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Sample records for poco ao posto

  1. Poco Graphite Mirror Metrology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently a lightweight mirror technology was tested at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optic Manufacturing Technology Center (MSFC, SOMTC). The mirror is a Poco Graphite CVD Si clad SiC substrate. It was tested for cryogenic (cryo) survivability to 20deg Kelvin in SOMTC's X-ray Calibration and Cryogenic Test Facility. The surface figure of the mirror was measured before and after cry0 cycling. The test technique and results are discussed.

  2. Retinal AO OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Miller, Donald T.

    The last two decades have witnessed extraordinary advances in optical technology to image noninvasively and at high resolution the posterior segment of the eye. Two of the most impactful technological advancements over this period have arguably been optical coherence tomography (OCT) and adaptive optics (AO). The strengths of these technologies complement each other and when combined have been shown to provide unprecedented, micron-scale resolution (<3 μm) in all three dimensions and sensitivity to image the cellular retina in the living eye. This powerful extension of OCT, that is AO-OCT, is the focus of this chapter. It presents key aspects of designing and implementing AO-OCT systems. Particular attention is devoted to the relevant optical properties of the eye that ultimately define these systems, AO componentry and operation tailored for ophthalmic use, and of course use of the latest technologies and methods in OCT for ocular imaging. It surveys the wide range of AO-OCT designs that have been developed for retinal imaging, with AO integrated into every major OCT design configuration. Finally, it reviews the scientific and clinical studies reported to date that show the exciting potential of AO-OCT to image the microscopic retina and fundus in ways not previously possible with other noninvasive methods and a look to future developments in this rapidly growing field.

  3. PoCos: Population Covering Locus Sets for Risk Assessment in Complex Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility loci identified by GWAS generally account for a limited fraction of heritability. Predictive models based on identified loci also have modest success in risk assessment and therefore are of limited practical use. Many methods have been developed to overcome these limitations by incorporating prior biological knowledge. However, most of the information utilized by these methods is at the level of genes, limiting analyses to variants that are in or proximate to coding regions. We propose a new method that integrates protein protein interaction (PPI) as well as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data to identify sets of functionally related loci that are collectively associated with a trait of interest. We call such sets of loci “population covering locus sets” (PoCos). The contributions of the proposed approach are three-fold: 1) We consider all possible genotype models for each locus, thereby enabling identification of combinatorial relationships between multiple loci. 2) We develop a framework for the integration of PPI and eQTL into a heterogenous network model, enabling efficient identification of functionally related variants that are associated with the disease. 3) We develop a novel method to integrate the genotypes of multiple loci in a PoCo into a representative genotype to be used in risk assessment. We test the proposed framework in the context of risk assessment for seven complex diseases, type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D), psoriasis (PS), bipolar disorder (BD), coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension (HT), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Our results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms individual variant based risk assessment models as well as the state-of-the-art polygenic score. We also show that incorporation of eQTL data improves the performance of identified POCOs in risk assessment. We also assess the biological relevance of PoCos for three diseases that have similar biological mechanisms and

  4. Poco Graphite Inc. SuperSiC 0.25m Mirror Cryogenic Test Result

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ron; Stahl, Phil; Hogue, Bill; Hadaway, James

    2004-01-01

    SuperSiC, a low areal density material, developed by POCO Graphite, have been used as mirror substrate for high energy lasers, laser radar systems, surveillance, telescopes, scan mirrors and satellites. SuperSiC has excellent thermal properties and cryogenic stability. It exhibits exceptional polishability for reflective optics with high strength, stiffness, and excellent thermal conductivity. A lightweighted 0.2-diameter polished SuperSic mirror was tested at cryogenic temperature at NASMSFC. Optical test results showed 6nm cry0 deformation from ambient to 30 degrees Kelvin and little to no change in its surface figure due to cry0 cycling.

  5. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  6. Quantification and Mood Distribution in Spanish Complements: On the Negative Features of "Poco/a/s" in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskurain-Ibarluzea, Patxi

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies mood distribution in the complement of Spanish assertive matrices when the matrix subject is modified by the quantifier "poco/a/s". The focus of this study is solely complement clauses, and adjectival and adverbial clauses are not considered. Following Mejías-Bikandi's (1994, 1998) account that the distribution of mood…

  7. Quantification and Mood Distribution in Spanish Complements: On the Negative Features of "Poco/a/s" in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskurain-Ibarluzea, Patxi

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies mood distribution in the complement of Spanish assertive matrices when the matrix subject is modified by the quantifier "poco/a/s". The focus of this study is solely complement clauses, and adjectival and adverbial clauses are not considered. Following Mejías-Bikandi's (1994, 1998) account that the distribution of mood…

  8. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; hide

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  9. Cometas: Das Lendas aos Fatos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    O descobrimento de cometas, devido ao seu aparecimento espetacular, tem registro nas mais antigas culturas humanas. A primeira referência situa-se no ano de 1095 antes de Cristo [a.C.; HO; HO, 1962]. A quantidade de registros de descobrimentos cometários, principalmente provenientes do território chinês em particular e do oriente em geral, aumentou gradualmente a partir do quarto século depois de Cristo (d.C.). É de origem chinesa a primeira referência ao cometa P/Halley no ano de 240 a.C. [VOELZKE, 1993]. Com o desenvolvimento da astronomia relativamente às técnicas observacionais os descobrimentos bem como as observações cometárias aumentaram sensivelmente a partir do século XVII, sendo que a partir do século XIX um novo incremento ocorreu devido ao emprego da fotografia e a resultante melhora de sensibilidade na observação.

  10. Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F. (Principal Investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

  11. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  12. SRAO: the first southern robotic AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-08-01

    We present plans for SRAO, the first Southern Robotic AO system. SRAO will use AO-assisted speckle imaging and Robo-AO-heritage high efficiency observing to confirm and characterize thousands of planet candidates produced by major new transit surveys like TESS, and is the first AO system to be capable of building a comprehensive several-thousand-target multiplicity survey at sub-AU scales across the main sequence. We will also describe results from Robo-AO, the first robotic LGS-AO system. Robo-AO has observed tens of thousands of Northern targets, often using a similar speckle or Lucky-Imaging assisted mode. SRAO will be a moderate-order natural-guide-star adaptive optics system which uses an innovative photoncounting wavefront sensor and EMCCD speckle-imaging camera to guide on faint stars with the 4.1m SOAR telescope. The system will produce diffraction-limited imaging in the NIR on targets as faint as mν = 16. In AO-assisted speckle imaging mode the system will attain the 30-mas visible diffraction limit on targets at least as faint as mν = 17. The system will be the first Southern hemisphere robotic adaptive optics system, with overheads an order of magnitude smaller than comparable systems. Using Robo-AO's proven robotic AO software, SRAO will be capable of observing overheads on sub-minute scales, allowing the observation of at least 200 targets per night. SRAO will attain three times the angular resolution of the Palomar Robo-AO system in the visible.

  13. MagAO: status and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Hinz, Phil M.; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Briguglio, Runa; Follette, Katherine B.; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio; Vezilj, Jennifer; Xompero, Marco; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2016-07-01

    "MagAO" is the adaptive optics instrument at the Magellan Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. MagAO has a 585-actuator adaptive secondary mirror and 1000-Hz pyramid wavefront sensor, operating on natural guide stars from R-magnitudes of -1 to 15. MagAO has been in on-sky operation for 166 nights since installation in 2012. MagAO's unique capabilities are simultaneous imaging in the visible and infrared with VisAO and Clio, excellent performance at an excellent site, and a lean operations model. Science results from MagAO include the first ground-based CCD image of an exoplanet, demonstration of the first accreting protoplanets, discovery of a new wide-orbit exoplanet, and the first empirical bolometric luminosity of an exoplanet. We describe the status, report the AO performance, and summarize the science results. New developments reported here include color corrections on red guide stars for the wavefront sensor; a new field stop stage to facilitate VisAO imaging of extended sources; and eyepiece observing at the visible-light diffraction limit of a 6.5-m telescope. We also discuss a recent hose failure that led to a glycol coolant leak, and the recovery of the adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) after this recent (Feb. 2016) incident.

  14. Genomic and Functional Analyses of Rhodococcus equi Phages ReqiPepy6, ReqiPoco6, ReqiPine5, and ReqiDocB7 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Summer, E. J.; Liu, M.; Gill, J. J.; Grant, M.; Chan-Cortes, T. N.; Ferguson, L.; Janes, C.; Lange, K.; Bertoli, M.; Moore, C.; Orchard, R. C.; Cohen, N. D.; Young, R.

    2011-01-01

    The isolation and results of genomic and functional analyses of Rhodococcus equi phages ReqiPepy6, ReqiDocB7, ReqiPine5, and ReqiPoco6 (hereafter referred to as Pepy6, DocB7, Pine5, and Poco6, respectively) are reported. Two phages, Pepy6 and Poco6, more than 75% identical, exhibited genome organization and protein sequence likeness to Lactococcus lactis phage 1706 and clostridial prophage elements. An unusually high fraction, 27%, of Pepy6 and Poco6 proteins were predicted to possess at least one transmembrane domain, a value much higher than the average of 8.5% transmembrane domain-containing proteins determined from a data set of 36,324 phage protein entries. Genome organization and protein sequence comparisons place phage Pine5 as the first nonmycobacteriophage member of the large Rosebush cluster. DocB7, which had the broadest host range among the four isolates, was not closely related to any phage or prophage in the database, and only 23 of 105 predicted encoded proteins could be assigned a functional annotation. Because of the relationship of Rhodococcus to Mycobacterium, it was anticipated that these phages should exhibit some of the features characteristic of mycobacteriophages. Traits that were identified as shared by the Rhodococcus phages and mycobacteriophages include the prevalent long-tailed morphology and the presence of genes encoding LysB-like mycolate-hydrolyzing lysis proteins. Application of DocB7 lysates to soils amended with a host strain of R. equi reduced recoverable bacterial CFU, suggesting that phage may be useful in limiting R. equi load in the environment while foals are susceptible to infection. PMID:21097585

  15. PSF reconstruction for AO photometry and astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenso, J.; Neichel, B.; Silva, M.; Fusco, T.; Garcia, P.

    2015-12-01

    Extracting accurate photometry (and astrometry) from images taken with adaptive optics assisted instruments is particularly challenging. Current post-processing tools are not prepared to achieve high accuracy from AO data, especially in limiting cases of crowded fields and marginally resolved sources. We quantify the limitations of these tools with synthetic images, and present a proof-of-concept study showing the potential of using reconstructed PSFs from the (GL)AO system telemetry to increase the measured photometric accuracy. We show that the photometric accuracy is significantly improved with a good PSF reconstruction in considerably crowded regions. We demonstrate the need for a dedicated post-processing tool that incorporates available information about the PSF, as well as the ability to adjust to the spatial variations of the PSF characteristic of AO data.

  16. Twelve thousand laser-AO observations: first results from the Robo-AO large surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed L.

    2014-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first AO system which can feasibly perform surveys of thousands of targets. The system has been operating in a fully robotic mode on the Palomar 1.5m telescope for almost two years. Robo-AO has completed nearly 12,000 high-angular-resolution observations in almost 20 separate science programs including exoplanet characterization, field star binarity, young star binarity and solar system observations. We summarize the Robo-AO surveys and the observations completed to date. We also describe the data-reduction pipeline we developed for Robo-AO—the first fully-automated AO data-reduction, point-spread-function subtraction and companion-search pipeline.

  17. Characterization of an AO-OCT system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2007-07-26

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-volumetric-resolution, images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has been under development for 2 years and has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging [1]. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction [2] and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction [3]. We are beginning to investigate the potential for increasing the image contrast in this system using higher-order wavefront correction. The first step in this analysis is to quantify the residual wavefront error (WFE) in the current system. Developing an error budget is a common tool for improved performance and system design in astronomical AO systems [4, 5]. The process for vision science systems is also discussed in several texts e.g. [6], but results from this type of analysis have rarely been included in journal articles on AO for vision science. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of a future high-contrast system. In general, an AO system error budget must include an analysis of three categories of residual WFE: errors in measuring the phase, errors caused by limitations of the DM(s), and errors introduced by temporal variation. Understanding the mechanisms and relative size of these errors is critical to improving system performance. In this paper we discuss the techniques for characterizing these error sources in the AO-OCT system. It is useful to first calculate an error budget for the simpler case using a model eye, and then add the additional errors introduced for the case of a human subject. Measurement error includes calibration error, wavefront sensor (WFS) CCD noise, and sampling errors. Calibration errors must be measured by an external system. Typically this

  18. AoB PLANTS: origins and features.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    AoB PLANTS is a peer reviewed, Open Access (OA) journal owned and run by plant biologists and published by Oxford University Press. The journal publishes research papers, reviews and opinion papers on all aspects of land based plant biology. They are made available rapidly online and can be accessed without the need for subscriptions or payment. Several difficulties in conventional publishing of peer-reviewed manuscripts encouraged AoB PLANTS to adopt OA. Open Access helps sidestep library budgets which are struggling to purchase the increasing numbers of journals. Open Access makes research freely available both to the academic community and beyond while publishing online only eliminates the need to reject good manuscripts simply to control the size of the printed journal. Finally, the journal chose to go OA to ensure the widest possible international readership for the growing amount of high-quality plant science research being carried out worldwide in response to problems such as climate change and food shortages. Responses to a wide-ranging online questionnaire indicated strong international support for a journal such as AoB PLANTS. AoB PLANTS strives for fair and rapid peer review followed by fast publication of accepted papers. For an initial period, there will be no OA fees, and fees will remain modest once introduced. AoB PLANTS adopts double-blind peer review using published criteria for acceptability as a basis for decision-making. Accepted papers are published shortly after acceptance together with referees' analyses using Stanford University Libraries High Wire Press H2O platform. Authors retain ownership of the copyright in their papers.

  19. Recent enhancements to the NAOMI AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolley, Paul D.; Goodsell, Stephen; Benn, Chris R.; Gregory, Thomas; Rees, Simon; van der Hoeven, Michiel; Blanken, Maarten; Pit, Renee

    2004-10-01

    The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics Multipurpose Instrument (NAOMI) is the adaptive optics (AO) platform on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes (ING). Until recently NAOMI has been concentrating on near infrared observations using the Isaac Newton Group Red Imaging Device (INGRID). Recent developments have added an extra optical port to NAOMI. The observer can now rapidly switch between infrared and optical instrumentation during AO observing, making the system more appealing for visiting instruments. To allow for the operation of the common user optical spectrograph OASIS, a new optical path was created around the existing NAOMI optics. Various mechanisms were also added to the whole optical system. The OASIS beam was reshaped to f/20. The original optical/IR beam remains unchanged at f/16, and forms a new universal science port (USP). The existing Nasmyth Calibration Unit (NCU) has been replaced with a new design. This new NCU has multiple fibre-fed light sources that include continuum and arc lamps. The intensity of light can be individually adjusted via computer control. A new acquisition camera is mounted such that it can be used simultaneously with the spectral lamps. Software upgrades now allow faster deformable mirror calibration. A moveable mirror is used to select which science port will receive the light. Enhancements to the NAOMI AO system are discussed in this paper and suggestions for possible future upgrades.

  20. MEMS DM development at Iris AO, Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Kempf, Carl J.; Besse, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Iris AO is actively developing piston-tip-tilt (PTT) segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) and adaptive optics (AO) controllers for these DMs. This paper discusses ongoing research at Iris AO that has advanced the state-of-the-art of these devices and systems over the past year. Improvements made to open-loop operation and mirror fabrication enables mirrors to open-loop flatten to 4 nm rms. Additional testing of an anti snap-in technology was conducted and demonstrates that the technology can withstand 100 million snap-in events without failure. Deformable mirrors with dielectric coatings are shown that are capable of handling 630 W/cm2 of incident laser power. Over a localized region on the segment, the dielectric coatings can withstand 100kW/cm2 incident laser power for 30 minutes. Results from the first-ever batch of PTT489 DMs that were shipped to pilot customers are reported. Optimizations made to the open-loop PTT controller are shown to have latencies of 157.5 μs and synchronous array update rates of nearly 6.5 kHz. Finally, plans for the design and fabrication of the next-generation PTT939 DM are presented.

  1. Deformable mirror designs for extreme AO (XAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaco, Jeffrey; Wirth, Allan

    2014-08-01

    One of the science missions for the next generation of extremely large ground based telescopes (30-42m apertures) is the imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets. To achieve that goal an Adaptive Optics (AO) subsystem with a very large number of corrected modes is required. To provide contrast ratios in the range of 10-9 or better for a 42m telescope an AO system with 25,000 to 60,000 channels will be needed. This is approximately an order of magnitude beyond the current state of the art. Adaptive Optics Associates Xinetics has developed the Photonex Module Deformable Mirror (DM) technology specifically to address the needs of extreme AO for high contrast applications. A Photonex Module is a monolithic block of electrostrictive ceramic in which a high density of individually addressable actuators are formed by screen printing of electrodes and partial wire saw cutting of the ceramic. The printed electrode structures also allow all electrical connections to be made at the back surface of the module via flex circuits. Actuator spacings of 1mm or less have been achieved using this approach. The individual modules can be edge butted and bonded to achieve high actuator count. The largest DMs fabricated to date have 4096 actuators in a 64X64mm array. In this paper the engineering challenges in extending this technology by a factor of ten or more in actuator count will be discussed. A conceptual design for a DM suitable for XAO will be presented. Approaches for a support structure that will maintain the low spatial frequency surface figure of this large (~0.6m) DM and for the electrical interface to the tens of thousands of actuators will be discussed. Finally, performance estimates will be presented.

  2. AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, F.; Rigaut, F.; Price, I.; Herrald, N.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small (1-2 m) telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems (EOS) from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras. We are able to track satellites down to magnitude 10 with a Strehl in excess of 20% in median seeing.

  3. Acid rock drainage and radiological environmental impacts. A study case of the uranium mining and milling facilities at Pocos de Caldas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R.; Veiga, L.H.

    1998-12-31

    Acid rock drainage generated as a result of sulfitic minerals oxidation is a source of pollution in many mining sites all around the world. This is the case at the uranium mining site of Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. The present study was aimed at studying the geochemical mechanisms involved on the mobilization of radionuclides from the waste rocks that occurs along with the acid drainage. The environmental radiological impacts caused by these pollutants were also assessed. It has been shown that precipitation of Ra and Pb as sulfates was the most important mechanism in the reduction of both radionuclides activity concentration in the acid drainage. A result of this study was that uranium isotopes were the most important radionuclides in terms of the exposure of the critical group. It has been suggested that the recovery of uranium from the acid drainage would be a feasible practice, economical aspects taken into account. It has also been estimated that pyrite oxidation will occur for more than a thousand years. The long time scale involved on the oxidation of the pyritic material implies the need for the adoption of permanent remedial actions. To assess applicable remediation strategies it has been suggested that oxygen and temperature profile determinations should be carried out in the dump.

  4. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A

    2002-08-01

    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  5. Results of AO simulations for ELTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conan, Rodolphe; Le Louarn, Miska; Braud, J.; Fedrigo, Enrico; Hubin, Norbert N.

    2003-01-01

    The design and elaboration of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) with primary mirror from 20m to 100m face with many challenges: mechanical, optical, computational, etc. To benefit completely of the full potentiality of such facilities, an Adaptive Optics System (AOS) have also to be designed for these telescopes. For whole field--of--view compensation and full sky coverage, the new but promising Multi--Conjugated Adaptive Optics (MCAO) technique has to be envisaged. The first step towards the design of an MCAO system is the numerical simulation. This is the first challenge we have to face. The scale of AO simulations being imposed by the ratio (D/r0), the simulation requirements of a MCAOS for an ELT, in terms of computing power and memory available to store the data, reach and sometimes overcome the capacity of actual computers. In ESO, we have evaluated different hardware and software strategies to achieve MCAO simulations goals. Two codes have been developed to simulate MCAOS using an analytical and an end-to-end model. The goals and advantages/limitations of both approaches is shown. The hardware requirements for both methods is also given through the size of their largest matrices. And finally, results of hardware and software tests for MCAO simulations with PC--cluster and paralleled code are presented.

  6. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em

  7. AO Infrared Imaging of M71 Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberg, Andres; Richer, H.; Brewer, J.; Davis, S.; Hickson, P.; Knigge, C.; Dieball, A.; Hurley, J.; Shara, M.; Hansen, B.; Gebhardt, K.; Fahlman, G.

    2007-05-01

    In this poster we present infrared H and K AO data taken with ALTAIR/NIRI on Gemini North of the globular cluster Messier 71. This data represents approximately 22ks of observations in H and 17ks in K, in a field 22x22 arcsec centered on the core of the cluster. These data were secured under superb conditions and will provide an excellent opportunity to pursue our scientific goals. These goals include the observation of the end of hydrogen-burning main sequence in a moderately metal-rich globular cluster and, by fitting the brightness profile and looking for deviations from a King model, we will search for evidence for a central black hole in this cluster.

  8. Review of AO calibrations, or how to best educate your AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Johann

    2016-07-01

    If the Real-Time Computer is the heart of an AO system, the Wavefront Sensor (WFS) its eyes, the Deformable Mirror (DM) its hands and the control strategy its nervous system, the sum of all those parts is made into a harmonious entity thanks to calibrations. This paper does not have the ambition to provide an overview of all the currently existing calibration strategies, but rather to focus on a few challenging problems and their recent evolution in the era of adaptive telescopes, mostly based on the experience of ESO's Adaptive Optics Instruments in general and the AO Facility in particular. Single most important calibration in post-focal AO system, the recording of the Interaction Matrix (IM) between WFS and DM has since long evolved to use fast modulation techniques, has shown to be feasible on-sky and is now almost free from measurements thanks to its pseudo-synthetic generation, quasi-mandatory solution in an adaptive telescope. Pseudo- because it requires an unprecedented knowledge of the components' characteristics, especially the WFS, DM and the optical registration between the two. Bigger telescopes and the use of Laser Guide Stars (LGS) also mean that the properties of the system will change in time and thus need to be constantly updated thanks to online diagnosis tools for spot size measurement, atmosphere monitoring, Wavefront Sensing and control optimization. New loops come into play like the one to minimize LGS Jitter and the one taking over the telescope active optics by means of offloading the DM low orders, and they all require calibration. More calibration means more time and one has to carefully balance the calibrations that require precious telescope night time, day time or for the best, no telescope time at all. Their importance sometimes underestimated, calibrations have repeatedly shown to be a vital part in the optimum functioning of present and future AO systems.

  9. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Nofi, Larissa; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-12-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets. We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys. Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss plans to extend the survey to other transiting planet missions such as K2 and TESS as Robo-AO is in the process of being re-deployed to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for 3 years and a higher-contrast Robo-AO system is being developed for the 2.2-m UH telescope on Maunakea.

  10. Directly Imaging Planets with SCExAO: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne M.; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Uyama, Taichi; Garcia, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    We present the first science results from the newly commissioned Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics project, an experimental system dedicated to image faint jovian planets around nearby stars. SCExAO is now achieving true extreme AO capability. We describe the typical performance of SCExAO, the first images of benchmark exoplanets and planet-forming disks, and SCExAO’s first science results. Finally, we briefly chart the path forward for SCExAO to achieve its full scientific capability, including imaging mature planets in reflected light.

  11. Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelinck, Roger; Rosielle, Nick; Steinbuch, Maarten; Doelman, Niek

    New deformable mirror technology is developed by the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Delft University of Technology and TNO Science and Industry. Several prototype adaptive deformable mirrors are realized mirrors, up to 427 actuators and ∅150mm diameter, with characteristics suitable for future AO systems. The prototypes consist of a 100µm thick, continuous facesheet on which low voltage, electromagnetic, push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. The variable reluctance actuators with ±10µm stroke and nanometer resolution are located in a standard actuator module. Each module with 61 actuators connects to a single PCB with dedicated, 16 bit, PWM based, drivers. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. An Ethernet-LVDS bridge enables any commercial PC to control the mirror using the UDP standard. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented.

  12. WIYN active optics: a platform for AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Code, Arthur D.; Claver, Charles F.; Goble, Larry W.; Jacoby, George H.; Sawyer, David G.

    1998-09-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope is situated on the southwest ridge of Kitt Peak yielding excellent atmosphere seeing conditions. As such, the telescope and enclosure design was directed towards exploiting this feature. The primary mirror was spun cast and figured by the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory and the secondary mirror by Contraves. In both cases the performance exceeded the design specifications. The borosilicate primary is actively temperature controlled to within 0.2 C of the desired temperature, typically 0.5 degrees C below the ambient air. The telescope structure is also temperature controlled and the enclosure is opened to the outside ion all sides, which all heat sources are vented to ducts carrying air downwind of the facility. The primary mirror is actively controlled for low order aberrations by 66 axial actuators which are adjusted open loop via force matrix look-up tables and closed loop via real-time wavefront curvature sensing measurements. The active optics also included real-time collimation and focus control. The telescope drive and guider are capable of providing tracking to a few hundredths of a second of arc. By employing active telescope control at this level, it is possible to maintain telescope and local wavefront distortion to a level where atmospheric effects dominate the image quality. Since a significant fraction of the power in the atmospheric disturbances is contained in image motion the first step in adaptive optics control will be simple tip tilt. Studies of higher order AO system are being carried out, as well as additional test characterizing the telescope and site. It is intended to continue such studies in an attempt to establish long term variances.

  13. NFIRAOS Multiconjugate AO System for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herriot, Glen; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Byrnes, Peter; Boyer, Corinne; Caputa, Kris; Correia, Carlos; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Gilles, Luc; Hickson, Paul; Hill, Alexis; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vlad; Smith, Malcolm; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lianqi; Wevers, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    NFIRAOS, the Adaptive Optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope, is a Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics System of order 60x60 with two deformable mirrors and six laser guide star wavefront sensors. NFIRAOS is 8 x 10 x 5 m (L x W x H) on a Nasmyth Platform and supports three client instruments operating over 0.8 - 2.5 μm wavelength range. In this paper we discuss: NFIRAOS' requirements and architecture; changes to NFIRAOS since the last AO4ELT conference; interior details of NFIRAOS; interfaces to instruments; integration and verification plans. Top-level science requirements include 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole with <187 nm wavefront error. Astrometry is an important science driver - to minimize image distortion, we have recently revised the optical design to use four off-axis paraboloidal mirrors. We have vastly simplified the laser WFS zoom optics and moved them inside the cold enclosure. To control image magnification, differential magnification and tip/tilt/focus, NFIRAOS' client instruments have three low-order warfront sensors monitoring near-infrared natural guide stars. These stars are sharpened by NFIRAOS, which assists sky coverage. NFIRAOS will have high throughput and low thermal background - it will be cooled to -30 °C. The insulated walls have a buried cold plate to intercept heat leakage and isothermalize the interior of NFIRAOS. Instruments have stringent requirements on heat leakage and must provide their own rotator and interface to NFIRAOS, including a rotating seal. For wavelength and flat field calibration of client instruments, a NFIRAOS Science Calibration Unit (NSCU) feeds light in the entrance window, through NFIRAOS, to instruments. Inside NFIRAOS are deployable light sources simulating natural and laser guide stars, a focal plane mask with pinholes illuminated by the NSCU, as well as a turbulence phase screen. A prototype screen has been manufactured by magneto-rheological machining. We are currently updating the NFIRAOS

  14. Robo-AO: Performance and Characterization at Palomar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R. L.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Punnadi, S.; Chordia, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hosted at the Palomar 60-inch telescope, Robo-AO is the world's first completely autonomous, laser-beacon supported adaptive optics (AO) system, delivering diffraction-limited images in the visible and IR wavelengths. With simultaneous turbulence monitoring using a MASS-DIMM instrument, we have characterized the performance of Robo-AO as a function of local seeing, turbulence profile, laser return power and the brightness of the tip-tilt star. We shall present the various AO metrics: The full-width at half maxima of the point spread function, the Strehl ratio, the isoplanatic angle and their variations with the atmospheric and operating conditions. Strategies for optimizing robotic AO observations based on varying conditions will be discussed.

  15. The path to visible extreme adaptive optics with MagAO-2K and MagAO-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Guyon, Olivier; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Esposito, Simone; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Riccardi, Armando; Puglisi, Alfio; Mazin, Ben; Ireland, Michael J.; Weinberger, Alycia; Conrad, Al; Kenworthy, Matthew; Snik, Frans; Otten, Gilles; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien

    2016-07-01

    The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) have the potential to image habitable rocky planets, if suitably optimized. This will require the development of fast high order "extreme" adaptive optics systems for the ELTs. Located near the excellent site of the future GMT, the Magellan AO system (MagAO) is an ideal on-sky testbed for high contrast imaging development. Here we discuss planned upgrades to MagAO. These include improvements in WFS sampling (enabling correction of more modes) and an increase in speed to 2000 Hz, as well as an H2RG detector upgrade for the Clio infrared camera. This NSF funded project, MagAO-2K, is planned to be on-sky in November 2016 and will significantly improve the performance of MagAO at short wavelengths. Finally, we describe MagAO-X, a visible-wavelength extreme-AO "afterburner" system under development. MagAO-X will deliver Strehl ratios of over 80% in the optical and is optimized for visible light coronagraphy.

  16. First closed-loop visible AO test results for the advanced adaptive secondary AO system for the Magellan Telescope: MagAO's performance and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek A.; Gasho, Victor; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Phil; Morzinski, Katie; Uomoto, Alan; Hare, Tyson; Riccardi, Armando; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Busoni, Lorenzo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Argomedo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    The heart of the 6.5 Magellan AO system (MagAO) is a 585 actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with <1 msec response times (0.7 ms typically). This adaptive secondary will allow low emissivity and high-contrast AO science. We fabricated a high order (561 mode) pyramid wavefront sensor (similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope). The relatively high actuator count (and small projected ~23 cm pitch) allows moderate Strehls to be obtained by MagAO in the “visible” (0.63-1.05 μm). To take advantage of this we have fabricated an AO CCD science camera called "VisAO". Complete “end-to-end” closed-loop lab tests of MagAO achieve a solid, broad-band, 37% Strehl (122 nm rms) at 0.76 μm (i’) with the VisAO camera in 0.8” simulated seeing (13 cm ro at V) with fast 33 mph winds and a 40 m Lo locked on R=8 mag artificial star. These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with 400 controlled modes and 1000 Hz sample speeds (similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT). Currently only the VisAO science camera is used for lab testing of MagAO, but this high level of measured performance (122 nm rms) promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras. On bright (R=8 mag) stars we should achieve very high Strehls (>70% at H) in the IR with the existing MagAO Clio2 (λ=1-5.3 μm) science camera/coronagraph or even higher (~98% Strehl) the Mid-IR (8-26 microns) with the existing BLINC/MIRAC4 science camera in the future. To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the VisAO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June 2009, and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December 2011. Final system acceptance (

  17. AO 0235+164 and Surrounding Field: Surprising HST Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, E. M.; Beaver, E. A.; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, V. T.; Lyons, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope on the highly variable radio, x-ray, and gamma-ray emitting QSO (or BL Lac object) AO 0235 + 164 are presented and analyzed. WFPC2 images were obtained in 1994 June, when AO 0235 + 164 was bright (m approx. 17), and the results are described in Sec. 3. After subtraction of the PSF of the QSO, hereafter called AO following the nomenclature of Yanny et al. (1989), the companion object named A, 2 sec south of AO, is discovered not to be an elliptical galaxy as hypothesized earlier, but to be an AGN object, with a central UV-bright point-source nucleus and faint surrounding nebulosity extending to AO. The second companion object 1.3 sec east of AO discovered by Yanny et al. (1989) and named object Al, appears more like a normal spiral galaxy. We have measured the positions, luminosities, and colors of some 30 faint objects in the field around AO 0235 + 16; most are extended and may be star-forming galaxies in a loose group or cluster. Our most surprising result of the HST observations comes from FOS spectra obtained in 1995 July, discussed in Sec. 4. Because of a positioning error of the telescope and AO's faintness at that time (m approx. 20), object A was observed instead of the intended target AO. Serendipitously, we discovered A to have broad deep BALQSO-type absorptions of C IV, Si IV, N V shortward of broad emissions. A is thus ejecting high velocity, highly ionized gas into the surrounding IGM. We discuss in Sec. 5 the relationship of the objects in the central 10 sec X 1O sec region around AO, where redshifts z(sub e) = 0.94, z(sub a) = 0.524, 0.851 in AO, (sub e) = 0.524 and Z(sub BAL)=0.511 in A, are found. We hypothesize that some of the 30 faint objects in the 77 sec. x 77 sec. field may be part of a large star-forming region at z approx. 0.5, as suggested for a few objects by Yanny et al. (1989). The proximity of two highly active extragalactic objects, AO 0235+164 and its AGN companion A, is remarkable and

  18. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project: Progress and Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.; Clergeon, C.; Garrel, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 λ/D. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss two exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks.

  19. The Robo-AO automated intelligent queue system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Hogstrom, Kristina; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.

    2014-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first automated laser adaptive optics instrument. In just its second year of scientific operations, it has completed the largest adaptive optics surveys to date, each comprising thousands of targets. Robo-AO uses a fully automated queue scheduling system that selects targets based on criteria entered on a per observing program or per target basis, and includes the ability to coordinate with US Strategic Command automatically to avoid lasing space assets. This enables Robo-AO to select among thousands of targets at a time, and achieve an average observation rate of approximately 20 targets per hour.

  20. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  1. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control (``speckle nulling''). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield > 90% Strehl ratio and enable 106-107 contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  2. LGS-AO Imaging of Every Kepler Planet Candidate: the Robo-AO KOI Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas Michael; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Timothy; Ziegler, Carl; Atkinson, Dani; Riddle, Reed

    2015-08-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging, to search for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3,000 Kepler planet hosts in 2012-2015. We will describe our first data release covering 715 planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets.We will also describe the automated Robo-AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys.Our first data release covered 715 objects, searching for companions from 0.15” to 2.5” separation with contrast up to 6 magnitudes. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7.4+/-1.0%, and we will detail the variations in this number with stellar host parameters. We will also discuss several KOIs of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are ``coincident multiple'' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we will discuss and update the 98%-confidence evidence from our survey that third bodies in star/planet systems produce an excess of close-in giant planets.

