLF+ targeting cell lines were transferred into 16 recipient goats. There were 9 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound on day 30 to 35 (pregnancy rate of 39.1%), and one of 50-day-old fetus with BLG-/hLF+ was achieved. These results provide the basis for hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus of goat and cultivating transgenic goat of low allergens and rich hLF in the milk.

  11. Variants observed for STR locus SE33: a concordance study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Carey; Ge, Jianye; King, Jonathan; Malik, Naseem; Weirich, Volker; Eisenberg, Arthur J; Budowle, Bruce

    2012-07-01

    Discordance of STR typing results can be expected between kits that employ different primers for amplification. The complex motif of the SE33 locus and its flanking regions can contribute to the degree of discordant results. Sequence-dependent conformational changes can manifest as length differences under certain electrophoretic conditions and/or use of different primers. The AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA), PowerPlex® ESX 17 system (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI), and PowerPlex® ESI 17 system (Promega Corporation) were compared for concordance of allele calls for the SE33 marker in selected samples. A total of 16 samples were identified that were discordant at one of the SE33 alleles by an apparent one nucleotide in size. While the ESX 17 and NGM SElect™ kits yielded concordant results for these 16 samples, the ESI 17 kit generated alleles that differed. The discordant alleles were observed in individuals of African and European descent. Sequence analysis revealed that the one-base difference in size is not due to an indel but is instead the result of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the flanking region of the SE33 repeat region. Three different SNPs were observed, one of which is novel. Although these migration anomalies were observed only with the ESI 17 kit, one cannot preclude that a similar phenomenon may occur with the other kits as data sets increase. The type and degree of discordance of STR allele calls among STR kits is an important issue when comparing STR profiles among laboratories and when determining search parameters for identifying candidate associations in national databases.

  12. Evidence for meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A.M.; Barnetson, R.A.; Phillips, M.F.

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM), an autosomal dominant disorder, is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy, affecting at least 1 in 8000 of the population. It is a multisystemic disorder, primarily characterized by myotonia, muscle wasting and cataract. The molecular basis of DM is an expanded CTG repeat located within the 3{prime} untranslated region of a putative serine-threonine protein kinase on chromosome 19q13.3. DM exhibits anticipation, that is, with successive generations there is increasing disease severity and earlier age of onset. This mechanism and the fact that the origin of the disease has been attributed to one or a small number of founder chromosomes suggests that, in time, DM should die out. Meiotic drive has been described as a way in which certain alleles are transmitted to succeeding generations in preference to others: preferential transmission of large CTG alleles may account for their continued existence in the gene pool. There is evidence that a CTG allele with > 19 repeats may gradually increase in repeat number over many generations until it is sufficiently large to give a DM phenotype. We report a study of 495 transmissions from individuals heterozygous for the CTG repeat and with repeat numbers within the normal range (5-30). Alleles were simply classified as large or small relative to the other allele in an individual. Of 242 male meioses, 126 transmissions from parent to child were of the larger allele to their offspring (57.7%, p=0.014). This shows that there is strong evidence for meiotic drive favoring the transmission of the larger DM allele in unaffected individuals. Contrary to a previous report of meiotic drive in the male, we have shown that females preferentially transmit the larger DM allele. Taken together, the data suggest the occurrence of meiotic drive in both males and females in this locus.

  13. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as "smile"). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit - the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes.

  14. Altered locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function following single prolonged stress.

    PubMed

    George, Sophie A; Knox, Dayan; Curtis, Andre L; Aldridge, J Wayne; Valentino, Rita J; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-03-01

    Data from preclinical and clinical studies have implicated the norepinephrine system in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder. The primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain is the locus coeruleus (LC); however, LC activity cannot be directly measured in humans, and previous research has often relied upon peripheral measures of norepinephrine to infer changes in central LC-norepinephrine function. To directly assess LC-norepinephrine function, we measured single-unit activity of LC neurons in a validated rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder - single prolonged stress (SPS). We also examined tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels in the LC of SPS and control rats as an index of norepinephrine utilisation. For electrophysiological recordings, 92 LC neurons were identified from 19 rats (SPS, 12; control, 7), and spontaneous and evoked responses to a noxious event (paw compression) were recorded. Baseline and restraint stress-evoked tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression levels were measured in SPS and control rats (n = 16 per group) in a separate experiment. SPS rats showed lower spontaneous activity but higher evoked responses, leading to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio of LC neurons, accompanied by impaired recovery from post-stimulus inhibition. In concert, tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in the LC of SPS rats tended to be lower at baseline, but was exaggerated following restraint stress. These data demonstrate persistent changes in LC function following stress/trauma in a rat model of post-traumatic stress, as measured by differences in both the electrophysiological properties of LC neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA transcription.

  15. Role of TRAV Locus in Low Caries Experience

    PubMed Central

    Briseño-Ruiz, Jessica; Shimizu, Takehiko; Deeley, Kathleen; Dizak, Piper M.; Ruff, Timothy D.; Faraco, Italo M.; Poletta, Fernando A.; Brancher, João A.; Pecharki, Giovana D.; Küchler, Erika C.; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Vieira, Thays C.S.; Patir, Asli; Koruyucu, Mine; Mereb, Juan C.; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Letra, Ariadne; Silva, Renato M.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Seymen, Figen; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, José M.; Trevilatto, Paula C.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2013-01-01

    Caries is the most common chronic, multifactorial disease in the world today; and little is still known about the genetic factors influencing susceptibility. Our previous genome- wide linkage scan has identified five loci related to caries susceptibility: 5q13.3, 13q31.1, 14q11.2, 14q 24.3, and Xq27. In the present study, we fine mapped the 14q11.2 locus in order to identify genetic contributors to caries susceptibility. Four hundred seventy-seven subjects from 72 pedigrees with similar cultural and behavioral habits and limited access to dental care living in the Philippines were studied. An additional 387 DNA samples from unrelated individuals were used to determine allele frequencies. For replication purposes, a total of 1,446 independent subjects from four different populations were analyzed based on their caries experience (low versus high). Forty-eight markers in 14q11.2 were genotyped using TaqMan chemistry. Transmission disequilibrium test was used to detect overtransmission of alleles in the Filipino families, and chi-square, Fisher’s exact and logistic regression were used to test for association between low caries experience and variant alleles in the replication data sets. We finally assessed the mRNA expression of TRAV4 in the saliva of 143 study subjects. In the Filipino families, statistically significant associations were found between low caries experience and markers in TRAV4. We were able to replicate these results in the populations studied that were characteristically from underserved areas. Direct sequencing of 22 subjects carrying the associated alleles detect one missense mutation (Y30R) that is predicted to be probably damaging. Finally, we observed higher expression in children and teenagers with low caries experience, correlating with specific alleles in TRAV4. Our results suggest TRAV4 may have a role in protecting against caries. PMID:23657505

