Science.gov

Sample records for pneumatic capsule pipeline

  1. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  2. Intracranial pressure monitoring system with pneumatic capsule sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniewicz, Henryk M.; Werszko, Miroslaw

    1995-06-01

    In the paper, a computer system for measurement, visualization and analysis of intracranial pressure (ICP), medium arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in one, two, three or four patients simultaneously has been presented. A structure of pneumatic compensatory sensor for intracranial pressure, and a stand for static properties of the sensors testing has been discussed. Conclusions resulting from the period of using the monitoring system with ICP pneumatic sensors have been formulated.

  3. Pneumatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    This unit on pneumatics, for use in postsecondary programs, is organized in eight sections. Each section consists of information sheets with line drawings and multiple-choice questions for each topic in the sections. Answers are provided at the back of the book. The following topics are covered: (1) introduction--pressure, principles of gases,…

  4. Finite-Element Modeling of Electrostatic Sensors for the Flow Measurement of Particles in Pneumatic Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Krabicka, J.; Yan, Y.

    2009-08-15

    Electrostatic sensors are used in certain industries for the flow measurement of pneumatically conveyed solids. However, despite various advances that have been made in recent years, relatively little information is known about the exact nature of the electrostatic charge induced onto the sensor electrode due to moving particles, which is dependent on electrode geometry, particle distribution, and particle velocity. This paper presents a novel approach to the study of the charge induced onto electrostatic sensors based on fitting a Lorentzian curve to the results of a finite-element model of the electrostatic sensor and pipeline. The modeling method is validated by comparing the modeling results of a nonintrusive circular electrode with an established analytical solution. The modeling results are used for in-depth analysis and informed design of a particular sensor configuration.

  5. Capsule Pipeline Research Center. 3-year Progress report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines so that this emerging technology can be developed for early use to transport solids including coal, grain, other agricultural products, solid wastes, etc. Important research findings and accomplishments during the first-three years include: success in making durable binderless coal logs by compaction, success in underwater extrusion of binderless coal logs, success in compacting and extruding coal logs with less than 3% hydrophobic binder at room temperature, improvement in the injection system and the pump-bypass scheme, advancement in the state-of-the-art of predicting the energy loss (pressure drop) along both stationary and moving capsules, demonstrated the effectiveness of using polymer for drag reduction in CLP, demonstrated the influence of zeta potential on coal log fabrication, improved understanding of the water absorption properties of coal logs, better understanding of the mechanism of coal log abrasion (wear), completed a detailed economic evaluation of the CLP technology and compared coal transportation cost by CLP to that by rail, truck and slurry pipelines, and completion of several areas of legal research. The Center also conducted important technology transfer activities including workshops, work sessions, company seminars, involvement of companies in CLP research, issuance of newsletters, completion of a video tape on CLP, and presentation of research findings at numerous national and international meetings.

  6. Development of capsules and pigs for inspection of small-diameter gas distribution pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hosohara, Y.; Seki, A.; Yasui, K.

    1988-01-01

    To inspect external corrosion of small-diameter gas distribution pipelines precisely, the three major gas companies of Japan have jointly developed inspection capsules (very small pigs) and pigs for the first time in the world. The laboratory test has been completed and the field test is now in progress. The inspection techniques developed are the following two methods: 1. Inspection methods for 2- and 3-inch screw-jointed mains: The inspection capsule is inserted through a launcher into a straight pipeline of 30m length on each side (60m total span) in live condition. The remote-field eddy current method and the impressed-current magnetic leakage flux method were adopted. 2. Inspection methods for weld-joint 4-, 8- and 12-inche mains: The pipeline is cut off (down to less than 300m length), and gas is purged by air. The inspection pigs pass through miter bends, short elbows of 1.5 DR and sleeve joints. The magnetic leakage flux method was adopted, while different methods of travel were adopted by the three contractors.

  7. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

  8. Craniocervical Pneumatization

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Alan James; Shannon, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Craniocervical bony pneumatization is a rare finding, with limited numbers of cases reported in the literature. It is thought to be linked to Eustachian tube dysfunction and a ball valve mechanism, and has a link with recurrent Valsalva maneuvers. We report a case of pneumatization of the occiput, atlas (C1) and axis (C2) in a patient with extensive ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) surgical history who presented following a fall. Plain film, CT and MRI images are presented. PMID:24421950

  9. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical

  10. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A mechanized technique to seal abandoned mines has been used successfully to close 13 openings at Duquesne Light Co.'s mined-out Warwick No. 2 mine, near Greensboro, Pa. The mechanized system, which uses a pneumatic stower and crushed limestone, closed the entries more economically and in less time than it would have taken to install traditional concrete block stopping and clay plug seals, according to John C. Draper. Draper, a mining engineer with Duquesne Light's coal department, was in charge of installing the Warwick seals in a Bureau of Mines-sponsored field test on the pneumatic sealing technique. The lowest estimated cost for installing conventional stopping and plug closures for the 13 Warwick openings was $225,000, says Draper, while the openings were closed using the mechanized system for $245,000. Draper says the newer stopping cost more in the instance because work was stopped often to gather information for the experiment. The experimental closures were installed in 38 days. The job would have taken at least 149 days if traditional closures were being installed, Draper say. To install a traditional concrete block/clay plug closure, the mine opening must be cleaned thoroughly and the roof must be supported for some 3 ft from the outside. Then a solid wall or stopping must be built 25 ft from the surface and the entry must be packed with clay to the surface. Much of this job requires workers to remain underground. In pneumatic stowing, 1 1/2-in. crushed limestone with fines is conveyed through a pipeline and into the mine opening under low air pressure. Watertight seals can be installed by blowing about 10 ft of rock into the opening against the top to act as roof support. Safety posts are installed and about 10 or 15 ft of mine entry is cleaned. About 2 in. of raw cement or bentonite is placed on the floor and limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening.

  11. Pneumatic Valve Operated by Multiplex Pneumatic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Yasutaka; Suzumori, Koichi; Kanda, Takefumi; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    A pneumatic system has several advantages, which are cheapness, lightweight, and reliability to human and environment. These advantages are adapted to some research areas, such as industrial lines, medical and nursing cares, and rehabilitation tools. However, the pneumatic system needs several devices; compressor, air tube, and control valve. This research aim to downsize pneumatic system. In this paper, a new method of multiplex pneumatic transmission for multi-pneumatic servo system is proposed. The valve for this system consists of two vibrators supported by springs, which was designed with simple and cheap structure. The working principle of the valve is vibrators resonance from multiplex pneumatic transmission and it is possible to work as ON/OFF valves without electric wire. Dynamic simulation was used to confirm the working principle of the resonance driving system. A prototype device confirming the principle was designed and developed based on the simulation. The experiments show that this new control system works very well to control two separated valves through single pneumatic tube.

  12. Update on pneumatic retinopexy.

    PubMed

    Mandelcorn, Efrem D; Mandelcorn, Mark S; Manusow, Joshua S

    2015-05-01

    Pneumatic retinopexy is an effective, cost-efficient procedure for retinal detachment repair. We review the history, indications, procedure, outcomes, economics, and trends regarding this in-office procedure. Pneumatic retinopexy is classically performed in patients with small, superior retinal breaks, but these indications are expanding, with good results. Retinal reattachment rates with pneumatic retinopexy vary from 60% to 91% depending upon patient selection. Pneumatic retinopexy is less costly to perform than scleral buckling and pars plana vitrectomy and avoids many of the complications associated with these procedures. Despite these good results, recent data suggest that the use of pneumatic retinopexy is on the decline. Recent review of the literature and our own personal experience using pneumatic retinopexy in selected cases of retinal detachment indicate that it is an effective and inexpensive procedure that avoids many of the complications that are associated with other retinal reattachment procedures.

  13. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  14. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  15. Basic Pneumatics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessehaye, Michael

    This instructor's guide is designed for use by industrial vocational teachers in teaching a course on basic pneumatics. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: an introduction to pneumatics (including the operation of a service station hoist); fundamentals and physical laws; air compressors (positive displacement compressors;…

  16. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2017-09-01

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article describes the construction and use of an inexpensive hand-held pneumatic lift to demonstrate the same principle.

  17. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  18. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  19. Pneumatic squirming robot based on flexible pneumatic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Libin; Bao, Guanjun; Ruan, Jian

    2005-12-01

    The design of a kind of pneumatic squirming robot is presented. It is based on the use of flexible pneumatic actuator. The flexible pneumatic actuator was made of caoutchouc. Its working principle is described. The structure, working principle, pneumatic and electrical control system of the pneumatic squirming robot are designed. All of the actuator's driving and squirming parts are composed of pneumatic elements. The vacuum osculums, which act as feet, are connected to the flexible pneumatic actuator. When the vacuum pumps operate, vacuum will be produced in the corresponding osculums, which can adsorb on the contacting surface and orient the robot. The actuator, operating under air pressure, drives the robot. By controlling the vacuum pumps and the actuator, straight and bending squirming of this robot can be obtained.

  20. Pneumatic stowing seals mines

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1983-11-01

    A pneumatic stowing technique has been used in the US to seal entries to abandoned mines. Limestone mixed with dry cement or bentonite is blown into the opening. Sealing can be accomplished in much less time than with traditional concrete block/clay plug methods.

  1. Inexpensive Dramatic Pneumatic Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Robert A.

    Various experiments and demonstrations relate air pressure and air pressure difference to force and area. Carpenter and Minnix describe a large-scale pneumatic lift in which a person sitting on a board atop a plastic garbage bag is lifted when the bag is connected to the exhaustport of a vacuum cleaner, which easily lifts the person. This article…

  2. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  3. Pneumatic osteoarthritis knee brace.

    PubMed

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Kojić, Milos; Stojanović, Boban; Hunter, David

    2009-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that necessitates long term therapeutic intervention. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated an improvement in the external adduction moment with application of a valgus knee brace. Despite being both efficacious and safe, due to their rigid frame and bulkiness, current designs of knee braces create discomfort and difficulties to patients during prolonged periods of application. Here we propose a novel design of a light osteoarthritis knee brace, which is made of soft conforming materials. Our design relies on a pneumatic leverage system, which, when pressurized, reduces the excessive loads predominantly affecting the medial compartment of the knee and eventually reverses the malalignment. Using a finite-element analysis, we show that with a moderate level of applied pressure, this pneumatic brace can, in theory, counterbalance a greater fraction of external adduction moment than the currently existing braces.

  4. Pneumatic conveyance apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Matzolf, Athneal D.; Hera, Kevin R.

    2010-05-04

    A pneumatic nozzle capable of removing dry solid debris, liquids, and mixtures of solid and liquid waste is provided. The pneumatic nozzle uses a pressurized gas stream to push materials through the nozzle. The force of a pressurized gas stream provides a partial vacuum to allow material to be introduced into an opening of a nozzle via a slight suction force. Thereafter, individual particles and materials introduced into the pneumatic nozzle are pushed by a stream of pressurized gas through the nozzle.

  5. Pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Terra, E R; Guedes, F R; Manzi, F R; Bóscolo, F N

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a case of pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus in the pterygoid process and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, observed on a panoramic radiograph. Conventional radiographs and computerized tomography in axial and coronal sections confirmed the presence of the pneumatization of these structures.

  6. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  7. The complication of pneumatic retinopexy.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, G F; Tornambe, P E; Brinton, D A; Flood, T P; Green, S; Grizzard, W S; Hammer, M E; Leff, S R; Mascuilli, L; Morgan, C M

    1990-01-01

    There have been 26 published series with a total of 1274 detachments operated with pneumatic retinopexy. Eighty percent were reattached with a single procedure and 98% with reoperations. New breaks occurred in 13% and PVR in 4%. The complications published in 101 papers on pneumatic retinopexy in the last 5 years are analyzed as to frequency, prevention, management, and results. PMID:2095021

  8. Pneumatic Pellet-Transporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George; Pugsley, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Pneumatic system transports food pellets to confined animals. Flow of air into venturi assembly entrains round pellets, drawing them from reservoir into venturi for transport by airflow. Pneumatic pellet-transporting system includes venturi assembly, which creates flow of air that draws pellets into system.

  9. Rigidified pneumatic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dessel, Steven

    2000-10-01

    The overall objective of the research presented in this dissertation was to address global issues of adequate housing for all and the need for more sustainable human settlement. In order to address these, the emerging technology of rigidified pneumatic composites was investigated. Rigidified pneumatic composites (RPC) are defined as thin flexible membrane structures that are pneumatically deployed. After deployment, these structures harden due to chemical or physical change of the membrane. Because of this change, these structures do no longer require pneumatic pressure to maintain their shape. For the first time, a systematic listing of the various means available to develop polymeric materials useful in RPC technology is presented. With the aim to reduce the cost of RPC structures, a new material was proposed, developed, and evaluated. This material involved the formation of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network based on poly vinyl chloride and an acrylate based reactive plasticizer. The economical and environmental performances of RPC structures using this new material were assessed by means of a case study. In this study, the performance of RPC technology was compared with that of a typical wood light frame structure in the application of a small single-family house. The study indicated that the cost of ownership in present day value for the RPC structure was approximately 33% less than the cost of a comparable wood light frame structure. The study also indicated that significant environmental benefits exist with the use of RPC structures. It was found that the RPC structure used significantly less resources compared to the wood light frame structure. About 3.5 times less materials coming from non-renewable fossil resources, about 2.5 times less materials coming from trees, and about 19 times less materials coming from inorganic resources was used in the RPC structure relative to the wood light frame structure. The study concluded with pointing out various

  10. Pneumatic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D.

    1995-09-19

    An essential component to hybrid electric and electric vehicles is energy storage. A power assist device could also be important to many vehicle applications. This discussion focuses on the use of compressed gas as a system for energy storage and power in vehicle systems. Three possible vehicular applications for which these system could be used are discussed in this paper. These applications are pneumatically driven vehicles, series hybrid electric vehicles, and power boost for electric and conventional vehicles. One option for a compressed gas system is as a long duration power output device for purely pneumatic and hybrid cars. This system must provide enough power and energy to drive under normal conditions for a specified time or distance. The energy storage system for this use has the requirement that it will be highly efficient, compact, and have low mass. Use of a compressed gas energy storage as a short duration, high power output system for conventional motor vehicles could reduce engine size or reduce transient emissions. For electric vehicles this kind of system could lengthen battery life by providing battery load leveling during accelerations. The system requirements for this application are that it be compact and have low mass. The efficiency of the system is a secondary consideration in this application.

  11. Optimal pipelining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    An effort is made to characterize the tradeoffs and overheads limiting the speedup potential theoretically projected for pipeline-incorporating computer architectures, using a mathematical model of the roles played by the various parameters. Pipeline optimization proceeds by a partitioning of the pipeline into an optimum number of segments so that maximization of throughput is obtained. Inferences are drawn from the model, and potential improvements to it are identified. Substantial agreement is obtained with Kunkel and Smith's (1986) CRAY-1S simulations of pipelining.

  12. Origin of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Mathew J

    2006-06-01

    The sauropodomorph Thecodontosaurus caducus and theropod Coelophysis bauri are the earliest known dinosaurs with postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. In both taxa, postcranial pneumatic features are confined to the cervical vertebrae. This distribution of pneumaticity in the skeleton is most consistent with pneumatization by diverticula of cervical air sacs similar to those of birds. Other hypotheses, including pneumatization by diverticula of the lungs, larynx and trachea, or cranial air spaces, are less well-supported.

  13. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications. PMID:25909001

  14. Temperature Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An ingestible mini-thermometer capable of measuring and relaying internal body temperatures is marketed by Human Technologies, Inc. The CorTemp system, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and Applied Physics Lab, incorporates space technologies, among them telemetry and microminiaturized circuit, sensor and battery technologies. The capsule is ingested and continually monitors temperature with a vibrating quartz crystal sensor, which telemeters signals to a recorder, where data is displayed and stored. The system is very accurate, and because it does not require wires, allows patients to be monitored in everyday situations. The industrial variant (CSC-100) has wide utility in commercial applications.

  15. Instrumented Pneumatic-Impact Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, Richard M.; Armendariz, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Pneumatic-impact tester is small pressure chamber equipped with specimen holder and optical port. Device designed to test susceptibility of polymeric material to ignition by "pneumatic impact" in high-pressure gaseous oxygen. Used to determine differences among susceptibilities to ignition of different materials and of different batches of nominally same material proposed for use in systems containing pressurized oxygen. Also used to show characteristics of ignition and combustion.

  16. Instrumented Pneumatic-Impact Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, Richard M.; Armendariz, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Pneumatic-impact tester is small pressure chamber equipped with specimen holder and optical port. Device designed to test susceptibility of polymeric material to ignition by "pneumatic impact" in high-pressure gaseous oxygen. Used to determine differences among susceptibilities to ignition of different materials and of different batches of nominally same material proposed for use in systems containing pressurized oxygen. Also used to show characteristics of ignition and combustion.

  17. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  18. The characteristics of pneumatic piston drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracha, Gabriel F.

    The article presents a study on the rodless pneumatic piston actuator. Mathematical model of the pneumatic actuator, static and dynamic characteristics are obtained and compared with the real drive characteristics.

  19. The characteristics of pneumatic piston drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracha, Gabriel F.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents a study on the rodless pneumatic piston actuator. Mathematical model of the pneumatic actuator, static and dynamic characteristics are obtained and compared with the real drive characteristics.

  20. BASICS OF COMPOUNDING: Capsules.

    PubMed

    Allen, Loyd V

    2016-01-01

    Capsules have been used for administering medications to patients more than a century and have an important role in drug delivery. When a primary care provider prescribes a tablet, the choice is usually, but not always, limited to commercially available products. A capsule, however, can be prepared extemporaneously, which provides dosing flexibility for the primary care provider and the pharmacist. This article discusses the definitions/types of capsules, their applications, composition, preparation, capsule sizes, the encapsulation process, capsule cleaning, physiochemical considerations, quality control in the preparation of capsules, packaging/storage, stability, and patient counseling to determine the proper capsule size. Also, provided are sample formulations.

  1. Development of the prototype pneumatic transfer system for ITER neutron activation systema)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, M. S.; Seon, C. R.; Pak, S.; Lee, H. G.; Bertalot, L.

    2012-10-01

    The neutron activation system (NAS) measures neutron fluence at the first wall and the total neutron flux from the ITER plasma, providing evaluation of the fusion power for all operational phases. The pneumatic transfer system (PTS) is one of the key components of the NAS for the proper operation of the system, playing a role of transferring encapsulated samples between the capsule loading machine, irradiation stations, counting stations, and disposal bin. For the validation and the optimization of the design, a prototype of the PTS was developed and capsule transfer tests were performed with the developed system.

  2. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  3. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic apparatus. 236.590 Section 236.590..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus. Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  4. The characteristics of a pneumatic muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrala, Dawid

    The article presents static and dynamic characteristics of pneumatic muscles. It presents the structure of the laboratory stand used to test pneumatic muscles. It discusses the methodology for determination of static and dynamic characteristics. The paper also illustrates characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles length and operating pressure, at a constant loading force (isotonic characteristics). It presents characteristics showing the relationship of pneumatic muscles shortening and values of loading forces, at a constant operational pressure (isobaric characteristics). It also shows the dependence of force generated by the muscle on the operating pressure, at a constant value of pneumatic muscles shortening (isometric characteristics). The paper also presents dynamic characteristics of a pneumatic muscle showing the response of an object to a gradual change in the operating pressure, at a constant loading force acting on the pneumatic muscle.

  5. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  6. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  7. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

    1992-03-03

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment. 6 figs.

  8. Pneumatic gap sensor and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagdal, Karl T.; King, Edward L.; Follstaedt, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment.

  9. Pipeline Expansions

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This appendix examines the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It also includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie-in with the U.S. markets or projects.

  10. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  11. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  12. Lifting Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

    Here, the capsule is being lifted at the landing site.

  13. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  14. Model for pneumatic pellet injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A hydrodynamic code has been developed to model the performance of pneumatic pellet injection systems. The code describes one dimensional, unsteady compressible gas dynamics, including gas friction and heat transfer to the walls in a system with variable area. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved with an iterated Lax-Wendroff scheme with additional numerical viscosity. The code is described and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  15. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  16. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 878.5910 - Pneumatic tourniquet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 878.5910 Pneumatic tourniquet... patient's limb and inflated to reduce or totally occlude circulation during surgery. (b)...

  1. [Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].

    PubMed

    Kozachenko, I N

    2013-01-01

    The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons.

  2. Patency and Agile capsules.

    PubMed

    Caunedo-Alvarez, Angel; Romero-Vazquez, Javier; Herrerias-Gutierrez, Juan-M

    2008-09-14

    Small bowel strictures can be missed by current diagnostic methods. The Patency capsule is a new non-endoscopic dissolvable capsule which has as an objective of checking the patency of digestive tract, in a non-invasive manner. The available clinical trials have demonstrated that the Patency capsule is a good tool for assessment of the functional patency of the small bowel, and it allows identification of those patients who can safely undergo a capsule endoscopy, despite clinical and radiographic evidence of small-bowel obstruction. Some cases of intestinal occlusion have been reported with the Patency capsule, four of them needed surgery. So, a new capsule with two timer plugs (Agile capsule) has been recently developed in order to minimize the risk of occlusion. This new device stars its dissolution process earlier (30 h after ingestion) and its two timer plugs have been designed to begin the disintegration even when the device is blocked in a tight stricture.

  3. Stability of Betaine Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Boily, Stéphanie; Forest, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Betaine is used to treat homocystinuria and is not available in Canada as a formulated drug. In order to facilitate the administration of this compound to patients, a capsule formulation and an evaluation of its stability were required. Capsule formulations of betaine were developed (160 mg and 625 mg of betaine per capsule). As betaine has no chromophore, an HPLC-ELSD analytical method was also developed. The critical quality attributes of these formulations were evaluated (content assay, content uniformity, and dissolution) as well as their stability. Capsules with acceptable quality attributes were produced. These capsules remained stable for 1 year when stored in airtight containers at controlled room temperature. However, shelf life decreased dramatically in nonairtight containers at 30°C (3 months for the lactose-containing capsules of 160 mg and 6 months for the capsules of 625 mg). PMID:23862077

  4. A pneumatic transfer system for special form {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Berry, S.M.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    A pneumatic transfer system has been developed for use with series 100 Special Form {sup 252}Cf. It was developed to reduce the exposure to personnel handling sources of {sup 252}Cf with masses up to 150 {micro}g by permitting remotely activated two-way transfer between the storage container and the irradiation position. The pneumatic transfer system also permits transfers for reproducible repetitive irradiation periods. In addition to the storage container equipped with quick-release fittings, the transfer system consists of an irradiation station, a control box with momentary contact switches to activate the air-pressure control valves and indicators to identify the location of the source, and connecting air hose and electrical wire. A source of 20 psig air and 110 volt electrical power are required for operation of the transfer system which can be easily moved and set up by one individual in 5 to 10 minutes. Tests have shown that rarely does a source become lodged in the transfer tubing, but two methods have been developed to handle incomplete transfers of the {sup 252}Cf source. The first method consists of closing one air vent to allow a pressure impulse to propel the source to the opposite side. The second method applies to those {sup 252}Cf capsules with a threaded or tapped end to which a small ferromagnetic piece can be attached; an incompletely transferred source in the transfer tube can then be guided to a position of safety by surrounding the transfer tubing containing the capsule with a horseshoe magnet attached to the end of a long pole.

  5. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  6. Pneumatic power is transmitted through air bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. I.; Wobig, O. A.

    1964-01-01

    A more efficient method for supplying high pressure air to an air bearing and pneumatic equipment mounted on it has been developed. The system uses a conventional air bearing and an air-supported sphere with a central passage. High pressure air is channeled through it into the pneumatic equipment on the sphere.

  7. Pneumatic pumping test for soil vacuum extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.S.; DiGiulio, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propagation was measured in clustered vapor probes during the application of vacuum and positive pressure. An analytical solution for soil-air pressure distribution with a non-linear data fitting algorithm was adopted to obtain the pneumatic permeability from soil-air pressure distribution. Pneumatic pumping tests indicated substantially higher air discharge rates in the immediate vicinity of wells. The air discharge rate dissipated rapidly as distance from the wells increased. Application of increased vacuum or injection pressure resulted in substantially increased air flow in the immediate vicinity with small changes at a distance. This fact indicates that effective design should be based on air flow fields near wells, and the site specific design criteria should be determined with carefully conducted tests.

  8. A Study of Gas Economizing Pneumatic Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T. C.; Wu, H. W.; Kuo, M. J.

    2006-10-01

    The pneumatic cylinder is the most typical actuator in the pneumatic equipment, and its mechanism is so simple that it is often used to operate point to point driving without the feedback loop in various automatic machines. But, the energy efficiency of pneumatic system is very poor compared with electrical systems and hydraulic systems. So, it is very important to discuss the energy saving for the pneumatic cylinder systems. In this thesis, we proposed three methods to apply the reduction in the air consumed for pneumatic cylinder systems. An air charge accumulator is used to absorb the exhausted compress air and a boost valve boosted the air to the higher pressure for used again. From the experiments, the direct used cylinder exhaust air may save about 40% of compress air.

  9. RANGE INCREASER FOR PNEUMATIC GAUGES

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.; Seaborn, G.B. Jr.

    1960-09-27

    An improved pneumatic gage is offered in which the linear range has been increased without excessive air consumption. This has been accomplished by providing an expansible antechamber connected to the nozzle of the gage so that the position of the nozzle with respect to the workpiece is varied automatically by variation in pressure within the antechamber. This arrangement ensures that the nozzle-to-workpiece clearance is maintained within certain limits, thus obtaining a linear relation of air flow to nozzle-to-workpiece clearance over a wider range.

  10. Mercury Capsule Separation Tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-04-01

    Mercury capsule separation from Redstone booster in the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT): NASA Lewis conducted full-scale separation tests of the posigrade rockets that were fired after the Redstone rockets burned out. The researchers studied the effect of the posigrade rockets firing on the Redstone booster and retrograde package. This film shows the Mercury capsule being mounted to the Redstone missile model in the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The capsule's engines are fired and it horizontally separates from the Atlas. After firing the capsule swings from an overhead crane.

  11. Pipeline issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisley, Joe T.

    1990-01-01

    The declining pool of graduates, the lack of rigorous preparation in science and mathematics, and the declining interest in science and engineering careers at the precollege level promises a shortage of technically educated personnel at the college level for industry, government, and the universities in the next several decades. The educational process, which starts out with a large number of students at the elementary level, but with an ever smaller number preparing for science and engineering at each more advanced educational level, is in a state of crisis. These pipeline issues, so called because the educational process is likened to a series of ever smaller constrictions in a pipe, were examined in a workshop at the Space Grant Conference and a summary of the presentations and the results of the discussion, and the conclusions of the workshop participants are reported.

  12. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  13. Caudal pneumaticity and pneumatic hiatuses in the sauropod dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Mathew J; Taylor, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula--those that leave few or no skeletal traces--in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy.

  14. Caudal Pneumaticity and Pneumatic Hiatuses in the Sauropod Dinosaurs Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Mathew J.; Taylor, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal pneumaticity is found in the presacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs, but pneumaticity is much less common in the vertebrae of the tail. We describe previously unrecognized pneumatic fossae in the mid-caudal vertebrae of specimens of Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus. In both taxa, the most distal pneumatic vertebrae are separated from other pneumatic vertebrae by sequences of three to seven apneumatic vertebrae. Caudal pneumaticity is not prominent in most individuals of either of these taxa, and its unpredictable development means that it may be more widespread than previously recognised within Sauropoda and elsewhere in Saurischia. The erratic patterns of caudal pneumatization in Giraffatitan and Apatosaurus, including the pneumatic hiatuses, show that pneumatic diverticula were more broadly distributed in the bodies of the living animals than are their traces in the skeleton. Together with recently published evidence of cryptic diverticula—those that leave few or no skeletal traces—in basal sauropodomorphs and in pterosaurs, this is further evidence that pneumatic diverticula were widespread in ornithodirans, both across phylogeny and throughout anatomy. PMID:24205162

  15. Pneumatic retinopexy: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Hilton, G F; Das, T; Majji, A B; Jalali, S

    1996-09-01

    Pneumatic retinopexy (PR) is an alternative to scleral buckling for the surgical repair of selected retinal detachments. A gas bubble is injected into the vitreous cavity, and the patient is positioned so that the bubble closes the retinal break (s), allowing absorption of the subretinal fluid. Cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation is applied around the retinal break(s) to form a permanent seal. The procedure can be done in an outpatient setting, and no incisions are required. A multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial has demonstrated that the anatomic success rate is comparable to scleral buckling, but the morbidity is significantly less with PR. If the macula was detached for less than two weeks, the visual results are significantly better with PR than with scleral buckling. Cataract surgery was required significantly more often following scleral buckling than following PR. Two independent reports have shown that an attempt with PR does not disadvantage the eye; such that the results of scleral buckling after failed PR are not significantly different than primary scleral buckling. A comprehensive review of the world literature on PR revealed 27 statistical series totaling 1,274 eyes. These combined series had a single-operation success rate of 80%, and 98% were cured with reoperations. Pneumatic retinopexy should be considered in cases without inferior or extensive retinal breaks and without significant proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The cost of buckling varies from 4 to 10 times that of PR.