  3. Real-time processing for the ATST AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K.; Rimmele, T.

    The real-time processing requirements for the four meter Advanced Technology Solar Telescope extended source high order adaptive optics system will be approximately 15 times that of the Dunn Solar Telescope AO systems on which the ATST AO system is based. The ATST AO, with its approximately 1232 subapertures, will use massively parallel processing and is based on Analog Devices TigerSHARC DSPs as the central processing units. We will discuss the requirements for processing and data handling and the architecture of the correlating Shack-Hartmannn and reconstructor processing unit and present the results of bench-mark testing of the DSP hardware that was selected for the ATST AO system.

  4. Visible AO Observations at Halpha for Accreting Young Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Follette, K.; Males, J. R.; Morzinski, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Wu, Y.-L.; Apai, D.; Najita, J.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Bailey, V.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Weinberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution science in the visible with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.5-0.7'') we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60s) r' (0.63μm) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl ~ 28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young (~ 1 Myr) Orion Trapezium θ1 Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary θ1 Ori C 1 C 2 was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. Relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with ~ 0.6-5 mas accuracy. In the second commissioning run we were able to correct 378 modes and achieved good contrasts (Strehl>20% on young transition disks at Hα). We discuss the contrasts achieved at Hα and the possibility of detecting low mass (~ 1-5 Mjup) planets (past 5AU) with our new SAPPHIRES survey with MagAO at Hα.

  5. Beyond the Blur: Construction and Characterization of the First Autonomous AO System, and, An AO Survey of Magnetar Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh Prakash

    Adaptive optics (AO) corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies. This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo-AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo-AO, at the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Robo-AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead < 50s, typically observing about 22 targets every hour. We have performed large AO programs observing a total of over 7,500 targets since May 2012. In the visible band, the images have a Strehl ratio of about 10% and achieve a contrast of upto 6 magnitudes at a separation of 1‧‧. The full-width at half maximum achieved is 110-130 milli-arcsecond. I describe how Robo-AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo-AO system. In the second part, I describe a study of magnetar kinematics using high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) AO imaging from the 10-meter Keck II telescope. Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0.7 milli-arcsecond/yr -1, we have more than tripled the previously known sample of magnetar proper motions and proved that magnetar kinematics are equivalent to those of radio pulsars. We conclusively showed that SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20 were ejected from the stellar clusters with which they were traditionally associated. The inferred kinematic ages of these two magnetars are 6 +/- 1.8 kyr and 650 +/-3 00

  6. Period Studies of Close Binaries, AO Cam and AW Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Han, Won-Yong; Nha, Il-Seong

    1992-06-01

    Photoelectric observations of close binary stars, AO Cam and AW Cam, were made during the 1984 observing season with the 61cm reflector at the Sobaeksan Observatory. One time of primary minimum for AO Cam and three primary epochs for AW Cam were derived from the observation of these two system. Times of minimum light of these two binaries collected from literature were analyzed with a least square fitting method. New improved light elements for AO Cam and AW Cam were determined. The orbital period of AO Cam had been constant from October, 1980(JD 2444520) to February, 1985(JD 2446107). However, one secondary time of minimum(JD 2447864.7879) of AO Cam published recently by Mullis and Faulkner(1991) shows large deviation of about 4.6 minutes (0.d0032) from the one predicted by our new light elements. Future observations of times of minima for this system are needed to test this period change. The orbital period of AW Cam has been constant as P = 0d77134645 for about sixty years from the early 1930's to the present.

  7. Characterizing and mitigating vibrations for SCExAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Goebel, Sean; Norris, Barnaby; Okita, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument, under development for the Subaru Telescope, has currently the fastest on-sky wavefront control loop, with a pyramid wavefront sensor running at 3.5 kHz. But even at that speed, we are still limited by low-frequency vibrations. The current main limitation was found to be vibrations attributed mainly to the rotation of the telescope. Using the fast wavefront sensors, cameras and accelerometers, we managed to identify the origin of most of the vibrations degrading our performance. Low-frequency vibrations are coming from the telescope drive in azimuth and elevation, as well as the elevation encoders when the target is at transit. Other vibrations were found at higher frequency coming from the image rotator inside Subaru's adaptive optics facility AO188. Different approaches are being implemented to take care of these issues. The PID control of the image rotator has been tuned to reduce their high-frequency contribution. We are working with the telescope team to tune the motor drives and reduce the impact of the elevation encoder. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller (LQG, or Kalman filter) is also being implemented inside SCExAO to control these vibrations. These solutions will not only improve significantly SCExAOs performance, but will also help all the other instruments on the Subaru Telescope, especially the ones behind AO188. Ultimately, this study will also help the development of the TMT, as these two telescopes share very similar drives.

  8. A pyramid sensor based AO system for Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Pinna, E.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Rabien, S.

    2011-09-01

    Since the introduction of the pyramid wavefront sensor in the mid 90s, various authors have shown both theoretically and with the aid of simulations that pyramid sensors can achieve a better performance than traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Recently the First-Light AO system (FLAO) at the Large Binocular Telescope has demonstrated excellent on sky performance achieved with a pyramid based system. Motivated by these results, we will present in this paper a first heuristic analysis scaling up the FLAO performance to the case of an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). We support our arguments with preliminary numerical simulations for the case of the European ELT using the M4 adaptive corrector and a properly matched pyramid sensor. Such a system could be used as a first-light natural guide-star AO system for the European ELT offering the advantages of a demonstrated AO system with practically off-the-shelf technology.

  9. Second generation Robo-AO instruments and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Chun, Mark R.; Lu, Jessica R.; Connelley, Michael S.; Hall, Donald; Atkinson, Dani; Jacobson, Shane

    2014-07-01

    The prototype Robo-AO system at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope is the world's first fully automated laser adaptive optics instrument. Scientific operations commenced in June 2012 and more than 12,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. Two new infrared cameras providing high-speed tip-tilt sensing and a 2' field-of-view will be integrated in 2014. In addition to a Robo-AO clone for the 2-m IGO and the natural guide star variant KAPAO at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope, a second generation of facility-class Robo-AO systems are in development for the 2.2-m University of Hawai'i and 3-m IRTF telescopes which will provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to λ = 400 nm.

  10. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  11. Initial Performance of the Keck AO Wavefront Controller System

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E M; Acton, D S; An, J R; Avicola, K; Beeman, B V; Brase, J M; Carrano, C J; Gathright, J; Gavel, D T; Hurd, R L; Lai, O; Lupton, W; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E; Olivier, S S; Shelton, J C; Stomski, P J; Tsubota, K; Waltjen, K E; Watson, J A; Wizinowich, P L

    2001-03-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  12. Initial performance of the Keck AO wavefront controller system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Acton, D. Scott; An, Jong R.; Avicola, Kenneth; Beeman, Bart V.; Brase, James M.; Carrano, Carmen J.; Gathright, John; Gavel, Donald T.; Hurd, Randall L.; Lai, Olivier; Lupton, William; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Max, Claire E.; Olivier, Scot S.; Shelton, J. Christopher; Stomski, Paul J.; Tsubota, Kevin; Waltjen, Kenneth E.; Watson, James A.; Wizinowich, Peter L.

    2000-07-01

    The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope. Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. The residual wavefront errors due to control loop bandwidth are also calculated from the data, and possible improvements to the controller performance are discussed.

  13. A Prediction of the Damping Properties of Hindered Phenol AO-60/polyacrylate Rubber (AO-60/ACM) Composites through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Geng; Li, Qiang-Guo; Wu, Si-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Molecule dynamics (MD) simulation, a molecular-level method, was applied to predict the damping properties of AO-60/polyacrylate rubber (AO-60/ACM) composites before experimental measures were performed. MD simulation results revealed that two types of hydrogen bond, namely, type A (AO-60) -OH•••O=C- (ACM), type B (AO-60) - OH•••O=C- (AO-60) were formed. Then, the AO-60/ACM composites were fabricated and tested to verify the accuracy of the MD simulation through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). DMTA results showed that the introduction of AO-60 could remarkably improve the damping properties of the composites, including the increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) alongside with the loss factor (tan δ), also indicating the AO-60/ACM(98/100) had the best damping performance amongst the composites which verified by the experimental.

  14. Course Material Model in A&O Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levasma, Jarkko; Nykanen, Ossi

    One of the problematic issues in the content development for learning environments is the process of importing various types of course material into the environment. This paper describes a method for importing material into the A&O open learning environment by introducing a material model for metadata recognized by the environment. The first…

  15. Diffraction limited operation with ARGOS: a hybrid AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; Quirós-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2010-07-01

    ARGOS, the Laser Guide Star (LGS) facility of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) system, using 3 low-altitude beacons, to improve the resolution over the 4'×4' FoV of the imager and Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) LUCIFER. In this paper we discuss the performance and the reconstruction scheme of an hybrid AO system using the ARGOS Rayleigh beacons complemented with a single faint high-altitude star (NGS or sodium beacon) to sense the turbulence of the upper atmosphere allowing an high degree of on-axis correction. With the ARGOS system, the NGS-upgrade can be immediately implemented at LBT using the already existing Pyramid WFS offering performance similar to the NGS AO system with the advantage of a larger sky coverage.

  16. Real-time control system verification for ELT AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Morris, Tim; Bharmal, Nazim; Bitenc, Urban; Dipper, Nigel; Reeves, Andrew; Gendron, Eric; Rousset, Gérard; Hubert, Zoltan; Vidal, Fabrice; Matin, Olivier; Gratadour, Damien; Chemla, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    ELT AO systems have demanding computational requirements for real-timecontrol. These systems are required to be fully tested and robustbefore commissioning so that valuable on-sky time is not wasted. Inthis talk I will report recent work at Durham on our ELT AO real-timecontrol system, algorithms that we use to improve robustness, anddevelopment of an end-to-end testing environment that will allow fulltesting of real-time control systems, including both Monte-Carlosimulation and hardware approaches. The talk will include experiencegained with CANARY, how the robustness of this system has beenimproved, and our experience operating with four laser guide stars. Workcarried out in this area on the DRAGON test-bench will also bedescribed.

  17. Intelligent vibration control of ELTs and large AO hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, J.-U.; Kürster, M.; Trowitzsch, J.; Borelli, J.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Herbst, T.; Böhm, M.; Keck, A.; Ruppel, T.; Sawodny, O.

    2012-07-01

    MPIA leads the construction of the LINC-NIRVANA instrument, the MCAO-supported Fizeau imager for the LBT, serves as pathfinder for future ELT-AO imagers in terms of size and technology. In this contribution, we review recent results and significant progress made on the development of key items of our stratgey to achieve a piston stability of up to 100nm during a science exposure. We present an overview of our vibration control strategies for optical path and tip-tilt stabilization, involving accelerometer based real-time vibration measurements, vibration sensitive active control of actuators, and the development of a dynamical model of the LBT. MPIA also co-develops the E-ELT first-light NIR imager MICADO (both SCAO and MCAO assisted). Our experiences, made with LINC-NIRVANA, will be fed into the MICADO structural AO design to reach highest on-sky sensitivity.

  18. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) Process Improvement Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    of U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Analysis Center (TRAC’s) AoA Primer and previous acquisition reviews (Decker- Wagner , etc.). (5...2009................................................................36 Figure E-7. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(1 of 2...37 Figure E-8. Decker- Wagner (Army Acquisition Review) Findings, Jan 2011(2 of 2).................38 Figure E-9. Goldwater Nichols

  19. High-Resolution Imaging of Asteroids/Satellites with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, William

    2012-02-01

    We propose to make high-resolution observations of asteroids using AO, to measure size, shape, and pole position (spin vectors), and/or to search for satellites. We have demonstrated that AO imaging allows determination of the pole/dimensions in 1 or 2 nights on a single target, rather than the years of observations with lightcurve inversion techniques that only yield poles and axial ratios, not true dimensions. Our new technique (KOALA) combines AO imaging with lightcurve and occultation data for optimum size/shape determinations. We request that LGS be available for faint targets, but using NGS AO, we will measure several large and intermediate asteroids that are favorably placed in spring/summer of 2012 for size/shape/pole. Accurately determining the volume from the often-irregular shape allows us to derive densities to much greater precision in cases where the mass is known, e.g., from the presence of a satellite. We will search several d! ozen asteroids for the presence of satellites, particularly in under-studied populations, particularly NEOs (we have recently achieved the first-ever optical image of an NEO binary [Merline et al. 2008b, IAUC 8977]). Satellites provide a real-life lab for testing collisional models. We will search for satellites around special objects at the request of lightcurve observers, and we will make a search for debris in the vicinity of Pluto, in support of the New Horizons mission. Our shape/size work requires observations over most of a full rotation period (typically several hours).

  20. Propeller Design for Naval Auxiliary AO-177 Jumbo.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Design for Naval Auxiliary AO-177 Jumbo 12 Di -RSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kim, Ki-Han 1 3a TYPE OF REPORT 1,3b TIME COVERED 114 DATE OF REPORT (Year., Month. Day) us...3367 0441 09:11 .1507 .1604 .71 .0442 .1118 .1024 .0906 .0770 OsSO 00000 L3 I 93 S 417 3969 - 3452 -3069 -296 -. 299 to .: -. 039 -. 1612 -. 1424 -. 1304

  1. AO Distal Radius Fracture Classification: Global Perspective on Observer Agreement.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Prakash; Teunis, Teun; Giménez, Beatriz Bravo; Verstreken, Frederik; Di Mascio, Livio; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2017-02-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to test interobserver reliability when classifying fractures by consensus by AO types and groups among a large international group of surgeons. Secondarily, we assessed the difference in inter- and intraobserver agreement of the AO classification in relation to geographical location, level of training, and subspecialty. Methods A randomized set of radiographic and computed tomographic images from a consecutive series of 96 distal radius fractures (DRFs), treated between October 2010 and April 2013, was classified using an electronic web-based portal by an invited group of participants on two occasions. Results Interobserver reliability was substantial when classifying AO type A fractures but fair and moderate for type B and C fractures, respectively. No difference was observed by location, except for an apparent difference between participants from India and Australia classifying type B fractures. No statistically significant associations were observed comparing interobserver agreement by level of training and no differences were shown comparing subspecialties. Intra-rater reproducibility was "substantial" for fracture types and "fair" for fracture groups with no difference accounting for location, training level, or specialty. Conclusion Improved definition of reliability and reproducibility of this classification may be achieved using large international groups of raters, empowering decision making on which system to utilize. Level of Evidence Level III.

  2. Single-shot retinal imaging with AO spectral OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an adaptive optics (AO) spectral OCT retina camera that acquires with unprecedented 3D resolution (2.9 μm lateral; 5.5 μm axial) single shot B-scans of the living human retina. The camera centers on a Michelson interferometer that consists of a superluminescent diode for line illuminating the subject's retinal; voice coil translator for controlling the optical path length of the reference channel; and an imaging spectrometer that is cascaded with a 12-bit area CCD array. The imaging spectrometer was designed with negligible off-axis aberrations and was constructed from stock optical components. AO was integrated into the detector channel of the interferometer and dynamically compensated for most of the ocular aberration across a 6 mm pupil. Short bursts of B-scans, with 100 Ascans each, were successfully acquired at 1 msec intervals. Camera sensitivity was found sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. Individual outer segments of photoreceptors at different retinal eccentricities were observed in vivo. Periodicity of the outer segments matched cone spacing as measured from AO flood illuminated images of the same patches of retina.

  3. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  4. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  5. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516

  6. Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

  7. SIMS chemical and isotopic analysis of impact features from LDEF experiments AO187-1 and AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Amari, Sachiko; Foote, John; Swan, Pat; Walker, Robert M.; Zinner, Ernst

    1995-01-01

    Previous secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of extended impact features from LDEF capture cell experiment AO187-2 showed that it is possible to distinguish natural and man-made particle impacts based on the chemical composition of projectile residues. The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO187-1 in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results indicate that SIMS may be the method of choice for the analysis of impact deposits on a variety of sample surfaces. SIMS was also used to determine the isotopic compositions of impact residues from several natural projectiles. Within the precision of the measurements all analyzed residues show isotopically normal compositions.

  8. Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Adel; Trobacher, Christopher P; Cooke, Alison R; Meyers, Ashley J; Hall, J Christopher; Shelp, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper-containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAO genes) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activities of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 were measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Green FLASH: energy efficient real-time control for AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratadour, D.; Dipper, N.; Biasi, R.; Deneux, H.; Bernard, J.; Brule, J.; Dembet, R.; Doucet, N.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Laine, M.; Perret, D.; Rousset, G.; Sevin, A.; Bitenc, U.; Geng, D.; Younger, E.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Patauner, C.; Pescoller, D.; Porta, F.; Dufourcq, G.; Flaischer, A.; Leclere, J.-B.; Nai, A.; Palazzari, P.; Pretet, D.; Rouaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The main goal of Green Flash is to design and build a prototype for a Real-Time Controller (RTC) targeting the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early 2020s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale. With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. With this R&D program we aim at feeding the E-ELT AO systems preliminary design studies, led by the selected first-light instruments consortia, with technological validations supporting the designs of their RTC modules. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application. Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions. This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment.

  10. Identification of system misregistrations during AO-corrected observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Thiébaut, É.; .; Tallon, M.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.

    2011-09-01

    The E-ELT will be equipped with a deformable mirror inside the telescope. The performance of reconstruction and control depends on the calibration of the interaction matrix- or a model of the interaction matrix- , which characterizes the system and the relationship between the commands sent to the deformable mirrors (DM) and the wavefront sensors (WFS) slopes. Such a calibration will be more complex than for the current systems at the VLT since it will have to be at least partly measured on sky and for a much larger number of degrees of freedom (more than 5000). In addition, gravity or temperature variations for instance are likely to introduce slow evolution of the matching between the M4 Deformable mirror and the WFS geometry. This can occur during observations and therefore degrade the adaptive optics (AO) correction. To relax the need of frequent painful calibrations and to prevent a loss of performance due to misregistrations, we investigate how to track the evolution of the interaction matrix errors in closed-loop without introducing any degradation in the observations. This is done thanks to identification methods and optimization theory. First, we formally describe the problem and the difficulties of such an identification in closed-loop configuration. Then, we present 2 solutions, based on the optimization of the error of estimates of the WFS slopes, at the output of the closed-loop AO. The performance of the methods and their limitations are discussed formally and thanks to numerical simulations of a high order AO system. We finally explore to which extent these methods currently studied for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT can be applied to the E-ELT.

  11. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  12. Stream-Field Interactions in the Magnetic Accretor AO Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel; van Zyl, Liza

    2005-06-01

    UV spectra of the magnetic accretor AO Psc show absorption features for half the binary orbit. The absorption is unlike the wind-formed features often seen in similar stars. Instead, we attribute it to a fraction of the stream that overflows the impact with the accretion disk. Rapid velocity variations can be explained by changes in the trajectory of the stream depending on the orientation of the white dwarf's magnetic field. Hence, we are directly observing the interaction of an accretion stream with a rotating field. We compare this behavior to that seen in other intermediate polars and in SW Sex stars.

  13. Characterization of Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) Genes Involved in the Accumulation of Carotenoid Pigments in Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Marcotuli, Ilaria; Lozito, Maria L.; Simeone, Rosanna; Blanco, Antonio; Gadaleta, Agata

    2017-01-01

    Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) enzyme (EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final steps of carotenoid catabolism and it is a key enzyme in the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AO isoforms are located in the cytosolic compartment of tissues in many plants, where induce the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyze the hydroxylation of some heterocycles. The goal of the present study was to characterize the AO genes involved in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in wheat grain, an important quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes. The cDNAs corresponding to the four AO isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and five AO isoforms from Brachypodium distachyon were used as query in 454 sequence assemblies data for Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring (https://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/blast/blast.php) to obtain the partial or whole orthologous wheat AO sequences. Three wheat isoforms, designated AO1, AO2, and AO3 were located on the chromosome groups 2, 5, and 7, respectively, and mapped on two consensus wheat maps by SNP markers located within the AO gene sequences. To validate the possible relationships between AO3 genes and carotenoid accumulation in wheat, the expression levels of AO-A3 and AO-B3 gene were determined during the kernel maturation stage of two durum wheat cultivars, Ciccio and Svevo, characterized by a low and high carotenoid content, respectively. Different AO-A3 gene expression values were observed between the two cultivars indicating that the AO-A3 allele present in Ciccio was more active in carotenoid degradation. A gene marker was developed and can be used for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs. PMID:28596779

  14. Titanium alloys (AoN) and their involvement in osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osseointegration is essential for a long-term successful and inflammation-free dental implant. Such a result depends on osteoblastic cells growth and differentiation at the tissue-implant interface. The aim of this study was to compare two different AoN titanium layers (GR4 and GR5) to investigate which one had a greater osteoconductive power using human osteoblasts (HOb) culture at two different time-points. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of some bone-related (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analyzed using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Results: Real-time RT-PCR data showed that after 3 days of treatment with TiA4GR, the genes up-regulated were COL3A1, ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was noticed 4 days later. On the other hand, the genes that overexpressed after 3 days of treatment with AoN5GR were ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. In both cases, the expression of COL1A1 and SPARC was negatively regulated. Conclusion: Our data showed that both titanium surfaces led to osteoblasts recruitment, maturation, and differentiation, thus promoting osseointegration at the tissue-implant interface. PMID:23814585

  15. Titanium alloys (AoN) and their involvement in osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Danza, Matteo; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Osseointegration is essential for a long-term successful and inflammation-free dental implant. Such a result depends on osteoblastic cells growth and differentiation at the tissue-implant interface. The aim of this study was to compare two different AoN titanium layers (GR4 and GR5) to investigate which one had a greater osteoconductive power using human osteoblasts (HOb) culture at two different time-points. The expression levels of some bone-related (ALPL, COL1A1, COL3A1, SPP1, RUNX2, and SPARC) were analyzed using real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Real-time RT-PCR data showed that after 3 days of treatment with TiA4GR, the genes up-regulated were COL3A1, ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. Moreover, no difference in gene expression was noticed 4 days later. On the other hand, the genes that overexpressed after 3 days of treatment with AoN5GR were ALPL, SPP1, and RUNX2. In both cases, the expression of COL1A1 and SPARC was negatively regulated. Our data showed that both titanium surfaces led to osteoblasts recruitment, maturation, and differentiation, thus promoting osseointegration at the tissue-implant interface.

  16. Illuminating Free-floating Planet Demographics with Keck AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen B.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and mass function of free-floating planets (FFPs) are unknown. Gravitational microlensing is able to explore the demographics of FFPs, which are identifiable as short-timescale microlensing events, lasting of-order 1 day for Jupiter-mass planets. In 2011, the MOA ground-based microlensing survey group announced the discovery of an excess of short-timescale microlensing events over what was expected from Galactic models that incorporate stellar densities and kinematics. They account for this excess by positing a population of Jupiter-mass FFPs that outnumbers stars by a ratio of nearly 2:1. However, there are several other possible astrophysical explanations for short-timescale microlensing events, including bound planets on wide orbits and high-velocity stars. Although the specific events identified by MOA lack mass measurements, high-resolution imaging can determine whether the lens systems are luminous, which would exclude the FFP conclusion through proof by contradiction. We have taken H-band adaptive optics (AO) observations of the MOA FFP candidates using NIRC2 on Keck II in order to test this result. Here I will present preliminary results from these AO observations, which will help inform our understanding of the demographics of FFPs.

  17. Studying binary asteroids with NGS and LGS AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Berthier, Jerome; Descamps, Pascal; Hestroffer, Daniel; Vachier, Frederic; Laver, Conor; de Pater, Imke; Gavel, Don T.

    2004-10-01

    Since the discovery of Dactyl orbiting around Ida by the Galileo spacecraft in 1993, over twenty-five binary asteroid systems have been discovered using radar, direct imaging and Adaptive Optics observations. Asteroidal moon discoveries dramatically increased with the advent of this last technique on ground based telescopes. Our group focuses on the search and study of double asteroids in the main-belt, in the Trojan population and beyond Neptune's orbit. We have been using several of the AO systems available (Lick-3m, Palomar-5m, VLT-8m, Keck-10m) and related techniques such as Appulse and Laser Guide Star observations to broaden the sample of asteroids observed from the main-belt out to the Kuiper Belt. We will present a quality comparison between various techniques and different AO systems with NGS and will detail our first successful observations with the Lick LGS system. Precise orbital elements of the secondary can be determined by multiple observations spanning large periods of time (several months). Our group developed a method to predict the ephemeris of a secondary companion. Without any assumptions, this method, tested successfully on 22 Kalliope and 121 Hermione binary systems, leads to the direct determination of important physical parameters of the targets, such as their mass and the interior structure, as well as gives direct insights on their formation processes that may be otherwise only be speculated on from spacecraft mission flybys.

  18. Robo-AO: autonomous and replicable laser-adaptive-optics and science system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N.; Tendulkar, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Davis, J.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Hildebrandt, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2012-07-01

    We have created a new autonomous laser-guide-star adaptive-optics (AO) instrument on the 60-inch (1.5-m) telescope at Palomar Observatory called Robo-AO. The instrument enables diffraction-limited resolution observing in the visible and near-infrared with the ability to observe well over one-hundred targets per night due to its fully robotic operation. Robo-AO is being used for AO surveys of targets numbering in the thousands, rapid AO imaging of transient events and long-term AO monitoring not feasible on large diameter telescope systems. We have taken advantage of cost-effective advances in deformable mirror and laser technology while engineering Robo-AO with the intention of cloning the system for other few-meter class telescopes around the world.

  19. Experience And Results With Preoperatively Shaped AO Mandibular Reconstruction Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuters, Ulrich; Prein, Joachim; Muller, Werner

    1989-04-01

    As a rule continuous bony defects of the mandible after tumour resection are temporarily bridged with the AO reconstruction plate. To precontour the plate, CT-scans of the mandible at a scale of 1:1 6 mm above and parallel to the inferior margin are needed. Corresponding layers further cranial show the anatomy of the chin. Using a lateral cephalograph, the mandibular angle and the length of the plate in the ascending ramus are measured. Of the 19 preshaped reconstruction plates implanted, 11 did not need any intraoperative adjustment of shape. The other 8 plates needed only slight modifications of contour. Preoperative bending of the reconstruction plate reduces the time taken for the operation, protects the material and the plate is precisely shaped.

  20. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  1. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray H11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray H11 The Interplanetary Dust Experiment hardware has a thin brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A deeper brown stain, probably from the material underneath the small electrical cover plate of the detector frame, can be seen in the upper right corner of some of the detectors. Stain that was seen on the solar sensor base plate in the flight photograph cannot be seen because of reflected light. The colors seen in the detector's mirror like surface are reflections of the surrounding area. A dark spot seen on a detector in the third row from the top in the flight photograph, was not found in a postflight inspection. A close inspection of this photograph does reveal several impact damage locations.

  2. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF)

    PubMed Central

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the lower extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results More lower extremity fractures occurred in boys (62%, n = 341). Of 548 fractured long bones in the lower extremity, 25% involved the femur and 75% the lower leg. The older the patients, the more combined fractures of the tibia and fibula were sustained (adolescents: 50%, 61 of 123). Salter-Harris (SH) fracture patterns represented 66% of single epiphyseal fractures (83 of 126). Overall, 74 of the 83 SH patterns occurred in the distal epiphysis. Of all the metaphyseal fractures, 74 of 79 were classified as incomplete or complete. Complete oblique spiral fractures accounted for 57% of diaphyseal fractures (120 of 211). Of all fractures, 7% (40 of 548) were classified in the category "other", including 29 fractures that were identified as toddler’s fractures. 5 combined lower leg fractures were reported in the proximal metaphysis, 40 in the diaphysis, 26 in the distal metaphysis, and 8 in the distal epiphysis. Interpretation The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Re-introduction of a specific code for toddler’s fractures in the PCCF should be considered. PMID:27882811

  3. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF)

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Slongo, Theddy; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Joeris, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF) describes the localization and morphology of fractures, and considers severity in 2 categories: (1) simple, and (2) multifragmentary. We evaluated simple and multifragmentary fractures in a large consecutive cohort of children diagnosed with long bone fractures in Switzerland. Patients and methods Children and adolescents treated for fractures between 2009 and 2011 at 2 tertiary pediatric surgery hospitals were retrospectively included. Fractures were classified according to the AO PCCF. Severity classes were described according to fracture location, patient age and sex, BMI, and cause of trauma. Results Of all trauma events, 3% (84 of 2,730) were diagnosed with a multifragmentary fracture. This proportion was age-related: 2% of multifragmentary fractures occurred in school­children and 7% occurred in adolescents. In patients diagnosed with a single fracture only, the highest percentage of multifragmentation occurred in the femur (12%, 15 of 123). In fractured paired radius/ulna bones, multifragmentation occurred in 2% (11 of 687); in fractured paired tibia/fibula bones, it occurred in 21% (24 of 115), particularly in schoolchildren (5 of 18) and adolescents (16 of 40). In a multivariable regression model, age, cause of injury, and bone were found to be relevant prognostic factors of multifragmentation (odds ratio (OR) > 2). Interpretation Overall, multifragmentation in long bone fractures in children was rare and was mostly observed in adolescents. The femur was mostly affected in single fractures and the lower leg was mostly affected in paired-bone fractures. The clinical relevance of multifragmentation regarding growth and long-term functional recovery remains to be determined. PMID:27882814

  4. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF)

    PubMed Central

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the upper extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods We included children and adolescents (0–17 years old) diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne (Switzerland). Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and fractures were classified from standard radiographs. Results Of 2,292 upper extremity fractures in 2,203 children and adolescents, 26% involved the humerus and 74% involved the forearm. In the humerus, 61%, and in the forearm, 80% of single distal fractures involved the metaphysis. In adolescents, single humerus fractures were more often epiphyseal and diaphyseal fractures, and among adolescents radius fractures were more often epiphyseal fractures than in other age groups. 47% of combined forearm fractures were distal metaphyseal fractures. Only 0.7% of fractures could not be classified within 1 of the child-specific fracture patterns. Of the single epiphyseal fractures, 49% were Salter-Harris type-II (SH II) fractures; of these, 94% occurred in schoolchildren and adolescents. Of the metaphyseal fractures, 58% showed an incomplete fracture pattern. 89% of incomplete fractures affected the distal radius. Of the diaphyseal fractures, 32% were greenstick fractures. 24 Monteggia fractures occurred in pre-school children and schoolchildren, and 2 occurred in adolescents. Interpretation The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and prognostication

  5. HST and Keck AO Images of Vortices on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke; Wong, M.; Luszcz-Cook, S.; Adamkovics, M.; Marcus, P.; Asay-Davis, X.; Conrad, A.; Go, C.

    2009-09-01

    Observations of Jupiter were conducted in April 2006 and May 2008 with both HST (250-890 nm) and the 10-m Keck telescope. On Keck we used the near-infrared camera NIRC2, coupled to the AO system, at 1.2 to 5 micrometers. At 5 um we are sensitive to Jupiter's thermal emission in cloud-free regions of the atmosphere, while at 1.2 um we see reflected sunlight from hazes and clouds in the troposphere-stratosphere. All small ovals (i.e., all except for Oval BA and the GRS) appear to be surrounded by bright rings at 5 mu, with typical brightness temperatures of 225-250 K, and hence probing depths to 2.5-4 bar. We argue that the small vortices are columnar structures, extending down into the water cloud. Air is rising along the center of these vortices, and descending around the outer periphery; the storm systems are likely fueled by the latent heat released from the water cloud. The descending part of the vertical circulation in the larger ovals is within the ovals, likely at the location of the red ring in Oval BA, which may indicate the maximum radial distance where such return flows can take place. On 19 July 2009, amateur observer Anthony Wesley (Australia) reported a dark spot/streak on Jupiter, near a southern latitude of 56 deg, which he attributed to an impact (analogous to the SL9 impact on Jupiter). We are scheduled to observe Jupiter with the Keck AO system on 24 July 2009 UT; if observations are successful, we will report preliminary results.

  6. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the upper extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included children and adolescents (0-17 years old) diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne (Switzerland). Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and fractures were classified from standard radiographs. Results - Of 2,292 upper extremity fractures in 2,203 children and adolescents, 26% involved the humerus and 74% involved the forearm. In the humerus, 61%, and in the forearm, 80% of single distal fractures involved the metaphysis. In adolescents, single humerus fractures were more often epiphyseal and diaphyseal fractures, and among adolescents radius fractures were more often epiphyseal fractures than in other age groups. 47% of combined forearm fractures were distal metaphyseal fractures. Only 0.7% of fractures could not be classified within 1 of the child-specific fracture patterns. Of the single epiphyseal fractures, 49% were Salter-Harris type-II (SH II) fractures; of these, 94% occurred in schoolchildren and adolescents. Of the metaphyseal fractures, 58% showed an incomplete fracture pattern. 89% of incomplete fractures affected the distal radius. Of the diaphyseal fractures, 32% were greenstick fractures. 24 Monteggia fractures occurred in pre-school children and schoolchildren, and 2 occurred in adolescents. Interpretation - The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and

  7. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Audigé, Laurent; Slongo, Theddy; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Joeris, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF) describes the localization and morphology of fractures, and considers severity in 2 categories: (1) simple, and (2) multifragmentary. We evaluated simple and multifragmentary fractures in a large consecutive cohort of children diagnosed with long bone fractures in Switzerland. Patients and methods - Children and adolescents treated for fractures between 2009 and 2011 at 2 tertiary pediatric surgery hospitals were retrospectively included. Fractures were classified according to the AO PCCF. Severity classes were described according to fracture location, patient age and sex, BMI, and cause of trauma. Results - Of all trauma events, 3% (84 of 2,730) were diagnosed with a multifragmentary fracture. This proportion was age-related: 2% of multifragmentary fractures occurred in school-children and 7% occurred in adolescents. In patients diagnosed with a single fracture only, the highest percentage of multifragmentation occurred in the femur (12%, 15 of 123). In fractured paired radius/ulna bones, multifragmentation occurred in 2% (11 of 687); in fractured paired tibia/fibula bones, it occurred in 21% (24 of 115), particularly in schoolchildren (5 of 18) and adolescents (16 of 40). In a multivariable regression model, age, cause of injury, and bone were found to be relevant prognostic factors of multifragmentation (odds ratio (OR) > 2). Interpretation - Overall, multifragmentation in long bone fractures in children was rare and was mostly observed in adolescents. The femur was mostly affected in single fractures and the lower leg was mostly affected in paired-bone fractures. The clinical relevance of multifragmentation regarding growth and long-term functional recovery remains to be determined.