  16. Forebrain GABAergic projections to locus coeruleus in mouse.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Usdin, Ted B

    2013-07-01

    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) regulates arousal, memory, sympathetic nervous system activity, and pain. Forebrain projections to LC have been characterized in rat, cat, and primates, but not systematically in mouse. We surveyed mouse forebrain LC-projecting neurons by examining retrogradely labeled cells following LC iontophoresis of Fluoro-Gold and anterograde LC labeling after forebrain injection of biotinylated dextran amine or viral tracer. Similar to other species, the central amygdalar nucleus (CAmy), anterior hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, and posterior lateral hypothalamic area (PLH) provide major LC inputs. By using mice expressing green fluorescent protein in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, we found that more than one-third of LC-projecting CAmy and PLH neurons are GABAergic. LC colocalization of biotinylated dextran amine, following CAmy or PLH injection, with either green fluorescent protein or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/67 immunoreactivity confirmed these GABAergic projections. CAmy injection of adeno-associated virus encoding channelrhodopsin-2-Venus showed similar fiber labeling and association with GAD65/67-immunoreactive (ir) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir neurons. CAmy and PLH projections were densest in a pericoerulear zone, but many fibers entered the LC proper. Close apposition between CAmy GABAergic projections and TH-ir processes suggests that CAmy GABAergic neurons may directly inhibit noradrenergic principal neurons. Direct LC neuron targeting was confirmed by anterograde transneuronal labeling of LC TH-ir neurons following CAmy or PLH injection of a herpes virus that expresses red fluorescent protein following activation by Cre recombinase in mice that express Cre recombinase in GABAergic neurons. This description of GABAergic projections from the CAmy and PLH to the LC clarifies important forebrain sources of inhibitory control of central nervous system noradrenergic activity.

  17. High polymorphism at the human melanocortin 1 receptor locus.

    PubMed Central

    Rana, B K; Hewett-Emmett, D; Jin, L; Chang, B H; Sambuughin, N; Lin, M; Watkins, S; Bamshad, M; Jorde, L B; Ramsay, M; Jenkins, T; Li, W H

    1999-01-01

    Variation in human skin/hair pigmentation is due to varied amounts of eumelanin (brown/black melanins) and phaeomelanin (red/yellow melanins) produced by the melanocytes. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a regulator of eu- and phaeomelanin production in the melanocytes, and MC1R mutations causing coat color changes are known in many mammals. We have sequenced the MC1R gene in 121 individuals sampled from world populations with an emphasis on Asian populations. We found variation at five nonsynonymous sites (resulting in the variants Arg67Gln, Asp84Glu, Val92Met, Arg151Cys, and Arg163Gln), but at only one synonymous site (A942G). Interestingly, the human consensus protein sequence is observed in all 25 African individuals studied, but at lower frequencies in the other populations examined, especially in East and Southeast Asians. The Arg163Gln variant is absent in the Africans studied, almost absent in Europeans, and at a low frequency (7%) in Indians, but is at an exceptionally high frequency (70%) in East and Southeast Asians. The MC1R gene in common and pygmy chimpanzees, gorilla, orangutan, and baboon was sequenced to study the evolution of MC1R. The ancestral human MC1R sequence is identical to the human consensus protein sequence, while MC1R varies considerably among higher primates. A comparison of the rates of substitution in genes in the melanocortin receptor family indicates that MC1R has evolved the fastest. In addition, the nucleotide diversity at the MC1R locus is shown to be several times higher than the average nucleotide diversity in human populations, possibly due to diversifying selection. PMID:10101176

  18. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as “smile”). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes. PMID:24917802

  19. Ac-Induced Instability at the Xanthophyllic Locus of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, P. W.; Yoder, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    To detect genomic instability caused by Ac elements in transgenic tomatoes, we used the incompletely dominant mutation Xanthophyllic-1 (Xa-1) as a whole plant marker gene. Xa-1 is located on chromosome 10 and in the heterozygote state causes leaves to be yellow. Transgenic Ac-containing tomato plants which differed in the location and number of their Ac elements were crossed to Xa-1 tester lines and F(1) progeny were scored for aberrant somatic sectoring. Of 800 test and control F(1) progeny screened, only four plants had aberrantly high levels of somatic sectors. Three of the plants had twin sectors consisting of green tissue adjacent to white tissue, and the other had twin sectors comprised of green tissue adjacent to tissue more yellow than the heterozygote background. Sectoring was inherited and the two sectoring phenotypes mapped to opposite homologs of chromosome 10; the green/yellow sectoring phenotype mapped in coupling to Xa-1 while the green/white sectoring phenotype mapped in repulsion. The two sectoring phenotypes cosegregated with different single, non-rearranged Acs, and loss of these Acs from the genome corresponded to the loss of sectoring. Sectoring was still observed after transposition of the Ac to a new site which indicated that sectoring was not limited to a single locus. In both sectored lines, meiotic recombination of the sectoring Ac to the opposite homolog caused the phenotype to switch between the green/yellow and the green/white phenotypes. Thus the two different sectoring phenotypes arose from the same Ac-induced mechanism; the phenotype depended on which chromosome 10 homolog the Ac was on. We believe that the twin sectors resulted from chromosome breakage mediated by a single intact, transposition-competent Ac element. PMID:8394266

  20. The Lbw2 locus promotes autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Scatizzi, John C; Haraldsson, Maria K; Pollard, K Michael; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N; Kono, Dwight H