  16. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on–off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator. PMID:27354755

  17. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  18. Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

  19. Mass flow measurement of pneumatically conveyed solids using electrical capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meng; Liu, Shi; Lei, Jing; Li, Zhihong

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a measurement system for mass flow measurement in a pneumatic pipeline. The system mainly consists of a volumetric concentration sensor and a velocity sensor. The concentration sensor is an electrical capacitance sensor which has eight electrodes; the velocity sensor is based on cross-correlating two signals derived from a pair of capacitance sensors. A cyclone is employed in this system where the sensors are placed in order to compensate the inhomogeneity of the sensor sensitivity. Experimental results obtained on a pneumatic conveyer circulating coal ash demonstrate that this system is capable of detecting various velocity profiles and solids distributions and providing an absolute mass flow rate of solids within a good agreement with the reference reading from load cells.

  20. NIF symmetry capsule modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Pino, J. E.; Rowley, D. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Spears, B. K.; Tipton, R. E.

    2013-10-01

    NIF CH ablator symmetry capsules are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. SymCaps have more moderate convergence ratios ~ 15 as opposed to ~ 35 for ignition capsules with DT ice layers, and better agreement has been achieved between simulations and experimental data. We will present modeling of capsules with CD layers and tritium fill, for which we are able to match the dependence of DT yield on recession distance of the CD layer from the gas. We can also match the performance of CH capsules with D3 He fill. The simulations include surface roughness, drive asymmetry, a mock-up of modulation introduced by the tent holding the capsule, and an empirical prescription for ablator-gas atomic mix. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Successful MPPF Pneumatics Verification and Validation Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-28

    Engineers and technicians completed verification and validation testing of several pneumatic systems inside and outside the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In view is the service platform for Orion spacecraft processing. To the left are several pneumatic panels. The MPPF will be used for offline processing and fueling of the Orion spacecraft and service module stack before launch. Orion also will be de-serviced in the MPPF after a mission. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program (GSDO) is overseeing upgrades to the facility. The Engineering Directorate led the recent pneumatic tests.

  2. Phenomena of Pneumatic Tire Hydroplaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Horne, W. B.

    1963-01-01

    Recent research on pneumatic tire hydroplaning has been collected and summarized with the aim of describing what is presently known about the phenomena of tire hydroplaning. A physical description of tire hydroplaning is given along with formulae for estimating the ground speed at which it occurs. Eight manifestations of tire hydroplaning which have been experimentally observed are presented and discussed. These manifestations are: detachment of tire footprint, hydrodynamic ground pressure, spin-down of wheel, suppression of tire bow wave, scouring action of escaping fluid in tire-ground footprint region, peaking of fluid displacement drag, loss in braking traction, and loss of tire directional stability. The vehicle, pavement, tire, and fluid parameters of importance to tire hydroplaning are listed and described. Finally, the hazards of tire hydroplaning to ground and air-vehicle-ground performance are listed, and procedures are given to minimize these effects.

  3. Pneumatic tools for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario R; Vallejo-Garcia, Jose Luis; Randazzo, Alessandro; Vinciguerra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    One of the difficulties of microsurgery is learning how to control physiological tremors. The pneumatic tool eliminates the physiological tremor, but no tactile feedback is provided. The manual tremor when closing the forceps is completely eliminated and the exact target can be more easily grabbed. Forceps closure pressure can rise up to 50 psi, whereas the scissors can be used in two modes: multicut and proportional. When performing bimanual surgery the pedal range is divided into two steps: in the first step, the forceps are controlled, and in the second step, the forceps remain closed. At the same time the scissors start to work in the preselected mode. No adverse events occurred and no iatrogenic retinal breaks were produced. Precision and control sensation were a grateful surprise.

  4. Pneumatic displacement of submacular haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Ehab; Yip, Kay P; Cornish, Kurt Spiteri

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage secondary to choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) (n = 9) and retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM) (n = 3). This is a retrospective case series study of 12 eyes from 12 patients in Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK. The mean duration of visual loss was 10.8 ± 4.11 days. All cases received intravitreal injection of expansile gas within 24 h of presentation (C3F8 in 11 cases and SF6 in one case) and postured face down for five days. Anterior chamber paracentesis was done right after gas injection. Intravitreal anti-VEGF was injected at the same time in cases with CNV. Further anti-VEGF injections were done in CNV cases as needed afterwards. Cases were followed up for 6 months. The submacular hemorrhage was successfully displaced from underneath the fovea in all but one case. The bleeding disappeared totally in 44% of cases and was inferiorly displaced in 56%. VA improvement at 6 months was statistically significantly higher than baseline VA. All cases but 2 (one because of subfoveal fibrosis and one because of late presentation) experienced improved VA. The mean VA improved from 1.37 ± 0.18 logMAR at baseline to 0.83 ± 0.26 logMAR at 6 months. No complication related to the procedure was reported. Pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage appears to be a safe and effective technique to treat the condition. It is an easy procedure that can be done in outpatient setting. Further studies are needed to validate our results.

  5. F-15 Pneumatic Forbody Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A series of test have been conducted in the Langley 30-by-60 Foot Tunnel to determine the effectiveness of several forebody control devices on a 10-percent-scale model of the F-15E. These test are part of a cooperative research program with the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory and the McDonnell Aircraft Company to determine the suitability of applying forebody controls to the F-15E aircraft. The forebody controls under investigation included mechanical concepts, such as deflectable strakes and rotating-randome devices, and pneumatic concepts, such as slotted-nozzle blowing. All these concepts are designed to provide increased maneuverability by enhancing yaw control at high angles of attack where conventional rudders become ineffective. Results from the tests show that the F-15E is well suited for the application of forebody-controls technology. After conducting a number of parametric variations, several mechanical and pneumatic forebody control options were identified that were capable of providing high levels of yaw control while minimizing the impact on other aircraft systems. Other desirable characteristics exhibited by these concepts were that the control effectiveness was retained over wide ranges of sideslip and that the level of yawing moment was easily controlled by varying either the mechanical deflection or the blowing rate. Subsequent piloted simulation studies conducted by the McDonnell Aircraft Company have shown that these improved levels of yaw control would significantly enhance the maneuverability of the aircraft. The promising results that were obtained during these tests have spawned interest in a flight-test program and possible future application to the F-15E aircraft.

  6. Modification of the rotary specimen rack (Lazy Susan) at the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) to permit pneumatic unloading of samples

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, P.G.; Rusling, D.H.

    1986-07-01

    With a continuing sample load of about 18,000 samples per year, the U.S.G.S. TRIGA facility has installed a modified rotary specimen rack that allows samples to be unloaded from the rack using a closed loop blower system. The radiation exposure to operating personnel is lowered due to remote operation. Time required to unload large numbers of samples is reduced dramatically, and the sample capacity of the lazy susan can be doubled due to design changes of the. irradiation capsule allowed by the pneumatic unloading system. The safety, versatility, time and costs are improved by the addition of the pneumatic unloading lazy susan. (author)

  7. Pneumatic robotic systems for upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco Javier; García-Aracil, Nicolás; Sabater, José María; Pérez-Vidal, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    The aim of rehabilitation robotic area is to research on the application of robotic devices to therapeutic procedures. The goal is to achieve the best possible motor, cognitive and functional recovery for people with impairments following various diseases. Pneumatic actuators are attractive for robotic rehabilitation applications because they are lightweight, powerful, and compliant, but their control has historically been difficult, limiting their use. This article first reviews the current state-of-art in rehabilitation robotic devices with pneumatic actuation systems reporting main features and control issues of each therapeutic device. Then, a new pneumatic rehabilitation robot for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapies and for relearning daily living skills: like taking a glass, drinking, and placing object on shelves is described as a case study and compared with the current pneumatic rehabilitation devices.

  8. The Lens Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Danysh, Brian P.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2009-01-01

    The lens capsule is a modified basement membrane that completely surrounds the ocular lens. It is known that this extracellular matrix is important for both the structure and biomechanics of the lens in addition to providing informational cues to maintain lens cell phenotype. This review covers the development and structure of the lens capsule, lens diseases associated with mutations in extracellular matrix genes and the role of the capsule in lens function including those proposed for visual accommodation, selective permeability to infectious agents, and cell signaling. PMID:18773892

  9. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  10. Bone and joint changes in pneumatic drillers.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, M J; Fear, E C; Wright, V

    1977-01-01

    A clinical and radiological survey of 34 men who were pneumatic drillers employed by the North East Gas Board, was carried out to determine the prevalence of osteoarthrosis. Mild osteoarthrosis of the elbows was found in 2 subjects only. Two drillers had radiological evidence of generalized osteoarthrosis elsewhere, and minor degenerative changes were present in the hands of 15 cases. Our findings do not support the view that pneumatic drillers are particularly prone to develop osteoarthrosis. Images PMID:879868

  11. Pneumatic fracturing of low permeability media

    SciTech Connect

    Schuring, J.R.

    1996-08-01

    Pneumatic fracturing of soils to enhance the removal and treatment of dense nonaqueous phase liquids is described. The process involves gas injection at a pressure exceeding the natural stresses and at a flow rate exceeding the permeability of the formation. The paper outlines geologic considerations, advantages and disadvantages, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, efficiency, and costs. Five case histories of remediation using pneumatic fracturing are briefly summarized. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Stennis time capsule

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-15

    Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann (right) and Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command Chief of Staff James Pettigrew drop the first shovelfuls of dirt on a time capsule to be opened on the rocket engine test facility's 100th anniversary in 2061. The time capsule was placed in front of the Roy S. Estess Building on Oct. 25 as Stennis concluded celebrations of its 50th anniversary. NASA publicly announced plans to build the rocket engine test site Oct. 25, 1961.

  13. Stennis time capsule

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-15

    Stennis Space Center Director Patrick Scheuermann (right) and Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command Chief of Staff James Pettigrew drop the first shovelfuls of dirt on a time capsule to be opened on the rocket engine test facility's 100th anniversary in 2061. The time capsule was placed in front of the Roy S. Estess Building on Oct. 25 as Stennis concluded celebrations of its 50th anniversary.

  14. Pneumatic wrench retains or discharges nuts or bolts as desired

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouille, J. R.

    1966-01-01

    Pneumatic wrench grips, screws or unscrews, and discharges a nut or bolt as desired. The device consists of a standard pneumatic wrench modified with a special hex bolt head socket assembly and a diaphragm air cylinder.

  15. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  16. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field.

  17. Evaluation of posterior clinoid process pneumatization by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Burulday, Veysel; Akgül, Mehmet Hüseyin; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Ozveren, Mehmet Faik; Kaya, Ahmet

    2016-10-21

    In the present study, we investigated the types and ratio of posterior clinoid process (PCP) pneumatization in paranasal sinus multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Paranasal MDCT images of 541 subjects (227 males, 314 females), between 15 and 65 years old, were included into the study. Pneumatization of anterior clinoid process and pneumatization types (I, II, or III) were evaluated in the males and females. PCP pneumatization was detected in 20.7 % of the males and 11.5 % of the females. Right, left, and bilateral PCP pneumatizations were detected in 7.9, 5.7, and 7.0 % of the males and 2.9, 3.2, and 4.5 % of the females, respectively. PCP pneumatization of the males is significantly higher than the females. The most detected type of pneumatization was type I (61.2 %) for all groups. In right, left, and bilateral pneumatizations separately, type I pneumatization was the most detected pneumatization type with the ratio of the 70.4, 65.2, and 50.0 %, respectively. In males, type I (61.7 %), and similarly in females, type I (60.6 %) pneumatization were detected more. Type II and type III pneumatizations were detected in decreasing order in both groups. In younger subjects, pneumatization of posterior clinoid process was found as higher, and in older subjects, PCP pneumatization was found as lower. Sclerosis process related to the aging may be responsible for the lower pneumatization ratios in older subjects. Structure of the surrounding regions of PCP is important for surgical procedures related to cavernous sinus, basilar apex aneurysms, and mass lesions. Preoperative radiological examinations are useful for operative planning. Any anomalies to PCP can cause unnecessary injury to the neurovascular complex structure around the cavernous sinus or postclinoidectomy CSF fistulas. Posterior clinoidectomies should be avoided in patients with type III PCP pneumatization to prevent CSF fistulas.

  18. Hollow Microporous Organic Capsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Buyi; Yang, Xinjia; Xia, Lingling; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Tan, Bien

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of hollow microporous organic capsules (HMOCs) could be very useful because of their hollow and porous morphology, which combines the advantages of both microporous organic polymers and non-porous nanocapsules. They can be used as storage materials or reaction chambers while supplying the necessary path for the design of controlled uptake/release systems. Herein, the synthesis of HMOCs with high surface area through facile emulsion polymerization and hypercrosslinking reactions, is described. Due to their tailored porous structure, these capsules possessed high drug loading efficiency, zero-order drug release kinetics and are also demonstrated to be used as nanoscale reactors for the prepareation of nanoparticles (NPs) without any external stabilizer. Moreover, owing to their intrinsic biocompatibility and fluorescence, these capsules exhibit promising prospect for biomedical applications. PMID:23820511

  19. PNEUMATIC PUMP TEST FOR DESIGN OF SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propa...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 56.14114... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment if there...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14114 - Air valves for pneumatic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air valves for pneumatic equipment. 57.14114... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14114 Air valves for pneumatic equipment. A manual master quick-close type air valve shall be installed on all pneumatic-powered equipment...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressurization and pneumatic systems. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic systems. (a) Pressurization system... normal operating pressure. (b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressurization and pneumatic systems. 25... § 25.1438 Pressurization and pneumatic systems. (a) Pressurization system elements must be burst.... (b) Pneumatic system elements must be burst pressure tested to 3.0 times, and proof pressure tested...

  4. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement. ...

  5. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  6. PNEUMATIC PUMP TEST FOR DESIGN OF SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propa...

  7. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b...

  8. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull. (b...

  10. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  11. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  12. 49 CFR 236.817 - Switch, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, electro-pneumatic. 236.817 Section 236.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, electro-pneumatic. A switch operated by an electro-pneumatic switch-and-lock movement....

  13. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power source used with removable rotating surgical cutting tools or drill bits on a patient's skull....

  20. Back to Basics: Pneumatic Tourniquet Use.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    Pneumatic tourniquets are commonly used in surgeries involving the limbs to achieve a nearly bloodless surgery and an optimal operating field or when administering regional anesthesia during surgery on a limb. Complications can arise from the use of tourniquets, including nerve injuries, pain, compartment syndrome, pressure injuries, chemical burns, and tissue necrosis. More serious injuries-including deep vein thrombosis, thermal damage to tissues, severe ischemic injuries, and rhabdomyolysis-also can occur. Therefore, it is important for perioperative team members to understand how to use pneumatic tourniquets effectively and safely to provide the best possible care to patients. This article addresses the safety risks to patients when using pneumatic tourniquets and optimal safe use of these devices. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Development of an adaptive pneumatic tourniquet].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Zhengbo; Li, Kaiyuan; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-06-01

    A new adaptive pneumatic tourniquet was developed for limb operation and first-aid. The crucial hardware circuits of the adaptive pneumatic tourniquet were designed based on the microprocessor C8051F340 and blood pressure module CSN602, software was programmed and an experiment was carried out for verifying the system. Results showed that the prototype could measure accurately systolic blood pressure, heart rate and other relative parameters and the designed device could adjust tourniquet cuff's pressure through inflation and deflation according to systolic blood pressure and limb circumference. This designed system integrated the advantages of the adaptive pneumatic tourniquet, and could be used for controlling life-threatening extremity hemorrhage operation and maintaining a bloodless opeation field.

  2. Pneumatic Rupture of Rectosigmoid; a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Mohammad; Farhangi, Bahman; Montazeri, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture is usually occurred following the inappropriate fun by direct entering a high volume of the air through the pneumatic device to the anus. Such an event was reported for the first time in 1904 by Stone. Diagnosis and treatment of such injuries are often delayed because of some social limitations and preventing the patient form explaining the event. Colon sigmoid rupture and pneumoperitoneum is one of the most dangerous and life treating complications of entering a high volume of the air to the rectum in a short time. There are only a few reports regarding the similar cases. Here, a case of pneumatic rectosigmoid rapture was reported in a 53 year-old male following an inappropriate fun.

  3. Stardust Capsule Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stardust Capsule Return as seen from NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory with a mission to explore the conditions during reentry from the light emitted by the fireball caused when the capsule streaked through the sky. The aircraft was located near the end of the trajectory, just outside of UTTR. The participating researchers are from NASA Ames, the SETI Institute, the University of Alaska, Utah State University, Lockheed Martin, U.S. Air Force Academy, the University of Kobe (Japan), and Stuttgart University (Germany).

  4. Transurethral Pneumatic Cystolithotripsy: A Novel Approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed Issam; Fathelbab, Tarek Khalaf; Abdelhamid, Amr Mohamed; Elbadry, Mohamed; Alshara, Luay; Anwar, Ahmed Zaki Mohamed; Galal, Ehab Mohmed; Tawfiek, Ehab Rifat

    2016-06-01

    Various endoscopic instruments used in treating renal stones have been used in managing bladder calculi. Our aim is to evaluate the use of transurethral ureteroscopic pneumatic cystolithotripsy for the management of large bladder calculi. In a retrospective study conducted between May 2005 and July 2011, 53 patients with solitary bladder stones were subjected to our technique, transurethral ureteroscopic pneumatic cystolithotripsy. The mean patient age was 54.3 years. The mean stone size was 4.8 cm. Diagnostic cystoscopy was performed first. A semirigid ureteroscope with a pneumatic probe was introduced through the cystoscope sheath, and pneumatic lithotripsy was performed. The cystoscope sheath works as a draining channel, allowing bladder evacuation. The bladder collapses over the stone and, subsequently, prevents stone migration, which shortens the lithotripsy's duration. Stone immobilization allows the transmission of full pneumatic power to the stone. The stone fragments were removed through periodic bladder irrigation using an Ellick evacuation-irrigation system, and a 16F Foley catheter was placed at the end of the procedure. Our technique was effective in all cases, including stone-free bladders. No surgical complications were detected. The mean operative time was 83 ± 21.0 minutes, which is comparable to that of standard management. The mean duration of lithotripsy and evacuation was 29.7 ± 18.4 minutes. In the postoperative period, patients were followed up for 18 months, with no urethral stricture being reported in any case. The transurethral ureteroscopic pneumatic cystolithotripsy procedure is a safe technique for the management of large bladder calculi. It allows the bladder to collapse over the stone, leading to stone immobilization and, subsequently, decreasing lithotripsy duration. Our procedure is associated with a minimal chance of postoperative urethral injury because all stone fragments are evacuated through the cystoscope sheath

  5. Guidelines help design pneumatic control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, R.N.

    1981-01-26

    The three areas of particular interest to the gas-transmission engineer about pneumatic-instrument-operated control valves are (1) the fail-position probability of a system, (2) the designated action required for each component in the pneumatic circuit, and (3) the schematically defined position of each component. Compared with self-operated control valves, the instrument-operated systems perform many more functions; they can control the flow and the volume or flow-volume combinations, with both pressure override and underride, and will adapt conveniently to remote operation. Schematic diagrams illustrate the numerous system designs possible for pressure-regulation, flow-control, and relief-valve duties.

  6. Successful MPPF Pneumatics Verification and Validation Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-28

    Engineers and technicians completed verification and validation testing of several pneumatic systems inside and outside the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In view is the service platform for Orion spacecraft processing. The MPPF will be used for offline processing and fueling of the Orion spacecraft and service module stack before launch. Orion also will be de-serviced in the MPPF after a mission. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program (GSDO) is overseeing upgrades to the facility. The Engineering Directorate led the recent pneumatic tests.

  7. Successful MPPF Pneumatics Verification and Validation Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-28

    Engineers and technicians completed verification and validation testing of several pneumatic systems inside and outside the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In view is the top level of the service platform for Orion spacecraft processing. The MPPF will be used for offline processing and fueling of the Orion spacecraft and service module stack before launch. Orion also will be de-serviced in the MPPF after a mission. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program (GSDO) is overseeing upgrades to the facility. The Engineering Directorate led the recent pneumatic tests.

  8. Pneumatically switchable graded index metamaterial lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevych, I. E.; Shadrivov, I. V.; Powell, D. A.; Rowe, W. S. T.; Mitchell, A.

    2013-01-01

    A low-profile pneumatically switchable graded index metamaterial lens operating at 9 GHz is proposed and practically demonstrated. An effective graded refractive index is engineered using an array of electric resonators of differing resonant frequency. Normal orientation of the resonators allows ultrathin single metamaterial layer lens design. Switching between focusing and non-focusing states is practically demonstrated by shorting the gaps in split ring resonators and eliminating the resonant response and the phase difference between the elements across the lens with pneumatically actuated metal patches that are pressed against the gaps of the resonators as the pressure in the chamber is reduced.

  9. Gelatin capsule in stomach (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... detect the presence of intestinal parasites. A weighted gelatin capsule attached to a string is swallowed and left in place. After about 4 hours, the gelatin capsule is pulled out of the stomach by ...

  10. Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-08-01

    Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities in 1959 at NASA Glenn Research Center (formerly NASA Lewis). Big Joe was an Atlas missile that successfully launched a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule on September 9, 1959.

  11. Multinode reconfigurable pipeline computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosenchuck, Daniel M. (Inventor); Littman, Michael G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multinode parallel-processing computer is made up of a plurality of innerconnected, large capacity nodes each including a reconfigurable pipeline of functional units such as Integer Arithmetic Logic Processors, Floating Point Arithmetic Processors, Special Purpose Processors, etc. The reconfigurable pipeline of each node is connected to a multiplane memory by a Memory-ALU switch NETwork (MASNET). The reconfigurable pipeline includes three (3) basic substructures formed from functional units which have been found to be sufficient to perform the bulk of all calculations. The MASNET controls the flow of signals from the memory planes to the reconfigurable pipeline and vice versa. the nodes are connectable together by an internode data router (hyperspace router) so as to form a hypercube configuration. The capability of the nodes to conditionally configure the pipeline at each tick of the clock, without requiring a pipeline flush, permits many powerful algorithms to be implemented directly.

  12. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  13. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akinobu; Eugenia Leone Gold, Maria; Brusatte, Stephen L; Benson, Roger B J; Choiniere, Jonah; Davidson, Amy; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1) highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2) anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3) apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4) a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  14. Oceanic pipeline computations

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, A.

    1980-01-01

    yechnical and economic feasibility, design, and construction of oil, gas, and two-phase oceanic pipelines systems are discussed. In addition, formulae, references, examples, and programmable calculator software (Hewlett-Packard-67) are given. The contents include: preliminary pipeline sizing; fluid characteristics; preliminary hydraulics; oceanographis; preliminary corridor selection; route selection; final pipeline design; hydraulic design; wall thickness selection; oceanographic design computations; stress analysis; and construction parameters. (JMT)

  15. Microfluidic Pneumatic Logic Circuits and Digital Pneumatic Microprocessors for Integrated Microfluidic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung

    2010-01-01

    We have developed pneumatic logic circuits and microprocessors built with microfluidic channels and valves in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pneumatic logic circuits perform various combinational and sequential logic calculations with binary pneumatic signals (atmosphere and vacuum), producing cascadable outputs based on Boolean operations. A complex microprocessor is constructed from combinations of various logic circuits and receives pneumatically encoded serial commands at a single input line. The device then decodes the temporal command sequence by spatial parallelization, computes necessary logic calculations between parallelized command bits, stores command information for signal transportation and maintenance, and finally executes the command for the target devices. Thus, such pneumatic microprocessors will function as a universal on-chip control platform to perform complex parallel operations for large-scale integrated microfluidic devices. To demonstrate the working principles, we have built 2-bit, 3-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit microprecessors to control various target devices for applications such as four color dye mixing, and multiplexed channel fluidic control. By significantly reducing the need for external controllers, the digital pneumatic microprocessor can be used as a universal on-chip platform to autonomously manipulate microfluids in a high throughput manner. PMID:19823730

  16. Improving dynamic performances of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems via a novel pneumatic circuit.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Ali; Najafi, Farid

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of pneumatic circuit design on the input-output behavior of PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems is investigated and their control performances are improved using linear controllers instead of complex and costly nonlinear ones. Generally, servo-pneumatic systems are well known for their nonlinear behavior. However, PWM-driven servo-pneumatic systems have the advantage of flexibility in the design of pneumatic circuits which affects the input-output linearity of the whole system. A simple pneumatic circuit with only one fast switching valve is designed which leads to a quasi-linear input-output relation. The quasi-linear behavior of the proposed circuit is verified both experimentally and by simulations. Closed loop position control experiments are then carried out using linear P- and PD-controllers. Since the output position is noisy and cannot be directly differentiated, a Kalman filter is designed to estimate the velocity of the cylinder. Highly improved tracking performances are obtained using these linear controllers, compared to previous works with nonlinear controllers.

  17. Microfluidic pneumatic logic circuits and digital pneumatic microprocessors for integrated microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Minsoung; Burns, Mark A

    2009-11-07

    We have developed pneumatic logic circuits and microprocessors built with microfluidic channels and valves in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pneumatic logic circuits perform various combinational and sequential logic calculations with binary pneumatic signals (atmosphere and vacuum), producing cascadable outputs based on Boolean operations. A complex microprocessor is constructed from combinations of various logic circuits and receives pneumatically encoded serial commands at a single input line. The device then decodes the temporal command sequence by spatial parallelization, computes necessary logic calculations between parallelized command bits, stores command information for signal transportation and maintenance, and finally executes the command for the target devices. Thus, such pneumatic microprocessors will function as a universal on-chip control platform to perform complex parallel operations for large-scale integrated microfluidic devices. To demonstrate the working principles, we have built 2-bit, 3-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit microprocessors to control various target devices for applications such as four color dye mixing, and multiplexed channel fluidic control. By significantly reducing the need for external controllers, the digital pneumatic microprocessor can be used as a universal on-chip platform to autonomously manipulate microfluids in a high throughput manner.

  18. Electrostatic sensors applied to the measurement of electric charge transfer in gas solids pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, S. R.; Denham, J. C.; Armour-Chelu, D. I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a number of electric charge sensors. The sensors have been developed specifically to investigate triboelectric charge transfer which takes place between particles and the pipeline wall, when powdered materials are conveyed through a pipeline using air. A number of industrial applications exist for such gas solids pipelines, including pneumatic conveyors, vacuum cleaners and dust extraction systems. The build-up of electric charge on pipelines and powdered materials can lead to electrostatic discharge and so is of interest from a safety viewpoint. The charging of powders can also adversely affect their mechanical handling characteristics and so is of interest to handling equipment engineers. The paper presents the design of the sensors, the design of the electric charge test rig and electric charge measurement test results.

  19. Assessment of Pneumatic Controller Emission Measurements ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons (HCs) to the atmosphere. ONG production sites have multiple emission sources including storage tank venting, enclosed combustion devices, engine exhaust, pneumatic controllers and uncontrolled leaks. Accounting for up to 37.8 percent of CH4 emissions, pneumatic controllers are one of the most significant sources of CH4 in ONG production field operations. Recent measurement studies used the only commercially-available high volume sampling (HVS) technology (Bacharach Hi Flow Sampler, Bacharach, Inc., New Kensington, PA) to quantify CH4 emission rates of pneumatic devices on ONG production pads and compare to inventory estimates. Other studies indicate that this HVS may malfunction, causing underestimates of emissions in certain scenarios encountered in ONG production and should not be used for some sources such as heavy emissions from condensate storage tanks. The HVS malfunction can occur on relatively large emissions, where the measured leak concentrations exceed 5%, and is ascribed to a sensor transition failure in the instrument. The HVS malfunction is believed to be exacerbated by several factors (large emission rates, amount of non-CH4 HCs in the emission stream, non-optimal HVS calibration frequency, firmware, and emission measurement coupling geometries). The degree to which HVS measurements of emissions from pneumatic co

  20. First Approach of Pneumatic Anthropomorphic Hand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    weight and minimum consumption, minimum control and natural appearance. Keywords- Anthropomorphic, hand, Pneumatic system, Prosthesis 1. INTRODUCTION...and controls that are compared with the tasks that Human hand can carry out. Each project determines the diverse possibilities of manipulation and...increases the possibilities of acceptance of prosthesis by the user. Multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthesis are difficult to control independently

  1. Distortion Of Pressure Signals In Pneumatic Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Curry, Robert; Lindsey, William

    1993-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum describes experimental investigation of distorting effects of propagation of pressure signals along narrow pneumatic tubes from pressure-sensing orifices on surfaces of models or aircraft to pressure sensors distant from orifices. Pressure signals distorted principally by frictional damping along walls of tubes and by reflections at orifice and sensor ends.