  8. The AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Joeris, Alexander; Lutz, Nicolas; Blumenthal, Andrea; Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - To achieve a common understanding when dealing with long bone fractures in children, the AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (AO PCCF) was introduced in 2007. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the lower extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January 2009 and December 2011 at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed. Results - More lower extremity fractures occurred in boys (62%, n = 341). Of 548 fractured long bones in the lower extremity, 25% involved the femur and 75% the lower leg. The older the patients, the more combined fractures of the tibia and fibula were sustained (adolescents: 50%, 61 of 123). Salter-Harris (SH) fracture patterns represented 66% of single epiphyseal fractures (83 of 126). Overall, 74 of the 83 SH patterns occurred in the distal epiphysis. Of all the metaphyseal fractures, 74 of 79 were classified as incomplete or complete. Complete oblique spiral fractures accounted for 57% of diaphyseal fractures (120 of 211). Of all fractures, 7% (40 of 548) were classified in the category "other", including 29 fractures that were identified as toddler's fractures. 5 combined lower leg fractures were reported in the proximal metaphysis, 40 in the diaphysis, 26 in the distal metaphysis, and 8 in the distal epiphysis. Interpretation - The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Re-introduction of a specific code for toddler's fractures in the PCCF should be considered.

  9. 76 FR 52972 - United States v. Regal Beloit Corp. and A.O. Smith Corp.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... acquisition by Regal Beloit Corporation (``RBC'') of the electric motor business of A.O. Smith Corporation... Corporation (``RBC'') and A.O. Smith Corporation (``AOS'') to enjoin RBC's proposed acquisition of the... proposed acquisition of the electric motor business from AOS likely would substantially lessen competition...

  10. Robo-AO KP: A new era in robotic adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Duev, Dmitry; Ziegler, Carl; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.; Atkinson, Dani Eleanor; Tanner, Angelle M.; Zhang, Celia; Ray, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first and only fully automated adaptive optics laser guide star AO instrument. It was developed as an instrument for 1-3m robotic telescopes, in order to take advantage of their availability to pursue large survey programs and target of opportunity observations that aren't possible with other AO systems. Robo-AO is currently the most efficient AO system in existence, and it can achieve an observation rate of 20+ science targets per hour. In more than three years of operations at Palomar Observatory, it has been quite successful, producing technology that is being adapted by other AO systems and robotic telescope projects, as well as several high impact scientific publications. Now, Robo-AO has been selected to take over operation of the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope. This will give Robo-AO KP the opportunity to pursue multiple science programs consisting of several thousand targets each during the three years it will be on the telescope. One-sixth of the observing time will be allocated to the US community through the NOAO TAC process. This presentation will discuss the process adapting Robo-AO to the KPNO 2.1m telescope, the plans for integration and initial operations, and the science operations and programs to be pursued.

  11. LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The flight/on-orbit photograph of the G10 experi ment tray was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A light brown stain can be seen on the experiment tray flanges and to a lesser degree on the IDE Chemglaze Z tained their integrity. A light tan stain on the solar sensor base plate, located in the center of the tray, is more easily seen than that on the IDE mounting plate. Surface defects are highly visible due to the lighting conditions existing at the time the photograph was taken. The lighting angle is such that many impact craters can be seen. Two (2) detectors, located in the twenty (20) detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, seem to have defects. A triangular shaped discoloration appears on the second detector from the left and in the second row from the bottom. Another irregular shaped discoloration can be seen on the fourth detector from the left and in the third row from the bottom. These discolorations appear to be due to material and/or fabrication defects and not reflected light. The blue colors on the detector's mirror like surface are caused by reflections of the LDEF surroundings.

  12. LDEF (Flight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H09 The flight photograph of the Interstellar Gas Experiment was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval. A very light contamination stain is present on the experiment tray flanges and on the most of the visible LDEF structure. The exception being a darker stain on the structure adjacent to thermal covers that provide venting for the LDEF interior. Both paint dots appear to be heavily coated with the brown contamination stain. The color of the white thermal control paint on the IGE has changed and now varies from off-white to a dark brown. The darker brown areas on the experiment baseplate, around the grid voltage cable connectors, appear to have come from contaminants flowing from inside the LDEF. A dark stain area can be seen on the lower half of the tray's right sidewall but a shadow hides most of the dark stain in the upper left corner of the tray. A lighter stain coats portions of the experiment baseplate and the outside of the canister housing. A beryllium copper collector foil is clearly visible in the lower left canister housing as are the baffles and reflected light from the fine wire mesh grid near the top of the canister housing. Due to an experi- ment system malfunction, the canister collector foils that are visible were exposed for the total mission.

  13. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1993-01-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment was designed, via the FRECOPA (FRench COoperative PAyload) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar irradiation. Samples were ruled and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the LDEF and was protected against Atomic Oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling was evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The samples (two batches of four pieces) were located on a dedicated plate, by a pair of equivalent gratings or mirrors; optical faces were located on the external side. The plate was inside a canister, which had been opened in space for ten months. When the satellite returned to Kennedy Space Center, the remaining vacuum in the canister was still correct. The analysis focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings (rules and holographic master or replica) loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or direct solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure had damaged the coating (aluminum and platinum) reflectivity in the Ultra-Violet region; the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  14. Atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiment AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Array Materials Passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment (SAMPLE), AO171, contained in total approximately 100 materials and materials processes with a 300 specimen complement. With the exception of experiment solar cell and solar cell modules, all test specimens were weighed before flight, thus allowing an accurate determination of mass loss as a result of space exposure. Since almost all of the test specimens were thermal vacuum baked before flight, the mass loss sustained can be attributed principally to atomic oxygen attack. The atomic oxygen effects observed and measured in five classes of materials is documented. The atomic oxygen reactivity values generated for these materials are compared to those values derived for the same materials from exposures on short term shuttle flights. An assessment of the utility of predicting long term atomic oxygen effects from short term exposures is given. This experiment was located on Row 8 position A which allowed all experiment materials to be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence of 6.93 x 10(exp 21) atoms/cm(sup 2) as a result of being positioned 38 degrees off the RAM direction.

  15. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray G10 The IDE experiment appears to be in excellent condition in the postflight photograph. All bond joints seem to have survived the space environment and the experiment hardware seems to be intact. The direction and intensity of the artificial light source has caused hot spots and reflections that tend to wash out the brown stain on the exposed surfaces. A close inspection of individual detectors reveal locations where impacts have occurred and damage is present. In the detector layout in the lower left corner of the tray, two detectors continue to show the discolorations observed in the flight photograph. A triangular shape can be seen in the detector located in the second horizontal row from the bottom and the second vertical row from the left. The other detector, located in the third horizontal row from the bottom and the fourth vertical row from the left has an irregular shaped, very faint, discolora tion. The blue color in the detectors metallic surface is caused by reflections of the surrounding area.

  16. MagAO: Status and on-sky performance of the Magellan adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Kopon, Derek; Hinz, Phil M.; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Puglisi, Alfio; Pinna, Enrico; Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Bailey, Vanessa; Follette, Katherine B.; Rodigas, T. J.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Argomedo, Javier; Busoni, Lorenzo; Hare, Tyson; Uomoto, Alan; Weinberger, Alycia

    2014-07-01

    MagAO is the new adaptive optics system with visible-light and infrared science cameras, located on the 6.5-m Magellan "Clay" telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The instrument locks on natural guide stars (NGS) from 0th to 16th R-band magnitude, measures turbulence with a modulating pyramid wavefront sensor binnable from 28×28 to 7×7 subapertures, and uses a 585-actuator adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) to provide at wavefronts to the two science cameras. MagAO is a mutated clone of the similar AO systems at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham, Arizona. The high-level AO loop controls up to 378 modes and operates at frame rates up to 1000 Hz. The instrument has two science cameras: VisAO operating from 0.5-1μm and Clio2 operating from 1-5 μm. MagAO was installed in 2012 and successfully completed two commissioning runs in 2012-2013. In April 2014 we had our first science run that was open to the general Magellan community. Observers from Arizona, Carnegie, Australia, Harvard, MIT, Michigan, and Chile took observations in collaboration with the MagAO instrument team. Here we describe the MagAO instrument, describe our on-sky performance, and report our status as of summer 2014.

  17. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  18. SCExAO as a precursor to an ELT exoplanet direct imaging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; Singh, Garima; Vievard, Sebastien; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Garrel, Vincent; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter; Stewart, Paul; Huby, Elsa; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2013-12-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) instrument consists of a high performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraph combined with an extreme Adaptive Optics (AO) system operating in the near-infrared (H band). The extreme AO system driven by the 2000 element deformable mirror will allow for Strehl ratios>90% to be achieved in the H-band when it goes closed loop. This makes the SCExAO instrument a powerful platform for high contrast imaging down to angular separations of the order of 1 lambda/D and an ideal testbed for exploring coronagraphic techniques for ELTs. In this paper we report on the recent progress in regards to the development of the instrument, which includes the addition of a visible bench that makes use of the light at shorter wavelengths not currently utilized by SCExAO and closing the loop on the tip/tilt wavefront sensor. We will also discuss several exciting guest instruments which will expand the capabilities of SCExAO over the next few years; namely CHARIS which is a integral field spectrograph as well as VAMPIRES, a visible aperture masking experiment based on polarimetric analysis of circumstellar disks. In addition we will elucidate the unique role extreme AO systems will play in enabling high precision radial velocity spectroscopy for the detection of small companions.

  19. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  20. Multi-conjugate AO for the European Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Béchet, C.; Le Louarn, M.; Tallon, M.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Collados Vera, M.

    2012-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) will be a 4-meter diameter world-class facility, optimized for studies of the magnetic coupling between the deep photosphere and upper chromosphere. It will specialize in high spatial resolution observations and therefore it has been designed to incorporate an innovative built-in Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system (MCAO). It combines a narrow field high order sensor that will provide the information to correct the ground layer and a wide field low order sensor for the high altitude mirrors used in the MCAO mode. One of the challenging particularities of solar AO is that it has to be able to correct the turbulence for a wide range of observing elevations, from zenith to almost horizon. Also, seeing is usually worse at day-time, and most science is done at visible wavelengths. Therefore, the system has to include a large number of high altitude deformable mirrors. In the case of the EST, an arrangement of 4 high altitude DMs is used. Controlling such a number of mirrors makes it necessary to use fast reconstruction algorithms to deal with such large amount of degrees of freedom. For this reason, we have studied the performance of the Fractal Iterative Method (FriM) and the Fourier Transform Reconstructor (FTR), to the EST MCAO case. Using OCTOPUS, the end-to-end simulator of the European Southern Observatory, we have performed several simulations with both algorithms, being able to reach the science requirement of a homogeneous Strehl higher that 50% all over the 1 arcmin field of view.

  1. LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO038 : Interstellar Gas Experiment, Tray H06 The post landing photograph was taken from the Orbiter's cargo bay access hatch during post landing operations to prepare the Orbiter for the ferry flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center to the Kennedy Space Center. A very light contamination stain is present on the experiment tray flanges and on the most of the visible LDEF structure. The exception being a much darker stain on the structure adjacent to thermal covers that provide venting for the LDEF interior. The paint dot adjacent to the thermal cover vent area is heavily coated with the brown contamination stain while the paint dot adjacent to the center end cover plate has a very light coating. The color of the white thermal control paint on the IGE has changed and now varies from offwhite to a dark brown. The darker brown areas on the experiment baseplate, around the grid voltage cable connectors, appear to have come from contaminants flowing from inside the LDEF. A dark stain area can be seen on the tray's lower sidewall and in the upper left corner of the tray. A lighter stain coats portions of the experiment baseplate and the outside of the canister housing. A beryllium copper collector foil is clearly visible within the canister housings as are the baffles and reflected light from the fine wire mesh grid near the top of the canister housing. Due to an experi- ment system malfunction, the canister collector foils that are visible were exposed for the total mission.

  2. LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The postflight photograph shows little change of the exposed surfaces when compared with the prelaunch photograph. Although not noticable in the photograph, a light coating of contamination was seen on all experiment surfaces in this location. The difference in colors of the IDE detectors, located on the right hand mounting plate, is a result of the reflected surroundings and not related to space exposure. A close observation of the detector surfaces reveal that some damage has occured from meteroid and/or debris impacts. One impact crater can be seen, upper right quadrant, on the detector located in the sixth (6th) row down from the top and the fifth (5th) row from the right. Other impacts, smaller in size, show as small white dots on the detector surface. The solar sensor seems to have changed little, if any. However, the color of the solar array baseplate, showing indications of contamination, appears to be darker than the detector mounting plate. The center section cover plate shows little change when compared with the pre-launch photograph. However, during inspection, a light coat of the brown contamination has been observed on all surfaces. The color of the bonding material (RTV) used to secure several thin specimen, sapphire, to individual mounting plates has changed from pink to gold. At one location, that of a single specimen, the bonding material is more gray than gold in color. This has been attributed to the specimen being considerably thicker. The EPDS thermal cover in the right hand side of the tray shows a light coating of brown contamination on the Chemglaze II A-276 white paint.

  3. Poco a Poco: Leadership Practices Supporting Productive Communities of Practice in Schools Serving the New Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Kim, Minsong; Burns, Mary Bridget; Vuilleumier, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Culturally and linguistically diverse students frequently do not receive equitable educational opportunities. Schools across public and private sectors that are striving to ameliorate this problem typically work in isolation, not collaboratively. This article examines how communities of practice emerge within a network of schools striving…

  4. "Poco a Poco": The Continuing Development of Mexican American Children's Literature in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Rosalinda B.; Quiroa, Ruth E.; West-Williams, Cassiette

    1999-01-01

    Offers a numerical, descriptive picture of Mexican American children's books published from 1995 to 1998. Provides an interpretive, evaluative view of selected books, critically addressing both content and form of the literature. Notes that more Mexican American-themed books are published every year, but these books are a small part of the larger…

  5. Poco a Poco: Leadership Practices Supporting Productive Communities of Practice in Schools Serving the New Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Kim, Minsong; Burns, Mary Bridget; Vuilleumier, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Culturally and linguistically diverse students frequently do not receive equitable educational opportunities. Schools across public and private sectors that are striving to ameliorate this problem typically work in isolation, not collaboratively. This article examines how communities of practice emerge within a network of schools striving…

  6. GLAS/NAOMI: ground-layer AO at the William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, Chris; Abrams, Don; Agocs, Tibor; Cano, Diego; Gregory, Tom; Guerra, Juan Carlos; Martin, Olivier; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Rix, Samantha; Rutten, Rene; Skillen, Ian; Skvarč, Jure; Tulloch, Simon

    2008-07-01

    GLAS is an upgrade of the William Herschel Telescope's existing natural-guide-star (NGS) AO system NAOMI to incorporate a 20-W Rayleigh laser guide star (LGS) projected to an altitude of 15 km. It is currently being commissioned on-sky, and we review here the current status of the project. GLAS/NAOMI delivers dramatic improvements in PSF in both the near-IR (AO-corrected FWHM close to the diffraction limit, >~ 0.15 arcsec) and in the optical (factor of ~ 2 reduction in FWHM). The performance is similar to that with NGS, and is consistent with predictions from modelling. The main advantage over NGS AO is the large gain in sky coverage (from ~ 1% to ~ 100% at galactic latitude 40°). GLAS provides the first on-sky demonstration of closed-loop ground-layer AO (GLAO), and is the first Rayleigh LGS AO system to be offered for general use, at any telescope.

  7. Lick Observatory's Shane telescope adaptive optics system (ShaneAO): research directions and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald T.; Kupke, Renate; Rudy, Alexander R.; Srinath, Srikar; Dillon, Daren; Poyneer, Lisa A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a review of the ongoing research activity surrounding the adaptive optics system at the Shane telescope (ShaneAO) particularly the R&D efforts on the technology and algorithms for that will advance AO into wider application for astronomy. We are pursuing the AO challenges for whole sky coverage diffraction-limited correction down to visible science wavelengths. This demands high-order wavefront correction and bright artificial laser beacons. We present recent advancements in the development of MEMS based AO correction, woofer-tweeter architecture, wind-predictive wavefront control algorithms, atmospheric characterization, and a pulsed fiber amplifier guide star laser tuned for optical pumping of the sodium layer. We present the latest on-sky results from the new AO system and present status and experimental plans for the optical pumping guide star laser.

  8. AO-308: the high-order adaptive optics system at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumko, Sergey; Gorceix, Nicolas; Choi, Seonghwan; Kellerer, Aglaé; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Abramenko, Volodymyr; Richards, Kit; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Marino, Jose

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present Big Bear Solar Observatory's (BBSO) newest adaptive optics system - AO-308. AO-308 is a result of collaboration between BBSO and National Solar Observatory (NSO). AO-308 uses a 357 actuators deformable mirror (DM) from Xinetics and its wave front sensor (WFS) has 308 sub-apertures. The WFS uses a Phantom V7.3 camera which runs at 2000 Hz with the region of interest of 416×400 pixels. AO-308 utilizes digital signal processors (DSPs) for image processing. AO-308 has been successfully used during the 2013 observing season. The system can correct up to 310 modes providing diffraction limited images at all wavelengths of interest.

  9. Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, R. L.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large surveys are discovering thousands of objects which require further characterization at high angular resolution. The demands on space-based observatories and large telescopes with AO systems leave them generally unavailable for large high angular resolution surveys. To address this gap, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for 1-3 m class telescopes. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs of several thousands of targets can be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

  10. LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourrieau, J.

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical packages, both of them including five TLD's inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (AE8 and AP8 models during solar maximum and minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi infinite plane shield of aluminum are computed with the radiation transport codes available at DERTS. The dose profile obtained is in good agreement with the evaluation by E.V. Benton. TLD readings are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase a post flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the in flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (plus or minus 30 percent) for both packages, are compared with the dose profile computation. For thick shields it seems that the measurements exceed the forecast (about 40 percent). That can be due to a cosmic ray and trapped proton contributions coming from the backside (assumed as perfectly shielded by the LDEF structure in the computation), or to an underestimate of the proton or cosmic ray fluences. A fine structural shielding analysis should be necessary in order to determine the origin of this slight discrepancy between forecast and in flight measurements. For the less shielded dosimeters, mainly exposed to the trapped electron flux, a slight overestimation of the dose (less than 40 percent) appears. Due to the dispersion of the TLD's response, this cannot be confirmed. In practice these results obtained on board LDEF, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecast

  11. Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-02-01

    focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope.

  12. Bringing the visible universe into focus with Robo-AO.

    PubMed

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M; Ramaprakash, A N; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K; Davis, Jack T C; Dekany, Richard G; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Morton, Timothy D; Ofek, Eran O; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-02-12

    a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system, employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope.

  13. Bringing the Visible Universe into Focus with Robo-AO

    PubMed Central

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A.N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol K.; Davis, Jack T.C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Morton, Timothy D.; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    focus a high-power laser beam in the direction of the astronomical target to create an artificial reference of known shape, also known as a 'laser guide star'. The Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system2,3 employs a 10-W ultraviolet laser focused at a distance of 10 km to generate a laser guide star. Wavefront sensor measurements of the laser guide star drive the adaptive optics correction resulting in diffraction-limited images that have an angular resolution of ~0.1 arc seconds on a 1.5-m telescope. PMID:23426078

  14. LDEF: Dosimetric measurement results (AO 138-7 experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrieau, J.

    1993-04-01

    One of the objectives of the AO 138-7 experiment on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was a total dose measurement with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD 100). Two identical packages, both of them including five TLD's inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile. Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles (AE8 and AP8 models during solar maximum and minimum periods) and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi infinite plane shield of aluminum are computed with the radiation transport codes available at DERTS. The dose profile obtained is in good agreement with the evaluation by E.V. Benton. TLD readings are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase a post flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the in flight induced dose. The results obtained, similar (plus or minus 30 percent) for both packages, are compared with the dose profile computation. For thick shields it seems that the measurements exceed the forecast (about 40 percent). That can be due to a cosmic ray and trapped proton contributions coming from the backside (assumed as perfectly shielded by the LDEF structure in the computation), or to an underestimate of the proton or cosmic ray fluences. A fine structural shielding analysis should be necessary in order to determine the origin of this slight discrepancy between forecast and in flight measurements. For the less shielded dosimeters, mainly exposed to the trapped electron flux, a slight overestimation of the dose (less than 40 percent) appears. Due to the dispersion of the TLD's response, this cannot be confirmed. In practice these results obtained on board LDEF, with less than a factor 1.4 between measurements and forecast

  15. Robo-AO: The First Autonomous Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System for Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, C.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, N.; Tendulkar, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kasliwal, M.; Ofek, E.; Zolkower, J.

    2011-01-01

    Robo-AO will be the first fully autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics and science system. Specifically designed to take advantage of small (1 to 3 meter) telescopes, Robo-AO will deliver high angular resolution science in the visible and near infrared for up to hundreds of targets per night. This will enable the exploration of science programs not practical for larger aperture adaptive optics systems. This presentation discusses the current status of the Robo-AO project, including the laboratory testbed, laser guide star facility and plans for a demonstration of the fully autonomous system next year.

  16. Vibrations in MagAO: resonance sources identification and first approaches for modeling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Javier; Zúñiga, Sebastián.; Close, Laird; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Katie; Escárate, Pedro; Castro, Mario; Marchioni, José; Rojas, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Magellan Telescope Adaptive Optics System (MagAO) is subject to resonance effects induced by elements within the system instrumentation, such as fans and cooling pumps. Normalized PSDs are obtained through frequency-based analysis of closed-loop on-sky data, detecting and measuring vibration effects. Subsequently, a space-state model for the AO loop is obtained, using a standard AO loop scheme with an integrator-based controller and including the vibration effects as disturbances. Finally, a new control alternative is proposed, focusing on residual phase variance minimization through the design and simulation of an optimal LQG control approach.

  17. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : Interplanetary Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six

  18. Closeup of CO172AO8, showing section of building 211 closest to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of CO-172-AO-8, showing section of building 211 closest to building 206. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Quartermaster's Storehouse, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. Robo-AO: An Autonomous Laser Adaptive Optics and Science System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Law, Nicholas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Dekany, Richard; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack; Zolkower, Jeff; Fucik, Jason; Burse, Mahesh; Das, Hillol; Chordia, Pravin; Kasliwal, Mansi; Ofek, Eran; Morton, Timothy; Johnson, John

    2011-07-01

    Robo-AO, a fully autonomous, laser guide star adaptive optics and science system, is being commissioned at Palomar Observatory's 60-inch telescope. Here we discuss the instrument, scientific goals and results of initial on-sky operation.

  20. Te Ao Kori as Expressive Movement in Aotearoa New Zealand Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE): A Narrative Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legge, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    A unique aspect of Aotearoa/New Zealand physical education is the inclusion of Maori culture in the form of te ao kori. Te ao kori translates to mean the world of movement and is represented by the interpretation of indigenous movement, games and pastimes. Participation in te ao kori means the sports-based normative frame of reference for physical…

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey. II. (Baranec+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Ziegler, C.; Law, N. M.; Morton, T.; Riddle, R.; Atkinson, D.; Schonhut, J.; Crepp, J.

    2016-10-01

    We selected targets that we had not previously observed from the KOI Catalog based on the Q1-Q12 Kepler data (Rowe et al. 2015, Cat. J/ApJS/217/16). These targets were added to the Robo-AO intelligent observing queue and observed during the summer of 2013. We obtained high angular resolution images of 956 Kepler planet candidate host stars with the Robo-AO robotic laser AOs system over the course of 19 nights between 2013 July 21 and 2013 October 25, detailed in Table5. We also include 13 images from 2012 (2012 July 16-September 13) that required additional confirmation of the KOI position in the Robo-AO field of view. All the observations were performed in a queue-scheduled mode in combination with other science programs using the Robo-AO autonomous laser AO system mounted on the robotic 1.5m telescope at Palomar Observatory (exposure time: 90s; observation wavelengths: 600-950nm; FWHM resolution: 0.12''-0.15''; field of view: 44''*44''; pixel scale: 43.1mas/pix; detector format: 10242 pixels; targets observed/hour: 20). We obtained images of 50 KOIs with the NIRC2 instrument behind the Keck II AO system that were previously observed with Robo-AO and had evidence of a companion. Observations were conducted on 2013 June 25, 2013 August 24 and 25, 2014 August 17, and 2015 July 25 in the K, Ks, or Kp filters, and in the narrow mode of NIRC2 (9.952mas/pixel). (4 data files).

  2. Thin glass shells for AO: from plano to off-axis aspherics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harel, Emmanuelle; Anretar, Alain; Antelme, Jean-Pierre; Caillon, Stéphane; Dussourd, Adrien; Foucaud, Guillaume; Jaury, Hervé; Roure, Océane; William, Jean-Philippe; Wuillaume, Philippe; Ruch, Eric; Geyl, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Reosc has been working on thin glass shells for many years and was recently selected by ESO for the production of the E-ELT M4 mirror thin glass shells. Previously Reosc also produced the aspheric thin shell for the VLT-M2 AO Facility. Based on this experience we will discuss how off axis thin glass shells can be made for the next generation AO systems like the GMT one.

  3. East Asian winter temperature variation associated with the combined effects of AO and WP pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the last 56 years (1958/59-2013/2014) were investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Park and Ahn, 2015). The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phases of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the EAWM and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were of-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500hPa circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. It explained the possible mechanism of the combined effects of the AO and WP on the circulation related to EAWM. Reference Park, H.-J., and J.-B. Ahn (2015) Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature, Clim. Dyn. DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2763-2. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081.

  4. OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolissaint, Laurent; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Marino, Jose

    2004-10-01

    When doing high angular resolution imaging with adaptive optics (AO), it is of crucial importance to have an accurate knowledge of the point spread function associated with each observation. Applications are numerous: image contrast enhancement by deconvolution, improved photometry and astrometry, as well as real time AO performance evaluation. In this paper, we present our work on automatic PSF reconstruction based on control loop data, acquired simultaneously with the observation. This problem has already been solved for curvature AO systems. To adapt this method to another type of WFS, a specific analytical noise propagation model must be established. For the Shack-Hartmann WFS, we are able to derive a very accurate estimate of the noise on each slope measurement, based on the covariances of the WFS CCD pixel values in the corresponding sub-aperture. These covariances can be either derived off-line from telemetry data, or calculated by the AO computer during the acquisition. We present improved methods to determine 1) r0 from the DM drive commands, which includes an estimation of the outer scale L0 2) the contribution of the high spatial frequency component of the turbulent phase, which is not corrected by the AO system and is scaled by r0. This new method has been implemented in an IDL-based software called OPERA (Performance of Adaptive Optics). We have tested OPERA on Altair, the recently commissioned Gemini-North AO system, and present our preliminary results. We also summarize the AO data required to run OPERA on any other AO system.

  5. Robo-AO: Initial results from the first autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.; Kulkarni, S.; Punnadi, S.; Smith, R.

    2014-03-01

    Large surveys, such as the Kepler mission and Palomar Transient Factory, are discovering upwards of thousands of objects which require further characterization at angular resolutions significantly finer than normally allowed by atmospheric seeing. The demands on precious space-based observatories (i.e. Hubble Space Telescope) and large telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems (i.e. Keck, VLT, Gemini) leave them generally unavailable for high angular resolution surveys of more than a few hundred targets at a time. To address the gap between scientific objects and available telescopes, we have developed Robo-AO, the first robotic laser AO system, as an economical and efficient imaging instrument for the more readily available 1-3 m class telescopes. The Robo-AO system system demonstrates angular resolutions approaching the visible diffraction limit of the Palomar 60-inch telescope. Observations of over 200 stellar objects per night have routinely been performed, with target-to-target observation overheads of less than 1.5 minutes. Scientific programs requiring high-resolution follow-up characterization of several thousands of targets can thus be executed in mere weeks, and Robo-AO has already completed the three largest AO surveys to date.

  6. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered. PMID:28663890

  7. Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited].

    PubMed

    Pircher, Michael; Zawadzki, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo imaging of the human retina with a resolution that allows visualization of cellular structures has proven to be essential to broaden our knowledge about the physiology of this precious and very complex neural tissue that enables the first steps in vision. Many pathologic changes originate from functional and structural alterations on a cellular scale, long before any degradation in vision can be noted. Therefore, it is important to investigate these tissues with a sufficient level of detail in order to better understand associated disease development or the effects of therapeutic intervention. Optical retinal imaging modalities rely on the optical elements of the eye itself (mainly the cornea and lens) to produce retinal images and are therefore affected by the specific arrangement of these elements and possible imperfections in curvature. Thus, aberrations are introduced to the imaging light and image quality is degraded. To compensate for these aberrations, adaptive optics (AO), a technology initially developed in astronomy, has been utilized. However, the axial sectioning provided by retinal AO-based fundus cameras and scanning laser ophthalmoscope instruments is limited to tens of micrometers because of the rather small available numerical aperture of the eye. To overcome this limitation and thus achieve much higher axial sectioning in the order of 2-5µm, AO has been combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) into AO-OCT. This enabled for the first time in vivo volumetric retinal imaging with high isotropic resolution. This article summarizes the technical aspects of AO-OCT and provides an overview on its various implementations and some of its clinical applications. In addition, latest developments in the field, such as computational AO-OCT and wavefront sensor less AO-OCT, are covered.

  8. Requirements Modeling with the Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation (AoURN): A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussbacher, Gunter; Amyot, Daniel; Araújo, João; Moreira, Ana

    The User Requirements Notation (URN) is a recent ITU-T standard that supports requirements engineering activities. The Aspect-oriented URN (AoURN) adds aspect-oriented concepts to URN, creating a unified framework that allows for scenario-based, goal-oriented, and aspect-oriented modeling. AoURN is applied to the car crash crisis management system (CCCMS), modeling its functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). AoURN generally models all use cases, NFRs, and stakeholders as individual concerns and provides general guidelines for concern identification. AoURN handles interactions between concerns, capturing their dependencies and conflicts as well as the resolutions. We present a qualitative comparison of aspect-oriented techniques for scenario-based and goal-oriented requirements engineering. An evaluation carried out based on the metrics adapted from literature and a task-based evaluation suggest that AoURN models are more scalable than URN models and exhibit better modularity, reusability, and maintainability.

  9. Snow-(N)AO relationship revisited over the whole twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douville, H.; Peings, Y.; Saint-Martin, D.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the Siberian snow cover in fall is a source of predictability of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in winter. Although a plausible dynamical mechanism was proposed, the robustness of this relationship was recently challenged. Here we use two atmospheric reanalyses to revisit the snow-AO relationship and its modulation across the whole twentieth century. While our results support a stratospheric pathway mechanism, they show that the snow-AO relationship has only emerged in the 1970s and should be rather analyzed as a contrasted multidecadal behavior of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific North America pattern. They confirm that the quasi-biennial oscillation is a plausible candidate for the modulation of the snow-(N)AO relationship across the twentieth century, but they further show that this modulation might be a purely stochastic effect. Therefore, they emphasize the limitations of any empirical prediction of the (N)AO only based on snow and/or sea ice predictors.

  10. Up-Regulated Expression of AOS-LOXa and Increased Eicosanoid Synthesis in Response to Coral Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Lõhelaid, Helike; Teder, Tarvi; Tõldsepp, Kadri; Ekins, Merrick; Samel, Nigulas

    2014-01-01

    In octocorals, a catalase–like allene oxide synthase (AOS) and an 8R-lipoxygenase (LOX) gene are fused together encoding for a single AOS-LOX fusion protein. Although the AOS-LOX pathway is central to the arachidonate metabolism in corals, its biological function in coral homeostasis is unclear. Using an acute incision wound model in the soft coral Capnella imbricata, we here test whether LOX pathway, similar to its role in plants, can contribute to the coral damage response and regeneration. Analysis of metabolites formed from exogenous arachidonate before and after fixed time intervals following wounding indicated a significant increase in AOS-LOX activity in response to mechanical injury. Two AOS-LOX isoforms, AOS-LOXa and AOS-LOXb, were cloned and expressed in bacterial expression system as active fusion proteins. Transcription levels of corresponding genes were measured in normal and stressed coral by qPCR. After wounding, AOS-LOXa was markedly up-regulated in both, the tissue adjacent to the incision and distal parts of a coral colony (with the maximum reached at 1 h and 6 h post wounding, respectively), while AOS-LOXb was stable. According to mRNA expression analysis, combined with detection of eicosanoid product formation for the first time, the AOS-LOX was identified as an early stress response gene which is induced by mechanical injury in coral. PMID:24551239

  11. Optical-X-ray Observations of BL Lacertae Object AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Emily S.; Webb, James R.; Balonek, Thomas J.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Shrader, Chris R.

    1998-11-01

    The BL Lacertea object AO 0235+164 dramatically increased in brightness on October 20, 1997. This outburst was observed with the 1 meter SARA (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy) telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) located southwest of Tucson, Arizona. As a result of our observations, AO 0235+164 was also observed during the outbust by the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment (RXTE) and Foggy Bottom Observaotry, Colgate Univserity, New York as a part of a Target of Opportunity (TOO) program. We present here the historical lightcurve of AO 0235+164, Optical observations during the ourtburst from the SARA and Foggy Bottom Observatories and X-ray observations from RXTE. Also, we present multifrequency data during this period and compare the variability of the Optical and X-ray bands.