    2012-04-01

    The lupus-prone New Zealand Black (NZB) strain uniquely develops a genetically imposed severe spontaneous autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that is very similar to the corresponding human disease. Previous studies have mapped anti-erythrocyte Ab (AEA)-promoting NZB loci to several chromosomal locations, including chromosome 4; however, none of these have been analyzed with interval congenics. In this study, we used NZB.NZW-Lbw2 congenic (designated Lbw2 congenic) mice containing an introgressed fragment of New Zealand White (NZW) on chromosome 4 encompassing Lbw2, a locus previously linked to survival, glomerulonephritis, and splenomegaly, to investigate its role in AIHA. Lbw2 congenic mice exhibited marked reductions in AEAs and splenomegaly but not in anti-nuclear Abs. Furthermore, Lbw2 congenics had greater numbers of marginal zone B cells and reduced expansion of peritoneal cells, particularly the B-1a cell subset at early ages, but no reduction in B cell response to LPS. Analysis of a panel of subinterval congenic mice showed that the full effect of Lbw2 on AEA production was dependent on three subloci, with splenomegaly mapping to two of the subloci and expansions of peritoneal cell populations, including B-1a cells to one. These results directly demonstrated the presence of AEA-specific promoting genes on NZB chromosome 4, documented a marked influence of background genes on autoimmune phenotypes related to Lbw2, and further refined the locations of the underlying genetic variants. Delineation of the Lbw2 genes should yield new insights into both the pathogenesis of AIHA and the nature of epistatic interactions of lupus-modifying genetic variants.

  1. Genotyping of the Q locus in wheat by a simple PCR-RFLP method.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Nobuaki; Mori, Naoki; Nakamura, Chiharu; Ohtsuka, Ichiro

    2009-06-01

    The Q locus located on the long arm of chromosome 5A is a key factor in evolution and widespread cultivation of domesticated wheat. The Q locus pleiotropically affects many agronomically important traits including threshability, glume shape and tenacity, rachis fragility and others. Genotyping of the Q locus based on the complex traits is ambiguous due to their multi-genetic control through interactions with the Q locus. To determine the Q locus genotype of wheat accessions possessing A genome, we developed a method based on polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The Q and q alleles were clearly distinguished by PCR-RFLP analysis at six conserved single nucleotide polymorphisms in common wheat and wild and cultivated einkorn, emmer and timopheevi wheat. The Q locus genotype of Triticum sinskajae, which is one of the einkorn wheat species and exhibits free-threshing trait, was determined to be qq as expected. This simple PCR-RLFP-based genotyping method should serve as a useful tool in studying the origin of Q and thus wheat evolution after domestication and the following widespread cultivation.

  2. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  3. Alpha-locus hexosaminidase genetic compound with juvenile gangliosidosis phenotype: clinical, genetic, and biochemical studies.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W G; Cohen, C S; Miranda, A F; Waran, S P; Chutorian, A M

    1980-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy developed progressive neurological deterioration in his third year, characterized by dementia, ataxia, myoclonic jerks, and bilateral macular cherry-red spots. Hexosaminidase A (HEX A) was partially decreased in the patient's serum, leukocytes, and cultured skin fibroblasts. Hexosaminidase was studied in serum and leukocytes from family members. Four members of the paternal branch appeared to be carriers of classical infantile Tay-Sachs allele, HEX alpha 2, probably receiving the gene from one great-grandparent of Ashkenazi origin. In the maternal branch, no one was a carrier of classical infantile Tay-Sachs disease, but five individuals were carriers of a milder alpha-locus defect. The patient, therefore, was a genetic compound of two different alpha-locus hexosaminidase mutations. At least 21 families with late-infantile or juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis have been reported, 18 of them with alpha-locus mutations, and three with beta-locus mutations. Genetic compounds of hexosaminidase have been reported in at least seven families, five with alpha-locus mutations and two with beta-locus mutations. The compound had the phenotype of infantile Tay-Sachs disease in one family, infantile Sandhoff disease in another, and the normal phenotype in the rest. PMID:6772023

  4. Gene-specific markers for the wheat gene Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 which confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The locus Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 confers partial and durable resistance against the devastating fungal pathogens leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. In previous studies, this broad-spectrum resistance was shown to be controlled by a single gene which encodes a putative ATP-binding cassette transport...

  5. Potato chromosomes IX and XI carry genes for resistance to potato virus M.

    PubMed

    Marczewski, W; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D; Hennig, J; Witek, K; Gebhardt, C

    2006-05-01

    Two new loci for resistance to potato virus M (PVM), Gm and Rm, have been mapped in potato. The gene Gm was derived from Solanum gourlayi, whereas, Solanum megistacrolobum is the source of the gene Rm. Gm confers resistance to PVM infection after mechanical inoculation. Rm induces a hypersensitive response in potato plants. Two diploid populations segregating for Gm and Rm, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and available potato molecular maps were instrumental for mapping the resistance loci. The novel locus Gm was mapped to a central region on potato chromosome IX. The locus Rm was placed on the short arm of chromosome XI, close to the marker loci GP250 and GP283, where a hotspot for monogenic and polygenic resistance to diverse pathogens is located in the potato and tomato genome.

  6. Resisting HRD's Resistance to Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate how human resource development (HRD) resists and omits issues of diversity in academic programs, textbooks, and research; analyze the research on HRD and diversity over a ten-year period; discuss HRD's resistance to diversity; and offer some recommendations for a more authentic…

  7. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l−1 and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1R allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1R and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1V or the duplicated ace-1D allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects. PMID:26463842

  8. High chlorpyrifos resistance in Culex pipiens mosquitoes: strong synergy between resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Alout, H; Labbé, P; Berthomieu, A; Makoundou, P; Fort, P; Pasteur, N; Weill, M

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the genetic determinism of high chlorpyrifos resistance (HCR), a phenotype first described in 1999 in Culex pipiens mosquitoes surviving chlorpyrifos doses ⩾1 mg l(-1) and more recently found in field samples from Tunisia, Israel or Indian Ocean islands. Through chlorpyrifos selection, we selected several HCR strains that displayed over 10 000-fold resistance. All strains were homozygous for resistant alleles at two main loci: the ace-1 gene, with the resistant ace-1(R) allele expressing the insensitive G119S acetylcholinesterase, and a resistant allele of an unknown gene (named T) linked to the sex and ace-2 genes. We constructed a strain carrying only the T-resistant allele and studied its resistance characteristics. By crossing this strain with strains harboring different alleles at the ace-1 locus, we showed that the resistant ace-1(R) and the T alleles act in strong synergy, as they elicited a resistance 100 times higher than expected from a simple multiplicative effect. This effect was specific to chlorpyrifos and parathion and was not affected by synergists. We also examined how HCR was expressed in strains carrying other ace-1-resistant alleles, such as ace-1(V) or the duplicated ace-1(D) allele, currently spreading worldwide. We identified two major parameters that influenced the level of resistance: the number and the nature of the ace-1-resistant alleles and the number of T alleles. Our data fit a model that predicts that the T allele acts by decreasing chlorpyrifos concentration in the compartment targeted in insects.