  2. Evaluating a device for pneumatic lint cleaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research exploring innovative techniques to clean ginned lint while reducing short fiber and neps has led to evaluations of a pneumatic fractionator. This device is typically used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA cotton ginning research laboratories. No modifications we...

  3. Assessment of Pneumatic Controller Emission Measurements ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons (HCs) to the atmosphere. ONG production sites have multiple emission sources including storage tank venting, enclosed combustion devices, engine exhaust, pneumatic controllers and uncontrolled leaks. Accounting for up to 37.8 percent of CH4 emissions, pneumatic controllers are one of the most significant sources of CH4 in ONG production field operations. Recent measurement studies used the only commercially-available high volume sampling (HVS) technology (Bacharach Hi Flow Sampler, Bacharach, Inc., New Kensington, PA) to quantify CH4 emission rates of pneumatic devices on ONG production pads and compare to inventory estimates. Other studies indicate that this HVS may malfunction, causing underestimates of emissions in certain scenarios encountered in ONG production and should not be used for some sources such as heavy emissions from condensate storage tanks. The HVS malfunction can occur on relatively large emissions, where the measured leak concentrations exceed 5%, and is ascribed to a sensor transition failure in the instrument. The HVS malfunction is believed to be exacerbated by several factors (large emission rates, amount of non-CH4 HCs in the emission stream, non-optimal HVS calibration frequency, firmware, and emission measurement coupling geometries). The degree to which HVS measurements of emissions from pneumatic co

  4. Analysis of fine coal pneumatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, M.P.; Rohatgi, N.D.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Many fossil fuel energy processes depend on the movement of solids by pneumatic transport. Despite the considerable amount of work reported in the literature on pneumatic transport, the design of new industrial systems for new products continues to rely to a great extent on empiricism. A pilot-scale test facility has been constructed at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and is equipped with modern sophisticated measuring techniques (such as Pressure Transducers, Auburn Monitors, Micro Motion Mass flowmeters) and an automatic computer-controlled data acquisition system to study the effects of particle pneumatic transport. Pittsburgh Seam and Montana rosebud coals of varying size consist and moisture content were tested in the atmospheric and pressurized coal flow test loops (AP/CFTL and HP/CFTL) at PETC. The system parameters included conveying gas velocity, injector tank pressure, screw conveyor speed, pipe radius, and pipe bends. In the following report, results from the coal flow tests were presented and analyzed. Existing theories and correlations on two-phase flows were reviewed. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from empirically or theoretically derived equations available in the literature, and new correlations were proposed, when applicable, to give a better interpretation of the data and a better understanding of the various flow regimes involved in pneumatic transport. 55 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop.... Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  6. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop.... Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  7. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop.... Automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal pneumatic apparatus shall be inspected, cleaned, and...

  8. Distortion Of Pressure Signals In Pneumatic Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Curry, Robert; Lindsey, William

    1993-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum describes experimental investigation of distorting effects of propagation of pressure signals along narrow pneumatic tubes from pressure-sensing orifices on surfaces of models or aircraft to pressure sensors distant from orifices. Pressure signals distorted principally by frictional damping along walls of tubes and by reflections at orifice and sensor ends.

  9. Pneumatic boot for helicopter rotor deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaha, B. J.; Evanich, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Pneumatic deicer boots for helicopter rotor blades were tested. The tests were conducted in the 6 by 9 ft icing research tunnel on a stationary section of a UH-IH helicopter main rotor blade. The boots were effective in removing ice and in reducing aerodynamic drag due to ice.

  10. Enhancing in situ bioremediation with pneumatic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Peyton, B.M.; Liskowitz, J.L.; Fitzgerald, C.; Schuring, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    A major technical obstacle affecting the application of in situ bioremediation is the effective distribution of nutrients to the subsurface media. Pneumatic fracturing can increase the permeability of subsurface formations through the injection of high pressure air to create horizontal fracture planes, thus enhancing macro-scale mass-transfer processes. Pneumatic fracturing technology was demonstrated at two field sites at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Tests were performed to increase the permeability for more effective bioventing, and evaluated the potential to increase permeability and recovery of free product in low permeability soils consisting of fine grain silts, clays, and sedimentary rock. Pneumatic fracturing significantly improved formation permeability by enhancing secondary permeability and by promoting removal of excess soil moisture from the unsaturated zone. Postfracture airflows were 500% to 1,700% higher than prefracture airflows for specific fractured intervals in the formation. This corresponds to an average prefracturing permeability of 0.017 Darcy, increasing to an average of 0.32 Darcy after fracturing. Pneumatic fracturing also increased free-product recovery rates of number 2 fuel from an average of 587 L (155 gal) per month before fracturing to 1,647 L (435 gal) per month after fracturing.

  11. PNEUMATIC FRACTIONATOR FOR CLEANING GINNED LINT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. Spawned from discussions at a Cotton Incorporated Lint Cleaning Summit and building on 1970s research at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory, an e...

  12. Pneumatics. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Troy

    The student's manual in this two-part instructional kit is designed to help the following types of students learn introductory technical material related to pneumatics: (1) groups of trade and industrial students with a variety of vocational objectives and (2) homogeneous groups in which the learning levels of individual students vary…

  13. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  14. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  15. Coal slurry pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Chassagne, P.J.

    1980-02-05

    A method is disclosed for preparing industrial ores, e.g., coal, for pipelining and pipelining the ores to a site for subsequent processing or use. Ore from a mine is screened into two fractions, one having a large size particle distribution and one having a small size particle distribution, each fraction retaining both the ore and the refuse. The large size particle fraction is cleaned of refuse and the clean ore therefrom crushed to a size distribution of the smaller size or small size ore fraction. The separated refuse from the large size particle fraction is ground to provide superfines to the extent required for the proper particle size distribution for pipelining. The ore and superfine refuse are combined in a water slurry for pipelining. After pipelining the ore, the ore is cleaned and dewatered conveniently as known in the art for fine ore. The resulting ore may then be stockpiled or directly used.

  16. Pipeline caliper pig

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, J.S.; Lockyear, K.W.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes an improved pipeline caliper pig for providing indications of the deviations of an inner wall of a pipeline from a nominal cross-sectional configuration. It comprises: a pig body assembly having a longitudinal axis and means for supporting the pig body assembly in a pipeline and for impeding the flow of fluid therepast so that the pig body is propelled by such fluid along the pipeline; an integrator plate carried by the pig body assembly; means for deflecting the integrator plate in response to deviations in the internal pipeline wall; means for axial oriented detection of the deflection of the integrator plate and for recording the detected deflections; and means for simultaneously determining and recording the orientation of the pig body assembly about its longitudinal axis relative to the vertical whereby the axial orientation of detected deviations is determinable.

  17. Capsule-train stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryngelson, Spencer H.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2016-07-01

    Elastic capsules flowing in small enough tubes, such as red blood cells in capillaries, are well known to line up into regular single-file trains. The stability of such trains in somewhat wider channels, where this organization is not observed, is studied in a two-dimensional model system that includes full coupling between the viscous flow and suspended capsules. A diverse set of linearly amplifying disturbances, both long-time asymptotic (modal) and transient (nonmodal) perturbations, is identified and analyzed. These have a range of amplification rates and their corresponding forms are wavelike, typically dominated by one of five principal perturbation classes: longitudinal and transverse translations, tilts, and symmetric and asymmetric shape distortions. Finite-amplitude transiently amplifying perturbations are shown to provide a mechanism that can bypass slower asymptotic modal linear growth and precipitate the onset of nonlinear effects. Direct numerical simulations are used to verify the linear analysis and track the subsequent transition of the regular capsule trains into an apparently chaotic flow.

  18. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    SciTech Connect

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J.

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  19. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Rulemaking (ANPRM) titled: ``Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines'' seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines. PHMSA has received requests to extend the...

  20. Determination of the loss coefficient of elbows in the flow of low-density spherical capsule train

    SciTech Connect

    Ulusarslan, Deniz

    2007-11-15

    Design parameters of a pipelines capsule flow can be calculated if dependence of pressure drops on flow velocity and capsule concentration of such pipelines are known. For this purpose, loss coefficients of elbows were studied experimentally in pipeline loop of I.D. 0.1 m. Elbows with central angles of 90 and 45 made of PVC were used for low-density spherical capsule train flow. The outer diameter and relative density of the capsules were 0.08 m and 0.87, respectively; the pressure drops were measured at Reynolds number range 2 x 10{sup 4} < Re < 1 x 10{sup 5} and for a transport concentration from 5% to 25%. Increments of the pressure gradient become larger at higher velocities and solid phase concentrations. The pressure gradients that occurred at the 90 elbow were higher than that occurred at the 45 elbow. Loss coefficient of the 90 elbow for the same flow velocity and capsule concentration in the capsules-water mixture flow is from 3 to 2 times higher than the loss coefficient at the 45 elbow. (author)

  1. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Neviaser, Andrew S; Neviaser, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis.

  2. Hohlraum Simulations for Symergy Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, S. R.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kyrala, G. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2006-10-01

    The use of a single capsule implosion within a hohlraum to provide information on both the asymmetry of the radiation drive impinging on the capsule and the total energy absorbed by it has led to the concept of experiments with ``symergy'' capsules. We present simulations for planned shots at Omega with hohlraum drive approximating the first 6 ns of the actual NIF ignition drive and surrogate capsules for the NIF ignition capsule. The hohlraum modeling can assess the effects of hohlraum gas fill, laser timing variations and beam pointings. In addition to its immediate design use, it should be useful in validating both the predictive capability for observed symergy capsule responses and the modeling of the initial stage of the NIF ignition process. N.M. Hoffman, D. C. Wilson, and G. A. Kyrala, 2006 High-Temperature Diagnostics Conference, May 2006, Williamsburg, VA USA, to appear in Rev Sci Inst. 77 (2006)

  3. Pneumatic conveying of materials at partial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Koenig, Elissa; Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of pneumatic transfer for the movement of regolith at a lunar base is evaluated. Operation of pneumatic conveying systems at partial (lunar and Mars) gravity on NASA's KC-135 aircraft allowed the determination of some key parameters necessary for the design of an operable system. Both horizontal and vertical transfer is studied. In the vertical experiment, the choking velocity for 150-micron glass spheres was determined to be 1/2 to 1/3 the velocity required at 1 g. Pressure drops were reduced by roughly the same amount. Determination of the saltation velocity in the horizontal run was problematic, but qualitatively similar results were obtained. Comparison of the partial g results to 1-g behavior and theoretical analysis is made.

  4. A pneumatic cylinder driving polyhedron mobile mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wan; Kim, Sung-Chan; Yao, Yan-An

    2012-03-01

    A novel pneumatic cylinder driving polyhedron mobile mechanism is proposed in this paper. The mechanism is comprised of 5 tetrahedrons which includes a pneumatic cylinder in each edge. It locomotes by rolling and the rolling principle refers to the center of mass (CM) of the mechanism moved out of the supporting area and let it tip over through the controlling of the motion sequence of these cylinders. Firstly, the mathematical model is built to analysis the relation between the configuration and the CM of the mechanism. Then, a binary control strategy is developed to simplify and improve the control of this mobile mechanism. After that, dynamic simulation is performed to testify the analytical validity and feasibility of the rolling gaits. At last, a prototype is fabricated to achieve the rolling successfully to demonstrate the proposed concept.

  5. Pneumatic conveying of materials at partial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Koenig, Elissa; Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of pneumatic transfer for the movement of regolith at a lunar base is evaluated. Operation of pneumatic conveying systems at partial (lunar and Mars) gravity on NASA's KC-135 aircraft allowed the determination of some key parameters necessary for the design of an operable system. Both horizontal and vertical transfer is studied. In the vertical experiment, the choking velocity for 150-micron glass spheres was determined to be 1/2 to 1/3 the velocity required at 1 g. Pressure drops were reduced by roughly the same amount. Determination of the saltation velocity in the horizontal run was problematic, but qualitatively similar results were obtained. Comparison of the partial g results to 1-g behavior and theoretical analysis is made.

  6. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  7. GAS PIPELINE PIGABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Clark; Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-04-01

    In-line inspection equipment is commonly used to examine a large portion of the long distance transmission pipeline system that transports natural gas from well gathering points to local distribution companies. A piece of equipment that is inserted into a pipeline and driven by product flow is called a ''pig''. Using this term as a base, a set of terms has evolved. Pigs that are equipped with sensors and data recording devices are called ''intelligent pigs''. Pipelines that cannot be inspected using intelligent pigs are deemed ''unpigable''. But many factors affect the passage of a pig through a pipeline, or the ''pigability''. The pigability pipeline extend well beyond the basic need for a long round hole with a means to enter and exit. An accurate assessment of pigability includes consideration of pipeline length, attributes, pressure, flow rate, deformation, cleanliness, and other factors as well as the availability of inspection technology. All factors must be considered when assessing the appropriateness of ILI to assess specific pipeline threats.

  8. Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacny, Kris; Hedlund, Magnus; Mumm, Eric; Shasho, Jeffrey; Chu, Philip; Kumar, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Heat flow is a fundamental property of a planet, and provides significant constraints on the abundance of radiogenic isotopes, the thermal evolution and differentiation history, and the mechanical properties of the lithosphere. Heat-flow measurements are also essential in achieving at least four of the goals set out by the National Research Council for future lunar exploration. The heat-flow probe therefore directly addresses the goal of the Lunar Geophysical Network, which is to understand the interior structure and composition of the Moon. A key challenge for heat flow measurement is to install thermal sensors to the depths approximately equal to 3 m that are not influenced by the diurnal, annual, and longer-term fluctuations of the surface thermal environment. In addition, once deployed, the heat flow probe should cause little disturbance to the thermal regime of the surrounding regolith. A heat-flow probe system was developed that has two novel features: (1) it utilizes a pneumatic (gas) approach, excavates a hole by lofting the lunar soil out of the hole, and (2) deploys the heat flow probe, which utilizes a coiled up tape as a thermal probe to reach greater than 3-meter depth. The system is a game-changer for small lunar landers as it exhibits extremely low mass, volume, and simple deployment. The pneumatic system takes advantage of the helium gas used for pressurizing liquid propellant of the lander. Normally, helium is vented once the lander is on the surface, but it can be utilized for powering pneumatic systems. Should sufficient helium not be available, a simple gas delivery system may be taken specifically for the heat flow probe. Either way, the pneumatic heat flow probe system would be much lighter than other systems that entirely rely on the electrical power of the lander.

  9. Pneumatic preloaded scanning science launch latch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kievit, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A relatively simple system using a preloaded pneumatic piston latch with a pyrotechnic valve release was developed. The system was the only candidate that met all the imposed requirements utilizing reliable state-of-art components. The development of the latch system from its first use on Mariner '69 Mars Flyby Spacecraft through its most recent use on the Voyager Spacecraft that will fly to Jupiter and Saturn is reviewed.

  10. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-09

    IOP PUBLISHING EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS Eur. J. Phys. 30 (2009) 453–457 doi:10.1088/0143-0807/30/3/003 Internal ballistics of a pneumatic potato ...an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand...undergraduate students who have taken calculus-based introductory physics. Potato cannons are a popular construction project for physics demonstrations

  11. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  12. Pneumatic compression hemodynamics in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Westrich, G H; Specht, L M; Sharrock, N E; Sculco, T P; Salvati, E A; Pellicci, P M; Trombley, J F; Peterson, M

    2000-03-01

    A crossover study was performed to evaluate the effect of several pneumatic compression devices and active dorsoplantar flexion in 10 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Using the Acuson 128XP/10 duplex ultrasound unit with a 5-MHz linear array probe, peak venous velocity and venous volume were assessed above and below the greater saphenous vein and common femoral vein junction. A computer generated randomization table was used to determine the order of the test conditions. The pneumatic compression devices evaluated included two foot pumps, one foot and calf pump, one calf pump, and three calf and thigh pumps. Statistical analyses included analysis of variance and analysis of variance with covariance between devices and patients. The covariates tested were the baseline measurements and the order in which the devices were tested. Differences between devices relate in part to the frequency and rate of inflation and the location and type of compression. Pulsatile calf and foot and calf pneumatic compression with a rapid inflation time produced the greatest increase in peak venous velocity, whereas compression of the calf and thigh showed the greatest increase in venous volume. Because patient and nursing compliance is essential to the success of mechanical prophylaxis for thromboembolic disease, the more simple, yet efficacious, devices that are easier to apply and less cumbersome appear to have a greater likelihood of success. In the active and alert patient, active dorsoplantar flexion should be encouraged.

  13. Paranasal pneumatization in extant and fossil Cercopithecoidea.

    PubMed

    Rae, Todd C

    2008-03-01

    Unlike most primates, extant cercopithecoids lack maxillary sinuses, which are pneumatic spaces in the facial skeleton lateral of the nasal cavity proper. Character state analysis of living cercopithecoids across well-supported topologies suggests that the sinus was lost at the origin of the superfamily, only to have evolved again convergently in extant macaques. Recent work has shown that a) the 'early loss' hypothesis is supported by the lack of any pneumatization in Victoriapithecus, a stem cercopithecoid, b) like extant macaques, the fossil cercopithecine Paradolichopithecus shows evidence of presence of the maxillary sinus (MS), and c) unlike extant colobines, the fossil colobine Libypithecus also possesses a maxillary sinus. To more fully assess the pattern of cercopithecoid sinus evolution, fossil taxa from both subfamilies (Colobinae, Cercopithecinae) were examined both visually and by computed tomography (CT). The observations were evaluated according to standard anatomical criteria for defining sinus spaces, and compared with data from all extant Old World monkey genera. Most taxa examined conformed to the pattern already discerned from extant cercopithecoids. Maxillary sinus absence in Theropithecus oswaldi, Mesopithecus, and Rhinocolobus is typical for all extant cercopithecids except Macaca. The fossil macaque Macaca majori possesses a well-developed maxillary sinus, as do all living species of the genus. Cercopithecoides, on the other hand, differs from all extant colobines in possessing a maxillary sinus. Thus, paranasal pneumatization has reemerged a minimum of two and possibly three times in cercopithecoids. The results suggest that maxillary sinus absence in cercopithecoids is due to suppression, rather than complete loss.

  14. Capsule endoscopy in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Cristiano; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Urgesi, Riccardo; Costamagna, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is an attractive and patient-friendly tool that provides high quality images of the small bowel. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is the primary and most evaluated indication to capsule endoscopy; however, indications are expanding and a small number of preliminary reports have been presented concerning the role of video capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge and to hypothesize on future perspectives of the use of video capsule endoscopy in patients with celiac disease. PMID:18636659

  15. Capsule endoscopy in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Dell' Era, Alessandra; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; de Franchis, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Since the introduction of small bowel capsule endoscopy, and more recently of esophageal capsule endoscopy, these diagnostic tools have become available for the evaluation of the consequences of portal hypertension in the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. The main advantage of the esophageal and the small bowel capsule is the relatively less invasiveness that could potentially increase patients' adherence to endoscopic screening/surveillance programs. When esophageal capsule endoscopy was compared with traditional gastroscopy, it showed good sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the presence and the size of esophageal varices. However, the results are not consistent among studies, and more data are needed.

  16. Comparison of pneumatic dilation with pneumatic dilation plus botulinum toxin for treatment of achalasia.

    PubMed

    Bakhshipour, Alireza; Rabbani, Romina; Shirani, Shapoor; Soleimani, Hosein A S L; Mikaeli, Javad

    2010-01-01

    Among the therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation (PD), an appropriate long-term therapy, and botulinum toxin injection (BT) that is a relatively short-term therapy. This study aimed to compare therapeutic effect of repetitive pneumatic dilation with a combined method (botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation) in a group of achalasia patients who are low responder to two initial pneumatic dilations. Thirty-four patients with documented primary achalasia that had low response to two times PD (<50% decrease in symptom score and barium height at 5 minute in timed esophagogram after 3 month of late PD) were randomized to receive pneumatic dilation (n=18) or botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation by four weeks interval (n=16), PD and BT+PD groups respectively. Symptom scores were evaluated before and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a decrease in symptom score > or = 50% of baseline. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age and achalasia type. Remission rate of patients in BT-PD group in comparison with PD group were 87.5% vs. 67.1% (P = 0.7), 87.5% vs. 61.1% (P = 0.59) and 87.5% vs. 55.5% (P = 0.53) at 1, 6 and 12 months respectively .There were no major complications in either group. The mean symptom score decreased by 62.71% in the BT-PD group (P < 0.002) and 50.77% in the PD group (P < 0.01) at the end of the first year. Despite a better response rate in BT+PD group, a difference was not statistically significant. A difference may be meaningful if a large numbers of patients are included in the study.

  17. Underground pipeline corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Gundry, R.D.

    1988-04-01

    In the past few years, the pipeline corrosion control industry has been shaken by several catastrophic pipeline failures attributed to corrosion. Reports of corrosion-related failures seem to be on the rise, and this has caused the industry to reassess the criteria for cathodic protection and the correct application of the criteria. The US Congress and many state legislatures are also asking questions about pipeline safety. Several pieces of legislation are proposed to improve pipeline safety. NACE Task Group T-10-1 is in the process of revising Standard RP0169. Field data have been solicited from industry and are being analyzed. The committee has reviewed an extensive compilation of articles written over the last 50 years to evaluate the existing document. The committee is also awaiting the issuance of an Interim Report from the American Gas Association on the effectiveness of the criteria. The report is to present data obtained from several field test sites from around the country.

  18. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  19. Military Petroleum Pipeline Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    propelled, sell-contalned mill moved along the pi3peline right -of-way, Army observers were impressed with the potential construction enpability of...pipeline can be Installed. To expedite installation. the pipeline Is laid along the most direct route possible utili.zing road ditches, railroad right -of...fuel requirements are shown in Table 2 and rlgure 3. A political settlement is reached 90 days ufter the Initial deploy- mient of’ troops und a cease

  20. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  1. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-01-07

    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  2. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  3. Virtual Astronomical Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Protopapas, P.; Lehner, M.

    2007-10-01

    The sheer magnitude of databases and data rates in new surveys makes it hard to develop pipelines to enable both the analysis of data and the federation of these databases for correlation and followup. There is thus a compelling need to facilitate the creation and management of dynamic workflow pipelines that enable correlating data between separate, parallel streams; changing the workflow in response to an event; using the NVO to obtain additional needed information from databases; and modifying the observing program of a primary survey to follow-up a transient or moving object. This paper describes such a Virtual Astronomical Pipeline (VAP) system which is running in the TAOS project. The software enables components in the pipeline to react to events encapsulated in XML messages, modifying and subsequently routing these messages to multiple other components. This architecture allows for the bootstrapping of components individually in the development process and for dynamic reconfiguration of the pipeline as a response to external and internal events. The software will be extended for future work in combining the results of surveys and followups into a global virtual pipeline.

  4. A study of pneumatic conveying of gas-solid flow for industrial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S.; Tasnim, Rumana; Khan, Sheroz; Mohammod, Musse; Arshad, Atika; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Haider, Samnan; Saquib, Nazmus; Rahman, Tawfilur

    2013-12-01

    The complicated nature of gas-solids' physical properties have challenged the researchers over past decades who have led their efforts in developing its' flow sensing and measurement methods. The term 'gas-solid flow' signifies dilute- or dense-phase flow with a very little concentration of solids. For conducting such flow measurement, generally velocity profile and volumetric concentration of the flow particles being conveyed are needed to be measured. An important application of gas-solid flow has taken root in the form of biomass flow in pneumatic conveying systems, and its' online measurement has proven to be an exigent research pursuit. Additionally the other applications have been explored in power plants, food, chemical and automobiles industries as well. This paper aims at exploring the evolution of flow measurement methods along with a brief explanation on existing fundamental sensing techniques. Furthermore, the most recent patents developed for such measurements in pneumatic conveying pipelines are scrutinized along with their concomitant pros and cons.

  5. Magneto-responsive alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, Patrick; Zwar, Elena; Schulz, Imke; Rehage, Heinz

    2015-05-01

    Upon incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) into gels, composite materials called ferrogels are obtained. These magneto-responsive systems have a wide range of potential applications including switches and sensors as well as drug delivery systems. In this article, we focus on the properties of calcium alginate capsules, which are widely used as carrier systems in medicine and technology. We studied the incorporation of different kinds of mNPs in matrix capsules and in the core and the shell of hollow particles. We found out that not all particle-alginate or particle-CaCl2 solution combinations were suitable for a successful capsule preparation on grounds of a destabilization of the nanoparticles or the polymer. For those systems allowing the preparation of switchable beads or capsules, we systematically studied the size and microscopic structure of the capsules, their magnetic behavior and mechanical resistance.

  6. Impulse-driven Micromechanism Capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiro; Ishimori, Shohei; Hayashi, Teru

    We have developed a traveling small capsule, which has a smooth outer surface and is driven by inertia force and friction force. Measuring only 7 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length, it is sufficiently small to be placed in the human gullet or intestines. The capsule contains a small magnet and a coil, and an electric pulse drives the magnet to move the capsule. We performed an experimental investigation on making our capsule travel on a plastic material, which has similar elasticity characteristics to the living body. We also showed that it can travel on the surface of a pig's intestine. Our capsule may be useful for medical treatments such as inspection, drug delivery and operation.

  7. Web-Based Learning and Instruction Support System for Pneumatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chiaming; Li, Wu-Jeng

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a Web-based learning and instructional system for Pneumatics. The system includes course material, remote data acquisition modules, and a pneumatic laboratory set. The course material is in the HTML format accompanied with text, still and animated images, simulation programs, and computer aided design tools. The data…

  8. Web-Based Learning and Instruction Support System for Pneumatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chiaming; Li, Wu-Jeng

    2003-01-01

    This research presents a Web-based learning and instructional system for Pneumatics. The system includes course material, remote data acquisition modules, and a pneumatic laboratory set. The course material is in the HTML format accompanied with text, still and animated images, simulation programs, and computer aided design tools. The data…

  9. 49 CFR 236.837 - Valve, electro-pneumatic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve, electro-pneumatic. 236.837 Section 236.837 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Valve, electro-pneumatic. A valve electrically operated which, when operated, will permit or prevent...

  10. Evaluating a pneumatic fractionator for cleaning ginned lint

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device. No modifications were made to the standard device, except that air p...