  12. SAXO, the SPHERE extreme AO system: on-sky final performance and future improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Mouillet, D.; Costille, A.; Petit, C.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Milli, J.; Girard, J.; Kasper, M.; Vigan, A.; Suarez, M.; Soenke, C.; Downing, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Baudoz, P.; Sevin, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Schmid, H.-M.; Salasnich, B.; Hugot, E.; Hubin, N.

    2016-07-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument aims at detecting extremely faint sources (giant extrasolar planets) in the vicinity of bright stars1. Such a challenging goal requires the use of a very-high-order performance Adaptive Optics [AO] system feeding the scientific instruments with a quasi-perfect flat wave front corrected from all the atmospheric turbulence and internal defects. This AO system, called SAXO (Sphere Ao for eXoplanet Observation) is the heart of the instrument, a heart beating 1200 time per second and providing unprecedented image quality for a large ground based telescope at optical/near infrared wavelength. We will present the latest results obtained on-sky, demonstrating its exceptional performance (in terms of correction quality, stability and robustness) and tremendous potentiality for high contrast imaging and more specifically for exoplanet discovery.

  13. Deep-water sponges (Porifera) from Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Meesters, Erik H W G; Becking, Leontine E

    2014-10-29

    Four submersible dives off the coast of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands) and Klein Curaçao (Curaçao) to depths of 99.5-242 m, covering lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic zones, yielded 52 sponge specimens belonging to 31 species. Among these we identified 13 species as new to science. These are Plakinastrella stinapa n. sp., Pachastrella pacoi n. sp., Characella pachastrelloides n. sp., Geodia curacaoensis n. sp., Caminus carmabi n. sp., Discodermia adhaerens n. sp., Clathria (Microciona) acarnoides n. sp., Antho (Acarnia) pellita n. sp., Parahigginsia strongylifera n. sp., Calyx magnoculata n. sp., Neopetrosia dutchi n. sp., Neopetrosia ovata n. sp. and Neopetrosia eurystomata n. sp. We also report an euretid hexactinellid, which belongs to the rare genus Verrucocoeloidea, recently described (2014) as V. liberatorii Reiswig & Dohrmann. The remaining 18 already known species are all illustrated by photos of the habit, either in situ or 'on deck', but only briefly characterized in an annotated table to confirm their occurrence in the Southern Caribbean. The habitat investigated-steep limestone rocks, likely representing Pleistocene fossil reefs--is similar to deep-water fossil reefs at Barbados of which the sponges were sampled and studied by Van Soest and Stentoft (1988). A comparison is made between the two localities, showing a high degree of similarity in sponge composition: 53% of the present Bonaire-Klein Curaçao species were also retrieved at Barbados. At the level of higher taxa (genera, families) Bonaire-Klein Curaçao shared approximately 80% of its lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponge fauna with Barbados, despite a distance between them of 1000 km, indicating high faunal homogeneity. We also preliminarily compared the shallow-water (euphotic) sponge fauna of Curaçao with the combined data available for the Barbados, Bonaire and Klein Curaçao mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponges, which resulted in the conclusion that the two faunas show only

  14. Novel algorithm implementations in DARC: the Durham AO real-time controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Bitenc, Urban; Jenkins, David

    2016-07-01

    The Durham AO Real-time Controller has been used on-sky with the CANARY AO demonstrator instrument since 2010, and is also used to provide control for several AO test-benches, including DRAGON. Over this period, many new real-time algorithms have been developed, implemented and demonstrated, leading to performance improvements for CANARY. Additionally, the computational performance of this real-time system has continued to improve. Here, we provide details about recent updates and changes made to DARC, and the relevance of these updates, including new algorithms, to forthcoming AO systems. We present the computational performance of DARC when used on different hardware platforms, including hardware accelerators, and determine the relevance and potential for ELT scale systems. Recent updates to DARC have included algorithms to handle elongated laser guide star images, including correlation wavefront sensing, with options to automatically update references during AO loop operation. Additionally, sub-aperture masking options have been developed to increase signal to noise ratio when operating with non-symmetrical wavefront sensor images. The development of end-user tools has progressed with new options for configuration and control of the system. New wavefront sensor camera models and DM models have been integrated with the system, increasing the number of possible hardware configurations available, and a fully open-source AO system is now a reality, including drivers necessary for commercial cameras and DMs. The computational performance of DARC makes it suitable for ELT scale systems when implemented on suitable hardware. We present tests made on different hardware platforms, along with the strategies taken to optimise DARC for these systems.

  15. Rise of the Machines: Automated Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Observations of Thousands of Objects with Robo-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Dekany, R.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Das, H.; Punnadi, S.; Chordia, P.

    2013-01-01

    Robo-AO is the first fully automated laser guide star adaptive optics instrument. Robo-AO has completed thousands of automated AO observations at the visible diffraction limit for several scientific programs during its first semester of science observations. These programs include: the Ultimate Binarity Survey to examine stellar binarity properties across the main sequence and beyond; a survey of 1,000 Kepler objects of interest; the multiplicity of solar type stars; and several programs for high precision astrometric observations. A new infrared camera is under development for Robo-AO, and a clone of the system is in the planning stages. This presentation will discuss the Robo-AO instrument capabilities, summarize the science programs undertaken, and discuss the future of Robo-AO.

  16. The Robo-AO software: fully autonomous operation of a laser guide star adaptive optics and science system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Law, Nicholas M.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Baranec, Christoph; Rudy, Alexander R.; Sitt, Marland; Arya, Ankit; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Dekany, Richard G.

    2012-07-01

    Robo-AO is the first astronomical laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system designed to operate completely independent of human supervision. A single computer commands the AO system, the laser guide star, visible and near-infrared science cameras (which double as tip-tip sensors), the telescope, and other instrument functions. Autonomous startup and shutdown sequences as well as concatenated visible observations were demonstrated in late 2011. The fully robotic software is currently operating during a month long demonstration of Robo- AO at the Palomar Observatory 60-inch telescope.

  17. GPS-Based Navigation And Orbit Determination for the AMSAT AO-40 Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George; Moreau, Michael; Carpenter, Russell; Bauer, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The AMSAT OSCAR-40 (AO-40) spacecraft occupies a highly elliptical orbit (HEO) to support amateur radio experiments. An interesting aspect of the mission is the attempted use of GPS for navigation and attitude determination in HEO. Previous experiences with GPS tracking in such orbits have demonstrated the ability to acquire GPS signals, but very little data were produced for navigation and orbit determination studies. The AO-40 spacecraft, flying two Trimble Advanced Navigation Sensor (TANS) Vector GPS receivers for signal reception at apogee and at perigee, is the first to demonstrate autonomous tracking of GPS signals from within a HEO with no interaction from ground controllers. Moreover, over 11 weeks of total operations as of June 2002, the receiver has returned a continuous stream of code phase, Doppler, and carrier phase measurements useful for studying GPS signal characteristics and performing post-processed orbit determination studies in HEO. This paper presents the initial efforts to generate AO-40 navigation solutions from pseudorange data reconstructed from the TANS Vector code phase, as well as to generate a precise orbit solution for the AO-40 spacecraft using a batch filter.

  18. Effects of adrenergic agents on the expression of zebrafish (Danio rerio) vitellogenin Ao1

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Naida; Jin Xia; He Jiangyan; Yin Zhan

    2009-07-01

    Teleost vitellogenins (VTGs) are large multidomain apolipoproteins, traditionally considered to be estrogen-responsive precursors of the major egg yolk proteins, expressed and synthesized mainly in hepatic tissue. The inducibility of VTGs has made them one of the most frequently used in vivo and in vitro biomarkers of exposure to estrogen-active substances. A significant level of zebrafish vtgAo1, a major estrogen responsive form, has been unexpectedly found in heart tissue in our present studies. Our studies on zebrafish cardiomyopathy, caused by adrenergic agonist treatment, suggest a similar protective function of the cardiac expressed vtgAo1. We hypothesize that its function is to unload surplus intracellular lipids in cardiomyocytes for 'reverse triglyceride transportation' similar to that found in lipid transport proteins in mammals. Our results also demonstrated that zebrafish vtgAo1 mRNA expression in heart can be suppressed by both {alpha}-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE) and {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO). Furthermore, the strong stimulation of zebrafish vtgAo1 expression in plasma induced by the {beta}-adrenergic antagonist, MOXIsylyl, was detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Such stimulation cannot be suppressed by taMOXIfen, an antagonist to estrogen receptors. Thus, our present data indicate that the production of teleost VTG in vivo can be regulated not only by estrogenic agents, but by adrenergic signals as well.

  19. Is the BL Lacertae object AO 0235 + 164 being lensed by its intervening MG II absorber?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Roberto G.; Crawford, Carolin S.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Hutchings, John B.; McHardy, Ian M.

    1993-09-01

    We report the results of deep CFHT imaging of the BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164. This object exhibits Mg II absorption features and has been considered to be the best candidate for a microlensed BL Lac on the basis of its multiple redshift systems, decentered host, and extreme apparent superluminal motion. We test the microlensing hypothesis by modeling our images with a two-dimensional image fitting routine. The resulting best-fit models allow us to put strong constraints on lensing scenarios for this object, and to put limits on the mass-to-light ratio of the foreground Mg II absorbing galaxy. We conclude that, while AO 0235 + 164 is almost certainly being weakly amplified by macrolensing, microlensing by stars in the foreground lens is unnecessary in order to explain the observed properties of AO 0235 + 164. These results are combined with the work of previous authors to suggest that the (probably lensing) Mg II absorbing galaxy in the foreground of AO 0235 + 164 is embedded in a cooling flow.

  20. Performance of a MEMS-based AO-OCT system using Fourier Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J; Zawadzki, R; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Werner, J S

    2009-01-21

    Adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are powerful imaging modalities that, when combined, can provide high-resolution (3.5 {micro}m isotropic), 3-D images of the retina. The AO-OCT system at UC Davis has demonstrated the utility of this technology for microscopic, volumetric, in vivo retinal imaging. The current system uses an AOptix bimorph deformable mirror (DM) for low-order, high-stroke correction and a 140-actuator Boston Micromachines DM for high-order correction. Developments to improve performance or functionality of the instrument are on-going. Based on previous work in system characterization we have focused on improved AO control. We present preliminary results and remaining challenges for a newly implemented Fourier transform reconstructor (FTR). The previously reported error budget analysis is also reviewed and updated, with consideration of how to improve both the amount of residual error and the robustness of the system. Careful characterization of the AO system will lead to improved performance and inform the design of future systems.

  1. Extreme AO: The future of high-contrast imaging with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, B.

    2001-05-01

    Title: Extreme AO: The future of high-contrast-imaging with adaptive optics. Adaptive optics (AO) partially cancels wavefront aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence and can allow ground-basd telescope to reach their full diffraction-limited resolution. A fundamental limitation of all AO systems is that they have little effect on the atmospheric scattered light halo beyond a control radius roughly given by the wavelength of interest divided by the effective actuator spaceing d; for typical modern AO systems, d=60 cm and the control radius is about 0.6 arcseconds at H band. AO can still enhance contrast even beyond this radius, especially for point-source companions, by concentrating the light from the companion into a diffraction-limited spike, but the residual light remains a limitation on our ability to carry out high-contrast imaging from the ground. We will discuss potential improvements to AO over the next decade and the science they will enable. First, in the near term, high-order AO systems will soon be operational on most 8-10 m telescopes; such systems are theoretically capable of directly detecting extrasolar planets in wide (20-150 AU) orbits, and the capabilities and limitations of these systems will be discussed. Second, in the moderate term, new instrument technologies could substantially increase the performance of these systems, including exotic phase-based coronagraphs or "dark speckle" techniques. Third, it will soon be possible to construct "extreme" adaptive optics (EAO) systems, with many thousand actuators and d=5-20cm, capable of more deeply surpressing the atmospheric halo out to a much larger radius than current systems. Coronagraphs and EAO will substantially increase our sensitivity to diffuse circumstellar dust and could conceivably reach the contrast levels necessary to see giant plants around a handful of nearby stars. Finally, within a decade construction should be underway on next-generation extremely large (25-100 m) telescopes

  2. Improved tilt sensing in an LGS-based tomographic AO system based on instantaneous PSF estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veran, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Laser guide star (LGS)-based tomographic AO systems, such as Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), Multi-Object AO (MOAO) and Laser Tomography AO (LTAO), require natural guide stars (NGSs) to sense tip-tilt (TT) and possibly other low order modes, to get rid of the LGS-tilt indetermination problem. For example, NFIRAOS, the first-light facility MCAO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope requires three NGSs, in addition to six LGSs: two to measure TT and one to measure TT and defocus. In order to improve sky coverage, these NGSs are selected in a so-called technical field (2 arcmin in diameter for NFIRAOS), which is much larger than the on-axis science field (17x17 arcsec for NFIRAOS), on which the AO correction is optimized. Most times, the NGSs are far off-axis and thus poorly corrected by the high-order AO loop, resulting in spots with low contrast and high speckle noise. Accurately finding the position of such spots is difficult, even with advanced methods such as matched-filtering or correlation, because these methods rely on the knowledge of an average spot image, which is quite different from the instantaneous spot image, especially in case of poor correction. This results in poor tilt estimation, which, ultimately, impacts sky coverage. We propose to improve the estimation of the position of the NGS spots by using, for each frame, a current estimate of the instantaneous spot profile instead of an average profile. This estimate can be readily obtained by tracing wavefront errors in the direction of the NGS through the turbulence volume. The latter is already computed by the tomographic process from the LGS measurements as part of the high order AO loop. Computing such a wavefront estimate has actually already been proposed for the purpose of driving a deformable mirror (DM) in each NGS WFS, to optically correct the NGS spot, which does lead to improved centroiding accuracy. Our approach, however, is much simpler, because it does not require the complication of extra DMs

  3. The Effectiveness of a Mixed-Mode Survey on Domestic Violence in Curaçao: Response and Data Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, Nikil; de Leeuw, Edith; de Bruijn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    To collect reliable statistical data on domestic violence in Curaçao, we conducted a large-scale quantitative study (n = 816). To meet with the special needs of the population and topic, we designed a tailored mixed-mode survey to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in Curaçao and its health consequences. Great care was taken to reduce…

  4. ecoAO: A Simple System for the Study of Human Aldehyde Oxidases Role in Drug Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although aldehyde oxidase (AO) is an important hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme, it remains understudied and is consequently often overlooked in preclinical studies, an oversight that has resulted in the failure of multiple clinical trials. AO’s preclusion to investigation stems from the following: (1) difficulties synthesizing metabolic standards due to the chemospecificity and regiospecificity of the enzyme and (2) significant inherent variability across existing in vitro systems including liver cytosol, S9 fractions, and primary hepatocytes, which lack specificity and generate discordant expression and activity profiles. Here, we describe a practical bacterial biotransformation system, ecoAO, addressing both issues simultaneously. ecoAO is a cell paste of MoCo-producing Escherichia coli strain TP1017 expressing human AO. It exhibits specific activity toward known substrates, zoniporide, 4-trans-(N,N-dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, O6-benzylguanine, and zaleplon; it also has utility as a biocatalyst, yielding milligram quantities of synthetically challenging metabolite standards such as 2-oxo-zoniporide. Moreover, ecoAO enables routine determination of kcat and V/K, which are essential parameters for accurate in vivo clearance predictions. Furthermore, ecoAO has potential as a preclinical in vitro screening tool for AO activity, as demonstrated by its metabolism of 3-aminoquinoline, a previously uncharacterized substrate. ecoAO promises to provide easy access to metabolites with the potential to improve pharmacokinetic clearance predictions and guide drug development. PMID:28884164

  5. Termination of Pregnancy in Curaçao: Need for Improvement of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Adriana A.; Alberts, Jantina F.; de Bruijn, Jeanne; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de; Kleiverda, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Curaçao Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) is still forbidden by law, although a policy of tolerance has been stipulated since 1999. This paper is about the prevalence of TOP and about its health complications. These data on TOP are officially unknown but are suspected to be rather high. Methods: One year registration of illegal performed termination of pregnancy cases by all general physicians (GPs) practicing TOP in Curaçao. The registration included patient characteristics according to the model of the National Abortion Registration in The Netherlands, adjusted to the local Curaçao situation. Socio demographic characteristics, number of previous pregnancies and TOPs, pregnancy duration, contraception methods and reason for failure were registered. The comparative part of the research compares TOP rates of Curaçao with those of Antillean women in the Netherlands. The gynaecologists in the referral hospital registered complications requiring hospital admission after TOP. Results: All GPs performing TOP participated and the majority registered extensively. The total number of registered TOP was 1126. 666 of the 1126 were registered using the local adjusted Abortion Registration Model. With 30.000 women aged between 15 and 45 living in Curaçao, the TOP rate was at least 38 (per 1000 in that age category), comparable to rates for Antillean women in the Netherlands. Mean age was 26.9 years. Nearly half (47%) had one or more TOPs before; the majority (53%) was less than 7 weeks pregnant and two third (67%) had one or more children. Two third of the women did not use contraception (63%). For those using contraception, main reason for failure was inconsistent use (50%). There were 14 hospital admissions due to complications of TOP. Conclusion: The number of TOP is high in Curaçao and comparable to (first generation) Antillean women living abroad in the Netherlands. Most unintended pregnancies originated from no or inconsistent use of reliable

  6. The SCExAO high contrast imager: transitioning from commissioning to science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, N.; Guyon, O.; Lozi, J.; Currie, T.; Hagelberg, J.; Norris, B.; Singh, G.; Pathak, P.; Doughty, D.; Goebel, S.; Males, J.; Kuhn, J.; Serabyn, E.; Tuthill, P.; Schworer, G.; Martinache, F.; Kudo, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kotani, T.; Ireland, M.; Feger, T.; Rains, A.; Bento, J.; Schwab, C.; Coutts, D.; Cvetojevic, N.; Gross, S.; Arriola, A.; Lagadec, T.; Kasdin, J.; Groff, T.; Mazin, B.; Minowa, Y.; Takato, N.; Tamura, M.; Takami, H.; Hayashi, M.

    2016-07-01

    SCExAO is the premier high-contrast imaging platform for the Subaru Telescope. It offers high Strehl ratios at near-IR wavelengths (y-K band) with stable pointing and coronagraphs with extremely small inner working angles, optimized for imaging faint companions very close to the host. In the visible, it has several interferometric imagers which offer polarimetric and spectroscopic capabilities. A recent addition is the RHEA spectrograph enabling spatially resolved high resolution spectroscopy of the surfaces of giant stars, for example. New capabilities on the horizon include post-coronagraphic spectroscopy, spectral differential imaging, nulling interferometry as well as an integral field spectrograph and an MKID array. Here we present the new modules of SCExAO, give an overview of the current commissioning status of each of the modules and present preliminary results.

  7. Identification and calibration of the interaction matrix parameters for AO and MCAO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neichel, Benoit; Parisot, Amelie; Petit, Cyril; Fusco, Thierry; Rigaut, François

    2012-07-01

    New tomographic Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts require a good knowledge of the system geometry and characteristics. These parameters are used to feed the tomographic reconstructors. In this paper we present a method to precisely identify the parameters required to construct an accurate synthetic set of models such as inuence functions, mis-registrations, directions of analysis or altitude of the DMs. The method is based on a multiparameter t of the interaction matrix. This identication method nds also its application in high contrast AO systems, such as SPHERE : in that case it is used as a diagnostic tool in order to precisely realign the system. The method has been tested and successfully implemented on HOMER, SPHERE and GeMS. Experimental results for these three systems are presented.

  8. The role of AO external fixation in proximal femoral osteotomies in the pediatric neuromuscular population.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, John E; Weinberg, Jacob; Razi, Afshin; Mulley, Debra A

    2004-09-01

    Internal fixation in proximal femoral osteotomies using traditional devices may be sub-optimal in children with neuromuscular disorders who have small or osteopenic bone. In this population, between 1988 and 2000, we performed 36 proximal femoral varus osteotomies in 28 patients. These were controlled by the AO external fixator. The average age at surgery was 7 years (range, 2-13 years). A mean varus correction of 34 degrees (range, 15-90 degrees) was obtained. Complications consisted of one superficial pin tract infection, one skin breakdown, and one non-union. Other than the non-union, all osteotomies were stable at the time of the fixator removal. The AO external fixator is an effective alternative in maintaining corrective proximal femoral osteotomies in children with fragile bones.

  9. DM dimensioning for the next generation AO systems : strategies and rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costille, A.; Conan, J.-M.

    2007-07-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) provides a real time correction of turbulence and allows to improve the angular resolution of the astronomical telescopes. The design of AO systems and of its key components (deformable mirror (DM), wave-front sensors...) is very important to provide the best performance. The definition rules are well known for 10m class telescopes. However the study of the next generation of telescopes, especially the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), associated with the development of new technological solutions, particularly concerning DMs, require to refine and in some cases to reconsider these rules. Both turbulent parameters (seeing, outer scale ...), telescope effects, system design and performance requirements have to be considered in order to define the DM key parameters (stroke, inter-actuator stroke, influence function ...). We present a study based on the combination of analytical expressions and numerical simulation results. We do not give absolute rules of design but we present key aspects to keep in mind when designing the DM.

  10. Assessment of Assembling Objects (AO) for Improving Predictive Performance of the Armed Forces Qualification Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Although the ASVAB has not historically been predictive of attrition ( Laurence , Naughton, & Harris, 1996), the AO subtest has indeed shown...internal consistency (e.g., Earles & Ree , 1992). Alderton and colleagues (1997) found that PC had fairly low test-retest reliability, which was well... Ree (1992) found that WK is a slightly better predictor of course grades than PC across a variety of job types. Mirroring the research on the two

  11. Real-time control for the high order, wide field DRAGON AO test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Bitenc, Urban; Dipper, Nigel; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard; Reeves, Andrew; Younger, Eddy

    2014-07-01

    DRAGON is a high order, wide field AO test-bench at Durham. A key feature of DRAGON is the ability to be operated at real-time rates, i.e. frame rates of up to 1kHz, with low latency to maintain AO performance. Here, we will present the real-time control architecture for DRAGON, which includes two deformable mirrors, eight wavefront sensors and thousands of Shack-Hartmann sub-apertures. A novel approach has been taken to allow access to the wavefront sensor pixel stream, reducing latency and peak computational load, and this technique can be implemented for other similar wavefront sensor cameras with no hardware costs. We report on experience with an ELT-suitable wavefront sensor camera. DRAGON will form the basis for investigations into hardware acceleration architectures for AO real-time control, and recent work on GPU and many-core systems (including the Xeon Phi) will be reported. Additionally, the modular structure of DRAGON, its remote control capabilities, distribution of AO telemetry data, and the software concepts and architecture will be reported. Techniques used in DRAGON for pixel processing, slope calculation and wavefront reconstruction will be presented. This will include methods to handle changes in CN2 profile and sodium layer profile, both of which can be modelled in DRAGON. DRAGON software simulation techniques linking hardware-in-the-loop computer models to the DRAGON real-time system and control software will also be discussed. This tool allows testing of the DRAGON system without requiring physical hardware and serves as a test-bed for ELT integration and verification techniques.

  12. Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) for KC-135 Recapitalization. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Integrative research projects and work on modeling and simulation are conducted on a PAF-wide basis. The research reported here was prepared within the...Electric and Pratt & Whitney. The Air Force’s Aeronautical Systems Center, part of Air Force Materiel Command, proposed three new- design tankers that were...and Analysis Division (AMC/A59) made significant contributions to the AoA’s effectiveness analysis, especially in the detailed modeling of tanker

  13. Bridging FPGA and GPU technologies for AO real-time control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, Denis; Lainé, Maxime; Bernard, Julien; Gratadour, Damien; Sevin, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    Our team has developed a common environment for high performance simulations and real-time control of AO systems based on the use of Graphics Processors Units in the context of the COMPASS project. Such a solution, based on the ability of the real time core in the simulation to provide adequate computing performance, limits the cost of developing AO RTC systems and makes them more scalable. A code developed and validated in the context of the simulation may be injected directly into the system and tested on sky. Furthermore, the use of relatively low cost components also offers significant advantages for the system hardware platform. However, the use of GPUs in an AO loop comes with drawbacks: the traditional way of offloading computation from CPU to GPUs - involving multiple copies and unacceptable overhead in kernel launching - is not well suited in a real time context. This last application requires the implementation of a solution enabling direct memory access (DMA) to the GPU memory from a third party device, bypassing the operating system. This allows this device to communicate directly with the real-time core of the simulation feeding it with the WFS camera pixel stream. We show that DMA between a custom FPGA-based frame-grabber and a computation unit (GPU, FPGA, or Coprocessor such as Xeon-phi) across PCIe allows us to get latencies compatible with what will be needed on ELTs. As a fine-grained synchronization mechanism is not yet made available by GPU vendors, we propose the use of memory polling to avoid interrupts handling and involvement of a CPU. Network and Vision protocols are handled by the FPGA-based Network Interface Card (NIC). We present the results we obtained on a complete AO loop using camera and deformable mirror simulators.

  14. World-wide deployment of Robo-AO visible-light robotic laser adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Lu, Jessica R.; Tonry, John; Tully, R. Brent; Wright, Shelley; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Severson, Scott; Choi, Philip; Ramaprakash, A.; Chun, Mark; Connelley, Mike; Tokunaga, Alan; Hall, Donald

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, several modest-sized telescopes around the world will be upgraded with autonomous laser adaptive optics systems based on the Robo-AO prototype deployed at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The prototype commenced scientific operations in June 2012 and more than 19,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. We are planning to move the prototype system to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for a 3-year deployment which will serve a consortium of users including Caltech, the University of Hawai`i, IUCAA, NCU and institutions in China. Additionally, 2 months per year will be made available to the US astronomical community.New Robo-AO systems are in various stages of development: a clone by IUCAA for the 2-m IGO telescope in India; a natural guide star variant, KAPAO, by Pomona College at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope in California; and second generation Robo-AO systems are planned for the 3-m IRTF and 2.2-m University of Hawai'i telescopes on Maunakea, Hawai`i. The latter will exploit Maunakea's excellent observing conditions to provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to lambda = 400 nm. An additional infrared integral-field spectrograph will be fed by the UH 2.2-m Robo-AO system to quickly classify transients, such as supernovae and asteroids, discovered by the ATLAS system in Hawai`i.

  15. The investigation of determination asteroids positions errors by observations of telescope SBG AO UFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizer, G. T.; Skripnichenko, P. V.

    2013-07-01

    The article is about investigation of influence astrometric CCD image processing conditions on the accuracy of determining the positions of asteroids. The main this research's problem is dependence of calculatedasteroids coordinates error from used in the processing mathematical model that approximated the image of the objects on the CCD image. In thearticle described of the effect of Lorentz and Moffatt profiles on the accuracy ofasteroids positions determining by the observation from SBG AO UFU.

  16. Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS’ performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS’ performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision. PMID:27314354

  17. Using the Fingerprinting Method to Customize RTLS Based on the AoA Ranging Technique.

    PubMed

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J

    2016-06-14

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS' performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS' performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision.

  18. Correction of shortening and/or angular deformities by distraction osteogenesis using AO-tubular fixator.

    PubMed

    Sangkaew, Chanchit

    2003-01-01

    Eighteen patients (20 bony segments) who had shortening and/or angular deformities were treated by distraction osteogenesis using AO-tubular external fixator. The mean angular correction was 18.9 degrees (range, 8-40 degrees). Of the group in whom shortening and angulation was corrected, the mean length gained was 4.2 cm (3-6 cm). The mean treatment time was 4.9 months (range, 2-13 months) and the mean follow-up was 12 months after removal of the fixator (range, 3-30 months). Delayed union with loosening of the fixator occurred in one patient which resulted in residual shortening of 1.5 cm. The author's technique of distraction osteogenesis using AO-tubular fixator with the new distraction rate of 1 mm/48 h (1 mm/step) could adequately correct shortening and/or angular deformities. No extra equipment was needed other than the readily-available AO-tubular fixation systems. No serious complications such as neurovascular injury were encountered.

  19. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 1; Respective Influences of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Climate Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and 8 different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to allow for a full tropospheric climate response, and with specified SSTs to minimize the tropospheric change. The results show that tropospheric warming (cooling) experiments and stratospheric cooling (warming) experiments produce more positive (negative) AO/NAO indices. For the typical magnitudes of tropospheric and stratospheric climate changes, the tropospheric response dominates; results are strongest when the tropospheric and stratospheric influences are producing similar phase changes. Both regions produce their effect primarily by altering wave propagation and angular momentum transports, but planetary wave energy changes accompanying tropospheric climate change are also important. Stratospheric forcing has a larger impact on the NAO than on the AO, and the angular momentum transport changes associated with it peak in the upper troposphere, affecting all wavenumbers. Tropospheric climate changes influence both the A0 and NAO with effects that extend throughout the troposphere. For both forcings there is often vertical consistency in the sign of the momentum transport changes, obscuring the difference between direct and indirect mechanisms for influencing the surface circulation.

  20. AO modelling for wide-field E-ELT instrumentation using Monte-Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Morris, Simon; Morris, Tim; Myers, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Extensive simulations of AO performance for several E-ELT instruments (including EAGLE, MOSAIC, HIRES and MAORY) have been ongoing using the Monte-Carlo Durham AO Simulation Package. We present the latest simulation results, including studies into DM requirements, dependencies of performance on asterism, detailed point spread function generation, accurate telescope modelling, and studies of laser guide star effects. Details of simulations will be given, including the use of optical models of the E-ELT to generate wave- front sensor pupil illumination functions, laser guide star modelling, and investigations of different many-layer atmospheric profiles. We discuss issues related to ELT-scale simulation, how we have overcome these, and how we will be approaching forthcoming issues such as modelling of advanced wavefront control, multi-rate wavefront sensing, and advanced treatment of extended laser guide star spots. We also present progress made on integrating simulation with AO real-time control systems. The impact of simulation outcomes on instrument design studies will be discussed, and the ongoing work plan presented.

  1. AOS: adaptive offset time scheduling for TCP fairness in optical burst-switched network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hongyun; Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Changjia

    2005-11-01

    Optical Burst-switched (OBS) is a promising switching technology and expected to support the future Internet backbone with dramatically increasing bandwidth demand. In an OBS network, burst contention causes burst loss due to bufferless nature of OBS core network. This kind of burst loss will interact with the above TCP layer. In this paper, we study the impact of this interaction on TCP fairness. We find significant unfairness among TCP flows that share the OBS core network, i.e. one flow obtains higher throughput while any others with much lower throughputs. The cause is the phenomenon called "the bigger eats the smaller (BES)", in which a TCP flow with higher rate occasionally will "see" less burst contentions and increase its rate further, while a TCP with lower rate will see more burst contentions and decrease its rate continually. Discuss a simple model to explain BES and verify that a continuous sequence of bursts will enhance BES. Then observe that offset time will be a good choice to control TCP fairness by a curve of unfairness control with offset time adjustment. Finally an adaptive offset time scheduling (AOS) algorithm is proposed. AOS assigns burst offset time value adaptive to the rate of TCP flow. The simulation results show that the fairness can be significantly improved by our AOS scheme.

  2. New classification system for long-bone fractures supplementing the AO/OTA classification.

    PubMed

    Garnavos, Christos; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Lasanianos, Nikolaos G; Tzortzi, Paraskevi; West, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    This article describes a novel, clinically oriented classification system for long-bone fractures that is simple, reliable, and useful to predict treatment method, complications, and outcome. The reliability and memorability of the new classification were statistically tested and compared with the AO-Müller/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) long-bone fracture classification. The proposed classification system was also clinically validated with a targeted pilot study designed for content and clinical outcome retrospectively reviewing 122 closed tibial shaft fractures, which were used as a representative paradigm of long-bone fractures. Statistical evaluation showed that the proposed classification system had improved inter- and intraobserver variation agreement and easier memorability compared with the AO/OTA classification system. The clinical validation study showed its predictive value regarding selection of treatment method, complication rate, and injury outcome.The proposed classification system proved simple, reliable, and memorable. Its clinical value appeared strong enough to justify the organization of larger studies for a complete assessment of its clinical usefulness for all long-bone fractures.

  3. Integration, tests and laboratory performance of SAXO, the VLT-SPHERE extreme AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Charton, J.; Baudoz, P.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Buey, T.; Dohlen, K.; Feautrier, P.; Fedrigo, E.; Fleuzry, B.; Gach, J.-L.; Hubin, N.; Kasper, M.; Mouillet, D.; Perret, D.; Puget, P.; Sinquin, J.-C.; Soenke, C.; Wildi, F.

    2011-09-01

    Direct detection and spectral characterization of extra-solar planets is one of the most exciting but also one of the most challenging areas in modern astronomy due to the very large contrast between the host star and the planet at very small angular separations. SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research in Europe) is a second-generation instrument for the ESO VLT dedicated to this scientific objective. It combines an extreme adaptive optics system, various coronagraphic devices and a suite of focal instruments providing imaging, integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry capabilities in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The extreme AO system, SAXO, is the heart of the SPHERE system, providing to the scientific instruments a flat wavefront corrected from all the atmospheric turbulence and internal defects. We will present a status of SAXO assembly integration and performance. The main requirements and system characteristics will be recalled, then each sub system will be individually presented and fully characterized and finally the full AO loop performance will be quantified. It will be demonstrated that SAXO will meet its challenging requirements (more than 90% of SR in H band with a residual jitter lower than 3 milli-arcseconds for average observation conditions on the VLT). Thanks to a coronagraphic analysis of the AO residuals, a detailed comparison between actual and simulated residual intensity profiles will be provided and will help to adjust the expected performance of the SPHERE system on sky, knowing that its first light is foreseen for mid 2012.

  4. SCExAO: the most complete instrument to characterize exoplanets and stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Doughty, Danielle; Pathak, Prashant; Goebel, Sean; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument, currently under development for the Subaru Telescope, optimally combines state-of-the-art technologies to directly study exoplanets and stellar environments at the diffraction limit, both in visible and infrared light (0.6 to 2.4 um). The instrument already includes an ultra-fast visible pyramid wavefront sensor operating at 3.5 kHz, a 2k-actuator deformable mirror, a set of optimal coronagraphs that can work as close as 1 l/D, a low-order wavefront sensor, a high-speed speckle control, and two visible interferometric modules, VAMPIRES and FIRST. Stability of the wavefront correction has already been demonstrated on sky, and SCExAO is already producing scientific results. After the integration of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) CHARIS and a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) in 2016, SCExAO will be one of the most powerful and effective tools for characterizing exoplanets and disks.