  9. Interface resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, Juha

    1983-11-01

    Interface resistance is studied by using the Landauer formula which relates the resistance to the quantum mechanical transmission coefficient. A simple rederivation of the Landauer formula is given. Using a step-like potential barrier as a model for the metal-semiconductor contact an analytical expression for the effective Richardson constant is derived. As an other application the grain boundary resistance in polycrystalline semiconductors is studied. The short-range potential fluctuation associated with the grain boundary is described by a rectangular potential barrier. The results for the grain boundary limited mobility cover both the strong and weak scattering regimes.

  10. Resistivity analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bruce, Michael R.; Bruce, Victoria J.; Ring, Rosalinda M.; Cole, Edward Jr. I.; Hawkins, Charles F.; Tangyungong, Paiboon

    2006-06-13

    According to an example embodiment of the present invention a semiconductor die having a resistive electrical connection is analyzed. Heat is directed to the die as the die is undergoing a state-changing operation to cause a failure due to suspect circuitry. The die is monitored, and a circuit path that electrically changes in response to the heat is detected and used to detect that a particular portion therein of the circuit is resistive. In this manner, the detection and localization of a semiconductor die defect that includes a resistive portion of a circuit path is enhanced.

  11. Evaluation of Polymorphic Locus Sequence Typing for Candida glabrata Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Eric; Shelton, Celeste; Healey, Kelley; Vermitsky, John-Paul; Edlind, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The opportunistic yeast Candida glabrata is increasingly refractory to antifungal treatment or prophylaxis and relatedly is increasingly implicated in health care-associated infections. To elucidate the epidemiology of these infections, strain typing is required. Sequence-based typing provides multiple advantages over length-based methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); however, conventional multilocus sequence typing (targeting 6 conserved loci) and whole-genome sequencing are impractical for routine use. A commercial sequence-based typing service for C. glabrata that targets polymorphic tandem repeat-containing loci has recently been developed. These CgMT-J and CgMT-M services were evaluated with 56 epidemiologically unrelated isolates, 4 to 7 fluconazole-susceptible or fluconazole-resistant isolates from each of 5 center A patients, 5 matched pairs of fluconazole-susceptible/resistant isolates from center B patients, and 7 isolates from a center C patient who responded to then failed caspofungin therapy. CgMT-J and CgMT-M generated congruent results, resolving isolates into 24 and 20 alleles, respectively. Isolates from all but one of the center A patients shared the same otherwise rare alleles, suggesting nosocomial transmission. Unexpectedly, Pdr1 sequencing showed that resistance arose independently in each patient. Similarly, most isolates from center B also clustered together; however, this may reflect a dominant clone since their alleles were shared by multiple unrelated isolates. Although distinguishable by their echinocandin susceptibilities, all isolates from the center C patient shared alleles, in agreement with the previously reported relatedness of these isolates based on PFGE. Finally, we show how phylogenetic clusters can be used to provide surrogate parents to analyze the mutational basis for antifungal resistance. PMID:26842706

  12. Identification, validation and application of molecular diagnostics for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Martin J.; Isaacs, Alison T.; Weetman, David

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance is a major obstacle to control of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa and requires an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Efforts to discover resistance genes and DNA markers have been dominated by candidate gene and quantitative trait locus studies of laboratory strains, but with greater availability of genome sequences a shift toward field-based agnostic discovery is anticipated. Mechanisms evolve continually to produce elevated resistance yielding multiplicative diagnostic markers, co-screening of which can give high predictive value. With a shift toward prospective analyses, identification and screening of resistance marker panels will boost monitoring and programmatic decision making. PMID:26750864

  13. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  14. Fine mapping reveals that promotion susceptibility locus 1 (Psl1) is a compound locus with multiple genes that modify susceptibility to skin tumor development.

    PubMed

    Angel, Joe M; Abel, Erika L; Riggs, Penny K; McClellan, S Alex; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-04-03

    Although it is well known that the majority of human cancers occur as the result of exposure to environmental carcinogens, it is clear that not all individuals exposed to a specific environmental carcinogen have the same risk of developing cancer. Considerable evidence indicates that common allelic variants of low-penetrance, tumor susceptibility genes are responsible for this interindividual variation in risk. We previously reported a skin tumor promotion susceptibility locus, Psl1, which maps to the distal portion of chromosome 9, that modified skin tumor promotion susceptibility in the mouse. Furthermore, Psl1 was shown to consist of at least two subloci (i.e., Psl1.1 and Psl1.2) and that glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4), which maps to Psl1.2, is a skin tumor promotion susceptibility gene. Finally, variants of human GSTA4 were found to be associated with risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer. In the current study, a combination of nested and contiguous C57BL/6 congenic mouse strains, each inheriting a different portion of the Psl1 locus from DBA/2, were tested for susceptibility to skin tumor promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. These analyses indicate that Psl1 is a compound locus with at least six genes, including Gsta4, that modify skin tumor promotion susceptibility. More than 550 protein-coding genes map within the Psl1 locus. Fine mapping of the Psl1 locus, along with two-strain haplotype analysis, gene expression analysis, and the identification of genes with amino acid variants, has produced a list of fewer than 25 candidate skin tumor promotion susceptibility genes.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... penicillin was the treatment of choice for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) , a human pathogen that can cause life-threatening ... skin, blood, bone, heart, and other vital organs; S. aureus resistance to penicillin rapidly evolved in the 1950s. ...