  11. Numerical investigation of influence on heat transfer characteristics to pneumatically conveyed dense phase flow by selecting models and boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Liu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Solids moving with a gas stream in a pipeline can be found in many industrial processes, such as power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and commodity transfer processes. A mass flow rate of the solids is important characteristic that is often required to be measured (and controlled) to achieve efficient utilization of energy and raw materials in pneumatic conveying systems. The methods of measuring the mass flow rate of solids in a pneumatic pipeline can be divided into direct and indirect (inferential) measurements. A thermal solids' mass flow-meter, in principle, should ideally provide a direct measurement of solids flow rate, regardless of inhomogeneities in solids' distribution and environmental impacts. One key issue in developing a thermal solids' mass flow-meter is to characterize the heat transfer between the hot pipe wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow. The Eulerian continuum modeling with gas-solid two phases is the most common method for pneumatic transport. To model a gas-solid dense phase flow passing through a heated region, the gas phase is described as a continuous phase and the particles as the second phase. This study aims to describe the heat transfer characteristics between the hot wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow in pneumatic pipelines by modeling a turbulence gas-solid plug passing through the heated region which involves several actual and crucial issues: selections of interphase exchange coefficient, near-wall region functions and different wall surface temperatures. A sensitivity analysis was discussed to identify the influence on the heat transfer characteristics by selecting different interphase exchange coefficient models and different boundary conditions. Simulation results suggest that sensitivity analysis in the choice of models is very significant. The simulation results appear to show that a combination of choosing the Syamlal-O'Brien interphase exchange coefficient model and the standard k-ɛ model along with

  12. Long term results of pneumatic retinopexy

    PubMed Central

    Ellakwa, Amin F

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a commonly encountered retinal problem where rapid treatment can prevent irreversible vision loss. Pneumatic retinopexy (PR) is a simple, minimally invasive procedure for retinal reattachment. Purpose This study aimed to assess the long-term anatomical and functional outcome of pneumatic retinopexy in primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Patients and methods A prospective interventional study was performed. Subjects with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent pneumatic retinopexy from May 2006 to May 2007 at Menoufiya University Hospital were included in this study with at least 3 years follow-up. Results A total of 40 cases were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 44.25 ± 10.85 years. Reattachment of the retina was achieved in 100% of cases. In 75% of cases, the primary intervention was successful. However, the retina redetached in 20% of these during the first 6 months, requiring reinjection or another procedure. Three years after the first intervention, follow-up measurement of the mean visual acuity of the eyes without reoperation was 0.40 ± 0.21 while the mean visual acuity of the eyes which needed additional operations was 0.22 ± 0.13. Conclusion Sixty percent of the cases obtained long-term retinal reattachment with a single operation success (SOS), with good visual recovery and less morbidity than other more invasive procedures like scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy, translating to higher productivity for the patient. This procedure, being quicker than the alternatives, also saves the surgeon’s time, making PR a good choice for managing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in developing countries. PMID:22275808

  13. An electromagnetic pneumatic blood pump driver.

    PubMed

    Whalen, R L; Briskman, R N

    1988-01-01

    An electromagnetic pneumatic pump driver has been developed with the goals of enhanced mechanical reliability and simplicity of operation. The new driver eliminates failure prone components such as solenoid valves or pressure regulators common to conventional pneumatic drive systems, has only a single moving part, and provides for closed-loop operation in which stroke volume and dP/dT are controlled on each beat in real time. Power is provided by a high force (178 N) electromagnetic linear actuator. This assembly uses a high energy density neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnet, low loss vanadium alloy pole pieces, and an energized moving coil. The nominal stroke length of the actuator is 1.7 cm. During operation, the moving coil always remains within a fixed annular air gap, resulting in a measured force output versus applied power linearity of better than 92% over its stroke range. The coil is directly attached to the free end of a 10 cm diameter, 21 convolution, welded titanium metal bellows that forms the gas containing element of the system. The comparatively low pressure gradients across the bellows in this application result in a predicted life for the bellows in excess of 10(9) cycles. Bellows position and internal pressure are monitored continuously to control the pneumatic output. The linear actuator total excursion and velocity are adjusted on each beat using a closed-loop servo system. This results in a pump driver with no operator required adjustment of drive pressure. Instead, there are user selected settings of stroke volume, operating mode, and fill sensitivity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. 77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender... 72878), titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

  15. 75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 192 Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice of technical pipeline safety advisory committee meetings. SUMMARY:...

  16. Hemolysis associated with pneumatic tube system transport for blood samples.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim; Akinci, Murat; Agacayak, Ahmet; Marcil, Emine; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hemolysis of blood samples may be increased by transport in a pneumatic tube system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumatic tube system transport on hemolysis of blood samples. Blood samples were transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory manually by hospital staff (49 patients) or with a pneumatic tube system (53 patients). The hemolysis index and serum chemistry studies were performed on the blood samples and compared between the different methods of transport. The blood samples that were transported by the pneumatic tube system had a greater frequency of hemolysis and greater mean serum potassium and median creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels than samples transported manually. Blood samples transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory by a pneumatic tube system may have a greater frequency of hemolysis than samples transported manually. This may necessitate repeat phlebotomy and cause a delay in completing the laboratory analysis.

  17. A comparison between two pneumatic suspension architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglia, G.; Scopesi, M.; Franco, W.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess and compare the mathematical models of two pneumatic suspension architectures and show how they can converge, after appropriate simplifications, to a general linear form. After making this model dimensionless, it will be used to study, with a transmissibility analysis, the behaviour of a mono-suspension (quarter-car model). Finally, an example of a design process will be shown to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both architectures and to provide the reader with a practical design tool.

  18. Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Actuation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai; Wickramatunge, Kanchana C.

    2009-10-01

    A Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) yields a natural muscle-like actuator with a high force to weight ratio, a soft and flexible structure, and adaptable compliance for a humanoid robot, rehabilitation and prosthetic appliances to the disabled, etc. To obtain optimum design and usage, the mechanical behavior of the PAM need to be understood. In this study, observations of experimental results reveal an empirical model for relations of physical variables, contraction and air pressure within the PAM, as compared to mechanical characteristics, such as stiffness or/and pulling forces of the PAM available now in market.

  19. [Pneumatic dilation in the treatment of achalasia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Cuesta, Patricia; Hervás Molina, Antonio José; Jurado García, Juan; Pleguezuelo Navarro, María; García Sánchez, Valle; Casáis Juanena, Luis L; Gálvez Calderón, Carmen; Naranjo Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy are currently the procedures of choice to treat achalasia. The selection of one or other treatment depends on the experience of each center and patient preferences. To review the experience of pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia in our center. We included all patients with a clinical, endoscopic and manometric diagnosis compatible with achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation in a 19-year period. All dilations were routinely performed with a Rigiflex(®) balloon, usually at pressures of 250, 250 and 300mm Hg in three inflations of one minute, each separated by one minute. The success of the dilation was assessed on the basis of the patient's symptoms, the number of sessions, the need for surgery, and the presence of complications. A total of 171 patients were included, 53.2% men and 46.8% women, with a mean age of 51.53±17.78 years (16-87 years), from June 1993 to October 2012. A 35-mm balloon was used in 157 patients, a 30-mm balloon in 9 patients and a 40-mm balloon in 7 patients. A single dilation session was required in 108 patients, two sessions were required in 56 patients, with a mean time between the first and second sessions of 25.23±43.25 months (1-215 months), and 3 sessions were required in 7 patients with a mean time between the second and third sessions of 6.86±5.33 months (1-15 months). Outcome after dilation was successful in 81% of the patients. Of the 140 responders, 121 had complete response (complete disappearance of symptoms without recurrence) and 19 partial response (initial disappearance of symptoms with subsequent reappearance). Surgery (Heller myotomy) was required in 15.8% of the patients. Perforation occurred in 4 of the 171 patients as a complication of the technique; these perforations were satisfactorily resolved, two by conservative treatment and two by surgery. There was no mortality associated with the technique or its complications. In our series, pneumatic dilation had a

  20. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  1. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  2. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  3. Protecting a pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.H ); Garcia-Lopez, M. )

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  4. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process for...

  5. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... practices in natural gas distribution pipeline construction management and quality control. This workshop... to inspection findings. (2) Distribution materials, Quality Assurance/Quality Control, related best... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Ekofisk pipelines undergo requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Tangeland, T.G.; Collberg, L.

    1996-09-23

    Requalification of 19 pipelines and 29 risers in the Ekofisk field required new approaches for loads, capacities, and deterioration evaluations and predictions. Requalification is a re-assessment of an installation`s design with changed design parameters so that the facility can continue to operate. In some cases, original design requirements may have been unrealistically conservative. The Ekofisk field experienced seabed subsidence as a result of compaction of the producing formation. A total of 25 pipeline systems with diameters of 6--36 inches now run within the subsidence bowl. The existing pipelines and the risers had to be requalified because of new design conditions. The paper describes Ekofisk subsidence, reasons and regulations for requalification, structural design, materials and corrosion, deterioration mechanisms, subsidence effects, calculation of forces, capacities, accumulated strain, local buckling, and mine lessons learned from the requalification projects.

  7. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  8. 46 CFR 54.10-15 - Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100). 54.10-15 Section 54.10... VESSELS Inspection, Reports, and Stamping § 54.10-15 Pneumatic test (modifies UG-100). (a) Pneumatic...) Except for enameled vessels, for which the pneumatic test pressure shall be at least equal to, but need...

  9. Axial and appendicular pneumaticity in Archaeopteryx.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, P; Bonde, N

    2000-01-01

    From the time of its discovery in 1860 to this day Archaeopteryx has been essential to our understanding of avian evolution. Despite the great diversity of plesiomorphic avialan (sensu Gauthier 1986) taxa discovered within the last decade, Archaeopteryx remains the most basal avialan taxon. A very unusual feature of extant birds is their lung structure, in which air diverticulae penetrate the bones. This has previously been reported in Archaeopteryx as well, in the cervical vertebrae of the Berlin specimen and in an anterior thoracal vertebra of the Eichstätt specimen. This indicates the presence of a cervical air sac. We show that the London specimen also has pneumatized anterior thoracal vertebrae, and, thus, that this feature was present in the most archaic avialans, as the London and Eichstätt specimens are different species. Furthermore, the pelvis of the London specimen shows clear signs of the presence of an abdominal air sac, indicating that at least two of the five air sacs present in modern birds were also present in Archaeopteryx. Evidence of pubic pneumaticity was also found in the same position in some extant ratites. PMID:11197125

  10. Pneumatic load compensating or controlling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A pneumatic load compensating or controlling system for restraining a load with a predetermined force or applying a predetermined force to the load is described; it includes a source of pressurized air, a one-way pneumatic actuator operatively connected to a load, and a fluid conduit fluidically connecting the actuator with the source of pressurized air. The actuator is of the piston and cylinder type, and the end of the fluid conduit is connected to the upper or lower portion of the cylinder whereby the actuator alternatively and selectively restrains the load with a predetermined force or apply a predetermined force to the load. Pressure regulators are included within the system for variably selectively adjusting the pressurized fluid to predetermined values as desired or required; a pressure amplifier is included within the system for multiplying the pressurized values so as to achieve greater load forces. An accumulator is incorporated within the system as a failsafe operating mechanism, and visual and aural alarm devices, operatively associated with pressure detecting apparatus, readily indicate the proper or improper functioning of the system.

  11. Stacked pneumatic cylinders automate conveyor belt operations

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.

    1982-11-01

    Shows how clusters of remotely controlled pneumatic cylinders swing a hinged conveyor belt to 4 preselected vertical positions. Using a manual method to move the conveyor meant that the operator had to use a hand winch, sheaves, drums, and winch cable. There was a need to develop a simple, effective, and remotely controlled system which would perform 2 functions: eliminate the need for stopping the conveyor to reset the hinged belt, and not require the operator to leave the master control console. Using the developed system, the operator need only turn on the appropriate switching valves from the master console. Each pneumatic cylinder is actuated in sequence, on the retraction stroke only, through the elevating positions. To lower the conveyor belt, the head end of each cylinder is exhausted; the weight of the belt extends the cylinders, lowering the belt by gravity. Cylinder exhaust ports in the power valves are fitted with adjustable flow control valves to regulate cylinder speed; common exhaust ports in the interconnected manifolds are fitted with air silencers.

  12. Transforming insect electromyograms into pneumatic muscle control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Brandon; Mu, Laiyong; Ritzmann, Roy; Quinn, Roger

    2006-05-01

    Robots can serve as hardware models for testing biological hypotheses. Both for this reason and to improve the state of the art of robotics, we strive to incorporate biological principles of insect locomotion into robotic designs. Previous research has resulted in a line of robots with leg designs based on walking and climbing movements of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. The current version, Robot V, uses muscle-like Braided Pneumatic Actuators (BPAs). In this paper, we use recorded electromyograms (EMGs) to drive robot joint motion. A muscle activation model was developed that transforms EMGs recorded from behaving cockroaches into appropriate commands for the robot. The transform is implemented by multiplying the EMG by an input gain thus generating an input pressure signal, which is used to drive a one-way closed loop pressure controller. The actuator then can be modeled as a capacitance with input rectification. The actuator exhaust valve is given a leak rate, making the transform a leaky integrator for air pressure, which drives the output force of the actuator. We find parameters of this transform by minimizing the difference between the robot motion produced and that observed in the cockroach. Although we have not reproduced full-amplitude cockroach motion using this robot, results from evaluation on reduced-amplitude cockroach angle data strongly suggest that braided pneumatic actuators can be used as part of a physical model of a biological system.

  13. Pneumatic evoked potential. Sensory or auditive potential?

    PubMed

    Condé, S; Créac'h, C; Brun, X; Moreau, R; Convers, P; Peyron, R

    2013-06-01

    In this study, evoked potentials (EPs) to a pneumatic, innocuous, and calibrated stimulation of the skin were recorded in 22 volunteers. Air-puff stimuli were delivered through a home-made device (INSA de Lyon, Laboratoire Ampère, CHU de Saint-Étienne, France) synchronized with an EEG recording (Micromed(®)). A reproducible EP was recorded in 18 out of 22 subjects (82% of cases) with a mean latency of about 120-130ms, and maximal amplitude at Cz. This EP actually consisted of two components, an auditory and a somatosensory one. Indeed, it was significantly decreased in amplitude, but did not disappear, when the noise generated by the air-puff was masked. We also verified that a stimulation close to the skin but not perceived by the subject was not associated with any EP. Conduction velocity between hand and shoulder was calculated around 25m/s. This preliminary study demonstrates that pneumatic EPs can be recorded in normal volunteers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Pneumatic pellet injector research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Foster, C.A.; Schuresko, D.D.; Gouge, M.J.; Fisher, P.W.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Fehling, D.T.; Foust, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced pneumatic-injector-based pellet fueling systems are under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for fueling magnetically confined plasmas. The general approach is that of producing and accelerating frozen hydrogen isotope pellets at speeds in the range from 1 to 2 km/s and higher. Recently, ORNL provided pneumatic-based pellet fueling systems for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET), and a new simplified eight-shot injector has been developed for use on the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These long-pulse devices operate reliably at up to 1.5 km/s with pellet sizes ranging between 1 and 6 mm. In addition to these activities, ORNL is pursuing advanced technologies such as the electrothermal gun and the two-stage light-gas gun to achieve pellet velocities significantly in excess of 2 km/s and is carrying out a tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment in which the fabrication and acceleration of tritium pellets to 1.4 km/s were recently demonstrated. 27 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Scaling of pneumatic digital logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Philip N; Ahrar, Siavash; Hui, Elliot E

    2015-03-07

    The scaling of integrated circuits to smaller dimensions is critical for achieving increased system complexity and speed. Digital logic circuits composed of pneumatic microfluidic components have to this point been limited to a circuit density of 2-4 gates cm(-2), constraining the complexity of the digital systems that can be achieved. We explored the use of precision machining techniques to reduce the size of pneumatic valves and resistors, and to achieve more accurate and efficient placement of ports and vias. In this way, we attained an order of magnitude increase in circuit density, reaching as high as 36 gates cm(-2). A 12-bit binary counter circuit composed of 96 gates was realized in an area of 360 mm(2). The reduction in size also brought an order of magnitude increase in speed. The frequency of a 13-stage ring oscillator increased from 2.6 Hz to 22.1 Hz, and the maximum clock frequency of a binary counter increased from 1/3 Hz to 6 Hz.

  16. Continued Development and Improvement of Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Englar

    2005-07-15

    The objective of this applied research effort led by Georgia Tech Research Institute is the application of pneumatic aerodynamic technology previously developed and patented by us to the design of an appropriate Heavy Vehicle (HV) tractor-trailer configuration, and experimental confirmation of this pneumatic configuration's improved aerodynamic characteristics. In Phases I to IV of our previous DOE program (Reference 1), GTRI has developed, patented, wind-tunnel tested and road-tested blown aerodynamic devices for Pneumatic Heavy Vehicles (PHVs) and Pneumatic Sports Utility Vehicles (PSUVs). To further advance these pneumatic technologies towards HV and SUV applications, additional Phase V tasks were included in the first year of a continuing DOE program (Reference 2). Based on the results of the Phase IV full-scale test programs, these Phase V tasks extended the application of pneumatic aerodynamics to include: further economy and performance improvements; increased aerodynamic stability and control; and safety of operation of Pneumatic HVs. Continued development of a Pneumatic SUV was also conducted during the Phase V program. Phase V was completed in July, 2003; its positive results towards development and confirmation of this pneumatic technology are reported in References 3 and 4. The current Phase VI of this program was incrementally funded by DOE in order to continue this technology development towards a second fuel economy test on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle. The objectives of this current Phase VI research and development effort (Ref. 5) fall into two categories: (1) develop improved pneumatic aerodynamic technology and configurations on smaller-scale models of the advanced Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle (PHV); and based on these findings, (2) redesign, modify, and re-test the modified full-scale PHV test vehicle. This second objective includes conduct of an on-road preliminary road test of this configuration to prepare it for a second series of SAE Type-U fuel

  17. Influence of capsule shell composition on the performance indicators of hypromellose capsule in comparison to hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Arida, Adi Issam; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Sadek, Bassem; Saeed, Dima Ahmed; Abu Jarad, Rami A; Jawadi, Jeevani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro performances of "vegetable" capsules in comparison to hard gelatin capsules in terms of shell weight variation, reaction to different humidity conditions, resistance to stress in the absence of moisture, powder leakage, disintegration and dissolution. Two types of capsules made of HPMC produced with (Capsule 2) or without (Capsule 3) a gelling agent and hard gelatin capsules (Capsule 1) were assessed. Shell weight variability was relatively low for all tested capsules shells. Although Capsule 1 had the highest moisture content under different humidity conditions, all capsule types were unable to protect the encapsulated hygroscopic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) powder from surrounding humidity. The initial disintegration for all Capsule 1 occurred within 3 min, but for other types of capsules within 6 min (n = 18). Dissolution of acetaminophen was better when the deionized water (DIW) temperature increased from 32 to 42 °C in case of Capsule 1, but the effect of temperature was not significant for the other types of capsules. Acetaminphen dissolution from Capsule 1 was the fastest (i.e. >90% in 10 min) and independent of the media pH or contents unlike Capsule 2 which was influenced by the pH and dissolution medium contents. It is feasible to use hypromellose capsules shells with or without gelling agent for new lines of pharmaceutical products, however, there is a window for capsule shells manufacturing companies to improve the dissolution of their hypromellose capsules to match the conventional gelatin capsule shells and eventually replace them.

  18. PID control of gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, B.; Bergmann, J.

    1996-09-01

    The use of low cost digital controllers for pipeline control is increasing as the reliability and cost improves. In pipeline applications, the proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller algorithm is often used. However, the unique problems associated with pipeline operation have caused manufacturers to modify the basic control algorithms. Features such as set point ramping, built in pressure control, freeze on input error, and high and low output limits help assure safe and predictable pipeline operation.

  19. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  20. Hazard of electrostatic generation in a pneumatic conveying system: electrostatic effects on the accuracy of electrical capacitance tomography measurements and generation of spark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Chii Liang, Yung; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    The study of the hazard of electrostatic generation in pneumatic conveying systems was attempted by examining the sensitivity of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and the phenomena of spark generation due to strong electrostatics. The influence on ECT measurement accuracy of an electrostatic charge was analysed with reference to a switch capacitor configuration model. Consequently, it was found that the electrostatic charge introduced at the bend with sharp angles influenced the ECT results most significantly in pneumatic conveying systems, especially for the cases where a spark was generated. The investigation of spark generation indicated that a strong electrostatic charge can cause major discharges inside or outside the pipeline to damage the experimental instrument in severe cases.

  1. Compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1990-01-01

    A technique of compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices was developed and verified. This compensation allows conventional pressure sensing technology to obtain improved unsteady pressure measurements. Pressure distortion caused by frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system makes obtaining unsteady pressure measurements by conventional sensors difficult. Most distortion occurs within the pneumatic tubing which transmits pressure impulses from the aircraft's surface to the measurement transducer. To avoid pneumatic distortion, experiment designers mount the pressure sensor at the surface of the aircraft, (called in-situ mounting). In-situ transducers cannot always fit in the available space and sometimes pneumatic tubing must be run from the aircraft's surface to the pressure transducer. A technique to measure unsteady pressure data using conventional pressure sensing technology was developed. A pneumatic distortion model is reduced to a low-order, state-variable model retaining most of the dynamic characteristics of the full model. The reduced-order model is coupled with results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data.

  2. BENCAP, LLC: CAPSULE VELOCITY TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Meidinger, Brian

    2005-09-07

    Ben Cap, LLC, has a technology that utilizes bebtonite to plug wells. The bentonite is encapsulated in a cardboard capsule, droped down to the bottom of the well where it is allowed to hydrate, causing the bentonite to expand and plug the well. This method of plugging a well is accepted in some, but not all states. This technology can save a significant amount of money when compared to cementing methods currently used to plug and abandon wells. The test objective was to obtain the terminal velocity of the capsule delivery system as it drops through a column of water in a wellbore. Once the terminal velocity is known, the bentonite swelling action can be timed not to begin swelling until it reaches the bottom of the well bore. The results of the test showed that an average speed of 8.93 plus or minus 0.12 ft/sec was achieved by the capsule as it was falling through a column of water. Plotting the data revealed a very linear function with the capsules achieving terminal velocity shortly after being released. The interference of the capsule impacting the casing was not readily apparent in any of the runs, but a siginal sampling anomaly was present in one run. Because the anomaly was so brief and not present in any of the other runs, no solid conclusions could be drawn. Additional testing would be required to determine the effects of capsules impacting a fluid level that is not at surface.

  3. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn’s disease, clinical signs of obstruction, prior radiation or surgical small bowel resection, a preceding test with the self-dissolving patency capsule can override this contraindication. Endoscopic placement of the capsule should be considered in patients with swallowing disorders to avoid aspiration. Esophageal or gastric motility disorders may require endoscopic capsule transport or application of prokinetics if the real-time viewer proofs delayed transit. In pregnant women, VCE should be restricted to urgent cases where diagnosis cannot be postponed after delivery, as data on safety are missing. There is theoretical and clinical evidence that patients with implanted cardiac devices such as a pacemaker, cardioverters or left heart assist devices, can safely undergo VCE in spite of still existing contraindication by manufacturers. Children from the age of 2 years have safely undergone VCE. Although video capsules are not proven safe with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), first single cases of patients incidentally undergoing MRI with an incorporated capsule have been reported, showing susceptibility artifacts but no signs of clinical harm. PMID:28018097

  4. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  5. The effect of pneumatic dilation in management of postfundoplication dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sunjaya, D; Podboy, A; Blackmon, S H; Katzka, D; Halland, M

    2017-06-01

    Fundoplication surgery is a commonly performed procedure for gastro-esophageal reflux disease or hiatal hernia repair. Up to 10% of patients develop persistent postoperative dysphagia after surgery. Data on the effectiveness of pneumatic dilation for treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify clinical factors associated with successful response to pneumatic dilation among patients with persistent postfundoplication dysphagia (PPFD). We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for PPFD between 1999 and 2016. Patients with dysphagia or achalasia prior to fundoplication were excluded. Demographic information, surgical history, severity of dysphagia, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data pertaining to esophagram, manometry, endoscopy, and pneumatic dilation were also collected. We identified 38 patients (82% female, 95% Caucasian, and median age 59 years) with PPFD who completed pneumatic dilation. The median postfundoplication dysphagia score was 2. Eleven patients had abnormal peristalsis on manometry. Seventeen patients reported response (seven complete) with an average decrease of 1 in their dysphagia score. Fifteen patients underwent reoperation due to PPFD. Hiatal hernia repair was the only factor that predicts a higher response rate to pneumatic dilation. Only one patient in our study developed complication (pneumoperitoneum) from pneumatic dilation. We found that pneumatic dilation to be a safe treatment option for PPFD with moderate efficacy. Patients who developed PPFD after a hiatal hernia repair may gain the greatest benefit after pneumatic dilation. We were not able to identify additional clinical, radiological, endoscopic, or manometric parameters that were predictive of response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pneumatization degree of the anterior clinoid process: a new classification.

    PubMed

    Abuzayed, Bashar; Tanriover, Necmettin; Biceroglu, Huseyin; Yuksel, Odhan; Tanriover, Ozlem; Albayram, Sait; Akar, Ziya

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and degree of anterior clinoid process pneumatization, in addition highlighting to their clinical significance. Multidetector-row CT scans of the skull base were reviewed in 648 subjects between 2007 and 2008. The presence of pneumatized anterior clinoid process and its degree were studied and documented. These data were statistically analyzed. Pneumatization of the ACP was found in 62 of 648 patients (9.6%) including 32 (51.6%) men and 30 (48.4%) women. The age of these patients ranged from 21 to 82 years (mean, 41 +/- 15.7 years). Pneumatization of the ACP occurred only on the left side in 14 cases (22.6%), only on the right side in 11 cases (17.7%), and bilaterally in 37 patients (59.7%). ACP pneumatization Type I, in which less than 50% of the ACP is pneumatized, was found in 47 of 124 sides (38%), Type II, in which more than 50% but not totally pneumatized ACP, was found in 28 of 124 sides (22.6%), and Type III, in which the ACP is totally pneumatized, was found in 22 of 124 sides (17.7%). The incidence of Type I in the general population was 6.6%, Type II was 3.5%, and Type III was 2.5%. Radiologically recognizing the degree of ACP pneumatization is important in decreasing the incidence of surgical complications during anterior clinoidectomy. Proper intraoperative management can be undertaken with special attention to the new classification.

  7. Pipeline - or Pipedream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, Diane

    1978-01-01

    Describes a simulation game in which the objective is to highlight the social, political, economic, and environmental factors related to the building of a natural gas pipeline. Groups of players represent private enterprise, government, local people, environmentalists, and news media. For journal availability, see SO 507 287. (Author/CK)

  8. UQ Pipeline Lorenz Portlet

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    This is web client software that can help initiate UQ Pipeline jobs on LLNL's LC compute systems and visually shows the status of such jobs in a browser window. The web client interacts with LC's interactive compute nodes using (LLNL) Lorenz REST API to initiate action and obtain status data in JSON format.

  9. Coal log pipeline research at University of Missouri. 1. quarterly report for 1996, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This project consists of the following nine tasks: Machine design for coal log fabrication; Very rapid compaction of coal logs; Rapid compaction of coal logs; Fast-track experiments on coal log compaction; Coal log fabrication using hydrophobic binders; Drag reduction in large diameter hydraulic capsule pipeline; Automatic control of coal log pipeline system; Hydraulics of CLP (Coal Log Pipeline); and Coal heating system research. The purpose of the task, the work accomplished during this report period, and work proposed for the next quarter are described for each task.

  10. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  11. The NOAO Pipeline Data Manager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiriart, R.; Valdes, F.; Pierfederici, F.; Smith, C.; Miller, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Data Manager for NOAO Pipeline system is a set of interrelated components that are being developed to fulfill the pipeline system data needs. It includes: (1) management of calibration files (flat, bias, bad pixel mask and xtalk calibration data.); (2) management of the pipeline stages' configuration parameters; and (3) management of the pipeline processing historic information, for each of the data products generated by the pipeline. The Data Manager components uses a distributed, CORBA based architecture, providing a flexible and extensible object oriented framework, capable of accommodating the present and future pipeline data requirements. The Data Manager communicates with the pipeline modules, with internal and external databases, and with other NOAO systems such as the NOAO Archive and the NOAO Data Transport System.

  12. Pneumatic grading applied to sugarcane products

    SciTech Connect

    Roka A., G.A.; Boisan C., M.A.; Frolov, V.F.

    1988-09-10

    There are secondary products from processing sugar cane, consisting of light particles having irregular elongated forms and falling into various size fractions: bagasso up to 5 mm, bagassilo 5-0.3 mm, and meole < 0.3 mm. These contain water, since they are obtained in the early stages of making cane sugar. Much of the bagasso and bagassilo is burned in situ in steam boilers at the sugar plants. Also, the various fractions are used in making paper, wood-straw board, and as ingredients for fodder and fertilizers, in addition to raw material in furfural production. These uses require grading and drying. In pneumatic grading, one uses the outgoing combustion products from the steam boilers at the plants and at the same time provides drying. Experiments were conducted in order to perform design calculations on grading these products.

  13. [Pneumatic tube system for blood products transport].

    PubMed

    Bardiaux, L; Boulanger, E; Leconte des Floris, M-F; Bourcier, V; Cottier, D

    2012-11-01

    Blood product transport from blood bank to the patient care areas of hospitals is a key step in the transfusion process. The pneumatic tube system is now widely used in hospitals. Strict performance specifications must be respected to guarantee blood safety: robustness, easy to use and respect the constraints imposed to blood products. To secure the disposal of blood products ordered to a carrier (delivery step), a security device must be deployed (video camera, barcode reading, fax, chip), allowing in particular to limit the risk of addressing error when sending (in the case of device with several arrival stations) or picked up by the wrong carrier. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimizing pneumatic conveying of biomass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCianni, Matthew Edward Michael

    2011-12-01

    Biomass is a readily available but underutilized energy resource. One of the main challenges is the inability of biomass feed stocks like corn stover or wood chips to flow freely without intermittent jamming. This research integrated an automated pneumatic conveying system to efficiently transport biomass into a biomass reactor. Material was held in a storage container until an end effector attached to a 3-axis controller engaged the material to flow through pneumatic vacuum in the carrier fluid of air. The material was disengaged from the carrier fluid through centripetal forces induced by a cyclone separator. As the air was pulled out of the cyclone, the biomass drops out the bottom due to gravitational forces and fell into a secondary storage hopper. The second storage container was for testing purposes only, where the actual apparatus would use a vertically oriented lock hopper to feed material into the biomass reactor. In the experimental test apparatus, sensors measured the storage hopper weight (mass-flow rate), pressure drop from the blower, and input power consumption of the motor. Parameters that were adjusted during testing include pipe diameter, material type, and motor speed. Testing indicated that decreasing the motor speed below its maximum still allows for conveyance of the material without blockage forming in the piping. The data shows that the power consumption of the system can be reduced based on the size and weight of the material introduced to the conveying pipe. Also, conveying certain materials proved to be problematic with particular duct diameters. Ultimately, an optimal duct diameter that can perform efficiently for a broad range of materials was chosen for the given system. Through these improvements, the energy return on investment will be improved for biomass feed stocks, which is taking a step in the right direction to secure the nation's energy independence.