  5. Microwelding of various metallic materials under ultravacuum (AO 138-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assie, Jean Pierre; Conde, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The first finding from the AO 138-10 is that cold welding never occurred, and that microwelds didn't even affect the reference (presumably microweld prone) pairs of metals consisting of gold, silver, and chromium. The scientific disappointment from these results must be tempered by the notion of a static AO 138-10 experiment, reflecting the passive character of the global Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) flight. Thus far, it has been theorized that cold welding results from the peeling of the oxide layer, that is formed in an earth environment, by the space environment since such a layer no longer grows in space. In fact, such stripping of the oxide layer supposes relative motion of the contacting materials. In the absence of such motion, as in this experiment, oxidation will preserve its integrity and continue to prevent microwelding. More bewildering is that there was no microwelding of the reference pairs. Even though AO 138-10 failed scientific expectations, as did the LDEF structure with cold welding, the positive, functional aspect to keep in mind is the safe operation of single-shot (appendage releasing and/or latching) mechanisms, unhindered by microwelding in a space vacuum, as now demonstrated by the statically representative pairs of materials. Other aspects of the experiment are discussed.

  6. PHOTOMETRIC EVOLUTION OF SNe Ib/c 2004ao, 2004gk, AND 2006gi

    SciTech Connect

    Elmhamdi, Abouazza; Kordi, Ayman; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Danziger, I. John

    2011-04-20

    Photometric observations of three core collapse supernovae (SNe 2004ao, 2004gk, and 2006gi), covering about 200 days of evolution, are presented and analyzed. The photometric behavior of the three objects is consistent with their membership in the envelope-stripped Type Ib/c class. Pseudobolometric light curves are constructed. The corresponding measured e-folding times are found to be faster compared to the {sup 56}Co decay (i.e., 111.3 days), suggesting that a proportion of {gamma}-rays increasing with time have escaped without thermalization, owing to the low-mass nature of the ejecta. SN 2006gi has almost identical post-maximum decline phase luminosities as SN 1999ex and found to be similar to both SNe 1999dn and 1999ex in terms of the quasi-bolometric shape, placing it among the fast decliner Ib objects. SN 2004ao appears to fit within the slow decliner Ib SNe. SNe 2004ao and 2004gk display almost identical luminosities in the [50-100] day time interval, similar to SN 1993J. A preliminary simplified {gamma}-ray deposition model is described and applied to the computed pseudobolometric light curves, allowing one to find a range in the ejecta and {sup 56}Ni masses. The optical and quasi-bolometric light curves and the B - V color evolution of SN 2004gk are found to show a sudden drop after day 150. Correlating this fact to dust formation is premature and requires further observational evidence.

  7. Improving Laser-Guide Star AO Observations via Mesospheric Sodium Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, R.; Yavorski, J.; Jelks, C.; Colburn, W.; Berner, K.

    The use of modern Adaptive Optics (AO) systems allows large telescopes to approach diffraction limited seeing. This technique can improve the imaging resolution of a large telescope by more than an order of magnitude. Such a capability provides real improvement in ground-based space situational awareness (SSA) observations. The drawback to current adaptive optics systems is that they only improve resolution over small imaging regions, sometimes as small as a few tens of arc seconds. Such small imaging regions limit the availability of suitable guide stars, which in turn limits the availability and duty cycle of an AO system. This limitation has led to the development of systems for producing artificial guide stars, which can be created along a line of sight coincident with that of the telescope. The most commonly used artificial guide stars are created by tuning a laser to the frequency of the Sodium D1/D2 line complex, and exciting sodium atoms in the Earth's mesosphere. The mesospheric sodium layer is exceptionally rarified, and has densities that vary diurnally, seasonally, and geographically. Our investigation centers on the use of sounding rockets to deliver substantial quantities of atomic sodium to the mesospheric layer. This direct enhancement of the sodium layer could increase the number of nights that laser-guide star AO observations could be performed, as well as increasing guide star brightness. These improvements should yield better AO wavefront correction and faster imaging frame rates. For the SSA application, these improvements will lead to more and better imaging opportunities. We will present a basic overview of the relevant mesospheric dynamics, with emphasis on sodium dwell times and replenishment rates. We will present several possible mechanisms for delivery and deployment of atomic sodium in the mesosphere, and demonstrate the trade-offs in their use. We will present a possible concept of operation for notional delivery systems. Finally, we

  8. De Todo un Poco (A Little of Everything).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Public Schools, IL.

    This document seeks to underline the importance of cultural awareness by providing examples of the folkways, customs, art, traditions, and life styles of different ethnic groups. Included here are teaching techniques designed to motivate understanding of the universality of man and to show how cultural differences enrich everyone's life.…

  9. De Todo un Poco (A Little of Everything).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Public Schools, IL.

    This document contains articles and reports relevant to the bilingual education programs in the Chicago Public Schools. The booklet includes announcements of cultural and learning activities; projects and opportunities for teachers; articles on bilingual education in America, accountability, and the National Conference on Bilingual Education;…

  10. Increasing Efficiency at the NTF by Optimizing Model AoA Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Bradley L.; Spells, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is a national resource for aeronautical research and development. The government, military and private industries rely on the capability of this facility for realistic flight data. Reducing the operation costs and keeping the NTF affordable is essential for aeronautics research. The NTF is undertaking an effort to reduce the time between data points during a pitch polar. This reduction is being driven by the operating costs of a cryogenic facility. If the time per data point can be reduced, a substantial cost savings can be realized from a reduction in liquid nitrogen (LN2) consumption. It is known that angle-of-attack (AoA) positioning is the longest lead-time item between points. In January 2005 a test was conducted at the NTF to determine the cause of the long lead-time so that an effort could be made to improve efficiency. The AoA signal at the NTF originates from onboard instrumentation then travels through a number of different systems including the signal conditioner, digital voltmeter, and the data system where the AoA angle is calculated. It is then fed into a closed loop control system that sets the model position. Each process along this path adds to the time per data point affecting the efficiency of the data taking process. Due to the nature of the closed loop feed back AoA control and the signal path, it takes approximately 18 seconds to take one pitch pause point with a typical AoA increment. Options are being investigated to reduce the time delay between points by modifying the signal path. These options include: reduced signal filtering, using analog channels instead of a digital volt meter (DVM), re-routing the signal directly to the AoA control computer and implementing new control algorithms. Each of these has potential to reduce the positioning time and together the savings could be significant. These timesaving efforts are essential but must be weighed against

  11. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment (AO135) consist of twenty detectors of three different types of materials, lithium-tantalate, strontium-barium-niobate and triglycine-sulfide. The Pyroelectric infrered detector experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typi- cally placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, The Holographic Data Storage Crystal Experiment (AO044) with four crystals, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  12. AO fixateur interne in treating burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Liu, C L; Wang, S T; Lin, H J; Kao, H C; Yu, W K; Lo, W H

    1999-09-01

    A burst fracture of the thoracolumbar junction is an unstable spinal fracture, which is caused by high-energy trauma. There are many methods of treatment, both surgical and nonsurgical, in dealing with spinal burst fractures. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) Fixateur Interne (FI) system was introduced in 1985 for posterior spine surgery with a transpedicular screw system. From April, 1989, through December, 1994, we encountered 42 patients with 42 acute burst fractures of the spine; 26 were male and 16 were female, with an average age of 41.2 years. One fracture occurred on T11, seven on T12, 16 on L1, 11 on L2, one on L3, four on L4 and two on L5. According to the Denis classification, there were eight type A, 23 type B, five type C, three type D and three type E fractures. All of these patients received posterior reduction without decompression, posterior short segmental fixation with AO FI instrumentation and posterior fusion. After follow-up for an average of 66.1 months, all fractures were found to have united with residual back pain in only six patients; five patients, including one with nonunion, had back pain without the necessity of medication, and the other one had occasional back pain that was well controlled by medication. The immediate postoperative Cobb's angle improved by an average of 14.2 degrees, and there was an average loss of 3.3 degrees at final follow-up. All patients were neurologically intact at final follow-up except two patients, who were Frankel D. Seven patients had complications during follow-up; one experienced nonunion; four experienced screw breakage, one had screw pullout, and the other experienced breakage of the connecting rod. From our retrospective study, the outcome of burst fracture of the spine treated with AO FI instrumentation system was satisfactory.

  13. Development and validation of the AO pediatric comprehensive classification of long bone fractures by the Pediatric Expert Group of the AO Foundation in collaboration with AO Clinical Investigation and Documentation and the International Association for Pediatric Traumatology.

    PubMed

    Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent; Schlickewei, Wolfgang; Clavert, Jean-Michel; Hunter, James

    2006-01-01

    A series of four agreement studies (classification sessions) were conducted to support the development and validation of a comprehensive pediatric long bone fracture classification system. This system follows the principle of the Müller-AO classification for long bones in adults and integrates most relevant existing pediatric classification systems. The diagnosis includes the distinction between epiphyseal (E), metaphyseal (M), or diaphyseal (D) fractures, as well as identification of child-specific features. This article describes the proposed system in some detail. Digital standard preoperative anteroposterior and lateral radiographs from 267 consecutive pediatric patients (<16 years old and open physis) with single fractures of the distal humerus, radius, or tibia were collected at a single university children's hospital. Fractures were classified independently by five experienced pediatric surgeons. The classification process was assessed for reliability using the kappa coefficient and accuracy using latent class modeling separately for each bone for bone type, and separately for each bone type for child codes. At the last classification session, kappa values for E-M-D and child code classifications were mostly above 0.90, and accuracy estimates were between 75% and 100% for different surgeons, types, and bones. Disagreement and misclassification of fractures were overall very low; hence, experienced and trained surgeons can classify pediatric long bone fractures using the proposed system with high accuracy based on standard radiographic views. The authors encourage wide consultation and further evaluation of this proposed pediatric long bone classification system with a larger number of future users with different training before being used for documentation and clinical studies.

  14. Rayleigh guide star AO demonstrator for the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul; Bissonauth, Nirmal; O'Byrne, John W.; Dunlop, Colin N.; Gregory, Thomas; Morris, Timothy J.; Myers, Richard M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Wilson, Richard W.

    2003-02-01

    An experimental Adaptive Optics system utilizing a low-altitude Rayleigh Laser Guide Star is presented. The current status of the project is described together with plans for future work, with the ultimate goal of providing demonstration Rayleigh LGS AO science on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. The implementation of the demonstration system is described in detail as are the technical challenges encountered during the development of the current shared-launch based system. Other papers in this conference describe a proposal for a facility class LGS system for the WHT and the performance of the observatory's NAOMI adaptive optics system.

  15. Using DARC in a multi-object AO bench and in a dome seeing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez, Norman; Basden, Alistair; Guzmán, Dani; Dubost, Nicolás.; Berdja, Amokrane

    2014-07-01

    The Durham adaptive Optics Real Time Controller (DARC)1 is a real-time system for astronomical adaptive optics systems originally developed at Durham University and in use for the CANARY instrument. One of its main strengths is to be a generic and high performance real-time controller running on an off-the-shelf Linux computer. We are using DARC for two different implementations: BEAGLE,2 a Multi-Object AO (MOAO) bench system to experiment with novel tomographic reconstructors and LOTUCE2,3 an in-dome turbulence instrument. We present the software architecture for each application, current benchmarks and lessons learned for current and future DARC developers.

  16. On random walk de Lévy aplicado aos mapas de variâncias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    Uma pergunta que surge ao nos confrontarmos com os mapas de variâncias, ou s-Maps [Klafke, J. C. "Estudo da Difusão Caótica em Ressonâncias Asteroidais", Tese de Doutorado, IAG/USP, 2002] diz respeito ao conteúdo físico de tais representações do espaço de fase. Ou seja, o que representa as variâncias das ações obtidas para uma determinada condição inicial e como relacioná-las com o tempo de difusão das órbitas, supondo-se que estas de fato estejam envolvidas em um processo difusivo? Para discutirmos essa questão, lançamos mão da modelagem dos processos estocásticos subjacentes às variâncias determinadas e implementamos uma série de simulações do tipo Monte Carlo a partir das informações registradas nos s-Maps calculados para algumas ressonâncias asteroidais bem estudadas (p.ex. 3: 1, 2: 1 e 3: 2). Para tanto, temos usado uma função de densidade de probabilidade gaussiana ao definir os n passos que permitirão estabelecer uma relação direta entre o Mapa de Difusão e o Mapa de Variâncias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos até agora tem subestimado o tempo de difusão esperado para os fenômenos conhecidos. Tal se deve ao fato de que, no processo difusivo real, é possível existirem passos de comprimento consideravelmente maiores que a média estabelecida pelas distribuições gaussiana ou normal, sobretudo quando se cruza uma região caótica. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os resultados comparativos de simulações de Monte Carlo com base no random walk de Lévy [Klafter, J. et al. 2002. "Beyond Brownian motion", Phys. Today, Feb, 33-39.], o qual possibilita passos esporádicos de comprimento acima do valor médio (saltos) permitindo estabelecer uma escala de tempo mais próxima da esperada para a difusão.

  17. Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

  18. The adaptive optics modes for HARMONI: from Classical to Laser Assisted Tomographic AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neichel, B.; Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Correia, C.; Dohlen, K.; El-Hadi, K.; Blanco, L.; Schwartz, N.; Clarke, F.; Thatte, N. A.; Tecza, M.; Paufique, J.; Vernet, J.; Le Louarn, M.; Hammersley, P.; Gach, J.-L.; Pascal, S.; Vola, P.; Petit, C.; Conan, J.-M.; Carlotti, A.; Vérinaud, C.; Schnetler, H.; Bryson, I.; Morris, T.; Myers, R.; Hugot, E.; Gallie, A. M.; Henry, David M.

    2016-07-01

    HARMONI is a visible and NIR integral field spectrograph, providing the E-ELT's core spectroscopic capability at first light. HARMONI will work at the diffraction limit of the E-ELT, thanks to a Classical and a Laser Tomographic AO system. In this paper, we present the system choices that have been made for these SCAO and LTAO modules. In particular, we describe the strategy developed for the different Wave-Front Sensors: pyramid for SCAO, the LGSWFS concept, the NGSWFS path, and the truth sensor capabilities. We present first potential implementations. And we asses the first system performance.

  19. Optical Photometry of the flaring gamma-ray blazar AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pursimo, Tapio; Losada, Illa R.; Messa, Matteo; Gafton, Emanuel; Ojha, Roopesh

    2016-03-01

    We report optical photometry of the blazar AO 0235+164 obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma to look for any enhanced optical activity associated with a recent flare in the daily averaged gamma-ray flux seen in the public lightcurve of the Fermi/LAT instrument: http://fermi.gsfc.nasa.gov/FTP/glast/data/lat/catalogs/asp/current/lightcurves/0235+164_86400.png Fermi/LAT first reported a detection of gamma-ray activity from this source in Sep, 2008 (ATel#1744) and a short timescale flare in Oct 14, 2008 (ATel#1784).

  20. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The prelaunch photograph shows the two (2) clam shell type canisters in their closed position. The canister shells are made of aluminum sheet material with end caps of diecast aluminum. The baseplate and support structure are fabricated from 6000 series aluminum. Fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. The electrical box and the stainless steel tubing located on the baseplate protect the drive system wiring. The experiment contains a timing mechanism that provides the intelligence to open the canisters after the Orbiter has departed the area and any initial outgassing or offgassing has occurred.

  1. Preliminary results from the chemistry of micrometeoroid experiment (AO 187-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Bernhard, R. P.; See, Thomas H.; Warren, J.; Brownlee, Don E.; Laurance, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of experiment AO 187-1 was to expose high purity substrates of suitable cratering properties to obtain detailed crater statistics that may be converted into projectile masses and fluxes and to chemically characterize as many impactors as possible. The latter information would hopefully reveal distinct classes of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. It was found that crater that yield residues show that natural and man-made impactors may be differentiated and that diversity exists within each group. 'Chondritic' compositions dominate among natural particles, yet some craters contain unmelted fragments of minerals (Olivine and pyroxene).

  2. COMPASS: an efficient, scalable and versatile numerical platform for the development of ELT AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratadour, D.; Puech, M.; Vérinaud, C.; Kestener, P.; Gray, M.; Petit, C.; Brulé, J.; Clénet, Y.; Ferreira, F.; Gendron, E.; Lainé, M.; Sevin, A.; Rousset, G.; Hammer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Paillous, Michele; Taburet, S.; Yang, Y.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Carlotti, A.; Westphal, M.; Epinat, B.; Ferrari, M.; Gautrais, T.; Lambert, J. C.; Neichel, B.; Rodionov, S.

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of the COMPASS project is to provide a full scale end-to-end AO development platform, able to address the E-ELT scale and designed as a free, open source numerical tool with a long term maintenance plan. The development of this platform is based on a full integration of software with hardware and relies on an optimized implementation on heterogeneous hardware using GPUs as accelerators. In this paper, we present the overall platform, the various work packages of this project, the milestones to be reached, the results already obtained and the first output of the ongoing collaborations.

  3. An overview of the first results on the solar array passive LDEF experiment (sample), AO171

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Young, Leighton E.

    1991-01-01

    Space environmental effects were visibly obvious on components of experiment AO171 which contained solar cells, composites, polymeric thin films, solar reflectors, protective coatings, metals, paints , and elastomers. Micrometeoroid/space debris impacts were observed on all experiment elements. Luminescence of polyimide, silicone, and polyurethane materials occurred under black light examination. Outgassing of RTV511 occurred mainly as a result of insufficient thermal vacuum bakeout. Solar cell degradation was predominantly below 10 percent. Elastomers lost mass and discolored; composites showed evidence of atomic oxygen attack, and unprotected thin polymer films eroded away.

  4. Direct hip joint distraction during acetabular fracture surgery using the AO universal manipulator.

    PubMed

    Calafi, L Afshin; Routt, M L Chip

    2010-02-01

    Certain acetabular fractures may necessitate distraction of the hip joint for removal of intra-articular debris and assessment of reduction. Distraction can be accomplished by manual traction, using a traction table or an AO universal manipulator (UM). The UM is a relatively simple and an inexpensive device that can provide focal distraction in a controlled manner without the risks associated with the use of a traction table. We describe a technique using the UM for hip joint distraction during acetabular fracture surgery through a Kocher-Langenbeck surgical exposure.

  5. Monitoring Io volcanism with AO telescopes during and after the NH flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Spencer, J. R.; Lopes, R. M.; Davies, A. G.; Dumas, C.

    2007-12-01

    To support the New Horizons (NH) Jupiter encounter we monitored Io's volcanic activity using high angular resolution images in the near infrared (1-5 microns) provided by adaptive optics (AO) systems available on 8-10m class telescopes. We initiated the campaign on Feb. 25 2007 with data obtained with the VLT-Yepun telescope (ESO, Paranal, Chile), just before NH closest approach. We continued monitoring with the Gemini North telescope (Hawaii, USA). The last observation was taken on May 28 2007. Numerous active volcanoes are visible in the data but the Tvashtar eruption is by far the most energetic. Extremely high angular resolution data from NH revealed fine detail of the eruption, such as the presence of an active plume [1]. This volcano has an interesting past history. It was seen as a powerful eruption from Nov. 26 1999 during the Galileo I25 [2] flyby to Feb. 19 2001 from the ground [3]. It was dormant or below our ground-based limit of detection (T<330 K assuming an area of 460 km2) between Dec 2001 and May 2004 [4,5]. The re-awakening of the volcano was reported by Laver et al. [6] in April 2006 based on Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) observations. Our last Gemini AO observation taken on May 26 shows that Tvashtar was still very active. Based on the previous behavior of this volcano [7] it is very likely that the activity reported in 2007 is a continuation of the Tvashtar-2006 eruption. Other hot spots, such as Loki Patera, Pele, and a new hot spot located north of Loki Patera, were seen in our data. We will describe the global picture of Io's volcanic activity derived from our observations, comparing it with previous observations from the Galileo spacecraft and using ground-based AO. 1. Spencer et al., AGU, this session, 2007 2. McEwen et al., Science, 288, 1193-1198, 2000 3. Marchis et al. Icarus, 160, 124-131, 2002 4. Marchis et al., Icarus, 176, 1, 2005 5. Marchis et al., AGU Fall meeting, V33C-1483, 2004 6. Laver et al., Icarus, in press, 2006 7. Milazzo et

  6. Future use of silicon photomultipliers for K AOS at MAMI and P¯ANDA at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, P.; Lorente, A. Sanchez; Majos, S. Sánchez; Pochodzalla, J.

    2009-10-01

    A characterization of scintillating fibres with silicon photomultiplier read-out was performed in view of their possible application in fibre tracking detector systems. Such a concept is being considered for the K AOS spectrometer at the Mainz Microtron MAMI and as a time-of-flight start detector for the hypernuclear physics programme at the P¯ANDA experiment of the FAIR project. Results on particle detection efficiency and time resolution are discussed. In summary, the silicon devices are very suitable for the detection of the low light yield from scintillating fibres insofar a trigger scheme is found to cope with the noise rate characteristics.

  7. The AIROPA software package: milestones for testing general relativity in the strong gravity regime with AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzel, Gunther; Lu, Jessica R.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Martinez, Gregory D.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Britton, Matthew; Sitarski, Breann N.; Do, Tuan; Campbell, Randall D.; Service, Maxwell; Matthews, Keith; Morris, Mark R.; Becklin, E. E.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Doppmann, Greg; Neyman, Chris; Lyke, James; Kassis, Marc; Rizzi, Luca; Lilley, Scott; Rampy, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    General relativity can be tested in the strong gravity regime by monitoring stars orbiting the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center with adaptive optics. However, the limiting source of uncertainty is the spatial PSF variability due to atmospheric anisoplanatism and instrumental aberrations. The Galactic Center Group at UCLA has completed a project developing algorithms to predict PSF variability for Keck AO images. We have created a new software package (AIROPA), based on modified versions of StarFinder and Arroyo, that takes atmospheric turbulence profiles, instrumental aberration maps, and images as inputs and delivers improved photometry and astrometry on crowded fields. This software package will be made publicly available soon.

  8. B'NAI AO...alive, healthy and growing...a brief history.

    PubMed

    Williamowsky, Ben

    2006-03-01

    A daily minyan was held at 7:00 AM each morning at the recent Alpha Omega International Convention in Hollywood, Florida. That was Chanukah week, when a Torah reading is required. Thanks to a request by Allen Ressler, Torah reader, Rabbi Menachem Levy...who is connected local Chabad Congregation, joined us. As participants in the service crowded the designated prayer room, I was moved to reflect on how B'nai AO came about. At the suggestion of International Editor Dan Uditsky, I will share some facts, and especially my own personal memories.

  9. Design and function of a structured illumination system for use in an AO microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Matthew

    The design and function of a Structured Illumination system for use as part of an Adaptive Optics Structured Illumination Microscope (AOSIM) is presented. After successful implementation of AO in a standard widefield microscope, our lab wanted to apply the technology to a more advanced imaging modality that has a lot to gain from the AO system. SIM allows us to reconstruct an image with resolution beyond the Rayleigh limit of the optics, called a super-resolution image, by aliasing high spatial frequencies, outside the limit of the optics, to lower frequencies within the system pass band. The aliasing is accomplished by spatially modulating the illumination at a frequency near the cutoff frequency of the system. These aliased frequencies are superimposed on the lower spatial frequencies of the object in our image. Using multiple images and an inverse algorithm, we separate the aliased and normal frequencies, restore them to their original frequency positions, and recreate the original spectrum of the object. This allows us to recreate a super-resolution image of the object. We show that our SIM system creates images that are a higher resolution than a standard wide-field microscope.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Robo-AO observed cool subdwarf companions (Ziegler+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C.; Law, N. M.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R. L.; Fuchs, J. T.

    2017-09-01

    We selected targets from the 564 spectral type F- through M-subdwarf candidates studied by Marshall (2007, J/AJ/134/778). These targets were selected from the New Luyten Two-Tenths catalog (NLTT; Luyten, 1979nlcs.book.....L; Luyten & Hughes 1980, Proper-Motion Survey with the Forty-Eight Inch Schmidt Telescope LV First Supplement to the NLTT Catalogue (Minneapolis, MN: Univ. Minnesota Press)) of high proper motion stars (>0.18 arcsec/yr) using a reduced proper motion diagram (RPM). Of the 552 subdwarfs confirmed by Marshall, a randomly selected sample of 348 G-, K-, and M-subdwarfs were observed by Robo-AO when available between other high priority surveys. We obtained high-angular-resolution images of the 348 subdwarfs during 32 separate nights of observations between 2012 September 3 and 2013 August 21 (UT). The observations were performed using the Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system (Riddle et al. 2012SPIE.8447E..2OR; Baranec et al. 2013, J. Visualized Exp. 72 e50021; 2014ApJ...790L...8B) mounted on the Palomar 60 inch telescope. (1 data file).

  11. Facility class Rayleigh beacon AO system for the 4.2m William Herschel telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, René G.; Clark, Paul; Myers, Richard M.; Wilson, Richard W.; Bingham, Richard G.; Emsellem, Eric; Gregory, Thomas; Humphreys, Ronald A.; Knapen, Johan; Moretto, Gilberto; Morris, Simon L.; Talbot, Gordon

    2003-02-01

    A rationale is presented for the use of a relatively low-altitude (15km) Rayleigh Laser Guide Star to provide partial adaptive optics correction across a large fraction of the sky on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. The scientific motivation in relation to the available instrumentation suite is discussed and supported by model performance calculations, based on observed atmospheric turbulence distributions at the site. The proposed implementation takes the form of a laser system, beam diagnostics, tip-tilt mirror and beacon launch telescope, together with a range-gated wavefront sensor and processing system. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the telescope"s existing facility-class natural guide star AO system, NAOMI. Aspects of the proposed implementation are described as well as the technical features related to the system model and the error budget. In a separate paper the NAOMI AO system itself is presented. Other papers describe a demonstrator system and preliminary Rayleigh beacon wavefront sensing measurements at the site.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter jejuni Infections in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    PubMed Central

    Endtz, Hubert P.; van West, Hanneke; Godschalk, Peggy C. R.; de Haan, Lidewij; Halabi, Yaskara; van den Braak, Nicole; Kesztyüs, Barbara I.; Leyde, Ewald; Ott, Alewijn; Verkooyen, Roel; Price, Lawrence J.; Woodward, David L.; Rodgers, Frank G.; Ang, C. Wim; van Koningsveld, Rinske; van Belkum, Alex; Gerstenbluth, Izzy

    2003-01-01

    A steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. We therefore investigated possible risk factors associated with diarrhea due to epidemic C. jejuni. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified four epidemic clones which accounted for almost 60% of the infections. One hundred six cases were included in a case-control study. Infections with epidemic clones were more frequently observed in specific districts in Willemstad, the capital of Curaçao. One of these clones caused infections during the rainy season only and was associated with the presence of a deep well around the house. Two out of three GBS-related C. jejuni isolates belonged to an epidemic clone. The observations presented point toward water as a possible source of Campylobacter infections. PMID:14662945

  13. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00302 LDEF (Prelaunch), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) on the LDEF. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  14. AO WFS detector developments at ESO to prepare for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Mark; Casali, Mark; Finger, Gert; Lewis, Steffan; Marchetti, Enrico; Mehrgan, Leander; Ramsay, Suzanne; Reyes, Javier

    2016-07-01

    ESO has a very active on-going AO WFS detector development program to not only meet the needs of the current crop of instruments for the VLT, but also has been actively involved in gathering requirements, planning, and developing detectors and controllers/cameras for the instruments in design and being proposed for the E-ELT. This paper provides an overall summary of the AO WFS Detector requirements of the E-ELT instruments currently in design and telescope focal units. This is followed by a description of the many interesting detector, controller, and camera developments underway at ESO to meet these needs; a) the rationale behind and plan to upgrade the 240x240 pixels, 2000fps, "zero noise", L3Vision CCD220 sensor based AONGC camera; b) status of the LGSD/NGSD High QE, 3e- RoN, fast 700fps, 1760x1680 pixels, Visible CMOS Imager and camera development; c) status of and development plans for the Selex SAPHIRA NIR eAPD and controller. Most of the instruments and detector/camera developments are described in more detail in other papers at this conference.

  15. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  16. Demonstration of the suitability of GPUs for AO real-time control at ELT scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitenc, Urban; Basden, Alastair G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    We have implemented the full AO data-processing pipeline on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), within the framework of Durham AO Real-time Controller (DARC). The wavefront sensor images are copied from the CPU memory to the GPU memory. The GPU processes the data and the DM commands are copied back to the CPU. For a SCAO system of 80x80 subapertures, the rate achieved on a single GPU is about 700 frames per second (fps). This increases to 1100 fps (1565 fps) if we use two (four) GPUs. Jitter exhibits a distribution with the root-mean-square value of 20 μs-30 μs and a negligible number of outliers. The increase in latency due to the pixel data copying from the CPU to the GPU has been reduced to the minimum by copying the data in parallel to processing them. An alternative solution in which the data would be moved from the camera directly to the GPU, without CPU involvement, could be about 10%-20% faster. We have also implemented the correlation centroiding algorithm, which - when used - reduces the frame rate by about a factor of 2-3.

  17. LDEF (Postflight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 EL-1994-00266 LDEF (Postflight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The experiment is shown in the postflight configuration before closing the canisters with ground support equipment that bypassed the experiments onboard electronics circuitry. Three full panels and approximately 3/4th of the other panel are covered with gold foil (>99.99 percent pure). The remaining area on the fourth panel is covered with strips of other detector materials: zirconium, beryllium, titanium, platium, aluminum, carbon, Kapton, polyethylene and TEFLON®. A brown stain is visible on the experiment tray flanges, however, most of the stains observed in the flight photograph are obscured by reflected light. All materials remain intact with no visual evidence of damage to the experiment. The reflection of a video camera on a tripod and light sources can be seen on the gold foil covered panels. The experiment canisters are shown after being closed by using the experiments ground support equipment. The stain buildup can be clearly seen at the vertical center of the right tray flange. The clean area was located under the experiment tray clamp block and was not exposed to the staining medium. The stain also coats other areas that were exposed during the mission but are not as noticeable. The experiment hardware seems to be intact and have no damage.

  18. LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 EL-1994-00680 LDEF (Flight), AO187-01 : The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids, Tray A03 The flight photograph was taken with the LDEF on the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing the spacecraft in the cargo bay. The canisters are in their open condition (they were expected to open about two (2) weeks after launch and close about eleven (11) months into the mission) with three (3) full panels and 3/4th of the fourth panel covered with a highly reflective gold foil (>99.99 percent pure).The remaining area is covered with strips of other detector materials: zirconium, beryllium, titanium, platium, aluminum, carbon, Kapton, polyethylene and TEFLON®. The exposed fasteners are non-magnetic stainless steel. All of the exposed materials seem to be secure and no damage is evident. The contamination stain that has changed the white paint dot on the tray clamp blocks to brown also coats the tray flanges and the aluminum canister hardware. The end support beam scuff plate in the photograph was a bright yellow prior to launch but is a much darker, mustard yellow after the space exposure.

  19. Instrument control software development process for the multi-star AO system ARGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulas, M.; Barl, L.; Borelli, J. L.; Gässler, W.; Rabien, S.

    2012-09-01

    The ARGOS project (Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System) will upgrade the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with an AO System consisting of six Rayleigh laser guide stars. This adaptive optics system integrates several control loops and many different components like lasers, calibration swing arms and slope computers that are dispersed throughout the telescope. The purpose of the instrument control software (ICS) is running this AO system and providing convenient client interfaces to the instruments and the control loops. The challenges for the ARGOS ICS are the development of a distributed and safety-critical software system with no defects in a short time, the creation of huge and complex software programs with a maintainable code base, the delivery of software components with the desired functionality and the support of geographically distributed project partners. To tackle these difficult tasks, the ARGOS software engineers reuse existing software like the novel middleware from LINC-NIRVANA, an instrument for the LBT, provide many tests at different functional levels like unit tests and regression tests, agree about code and architecture style and deliver software incrementally while closely collaborating with the project partners. Many ARGOS ICS components are already successfully in use in the laboratories for testing ARGOS control loops.

  20. A decadal survey of AO wavefront sensing detector developments in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend on the ability of Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to provide excellent image quality and stability. This will be achieved by increasing the sampling, wavelength range and correction quality of the wave front error in both spatial and time domains. The modern generation of AO wavefront sensor detectors started in the late nineties with the development of the CCD50 detector by e2v under ESO contract for the ESO NAOS AO system. With a 128x128 pixels format, this 8 outputs CCD runs at a 500 Hz frame rate with a readout noise of 7e-. A major breakthrough has been achieved with the recent development of the CCD220, also by e2v technologies. This 240x240 pixels 8 outputs EMCCD (CCD with internal multiplication), also developed by e2v, has been jointly funded by ESO and Europe under the FP6 programme. The CCD220 detector and the OCAM2 camera are now the most sensitive system in the world for advanced adaptive optics systems, offering an astonishing <0.2 e readout noise at a frame rate of 1500 Hz with negligible dark current. Extremely easy to operate, OCAM2 only needs a 24 V power supply and a modest water cooling circuit. This system is extensively described elsewhere in this conference (see Gach J-L. et al). An upgrade of OCAM2 is foreseen to boost its frame rate to 2500 Hz, opening the window of XAO wavefront sensing for the ELT. Since this major success, new developments started in Europe. One is fully dedicated to Laser Guide Star AO for the ELT. The spot elongation from a LGS SH wavefront sensor induces an increase of the pixel format. Two detectors are currently developed by e2v. The NGSD will be a 672x672 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 4e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. The LGSD is a scaling of the NGSD with 1680x1680 pixels and 3 e readout noise (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. New technologies will be developed for that purpose: new CMOS pixel architecture, CMOS

  1. The MeJA-inducible copper amine oxidase AtAO1 is expressed in xylem tissue and guard cells.

    PubMed

    Ghuge, Sandip A; Carucci, Andrea; Rodrigues-Pousada, Renato A; Tisi, Alessandra; Franchi, Stefano; Tavladoraki, Paraskevi; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Copper amine oxidases oxidize the polyamine putrescine to 4-aminobutanal with the production of the plant signal molecule hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ammonia. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene At4g14940 (AtAO1, previously referred to as ATAO1) encodes an apoplastic copper amine oxidase expressed in lateral root cap cells and developing xylem, especially in root protoxylem and metaxylem precursors. In our recent study, we demonstrated that AtAO1 expression is strongly induced in the root vascular tissues by the wound-signal hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the H2O2 derived by the AtAO1-driven oxidation of putrescine, mediates the MeJA-induced early protoxylem differentiation in Arabidopsis roots. H2O2 may contribute to protoxylem differentiation by signaling developmental cell death and by acting as co-substrate in peroxidase-mediated cell wall stiffening and lignin polymerization. Here, by the means of AtAO1 promoter::green fluorescent protein-β-glucuronidase (AtAO1::GFP-GUS) fusion analysis, we show that a strong AtAO1 gene expression occurs also in guard cells of leaves and flowers. The high expression levels of AtAO1 in tissues or cell types regulating water supply and water loss may suggest a role of the encoded protein in water balance homeostasis, by modulating coordinated adjustments in anatomical and functional features of xylem tissue and guard cells during acclimation to adverse environmental conditions.