  16. Epigenetic regulation of antagonistic receptors confers rice blast resistance with yield balance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiwen; Zhai, Keran; Xie, Zhen; Yang, Dongyong; Zhu, Xudong; Liu, Junzhong; Wang, Xin; Qin, Peng; Yang, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Guomin; Li, Qun; Zhang, Jianfu; Wu, Shuangqing; Milazzo, Joëlle; Mao, Bizeng; Wang, Ertao; Xie, Huaan; Tharreau, Didier; He, Zuhua

    2017-03-03

    Crop breeding aims to balance disease resistance with yield; however, single resistance (R) genes can lead to resistance breakdown, and R gene pyramiding may affect growth fitness. Here we report that the rice Pigm locus contains a cluster of genes encoding nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors that confer durable resistance to the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae without yield penalty. Among these NLR receptors, PigmR confers broad-spectrum resistance, whereas PigmS competitively attenuates PigmR homodimerization to suppress resistance. PigmS expression, and thus PigmR-mediated resistance, are subjected to tight epigenetic regulation. PigmS increases seed production to counteract the yield cost induced by PigmR Therefore, our study reveals a mechanism balancing high disease resistance and yield through epigenetic regulation of paired antagonistic NLR receptors, providing a tool to develop elite crop varieties.

  17. Molecular characterization of the S locus in two self-incompatible Brassica napus lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, K; Schafer, U; Glavin, T L; Goring, D R; Rothstein, S J

    1996-01-01

    In Brassica species, self-incompatibility has been mapped genetically to a single chromosomal location. In this region, there are two closely linked genes coding for the S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK). They appear to comprise the pistil component of the self-incompatibility reaction. SLG and SRK are thought to recognize an unknown pollen component on the incompatible pollen, and the gene encoding this pollen component must also be linked to the SLG and SRK genes. To further our understanding of self-incompatibility, the chromosomal region carrying the SLG and SRK genes has been studied. The physical region between the SLG-910 and the SRK-910 genes in the Brassica napus W1 line was cloned, and a search for genes expressed in the anther revealed two additional S locus genes located downstream of the SLG-910 gene. Because these two genes are novel and are conserved at other S alleles, we designated them as SLL1 and SLL2 (for S locus-linked genes 1 and 2, respectively). The SLL1 gene is S locus specific, whereas the SLL2 gene is not only present at the S locus but is also present in other parts of the genomes in both self-incompatible and self-compatible Brassica ssp lines. Expression of the SLL1 gene is only detectable in anthers of self-incompatible plants and is developmentally regulated during anther development, whereas the SLL2 gene is expressed in anthers and stigmas in both self-incompatible and self-compatible plants, with the highest levels of expression occurring in the stigmas. Although SLL1 and SLL2 are linked to the S locus region, it is not clear whether these genes function in self-incompatibility or serve some other cellular roles in pollen-pistil functions. PMID:8989888

  18. Lantibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Draper, Lorraine A; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2015-06-01

    The dramatic rise in the incidence of antibiotic resistance demands that new therapeutic options will have to be developed. One potentially interesting class of antimicrobials are the modified bacteriocins termed lantibiotics, which are bacterially produced, posttranslationally modified, lanthionine/methyllanthionine-containing peptides. It is interesting that low levels of resistance have been reported for lantibiotics compared with commercial antibiotics. Given that there are very few examples of naturally occurring lantibiotic resistance, attempts have been made to deliberately induce resistance phenotypes in order to investigate this phenomenon. Mechanisms that hinder the action of lantibiotics are often innate systems that react to the presence of any cationic peptides/proteins or ones which result from cell well damage, rather than being lantibiotic specific. Such resistance mechanisms often arise due to altered gene regulation following detection of antimicrobials/cell wall damage by sensory proteins at the membrane. This facilitates alterations to the cell wall or changes in the composition of the membrane. Other general forms of resistance include the formation of spores or biofilms, which are a common mechanistic response to many classes of antimicrobials. In rare cases, bacteria have been shown to possess specific antilantibiotic mechanisms. These are often species specific and include the nisin lytic protein nisinase and the phenomenon of immune mimicry.

  19. Lantibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Lorraine A.; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The dramatic rise in the incidence of antibiotic resistance demands that new therapeutic options will have to be developed. One potentially interesting class of antimicrobials are the modified bacteriocins termed lantibiotics, which are bacterially produced, posttranslationally modified, lanthionine/methyllanthionine-containing peptides. It is interesting that low levels of resistance have been reported for lantibiotics compared with commercial antibiotics. Given that there are very few examples of naturally occurring lantibiotic resistance, attempts have been made to deliberately induce resistance phenotypes in order to investigate this phenomenon. Mechanisms that hinder the action of lantibiotics are often innate systems that react to the presence of any cationic peptides/proteins or ones which result from cell well damage, rather than being lantibiotic specific. Such resistance mechanisms often arise due to altered gene regulation following detection of antimicrobials/cell wall damage by sensory proteins at the membrane. This facilitates alterations to the cell wall or changes in the composition of the membrane. Other general forms of resistance include the formation of spores or biofilms, which are a common mechanistic response to many classes of antimicrobials. In rare cases, bacteria have been shown to possess specific antilantibiotic mechanisms. These are often species specific and include the nisin lytic protein nisinase and the phenomenon of immune mimicry. PMID:25787977

  20. Resistance of Mice of the 129 Background to Yersinia pestis Maps to Multiple Loci on Chromosome 1

    PubMed Central

    Tencati, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. It is commonly acquired by mammals such as rodents and humans via the bite of an infected flea. We previously reported that multiple substrains of the 129 mouse background are resistant to pigmentation locus-negative (pgm−) Yersinia pestis and that this phenotype maps to a 30-centimorgan (cM) region located on chromosome 1. In this study, we have further delineated this plague resistance locus to a region of less than 20 cM through the creation and phenotyping of recombinant offspring arising from novel crossovers in this region. Furthermore, our experiments have revealed that there are at least two alleles in this initial locus, both of which are required for resistance on a susceptible C57BL/6 background. These two alleles work in trans since resistance is restored in offspring possessing one allele contributed by each parent. Our studies also indicated that the Slc11a1 gene (formerly known as Nramp1) located within the chromosome1 locus is not responsible for conferring resistance to 129 mice. PMID:27481241

  1. [PCR-based analysis of the D1S80 locus and its application in paternity test].