  15. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachwieja, Janusz

    2017-03-01

    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  16. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  17. Microfluidic pressure amplifier circuits and electrostatic gates for pneumatic microsystems

    DOEpatents

    Tice, Joshua D.; Bassett, Thomas A.; Desai, Amit V.; Apblett, Christopher A.; Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2016-09-20

    An electrostatic actuator is provide that can include a fluidic line, a first electrode, and a second electrode such that a gate chamber portion of the fluidic line is sandwiched between the first electrode and the second electrode. The electrostatic actuator can also include a pressure-balancing channel in fluid communication with the gate chamber portion where the first electrode is sandwiched between the pressure-balancing channel and the gate chamber portion. A pneumatic valve system is provided which includes an electrostatic gate and a fluidic channel fluidly separate from a fluidic control line. A pneumatic valve portion of the fluidic control line can be positioned relative to a portion of the fluidic channel such that expansion of the pneumatic valve portion restricts fluid flow through the fluidic channel. Methods of using an electrostatic actuator and a pneumatic valve system are also provided.

  18. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  19. Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, also showing mirror to reflect view of communications switchboard - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  20. Analytical Solution to the Pneumatic Transient Rod System at ACRR

    SciTech Connect

    Fehr, Brandon Michael

    2016-01-08

    The ACRR pulse is pneumatically driven by nitrogen in a system of pipes, valves and hoses up to the connection of the pneumatic system and mechanical linkages of the transient rod (TR). The main components of the TR pneumatic system are the regulator, accumulator, solenoid valve and piston-cylinder assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze the flow of nitrogen through the TR pneumatic system in order to develop a motion profile of the piston during the pulse and be able to predict the pressure distributions inside both the cylinder and accumulators. The predicted pressure distributions will be validated against pressure transducer data, while the motion profile will be compared to proximity switch data. By predicting the motion of the piston, pulse timing will be determined and provided to the engineers/operators for verification. The motion profile will provide an acceleration distribution to be used in Razorback to more accurately predict reactivity insertion into the system.

  1. PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA TO REMOVE ANY EXCESS OR LOOSE SAND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  3. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Pneumatic and hydraulic microactuators: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2010-04-01

    The development of MEMS actuators is rapidly evolving and continuously new progress in terms of efficiency, power and force output is reported. Pneumatic and hydraulic are an interesting class of microactuators that are easily overlooked. Despite the 20 years of research, and hundreds of publications on this topic, these actuators are only popular in microfluidic systems. In other MEMS applications, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators are rare in comparison with electrostatic, thermal or piezo-electric actuators. However, several studies have shown that hydraulic and pneumatic actuators deliver among the highest force and power densities at microscale. It is believed that this asset is particularly important in modern industrial and medical microsystems, and therefore, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators could start playing an increasingly important role. This paper shows an in-depth overview of the developments in this field ranging from the classic inflatable membrane actuators to more complex piston-cylinder and drag-based microdevices.

  5. 2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  7. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of a pneumatic system for transfering regolith, to be used for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Using both the simulated microgravity of parabolic flight and ground testing, the tests demonstrated that lunar regolith can be conveyed pneumatically into a simulated ISRU oxygen production plant reactor. The ground testing also demonstrated that the regolith can be expelled from the ISRU reactor for disposal or for other resource processing.

  8. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  9. Pipeline Calibration for STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

    The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

  10. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  11. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  12. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tippetts, T.B.; Evans, P.S.; Riffle, G.K. )

    1993-01-20

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball [ital et] [ital al]. (1991).

  13. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

    1993-01-01

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

  14. Development of pneumatic actuator with low-wave reflection characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Jwo, C. S.; Chiang, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    This study aims at the development of a less reflective electromagnetic pneumatic actuator often used in the anechoic chamber. Because a pneumatic actuator on the market is not appropriate for use in such a chamber and a metallic one has high dielectric constant which generates reflective electromagnetic waves to influence test parameters in the chamber. The newly developed pneumatic actuator is made from low dielectric constant plastics with less reflective of electromagnetic. A turbine-type air motor is used to develop the pneumatic actuator and a employ Prony tester is used to run the brake horsepower test for the performance test of pneumatic actuator. Test results indicate that the pneumatic actuator in the minimal starting flow is 17 l/min, and it generates a brake horsepower of 48 mW; in the maximum flow is 26 l/min, it generates a brake horsepower of 108 mW. Therefore, it works with a torque between 0.24 N-m and 0.55 N-m, and such a torque will be sufficient to drive the target button.

  15. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  16. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  17. The MIS Pipeline Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, M. W.; Storm, S.; Mundy, L. G.; Salter, D. M.; Lee, K.; Kwon, W.; Fernandez Lopez, M.; Plunkett, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pipeline toolkit was developed to help organizing, reducing and analyzing a large number of near-identical datasets. This is a very general problem, for which many different solutions have been implemented. In this poster we present one such solution that lends itself to users of the Unix command line, using the Unix "make" utility, and adapts itself easily to observational as well as theoretical projects. Two examples are given, one from the CARMA CLASSy survey, and another from a simulated kinematic survey of early galaxy forming disks. The CLASSy survey (discussed in more detail in three accompanying posters) consists of 5 different star forming regions, observed with CARMA, each containing roughly 10-20 datasets in continuum and 3 different molecular lines, that need to be combined in final data cubes and maps. The strength of such a pipeline toolkit shows itself as new data are accumulated, the data reduction steps are improved and easily re-applied to previously taken data. For this we employed a master script that was run nightly, and collaborators submitted improved script and/or pipeline parameters that control these scripts. MIS is freely available for download.

  18. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Lightfoot, J.; Kosugi, G.; Wilson, C.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array / Atacama Compact Array (ALMA / ACA) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes such as single fields, mosaics or on-the-fly maps. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts using as the data processing engines the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA[PY]) libraries and the ATNF Spectral Analysis Package (ASAP). The interferometry heuristics scripts currently provide an end-to-end process for the single field mode comprising flagging, initial calibration, re-flagging, re-calibration, and imaging of the target data. A Java browser provides user-friendly access to the heuristics results. The initial single-dish heuristics scripts implement automatic spectral line detection, baseline fitting and image gridding. The resulting data cubes are analyzed to detect source emission spectrally and spatially in order to calculate signal-to-noise ratios for comparison against the science goals specified by the observer.

  19. Pipeline welding goes mechanized

    SciTech Connect

    Beeson, R.

    1999-11-01

    Spread four has bugs in the cornfield--but not to worry. The bug referred to here is a mechanized welding bug, specifically a single welding head, computer-aided gas metal arc (GMAW) system from CRC-Evans Automatic Welding powered by a Miller Electric XMT{reg{underscore}sign} 304 inverter-based welding machine. The bug operator and owner of 32 inverters is Welded Construction, L.P., of Perrysburgh, Ohio. Spread four is a 147-mile stretch of the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance) cutting through the cornfields of northeast Iowa. While used successfully in Canada and Europe for onshore and offshore pipeline construction for 30 years, this is the first large-scale use of mechanized welding in the US on a cross-country pipeline. On longer, larger-diameter and thicker-wall pipe projects--the Alliance mainline has 1,844 miles of pipe, most of it 36-in. diameter with a 0.622-in. wall thickness--mechanized GMAW offers better productivity than manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). In addition, high-strength steels, such as the API 5L Grade X70 pipe used on the Alliance, benefit from the low-hydrogen content of certain solid and tubular wire electrodes.

  20. The inverse electroencephalography pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David Michael

    The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

  1. Trans ecuadorian pipeline; Mountainous pipeline restoration a logistical masterpiece

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L. )

    1988-06-01

    The Trans Ecuadorian Pipeline pumped approximately 300,000 b/d of crude from fields in eastern Ecuador to an export terminal and refinery at Esmeraldas on the Pacific coast. The devastation resulting from an earthquake cut off the main portion of export income as well as domestic fuel supplies and propane gas. Approximately 25 km of the pipeline was destroyed. This article details how the pipeline was reconstructed, including both the construction of a temporary line and of permanent facilities.

  2. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-12-31

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative.

  3. 78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT...

  4. 76 FR 11312 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY... Committee (TPSSC) and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee (THLPSSC). The..., and safety policies for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees...

  5. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid... this Advisory Bulletin to advise and remind hazardous liquid pipeline operators of the importance of... protecting people and the environment. The federal hazardous liquid pipeline safety regulations...

  6. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY... Standards Committee (TPSSC) and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee (THLPSSC... gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both committees were established under the...

  7. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  8. Glenn Enters his Mercury Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. enters his Mercury capsule, 'Friendship 7' as he prepares for launch of the Mercury-Atlas rocket. On February 20, 1962 Glenn lifted off into space aboard his Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6) rocket and became the first American to orbit the Earth. After orbiting the Earth 3 times, Friendship 7 landed in the Atlantic Ocean 4 hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds later, just East of Grand Turk Island in the Bahamas. Glenn and his capsule were recovered by the Navy Destroyer Noa, 21 minutes after splashdown.

  9. The methodology for the existing complex pneumatic systems efficiency increase with the use of mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilishin, A. M.; Kartashov, S. V.; Kozhukhov, Y. V.; Kozin, E. G.

    2017-08-01

    The method for the existing complex pneumatic systems efficiency increase has been developed, including the survey steps, mathematical technological process modeling, optimizing the pneumatic system configuration, its operation modes, selection of optimal compressor units and additional equipment. Practical application of the methodology is considered by the example of the existing pneumatic systems underground depot reconstruction. The first stage of the methodology is the survey of acting pneumatic system. The second stage of technique is multivariable mathematical modeling of the pneumatic system operation. The developed methodology is applicable to complex pneumatic systems.

  10. Main Pipelines Corrosion Monitoring Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatoliy, Bazhenov; Galina, Bondareva; Natalia, Grivennaya; Sergey, Malygin; Mikhail, Goryainov

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to substantiate the technical solution for the problem of monitoring corrosion changes in oil and gas pipelines with use (using) of an electromagnetic NDT method. Pipeline wall thinning under operating conditions can lead to perforations and leakage of the product to be transported outside the pipeline. In most cases there is danger for human life and environment. Monitoring of corrosion changes in pipeline inner wall under operating conditions is complicated because pipelines are mainly made of structural steels with conductive and magnetic properties that complicate test signal passage through the entire thickness of the object under study. The technical solution of this problem lies in monitoring of the internal corrosion changes in pipes under operating conditions in order to increase safety of pipelines by automated prediction of achieving the threshold pre-crash values due to corrosion.

  11. Planned and proposed pipeline regulations

    SciTech Connect

    De Leon, C. )

    1992-04-01

    The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future.

  12. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.210 Pipeline location. (a) Pipeline right-of-way must be selected to avoid, as...

  13. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  14. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  15. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  16. 27 CFR 19.187 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.187 Section... Package Scale and Pipeline Requirements § 19.187 Pipelines. All pipelines, including flexible hoses, that... TTB officer may approve pipelines that cannot be readily examined if they pose no jeopardy to...

  17. Closeup View - Sigma "7" Capsule - Recovery Ship

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-03

    S62-06175 (3 Oct. 1962) --- Closeup view of the Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) Sigma 7 capsule being lowered to recovery ship's deck. Navy personnel remove the floatation device before opening the capsule. Photo credit: NASA

  18. New frontiers in capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Zvi; Kopelman, Yael

    2007-08-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) was launched at the beginning of this millennium and has since become a well-established tool for evaluating the entire small bowel for manifold pathologies. CE far exceeded our early expectations by providing us with a tool to establish the correct diagnosis for elusive gastrointestinal (GI) conditions such as obscure GI bleeding, Crohn's disease, polyposis syndrome, and others. Recent evidence has shown CE to be superior to other imaging modalities, such as small bowel follow-through X-ray, colonoscopy with ileoscopy, computerized tomographic enterography, magnetic resonance enteroclysis, and push enteroscopy, for diagnosing small bowel pathologies. Gastroenterologists would prefer the convenience of a single capsule that can create images of the area from the oral cavity to the anal canal in one 'shot'. Because of anatomic and physiologic differences in the GI tract, however, it may not be possible to use the same capsule and so we would need a different one for each organ. In addition to the pioneer small bowel capsule, there is now an esophageal capsule, and a colonoscopy capsule will soon be available. The ideal CE should be capable of performing a biopsy or carrying out an online analysis (an 'optical' biopsy) and 'stop' bleeding by an epinephrine injection, a heat probe, argon plasma coagulation, etc. The ultimate capsule would include special detectors for white blood cells, and it would check oncological markers (e.g. CEA, CA 19-9), perform serology tests (e.g. antiendomysial, IgE), and measure various cytokines, pH levels, temperature and pressure, as well as deliver drugs. The capsule's motility feature in the small bowel may open a window to study the pathophysiology of relatively elusive medical entities, such as irritable bowel syndrome. The optimal capsule needs to contain an automatic computerized system for automatic detection of pathologies, such as that present in the ECG-Holter recording, in order to overcome the drawback

  19. Hydrodynamic forces on piggyback pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, M.L.; Sayer, P.

    1995-12-31

    An increasing number of new offshore pipelines have been designed as bundles, mainly because of overall cost reductions. One popular way of combining two pipelines with different diameters is the piggyback configuration, with the smaller pipeline strapped on top of the main pipeline. The external hydrodynamic forces on this combination are at present very roughly estimated; pipeline engineers need more data to support their designs. This paper presents experimental results for the in-line hydrodynamic loading on three different piggyback set-ups. The models comprised a 0.4 m main pipeline, and three piggyback pipelines with diameters of 0.038 m, 0.059 m and 0.099 m. Each small pipeline was separately mounted to the main pipeline, with a gap equal to its own diameter. These model sizes lie approximately between half- and full-scale. Experiments were undertaken for K{sub C} between 5 and 42, and R{sub e} in the range 0.0 * 10{sup 4} to 8.5 * 10{sup 5}. The results based on Morison`s equation indicate that a simple addition of the separate forces acting on each cylinder underestimates the actual force by up to 35% at low K{sub C} (< {approximately} 10) and by as much as 100% in the drag-dominated regime (K{sub C} > {approximately} 20).

  20. Using Perl in IRAC Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, H.; Lowrance, P.; Laher, R.; Surace, J.; Moshir, M.

    2005-12-01

    Object oriented Perl language pipelines generate calibration products and basic calibrated data from raw images taken by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) onboard NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The pipelines gather input data and control files, initiate database interactions, and manage data flow through C, C++, and Fortran component programs. The compiled component programs perform instrumental signature correction, calibration, and data characterization. Core pipeline functionality is provided by two compact Perl object hierarchies - one for pipelines and another for images. The objects allowed flexible and agile response to change during Spitzer's first year of operations, which offset the cost-impact of utilizing interpreted Perl on production data processing.

  1. Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschi, R.; Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F.; Nadim, F.

    1995-12-31

    An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

  2. Use of pneumatic lithotripsy for managing difficult CBD calculi.

    PubMed

    Farooq Qadri, Syed Javid; Khan, Muneer; Khan, Naveed

    2011-01-01

    About 7-12% of patients who harbor gallbladder calculi concomitant common bile duct (CBD) calculi are present. The treatment of gallbladder calculi has standardized in the form of laparoscopic cholecystectomy but management of CBD calculi is still evolving. Endoscopic removal of CBD calculi <2 cm in diameter is successful in 90-100% of cases but patients harboring stones >2 cm in diameter high failure rates can be seen. Traditionally, laparoscopically one can achieve success rate comparable to endoscopic surgery but large and impacted calculi may cause failures. If one uses pneumatic lithotripsy during laparoscopic management of CBD calculi one can achieve 100% stone clearance irrespective of size, degree of hardness and impaction. This study evaluates the feasibility of using pneumatic lithotripsy for CBD calculi. To our knowledge this is the 1st reported series of using pneumatic lithotripsy for CBD calculi. From June 2002 to June 2010 96 laparoscopic CBD explorations (LCBDE) were done for CBD calculi. Patients having choledocholithiasis with CBD diameter of >10 mm were taken for LCBDE while in patients with CBD diameter of <10 mm were referred for endoscopic clearance. Additionally ERCP failure cases were also subjected to LCBDE. Rigid nephroscope was used for LCBDE and usually calculi were removed by forceps only. In patients having large, hard &/or impacted calculi pneumatic lithotripsy were used for fragmentation. Out of the 96 patients in 12 (12.5%) cases pneumatic lithotripsy was used for stone fragmentation. Out of these 12 cases 5 (41.6%) were ERCP failure cases. At a mean hospital stay of 2.5 days 100% stone clearance was achieved in all cases with no perioperative complication. The present study shows how successfully pneumatic lithotripsy can be used to fragment large, hard &/or impacted CBD calculi. Pneumatic lithotripsy being user friendly easily available can reliably fragment CBD calculi in one session. Copyright © 2010 Surgical Associates

  3. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  5. Mentoring. Information Capsule. Volume 0603

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2006-01-01

    Mentoring is a structured one-on-one relationship between an adult and youth that focuses on the needs of the youth, providing him or her with support, guidance, and assistance. This information capsule summarizes research findings on the impact of mentoring on factors such as academic achievement, social behaviors, attitudes, drug and alcohol…

  6. Capsulitis of the Second Toe

    MedlinePlus

    ... supportive ligaments weaken, leading to failure of the joint to stabilize the toe. The unstable toe drifts toward the big toe and eventually crosses over and lies on top of the big toe—resulting in crossover toe, the end stage of capsulitis. The symptoms of crossover toe ...

  7. Osmotic buckling of spherical capsules.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Sebastian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-11-07

    We study the buckling of elastic spherical shells under osmotic pressure with the osmolyte concentration of the exterior solution as a control parameter. We compare our results for the bifurcation behavior with results for buckling under mechanical pressure control, that is, with an empty capsule interior. We find striking differences for the buckling states between osmotic and mechanical buckling. Mechanical pressure control always leads to fully collapsed states with opposite sides in contact, whereas uncollapsed states with a single finite dimple are generic for osmotic pressure control. For sufficiently large interior osmolyte concentrations, osmotic pressure control is qualitatively similar to buckling under volume control with the volume prescribed by the osmolyte concentrations inside and outside the shell. We present a quantitative theory which also captures the influence of shell elasticity on the relationship between osmotic pressure and volume. These findings are relevant for the control of buckled shapes in applications. We show how the osmolyte concentration can be used to control the volume of buckled shells. An accurate analytical formula is derived for the relationship between the osmotic pressure, the elastic moduli and the volume of buckled capsules. This also allows use of elastic capsules as osmotic pressure sensors or deduction of elastic properties and the internal osmolyte concentration from shape changes in response to osmotic pressure changes. We apply our findings to published experimental data on polyelectrolyte capsules.

  8. The bacterial proteogenomic pipeline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proteogenomics combines the cutting-edge methods from genomics and proteomics. While it has become cheap to sequence whole genomes, the correct annotation of protein coding regions in the genome is still tedious and error prone. Mass spectrometry on the other hand relies on good characterizations of proteins derived from the genome, but can also be used to help improving the annotation of genomes or find species specific peptides. Additionally, proteomics is widely used to find evidence for differential expression of proteins under different conditions, e.g. growth conditions for bacteria. The concept of proteogenomics is not altogether new, in-house scripts are used by different labs and some special tools for eukaryotic and human analyses are available. Results The Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline, which is completely written in Java, alleviates the conducting of proteogenomic analyses of bacteria. From a given genome sequence, a naïve six frame translation is performed and, if desired, a decoy database generated. This database is used to identify MS/MS spectra by common peptide identification algorithms. After combination of the search results and optional flagging for different experimental conditions, the results can be browsed and further inspected. In particular, for each peptide the number of identifications for each condition and the positions in the corresponding protein sequences are shown. Intermediate and final results can be exported into GFF3 format for visualization in common genome browsers. Conclusions To facilitate proteogenomics analyses the Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline is a set of comprehensive tools running on common desktop computers, written in Java and thus platform independent. The pipeline allows integrating peptide identifications from various algorithms and emphasizes the visualization of spectral counts from different experimental conditions. PMID:25521444

  9. Design of flat pneumatic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirekoh, Jackson; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-03-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have gained wide use in the field of robotics due to their ability to generate linear forces and motions with a simple mechanism, while remaining lightweight and compact. However, PAMs are limited by their traditional cylindrical form factors, which must increase radially to improve contraction force generation. Additionally, this form factor results in overly complicated fabrication processes when embedded fibers and sensor elements are required to provide efficient actuation and control of the PAMs while minimizing the bulkiness of the overall robotic system. In order to overcome these limitations, a flat two-dimensional PAM capable of being fabricated using a simple layered manufacturing process was created. Furthermore, a theoretical model was developed using Von Karman’s formulation for large deformations and the energy methods. Experimental characterizations of two different types of PAMs, a single-cell unit and a multi-cell unit, were performed to measure the maximum contraction lengths and forces at input pressures ranging from 0 to 150 kPa. Experimental data were then used to verify the fidelity of the theoretical model.

  10. Dynamic contraction behaviour of pneumatic artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumit, Marc D.; Pardoel, Scott

    2017-07-01

    The development of a dynamic model for the Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) is an imperative undertaking for understanding and analyzing the behaviour of the PAM as a function of time. This paper proposes a Newtonian based dynamic PAM model that includes the modeling of the muscle geometry, force, inertia, fluid dynamic, static and dynamic friction, heat transfer and valve flow while ignoring the effect of bladder elasticity. This modeling contribution allows the designer to predict, analyze and optimize PAM performance prior to its development. Thus advancing successful implementations of PAM based powered exoskeletons and medical systems. To date, most muscle dynamic properties are determined experimentally, furthermore, no analytical models that can accurately predict the muscle's dynamic behaviour are found in the literature. Most developed analytical models adequately predict the muscle force in static cases but neglect the behaviour of the system in the transient response. This could be attributed to the highly challenging task of deriving such a dynamic model given the number of system elements that need to be identified and the system's highly non-linear properties. The proposed dynamic model in this paper is successfully simulated through MATLAB programing and validated the pressure, contraction distance and muscle temperature with experimental testing that is conducted with in-house built prototype PAM's.

  11. Biotech pipeline: Bottleneck ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.

    1991-10-18

    A vast array of new genetically engineered drugs are heading for market - but an FDA backlog is holding them up. Patients may have to wait far longer than the biotech enthusiasts suggest before they reap the benefits of those new drugs. There is little hope the FDA will get the money it needs to do the job. The agency's pipeline is clogged with at least 58 monoclonal antibody-based drugs at all stages of testing to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases, including a half-dozen cancers, diabetes, and sepsis.

  12. Expanded criteria for pneumatic retinopexy and potential cost savings.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Darin R; Shah, Chirag P; Heier, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the preoperative factors that affect outcome after pneumatic retinopexy (PR) for treatment of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. Additionally, we sought to analyze the cost of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair in the United States to determine potential cost savings with pneumatic retinopexy. Single-center, retrospective, observational consecutive case series and third party payer-perspective comparative cost analysis. We included 141 eyes undergoing pneumatic retinopexy for the treatment of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Preoperative characteristics, anatomic outcomes, and best-available visual acuity were collected. Anatomic and visual outcomes were analyzed based on the presence of selected preoperative factors. The primary cohort was divided into 2 groups based on preoperative characteristics: (1) traditional pneumatic retinopexy and (2) nontraditional pneumatic retinopexy. Comparative cost analyses were performed between pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckling, and vitrectomy. Anatomic and visual outcomes at 6 months. Overall anatomic success was 78.7% and visual acuity improved significantly (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] 0.48-0.25; P <0.005). A 97.6% final anatomic success rate was achieved. Anatomic outcomes were similar between traditional versus nontraditional (84.1% vs 74.4%; P = 0.16), phakic versus pseudophakic (79.1% vs 78.0%; P = 0.88), and macula-on versus macula-off (77.9% vs 81.1%; P = 0.68) groups. Anatomic failure was predicted by the presence of an inferior retinal break (P <0.005) or visible vitreous traction on a retinal break (P = 0.04). Visual outcomes were similar between each of the traditional versus nontraditional (logMAR 0.21 vs 0.27; P >0.05) and phakic versus pseudophakic groups (logMAR 0.23 vs 0.28; P >0.05). Visual outcomes were better in macula-on detachments compared with those in which the macula was detached (logMAR 0.18 vs 0.42; P <0

  13. Pneumatic dilation versus laparoscopic Heller's myotomy for idiopathic achalasia.

    PubMed

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Annese, Vito; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Chaussade, Stanislas; Costantini, Mario; Cuttitta, Antonello; Elizalde, J Ignasi; Fumagalli, Uberto; Gaudric, Marianne; Rohof, Wout O; Smout, André J; Tack, Jan; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Busch, Olivier R

    2011-05-12

    Many experts consider laparoscopic Heller's myotomy (LHM) to be superior to pneumatic dilation for the treatment of achalasia, and LHM is increasingly considered to be the treatment of choice for this disorder. We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed achalasia to pneumatic dilation or LHM with Dor's fundoplication. Symptoms, including weight loss, dysphagia, retrosternal pain, and regurgitation, were assessed with the use of the Eckardt score (which ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more pronounced symptoms). The primary outcome was therapeutic success (a drop in the Eckardt score to ≤3) at the yearly follow-up assessment. The secondary outcomes included the need for retreatment, pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal emptying on a timed barium esophagogram, quality of life, and the rate of complications. A total of 201 patients were randomly assigned to pneumatic dilation (95 patients) or LHM (106). The mean follow-up time was 43 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 40 to 47). In an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the primary outcome; the rate of therapeutic success with pneumatic dilation was 90% after 1 year of follow-up and 86% after 2 years, as compared with a rate with LHM of 93% after 1 year and 90% after 2 years (P=0.46). After 2 years of follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in the pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter (LHM, 10 mm Hg [95% CI, 8.7 to 12]; pneumatic dilation, 12 mm Hg [95% CI, 9.7 to 14]; P=0.27); esophageal emptying, as assessed by the height of barium-contrast column (LHM, 1.9 cm [95% CI, 0 to 6.8]; pneumatic dilation, 3.7 cm [95% CI, 0 to 8.8]; P=0.21); or quality of life. Similar results were obtained in the per-protocol analysis. Perforation of the esophagus occurred in 4% of the patients during pneumatic dilation, whereas mucosal tears occurred in 12% during LHM. Abnormal exposure to esophageal acid was

  14. A Novel MagPipe Pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.R.; Montgomery, D.B.; Roderick, L.

    2009-11-15

    A novel capsule pipeline transportation system using linear motor drives, called Magplane MagPipe, is under development with the intention to replace trucks and railways for hauling materials from the mine to the rail head, power plant, or processing plant with reduced operating cost and energy consumption. The initial demonstration of a MagPipe line in Inner Mongolia will be a 500-m-long double-pipe coal transport system with the design transportation capacity of 3 Mega-Mg per year. The pipeline consists of 6-m-long plastic pipe modules with an I-beam suspension system inside the pipe to carry sets of five coupled capsules. The pipe will also contain noncontinuous motor winding modules spaced at 50-m intervals. A set of Halbach-arrayed permanent magnets on the bottom of the capsules interact with the linear motor windings to provide propulsion. The motor is driven by variable frequency drives outside the pipe to control the speed. This paper briefly describes the overall MagPipe pipeline transportation system, including the preliminary conclusions of the linear synchronous motor analysis.

  15. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

    2010-01-07

    The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism.