  2. Evaluating the Reliability and Reproducibility of the AO and Lauge-Hansen Classification Systems for Ankle Injuries.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meng-Chen; Yuan, Xue-Fei; Ma, Jun-Ming; Xia, Ye; Wang, Tao; Xu, Xiao-Li; Yan, Yin-Jie; Xu, Jin-Hai; Ye, Jie; Tong, Zheng-Yi; Feng, Yan-Qi; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wu, Xue-Qun; Mo, Wen

    2015-07-01

    Ankle injuries are responsible for more than 5 million emergency department visits each year. The AO and Lauge-Hansen classification systems are widely used in the clinical diagnosis of ankle injuries. This study aimed to analyze the intraobserver reliability and interobserver reproducibility of the AO and Lauge-Hansen classification systems. In addition, the authors explored the differences among physicians' classification responses and evaluated the clinical value for diagnosis. Fifty-six patients with an ankle injury with complete clinical and radiologic data were enrolled. The definition of injury type, the index score typing methods, and the specific study criteria were explained in detail. Five observers, who were orthopedic surgeons, determined the classifications according to both the AO and Lauge-Hansen systems. The classification was repeated 1 month later. Cronbach's alpha and Cohen's kappa test were used to determine interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility. The physicians conducted 560 classifications (56 cases × 5 physicians × 2 times per patient). Average inter- and intraobserver kappa values for the AO system were 0.708 and 0.608, respectively. Average inter- and intraobserver kappa values for the Lauge-Hansen system were 0.402 and 0.398, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 96.7% for the AO system and 76.0% for the Lauge-Hansen system. The Lauge-Hansen classification system is a comprehensive yet cumbersome system. Comparatively, the AO classification system is easier to understand. This study shows that the AO classification system has more reliability and reproducibility, and thus has more value in clinical practice, than the Lauge-Hansen classification system.

  3. GOALS, STRATEGIES AND FIRST DISCOVERIES OF AO327, THE ARECIBO ALL-SKY 327 MHz DRIFT PULSAR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Deneva, J. S.; Stovall, K.; Martinez, J. G.; Jenet, F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Bagchi, M.; Freire, P. C. C.

    2013-09-20

    We report initial results from AO327, a drift survey for pulsars with the Arecibo telescope at 327 MHz. The first phase of AO327 will cover the sky at declinations of –1° to 28°, excluding the region within 5° of the Galactic plane, where high scattering and dispersion make low-frequency surveys sub-optimal. We record data from a 57 MHz bandwidth with 1024 channels and 125 μs sampling time. The 60 s transit time through the AO327 beam means that the survey is sensitive to very tight relativistic binaries even with no acceleration searches. To date we have detected 44 known pulsars with periods ranging from 3 ms to 2.21 s and discovered 24 new pulsars. The new discoveries include 3 ms pulsars, three objects with periods of a few tens of milliseconds typical of young as well as mildly recycled pulsars, a nuller, and a rotating radio transient. Five of the new discoveries are in binary systems. The second phase of AO327 will cover the sky at declinations of 28°-38°. We compare the sensitivity and search volume of AO327 to the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey and the GBT350 drift survey, both of which operate at 350 MHz.

  4. The new Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO-ROF) in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico: Current Status and Future Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    The idea of establishing the Arecibo Observatory Remote Optical Facility (AO-ROF) in the island of Culebra is a solution to mitigate the ever cumulative quantity of cloud, fog, and rain that has distressed observations at the Arecibo Observatory (AO) during major optical campaigns and observations. Given Culebra Island's favorable geographical and climatological characteristics as its low elevation and geographic location, it appears to have more steady weather conditions than Arecibo, so therefore it provides more availability for optical observations. Placed on Culebra, optical instruments can observe the same thermospheric volume over AO sampled by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). This capability will become especially important during the High Frequency (HF) facility is on operation. Small and large scale irregularities created by that HF can be readily observed and tracked from the Culebra site, and simultaneous observations from AO of the same atmospheric volume will permit direct vector measurements of dynamical evolution of the irregularities. This work presents a discussion of the current status of AO-ROF facility, as well the future projects.

  5. Impact of solar activity on NAO and AO meteorological indices: 1950 - 2009. (Slovak Title: Vplyv slnečnej aktivity na meteorologické indexy NAO a AO: 1950 - 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotovič, I.; Trigo, I.

    2010-12-01

    Many phenomena on the Sun, in the interplanetary and near Earth space play an important role in the solar-terrestrial system. An increasing number of studies indicate that variations in the solar activity (SA) may have significant impact on the atmosphere, spanning from the upper layers directly affected by space weatherthrough the stratospheric ozone layer down to the troposphere. The goal of this study is to identify possible impact of the SA on the main modes of atmospheric variability in the Northern Hemisphere and the Northern Atlantic region in particular. As a first step, we have analysed the statistical distribution of the indices describing the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) during various phases of the SA. We have used the daily NAO and monthly AO indices available from the NOAA Climate Center (CPC). The AO probability density functions (PDFs) are analysed on monthly and quarterly scales, while the NAO PDFs are analysed on weekly, monthly and quarterly scales.

  6. FlyEyes: integrating CCID-35 into PUEO AO system at CFHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kevin K. Y.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Lin, Chueh-Jen; Benedict, Tom; Lai, Olivier; Ward, Jeff; Salmon, Derrick; Luppino, Gerry; Beletic, James; Dorn, Reinhold; Puget, Pascal; Burke, Barry; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2006-06-01

    A project to upgrade PUEO, the CFHT AO system, was first proposed in 2002. As part of the upgrade effort, a technology project was conceived to evaluate and characterize the backside-illuminated CCID-35 detector as suitable a replacement for the array of avalanche photo diode modules (APDs) in the curvature wavefront sensor. The CCID-35 was envisioned to replace an array of expensive APDs thus providing a cost-effective means of upgrading PUEO to a higher-order system. Work on the project, dubbed FlyEyes, occurred sporadically until Oct 2005 but substantial progress has been made since. This paper was intended to report on the performance of FlyEyes in PUEO but unfortunately the instrument was not ready for tests at the time of this writing. This paper summarizes the progress made on the project thus far and touches upon some of the difficulties encountered.

  7. Optical observations of the outburst of blazar AO 0235+16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Lam, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Observations at the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory confirm the spectacular nature of the current optical outburst in the blazar AO 0235+16 reported by Villata et al (ATEL #1724). The blazar has reached a brightness level, R ~ 14.1, comparable to outbursts in 1990-91, 1992, 1998, and 2007. Preliminary reductions of CCD images indicate the blazar was at R ~ 16.2 on September 4.2 (UT), R ~ 15.4 on September 20.2 - observations hindered by the close proximity of the Moon, R ~ 15.0 on September 21.2, R ~ 14.2 on September 23.2, and R ~ 14.1 on September 24.2.

  8. NIX, the imager for ERIS: the AO instrument for the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David; Taylor, William; Davies, Ric; MacIntosh, Mike; Henry, David; Lunney, David; Waring, Chris; Gao, Xiaofeng; Lightfoot, John; Glauser, Adrian M.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Schmid, Hans Martin; March, Stephen; Bachmann, Walter; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elizabeth; Sturm, Eckhard; Biller, Beth; Hinckley, Sasha; Kenworthy, Matthew; Amico, Paola; Glindemann, Andreas; Kasper, Marcus; Kuntschner, Harald; Dorn, Reinhold; Egner, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    ERIS will be the next-generation AO facility on the VLT, combining the heritage of NACO imaging, with the spectroscopic capabilities of an upgraded SINFONI. Here we report on the all-new NIX imager that will deliver diffraction-limited imaging from the J to M band. The instrument will be equipped with both Apodizing Phase Plates and Sparse Aperture Masks to provide high-angular resolution imagery, especially suited for exoplanet imaging and characterization. This paper provides detail on the instrument's design and how it is suited to address a broad range of science cases, from detailed studies of the galactic centre at the highest resolutions, to studying detailed resolved stellar populations.

  9. Mononuclear anionic AO(2)X(3) compounds with non-VSEPR structure.

    PubMed

    García-Monforte, M Angeles; Baya, Miguel; Betoré, M Pilar; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil

    2014-05-28

    The molybdenyl compound [NBu4][MoO2(C6F5)3] () has been obtained by low-temperature treatment of MoO2Cl2 with LiC6F5 in Et2O followed by addition of [NBu4]Br. This compound of the (AO2X3)(-) type shows an unusual five-coordinate structure not lying in the Berry-pseudorotation path: it can be described rather as an edge-capped tetrahedron (TE-5). The same kind of structure has been found by DFT calculations to be the most energetically favored for the mononuclear (MoO2X3)(-) model species, where X = H, Cl or CN. Compound exhibits marked stereochemical stability, as it shows no sign of exchange between chemically inequivalent C6F5 groups even at 150 °C in dmf solution ((19)F NMR spectroscopy).

  10. Development and operation of an off-limb solar AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Gregory Edward

    2014-01-01

    An Adaptive Optics system capable of locking-on to off-limb prominence structure has been proven successful. It has been shown to allow for diffraction limited spectroscopy and polarimetry of prominence structure. Spectroscopic data obtained using the Off-Limb AO system have been shown to contain a trove of information regarding the nature of solar prominences. In particular a Rayleigh-Taylor instability was seen in part of this data set. Such instabilities, and the rising plumes that result from them, are thought to be critical clues to the longterm persistence of quiescent solar prominences. This adaptive optics system will allow scientists to come one step closer to understanding the true nature of solar prominences.

  11. LDEF (Postflight), AO139A : Growth of Crystals From Solutions in Low Gravity, Tray G06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO139A : Growth of Crystals From Solutions in Low Gravity, Tray G06 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges have become discolored with a light tan stain except where the tray clamp blocks were located. A darker stain appears to exist at the intersection of the white cover plate and the upper left flange of the experiment tray. The Crystal Growth experiment appears to have survived the extended mission with no visible damage. The experiment cover plate, originally white, appears to be discolored by a very light brown stain but is intact and securely in place.

  12. LDEF (Postflight), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO015 : Free-Flyer Biostack Experiment, Tray G02 The post flight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC after the experiment tray was removed from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges and sidewalls have become discolored with a light tan stain except where the tray clamp blocks were located. The Biostack experiment appears to have survived the extended mission with no visible damage. The experiment housings are intact and all hardware is securely in place. The detector housings appear to be discolored with a stain similar to that on the tray hardware. The exposed Kapton H foil covering windows in two (2) detector housings do not appear to have sustained damage dur ing the extended mission. The perforated dome on two (2) of the detector housings has a slight tan discoloration but no indication of damage.

  13. Toward a large lightweight mirror for AO: development of a 1m Ni coated CFRP mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Brooks, D.; Strangwood, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present our recent developments towards the construction of a large, thin, single-piece mirror for adaptive optics (AO). Our current research program aims to have completed fabrication and testing of a 1m diameter, nickel coated carbon-fibre reinforced cyanate ester resin mirror by the last quarter of 2009. This composite mirror material is being developed to provide a lightweight and robust alternative to thin glass shell mirrors, with the challenge of future large deformable mirrors such as the 2.5m M4 on the E-ELT in mind. A detailed analysis of the material properties of test mirror samples is being performed at the University of Birmingham (UK), the first results of which are discussed and presented here. We discuss the project progress achieved so far, including fabrication of the 1m flat moulds for the replication process, manufacturing and testing methods for 20 cm diameter sample mirrors and system simulations.

  14. ShaneAO: wide science spectrum adaptive optics system for the Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavel, Donald; Kupke, Renate; Dillon, Daren; Norton, Andrew; Ratliff, Chris; Cabak, Jerry; Phillips, Andrew; Rockosi, Connie; McGurk, Rosalie; Srinath, Srikar; Peck, Michael; Deich, William; Lanclos, Kyle; Gates, John; Saylor, Michael; Ward, Jim; Pfister, Terry

    2014-07-01

    A new high-order adaptive optics system is now being commissioned at the Lick Observatory Shane 3-meter telescope in California. This system uses a high return efficiency sodium beacon and a combination of low and high-order deformable mirrors to achieve diffraction-limited imaging over a wide spectrum of infrared science wavelengths covering 0.8 to 2.2 microns. We present the design performance goals and the first on-sky test results. We discuss several innovations that make this system a pathfinder for next generation AO systems. These include a unique woofer-tweeter control that provides full dynamic range correction from tip/tilt to 16 cycles, variable pupil sampling wavefront sensor, new enhanced silver coatings developed at UC Observatories that improve science and LGS throughput, and tight mechanical rigidity that enables a multi-hour diffraction-limited exposure in LGS mode for faint object spectroscopy science.

  15. Robotic Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging of 715 Kepler Exoplanet Candidates Using Robo-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Ravichandran, Ganesh; Ziegler, Carl; Johnson, John Asher; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.

    2014-08-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results from the 2012 observing season, searching for stars close to 715 Kepler planet candidate hosts. We find 53 companions, 43 of which are new discoveries. We detail the Robo-AO survey data reduction methods including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for large adaptive optics surveys. Our survey is sensitive to objects from ≈0.''15 to 2.''5 separation, with magnitude differences up to Δm ≈ 6. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 7.4% ± 1.0%, and calculate the effects of each detected nearby star on the Kepler-measured planetary radius. We discuss several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are "coincident multiple" systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we find 98% confidence evidence that short-period giant planets are two to three times more likely than longer-period planets to be found in wide stellar binaries.

  16. A History of Correlations Between Optical and Radio Outbursts in the Blazar AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, E. J.; Balonek, T. J.; Brandt, T. J.

    2000-05-01

    We present a ten year optical light curve for the blazar AO 0235+164 from 1989 through mid-1999. Observations were conducted at the Foggy Bottom Observatory at Colgate University using a sixteen inch Cassegrain telescope and CCD camera. Herein we note the correlations between optical and radio variations (radio observations obtained at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, UMRAO). MacLeod, Andrew, and Harvey (1976); Ledden, Aller, and Dent (1976); and Rieke et al. (1976) first noted a correlation between the optical and radio variations in a 1975 outburst of AO 0235+164. Balonek and Dent (1980) showed a second correlation in a 1979 outburst. Subsequent optical outbursts and further optical-radio correlations have been studied by several authors. We study the long and short time scale variations in four additional optical outbursts in 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1998. We find that some of the bursts appear to be strongly correlated with radio bursts, while others do not exhibit simple correlations. Different physical phenomena may be needed in order to explain the differences in these outbursts. In the correlated cases, the optical burst appears to either nearly coincide with a radio burst, or precede a subsequent radio burst by a few months. The time scales of the outbursts agree with the generally accepted model of Blandford and Konigl (1979) of a relativistic shock propagating down a jet. In addition, intra-night variability is seen during these outbursts on much shorter time scales and is most likely caused by another phenomenon.

  17. Robotic laser adaptive optics imaging of 715 Kepler exoplanet candidates using Robo-AO

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Nicholas M.; Ziegler, Carl; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Baranec, Christoph; Ravichandran, Ganesh; Johnson, John Asher; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.

    2014-08-10

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results from the 2012 observing season, searching for stars close to 715 Kepler planet candidate hosts. We find 53 companions, 43 of which are new discoveries. We detail the Robo-AO survey data reduction methods including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for large adaptive optics surveys. Our survey is sensitive to objects from ≈0.''15 to 2.''5 separation, with magnitude differences up to Δm ≈ 6. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 7.4% ± 1.0%, and calculate the effects of each detected nearby star on the Kepler-measured planetary radius. We discuss several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are 'coincident multiple' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we find 98% confidence evidence that short-period giant planets are two to three times more likely than longer-period planets to be found in wide stellar binaries.

  18. Keck II laser guide star AO system and performance with the TOPTICA/MPBC laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Jason C. Y.; Wizinowich, Peter; Wetherell, Ed; Lilley, Scott; Cetre, Sylvain; Ragland, Sam; Medeiros, Drew; Tsubota, Kevin; Doppmann, Greg; Otarola, Angel; Wei, Kai

    2016-07-01

    The Keck II Laser Guide Star (LGS) Adaptive Optics (AO) System was upgraded from a dye laser to a TOPTICA/MPBC Raman-Fibre Amplification (RFA) laser in December 2015. The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) has been operating its AO system with a LGS for science since 2004 using a first generation 15 W dye laser. Using the latest diode pump laser technology, Raman amplification, and a well-tuned second harmonic generator (SHG), this Next Generation Laser (NGL) is able to produce a highly stable 589 nm laser beam with the required power, wavelength and mode quality. The beam's linear polarization and continuous wave format along with optical back pumping are designed to improve the sodium atom coupling efficiency over previously operated sodium-wavelength lasers. The efficiency and operability of the new laser has also been improved by reducing its required input power and cooling, size, and the manpower to operate and maintain it. The new laser has been implemented on the telescope's elevation ring with its electronics installed on a new Nasmyth sub-platform, with the capacity to support up to three laser systems for future upgrades. The laser is projected from behind the telescope's secondary mirror using the recently implemented center launch system (CLS) to reduce LGS spot size. We will present the new laser system and its performance with respect to power, stability, wavelength, spot size, optical repumping, polarization, efficiency, and its return with respect to pointing alignment to the magnetic field. Preliminary LGSAO performance is presented with the system returning to science operations. We will also provide an update on current and future upgrades at the WMKO.

  19. Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon variability and its relationship with ENSO and AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Seo, Ye-Won; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Lee, June-Yi; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-08-01

    Interdecadal changes in the Asian winter monsoon (AWM) variability are investigated using three surface air temperature datasets for the 55-year period of 1958-2012 from (1) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis 1 (NCEP), (2) combined datasets from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-yr reanalysis and interim data (ERA), and (3) Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA). Particular attention has been paid to the first four empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the AWM temperature variability that together account for 64% of the total variance and have been previously identified as predictable modes. The four modes are characterized as follows: the first mode by a southern warming over the Indo-western Pacific Ocean associated with a gradually increasing basin-wide warming trend; the second mode by northern warming with the interdecadal change after the late 1980s; the third and fourth modes by north-south triple pattern, which reveal a phase shift after the late 1970s. The three reanalyses agree well with each other when producing the first three modes, but show large discrepancy in capturing both spatial and temporal characteristics of the fourth mode. It is therefore considered that the first three leading modes are more reliable than the rest higher modes. Considerable interdecadal changes are found mainly in the first two modes. While the first mode shows gradually decreasing variance, the second mode exhibits larger interannual variance during the recent decade. In addition, after the late 1970s, the first mode has a weakening relationship with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) whereas the second mode has strengthening association with the Artic Oscillation (AO). This indicates an increasing role of AO but decreasing role of ENSO on the AWM variability. A better understanding of the interdecadal change in the dominant modes would contribute toward advancing in

  20. Interannual variations of the blocking high over the Ural Mountains and its association with the AO/NAO in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Qingyun; Ji, Liren; Peng, Jingbei

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyzes interannual variations of the blocking high over the Ural Mountains in the boreal winter and their association with the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO). In January, the relationship between the Ural blocking high (UR) and the AO index is statistically significant. The UR tends to occur more frequently and with greater strength during negative AO periods. Some strong URs also occur during positive AO phases (positive UR-AO events), as in January 2008. This paper discusses the characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the cases of positive UR-AO events and contrast cases (negative UR-AO events). The eastward extending of the Icelandic Low (IL) center and the associated NAO dipole anomaly pattern in the upstream region may play a more important role for the UR-AO events. When the center of the IL shifts eastward to 30°W, the amplitude of zonal wavenumber 2 (wavenumber 3) is intensified in the positive (negative) UR-AO events, which favors positive (negative) height anomalies over the Urals. Further analyses indicate that the intensified zonal wind in high latitudes and weakened zonal wind in midlatitudes over the North Atlantic Ocean render the eastward shift of the IL and the NAO dipole anomaly pattern. The Ural blocking in January 2008 bears similar characteristics to the positive UR-AO events.

  1. Fracture and dislocation classification compendium for children: the AO pediatric comprehensive classification of long bone fractures (PCCF).

    PubMed

    Slongo, Theddy F; Audigé, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    The AO Pediatric Expert Group and the AO Pediatric Classification Group, in cooperation with the AO Investigation and Documentation Group introduce and present the first comprehensive classification of pediatric long bone fractures. The anatomy is related to the 4 long bones and their 3 segments defined as proximal (1), shaft (2) and distal (3). It is further described by the fracture subsegment recorded as epiphyseal (E), metaphyseal (M) and diaphyseal (D), whereby proximal and distal fractures are classified as E or M and shaft fractures are always D. The distinction between metaphyseal and diaphyseal fractures is achieved by localizing the center of fracture lines with regard to a square drawn over the respective growth plates. The morphology of the fracture is documented by a subsegment-specific child pattern code, a severity code as well as an additional code for displacement of specific fractures such as supracondylar fractures and radial heads. The classification process requires trained observers to read standard radiographic images.

  2. Subaru SCExAO First-Light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Brandt, TImothy D.; Kuhn, Jonasa; Serabyn, Eugene; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present H-band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r approximately 0 3 to r approximately 0".3 to r approximately 1" (34-114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east west direction (PA approximately 75deg), is inclined by I approximately 70deg-75deg, and is strongly forward-scattering(g greater than 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disks eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t approximately 1-250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (310 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Aurigas star formation history. SCExAOs planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r greater than 20 au may explain the disks visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk may be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet disk interactions.

  3. A1Ao-ATP Synthase of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium Couples Sodium Ions for ATP Synthesis under Physiological Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Duncan G. G.; Ferguson, Scott A.; Dey, Debjit; Schröder, Katja; Aung, Htin Lin; Carbone, Vincenzo; Attwood, Graeme T.; Ronimus, Ron S.; Meier, Thomas; Janssen, Peter H.; Cook, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    An unresolved question in the bioenergetics of methanogenic archaea is how the generation of proton-motive and sodium-motive forces during methane production is used to synthesize ATP by the membrane-bound A1Ao-ATP synthase, with both proton- and sodium-coupled enzymes being reported in methanogens. To address this question, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the A1Ao-ATP synthase (MbbrA1Ao) of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, a predominant methanogen in the rumen. Growth of M. ruminantium M1 was inhibited by protonophores and sodium ionophores, demonstrating that both ion gradients were essential for growth. To study the role of these ions in ATP synthesis, the ahaHIKECFABD operon encoding the MbbrA1Ao was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DK8 (Δatp) and purified yielding a 9-subunit protein with an SDS-stable c oligomer. Analysis of the c subunit amino acid sequence revealed that it consisted of four transmembrane helices, and each hairpin displayed a complete Na+-binding signature made up of identical amino acid residues. The purified MbbrA1Ao was stimulated by sodium ions, and Na+ provided pH-dependent protection against inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not tributyltin chloride. ATP synthesis in inverted membrane vesicles lacking sodium ions was driven by a membrane potential that was sensitive to cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not to monensin. ATP synthesis could not be driven by a chemical gradient of sodium ions unless a membrane potential was imposed. ATP synthesis under these conditions was sensitive to monensin but not cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. These data suggest that the M. ruminantium M1 A1Ao-ATP synthase exhibits all the properties of a sodium-coupled enzyme, but it is also able to use protons to drive ATP synthesis under conditions that favor proton coupling, such as low pH and low levels of sodium ions. PMID:21953465

  4. Winter AO/NAO modifies summer ocean heat content and monsoonal circulation over the western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Li, Sang; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes the possible influence of boreal winter Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/ NAO) on the Indian Ocean upper ocean heat content in summer as well as the summer monsoonal circulation. The strong interannual co-variation between winter 1000-hPa geopotential height in the Northern Hemisphere and summer ocean heat content in the uppermost 120 m over the tropical Indian Ocean was investigated by a singular decomposition analysis for the period 1979-2014. The second paired-modes explain 23.8% of the squared covariance, and reveal an AO/NAO pattern over the North Atlantic and a warming upper ocean in the western tropical Indian Ocean. The positive upper ocean heat content enhances evaporation and convection, and results in an anomalous meridional circulation with ascending motion over 5°S-5°N and descending over 15°-25°N. Correspondingly, in the lower troposphere, significantly anomalous northerly winds appear over the western Indian Ocean north of the equator, implying a weaker summer monsoon circulation. The off-equator oceanic Rossby wave plays a key role in linking the AO/NAO and the summer heat content anomalies. In boreal winter, a positive AO/NAO triggers a down-welling Rossby wave in the central tropical Indian Ocean through the atmospheric teleconnection. As the Rossby wave arrives in the western Indian Ocean in summer, it results in anomalous upper ocean heating near the equator mainly through the meridional advection. The AO/NAO-forced Rossby wave and the resultant upper ocean warming are well reproduced by an ocean circulation model. The winter AO/NAO could be a potential season-lead driver of the summer atmospheric circulation over the northwestern Indian Ocean.

  5. Bioremediation of bisphenol-A polluted soil by Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1 and the microbial community existing in the soil.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoshinobu; Akahira-Moriya, Ayako; Sasaki-Mori, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2'-Bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is an artificial pollutant that is easily detected in soil and water environments. BPA decomposition and removal from the environment is relatively difficult due to its stability. This study evaluated the BPA decomposition and removal activities of the microbial community existing in the soil with or without Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1, and revealed the toxic effects of BPA towards the microbial community. The microbial community in soil was able to degrade BPA at 1.0 mg·g(-1) soil or lower, although its degradation was slow. On the other hand, BPA at more than 10 mg·g(-1) soil was not only degraded by the microbial community but also decreased its diversity, suggesting that BPA is harmful to many microorganisms. PCR-TTGE analysis and the cloned 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Sphingomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the microbial community might independently or cooperatively degrade BPA. On the other hand, supplementation with strain AO1 was able to significantly improve the BPA decomposition activity of the microbial community in soil even at 10 mg BPA·g(-1) soil, although BPA at 100 mg·g(-1) soil overwhelmed the BPA decomposition activity of strain AO1. Furthermore, it was also concluded that strain AO1 could not inhabit BPA purified soil after decomposition of BPA by strain AO1 and the soil microbial community, suggesting that the application of strain AO1 could be a low-burden method for the decomposition and removal of BPA from the natural environment.

  6. LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 EL-1994-00666 LDEF (Flight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 The flight photograph was taken from the Orbiter aft flight deck during the LDEF retrieval prior to berthing the LDEF in the Orbiter cargo bay and shows the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) on the LDEF. Six (6) plates of passive components, provided by various experiment organizations and designated plate I thru plate VI, are shown mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. All six plates are aluminum and attach to the LDEF experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Plate I, located in the upper left corner, consist of a combination of solar cells with and without covers, solar cell modules and solar arrays assembled on the baseplate. Two of the four solar arrays are missing and one appears to be attached at only one corner. Other components appear to be secure. Plate II in the left center section, has twenty-seven (27) composite samples, carbon fiber and glass fiber, mounted on the baseplate. The composites appear to be intact with no physical damage. Plate III, in the lower left corner, consist mostly of metallized and thin polymeric films (Kapton, Mylar, TEFLON® , white Tedlar,etc.). The thin films without protective coatings sustained significant damage and most were destroyed. The metallized film apparently survived with minimum damage. Plate IV located in the upper right corner consist of metals and coatings mounted in an aluminum baseplate and covered with a thin aluminum coverplate that partially mask the specimen. Several of the coatings appear to have changed to a darker color and a light brown discoloration appears around the outer edges of the mounting plate and along the right edge of the coverplates. Plate V, in the right center section, contained thermal plastics and structural film configured into tensile and shear specimen. All

  7. LDEF (Postflight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 EL-1994-00147 LDEF (Postflight), AO171 : Solar-Array-Materials Passive LDEF Experiment, Tray A08 The post flight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF and shows the Solar Array Materials Passive LDEF Experiment (SAMPLE) on the LDEF. Six (6) plates of passive components, provided by various experiment organizations and designated plate I thru plate VI, are shown mounted in a three (3) inch deep LDEF peripheral tray. All six plates are aluminum and attach to the LDEF experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. Plate I, located in the upper right corner, consist of a combination of solar cells with and without covers, solar cell modules and solar arrays assembled on the baseplate. Three of the four solar arrays are missing. Other components appear to be secure. Plate II in the top center section, has twenty seven (27) composite samples, carbon fiber and glass fiber, mounted on the baseplate. The composites appear to be intact with no physical damage. Plate III, in the upper left corner, consist of metallized and thin polymeric films (Kapton, Mylar, TEFLON® , white Tedlar,etc.). The thin films without protective coatings sustained significant damage and most were destroyed. The thin film specimen hanging by one end in the flight photograph is missing. The metallized film apparently survived the mission with minimum damage. Plate IV located in the lower right corner consist of metals and coatings mounted in an aluminum baseplate and covered with a thin aluminum coverplate that partially mask the specimen. Several of the coatings appear to have darkened and a unique pattern of light brown discoloration appears around the outer edges of the mounting plate and along the lower edge of the coverplates. Plate V, in the lower center section, contained thermal plastics and structural film configured into tensile and

  8. Ionic Polymer-Coated Laccase with High Activity and Enhanced Stability: Application in the Decolourisation of Water Containing AO7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-02-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment.

  9. Ionic Polymer-Coated Laccase with High Activity and Enhanced Stability: Application in the Decolourisation of Water Containing AO7

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment. PMID:25652843

  10. Robo-AO Kepler Asteroseismic Survey. I. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 99 Asteroseismic Kepler Dwarfs and Subgiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonhut-Stasik, Jessica S.; Baranec, Christoph; Huber, Daniel; Ziegler, Carl; Atkinson, Dani; Gaidos, Eric; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed; Hagelberg, Janis; van der Marel, Nienke; Hodapp, Klaus W.

    2017-10-01

    We used the Robo-AO laser adaptive optics (AOs) system to image 99 main sequence and subgiant stars that have Kepler-detected asteroseismic signals. Robo-AO allows us to resolve blended secondary sources at separations as close as ∼0.″15 that may contribute to the measured Kepler light curves and affect asteroseismic analysis and interpretation. We report eight new secondary sources within 4.″0 of these Kepler asteroseismic stars. We used Subaru and Keck AOs to measure differential infrared photometry for these candidate companion systems. Two of the secondary sources are likely foreground objects, while the remaining six are background sources; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that three of the objects may be physically associated. We measured a range of i‧-band amplitude dilutions for the candidate companion systems from 0.43% to 15.4%. We find that the measured amplitude dilutions are insufficient to explain the previously identified excess scatter in the relationship between asteroseismic oscillation amplitude and the frequency of maximum power.

  11. Effect of misalignment of air-coupled probes on Ao Lamb mode propagating in a metal plate.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, C; Hood, Avinash; Khan, Irfan; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2014-07-01

    Proper alignment of air-coupled ultrasonic transducers for generation and reception of Lamb waves is vital in order to acquire a high amplitude wave group. Any misalignment with either the transmitter or the receiver or both adversely influences the amplitude of a Lamb mode. This paper reports a systematic attempt to quantify the reduction in the amplitude of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb mode (Ao) in a metal plate caused by misalignments in air-coupled probes. Three different types of misalignments - linear, orientation and synchronised orientation were deliberately introduced in the transducers, and experiments were performed on a 6mm thick aluminium plate. Amplitudes of Ao mode measured at various configurations were normalised with that of Ao mode, captured in a reference configuration. Suitable curves fitted over the experimental data points revealed that Gaussian curves represent appropriately the variations in normalised amplitudes of Ao mode. Moreover, analytical expressions were derived to predict the difference in arrival times of Lamb mode(s) due to orientation and synchronised orientation misalignments.

  12. Project summary: Emerging technology assessment of phostrip, a/o, and bardenpho processes for biological phosphorus removal

    SciTech Connect

    1985-03-01

    This technology assessment addresses the process capabilities and limitations of three proprietary processes (PhoStrip, A/O, and Bardenpho) to biologically remove phosphorus from municipal wastewaters. The primary objective of this report is to provide guidance to individuals involved with reviewing new processes as part of the Innovative and Alternative Technology Program.

  13. Ionic polymer-coated laccase with high activity and enhanced stability: application in the decolourisation of water containing AO7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Hua, Ming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2015-02-05

    Eliminating dyes in environmental water purification remains a formidable challenge. Laccase is a unique, environmentally friendly and efficient biocatalyst that can degrade pollutants. However, the use of laccase for the degradation of pollutants is considerably limited by its susceptibility to environmental changes and its poor reusability. We fabricated a novel biocatalyst (LacPG) by coating polyethylenimine onto the native laccase (Lac) followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. The stability of the resulting LacPG was highly enhanced against pH variations, thermal treatments and provided better long-term storage with a negligible loss in enzymatic activity. Compared to Lac, LacPG exhibited significantly higher decolourisation efficiency in the degradation of a representative azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), which resulted from the electrostatic attraction between the coating and AO7. LacPG was separated from the AO7 solution using an ultrafiltration unit. The increased size and modified surface chemistry of LacPG facilitated ultrafiltration and reduced membrane fouling. LacPG exhibited enhanced stability, high catalytic activity and favourable properties for membrane separation; therefore, LacPG could be continuously reused in an enzymatic membrane reactor with a high efficiency for decolourising water containing AO7. The developed strategy appears to be promising for enhancing the applicability of laccase in practical water treatment.