    PubMed

    Que, T; Lin, Y; Li, L

    1998-01-01

    Allelic data for the D1S80 locus was obtained by using the PCR and subsequent analysis with high-resolution horizontal PAGE technique. In a sample of 184 unrelated Chinese, the D1S80 locus had 75 phenotypes and 20 allelic. The distribution of genotype was in agreement with expected values according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Analysis of the D1S80 locus by the PCR has been successfully applied in 150 cases of questioned paternity.

  2. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Eric P; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J

    2011-06-15

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30-80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes.

  3. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Eric P.; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30–80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes. PMID:21459774

  4. Health locus of control, acculturation, and health-related Internet use among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals residing in the United States, the Internet is the third most used source for obtaining health information. Little is known, however, about its use by Latinas. To understand health-related Internet use among Latinas, the authors examined it within the theoretical frameworks of health locus of control and acculturation. The authors predicted that acculturation would serve as a mediator between health locus of control and health-related Internet use, age and health-related Internet use, income and health-related Internet use, and education and health-related Internet use. Data were collected via a 25-minute self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 932 young (M age = 21.27 years), low-income Latinas. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that acculturation partially mediated the relation between health locus of control and health-related Internet use and fully mediated the relations among age, income, and Internet use. An internal health locus of control (p < .001), younger age (p < .001), and higher income (p < .001) were associated with higher levels of acculturation. Higher levels of acculturation (p < .001) and an internal health locus of control (p < .004) predicted health-related Internet use. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to effectively disseminate information to Latinas with limited access to health care professionals. These findings can inform the design of Internet-based health information dissemination studies targeting Latinas.

  5. Genetic and Physical Variability at the Mating Type Locus of the Oomycete, Phytophthora Infestans

    PubMed Central

    Judelson, H. S.

    1996-01-01

    Mating type in the oomyceteous fungus, Phytophthora infestans, is determined by a single locus. In a previous study of a few isolates, the locus segregated in a manner genetically consistent with its linkage to a system of balanced lethal loci. To determine the prevalence of this phenomenon within P. infestans, genetic analyses were performed using isolates representative of the diversity within the species that had been selected by DNA fingerprinting using probes linked to mating type. Non-Mendelian segregation of the mating type locus was observed in crosses performed with each isolate. An unusual group of isolates was identified in which the mating type determinants had been rearranged within the genome; these strains also produced an aberrantly large number of self-fertile progeny. Curiously, in all isolates, markers linked to the mating type locus appeared prone to duplication, transposition, deletion, or other rearrangement. This was not observed for loci unlinked to mating type. Data from the crosses and analyses of marker variation were used to erect models to explain the bases of mating type determination and of the unusual segregation of the chromosomal region containing the mating type locus. PMID:8913745

  6. Effect of individualized goal-setting on college biology students' locus of control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, John E.

    This study investigated the effect of Individualized Goal-Setting A-T, relative to Classic A-T, on a student's locus of control (generalized and academic). This study also examined the effect of pretesting, relative to no pretesting, on a student's locus of control. Sixty students in an introductory, Audio-Tutorial, college zoology course were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Control groups (Classic A-T) completed the course in the usual manner. Treatment groups (IGS A-T) completed the course in the usual manner with one exception. That is, they used a different format for Optional Minicourse mastery. This new format released greater control to students over means as well as ends of minicourse mastery. Data were collected through use of the Solomon Four-Group design, with two levels of treatment (Classic A-T, IGS A-T) and two levels of pretesting (pretest, no pretest). Instruments included the Rotter I-E and Schafer Academic I-E Locus of Control Scales. Posttest scores were analyzed by a 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).The following conclusions were made (p < 0.10).1IGS A-T, relative to Classic A-T, has no significant effect on a student's locus of control.2Pretesting, relative to no pretesting, has no significant effect on posttest locus of control.

  7. Analysis of meiotic segregation, using single-sperm typing: Meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy locus

    SciTech Connect

    Leeflang, E.P.; Arnheim, N.; McPeek, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    Meiotic drive at the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus has recently been suggested as being responsible for maintaining the frequency, in the human population, of DM chromosomes capable of expansion to the disease state. In order to test this hypothesis, we have studied samples of single sperm from three individuals heterozygous at the DM locus, each with one allele larger and one allele smaller than 19 CTG repeats. To guard against the possible problem of differential PCR amplification rates based on the lengths of the alleles, the sperm were also typed at another closely linked marker whose allele size was unrelated to the allele size at the DM locus. Using statistical models specifically designed to study single-sperm segregation data, we find no evidence of meiotic segregation distortion. The upper limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the estimate of the common segregation probability for the three donors is at or below .515 for all models considered, and no statistically significant difference from .5 is detected in any of the models. This suggests that any greater amount of segregation distortion at the myotonic dystrophy locus must result from events following sperm ejaculation. The mathematical models developed make it possible to study segregation distortion with high resolution by using sperm-typing data from any locus. 26 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  8. RefSeq and LocusLink: NCBI gene-centered resources.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, K D; Maglott, D R

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of genes have been painstakingly identified and characterized a few genes at a time. Many thousands more are being predicted by large scale cDNA and genomic sequencing projects, with levels of evidence ranging from supporting mRNA sequence and comparative genomics to computing ab initio models. This, coupled with the burgeoning scientific literature, makes it critical to have a comprehensive directory for genes and reference sequences for key genomes. The NCBI provides two resources, LocusLink and RefSeq, to meet these needs. LocusLink organizes information around genes to generate a central hub for accessing gene-specific information for fruit fly, human, mouse, rat and zebrafish. RefSeq provides reference sequence standards for genomes, transcripts and proteins; human, mouse and rat mRNA RefSeqs, and their corresponding proteins, are discussed here. Together, RefSeq and LocusLink provide a non-redundant view of genes and other loci to support research on genes and gene families, variation, gene expression and genome annotation. Additional information about LocusLink and RefSeq is available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/LocusLink/.