  16. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism. PMID:19801376

  17. [Pneumatic tube system for transport of laboratory samples: preanalytical aspects].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Judit; Lenkey, Ágota; V Oláh, Anna; Köteles, Julianna; Kissné Sziráki, Valéria; Kerényi, Adrienne; Kappelmayer, János

    2014-07-13

    A considerable proportion of laboratory errors occurs in the preanalytical phase. The aims of the authors were to study preanalytical errors in routine and emergency laboratory diagnostics in a regional clinical laboratory and evaluate the effect of the pneumatic tube system on turnaround time and laboratory results. The ratio of preanalytical errors and reasons of test rejection were analysed. In addition, the effects of pneumatic tube and manual transport on the occurrence of hemolysis and platelet activation were compared. Using the pneumatic tube transport system, preanalytical error was below 1%. The main causes of test rejection were haemolysis in case of serum samples, and clot formation and citrate excess in anticoagulated samples. The pneumatic tube transport resulted in significantly faster sample transport, more equalized sample arrival and processing, hence the turnaround time became shorter both for routine and emergency tests. Autovalidation and proper control of preanalytical errors are essential for rapid and reliable laboratory service supported by the pneumatic tube system for sample transport.

  18. Hemolysis associated with pneumatic tube system transport for blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim; Akinci, Murat; Agacayak, Ahmet; Marcil, Emine; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The frequency of hemolysis of blood samples may be increased by transport in a pneumatic tube system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumatic tube system transport on hemolysis of blood samples. Methods: Blood samples were transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory manually by hospital staff (49 patients) or with a pneumatic tube system (53 patients). The hemolysis index and serum chemistry studies were performed on the blood samples and compared between the different methods of transport. Results: The blood samples that were transported by the pneumatic tube system had a greater frequency of hemolysis and greater mean serum potassium and median creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels than samples transported manually. Conclusion: Blood samples transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory by a pneumatic tube system may have a greater frequency of hemolysis than samples transported manually. This may necessitate repeat phlebotomy and cause a delay in completing the laboratory analysis. PMID:24639830

  19. Pneumatic distortion compensation for aircraft surface pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a technique of compensating for pneumatic distortion in aircraft surface pressure sensing devices is developed. The compensation allows conventional pressure sensing technology to obtain improved unsteady pressure measurements. Pressure distortion caused by frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system makes obtaining unsteady pressure measurements by conventional sensors difficult. Typically, most of the distortion occurs within the pneumatic tubing used to transmit pressure impulses from the surface of the aircraft to the measurement transducer. This paper develops a second-order distortion model that accurately describes the behavior of the primary wave harmonic of the pneumatic tubing. The model is expressed in state-variable form and is coupled with standard results from minimum-variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data. Covariance selection and filter-tuning examples are presented. Results presented verify that, given appropriate covariance magnitudes, the algorithms accurately reconstruct surface pressure values from remotely sensed pressure measurements.

  20. Pneumatic tourniquet for surgical procedures of hemodialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouwen

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic tourniquet has been frequently utilized in various surgical specialties to facilitate surgical procedures on the extremities. However, its use for surgical procedures of hemodialysis access has been limited to some surgeons in the United States and often confined to the hospital settings under general anesthesia or regional nerve block. We have successfully employed a pneumatic tourniquet system for surgical procedures of hemodialysis access under conscious sedation and local anesthesia in an outpatient setting. Because prolonged tourniquet inflation is associated with ischemic pain and other potential complications, we have limited the continuous inflation time to <30 minutes. Our recent data from 550 surgical procedures of hemodialysis access have emphasized that pneumatic tourniquet use is well tolerated under conscious sedation and not associated with significant adverse events. These and other reported data suggest that pneumatic tourniquet can reduce procedure time, minimize required dissection, reduce vascular trauma by eliminating vascular clamps and potentially improve the outcomes of surgical procedures of hemodialysis access. These advantages may be translated into cost savings for hemodialysis access care. This review discusses practical issues of pneumatic tourniquet use and its applications in surgical procedures of hemodialysis access. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pneumatic distortion compensation for aircraft surface pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a technique of compensating for pneumatic distortion in aircraft surface pressure sensing devices is developed. The compensation allows conventional pressure sensing technology to obtain improved unsteady pressure measurements. Pressure distortion caused by frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system makes obtaining unsteady pressure measurements by conventional sensors difficult. Typically, most of the distortion occurs within the pneumatic tubing used to transmit pressure impulses from the surface of the aircraft to the measurement transducer. This paper develops a second-order distortion model that accurately describes the behavior of the primary wave harmonic of the pneumatic tubing. The model is expressed in state-variable form and is coupled with standard results from minimum-variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data. Covariance selection and filter-tuning examples are presented. Results presented verify that, given appropriate covariance magnitudes, the algorithms accurately reconstruct surface pressure values from remotely sensed pressure measurements.

  2. Differential staining of bacteria: capsule stain.

    PubMed

    Breakwell, Donald P; Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial capsules are composed of high-molecular-weight polysaccharides and/or polypeptides, and are associated with virulence and biofilm formation. Unfortunately, capsules do not stain well with crystal violet, methylene blue, or other simple stains. This unit describes two methods of capsule staining. The first is a wet-mount method using india ink; the capsule is visualized as a refractile zone surrounding a cell. The second is a direct-staining dry-mount method that precipitates copper sulfate and leaves the capsule as a pale blue zone. Both methods are easily performed within approximately 5 min.

  3. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

  4. Pipeline Processing for VISTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M.; Bunclark, P.

    2010-12-01

    The VISTA telescope is a 4 metre instrument which has recently been commissioned at Paranal, Chile. Equipped with an infrared camera, 16 2Kx2K Raytheon detectors and a 1.7 square degree field of view, VISTA represents a huge leap in infrared survey capability in the southern hemisphere. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. To compensate for this, exposure times are kept short, leading to high nightly data rates. VISTA is expected to generate an average of 250 GB of data per night over the next 5-10 years, which far exceeds the current total data rate of all 8m-class telescopes. In this presentation we discuss the pipelines that have been developed to deal with IR imaging data from VISTA and discuss the primary issues involved in an end-to-end system capable of: robustly removing instrument and night sky signatures; monitoring data quality and system integrity; providing astrometric and photometric calibration; and generating photon noise-limited images and science-ready astronomical catalogues.

  5. Alaska Pipeline Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

  6. Desiccant drying of gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    LaCasse, G.A.; Ingvordsen, T.

    1988-09-01

    Prevention of hydrates buildup and corrosion in gas pipelines after hydrostatic testing is increasingly important to those in the gas industry. This paper outlines a dry air method used in Denmark for drying gas pipelines. The psychrometric principles, drying method, and humidity measurements are described.

  7. Learning the Image Processing Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haomiao; Tian, Qiyuan; Farrell, Joyce; Wandell, Brian A.

    2017-10-01

    Many creative ideas are being proposed for image sensor designs, and these may be useful in applications ranging from consumer photography to computer vision. To understand and evaluate each new design, we must create a corresponding image processing pipeline that transforms the sensor data into a form that is appropriate for the application. The need to design and optimize these pipelines is time-consuming and costly. We explain a method that combines machine learning and image systems simulation that automates the pipeline design. The approach is based on a new way of thinking of the image processing pipeline as a large collection of local linear filters. We illustrate how the method has been used to design pipelines for novel sensor architectures in consumer photography applications.

  8. 46 CFR 56.97-35 - Pneumatic tests (replaces 137.5).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumatic tests (replaces 137.5). 56.97-35 Section 56.97... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-35 Pneumatic tests (replaces 137.5). (a) General Requirements. When a pneumatic test is performed, it must be conducted in accordance with the requirements of...

  9. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and control...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet the...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1416 - Pneumatic de-icer boot system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pneumatic de-icer boot system. 23.1416... Safety Equipment § 23.1416 Pneumatic de-icer boot system. If certification with ice protection provisions is desired and a pneumatic de-icer boot system is installed— (a) The system must meet...

  15. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  16. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  17. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  18. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  19. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger...

  20. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger...

  1. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  2. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  3. 49 CFR 571.117 - Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. 571... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires. S1. Scope... passenger car tires. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to require retreaded pneumatic passenger...

  4. An Ankle-Foot Orthosis Powered by Artificial Pneumatic Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Daniel P.; Czerniecki, Joseph M.; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-01-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:16082019

  5. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  6. Retrofitted pneumatic conveying system upgrades ROM coal handling system

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, M.F. )

    1994-07-01

    This article describes a new pneumatic coal handling system which avoids degrading coal beyond a 5% fines content and controls coal dust in a sensitive fuel storage area. The original pneumatic conveying system for run-of-mine coal no longer met the demands of a nuclear weapons waste material recovery facility in Richland, Wash. Therefore, Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., which operates the facility for the US Department of Energy, chose to upgrade its pneumatic coal handling system for three rotary grate coal-fired boilers. Installed in October 1993, the newly retrofitted coal yard storage fuel handling system boasts a dust-free capability. It consists of two Denseveyor systems that transfer coal (fuel size 2 inch x 0) from railcar ground hoppers to three service bunkers above the boiler stokers. There also are two dustless outloading towers for yard storage stockpiling.

  7. An ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daniel P; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Hannaford, Blake

    2005-05-01

    We developed a pneumatically powered orthosis for the human ankle joint. The orthosis consisted of a carbon fiber shell, hinge joint, and two artificial pneumatic muscles. One artificial pneumatic muscle provided plantar flexion torque and the second one provided dorsiflexion torque. Computer software adjusted air pressure in each artificial muscle independently so that artificial muscle force was proportional to rectified low-pass-filtered electromyography (EMG) amplitude (i.e., proportional myoelectric control). Tibialis anterior EMG activated the artificial dorsiflexor and soleus EMG activated the artificial plantar flexor. We collected joint kinematic and artificial muscle force data as one healthy participant walked on a treadmill with the orthosis. Peak plantar flexor torque provided by the orthosis was 70 Nm, and peak dorsiflexor torque provided by the orthosis was 38 Nm. The orthosis could be useful for basic science studies on human locomotion or possibly for gait rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  8. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  9. Compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1990-01-01

    A general numerical technique for obtaining unsteady pressure measurements using conventional pressure sensing technology has been developed. A pneumatic distortion model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations of momentum and continuity, was reduced to a low-order, state-variable model retaining most of the dynamic characteristics of the full model. The reduced-order model is coupled with results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms were developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data.

  10. Evaluation of a pneumatic Martian soil sampler concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John L.; Neathery, James K.; Stencel, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The pneumatic soil sampler concept was successfully demonstrated by penetrating a Martian simulant soil to a depth of 2 meters. Working gas pressure, composition, and pulsing were evaluated with the objective of minimizing gas usage. Also, the probe penetration force was investigated with the objective of minimizing probe weight. Gas and probe penetration force, while not yet optimized, are within the range which make the soil sampler concept feasible. While the tests described in this report did not answer all the questions and address all the variables associated with pneumatic soil sampling, valuable data experience and knowledge were gained which can be used to further develop the concept.

  11. 12. Pneumatic jack and rollers. To lift the ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Pneumatic jack and rollers. To lift the ends of the draw span to its proper closed position, the Center Street Bridge features a pair of rollers located under the deck of each end of the draw span. The rollers are moved downward by the pistons of a pneumatic jack to support the bridge when closed. To open the draw, the rollers are released and swung upward toward the center of the deck. - Center Street Swing Bridge, Southwest of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Substance-field Model for Functional Pneumatic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. G.; Yang, D. Y.; Shen, W. D.; Liu, T. T.

    2017-07-01

    The Substance-field analysis is put forward. The functional analysis method is studied to find out the problem, and an improved algorithm is put forward. The internal combustion engine is taken as an example, the harmful function is recognized, and is improved, i.e, high pressure gas is introduced to remove polluted air. The working principle of pneumatic engine is described, the thermodynamic engineering is analyzed, the energy release amounts are analyzed in the isothermal, polymorphism and adiabatic processes. It is concluded that, the isothermal process releases the most energy than the others. The expansion process of the pneumatic engine should be as close as possible to the isothermal process.

  13. Influence of throttling of pneumatic actuators at the positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmanczyk, M. P.; Michalski, P.

    2015-11-01

    Changing the dynamic motion parameters of pneumatic equipment requires control of pressure and the volumetric flow rate. The article presents a study of the impact of setting control parameters and external disturbances on the positioning accuracy of pneumatic rodless double acting actuator. Testing process was carried out at different values of the parameters (adjusted to the actuator) and external loads. The probe mass was selected within guidelines (a cushioning diagram) so that the operating point was placed on the curve of limiting movement speed of the actuator.

  14. Overall life cycle comprehensive assessment of pneumatic and electric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yeming; Cai, Maolin

    2014-05-01

    Pneumatic actuators and electric actuators have almost been applied to all manufacturing industries. The two kinds of actuators can replace each other in most fields, such as the point to point transmission occasion and some rotating occasions. However, there are very few research results about the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of actuators under the same working conditions so far. In this paper, a novel comprehensive assessment method, named as overall life cycle comprehensive assessment (OLCCA), is proposed for comparison and assessment of pneumatic and electric actuators. OLCCA contains mechanical properties evaluation (MPE), life cycle cost analysis based on users (LCCABOU) and life cycle environmental impact analysis (LCEIA) algorithm in order to solve three difficult problems: mechanical properties assessment, cost analysis and environmental impact assessment about actuators. The mechanical properties evaluation of actuators is a multi-objective optimization problem. The fuzzy data quantification and information entropy methods are combined to establish MPE algorithm of actuators. Two kinds of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators with similar bearing capacity and similar work stroke were taken for example to verify the correctness of MPE algorithm. The case study of MPE algorithm for actuators verified its correctness. LCCABOU for actuators is also set up. Considering cost complex structure of pneumatic actuators, public device cost even method (PDCEM) is firstly presented to solve cost division of public devices such as compressors, aftercooler, receivers, etc. LCCABOU method is also effective and verified by the three groups of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators. Finally, LCEIA model of actuators is established for the environmental impact assessment of actuators. LCEIA data collection method and model establishment procedure for actuators are also put forward. With Simapro 7, LCEIA comparison results of six actuators can be

  15. Compensating for pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1990-01-01

    A general numerical technique for obtaining unsteady pressure measurements using conventional pressure sensing technology has been developed. A pneumatic distortion model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations of momentum and continuity, was reduced to a low-order, state-variable model retaining most of the dynamic characteristics of the full model. The reduced-order model is coupled with results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate the effects of pneumatic distortion. Both postflight and real-time algorithms were developed and evaluated using simulated and flight data.

  16. A pneumatic vibrotactile stimulation device for fMRI.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Richard W; Dy-Liacco, Iona; Malcolm, Matthew P; Lee, Hyunsook; Peck, Kyung K; Gopinath, Kaundinya S; Himes, Nathan C; Soltysik, David A; Browne, Paul; Tran-Son-Tay, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Mapping the functional response of the somatosensory cortex is useful both for characterizing normal brain activity and for determining the functional integrity of damaged cortex compromised by stroke or other neurological insults. A variety of stimulators have been used to produce somatosensory cortex activation in functional brain imaging, including brushes and swabs operated manually, pneumatically and mechanically powered mechanical vibrators, air puffs, and vibrating ceramic piezoelectric wafers and benders. A closed-system, pneumatically driven rubber diaphragm is reported that overcomes many of the limitations of existing vibrotactile devices and produces robust sensory cortex activation in an fMRI experiment.

  17. Design Improvements and Analysis of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 12171

    SciTech Connect

    Pribanic, Tomas; Awwad, Amer; Crespo, Jairo; McDaniel, Dwayne; Varona, Jose; Gokaltun, Seckin; Roelant, David

    2012-07-01

    Transferring high-level waste (HLW) between storage tanks or to treatment facilities is a common practice performed at the Department of Energy (DoE) sites. Changes in the chemical and/or physical properties of the HLW slurry during the transfer process may lead to the formation of blockages inside the pipelines resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. To improve DoE's capabilities in the event of a pipeline plugging incident, FIU has continued to develop two novel unplugging technologies: an asynchronous pulsing system and a peristaltic crawler. The asynchronous pulsing system uses a hydraulic pulse generator to create pressure disturbances at two opposite inlet locations of the pipeline to dislodge blockages by attacking the plug from both sides remotely. The peristaltic crawler is a pneumatic/hydraulic operated crawler that propels itself by a sequence of pressurization/depressurization of cavities (inner tubes). The crawler includes a frontal attachment that has a hydraulically powered unplugging tool. In this paper, details of the asynchronous pulsing system's ability to unplug a pipeline on a small-scale test-bed and results from the experimental testing of the second generation peristaltic crawler are provided. The paper concludes with future improvements for the third generation crawler and a recommended path forward for the asynchronous pulsing testing. (authors)

  18. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  1. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to

  2. Reconfigurable pipelined processor

    SciTech Connect

    Saccardi, R.J.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a reconfigurable pipelined processor for processing data. It comprises: a plurality of memory devices for storing bits of data; a plurality of arithmetic units for performing arithmetic functions with the data; cross bar means for connecting the memory devices with the arithmetic units for transferring data therebetween; at least one counter connected with the cross bar means for providing a source of addresses to the memory devices; at least one variable tick delay device connected with each of the memory devices and arithmetic units; and means for providing control bits to the variable tick delay device for variably controlling the input and output operations thereof to selectively delay the memory devices and arithmetic units to align the data for processing in a selected sequence.

  3. Capsule endoscopy: The road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Singeap, Ana-Maria; Stanciu, Carol; Trifan, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction into clinical practice 15 years ago, capsule endoscopy (CE) has become the first-line investigation procedure in some small bowel pathologies, and more recently, dedicated esophageal and colon CE have expanded the fields of application to include the upper and lower gastrointestinal disorders. During this time, CE has become increasingly popular among gastroenterologists, with more than 2 million capsule examinations performed worldwide, and nearly 3000 PubMed-listed studies on its different aspects published. This huge interest in CE may be explained by its non-invasive nature, patient comfort, safety, and access to anatomical regions unattainable via conventional endoscopy. However, CE has several limitations which impede its wider clinical applications, including the lack of therapeutic capabilities, inability to obtain biopsies and control its locomotion. Several research groups are currently working to overcome these limitations, while novel devices able to control capsule movement, obtain high quality images, insufflate the gut lumen, perform chromoendoscopy, biopsy of suspect lesions, or even deliver targeted drugs directly to specific sites are under development. Overlooking current limitations, especially as some of them have already been successfully surmounted, and based on the tremendous progress in technology, it is expected that, by the end of next 15 years, CE able to perform both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures will remain the major form of digestive endoscopy. This review summarizes the literature that prognosticates about the future developments of CE. PMID:26755883

  4. 78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Safety Standards Committee, and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee (LPAC) also known as the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee. The committees will meet in a joint session to...

  5. Velocity measurement of pneumatically conveyed solid particles using an electrostatic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Zhou, B.; Yang, D.; Tang, G.; Wang, S.

    2008-02-01

    The paper proposes a method to measure the mean velocity of solid particles based on the spatial filtering effect of the electrostatic sensor. To determine the relationship between the spatial frequency characteristics of the sensor and solid particle velocity, a general formula is derived by analyzing quantitatively the spatial filtering characteristics of the electrostatic sensor along with the accepted assumptions. The effects of the geometric parameters of the sensor, particle velocity distribution, particle concentration distribution over the cross-section of a pneumatic pipeline, particle size, particle material type and frequency resolution on particle velocity measurement accuracy are also discussed in detail. Experiments are performed on a bench-scale gravity-fed particle flow experimental rig to test the performance of the velocity measurement system. The off-line experimental results show that the system repeatability is within ±5% over the velocity range of 2-6 m s-1 for concentrations of solid particles in the range of 0.5-6.0%.

  6. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  8. Toughness requirements for pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental results of large scale (curved wide plate) tests on thin wall pipelines (thickness < 12.7 mm) have been compared with small scale (Charpy V notch impact and CTOD) test results. The result of the comparisons show that (a) the Charpy V notch impact test can be used to predict plastic collapse by pipe metal yielding of pipelines containing surface breaking root cracks and (b) the CTOD test should not be used as a basis for designing thin wall pipelines against brittle fracture. The assessment has further demonstrated that the effect of weld metal yield strength on the required minimum CVN or CTOD is an important factor.

  9. Proceedings of the pipeline engineering symposium - 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Seiders, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the transport of petroleum and natural gas through pipelines. Topics considered at the symposium included explosion welding, flash-butt welding, computerized welding, flow improvers, carbon dioxide pipelines, submarine pipelines, computer-aided design, repair, reinforced concrete, monitoring, storage, waste processing, and gas condensate pipelines.

  10. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  11. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  12. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  13. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  14. 27 CFR 24.169 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipelines. 24.169 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.169 Pipelines. Pipelines, including flexible.... The appropriate TTB officer may approve pipelines which cannot be readily examined if no jeopardy...

  15. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline... a Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development (R&D) Forum. The R&D Forums are held... pipeline safety and with protecting the environment. The forum allows public, government and...

  16. 77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 191, 192 and 195 RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials... titled: ``Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations'' seeking comments on the need for...

  17. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  18. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/poly(dopamine) capsules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Teo, Boon M; Goldie, Kenneth N; Städler, Brigitte

    2014-05-20

    Polymer capsules are an interesting concept considered in nanobiotechnology. Approaches that facilitate their assembly remain sought after. Poly(dopamine) (PDA) has been considered and successfully applied in this context. We recently demonstrated that PDA could be copolymerized with different types of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNiPAAm) to assemble mixed films on planar substrates. Herein, we transferred this approach onto colloidal substrates and characterized the film thickness depending on the film composition and template particles size. While the membrane of capsules assembled using 5 μm template particles exhibited strong dependency on the film composition, smaller templates led to capsules with similar membrane thickness. We then compared the permeability of different capsules using fluorescently labeled dextran and fluorescein. We found that the permeability of capsules was heavily dependent on the polymer composition and the template particle size. These fundamental findings contribute to the potential of these capsules, assembled in one-step, for biomedical applications.

  19. Capsule endoscopy in 2005: facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Michel; Gérard Gay

    2006-02-01

    Capsule endoscopy has recently been introduced to explore endoscopically the whole small intestine, fulfilling a gap between examinations of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The technique consists of a miniaturized endoscope, embedded in a swallowable capsule that is propulsed by peristalsis and achieves the journey to the right colon in five to eight hours. Images captured by the capsule are recorded on a hard drive worn in a belt by the patient. The main indication for capsule examination is the examination of the small bowel to find a bleeding lesion in patients with obscure bleeding. Several studies have shown that the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy is superior to that of push enteroscopy in this indication. Other possible indications are patients with suspected intestinal location of Crohn's disease, familial adenomatous polyposis, complicated coeliac disease and lesions due NSAIDs. The review contains information on the technical aspects of capsule endoscopy and discusses the indications. Issues of safety and tolerance are also discussed.

  20. Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic vacuum tube message center, basement room 23, looking southeast toward doorway and corridor. Note soundproof walls, pedestal flooring, and cable tray suspended from the ceiling - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  1. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  2. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electricity is major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of the industry’s variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significant...

  3. Adaptive backstepping slide mode control of pneumatic position servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haipeng; Fan, Juntao

    2016-09-01

    With the price decreasing of the pneumatic proportional valve and the high performance micro controller, the simple structure and high tracking performance pneumatic servo system demonstrates more application potential in many fields. However, most existing control methods with high tracking performance need to know the model information and to use pressure sensor. This limits the application of the pneumatic servo system. An adaptive backstepping slide mode control method is proposed for pneumatic position servo system. The proposed method designs adaptive slide mode controller using backstepping design technique. The controller parameter adaptive law is derived from Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the stability of the system. A theorem is testified to show that the state of closed-loop system is uniformly bounded, and the closed-loop system is stable. The advantages of the proposed method include that system dynamic model parameters are not required for the controller design, uncertain parameters bounds are not need, and the bulk and expensive pressure sensor is not needed as well. Experimental results show that the designed controller can achieve better tracking performance, as compared with some existing methods.

  4. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610 Rigid...

  7. Embedded Triboelectric Active Sensors for Real-Time Pneumatic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian Peng; Bu, Tian Zhao; Xi, Feng Ben; Cheng, Ting Hai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-20

    Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage. Air pressures are measured from 0.04 to 0.12 MPa at a step of 0.02 MPa with a sensitivity of 49.235 V/MPa, as well as airflow from 50 to 250 L/min at a step of 50 L/min with a sensitivity of 0.002 μA·min/L. This work has first demonstrated triboelectric active sensors for pneumatic monitoring and may promote the development of TENG in intelligent pneumatic system.

  8. Assessing a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study assessed a pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device for ginned lint. Results from a test that used two line pressures and three fractionation times showed that higher line pressure and longer fractionation time produced fiber that was shorter in staple length, contained more neps, a...

  9. Low-energy pneumatic control of forebody vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roos, Frederick W.

    1994-01-01

    This research will be exploring the prospect of employing bluntness, known to suppress the tendency toward asymmetry on slender forebodies, jointly with pneumatic manipulation as a system of forebody asymmetry control. The influences of jet location and direction, blowing rate, relative noise bluntness, angle of attack, and state of flow separation feeding the vortices (laminar vs. turbulent) will be evaluated.

  10. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressurization and pneumatic systems. 23.1438 Section 23.1438 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... elements must be burst pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1438 - Pressurization and pneumatic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressurization and pneumatic systems. 25.1438 Section 25.1438 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... pressure tested to 2.0 times, and proof pressure tested to 1.5 times, the maximum normal operating pressure...

  13. The Pneumatic Common: Learning in, with and from the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Air is an immersive substance that envelopes us and binds us together, yet it has dominantly been taken for granted and left out of educational and other theorizations. This article develops a conceptualization of the "pneumatic common" in order to address this gap. The specific intervention staged is within recent educational literature…

  14. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  15. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for medical purposes to provide whole body support by means of a pressurized suit to help...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... for medical purposes to provide whole body support by means of a pressurized suit to help...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3610 - Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigid pneumatic structure orthosis. 890.3610 Section 890.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3610...

  18. Trombay infrared pneumatic detector: theory of operational characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, R N; Gupta, J P; Vohra, K G

    1978-11-01

    This paper explains in a simple manner the mechanism of formation of pressure pulse inside a pneumatic detector due to incident ir radiation. The detector had been designed earlier at Trombay. Experimentally observed characteristics of the detector have been explained on the basis of the theory derived.

  19. Characteristics of pneumatically-emplaced dry flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    The University of Kentucky in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Addington, Inc. and Costain Coal is currently developing a commercial concept for the haul back of dry flue gas desulfurization materials (FGDM) into highwall mine adits. The University`s Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is investigating emplacement systems for a mine demonstration which is planned for the third quarter of 1996. A laboratory-scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for FGDM emplacement. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems in which water is mixed with cement (FGDM) in a nozzle at the end of the pneumatic pipe. Solids travel approximately 70 ft in the lab-scale system at a rate of up to 6 lb FGDM/minute prior to impingement onto a sample collector. Prehydrated FGDM from a circulating fluidized bed combustor has been successfully emplaced onto vertically positioned sample surfaces without excessive dust liberation. The test program is focussed on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. The mineralogy and strength of a pneumatically created sample are described following curing for 60 days.

  20. A Synchronous Mutual Position Control for Vertical Pneumatic Servo System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Jindai, Mitsuru

    Synchronous control of mutual position for two vertical-type pneumatic servo systems is discussed for practical use in this study. In the proposed control system, a fuzzy controller is used in each pneumatic servo system so that the output of each plant can follow the reference input. A PD controller is introduced to realize the synchronization of both pneumatic servo systems, in which the outputs from this controller are the inputs for revision to both plants. A fuzzy virtual reference generator that can adjust the reference input to both fuzzy controllers adaptively by fuzzy rules is constructed to improve the transient performances of both axes. In addition, the adjustment controller produces a representative value of both cylinder outputs, which is used to synthesize the inputs to the fuzzy virtual reference generator, in order to reach a compromise between the follow-up ability to the reference input in each axis and synchronization of both axes. The applicability of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments using two existent vertical-type pneumatic servo systems.

  1. Fluidics and pneumatics: principles and applications in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Duffin, J

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the construction and operation of fluidic and pneumatic devices in current use, as well as the principles of their use in medical devices. The designs for an automatic blood pressure cuff inflator, a blood pump and a high performance ventilator are presented.

  2. Control and monitoring system for clinically employed pneumatic blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Normann, N A; Henrichsen, D W; Cooper, T G; King, R E; Noon, G P; DeBakey, M E

    1977-01-01

    Instantaneous position of the flexing member in pneumatic blood pumps is monitored on-line by measuring the electrical capacitance across the gas space within the pump. Monitor output is utilized in closed-loop pump control and for automatic pump shutdown in response to operational abnormalities. Thus, safety and efficacy are enhanced through operational optimization, automatic safety features, and facilitated evaluation.