  14. The approbation of rejection method for positional observations of asteroids performed by SBG-telescope AO UFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galushina, T. Yu.; Skripnichenko, P. V.

    2013-12-01

    The main idea of this investigation has been connected with positional observations rejection method which founded on the analysis of results of the orbit elements improvement. This article contains approbation instances for positional observations per-formed by authors with help of SBG-telescope of AO UFU.

  15. Variability and Period Analysis for BL Lac AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Liu, Y.; Liu, X.; Yang, J. H.; Richter, G. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Wang, H. T.; Sasada, M.; Zhou, A. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Costantin, D.

    2017-03-01

    Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well-studied BL Lac throughout all electromagnetic wavebands. In the present work, we show its optical R-band photometric observations carried out during the period from 2006 November to 2012 December using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. During our monitoring period, it showed a large variation of {{Δ }}R=4.88 {mag} (14.19–19.07 mag) and a short timescale of {{Δ }}{T}v=73.5 {minutes}. During the period of 2006 December to 2009 November, we made radio observations of the source using the 25 m radio telescope at Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. By adopting a discrete correlation function to the optical and radio observations we found that the optical variation leads a radio variation of 23.2 ± 12.9 days.

  16. Characterization, Expression Profile, and Promoter Analysis of the Rhodeus uyekii Vitellogenin Ao1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Ju Lan; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Jung Youn; Cho, Hyun Kook; An, Cheul Min

    2014-01-01

    The fish Vitellogenin (Vg) gene has been applied as a biomarker for exposure to estrogenic compounds in the aquatic environment. In this study, we cloned and characterized Vg cDNA from the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii (Ru-Vg). The Ru-Vg cDNA encodes a 1424-amino-acid polypeptide that belongs to the VgAo1 family and contains a putative signal peptide, lipovitellin I, phosvitin, and lipovitellin II, but does not contain the vWFD domain or the C-terminal peptide. The deduced Ru-Vg protein has high amino acid identity (73.97%–32.17%) with fish Vg proteins. Pairwise alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ru-Vg is most closely related to Acheilognathus yamatsutae Vg. Ru-Vg transcripts were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all tissues tested, with the highest level of expression observed in the ovary. Ru-Vg mRNA was upregulated in R. uyekii hepatopancreas cells in response to treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) or 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Luciferase reporter expression, driven by the 5'-regulatory region of the Ru-Vg gene spanning from −1020 bp to the start codon was induced by the estrogen receptor and was synergistically activated by treatment with E2 or EE2. These results suggest that R. uyekii and the Ru-Vg gene may be useful as biomarkers for exposure to E2 or EE2. PMID:25329620

  17. Characterization, expression profile, and promoter analysis of the Rhodeus uyekii vitellogenin Ao1 gene.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Ju Lan; Moon, Ji Young; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Jung Youn; Cho, Hyun Kook; An, Cheul Min

    2014-10-17

    The fish Vitellogenin (Vg) gene has been applied as a biomarker for exposure to estrogenic compounds in the aquatic environment. In this study, we cloned and characterized Vg cDNA from the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii (Ru-Vg). The Ru-Vg cDNA encodes a 1424-amino-acid polypeptide that belongs to the VgAo1 family and contains a putative signal peptide, lipovitellin I, phosvitin, and lipovitellin II, but does not contain the vWFD domain or the C-terminal peptide. The deduced Ru-Vg protein has high amino acid identity (73.97%-32.17%) with fish Vg proteins. Pairwise alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Ru-Vg is most closely related to Acheilognathus yamatsutae Vg. Ru-Vg transcripts were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all tissues tested, with the highest level of expression observed in the ovary. Ru-Vg mRNA was upregulated in R. uyekii hepatopancreas cells in response to treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) or 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Luciferase reporter expression, driven by the 5'-regulatory region of the Ru-Vg gene spanning from -1020 bp to the start codon was induced by the estrogen receptor and was synergistically activated by treatment with E2 or EE2. These results suggest that R. uyekii and the Ru-Vg gene may be useful as biomarkers for exposure to E2 or EE2.

  18. Natural guide-star processing for wide-field laser-assisted AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Carlos M.; Neichel, Benoit; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Sauvage, Jean-Francois; Fusco, Thierry; Vernet, Joel D. R.; Thatte, Niranjan

    2016-07-01

    Sky-coverage in laser-assisted AO observations largely depends on the system's capability to guide on the faintest natural guide-stars possible. Here we give an up-to-date status of our natural guide-star processing tailored to the European-ELT's visible and near-infrared (0.47 to 2.45 μm) integral field spectrograph - Harmoni. We tour the processing of both the isoplanatic and anisoplanatic tilt modes using the spatio-angular approach whereby the wavefront is estimated directly in the pupil plane avoiding a cumbersome explicit layered estimation on the 35-layer profiles we're currently using. Taking the case of Harmoni, we cover the choice of wave-front sensors, the number and field location of guide-stars, the optimised algorithms to beat down angular anisoplanatism and the performance obtained with different temporal controllers under split high-order/low-order tomography or joint tomography. We consider both atmospheric and far greater telescope wind buffeting disturbances. In addition we provide the sky-coverage estimates thus obtained.

  19. The Robo-AO KOI Survey: Laser Adaptive Optics Imaging of Every Kepler Exoplanet Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed L.

    2016-01-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star (KOI) with laser adaptive optics imaging to hunt for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions. With the unparalleled efficiency provided by the first fully robotic adaptive optics system, we perform the critical search for nearby stars (0.15" to 4.0" separation with contrasts up to 6 magnitudes) that pollute the observed planetary transit signal, contributing to inaccurate planetary characteristics or astrophysical false positives. We present approximately 3300 high resolution observations of Kepler planetary hosts from 2012-2015, with ~500 observed nearby stars. We measure an overall nearby star probability rate of 16.2±0.8%. With this large dataset, we are uniquely able to explore broad correlations between multiple star systems and the properties of the planets which they host. We then use these clues for insight into the formation and evolution of these exotic systems. Several KOIs of particular interest will be discussed, including possible quadruple star systems hosting planets and updated properties for possible rocky planets orbiting in the habitable zone.

  20. The Robo-AO KOI survey: laser adaptive optics imaging of every Kepler exoplanet candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Nofi, Larissa

    2016-07-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star (KOI) with laser adaptive optics imaging to hunt for blended nearby stars which may be physically associated companions. With the unparalleled efficiency provided by the first fully robotic adaptive optics system, we perform the critical search for nearby stars (0.15" to 4.0" separation with contrasts up to 6 magnitudes) that dilute the observed planetary transit signal, contributing to inaccurate planetary characteristics or astrophysical false positives. We present 3313 high resolution observations of Kepler planetary hosts from 2012-2015, discovering 479 nearby stars. We measure an overall nearby star probability rate of 14.5+/-0.8%. With this large data set, we are uniquely able to explore broad correlations between multiple star systems and the properties of the planets which they host, providing insight into the formation and evolution of planetary systems in our galaxy. Several KOIs of particular interest will be discussed, including possible quadruple star systems hosting planets and updated properties for possible rocky planets orbiting with in their star's habitable zone.

  1. Strategies to cope with sodium layer profile variations in laser guide star AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbroek, Brent L.

    2014-07-01

    The vertical profile of the mesospheric sodium layer varies significantly on a time scale of one minute. These variations can impact the random and systematic measurement errors of laser guide star Shack-Hartmann wave front sensors, particularly on extremely large telescopes. Sensor performance can be improved by selecting pixel processing weights matched to the sodium layer profile, assuming that the shape of the profile can be measured or estimated in real time. In this paper we describe the magnitude of these effects for the Thirty Meter Telescope AO system NFIRAOS. We review several existing approaches for measuring or estimating the sodium layer profile in real time. We then describe a new method for estimating the profile directly from the laser guide star wave front pixel intensities themselves, jointly with the subaperture tip/tilt measurements. The algorithm used for this purpose is based upon the multi-frame iterative blind deconvolution algorithm from image post processing: Subaperture tip/tilts and the sodium profile are estimated successively, bootstrapping the estimate of each quantity from the previous estimate of the other. We present promising initial simulation results on the potential performance of the algorithm, and suggest areas for future work.

  2. Lifestyle in Curaçao. Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise.

    PubMed

    Grol, M E; Halabi, Y T; Gerstenbluth, I; Alberts, J F; O'Niel, J

    1997-03-01

    The Curaçao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Outcome variables were cross-tabulated by gender, age and socioeconomic status. 17.1% of the participants were smokers and 20.5% were regular drinkers, including 6.3% of the men who consumed alcohol excessively (4 or more glasses of alcohol a day). 75% of the participants did not exercise regularly, 37% did not eat vegetables daily, and half did not eat fruit daily. Other poor eating habits were the addition of extra sugar and salt to prepared food by 33% and 20% of the participants, respectively. On the whole, men had less healthy lifestyles than women, with the exception of exercise behaviour. People of high socioeconomic status (SES) drank less alcohol, and exercised more often than those of low SES. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the Caribbean, research on lifestyle factors in other Caribbean countries is required to facilitate the development of regional prevention and intervention programmes.

  3. Long-term stability and temperature variability of Iris AO segmented MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, M. A.; He, M.; Kempf, C. J.; Marchis, F.

    2016-07-01

    Long-term stability of deformable mirrors (DM) is a critical performance requirement for instruments requiring open-loop corrections. The effects of temperature changes in the DM performance are equally critical for such instruments. This paper investigates the long-term stability of three different Iris AO PTT111 DMs that were calibrated at different times ranging from 13 months to nearly 29 months prior to subsequent testing. Performance testing showed that only a small increase in positioning errors occurred from the initial calibration date to the test dates. The increases in errors ranged from as little as 1.38 nm rms after 18 months to 5.68 nm rms after 29 months. The paper also studies the effects of small temperature changes, up to 6.2°C around room temperature. For three different arrays, the errors ranged from 0.62-1.42 nm rms/°C. Removing the effects of packaging shows that errors are <=0.50 nm rms/°C. Finally, measured data showed that individual segments deformed <=0.11 nm rms/°C when heated.

  4. Laser pointing camera: a valuable tool for the LGS-AO operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrone, M.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Pedichini, F.; Cerruto, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Ambrosino, F.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the design, functionalities and commissioning results of the Laser Pointing Camera, developed at INAF-OAR in collaboration with ESO and Astrel for the 4LGSF of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility. The LPC has proven a fundamental tool during commissioning and operation of the 4LGSF. It allows to calibrate the pointing and focusing models of the four LGS, to reduce to zero the overhead time for the open-loop acquisition of the LGS in the wavefront sensor. During LGS-AO operation it collects regularly the LGS photometry, the LGS fwhm and the cirrus clouds scattering levels. By recognizing via astrometric software the field stars as well as the multiple LGS, LPC is insensitive to flexures of the laser launch telescope or of the receiver telescope opto-mechanics. We present the Commissioning results of the Laser Pointing Camera, obtained at the ESO VLT during the all 4LGSF Laser Guide Star Units Commissioning, and will discuss its possible extension for the ELT operations.

  5. Eutrophication threatens Caribbean seagrasses - An example from Curaçao and Bonaire.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Lamers, Leon P M; Bouma, Tjeerd J; de Brouwer, Jan H F; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-12-15

    Seagrass beds are globally declining due to human activities in coastal areas. We here aimed to identify threats from eutrophication to the valuable seagrass beds of Curaçao and Bonaire in the Caribbean, which function as nursery habitats for commercial fish species. We documented surface- and porewater nutrient concentrations, and seagrass nutrient concentrations in 6 bays varying in nutrient loads. Water measurements only provided a momentary snapshot, due to timing, tidal stage, etc., but Thalassia testudinum nutrient concentrations indicated long-term nutrient loads. Nutrient levels in most bays did not raise any concern, but high leaf % P values of Thalassia in Piscadera Bay (∼0.31%) and Spanish Water Bay (∼0.21%) showed that seagrasses may be threatened by eutrophication, due to emergency overflow of waste water and coastal housing. We thus showed that seagrasses may be threatened and measures should be taken to prevent loss of these important nursery areas due to eutrophication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ruled and holographic experiment (AO 138-5). [long duration exposure facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnemason, Francis

    1992-01-01

    The AO 138-5 experiment has been designed, via the French Cooperative Payload (FRECOPA) experiment with the aim to study the optical behavior of different diffraction gratings submitted to space vacuum long exposure and solar radiation. Samples were rules and holographic gratings, masters or replica, and some additional control mirrors with various coatings. The experiment was located on the B3, trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and has been protected against atomic oxygen flux. The experienced thermal cycling has been evaluated from -23 C to 66 C during the flight, 34,000 orbits. The analysis has been focused on the triple point characterization including light efficiency, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level. Tests were conducted on control mirrors and gratings loaded but not exposed to cosmic dust or solar irradiations. They did not show any significant variations. Solar exposure has damaged the coating reflectivity in the ultraviolet region, the degradation is higher with the gratings, in terms of efficiency. However, wavefront flatness quality and stray light level tests revealed no additional changes.

  7. CHOUGH: implementation and performance of a high-order 4m AO demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharmal, Nazim A.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bourgenot, Cyril J.; Black, Martin; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Henry, David M.; Hölck-Santibanez, Daniel; Morris, Timothy J.; Robertson, David J.; Schmoll, Jürgen; Talbot, Robert G.; Younger, Eddy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    CHOUGH is a small, fast project to provide an experimental on-sky high-order SCAO capability to the 4.2m WHT telescope. The basic goal has r0-sized sub- apertures with the aim of achieving high-Strehl ratios (> 0:5) in the visible (> 650 nm). It achieves this by including itself into the CANARY experiment: CHOUGH is mounted as a breadboard and intercepts the beam within CANARY via a periscope. In doing so, it takes advantage of the mature CANARY infrastructure, but add new AO capabilities. The key instruments that CHOUGH brings to CANARY are: an atmospheric dispersion compensator; a 32 × 32 (1000 actuator) MEMS deformable mirror; 31 × 31 wavefront sensor; and a complementary (narrow-field) imager. CANARY provides a 241-actuator DM, tip/tilt mirror, and comprehensive off-sky alignment facility together with a RTC. In this work, we describe the CHOUGH sub-systems: backbone, ADC, MEMS-DM, HOWFS, CAWS, and NFSI.

  8. Distal humeral AO type C fracture--analysis of LCP fixation.

    PubMed

    Białas, Adam; Krauze, Paweł; Walenczak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Distal humeral fractures of type C by AO are serious musculoskeletal injuries, affecting the function of the elbow and upper limb. The authors present the results of treatment of these injuries with the use of two LCP plates. We report on 25 patients aged 26-75 years who were operated on between 2008 and 2010. We examined 20 patients. Treatment results were evaluated basing on patient histories (Oxford Elbow Score), clinical examination (Mayo Elbow Score) and radiographs. We rated the percentage loss of movement in relation to the healthy limb. Bony union was achieved in all patients. A scoring system based on the Oxford Elbow Scale rated the outcomes as excellent and good in 13 (65%) patients, fair in 5 (25%) and poor in 2 (10%). The Mayo Elbow Scale revealed 12 (60%) excellent and good results, 6 (30%) fair results and 2 (10%) poor results. Restoration of elbow anatomy with stable fixation of bone fragments allows early resumption of movements, predicting a good clinical outcome.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in risk groups living in tropical Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Leenders, T J M; van Eijndhoven, F H A; van der Veer, E; Muskiet, F A J

    2013-03-01

    Curaçao (12 degrees 10ON, 69 degrees OW) is characterized by whole year abundant sunshine (8-10 hours/day). We challenged the automatic assumption that people living in tropical countries do not have a high risk of vitamin D deficiency, and investigated the vitamin D status in a tropical environment. For this, we selected fifty-two elderly people with little or no exposure to direct sunlight [median 84 (60-96) years; 34females, 18 males] and who were cared for by community nurses or lived in retirement or nursing homes. Furthermore, six rehabilitating orthopaedic patients [median 72 (38-90) years; one female, five males] were included. Serum 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and creatinine were measured. Those exhibiting elevated creatinine, PTH or both had their 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] examined. Serum levels of 25(OH)D below 25, 50 and 75 nmol/L were detected in, respectively, seven (12%), 22 (38%) and 48 (83%) ofthe fifty-eight persons. Four persons had combined high creatinine and PTH, and low 1,25(OH)2D, which was not known by their caregivers. Abundant sunshine outdoors is no guarantee for vitamin D sufficiency. More attention is needed for vitamin D deficiency in risk groups living in tropical areas and elderly persons with poor kidney function.

  10. Documentation of fracture severity with the AO classification of pediatric long-bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent; Lutz, Nicolas; Frick, Steve; Schmittenbecher, Peter; Hunter, James; Clavert, Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    The AO comprehensive pediatric longbone fracture classification system describes the localization and morphology of fractures, and considers severity in 3 categories: (1) simple, (2) wedge, and (3) complex. We evaluated the reliability and accuracy of surgeons in using this rating system. In a first validation phase, 5 experienced pediatric (orthopedic) surgeons reviewed radiographs of 267 prospectively collected pediatric fractures (agreement study A). In a second study (B), 70 surgeons of various levels of experience in 15 clinics classified 275 fractures via internet. Simple fractures comprised about 90%, 99% and 100% of diaphyseal (D), metaphyseal (M), and epiphyseal (E) fractures, respectively. Kappa coefficients for severity coding in D fractures were 0.82 and 0.51 in studies A and B, respectively. The median accuracy of surgeons in classifying simple fractures was above 97% in both studies but was lower, 85% (46-100), for wedge or complex D fractures. While reliability and accuracy estimates were satisfactory as a whole, the ratings of some individual surgeons were inadequate. Our findings suggest that the classification of fracture severity in children should be done in only two categories that distinguish between simple and wedge/complex fractures.

  11. Laser testing of an Iris AO dielectric-coated segmented MEMS DM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Norton, Andrew P.; Gavel, Donald T.

    2011-09-01

    Iris AO has been developing dielectric-coated segmented MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) for use in laser applications that range from 355-1540 nm. In order to mitigate deformation from residual stress in the thick dielectric coatings, a stress-compensation layer has been added to the underside if the DM segments. This paper describes fabrication results of DMs with high reflectance dielectric coatings for 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 1540 nm. Additionally, a DM with a 532 nm coating has been tested with a 2 W, 532 nm CW laser. Laser testing shows the DM can handle 300 W/cm2 with off-theshelf packaging. Projections show that with good heat sinking, the same DM can handle laser power densities of 2800 W/cm2. The coatings showed no signs of damage after exposure to a w0=25 μm beam with a power density of 205 kW/cm2 for 105 minutes at the center of a segment and at segment edges exposed to 180 kW/cm2 for 45 minutes.

  12. High-power visible-laser effect on a 37-segment Iris AO deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Andrew; Gavel, Donald; Dillon, Daren

    2010-02-01

    We have tested an aluminum-coated Iris AO Micro-Electrical Mechanical System (MEMS) segmented Deformable Mirror (DM) for its behavior in the presence of high energy 532 nm laser light. The DM was subject to several tests in which the laser power and the duration of its incidence was varied. The DM experienced an irradiance of 94.5 W cm-2 at the maximum laser power of 2 W. A slight permanent reduction in the amount of bow in each segment was observed. This is most likely due to annealing. The mirror remained fully functional during and after the tests. Measurements of the mirror's temporal stability and position repeatability were performed before the laser test. We found a 1.28 nm rms variation in the bow of segments that is highly correlated over the 16 minute test. The mirror's ability to return to its initial position was within the 1.34 nm rms instrument noise. These results are encouraging for applications such as the laser uplink correction of the Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiment (Villages) and future multi-Laser Guidestar systems (LGS).

  13. Ultraviolet spectral behavior of AO Psc and V1223 Sgr from the HST and IUE satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.

    2015-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of two intermediate polar systems, AO Psc and V1223 Sgr observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST STIS) and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) during the period 1980-2000. The reddening of two systems is determined from the 2200 Å feature. The ultraviolet emission lines are originating in the accretion disk as a result of existing an extra component of emission in the EUV/soft X-ray range with luminosity comparable to the accretion luminosity which reprocessed to produce the observed ultraviolet line strengths. Different spectra for both systems showing the variations in line fluxes at different orbital phases are presented. We concentrated on calculating the line fluxes of C IV 1550 Å & He II 1640 Å emission lines. From HST and IUE data, we derived an accretion luminosities and an accretion rates for two systems. Our results show that there are variations in line fluxes, accretion luminosities and accretion rates with time for two systems. These variations are attributed to the variations of both density and temperature as a result of a changing rate of mass transfer from the secondary star to the white dwarf. These results from the IUE and HST observations are consistent with the models of Ko et al. (Astrophys. J., 457:363K, 1996).

  14. ORBITAL PERIOD CHANGES AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY STATUS FOR THE WEAK-CONTACT BINARIES. III. AO CAMELOPARDALIS AND AH TAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Wei, J.-Y.; Li, H.-L.; Kreiner, J. M. E-mail: sfkreine@cyf-kr.edu.pl

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, we presented multicolor photometric observations for two eclipsing binaries, AO Camelopardalis and AH Tauri, obtained on 2008 December 16 and 17. Using the Wilson-Devinney Code, the photometric solution of AH Tau was determined from our new CCD data. The mass ratio and the fill-out factor are q = 0.503({+-}0.003) and f = 10.8%({+-}0.1%), respectively. This indicates that AH Tau is in weak contact. For the weak-contact binary AO Cam, BVI light curves clearly show a difference in the heights of the maxima (i.e., the O'Connell effect), which may be explained by spot activity. By analyzing the O - C curves for AO Cam and AH Tau, it is found that the orbital periods appear to show a secular period decrease with a cyclic variation. The observed period modulation is {delta}P/P {approx} 10{sup -6}. For AO Cam, the cyclic oscillation with a short period of 7.63({+-}0.07) yr and a low amplitude of 0fd0019({+-}0fd0003) may be preferably attributed to the cyclic magnetic activity. The period and amplitude of the cyclic variation for AH Tau are 45.8({+-}1.1) yr and 0fd0171({+-}0fd0005), which may more likely result from the light-time effect via a third body. The secular period decrease rates are dP/dt = -1.26({+-}0.04) x 10{sup -7} days yr {sup -1} for AO Cam and dP/dt = -6.98({+-}0.07) x 10{sup -8} days yr {sup -1} for AH Tau. This kind of period decrease can be plausibly explained by the mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, and may result in the system evolving into a deep contact configuration.

  15. The heavy metal tolerant soil bacterium Achromobacter sp. AO22 contains a unique copper homeostasis locus and two mer operons.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shee Ping; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2012-06-01

    Copper-containing compounds are introduced into the environment through agricultural chemicals, mining, and metal industries and cause severe detrimental effects on ecosystems. Certain microorganisms exposed to these stressors exhibit molecular mechanisms to maintain intracellular copper homeostasis and avoid toxicity. We have previously reported that the soil bacterial isolate Achromobacter sp. AO22 is multi-heavy metal tolerant and exhibits a mer operon associated with a Tn21 type transposon. The present study reports that AO22 also hosts a unique cop locus encoding copper homeostasis determinants. The putative cop genes were amplified from the strain AO22 using degenerate primers based on reported cop and pco sequences, and a constructed 10,552 base pair contig (GenBank Accession No. GU929214). BLAST analyses of the sequence revealed a unique cop locus of 10 complete open reading frames, designated copSRABGOFCDK, with unusual separation of copCD from copAB. The promoter areas exhibit two putative cop boxes, and copRS appear to be transcribed divergently from other genes. The putative protein CopA may be a copper oxidase involved in export to the periplasm, CopB is likely extracytoplasmic, CopC may be periplasmic, CopD is cytoplasmic/ inner membrane, CopF is a P-type ATPase, and CopG, CopO, and CopK are likely copper chaperones. CopA, B, C, and D exhibit several potential copper ligands and CopS and CopR exhibit features of two-component regulatory systems. Sequences flanking indicate the AO22 cop locus may be present within a genomic island. Achromobacter sp. strain AO22 is thus an ideal candidate for understanding copper homeostasis mechanisms and exploiting them for copper biosensor or biosorption systems.

  16. Subaru/SCExAO First-light Direct Imaging of a Young Debris Disk around HD 36546

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Tamura, Motohide; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuhn, Jonas; Serabyn, Eugene; Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; McElwain, Michael W.; Singh, Garima; Uyama, Taichi; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Akiyama, Eiji; Grady, Carol; Hayashi, Saeko; Knapp, Gillian; Kwon, Jung-mi; Oh, Daehyeon; Wisniewski, John; Sitko, Michael; Yang, Yi

    2017-02-01

    We present H-band scattered light imaging of a bright debris disk around the A0 star HD 36546 obtained from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system with data recorded by the HiCIAO camera using the vector vortex coronagraph. SCExAO traces the disk from r ∼ 0.″3 to r ∼ 1″ (34–114 au). The disk is oriented in a near east–west direction (PA ∼ 75°), is inclined by i ∼ 70°–75°, and is strongly forward-scattering (g > 0.5). It is an extended disk rather than a sharp ring; a second, diffuse dust population extends from the disk’s eastern side. While HD 36546 intrinsic properties are consistent with a wide age range (t ∼ 1–250 Myr), its kinematics and analysis of coeval stars suggest a young age (3–10 Myr) and a possible connection to Taurus-Auriga’s star formation history. SCExAO’s planet-to-star contrast ratios are comparable to the first-light Gemini Planet Imager contrasts; for an age of 10 Myr, we rule out planets with masses comparable to HR 8799 b beyond a projected separation of 23 au. A massive icy planetesimal disk or an unseen super-Jovian planet at r > 20 au may explain the disk’s visibility. The HD 36546 debris disk may be the youngest debris disk yet imaged, is the first newly identified object from the now-operational SCExAO extreme AO system, is ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up with SCExAO/CHARIS in 2017, and may be a key probe of icy planet formation and planet–disk interactions.

  17. LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00020 LDEF (Flight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The flight photograph of the Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. The white paint dots on the center clamp blocks of the experiment trays right flange and lower flange appear to be slightly discolored. The LDEF structure, top intercostal, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black thermal panel. Aluminum particles from the degraded CVCHPE thermal blanket are also visible in this area. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminumized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of an atomic oxygen experiment (see S1001) by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external CVCHPE materials have changed significantly. The Kapton on the thermal blanket aluminized Kapton cover appears to be completely eroded, except under Kel-F buttons used to secure the blanket, leaving only the very thin vapor deposited aluminum coating as a cover. Parts of the aluminum coating residue has moved to

  18. LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 EL-1994-00354 LDEF (Postflight), AO076 : Cascade Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe, Tray F09 The postflight photograph was taken in the SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment from the LDEF. The color of the white paint dots on the exper- iment tray clamp blocks appear to be unchanged. The LDEF structure, the intercostal on the right, has a dark brown discoloration adjacent to the black Earth end thermal panel. Aluminum pieces of the degraded CVCHPE thermal cover that were shown lodged in the vent area between the intercostal and the black thermal panel in the flight photograph are gone. The Cascade Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Experiment (CVCHPE) occupies a 6 inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray and consist of two series connected variable conductance heatpipes, a black chrome solar collector panel and a silvered TEFLON® radiator panel, a power source to support six thermistor-type temperature monitoring sensors and actuations of two valves. Fiberglass standoffs and internal insulation blankets thermally isolated the experiment from the experiment tray and the LDEF interior. The outside of the CVCHPE, except the collector and radiator panels, was covered with an aluminized Kapton multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket with an outer layer of 0.076 mm thick Kapton. The two patches of thin film materials, part of Experiment S1001 by NASA GSFC, were attached to the cover of the external thermal blanket with Kapton tape. The experiment was assembled and mounted in the experiment tray with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The external surface of the CVCHPE has changed from that observed in the flight photograph. The thin vapor deposited aluminum coating, left after the Kapton eroded, is essentially gone with only fragments left near the edges of the thermal blanket. Pieces of a layer of Dacron mesh (bridle vail) material, used to separate the thermal cover from the thermal

  19. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    We report in this paper decisive advance on the detector development for the astronomical applications that require very fast operation. Since the CCD220 and OCAM2 major success, new detector developments started in Europe either for visible and IR wavelengths. Funded by ESO and the FP7 Opticon European network, the NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with strong ESO involvement. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate and providing digital outputs. A camera development, based on this CMOS device and also funded by the Opticon European network, is ongoing. Another major AO wavefront sensing detector development concerns IR detectors based on Avalanche Photodiode (e- APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter offers a 320x255 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3 microns, with less than 2 e readout noise at 1600 fps. A rectangular window can also be programmed to speed up even more the frame rate when the full frame readout is not required. The high QE response, in the range of 70%, is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using pulse tube cryocoolers was developed in the frame of this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. The characterization results of this device are presented here. Readout noise as low as 1.7 e at 1600 fps has been measured with a 3 microns wavelength cut-off chip and a multiplication gain of 14 obtained with a limited photodiode polarization of 8V. This device also exhibits excellent linearity, lower than 1%. The pulse tube cooling allows smart and easy cooling down to 55 K. Vibrations investigations using centroiding and FFT measurements were performed proving that the miniature pulse tube does not induce measurable vibrations to the optical bench, allowing use of this

  20. Screw fixation of medial malleolar fractures: a cadaveric biomechanical study challenging the current AO philosophy.

    PubMed

    Parker, L; Garlick, N; McCarthy, I; Grechenig, S; Grechenig, W; Smitham, P

    2013-12-01

    The AO Foundation advocates the use of partially threaded lag screws in the fixation of fractures of the medial malleolus. However, their threads often bypass the radiodense physeal scar of the distal tibia, possibly failing to obtain more secure purchase and better compression of the fracture. We therefore hypothesised that the partially threaded screws commonly used to fix a medial malleolar fracture often provide suboptimal compression as a result of bypassing the physeal scar, and proposed that better compression of the fracture may be achieved with shorter partially threaded screws or fully threaded screws whose threads engage the physeal scar. We analysed compression at the fracture site in human cadaver medial malleoli treated with either 30 mm or 45 mm long partially threaded screws or 45 mm fully threaded screws. The median compression at the fracture site achieved with 30 mm partially threaded screws (0.95 kg/cm(2) (interquartile range (IQR) 0.8 to 1.2) and 45 mm fully threaded screws (1.0 kg/cm(2) (IQR 0.7 to 2.8)) was significantly higher than that achieved with 45 mm partially threaded screws (0.6 kg/cm(2) (IQR 0.2 to 0.9)) (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively). The fully threaded screws and the 30mm partially threaded screws were seen to engage the physeal scar under an image intensifier in each case. The results support the use of 30 mm partially threaded or 45 mm fully threaded screws that engage the physeal scar rather than longer partially threaded screws that do not. A 45 mm fully threaded screw may in practice offer additional benefit over 30 mm partially threaded screws in increasing the thread count in the denser paraphyseal region.

  1. Unstable thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures treated with the AO fixateur interne.

    PubMed

    Benson, D R; Burkus, J K; Montesano, P X; Sutherland, T B; McLain, R F

    1992-09-01

    Twenty-five consecutive patients with unstable thoracolumbar and lumbar burst fractures were surgically treated with the AO Fixateur Interne (Synthes USA, 1690 Russell Rd., Paoli, PA). Indications for surgery included a progressive neurologic deficit, spinal canal compromise greater than 50%, vertebral body collapse greater than 50%, or sagittal angulation greater than 20 degrees. Twenty males and five females ranging in age from 16 to 60 years (average 31) were treated surgically and prospectively followed. Twenty-one fractures occurred at the thoracolumbar junction (T10-L2) and 4 in the lumbar spine (L3-5). Twenty-four patients were followed for a minimum of 12 months, ranging from 12 to 38 months (average 22); one patient was lost to follow-up after 1 month postoperatively. Preoperatively, 12 patients had partial neurologic deficits; postoperatively, 11 improved at least 1 Frankel grade. Preoperatively, the 12 patients with partial neurologic deficits averaged 45 points (range 24-49) on the lower extremity motor index scale. After surgery, these patients improved an average of five points (range 1-23) on the motor index scale. Both patients with complete spinal cord injuries remained unchanged neurologically postoperatively; no patients deteriorated neurologically after surgery. The average preoperative sagittal kyphosis at the fracture site was +16 degrees (range +10 degrees to +31 degrees); the immediate postoperative sagittal angular correction averaged -4 degrees (lordosis) and ranged from +12 degrees (kyphosis) to -26 degrees (lordosis). At last follow-up, the sagittal angular correction remained unchanged in three patients and decreased in 21 patients to an average of +5 degrees (range +37 degrees to -14 degrees).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Climate Factors as Important Determinants of Dengue Incidence in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Limper, M; Thai, K T D; Gerstenbluth, I; Osterhaus, A D M E; Duits, A J; van Gorp, E C M

    2016-03-01

    Macro- and microclimates may have variable impact on dengue incidence in different settings. We estimated the short-term impact and delayed effects of climate variables on dengue morbidity in Curaçao. Monthly dengue incidence data from 1999 to 2009 were included to estimate the short-term influences of climate variables by employing wavelet analysis, generalized additive models (GAM) and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity in relation to dengue incidence. Dengue incidence showed a significant irregular 4-year multi-annual cycle associated with climate variables. Based on GAM, temperature showed a U-shape, while humidity and rainfall exhibited a dome-shaped association, suggesting that deviation from mean temperature increases and deviation from mean humidity and rainfall decreases dengue incidence, respectively. Rainfall was associated with an immediate increase in dengue incidence of 4.1% (95% CI: 2.2-8.1%) after a 10-mm increase, with a maximum increase of 6.5% (95% CI: 3.2-10.0%) after 1.5 month lag. A 1 °C decrease of mean temperature was associated with a RR of 17.4% (95% CI: 11.2-27.0%); the effect was inversed for a 1°C increase of mean temperature (RR= 0.457, 95% CI: 0.278-0.752). Climate variables are important determinants of dengue incidence and provide insight into its short-term effects. An increase in mean temperature was associated with lower dengue incidence, whereas lower temperatures were associated with higher dengue incidence. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Deriving the True Mass of an Unresolved Brown Dwarf Companion with AO Aided Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eva; Kürster, M.