  9. Genetic architecture and evolution of the S locus supergene in Primula vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhong; Cocker, Jonathan M; Wright, Jonathan; Webster, Margaret A; McMullan, Mark; Dyer, Sarah; Swarbreck, David; Caccamo, Mario; Oosterhout, Cock van; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2016-12-02

    Darwin's studies on heterostyly in Primula described two floral morphs, pin and thrum, with reciprocal anther and stigma heights that promote insect-mediated cross-pollination. This key innovation evolved independently in several angiosperm families. Subsequent studies on heterostyly in Primula contributed to the foundation of modern genetic theory and the neo-Darwinian synthesis. The established genetic model for Primula heterostyly involves a diallelic S locus comprising several genes, with rare recombination events that result in self-fertile homostyle flowers with anthers and stigma at the same height. Here we reveal the S locus supergene as a tightly linked cluster of thrum-specific genes that are absent in pins. We show that thrums are hemizygous not heterozygous for the S locus, which suggests that homostyles do not arise by recombination between S locus haplotypes as previously proposed. Duplication of a floral homeotic gene 51.7 million years (Myr) ago, followed by its neofunctionalization, created the current S locus assemblage which led to floral heteromorphy in Primula. Our findings provide new insights into the structure, function and evolution of this archetypal supergene.

  10. Unconventional Recombination in the Mating Type Locus of Heterothallic Apple Canker Pathogen Valsa mali

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Zhengpeng; Chen, Jiliang; Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes is controlled by the mating type (MAT) locus, including two idiomorphs MAT1-1 and MAT1-2. Understanding the MAT locus can provide clues for unveiling the sexual development and virulence factors for fungal pathogens. The genus Valsa (Sordariomycetes, Diaporthales) contains many tree pathogens responsible for destructive canker diseases. The sexual stage of these ascomycetes is occasionally observed in nature, and no MAT locus has been reported to date. Here, we identified the MAT locus of the apple canker pathogen Valsa mali, which causes extensive damage, and even death, to trees. V. mali is heterothallic in that each isolate carries either the MAT1-1 or MAT1-2 idiomorph. However, the MAT structure is distinct from that of many other heterothallic fungi in the Sordariomycetes. Two flanking genes, COX13 and APN2, were coopted into the MAT locus, possibly by intrachromosomal rearrangement. After the acquisition of foreign genes, unequal recombination occurred between MAT1-1/2 idiomorphs, resulting in a reverse insertion in the MAT1-2 idiomorph. Evolutionary analysis showed that the three complete MAT1-1-2, COX13, and APN2 genes in this region diverged independently due to different selection pressure. Null hypothesis tests of a 1:1 MAT ratio of 86 V. mali isolates from four different provinces showed a relatively balanced distribution of the two idiomorphs in the fields. These results provide insights into the evolution of the mating systems in Sordariomycetes. PMID:28228472

  11. Confirmation of Single-Locus Sex Determination and Female Heterogamety in Willow Based on Linkage Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingnan; Wang, Tiantian; Fang, Lecheng; Li, Xiaoping; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we constructed high-density genetic maps of Salix suchowensis and mapped the gender locus with an F1 pedigree. Genetic maps were separately constructed for the maternal and paternal parents by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and the pseudo-testcross strategy. The maternal map consisted of 20 linkage groups that spanned a genetic distance of 2333.3 cM; whereas the paternal map contained 21 linkage groups that covered 2260 cM. Based on the established genetic maps, it was found that the gender of willow was determined by a single locus on linkage group LG_03, and the female was the heterogametic gender. Aligned with mapped SSR markers, linkage group LG_03 was found to be associated with chromosome XV in willow. It is noteworthy that marker density in the vicinity of the gender locus was significantly higher than that expected by chance alone, which indicates severe recombination suppression around the gender locus. In conclusion, this study confirmed the findings on the single-locus sex determination and female heterogamety in willow. It also provided additional evidence that validated the previous studies, which found that different autosomes evolved into sex chromosomes between the sister genera of Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar).

  12. Analysis of the 3' Cmu region of the rabbit Ig heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Dennis K; Zhai, Shi-Kang; Knight, Katherine L

    2003-05-08

    The immunoglobulin D (IgD) antibody class was, for many years, identified only in primates, rodents and teleost fish. The limited distribution of IgD among vertebrates suggested that IgD is a functionally redundant antibody class that has been lost by many vertebrate species during evolution. The recent identification of IgD in artiodactyls, however, suggests that IgD might be more widely expressed among vertebrates than previously thought, possibly serving a unique role in immunity. IgD expression has been searched for but not detected in rabbits. In order to search directly for a rabbit Cdelta locus encoding the constant region of IgD, we determined the nucleotide sequence of 13.5 kb of genomic DNA downstream of the rabbit Cmu locus. We did not find a rabbit Cdelta locus in this region, but found instead that this region is densely populated by repetitive elements, including a long interspersed DNA element repeat, six C repeats, and two processed pseudogenes. We conclude that the rabbit probably does not express IgD because there is no Cdelta locus immediately downstream of the rabbit Cmu locus.

  13. Confirmation of Single-Locus Sex Determination and Female Heterogamety in Willow Based on Linkage Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lecheng; Li, Xiaoping; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we constructed high-density genetic maps of Salix suchowensis and mapped the gender locus with an F1 pedigree. Genetic maps were separately constructed for the maternal and paternal parents by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and the pseudo-testcross strategy. The maternal map consisted of 20 linkage groups that spanned a genetic distance of 2333.3 cM; whereas the paternal map contained 21 linkage groups that covered 2260 cM. Based on the established genetic maps, it was found that the gender of willow was determined by a single locus on linkage group LG_03, and the female was the heterogametic gender. Aligned with mapped SSR markers, linkage group LG_03 was found to be associated with chromosome XV in willow. It is noteworthy that marker density in the vicinity of the gender locus was significantly higher than that expected by chance alone, which indicates severe recombination suppression around the gender locus. In conclusion, this study confirmed the findings on the single-locus sex determination and female heterogamety in willow. It also provided additional evidence that validated the previous studies, which found that different autosomes evolved into sex chromosomes between the sister genera of Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). PMID:26828940