  3. The Pneumatic Common: Learning in, with and from the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    Air is an immersive substance that envelopes us and binds us together, yet it has dominantly been taken for granted and left out of educational and other theorizations. This article develops a conceptualization of the "pneumatic common" in order to address this gap. The specific intervention staged is within recent educational literature…

  4. Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pneumatic Power Drive Wheel and related assembly for Turntable, with scale. Not in use August 1994. Turntable rotated with engine and tender on balance by two persons, one on either side at ground level - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  5. Perform Ultrasonic Testing on Cs Capsule Overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-04-06

    This procedure provides a safe, uniform method for the performance of the ultrasonic weld inspection of the Cesium capsule overpacks. The inspection system will detect cracks, lack of fusion, and lack of penetration. This computer controlled automated system will perform the examination once the capsule overpack has been placed in the pool cell. Examination of the capsule overpacks will be in accordance with drawing H-283014, REV. 0 ,and a certified NDE examiner will perform the test procedure, provide analysis, and test documentation.

  6. Postoperative radiation and implant capsule contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, H.H.; Mendenhall, N.P.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Bova, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Occasionally radiation is required as adjunctive therapy following mastectomy for breast cancer. The effects of radiation on a developing implant capsule are unknown, but they are very important in relation to the increased use of immediate reconstruction. Experiments were performed on rabbits to study the effects of postoperative radiation therapy on capsule contraction and thickness. The results of these experiments suggest that radiation has no effect on implant capsules.

  7. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  8. Nondestructive characterization of pipeline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Brady J.; Smart, Lucinda J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing need to quantitatively and nondestructively evaluate the strength and toughness properties of pipeline steels, particularly in aging pipeline infrastructure. These strength and toughness properties, namely yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and toughness, are essential for determining the safe operating pressure of the pipelines. For some older pipelines crucial information can be unknown, which makes determining the pressure rating difficult. Current inspection techniques address some of these issues, but they are not comprehensive. This paper will briefly discuss current inspection techniques and relevant literature for relating nondestructive measurements to key strength and toughness properties. A project is in progress to provide new in-trench tools that will give strength properties without the need for sample removal and destructive testing. Preliminary experimental ultrasonic methods and measurements will be presented, including velocity, attenuation, and backscatter measurements.

  9. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, C.

    1991-08-01

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  10. Indicator Expansion with Analysis Pipeline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Indicator Expansion with Analysis Pipeline Dan Ruef 1/13/15 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indicator Expansion with Analysis Pipeline 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Mellon®, CERT® and FloCon® are registered marks of Carnegie Mellon University. DM-0002067 3 Definition “Indicator expansion is a process of using one or

  11. Duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sang Hyo; Mohy-Ud-Din, Zia; Cho, Jin Ho

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study is to implement a duodenum identification mechanism for capsule endoscopes because commercially available capsule endoscopes sometimes present a false negative diagnosis of the duodenum. One reason for the false negative diagnosis is that the duodenum is the fastest moving part within the gastrointestinal tract and the current frame rate of the capsule is not fast enough. When the capsule can automatically identify that it is in the duodenum, the frame rate of the capsule can be temporarily increased to reduce the possibility of a false negative diagnosis. This study proposes a mechanism to identify the duodenum using capacitive proximity sensors that can distinguish the surrounding tissue and transmit data using RF communication. The implemented capsule (D11 mm × L22 mm) was smaller than the commercially available capsule endoscopes, and power consumption was as low as 0.642 mW. Preexperiments were conducted to select an appropriate electrode width in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and in vitro experiments were conducted to verify whether the implemented capsule could identify the duodenum within 3 s. The experiment showed that the identification rate of duodenum was 93% when the velocity of the capsule was less than 1 cm/s.

  12. A Laboratory Exercise in Capsule Making

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To create and implement a compounding laboratory exercise utilizing a variety of techniques and equipment. Design A 3-hour laboratory exercise on preparing compound prescriptions for capsules was developed and taught to first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Students completed appropriate preparations and calculation of ingredients and prepared capsules using a hand-packing technique and a capsule-filling machine. The students then individually weighed the capsules and performed batch testing for uniformity. Assessment Ninety-six percent of the students who completed the laboratory performed the necessary calculations for machine-prepared capsules correctly and 100% completed the calculations for the hand-filled capsules correctly. With the hand-filled capsules, 100% of the students processed all 4 units within ±5% of the stated capsule weight and capsules were deemed successful and accurate. Conclusion Students acquired a firm grasp of basic compounding techniques and the skills to prepare accurate, safe, and uniform dosage forms for patients. PMID:19214273

  13. The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

  14. VLT Instruments Pipeline System Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data reduction tools for the VLT instruments. A VLT instrument pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve calibration files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each instrument has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported instruments and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first instruments pipelines development.

  15. Transport of methanol by pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report examines and evaluates the problems and considerations that could affect the feasibility of transporting methanol by pipeline. The following are the major conclusions: Though technical problems, such as methanol water contamination and materials incompatibility, remain to be solved, none appears insolvable. Methanol appears to be less toxic, and therefore to represent less of a health hazard, than gasoline, the fuel for which methanol is expected to substitute. The primary safety hazards of methanol, fire and explosion, are no worse than those of gasoline. The environmental hazards that can be associated with methanol are not as significant as those of petroleum. Provided quantities of throughput sufficient to justify pipeline transport are available, there appear to be no economic impediments to the transport of methanol by pipeline. Based on these, it appears that it can be concluded that the pipelining of methanol, whether via an existing petroleum pipeline or a new methanol-dedicated pipeline, is indeed feasible. 66 refs., 3 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Subsea pipeline pig launching system

    SciTech Connect

    Skeels, H.B.

    1993-06-15

    A pipeline pig launching system is described especially useful for launching at least one pig into a pipeline at a subsea location, the system comprising: (a) a tubular pig launch barrel having an upstream end, a downstream end, a bore extending between said ends, and means to connect the downstream end to a pig launch valve; (b) a tubular pig cartridge for loading with at least one pipeline pig in a press-fitted manner, said cartridge having an upstream end having a first outside diameter, a downstream end having a second outside diameter, a wall defining a bore of uniform inside diameter substantially the same as the diameter of the pipeline with which the system is employed, and means at said downstream end of said cartridge to seal said cartridge to the launch barrel, wherein said cartridge has a wall between its upstream and downstream ends with an outside diameter slightly less than said first and second outside diameters of said ends of said cartridge; (c) means for closing the upstream end of the launch barrel while the cartridge is in proper position in the barrel bore; and (d) means for inletting fluid pressure into the launch barrel bore for impelling a pipeline pig from the cartridge and through a launch valve into a pipeline to which the system is connected.

  17. Dimensions, septation, and pattern of pneumatization of the sphenoidal sinus.

    PubMed

    Idowu, O E; Balogun, B O; Okoli, C A

    2009-11-01

    The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EEA) to treat sellar, parasellar, and suprasellar tumours continues to gain increased significance. Due to the close proximity of the sphenoid sinus to the carotid artery and the optic canal, it is very important for surgeons to know the anatomical features and variations of the sphenoid sinus as relevant to EEA. A prospective study of the sphenoid sinus morphology was carried out on the cranial tomographic (CT) scan images of 60 Nigerian adult patients. The CTs were reviewed regarding the different anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus: dimensions, septation, and pattern of pneumatisation. There were 37 males and 23 females. The patients' ages ranged from 18 years to 85 years, with a mean of 47.2 years. There was a main single intersphenoid septum in most patients (95%). The insertion of the septum was usually to the right posteriorly (38%) and in the midline anterior (65%). Although there is usually a main septum, the septa present were multiple in 29 of the sinuses studied. There was no gender difference with respect to the attachment of the main sphenoid sinus septum. The sphenoid anterior, posterior, and transverse dimensions were not significantly dependent on age, but they were longer in males than in females. Sellar pneumatization was present in the majority of the patients (83%), with 4 patients having postsellar pneumatization (6.7%) and 3 patients having presellar pneumatization (5%). There were no cases with conchal pneumatization or lateral pneumatization of the greater wing of the sphenoid. The present study provides anatomical information about the sphenoid sinus dimensions morphology that is essential for avoiding complications in performing an endoscopic sphenoidotomy.

  18. The Geysers pipeline project

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, M.; Allen, E.

    1997-01-01

    A unique public/private partnership of local, state, federal and corporate stakeholders are constructing the world`s first wastewater-to-electricity system at The Geysers. A rare example of a genuinely {open_quotes}sustainable{close_quotes} energy system, three Lake County communities will recycle their treated wastewater effluent through the southeast portion of the The Geysers steamfield to produce approximately 625,000 MWh annually from six existing geothermal power plants. In effect, the communities` effluent will produce enough power to indefinitely sustain their electric needs, along with enough extra power for thousands of other California consumers. Because of the project`s unique sponsorship, function and environmental impacts, its implementation has required: (1) preparation of a consolidated state environmental impact report (EIR) and federal environmental impact statement (EIS), and seven related environmental agreements and management plans; (2) acquisition of 25 local, state, and federal permits; (3) negotiation of six federal and state financial assistance agreements; (4) negotiation of six participant agreements on construction, operation and financing of the project, and (5) acquisition of 163 easements from private land owners for pipeline construction access and ongoing maintenance. The project`s success in efficiently and economically completing these requirements is a model for geothermal innovation and partnering throughout the Pacific Rim and elsewhere internationally.

  19. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  20. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G. )

    1994-10-05

    In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-[ital Z] pushers which contain the radiation, we point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity, and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an atractive alternative. [copyright] 1994 [ital American] [ital Institute] [ital of] [ital Physics

  1. Genesis Sample Return Capsule Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willcockson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    I. Simple Entry Capsule Concept: a) Spin-Stabilized/No Active Control Systems; b) Ballistic Entry for 11.04 km/sec Velocity; c) No Heatshield Separation During Entry; d) Parachute Deploy via g-Switch + Timer. II. Stardust Design Inheritance a) Forebody Shape; b) Seal Concepts; c) Parachute Deploy Control; d) Utah Landing Site (UTTR). III. TPS Systems a) Heatshield - Carbon-Carbon - First Planetary Entry; b) Backshell - SLA-561V - Flight Heritage from Pathfinder, MER; d) Forebody Structural Penetrations Aerothermal and TPS Design Process has the Same Methodology as Used for Pathfinder, MER Flight Vehicles.

  2. Critical swelling of fluctuating capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamant, Haim; Haleva, Emir

    2009-03-01

    In many natural transport processes the solute molecules to be transported are encapsulated in semipermeable, flexible membrane vesicles of micron size. We study the swelling of such fluctuating capsules, as the number of encapsulated particles is increased, or the concentration of the outer solution is decreased. The approach to the maximum volume-to-area ratio and the associated buildup of membrane tension involve a continuous phase transition and follow universal scaling laws. The criticality and its features are model-independent, arising solely from the interplay between volume and surface degrees of freedom.ootnotetextE. Haleva and H. Diamant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078104 (2008).

  3. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  4. 78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... single-phase hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that use Computational Pipeline Monitoring (CPM) leak... proper functioning of CPM leak detection systems. Affected Public: Hazardous liquid pipeline operators...

  5. 76 FR 81013 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Pipeline Safety Program Certification and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Program Certification.'' PHMSA... Liquid Pipeline Safety Program Certification. OMB Control Number: 2137-0584. Current Expiration Date:...

  6. 75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... implement integrity management programs. In addition to a minor correction in terminology, this document...: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

  7. The disintegration behaviour of capsules in fed subjects: a comparison of hypromellose (carrageenan) capsules and standard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E; Basit, A W; Tuleu, C

    2012-03-15

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) containing carrageenan as a gelling agent have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery. We have previously compared the disintegration of hypromellose(carrageenan) (Quali-V(®)) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. This second study used the same technique with both fasted and fed human subjects. Size 0 capsules were filled with powder plugs made from lactose and did not contain croscarmellose as in the original study. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fasted state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 8±2min and for gelatin 7±3min. These results were not statistically different from the data in the original study and show that the removal of the croscarmellose had no effect on the results. The mean (±S.D.) disintegration time in the fed state for the hypromellose(carrageenan) capsules was 16±5min and for the gelatin capsules was 12±4min. There was no statistical difference between the hypromellose(carrageenan) and gelatin capsules in either the fed or fasted state.

  8. Design and Dynamic Model of a Frog-inspired Swimming Robot Powered by Pneumatic Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ji-Zhuang; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Peng-Cheng; Cai, He-Gao; Liu, Gang-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Pneumatic muscles with similar characteristics to biological muscles have been widely used in robots, and thus are promising drivers for frog inspired robots. However, the application and nonlinearity of the pneumatic system limit the advance. On the basis of the swimming mechanism of the frog, a frog-inspired robot based on pneumatic muscles is developed. To realize the independent tasks by the robot, a pneumatic system with internal chambers, micro air pump, and valves is implemented. The micro pump is used to maintain the pressure difference between the source and exhaust chambers. The pneumatic muscles are controlled by high-speed switch valves which can reduce the robot cost, volume, and mass. A dynamic model of the pneumatic system is established for the simulation to estimate the system, including the chamber, muscle, and pneumatic circuit models. The robot design is verified by the robot swimming experiments and the dynamic model is verified through the experiments and simulations of the pneumatic system. The simulation results are compared to analyze the functions of the source pressure, internal volume of the muscle, and circuit flow rate which is proved the main factor that limits the response of muscle pressure. The proposed research provides the application of the pneumatic muscles in the frog inspired robot and the pneumatic model to study muscle controller.

  9. Preparation of polyurea capsules using electrocapillary emulsification.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Kondo, Tamotsu; Abe, Masahiko

    2008-10-15

    Polyurea capsules have been prepared using the electrocapillary emulsification method in order to control the particle size within the submicron range. The polyurea capsules have been synthesized via the interfacial polycondensation between tetraethylenepentamine (TEP) dissolved in an aqueous phase and toluenediisocyanate (TDI) dissolved in a mixture of cyclohexane and chloroform. The oil phase contains a lipophilic nonionic surfactant (sorbitan sesquioleate, SO-15) as an emulsion stabilizer. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations reveal that the capsule size is decreased as (i) the amount of the aqueous phase injected into the oil phase is decreased and (ii) the dropping rate of the aqueous phase is decreased. Indeed, the mole ratio of the two monomers makes a significant impact on the capsule size. Under the best experimental condition examined in this study, we obtained polyurea capsules with a diameter of approximately 200nm, which should be useful in developing bioreactors or carriers.

  10. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  11. Thermoregulation of capsule production by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O; Tesorero, Rafael A; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface.

  12. Pipeline accident effects for hazardous liquid pipelines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfeld, J.; Golub, E.; Dresnack, R.; Griffis, F.H.; Pignataro, L.J.

    1996-08-01

    The project team identified the factors that cause pipeline failures and the factors that effect accidents on hazardous liquid pipelines. Since the normalizing of the data was not possible, the authors of this report used indirect and inferential approaches in the analysis. The databases used for this analysis are LIQUID (accident data for 1968-1985) and LIQLCK (accident data for 1985-present). The main finding of this complete data on hazardous liquid accidents should be collected. Other conclusions are that prevention programs should be more effective, and pipe components such as valves, O-rings, gaskets and nipples are a significant source of potentially reducible accidents.

  13. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Tunisia with extreme avian-like pneumatization.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Federico; Cau, Andrea; Hassine, Mohsen; Contessi, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Recent interpretations of the postcranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs differ about pneumatic features supporting an avian-like ventilatory system; the most conservative workers reject most postcranial pneumatizations as being unambiguous evidence of abdominal air sacs. Here we describe the first articulated dinosaur skeleton from Tunisia and refer it to a new rebbachisaurid sauropod, Tataouinea hannibalis gen. et sp. nov. The Tunisian specimen shows a complex pattern of caudosacral and pelvic pneumatization--including the first report of an ischial pneumatic foramen among Dinosauria--strongly supporting the presence of abdominal air sacs. Character optimization among Rebbachisauridae indicates that in the caudal vertebrae, pneumatization of the neural arches preceded that of the centra; in the pelvis, pneumatization of the bones adjacent to the sacrum preceded that of more distal elements. Tataouinea was more closely related to European nigersaurines than to otherwise Gondwanan rebbachisaurids; this supports an Afro-European route for rebbachisaurid dispersal.

  14. Development of robot hand with pneumatic actuator and construct of master-slave system.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Shinya; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Komatsubara, Hiroyuki; Kudawara, Tatuwo; Shimizu, Mikio

    2007-01-01

    Recently, research has concentrated on robots that can coexist with people and be of use to them. Such a robot needs to be both safe and flexible. Here, we use a pneumatic actuator as the driving source of a robot hand. We develop a pneumatic actuator driven by low pressure because we consider that the conventional pneumatic actuator is inadequate for the driving source of a robot hand. First, we examine the characteristics of our new pneumatic actuator. Next, we develop a five-fingered robot hand using this pneumatic actuator. The robot hand produced is both safe and flexible. We construct a master-slave system to enable the robot hand to perform the same operations as a human hand. Next, we make a joint model that has one degree of freedom using a pneumatic actuator. We construct a control system for the joint model and verify its control performance.

  15. Quantification of dynamic property of pneumatic muscle actuator for design of therapeutic robot control.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sivakumar; Huang, He; He, Jiping

    2006-01-01

    Robot-assisted therapy has shown potential in neuromotor rehabilitation. A therapeutic robot driven by pneumatic muscle actuators has been developed in our research group. However, the design of fine and real-time feedback robot control is a challenge. One of the difficulties is the lack of a general dynamic model of the pneumatic muscle actuator. In this study, a phenomenological model has been developed to quantify the dynamic behavior of pneumatic muscle actuator by fitting the experimental length response of the pneumatic muscle, to a step pressure input. In addition, comparison of the dynamic responses of two pneumatic muscles of different dimensions has also been studied. Several control strategies for the pneumatic muscle actuator are discussed based on the results from this study.

  16. Pneumatic protection applied to an airbag for para-gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raievski, V.; Valladas, G.

    1998-02-01

    We present a theory of pneumatic protection based on the laws of thermodynamics, elasticity and fluid mechanics. A general pneumatic protection system is made up of several communicating compartments, the differences in pressure of the compartments generating a transfer of mass and energy between them. The transfer offers interesting possibilities to improve the performance of the system. An example of this type of protection in aerial sport is the airbag for para-gliders, it is used in this paper to illustrate the theory. As the pressure in the airbag depends uniquely on its volume, the geometric model in the theory can be simplified. Experiments carried out with crash-test dummies equipped with sensors have confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  17. A skin indentation system using a pneumatic bellows.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Hagisawa, S; Masiello, R D

    1994-01-01

    A pneumatic indentation system using a copper bellows has been developed for physiological studies where a controlled uniaxial compressive force is required to be applied to the surface of the skin. Such a system is useful for studies where the physiological response of the tissues is to be monitored following a known loading history. The indentation system is driven by a vacuum/compression pneumatic pump through solenoid valves under closed-loop computer control. A load cell placed between the indentor and bellows monitors the applied force providing a feedback signal to the computer. The signal from the computer activates the valves supplying air pressure to the bellows, and the applied force is controlled using a digital closed-loop protocol. This system can be used to provide a controlled loading sequence to the skin without utilizing gravitational forces, which allows the subject to keep a more natural position during the experiment.

  18. Neuro-Fuzzy Control for Pneumatic Servo System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Jindai, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Tomonori; Shimizu, Akira

    A learning method for acquiring the appropriate fuzzy rules using error back propagation to improve the control performance of the pneumatic servo system is presented in this paper. In the proposed method, two criteria are defined and are adjusted so as to minimize them using error back propagation. These criteria are defined on the fuzzy rules, that is, shapes of membership functions of antecedent clause and real values of consequent clause in the fuzzy controller. Two differentiating coefficients of the plant, used in error back propagation with respect to those criteria, are estimated by the newly established neural network. Moreover, sigmoid function is introduced for the connection of the neural network to compensate for the effect of non-linearity of the system. The method was applied to an existent vertical type pneumatic servo system and proved its effectiveness for practical use.

  19. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal.

  20. Dielectric elastomer actuators used for pneumatic valve technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giousouf, Metin; Kovacs, Gabor

    2013-10-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators have been investigated for applications in the field of pneumatic automation technology. We have developed different valve designs with stacked dielectric elastomer actuators and with integrated high voltage converters. The actuators were made using VHB-4910 material and a stacker machine for automated fabrication of the cylindrical actuators. Typical characteristics of pneumatic valves such as flow rate, power consumption and dynamic behaviour are presented. For valve construction the force and stroke parameters of the dielectric elastomer actuator have been measured. Further, benefits for valve applications using dielectric elastomers are shown as well as their potential operational area. Finally, challenges are discussed that are relevant for the use of elastomer actuators in valves for industrial applications.

  1. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  2. Development of pneumatic thrust-deflecting powered-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Improvements introduced into the Circulation Control Wing/Upper Surface Blowing (CCW/USB) STOL concept (Harris et al., 1982) are described along with results of the full-scale static ground tests and model-scale wind tunnel investigations. Tests performed on the full-scale pneumatic thrust-deflecting system installed on the NASA QSRA aircraft have demonstrated that, relative to the original baseline configuration, a doubling of incremental thrust deflection due to blowing resulted from improvements that increased the blowing span and momentum, as well as from variations in blowing slot height and geometry of the trailing edge. A CCW/Over the Wing model has been built and tested, which was shown to be equivalent to the CCW/USB system in terms of pneumatic thrust deflection and lift generation, while resolving the problem of cruise thrust loss due to exhaust scrubbing on the wing upper surface.

  3. Development of an Autonomous Transfer Machine Using Pneumatic Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Pandian, Shunmugham Raj; Kawamura, Sadao

    In this paper, we propose a new type of Autonomous Transfer Machine (ATM) by making use of pneumatic actuators such as pneumatic cylinders and bellows actuators. In the lifting part, the lifting arm which is constructed with a cylinder is rotated by antagonized bellows actuators. Moreover, the support part that a user leans on is supported by antagonized bellows actuators. Since the bellows actuator has a force sensing ability that acts both a force sensor and an actuator, external force that the user leans on the supporter can be estimated. In the standing-up motion, the support part is controlled by both the inclination of the support part and the force difference between holding force and supporting force. Therefore, the lifting trajectory of the supporter can be realized by the posture of the user. In this paper, we clear the effectiveness of the ATM with the standing-up motion from experimental results.

  4. Nonlinear Vibrational Behaviour of an Elasto-Pneumatic Training Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Claudia; Hetzler, Hartmut; Seemann, Wolfgang

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibrational response of a stepping-board with nonlinear elasto-pneumatic force elements. Experimental investigations often show too high vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) between the test persons and the training tool during exercises. The goal of this contribution is to identify the main factors of the dynamical behaviour and thus the biomechanical impact on humans of this training tool. Therefore this paper presents a mechanical model in order to investigate the interaction between the nonlinear behaviour of the board and the athlete. The multiphysical modelling consists of the linear-elastic structural stiffness part and the nonlinear part due to the pneumatic components. This leads to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation.

  5. Massive Pulmonary Calculi Embolism: A Novel Complication of Pneumatic Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pneumatic lithotripsy is a minimally invasive technique mainly for the treatment of urinary staghorn stones. Previous literatures have reported some therapeutic complications during or after this procedure, but calculi embolism has not been mentioned before. We report here a fatal case of calculi-induced pulmonary embolism in an adult woman who underwent pneumatic lithotripsy. An autopsy did not reveal any evidence of pulmonary embolism. However, light microscopy revealed noticeable presence of calculi in pulmonary arterioles and capillaries, as evidenced by environmental scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The primary determinants of calculi embolism include intrarenal pressure, and volume and viscosity of the calculi fragments formation. Vascular intravasation of smashed calculi might increase pulmonary vascular resistance and hypoxemia and decrease cardiac output. This case report intends to provide information for clinicians to consider the probability of intraoperative calculi embolism during lithotripsies when patients develop typical symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism. PMID:26222867

  6. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-06-07

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs.

  7. 76 FR 50539 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and... collection under Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control No. 2137-0622, titled ``Pipeline...

  8. 75 FR 40863 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request... Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  9. 77 FR 74275 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request..., DC 20590-0001. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Pipeline Safety: Control Room...

  10. 75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management... of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on the implementation of pipeline control room management. The workshop is intended to foster an understanding of the Control Room Management Rule issued...

  11. 78 FR 57455 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request... of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  12. 75 FR 76077 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request..., titled ``Pipeline Safety: Periodic Underwater Inspection.'' PHMSA is preparing to request approval...

  13. 75 FR 77694 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for... information collection for the National Pipeline Registry. PHMSA is preparing to request Office of...

  14. 75 FR 30099 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Collection Request titled: ``Pipeline Safety: New Reporting Requirements for Hazardous Liquid...

  15. 75 FR 4136 - Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request To Modify Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice; Reopening of..., which concerns the external coating on its gas pipeline. DATES: Submit any comments regarding...

  16. 77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request... regards the renewal of an information collection titled, ``Gas Pipeline Safety Program Certification...

  17. A pneumatic sample changer for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massoni, C.J.; Fones, R.V.; Simon, F.O.

    1973-01-01

    A gravity-feed, pneumatic-ejection sample changer has been developed. The changer is suitable for both flat and well-type detectors and permits the continuous use of gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment 24 h a day, 7 days a week. The electronic circuitry has a fail-safe feature which stops the operation of the changer if a malfunction occurs. ?? 1973 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Equipment for Continuous Passive Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaconescu, Tudor T.; Deaconescu, Andrea I.

    2009-10-01

    Applying continuous passive rehabilitation movements as part of the recovery programme of patients with post-traumatic disabilities of the bearing joints of the inferior limbs requires the development of new high performance equipment. This chapter discusses a study of the kinematics and performance of such a new, continuous passive motion based rehabilitation system actuated by pneumatic muscles. The utilized energy source is compressed air ensuring complete absorption of the end of stroke shocks, thus minimizing user discomfort.

  19. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a hydraulic-pneumatic band.

    PubMed

    Halperin, H; Berger, R; Chandra, N; Ireland, M; Leng, C; Lardo, A; Paradis, N

    2000-11-01

    Improved blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been shown to enhance survival from cardiac arrest. Chest compression with a circumferential pneumatic vest enhances blood flow, but the size, weight, and energy consumption of the inflation system limit its portability and, thereby, have made clinical studies difficult. The purpose of this investigation was to study an improved circumferential chest compression device that uses a constricting band that is pneumatically actuated. The constricting band applies its force to a hydraulic cushion that contacts the anterior and lateral aspects of the chest. The hydraulic cushion transfers the circumferential constriction to inward force. CPR was performed on subjects 5 mins after induction of ventricular fibrillation, with the hydraulic-pneumatic band system (HB-CPR), with a pneumatic vest system (PV-CPR), and with standard manual CPR (S-CPR), each done for 2 mins in randomized order. Aortic and right atrial pressures were measured with micromanometers. Coronary perfusion pressure was calculated as the mean difference between the aortic and right atrial pressures during the release phase of chest compression. Aortic pressure and coronary perfusion pressure with HB-CPR and PV-CPR were improved over S-CPR, and HB-CPR produced comparable pressures to those of PV-CPR. The system for performing HB-CPR, however, was substantially lighter (10 vs. 50 kg) and consumed less energy (300 vs. 1000 watts) than that for PV-CPR. Thus, HB-CPR appears to produce a similar improvement in hemodynamics over S-CPR as PV-CPR but may be more portable than PV-CPR. Therefore, HB-CPR may allow larger scale testing of circumferential chest compression approaches.

  20. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Rehabilitation Equipment of the Upper Limb Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.

    2017-06-01

    Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.

  1. Comprehensive integration of homogeneous bioassays via centrifugo-pneumatic cascading.

    PubMed

    Godino, Neus; Gorkin, Robert; Linares, Ana V; Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-02-21

    This work for the first time presents the full integration and automation concept for a range of bioassays leveraged by cascading a centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme to sequentially move several liquids through shared channel segments for multi-step sample preparation into the detection zone. This novel centrifugo-pneumatic liquid handling significantly simplifies system manufacture by obviating the need for complex surface functionalization procedures or hybrid material integration, as it is common in conventional valving methods such as capillary burst valves or sacrificial valves. Based on the centrifugo-pneumatic valving scheme, this work presents a toolkit of operational elements implementing liquid loading/transfer, metering, mixing and sedimentation in a microstructured polymer disc. As a proof of concept for the broad class of homogeneous bioassays, the full integration and automation of a colorimetric nitrate/nitrite test for the detection of clinically relevant nitric oxide (NO) in whole blood is implemented. First, 40 μL of plasma is extracted from a 100 μL sample of human blood, incubated for one hour with the enzymatic mixture (60 μL), and finally reacted with 100 μL of colorimetric (Greiss) reagents. Following just a single loading phase at the beginning of the process, all of these steps are automated through the centrifugo-pneumatic cascade with a high level of flow control and synchronization. Our system shows good correlation with controls up to 50 μM of nitrate, which adequately covers the healthy human range (4 to 45.3 μM).

  2. Electric versus pneumatic power in hand prostheses for children.

    PubMed

    Plettenburg, D H

    1989-01-01

    Most externally powered hand prostheses for children with a unilateral congenital below-elbow amputation are myoelectrically controlled. All of them are electrically powered. Despite the success of fitting children with this kind of prostheses, there are some disadvantages: prosthetic weight is high, operating speed is low, the system is vulnerable and its size prohibits fitting it to patients with a long fore-arm stump. It will be shown that pneumatic power can overcome most of these disadvantages.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Sounding Rocket Pneumatic System Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armen, Jerald

    2010-01-01

    The recent fusion of decades of advancements in mathematical models, numerical algorithms and curve fitting techniques marked the beginning of a new era in the science of simulation. It is becoming indispensable to the study of rockets and aerospace analysis. In pneumatic system, which is the main focus of this paper, particular emphasis will be placed on the efforts of compressible flow in Attitude Control System of sounding rocket.

  4. Vibration and recoil control of pneumatic hammers. [by air flow pressure regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinescu, I. N.; Darabont, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Vibration sources are described for pneumatic hammers used in the mining industry (pick hammers), in boiler shops (riveting hammers), etc., bringing to light the fact that the principal vibration source is the variation in air pressure inside the cylinder. The present state of the art of vibration control of pneumatic hammers as it is practiced abroad, and the solutions adopted for this purpose, are discussed. A new type of pneumatic hammer with a low noise and vibration level is presented.

  5. Method and system for pipeline communication

    DOEpatents

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  6. Northern Border Pipeline Company NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  7. Design and Control of a Pneumatically Actuated Transtibial Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hao; Shen, Xiangrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and control of a pneumatically actuated transtibial prosthesis, which utilizes a pneumatic cylinder-type actuator to power the prosthetic ankle joint to support the user's locomotion. The pneumatic actuator has multiple advantages over the traditional electric motor, such as light weight, low cost, and high power-to-weight ratio. The objective of this work is to develop a compact and lightweight transtibial prosthesis, leveraging the multiple advantages provided by this highly competitive actuator. In this paper, the design details of the prosthesis are described, including the determination of performance specifications, the layout of the actuation mechanism, and the calculation of the torque capacity. Through the authors’ design calculation, the prosthesis is able to provide sufficient range of motion and torque capacity to support the locomotion of a 75 kg individual. The controller design is also described, including the underlying biomechanical analysis and the formulation of the finite-state impedance controller. Finally, the human subject testing results are presented, with the data indicating that the prosthesis is able to generate a natural walking gait and sufficient power output for its amputee user. PMID:26146497

  8. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowledge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenomena in a physics-based model that is derived from first principles. Uncertainty cannot be avoided in prediction, therefore, algorithms are employed that help in managing these uncertainties. The particle filtering algorithm has become a popular choice for model-based prognostics due to its wide applicability, ease of implementation, and support for uncertainty management. We develop a general model-based prognostics methodology within a robust probabilistic framework using particle filters. As a case study, we consider a pneumatic valve from the Space Shuttle cryogenic refueling system. We develop a detailed physics-based model of the pneumatic valve, and perform comprehensive simulation experiments to illustrate our prognostics approach and evaluate its effectiveness and robustness. The approach is demonstrated using historical pneumatic valve data from the refueling system.

  9. Salivary Stone Pneumatic Lithotripsy in a Live Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Walvekar, Rohan R; Hoffman, Henry T; Kolenda, Jack; Hernandez, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic fragmentation and removal of artificial calculi in a live porcine model employing intracorporeal pneumatic lithotripsy. In this experimental study, 7 submandibular ducts were accessed and artificial calculi placed. A salivary pneumatic lithotripter probe was inserted through an interventional sialendoscope to fragment the calculi. A salivary duct catheter was then used to flush stone fragments, followed by endoscopy to assess complete fragmentation and ductal trauma. Ultimately, 7 artificial stones (3-10 mm, 4F/5F) were successfully fragmented without causing significant endoluminal trauma. Number of pulses for adequate stone fragmentation averaged 20 (range, 5-31). In all cases, stone fragments were successfully flushed out with the salivary duct catheter. Postprocedure endoscopy confirmed ductal integrity in all 7 ducts. While more studies are needed, this preliminary animal model demonstrates efficacy of endoscopic pneumatic lithotripsy for the management of sialolithiasis. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  10. Evaluation of unsaturated zone air permeability through pneumatic tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Hult, Marc F.

    1991-01-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of air pressure in the unsaturated zone resulting from a pneumatic test provides a method for determining air-phase permeability. This technique is analogous to the inverse problem of well hydraulics; however, air flow is more complicated than ground water flow because of air compressibility, the Klinkenberg effect, variations in air density and viscosity that result from temperature fluctuations in the unsaturated zone and the possibility of inducing water movement during the pneumatic test. An analysis of these complicating factors reveals that, when induced water movement can be neglected, a linear version of the airflow equation can provide an appropriate approximation for the purpose of determining air-phase permeability. Two analytical solutions for steady state, two-dimensional, axisymmetric airflow to a single well partially screened in the unsaturated zone are developed. One solution applies where there is a stratum of relatively low air permeability, separating the stratum in which the well is completed, from the atmosphere. The other solution applies where there is no separating stratum between the domain and atmosphere. In both situations the water table forms the lower horizontal boundary. Applications of both solutions to determine air permeability from data collected during pneumatic tests are presented.

  11. Discussion on a Potential DJ Basin Pneumatic Controller ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ORD NRMRL and Region 8 collaborators are conducting emission measurements and method development studies on pneumatic controllers (PCs) in the Uintah Basin, Utah (and potentially in Colorado), in cooperation with Oil and Natural gas (ONG) operators. ONG operations use PCs for production process control and safety functions. PCs emit gas to the atmosphere as they operate and sometimes they malfunction and emit more than they are supposed to. Because of the very large number of PCs in use, these devices contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. There is considerable uncertainty in levels of real-world PC emissions and measurement methods for PCs are somewhat underdeveloped. In collaboration with EPA R8, the State of Colorado, (and industry participants in Step 2), ORD NRMRL is evaluating a potential follow-on research effort to the Uinta Basin Pneumatic Controller (PC) Study. The Uinta PC Study is described in a recent APPCD Research Highlight (attached )with results summarized in “Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions”, E. Thoma et al., Journal of Environmental Protection, 8, 394-415, (2017). doi: 10.4236/jep.2017.84029; at (http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=75669). This RAP research was funded by an EPA R8 RARE and ACE Task EM 1.2 (next gen. emissions measurements). For both technical and programmatic reasons, we seek to

  12. Design and control of a pneumatic musculoskeletal biped robot.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Yixiang; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-04-29

    Pneumatic artificial muscles are quite promising actuators for humanoid robots owing to their similar characteristics with human muscles. Moreover, biologically inspired musculoskeletal systems are particularly important for humanoid robots to perform versatile dynamic tasks. This study aims to develop a pneumatic musculoskeletal biped robot, and its controller, to realize human-like walking. According to the simplified musculoskeletal structure of human lower limbs, each leg of the biped robot is driven by nine muscles, including three pairs of monoarticular muscles which are arranged in the flexor-extensor form, as well as three biarticular muscles which span two joints. To lower cost, high-speed on/off solenoid valves rather than proportional valves are used to control the muscles. The joint trajectory tracking controller based on PID control method is designed to achieve the desired motion. Considering the complex characteristics of pneumatic artificial muscles, the control model is obtained through parameter identification experiments. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the biped robot is able to walk with this control strategy. The proposed musculoskeletal structure and control strategy are effective for the biped robot to achieve human-like walking.

  13. Effect of pneumatic compression on fibrinolysis after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, William; Westrich, Geoffrey; Sharrock, Nigel; Sculco, Thomas P; Jhon, Peter H; Peterson, Margaret G E; Salvati, Eduardo A

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized clinical study was to investigate the enhanced systemic fibrinolysis mechanism of venous thrombosis prevention by pneumatic compression after total hip arthroplasty. Fifty patients were randomized into one of two groups (one with pneumatic compression [n=25] and one without [n=25]). Blood was drawn from a radial arterial line immediately preoperatively (baseline), at skin closure, and 8 hours and 22 hours after the baseline sample. Serum determinations of antigen of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were done using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These data do not support the enhancement of systemic fibrinolysis mechanism for lowering thromboembolic risk after total hip arthroplasty by pneumatic compression devices. The results of this study showed no differences that were statistically significant between the two groups. The greatest difference was observed 8 hours after surgery for the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 marker, (28.12 with compression versus 22.07 ng/mL without); however, this result was not statistically significant. The beneficial effect of mechanical compression is more likely achieved through increased flow, local fibrinolytic effects, or both.

  14. A pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Walter T; Richards, Kirsten; Redhed, James; Papay, Frank A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was o determine the efficacy of a newly developed pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet for correcting positional plagiocephaly. The design was retrospective and the setting was a tertiary care center. Subjects were all patients in whom positional plagiocephaly has been diagnosed and who have been fitted by the Orthotics and Prosthetics Department for the helmet. Diagonal cranial lengths and widths were measured at each visit. Analysis included the calculation of the ratio change in oblique diameters compared with time, patient's age, and head circumference. Seventy-five patients met inclusion criteria (50 boys, 25 girls). Patients with pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet therapy had significantly improved outcomes as compared with pretreatment measurements (P < or = 0.0001). The helmet did not limit cranial growth as evidenced by significant normalization of the oblique measurement ratio when compared with increasing cranial circumference and age (P = 0.0003, P < or = 0.0001, respectively). The pneumatic orthotic cranial molding helmet successfully corrects positional plagiocephaly and does not hinder cranial growth.

  15. Lightweight, highly compressible, noncrystalline cellulose capsules.

    PubMed

    Carrick, Christopher; Lindström, Stefan B; Larsson, Per Tomas; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-07-08

    We demonstrate how to prepare extraordinarily deformable, gas-filled, spherical capsules from nonmodified cellulose. These capsules have a low nominal density, ranging from 7.6 to 14.2 kg/m(3), and can be deformed elastically to 70% deformation at 50% relative humidity. No compressive strain-at-break could be detected for these dry cellulose capsules, since they did not rupture even when compressed into a disk with pockets of highly compressed air. A quantitative constitutive model for the large deformation compression of these capsules is derived, including their high-frequency mechanical response and their low-frequency force relaxation, where the latter is governed by the gas barrier properties of the dry capsule. Mechanical testing corroborated these models with good accuracy. Force relaxation measurements at a constant compression rendered an estimate for the gas permeability of air through the capsule wall, calculated to 0.4 mL μm/m(2) days kPa at 50% relative humidity. These properties taken together open up a large application area for the capsules, and they could most likely be used for applications in compressible, lightweight materials and also constitute excellent model materials for adsorption and adhesion studies.

  16. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P < 0.01 glucose and cholesterol, P = NS triglycerides). In healthy individuals glycemia did not change with nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  17. 76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ...: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Rulemaking (ANPRM) titled: ``Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines'' seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations covering hazardous liquid onshore pipelines. PHMSA has received requests...

  18. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Neuscamman, Stephanie; Price, Don; Pezzola, Genny; Glascoe, Lee

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  19. Formulation of a minimum variance deconvolution technique for compensation of pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, aircraft system designs require that aerodynamic parameters derived from pneumatic measurements be employed as control-system feedbacks. Such high frequency pressure measurements' accuracy is compromised by pressure distortion due to frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system. A pneumatic distortion model is here formulated and reduced to a low-order state-variable model which retains most of the full model's dynamic characteristics. This reduced-order model is coupled with standard results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for pneumatic-distortion effects.

  20. Formulation of a minimum variance deconvolution technique for compensation of pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, aircraft system designs require that aerodynamic parameters derived from pneumatic measurements be employed as control-system feedbacks. Such high frequency pressure measurements' accuracy is compromised by pressure distortion due to frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system. A pneumatic distortion model is here formulated and reduced to a low-order state-variable model which retains most of the full model's dynamic characteristics. This reduced-order model is coupled with standard results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for pneumatic-distortion effects.

  1. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  2. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  3. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  4. Fabrication of capsule assemblies, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R.; Stemann, L. G.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen capsule assemblies were fabricated for evaluation of fuel pin design concepts for a fast spectrum lithium cooled compact space power reactor. These instrumented assemblies were designed for real time test of prototype fuel pins. Uranium mononitride fuel pins were encased in AISI 304L stainless steel capsules. Fabrication procedures were fully qualified by process development and assembly qualification tests. Instrumentation reliability was achieved utilizing specially processed and closely controlled thermocouple hot zone fabrication and by thermal screening tests. Overall capsule reliability was achieved with an all electron beam welded assembly.

  5. Tag gas capsule with magnetic piercing device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Ira V.

    1976-06-22

    An apparatus for introducing a tag (i.e., identifying) gas into a tubular nuclear fuel element. A sealed capsule containing the tag gas is placed in the plenum in the fuel tube between the fuel and the end cap. A ferromagnetic punch having a penetrating point is slidably mounted in the plenum. By external electro-magnets, the punch may be caused to penetrate a thin rupturable end wall of the capsule and release the tag gas into the fuel element. Preferably the punch is slidably mounted within the capsule, which is in turn loaded as a sealed unit into the fuel element.

  6. 27 CFR 19.274 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.274 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.274 Pipelines. (a) General. (1) Pipelines for the conveyance of spirits, denatured spirits, articles, or wines...

  7. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  8. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  9. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  10. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  11. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  12. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  13. 49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline location. 195.210 Section 195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  14. 27 CFR 19.587 - Pipelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipelines. 19.587 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Containers § 19.587 Pipelines. Pursuant to the provisions of this part, pipelines which conform to the requirements of § 19.274 may...

  15. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  16. 49 CFR 195.422 - Pipeline repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipeline repairs. 195.422 Section 195.422 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  17. Pipeline Safety and Security: Federal Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-18

    and Hazardous Material Safety Administration (§304). The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration ( PHMSA ), within the Department of...Transportation (DOT), is the lead federal regulator of pipeline safety. PHMSA uses a variety of strategies to promote compliance with its safety...relations; and monitoring compliance with security standards, requirements, and regulation. While PHMSA and TSA have distinct missions, pipeline safety

  18. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  19. Clinical Effect of Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhou, Huabang; Dong, Jinhua; Cai, Yiting; Hu, Xing; Dai, Qiang; Yang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although pneumatic dilation is an accepted method for the treatment of achalasia, this therapy has high recurrence and complication rates, and prolonged follow-up studies on the parameters associated with various outcomes are rare. In this prospective 10-year follow-up study, a satisfactory therapeutic effect was achieved without serious complications. We report the therapeutic experience with pneumatic dilation, having aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of pneumatic dilation. In total, 35 consecutive patients with idiopathic achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by a phone interview over a 10-year period. The mean duration of the follow-up was 43.03 ± 26.34 months (range 6–120 months). Remission was assessed by the dysphagia classification and symptom scores. Patients’ clinical symptom scores were calculated before and at 6 to 36 months, 37 to 60 months, and >60 months after therapy. The influence of the patients’ age, gender, and disease duration on the therapeutic effect was analyzed. The success rate of the operation was 97.2% (35/36), without massive hemorrhaging, perforation or other serious complications. Dysphagia after the therapy was significantly eased (P < 0.01). In total, 35 patients have been followed up for 6 to 36 months after therapy, 21 cases for 37 to 60 months, and 5 cases for >60 months, and the patients’ symptom scores separately decreased significantly compared with the pretherapy scores (P < 0.01). For these patients, the 6 to 36 months remission rate was 85.7% (30/35), the 37 to 60 months rate was 61.9% (13/21), and the >60 months rate was 40% (2/5). The dilation effect had no relationship to the patient's age, gender, and disease duration (P > 0.05). The patients in 30 cases (85.7%) were successfully treated with a single dilation, in 4 cases (11.4%) with 2 dilations, and in 1 case (2.9%) with 3 dilations

  20. Clinical Effect of Endoscopic Pneumatic Dilation for Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhou, Huabang; Dong, Jinhua; Cai, Yiting; Hu, Xing; Dai, Qiang; Yang, Wenyan

    2015-07-01

    Although pneumatic dilation is an accepted method for the treatment of achalasia, this therapy has high recurrence and complication rates, and prolonged follow-up studies on the parameters associated with various outcomes are rare. In this prospective 10-year follow-up study, a satisfactory therapeutic effect was achieved without serious complications. We report the therapeutic experience with pneumatic dilation, having aimed to evaluate the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of pneumatic dilation. In total, 35 consecutive patients with idiopathic achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by a phone interview over a 10-year period. The mean duration of the follow-up was 43.03 ± 26.34 months (range 6-120 months). Remission was assessed by the dysphagia classification and symptom scores. Patients' clinical symptom scores were calculated before and at 6 to 36  months, 37 to 60  months, and >60  months after therapy. The influence of the patients' age, gender, and disease duration on the therapeutic effect was analyzed. The success rate of the operation was 97.2% (35/36), without massive hemorrhaging, perforation or other serious complications. Dysphagia after the therapy was significantly eased (P < 0.01). In total, 35 patients have been followed up for 6 to 36  months after therapy, 21 cases for 37 to 60  months, and 5 cases for >60  months, and the patients' symptom scores separately decreased significantly compared with the pretherapy scores (P < 0.01). For these patients, the 6 to 36  months remission rate was 85.7% (30/35), the 37 to 60  months rate was 61.9% (13/21), and the >60  months rate was 40% (2/5). The dilation effect had no relationship to the patient's age, gender, and disease duration (P > 0.05). The patients in 30 cases (85.7%) were successfully treated with a single dilation, in 4 cases (11.4%) with 2 dilations, and in 1 case (2.9%) with 3 dilations. These

  1. [Is pneumatic sample transport system also a carrier for microorganisms?].

    PubMed

    Alpat, Saygin Nayman; Ozgüneş, Ilhan; Aybey, Aşkin Derya; Ertem, Osman Turgut; Akşit, Filiz

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible infection and contamination risk of the pneumatic system used in our hospital and to establish essential infection control measures. The study was conducted in a quaternary health care center with 1.000 bed capacity. A total of 614 specimens were taken 2 times weekly from the pneumatic transport system and its carriers at 22 wards, 5 intensive care units, 3 laboratories, 2 blood taking units, and pharmacy. Samples were also obtained from the fingertips of 33 subjects using the system, before and after contact with the carriers. A questionnaire that consisted of 8 questions was applied to 224 subjects who worked in those units, evaluating the degree of compliance to the obligations for the cleaning of the pneumatic system and carriers and their approach in case of visible pollution at the system. Bacterial growth was observed in 15.2% (45/296) of samples in the 1st week and 7.6% (18/238) of the samples in the 2nd week, making a total of 11.8% (63/534) bacterial growth. No growth was detected from the areas where the carriers were placed. Of these 69.8% were coagulase negative staphylococci, 11.1% diphteroids, 7.9% Acinetobacter Iwoffii, 4.8% Staphylococcus aureus, 4.8% Bacillus spp. and 1.6% Enterococcus durans. Acinetobacter baumannii and Aspergillus were detected at two fingertip samples taken before the contact with carriers, while again A. baumannii and Enterobacter cloacae were detected at the samples following contact. Moreover, 31.3% of the subjects noted that they cleaned the carriers only if any visible contamination was present. In addition, 14.3% reported that they have encountered broken or spilled up material in the system for more than 5 times, 10.3% reported that they followed the instructions in case of presence of infected material inside the carriers, 23.7% reported that they always washed their hands after any contact with the carriers, 9.8% noted that they always used gloves during contact

  2. The Classroom to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The school-to-prison pipeline doesn't just begin with cops in the hallways and zero tolerance discipline policies. It begins when teachers fail to create a curriculum and a pedagogy that connects with students, that takes them seriously as intellectuals, that lets students know teachers care about them, that gives them the chance to channel their…

  3. Corrosion beneath disbonded pipeline coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.

    1997-04-01

    The relationship between coatings, cathodic protection (CP), and external corrosion of underground pipelines is described. Historically, this problem has been addressed by focusing on the corrosion and CP processes associated with holidays, e.g., coating disbondment and CP current flow within the disbonded region. These issues and those associated with disbonded areas distant from holidays are also discussed.

  4. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  5. The Classroom to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The school-to-prison pipeline doesn't just begin with cops in the hallways and zero tolerance discipline policies. It begins when teachers fail to create a curriculum and a pedagogy that connects with students, that takes them seriously as intellectuals, that lets students know teachers care about them, that gives them the chance to channel their…

  6. Required Be Capsule Strength For Room Temperature Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B

    2005-03-21

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the criteria for the Be capsule strength necessary for room temperature transport. Ultimately we will test full thickness capsules by sealing high pressures inside, but currently we are limited to both thinner capsules and alternative measures of capsule material strength.

  7. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... E capsules. (a) Specifications. The capsules contain 2.19 milligrams of sodium selenite (equivalent... succinate) or 0.548 milligram of sodium selenite (equivalent to .25 milligram of selenium and 14 milligrams... capsule per 20 pounds of body weight to a maximum of 5 capsules with the dosage repeated at 3 day...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... E capsules. (a) Specifications. The capsules contain 2.19 milligrams of sodium selenite (equivalent... succinate) or 0.548 milligram of sodium selenite (equivalent to .25 milligram of selenium and 14 milligrams... capsule per 20 pounds of body weight to a maximum of 5 capsules with the dosage repeated at 3 day...

  9. Does magnetically assisted capsule endoscopy improve small bowel capsule endoscopy completion rate? A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melissa F.; Drew, Kaye; Sidhu, Reena; McAlindon, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Delayed gastric emptying is a significant factor in incomplete small bowel capsule examinations. Gastric transit could be hastened by external magnetic control of the capsule. We studied the feasibility of this approach to improve capsule endoscopy completion rates. Patients and methods: Prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial involving 122 patients attending for small bowel capsule endoscopy using MiroCam Navi. Patients were randomized to either the control group (mobilisation for 30 minutes after capsule ingestion, followed by intramuscular metoclopramide 10 mg if the capsule failed to enter the small bowel) or the intervention group (1000 mL of water prior to capsule ingestion, followed by positional change and magnetic steering). Outcome measures were capsule endoscopy completion rate, gastric clarity and distention, relationship of body habitus to capsule endoscopy completion rate (CECR), and patient comfort scores. Results: 122 patients were recruited (61 each to the control and intervention groups: mean age 49 years [range 21 – 85], 61 females). There was no significant difference in CECR between the two groups (P = 0.39). Time to first pyloric image was significantly shorter in the intervention group (P = 0.03) but there was no difference in gastric transit times (P = 0.12), suggesting that magnetic control hastens capsular transit to the gastric antrum but does not influence duodenal passage. Gastric clarity and distention were significantly better in the intervention group (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions: Magnetic steering of a small bowel capsule is unable to overcome pyloric contractions to enhance gastric emptying and improve capsule endoscope completion rate. Excellent mucosal visualisation within the gastric cavity suggests this technique could be harnessed for capsule examination of the stomach. PMID:26878053

  10. Customer service drives pipelines` reorganization

    SciTech Connect

    Share, J.

    1997-06-01

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate`s net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG`s income, it was vital that the merger of Northern`s 950 employees with Transwestern`s 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

  11. Sample Return Capsule Landing (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Artist's rendering of the Stardust capsule's return to Earth. The Stardust spacecraft will bring back samples of interstellar dust, including recently discovered dust streaming into our Solar System from the direction of Sagittarius.

  12. Sample Return Capsule Landing Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-03

    Artist rendering of NASA Stardust capsule returning to Earth. The Stardust spacecraft will bring back samples of interstellar dust, including recently discovered dust streaming into our Solar System from the direction of Sagittarius.

  13. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading

  14. LITTLE JOE 5A - CAPSULE 14

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-01372 (21 Feb. 1961) --- Launch of the unmanned Mercury-Atlas 2 (MA-2) vehicle for a suborbital test flight of the Mercury capsule. The upper part of Atlas is stengthened by an eight-inch wide stainless steel band. The capsule was recovered less than one hour after launch. The altitude was 108 miles. Speed was 13,000 mph. Recovered 1,425 miles downrange. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Towards Polymer-Based Capsules with Drastically Reduced Controlled Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Daria V.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.

    Small molecules (dyes, therapeutics, etc.) could be easily handled, stored, delivered, and released by polyelectrolyte capsules. To make the polyelectrolyte capsule more efficient for small molecule encapsulation, capsule permeability should be significantly decreased. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to entrap water-soluble molecular species into polyelectrolyte capsules modified by a low permeable dense polymer (polypyrrole). Possible future areas in PE capsule application as carriers for gases and volatiles in the pharmaceutical, food, and gases industry, agriculture and cosmetology are discussed.

  16. Dynamics of nonspherical compound capsules in simple shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of an initially ellipsoidal compound capsule in a simple shear flow is investigated numerically using a three-dimensional front-tracking finite-difference model. Membrane bending resistance is included based on Helfrich's energy function besides the resistances against shear deformation and area dilatation governed by the constitutive law of Skalak et al. In this paper, we focus specifically on how the presence of a spherical inner capsule and its size affects the characteristics and transition of various dynamical states of nonspherical compound capsules (i.e., the outer capsule). Significant differences in the dynamical characteristics are observed between compound capsules and homogeneous capsules in both qualitative and quantitative terms. We find the transition from swinging to tumbling can occur at vanishing viscosity mismatch through increasing the inner capsule size alone to a critical value regardless of the initial shape of the nonspherical compound capsule (i.e., prolate or oblate). Besides, for compound capsules with viscosity mismatch, the critical viscosity ratio for the swinging-to-tumbling transition remarkably decreases by increasing the inner capsule size. It is thus concluded that the inner capsule size is a key governing parameter of compound capsule dynamics apart from the capillary number, aspect ratio, and viscosity ratio that have been long identified for homogeneous capsules. Further, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the effects of the inner capsule on the compound capsule dynamics from the viewpoint of the effective viscosity of internal fluid and find that the effects of the inner capsule on compound capsule dynamics are qualitatively similar to that of increasing the internal viscosity on homogeneous capsule dynamics. However, in quantitative terms, the compound capsule cannot be viewed as a homogeneous capsule with higher viscosity as obvious inhomogeneity in fluid stress distribution is induced by the inner membrane.

  17. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  18. CAPSULE REPORT: HARD CHROME FUME ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All existing information which includes the information extrapolated from the Hard Chrome Pollution Prevention Demonstration Project(s) and other sources derived from plating facilities and industry contacts, will be condensed and featured in this document. At least five chromium emission prevention/control devices have been tested covering a wide spectrum of techniques currently in use at small and large-sized chrome metal plating shops. The goal for limiting chromium emissions to levels specified in the MACT Standards are: (1) 0.030 milligrams per dry standard cubic meter of air (mg/dscm) for small facilities with existing tanks, (2) 0.015 mg/dscm for small facilities with new tanks or large facilities with existing or new tanks. It should be emphasized that chemical mist suppressants still have quality issues and work practices that need to be addressed when they are used. Some of the mist suppressants currently in use are: one-, two-, and three-stage mesh pad mist eliminators; composite mesh pad mist eliminators; packed-bed scrubbers and polyballs. This capsule report should, redominantly, emphasize pollution prevention techniques and include, but not be restricted to, the afore-mentioned devices. Information

  19. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  20. Capsule Implosion Symmetry in OMEGA Tetrahedral Hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.; Pollaine, S. M.; Turner, R. E.; Wallace, J. M.; Murphy, T. J.; Delamater, N. D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hauer, A. A.; Klare, K. A.

    1998-11-01

    The 3-D time-dependent capsule implosion symmetry has been calculated for spherical hohlraums with four laser entrance holes. The code BUTTERCUP calculates the locations of beam spots on the hohlraum wall and includes a model for the absorption and x-ray conversion of the laser energy. The gold wall is heated by 1-D radiation diffusion, and radiation transport is carried out with a 3-D view-factor algorithm. A simple hydrodynamic calculation of the imploding capsule gives the resulting 3-D time-dependent drive symmetry. The predicted radiation uniformity incident on the capsule is very good ( ~1% rms) throughout the laser pulse. Experimental images of the capsule show round implosions with convergence ratios of 10 for standard capsules,(T. J. Murphy, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42), 2008 (1997). in agreement with predictions. Radiation temperatures and capsule trajectories are calculated and show good agreement with experiment. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460.