  14. Investigation of the 5q33.3 longevity locus and age-related phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Marianne; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations between the rs2149954 minor allele and a decreased risk of heart attack and heart failure as well as increased physical functioning were found in the long-lived individuals. In the middle-aged and elderly individuals, rs2149954 minor allele carriers had a lower risk of hypertension. Our results thereby confirm a role of the 5q33.3 locus in cardiovascular health and, interestingly, they also suggest a role in physical functioning. PMID:28100865

  15. Professionalization and its effect on health locus of control among Indian dental students.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shashidhar

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of different stages of professionalization on the health locus of control of students in an Indian dental school and to describe possible factors that may influence the health locus of control among dental students. The multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) scale was distributed to 372 undergraduate dental students at one school in India, and 325 students returned completed forms. Comparison of the mean scores for the three MHLC subscales (Internal, Chance, and Powerful Others) from first year to final year showed that the mean Internal score remained unchanged in the first and second year, but decreased in the third year and rose sharply in the final year. The mean score for the Internal subscale was consistently higher, followed by the mean scores for Powerful Others in all the years of study. No significant differences were observed between mean scores of the MHLC subscales when compared with gender, previous treatment histories, and missing appointments. Those with self-perceived oral problems were found to have a lower internal locus of control than those who did not report any. The findings of this study provided credible support for the MHLC model in assessing changing health attitudes and may provide a basis for dental educators to effect changes in the locus of control among students.

  16. African Americans with cancer: the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and health perception.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Jean E

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and perceived health status in African Americans with cancer and to identify predictors of perceived health status. A convenience sample of 95 oncology outpatients at two large medical facilities completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Cantril Ladder, a measurement of perceived health. In an audiotaped interview two open-ended questions were used to clarify participants' Cantril Ladder scores. A significant positive relationship was discovered between self-esteem and powerful others health locus of control (p <.05). Participants tended to view God as the Powerful Other capable of influencing their health and well-being. Self-esteem and an internal health locus of control were found to account for 23% of the perceived variance in health status. In addition, interview data indicated that participants with normal to high levels of self-esteem and an internal health locus of control perceived their state of health and well-being positively.

  17. Autosomal dominant ataxia: Genetic evidence for locus heterogeneity from a cuban founder-effect population

    PubMed Central

    Auburger, Georg; Diaz, Guillermo Orozco; Capote, Raul Ferreira; Sanchez, Suzana Gispert; Perez, Marta Paradoa; del Cueto, Marianela Estrada; Meneses, Mirna Garcia; Farrall, Martin; Williamson, Robert; Chamberlain, Susan; Baute, Luis Heredero

    1990-01-01

    The locus for autosomal dominant ataxia with a diagnosis of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy at autopsy has been previously assigned to chromosome 6p. However, evidence for two alternative locations has been reported. We have recently described a large potential founder-effect population of such patients in the Holguin province of Cuba. With an estimated 1,000 patients available for analysis, this extensive cluster of families provides a unique opportunity for the definitive localization of the genetic mutation. Linkage analysis between the disease locus in this population and markers within and flanking the HLA region on chromosome 6 were undertaken in 12 families comprising over 100 affected individuals. Despite similarity in the clinical phenotype between those families where the disease locus has been reported to be linked to the HLA locus and the Cuban patients, no evidence of linkage to this region could be demonstrated in the latter. The disease locus was excluded from a 96-cM genetic interval of the short arm of chromosome 6, encompassing the F13A1–HLA–GLO1–MUT/D6S4 loci. These data strongly support the existence of genetic heterogeneity for the disease. PMID:1971152

  18. Benzimidazole resistance allele haplotype diversity in United Kingdom isolates of Teladorsagia circumcincta supports a hypothesis of multiple origins of resistance by recurrent mutation.

    PubMed

    Skuce, Philip; Stenhouse, Lindsay; Jackson, Frank; Hypsa, Václav; Gilleard, John

    2010-09-01

    Polymorphisms in the isotype I beta-tubulin gene are important genetic determinants of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in a number of parasitic nematode species including Teladorsagia circumcincta, a major gastrointestinal nematode of sheep. This study investigates the genetic diversity at this locus in a BZ-resistant isolate of T. circumcincta (MTci5) derived from a sheep farm in the United Kingdom (UK) that was open to animal, and therefore parasite, migration. Pyrosequencing was used to determine the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with BZ resistance. This was followed by a combination of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and nucleotide sequencing to sample allelic diversity in a 276bp fragment immediately surrounding the isotype I beta-tubulin F200Y mutation. The genetic diversity at this locus was extremely high, with seven different haplotypes found to contain the resistant F200Y polymorphism in this single resistant isolate. Genotyping by SSCP interfaced with pyrosequencing demonstrated that the P200(Y) mutation is also present on multiple haplotypes in two other BZ-resistant T. circumcincta isolates from the UK. This contrasts with much lower levels of haplotype diversity in BZ-resistant alleles present in T. circumcincta isolates from French goat farms that are closed to parasite migration. Taken together with our knowledge of T. circumcincta population genetic structure, these results are most consistent with multiple independent origins of resistance and mixing of alleles due to the large amount of livestock movement in the UK.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the regulatory function mediated by the small regulatory psm-mec RNA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C; Yeh, Anthony J; Nguyen, Thuan H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Queck, S Y; Otto, M

    2014-07-01

    Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance.

  20. Androgen resistance.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Deeb, Asma

    2006-12-01

    Androgen resistance causes the androgen insensitivity syndrome in its variant forms and is a paradigm of clinical syndromes associated with hormone resistance. In its complete form, the syndrome causes XY sex reversal and a female phenotype. Partial resistance to androgens is a common cause of ambiguous genitalia of the newborn, but a similar phenotype may result from several other conditions, including defects in testis determination and androgen biosynthesis. The biological actions of androgens are mediated by a single intracellular androgen receptor encoded by a gene on the long arm of the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene result in varying degrees of androgen receptor dysfunction and phenotypes that often show poor concordance with the genotype. Functional characterization and three-dimensional modelling of novel mutant receptors has been informative in understanding the mechanism of androgen action. Management issues in syndromes of androgen insensitivity include decisions on sex assignment, timing of gonadectomy in relation to tumour risk, and genetic and psychological counselling.