    2010-01-01

    From radial velocity detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor (Benedict 2006, Benedict 2002). We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, which distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision radial velocity survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses (Kuerster 2008). Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We are therefore observing the host star and a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (BD vs. star). Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the AO plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems. We present preliminary results of the analysis of the astrometric displacements of the host star due to the unseen companion after correcting for differential refraction and differential aberration, as well as a first orbit fit and mass estimation.

  4. Resolving M-dwarf Binaries in Young Moving Groups (YMGs) with MagAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yutong; Yee, Jennifer C.; Bowler, Brendan P.

    2017-01-01

    With relatively well-determined ages and uniform histories, YMGs are sparse ensembles of stars that serve as benchmarks for the transition of stellar populations from their birth clusters to the field. We present data and analysis from our Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) campaign to image more than 100 K- and M-dwarf members of several YMGs in the southern sky, revealing ~30 previously unresolved visual stellar companions at separations of ~3 — 300 AU. Knowledge of their binarity is instrumental to interpreting their measured properties for a variety of applications. The tighter of these systems also represent opportunities for future monitoring and dynamical mass inference.Due to faintness and lack of clarity in their YMG memberships (until recently), the multiplicity of PMS M-dwarfs in young associations is hitherto unconstrained. Our study provides statistics for such young M-dwarf multiples in an intermediate regime of orbital distance (across the hard-soft boundary) to populate this little-explored region in the parameter space of multiple star systems. Among the ensemble properties of interest are distributions in physical separations and mass ratios for the binary components. When combined with the SACY survey (Elliott et al. 2015), whose focus is on YMG systems with earlier type primaries, we are able to provide an updated measurement of young-star multiplicity as a function of stellar mass, age, and environment, with significantly more statistical power at lower masses. We discuss implications for the universality and scalability of star formation and evolution processes, as well as comparison to measurements in related populations (e.g. cluster, field, young, old, FGK stars) which form a storyline that theory must explain.

  5. Dispersion in Neptune's zonal wind velocities from NIR Keck AO observations in July 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; de Pater, Imke; Luszcz-Cook, Statia; Wong, Michael H.; Hammel, Heidi B.

    2014-03-01

    We report observations of Neptune made in H-(1.4-1.8 μm) and K'-(2.0-2.4 μm) bands on 14 and 16 July 2009 from the 10-m W.M. Keck II Telescope using the near-infrared camera NIRC2 coupled to the Adaptive Optics (AO) system. We track the positions of 54 bright atmospheric features over a few hours to derive their zonal and latitudinal velocities, and perform radiative transfer modeling to measure the cloud-top pressures of 50 features seen simultaneously in both bands. We observe one South Polar Feature (SPF) on 14 July and three SPFs on 16 July at ˜65 °S. The SPFs observed on both nights are different features, consistent with the high variability of Neptune's storms. There is significant dispersion in Neptune's zonal wind velocities about the smooth Voyager wind profile fit of Sromovsky et al. (Icarus, 105:140, 1993), much greater than the upper limit we expect from vertical wind shear, with the largest dispersion seen at equatorial and southern mid-latitudes. Comparison of feature pressures vs. residuals in zonal velocity from the smooth Voyager wind profile also directly reveals the dominance of mechanisms over vertical wind shear in causing dispersion in the zonal winds. Vertical wind shear is not the primary cause of the difference in dispersion and deviation in zonal velocities between features tracked in H-band on 14 July and those tracked in K'-band on 16 July. Dispersion in the zonal velocities of features tracked over these short time periods is dominated by one or more mechanisms, other than vertical wind shear, that can cause changes in the dispersion and deviation in the zonal velocities on timescales of hours to days.

  6. Sea Ice Trends in the AO-UMUKCA model: Interplay of Forcing and Internal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrrar, Amna; Abraham, Luke; Holland, David; Pyle, John

    2016-04-01

    While Arctic Sea is showing a declining trend particularly in summer. Antarctic sea is showing a modest increase, a very controversial observation in a warming climate. Several studies have attributed these changes to internal variability. Hence in this paper we investigate sea ice trends in both hemispheres as simulated in a version of the Atmosphere-Ocean coupled chemistry climate model AO-UMUKCA under two different atmospheric forcing scenarios. One simulation is a pre-industrial control, where atmospheric forcing is fixed at 1850 level. The second simulation is also a time slice experiment but forced with the year 2000 atmospheric forcing (TS2000). The model simulates a significant reduction in NH Sea Ice Extent (SIE) under the TS2000 scenario, but shows negligible difference in SH SIE between the two scenarios. In agreement with observational studies, we find that NH SIE and distribution are connected to the Arctic Oscillation and the Dipole Anomaly in both simulations, particularly in summer time. While SH winter SIE shows a high correlation with zonal wave-3 pattern and the Pacific South American mode, particularly in TS2000. Connections between SIE and oceanic modes of variability in both hemispheres are also detected. Total NH SIE shows significant correlation with Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on interannual and decadal timescales, but shows significant correlation with the Inter Pacific Decadal Oscillation (IPO) on multi-decadal timescale only. However, total SH SIE shows significant correlation only with IPO on decadal and multi-decadal scales. The SIE response to oceanic modes is comparable in both simulations.

  7. First light curve analyses of binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulaş, B.; Ulusoy, C.

    2015-11-01

    Using the data from the public database of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) we performed the very first light curve analyses of the three eclipsing binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7. The physical parameters of the systems were determined by the PHOEBE (Prša and Zwitter, 2005) software. From an analysis of the ASAS data it was concluded that AO Aqr was found to be a contact binary system while CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7 were found to be near-contact and detached binaries, respectively. Finally, the locations of the components, corresponding to the estimated physical parameters, in the HR diagram were also discussed.

  8. High energy resolution observation of the Crab and AO535 plus 26 in the hard X-ray range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hameury, J. M.; Boclet, D.; Durouchoux, P.; Cline, T.; Teegarden, B.; Tueller, J.; Paciesas, W.; Haymes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A number of uncertainties exist currently regarding the existence of gamma-ray lines in the Crab spectrum. An investigation was, therefore, conducted, and the Crab was observed for eight hours during a balloon flight from Palestine, TX, on September 26, 1980. It appeared that the binary source AO535 plus 26 contaminated the Crab data. It was, however, possible to separate the two sources. The obtained results are discussed and evaluated. It is found that the possibility of a line at 73 keV with the intensity reported by Ling et al. (1979) can be excluded for the obtained data. The 400 keV line cannot be ruled out. The results concerning AO535 plus 26 are very different from those previously obtained.

  9. Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Treated by the AO Hook Fixation System: A Four Year Follow-Up of an Alternative Technique

    PubMed Central

    Pengas, Ioannis P; Assiotis, Angelos; Kokkinakis, Michail; Khan, Wasim S; Meyers, Paul; Arbuthnot, James; Mcnicholas, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Surgical fixation is recommended for stable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions that have failed nonoperative management and for all unstable lesions. In this study we set out to describe and evaluate an alternative method of surgical fixation for such lesions. Five knees with unstable OCD lesions in four male adolescent patients with open physes were treated with the AO Hook Fixation System. The outcome was evaluated both clinically and with three separate outcome systems (IKDC 2000, KOOS, Lysholm) at one and a mean four year follow-up. We demonstrated excellent clinical results in all patients. At four years, all scoring systems demonstrated statistically significant improvement when compared to the preoperative status. Our study suggests that the AO Hook Fixation System is an alternative method of surgical intervention with comparable medium term results with other existing modes of fixation and the added biomechanical advantage of the absence of distracting forces during hardware removal. PMID:25067976

  10. Relativistic blast-wave model for the rapid flux variations of AO 0235+164 and other compact radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    A relativistic blast-wave version of a signal-screen model is developed which can adequately explain the details of the flux-density and structural variations of compact extragalactic radio sources. The relativistic motion implied by flux variations is analyzed with respect to the synchrotron spectrum of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 observed during outbursts, and a signal-screen model for rapidly expanding shells produced by ultrarelativistic blast waves is examined. The approximate observed structure of the blast wave at three stages in its evolution is illustrated, each stage is described, and the model is applied to the flux density outburst in AO 0235+164 observed in late 1975. The results show that a relativistic blast-wave model can in general reproduce the main features of the observed flux variations in compact sources. Some problems with the proposed model are briefly discussed.

  11. Photometric Observations of Asteroid 4742 Caliumi, 5267 Zegmott (18429) 1994 AO1, (26421) 1999 XP113, and (27675) 1981 CH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeigler, Kenneth; Banshaw, Bryce; Gass, Janelle

    2017-07-01

    CCD photometric observations conducted from the George West ISD Mobile Observatory of asteroids 4742 Caliumi, 5267 Zegmott, (18429) 1994 AO1, (26421) 1999 XP113, and (27675) 1981 CH are described. This represents the research results for the 2016-17 school year. Analysis of our data found the synodic period and lightcurve amplitudes for each asteroid: 4742 Caliumi, 5.475 ± 0.005 h, 0.80 mag; 5267 Zegmott 5.209 h ± 0.002 h, 0.32 mag; (18429) 1994 AO1, 3.911 ± 0.002 h, 0.23 mag; (26421) 1999 XP113, 4.320 ± 0.005 h, 0.23 mag; and (27675) 1981 CH, 3.085 ± 0.002 h, 0.13 mag.

  12. Interaction of Lamb mode (A(o)) with structural discontinuity and generation of "Turning modes" in a T-joint.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, C; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Joshi, M; Krishnamurthy, C V

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the interaction of the fundamental anti-symmetric guided Lamb mode (A(o)) with a structural discontinuity in a composite structure was studied through Finite Element numerical simulations and experiments. The structural component selected for this study was a T-joint section made from glass/epoxy material. This co-cured composite structure is made-up of an upper shell (skin) and a spar as the sub-components. It was observed that when A(o) mode interacts with the junction (structural discontinuity) of these sub-components, a mode-converted S(o) mode is generated. Experiments were conducted using air-coupled ultrasound to validate the numerical simulations. The back-propagating "Turning modes", which propagate from the thin region to the spar web and vice versa, were also numerically simulated and experimentally verified.

  13. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. II. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-07-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high angular resolution, visible light, laser adaptive optics (AOs) imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to {{Δ }}m≈ 6 that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within ˜4″ of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% ± 1.1% at angular separations up to 2.″5, significantly higher than the 7.4% ± 1.0% probability discovered in our initial sample of 715 stars; we find the probability increases to 17.6% ± 1.5% out to a separation of 4.″0. The median position of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) observed in this survey are 1.°1 closer to the galactic plane, which may account for some of the nearby star probability enhancement. We additionally detail 50 Keck AO images of Robo-AO observed KOIs in order to confirm 37 companions detected at a <5σ significance level and to obtain additional infrared photometry on higher significance detected companions.

  14. A comparative study on visual and optical performance of Akreos AO and Kontur AB IOLs after phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Gharaee, Hamid; Zabihifard, Masoud; Eslampour, Alireza; Hassanzadeh, Samira; Shafiee, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Akreos AO and Kontur AB are two commonly used intraocular lenses (IOLs) in Iran. This study was designed to evaluate the visual performance of these lenses. In a comparative interventional study, 35 patients (70 eyes) were recruited, and each IOL was implanted in one eye of the patients, randomly. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity, aberrometric analysis, and depth of focus were evaluated 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. A visual quality questionnaire was also filled for each eye, and the results were compared. Mean age of the patients was 60.97 ± 7.00 years. BCVA was not significantly different between the two eyes, before, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively (p > 0.05 for all). Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity was not different between the two lenses instead of photopic 18 cycles per degree, 3 months postoperatively and in mesopic 6 cycles per degree 1 month postoperatively (p = 0.034 and p = 0.002, respectively). Aberrometric factors including HoRMS, Total RMS, and Higher order without Z(4,0) were not significantly different between the two lenses (p > 0.05 for all), but they were slightly lower for Akreos AO. Post-operative distance-corrected visual acuity for intermediate and near vision were not different between the two groups (p > 0.05, respectively). Visual performance of Akreos AO and Kontur AB is similar. However, contrast sensitivity and aberrometric parameters are slightly better for Akreos AO IOL.

  15. Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Curaçao women. Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception and abortion and reasons for ineffective use of contraceptives among women, visiting general practitioners. Results Of 158 women, 146 (92%) participated and 82% reported that their education on sexuality and about contraception was of good quality. However 'knowledge of reliable contraceptive methods' appeared to be - in almost 50% of the cases - false information, misjudgements or erroneous views on the chance of getting pregnant using coitus interruptus and about the reliability and health effects of oral contraceptive pills. Almost half of the interviewed women had incorrect or no knowledge about reliability of condom use and IUD. 42% of the respondents risked by their behavior an unplanned pregnancy. Most respondents considered abortion as an emergency procedure, not as contraception. Almost two third experienced emotional, physical or social problems after the abortion. Conclusions Respondents had a negative attitude toward reliable contraceptives due to socio-cultural determined ideas about health consequences and limited sexual education. Main economic factors were costs of contraceptive methods, because most health insurances in Curaçao do not cover contraceptives. To improve the effective use of reliable contraceptives, more adequate information should be given, targeting the wrong beliefs and false information. The government should encourage health insurance companies to reimburse contraceptives. Furthermore

  16. Enhanced nitrogen removal from electroplating tail wastewater through two-staged anoxic-oxic (A/O) process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xinmei; Zhu, Chunyan; Huang, Bin; Yan, Qun; Zhang, Guangsheng

    2017-09-14

    Consisted of anaerobic (ANA), anoxic-1 (AN1), aerobic-1 (AE1), anoxic-2 (AN2), aerobic-2 (AE2) reactors and sediment tank, the two-staged A/O process was applied for depth treatment of electroplating tail wastewater with high electrical conductivity and large amounts of ammonia nitrogen. It was found that the NH4(+)-N and COD removal efficiencies reached 97.11% and 83.00%, respectively. Besides, the short-term salinity shock of the control, AE1 and AE2 indicated that AE1 and AE2 have better resistance to high salinity when the concentration of NaCl ranged from 1 to 10g/L. Meanwhile, it was found through high-throughput sequencing that bacteria genus Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira and Thauera, which are capable of nitrogen removal, were enriched in the two-staged A/O process. Moreover, both salt-tolerant bacteria and halophili bacteria were also found in the combined process. Therefore, microbial community within the two-staged A/O process could be acclimated to high electrical conductivity, and adapted for electroplating tail wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Induced abortion is not associated with a higher likelihood of depression in Curaçao women.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Adriana A; van den Berg, Desirée; van Lunsen, Rik H W; Laan, Ellen T M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the risk of developing a depression after induced abortion. A prospective cohort study conducted in Curaçao which involved 92 women having an induced abortion and 37 women delivering after an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, who served as controls. All participants completed the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale before and two to three weeks after the abortion or delivery. Following the abortion, significantly fewer women were at risk of depression (30%) as compared to when still pregnant (60%). Mean depression scores were significantly lower after- than before the procedure. The likelihood of depression post-abortum (30%) was similar to that after delivery of an unplanned/unwanted child (22%). Even though women in the abortion group more often reported having suffered from depression in the past than controls, they were not at greater risk of depression after their pregnancy had ended. Curaçao women's risk of developing a depression following an (early) induced abortion is not greater than that after carrying to term an unplanned/unwanted pregnancy. We recommend that the results of this study be taken into account in case the Curaçao government should consider legalisation of induced abortion in the near future.

  18. Impact of Cn2 profile on tomographic reconstruction performance: application to E-ELT wide field AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costille, A.; Fusco, T.

    2012-07-01

    New techniques of Adaptive Optics (AO), generically called Wide Field AO, have been developed in the frame of the design study for new instruments for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELI). Concepts such as Multi-Conjugate AO are based on a tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent volume followed by a projection onto DM(s) in order to ensure a good correction in a large Field of View. These systems require a 3D phase reconstruction and a statistical representation of the turbulent volume through the knowledge of the Cn2 profile, which has a strong impact on performance. We focus our study on the analysis of the impact of the structure and the parameters, which define the Cn2 profile, on the performance of a given tomographic system for an ELI. In this article, we perform simulation to emphasize the terms which are directly linked to the knowledge of the true input Cn2 profile, which simulates the input turbulent perturbations, and to the Cn2 profile which is used as a model in the reconstruction process. We determine and discuss the level of the accuracy needed on the Cn2 profile to limit the tomographic error term and to ensure a good performance. We show that a good sampling of the input turbulence is required to ensure performance of the system.

  19. HIGH RESOLUTION H{alpha} IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H{alpha}. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H{alpha} image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over {approx}18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H{alpha}.

  20. Orbital-period variations of the Algol-type eclipsing binaries RW CrB and AO ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Orbital-period variations of the Algol-type eclipsing binaries RW CrB and AO Ser are analyzed. It is shown that the period variations of these systems are due mainly to the light-time effect due to the eclipsing binary's motion in its long-period orbit. The period variations of RW CrB are reproduced by motion of the eclipsing binary with a period of 55.8 years around a third body with the mass M 3 > 0.36 M⊙. The period variations of AO Ser can be reproduced either solely with the light-time effect, or by a superposition of the light-time effect and a slow secular decrease in the period. In the former case, the period of the long-period orbit is 111.5 years; in the latter case, it is 108 years. Both cases imply the same mass for the third body in the AO Ser system: M 3 > 0.35 M⊙. The residual small-amplitude orbitalperiod variations of the two systems can be due to magnetic cycles.

  1. LDEF (Postflight), AO044 : Holographic Data Storage Crystals for LDEF, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The postflight photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The Holographic Data Storage Crystals for LDEF Experiment (AO044) consist of four crystals of lithium niobate, three crystals contain recorded holograms and one crystal is an unrecorded control sample. The Holographic Data Storage experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typically placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, ThePyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment with twenty detectors, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners. The experiment hardware appears to be intact with no apparent damage. The excess blue color in the flight photograph is no longer present. The paint dots on the tray clamp blocks, initially white, are brown and tray flanges appear to have a light tan discoloration. The experiment sun screens and base plate also appear to have the same discoloration. The exposed experiment test specimen and their fiberglass-epoxy mountings appear to have

  2. Future change of water vaiables from HadGEM2-AO simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moon-Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Johan; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Chunho

    2013-04-01

    hydrology-atmosphere for water resource planning. Arora et al. (1999) and Oki and Sud (1998) developed a method for routing river flows through GCM grid cells. Accordingly, reliable forecasts are expected to help water managers and users with long lead time decisions, leading to greater water use efficiency and better risk management (Wang, 2012). SO, we analysed hydrological cycle and drought index from precipitation, evaporation, runoff, soil moisture, river outflow, and so on using atmosphere-ocean coupled model which called by HadGEM2-AO. Details and added information by this climate projection system about the future water cycle's change will be presented at the workshop. Acknowledgments: This research has been supported by project NIMR-2013-B-2 of the National Institute of Meteorological Research in Korea Meteorological Administration.

  3. Hybrid External Fixation for Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) 43-C Tibial Plafond Fractures.

    PubMed

    Abd-Almageed, Emad; Marwan, Yousef; Esmaeel, Ali; Mallur, Amarnath; El-Alfy, Barakat

    2015-01-01

    Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) type 43-C tibial plafond/pilon fractures represent a challenge for the treating orthopedic surgeon. We assessed the outcomes of using hybrid external fixation for this fracture type. The present prospective cohort study was started in August 2009 and ended by July 2012. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age 37.4 ± 10.7 years) with a type C tibial plafond fracture who had presented to our tertiary care orthopedic hospital were included. Motor vehicle accidents and fall from height were the cause of the fracture in 14 (46.7%) and 13 (43.3%) patients, respectively. A type C3 fracture was present in 25 patients (83.3%), and type C1 and C2 fractures were present in 2 (6.7%) and 3 (10.0%) patients, respectively. Nine fractures (30.0%) were open. Hybrid external fixation was used for all fractures. All fractures were united; clinical healing was achieved by a mean of 18.1 ± 2.2 weeks postoperatively and radiologic healing at a mean of 18.9 ± 1.9 weeks. The fixator was removed at a mean of 20.4 ± 2.0 weeks postoperatively. At a mean follow-up point of 13.4 ± 2.6 months, the mean modified Mazur ankle score was 84.6 ± 10.4. It was not associated with wound classification (p = .256). The most commonly seen complication was ankle osteoarthritis (17 patients; 56.7%); however, it was mild in >50.0% of the affected patients. In conclusion, using hybrid external fixation for type C tibial plafond fractures resulted in good outcomes. However, this should be investigated further in studies with a higher level of evidence. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente

  5. Deep Uranus Cloud Structure and Methane Mixing Ratio as Constrained by Keck AO Imaging Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, P. M.

    2006-09-01

    Keck AO imaging of Uranus in 2004 with H and H-continuum filters provide deep views of scattered light in the Uranian atmosphere with different sensitivities to methane absorption and collision-induced absorption by Hydrogen. After deconvolution, these images provide accurate low-latitude center-to-limb (east-west) profiles out to view angles of nearly 80 degrees, permitting solutions for both cloud properties and the methane mixing ratio. After accounting for a very small high-altitude haze contribution, the observed central disk I/F values for H and H-continuum filters can be modeled using an opaque semi-infinite cloud of very low albedo (near 0.04), a broken cloud of high albedo (fractional coverage near 0.04-.06), or a continuous cloud of low optical depth (0.2-1.0) containing particles of high single-scattering albedo. For low methane mixing ratios (0.5-1 percent) the central disk I/F values require a deep cloud (near 8 bars), while for the high methane mixing ratios (2-4 percent) a higher altitude solution is possible (near 3 bars). However, the observed slightly limb-brightened and relatively flat center-to-limb H-continuum profile is only consistent with an optically thin cloud. The best-fit solution is a low methane mixing ratio (0.75-1.0 percent vmr), and a deep low opacity cloud (optical depth ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 for scattering asymmetry parameters ranging from 0 to 0.3). This CH4 mixing ratio is slightly below the lower limit of the Baines et al. (1995, Icarus 114, 328-340) result of 1.6(+0.7/-0.5) percent. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy and Planetary Atmospheres programs and the W.M. Keck Observatory. We thank those of Hawaiian ancestry whose generous hospitality in allowing use of their sacred mountain made the observations possible.

  6. Design, Implementation, and On-Sky Performance of an Advanced Apochromatic Triplet Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector for the Magellan Adaptive Optics System and VisAO Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopon, Derek; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Gasho, Victor

    2013-08-01

    We present the novel design, laboratory verification, and on-sky performance of our advanced triplet atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC), an important component of the Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO), which recently achieved first light in December 2012. High-precision broadband (0.5-1.0 μm) atmospheric dispersion correction at visible wavelengths is essential both for wavefront sensing (WFS) on fainter guide stars, and for performing visible AO science using our VisAO science camera. At 2 airmasses (60° from zenith) and over the waveband 500-1000 nm, our triplet design produces a 57% improvement in geometric rms spot size, a 33% improvement in encircled energy at 20″ radius, and a 62% improvement in Strehl ratio when compared to a conventional doublet design. This triplet design has been fabricated, tested in the lab, and integrated into the MagAO WFS and the VisAO science camera. We present on-sky results of the ADC in operation with the MagAO system. We also present a zero-beam-deviation triplet ADC design, which will be important to future AO systems that require precise alignment of the optical axis over a large range of airmasses in addition to diffraction-limited broadband dispersion correction.

  7. STAT3 contributes to NK cell recognition by modulating expression of NKG2D ligands in adriamycin-resistant K562/AO2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaohui; Lu, Xuzhang; Jia, Zhuxia; Zhang, Xiuwen; Han, Wenmin; Rong, Xiao; Ma, Lingdi; Zhou, Min; Chen, Baoan

    2015-11-01

    Leukemic cells can survive after chemotherapy by acquisition of multidrug resistance genes, but other phenotypes related to escape from immune recognition remain elusive. Adriamycin-resistant K562/AO2 cells are less susceptible to elimination by NK cells compared with wild type K562 cells due to lower expression of NKG2D ligands. Treatment of K562/AO2 cells with STAT3 inhibitor VII resulted in reduced expression of multidrug resistance gene P-glycoprotein, and up-regulation of NKG2D ligands on K562/AO2 cells. Meanwhile, K562/AO2 cells treated with STAT3 inhibitor proliferated less and were more susceptible to killing by NK cells than untreated K562/AO2 cells. The enhanced cytotoxicity of NK cells against K562/AO2 cells was partly blocked by treatment of NK cells with anti-NKG2D antibodies. These data suggest that STAT3 contributes to NK cell recognition by modulating NKG2D ligands in K562/AO2 cells, which may a mechanism by which cells survive and cause relapse of leukemia.

  8. Novel UNC-44 AO13 ankyrin is required for axonal guidance in C. elegans, contains six highly repetitive STEP blocks separated by seven potential transmembrane domains, and is localized to neuronal processes and the periphery of neural cell bodies.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Anthony J; Boontrakulpoontawee, Pratumtip; Rebeiz, Natalie; Domanus, Marc; Otsuka, Dawn; Velamparampil, Nena; Chan, Sabrina; Vande Wyngaerde, Marshall; Campagna, Sarah; Cox, Andrea

    2002-03-01

    Conventional ankyrins are cortical cytoskeletal proteins that form an ankyrin-spectrin meshwork underlying the plasma membrane. We report here the unusual structure of a novel ankyrin (AO13 ankyrin, 775,369 Da, 6994 aa, pI = 4.45) that is required for proper axonal guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans. AO13 ankyrin contains the ANK repeat and spectrin-binding domains found in other ankyrins, but differs from all others in that the acidic carboxyl region contains six blocks of serine/threonine/glutamic acid/proline rich (STEP) repeats separated by seven hydrophobic domains. The STEP repeat blocks are composed primarily of sequences related to ETTTTTTVTREHFEPED(E/D)X(n)VVESEEYSASGSPVPSE (E/K)DVE(H/R)VI, and the hydrophobic domains contain sequences related to PESGEESDGEGFGSKVLGFAKK[AGMVAGGVVAAPVALAAVGA]KAAYDALKKDDDEE, which includes a potential transmembrane domain (in brackets). Recombinant protein fragments of AO13 ankyrin were used to prepare polyclonal antisera against the spectrin-binding domain (AO271 Ab), the conventional ankyrin regulatory domain (AO280 Ab), the AO13 ankyrin STEP domain (AO346 Ab), the AO13 ankyrin STEP + hydrophobic domain (AO289 Ab), and against two carboxyl terminal domain fragments (AO263 Ab and AO327 Ab). Western blot analysis with these Ab probes demonstrated multiple protein isoforms. By immunofluorescence microscopy, the antispectrin-binding and regulatory domain (AO271 and AO280) antibodies recognized many cell types, including neurons, and stained the junctions between cells. The AO13 ankyrin-specific (AO289 and AO346) antibodies showed a neurally restricted pattern, staining nerve processes and the periphery of neural cell bodies. These results are consistent with a role for AO13 ankyrin in neural development.

  9. A novel mammalian expression system derived from components coordinating nicotine degradation in arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1

    PubMed Central

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Weber, Cornelia C.; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Schoenmakers, Ronald G.; Aubel, Dominique; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design and detailed characterization of 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic)-adjustable transgene expression (NICE) systems engineered for lentiviral transduction and in vivo modulation of angiogenic responses. Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 encodes a unique catabolic machinery on its plasmid pAO1, which enables this Gram-positive soil bacterium to use the tobacco alkaloid nicotine as the exclusive carbon source. The 6HNic-responsive repressor-operator (HdnoR-ONIC) interaction, controlling 6HNic oxidase production in A.nicotinovorans pAO1, was engineered for generic 6HNic-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells. HdnoR fused to different transactivation domains retained its ONIC-binding capacity in mammalian cells and reversibly adjusted transgene transcription from chimeric ONIC-containing promoters (PNIC; ONIC fused to a minimal eukaryotic promoter [Pmin]) in a 6HNic-responsive manner. The combination of transactivators containing various transactivation domains with promoters differing in the number of operator modules as well as in their relative inter-ONIC and/or ONIC-Pmin spacing revealed steric constraints influencing overall NICE regulation performance in mammalian cells. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for NICE-controlled expression of the human glycoprotein secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) showed high SEAP serum levels in the absence of regulating 6HNic. 6HNic was unable to modulate SEAP expression, suggesting that this nicotine derivative exhibits control-incompatible pharmacokinetics in mice. However, chicken embryos transduced with HIV-1-derived self-inactivating lentiviral particles transgenic for NICE-adjustable expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF121) showed graded 6HNic response following administration of different 6HNic concentrations. Owing to the clinically inert and highly water-soluble compound 6HNic, NICE-adjustable transgene control systems may become a

  10. Volar Plate Fixation in Patients Older Than 70 Years with AO Type C Distal Radial Fractures: Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Zaidenberg, Ezequiel E; Duarte, Matias Pereira; Boretto, Jorge G; Donndorff, Agustin; Gallucci, Gerardo; De Carli, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Introduction  Treatment of unstable distal radial fractures (DRFs) in elderly patients is controversial, and considering the increasing life expectancy, their appropriate treatment is of growing importance. Our aim was to analyze the clinical and radiologic outcomes in the elderly patients with AO type C DRF treated with volar locking plate (VLP). Materials and Methods  Between 2007 and 2011, 572 DRFs were operated on in our hospital with open reduction and internal fixation with VLP. Of these, only 64 patients (66 DRFs) met the selection criteria (AO type C DRF, age > 70 years, minimum 12-month follow-up). Mean follow-up was 28 months. Outcome assessment included range of motion, grip strength, VAS pain, Mayo Clinic Score, and DASH score. Analysis of pre- and postoperative radiographs was performed. Complications were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed comparing the results with the contralateral side. Results  Mean postoperative range of motion of the injured wrist compared with the control contralateral side was 86% for flexion ( p  < 0.001), 92% for extension ( p  < 0.001). The average DASH was 12. Mayo Clinic Wrist Score showed 43 excellent results, 15 good, 4 satisfactory, and 4 poor. Articular step-offs were reduced in 34 of 38 wrists. Five (7%) patients required plate removal. Conclusion  The treatment of articular DRF (AO type C) with VLP in the elderly patients achieved greater than 90% of the wrist range of motion and grip strength with no residual pain in greater than 90% of the patients. Level of Evidence  Therapeutic IV, case series.

  11. Intra and interobserver concordance of the AO classification system for fractures of the long bones in the pediatric population☆

    PubMed Central

    Utino, Artur Yudi; de Alencar, Douglas Rene; Fernadez Maringolo, Leonardo; Negrão, Julia Machado; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Dobashi, Eiffel Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective The AO classification for fractures of the long bones in the pediatric population was developed and validated in 2006. However, the complexity of this system has limited its use in clinical practice and few studies in the literature have evaluated its reproducibility and applicability. The present study had the objective of determining the intra and interobserver agreement using the pediatric AO system, among physicians with different levels of experience. Methods After making the sample calculation, 108 consecutive radiographs on long-bone fractures in patients aged 0–16 years, coming from the digital files of the quaternary-level hospital, were selected. The radiographs were classified by five examiners with different levels of experience after prior explanations about the system. A chart containing images from the classification was made available for consultation. The evaluations were made at two different times by each observer. The Fleiss kappa index was used to ascertain the intra and interobserver agreement. Results Intraobserver agreement that was at least substantial was obtained for all the items of the classification and it reached excellent levels for all observers in relation to five of the seven items considered. The interobserver evaluation presented excellent levels of agreement in two items, substantial in two items, moderate to substantial in one item and poor to moderate in one item. No influence from the observer's experience was observed with regard to obtaining higher or lower levels of agreement, either in the intraobserver or in the interobserver evaluation. Conclusions In this study, the intra and interobserver agreement was considered to be good or excellent for the pediatric AO classification system, for the parameters of bone, segment, paired bone, subsegment, standard and deviation. However, the intra and interobserver agreement was statistically unsatisfactory for the parameter of severity/side of avulsion. The levels of

  12. Imaging the living retina at the cellular level with AO parallel spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Donald T.; Zhang, Yan; Rha, Jungtae; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Gao, Weihua

    2005-12-01

    We investigate a novel camera that incorporates adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine if it can achieve the necessary 3-D resolution, sensitivity, and speed for imaging individual cells in the living human retina. An AO spectral-domain OCT system was constructed that is based on a free-space Michelson interferometer design. The OCT sub-system consists of a broadband superluminescent diode whose beam passes through an astigmatic lens to form a line illumination pattern on the retina, which is then imaged onto the slit of an imaging spectrometer. The detector of the spectrometer is a scientific-grade areal CCD. Conventional flood illumination, also with AO, was integrated into the camera and provided confirmation of the focus position in the retina. Short bursts of narrow B-scans (100x560 microns) of the living retina were subsequently acquired at 500 Hz during dynamic compensation that corrected the most significant ocular aberrations across a dilated 6 mm pupil. Camera sensitivity (up to 94 dB) was sufficient for observing reflections from essentially all neural layers of the retina. The 3-D resolution of the B-scans (3.0x3.0x5.7 microns) is the highest reported to date in the living human eye. It was sufficient to observe the interface between the inner and outer segments of individual photoreceptor cells, resolved in both lateral and axial dimensions. The waveguiding nature of the photoreceptors is suggestive at multiple reflective sites. Micro-movements of the retina during short burst imaging allow averaging to reduce speckle contrast, but they appear insufficient for significant speckle reduction.

  13. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  14. Adaptive optics for MOSAIC: design and performance of the wide(st)-field AO system for the E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Tim; Basden, Alastair; Buey, Tristan; Chemla, Fanny; Conan, Jean-Marc; Fitzsimons, Ewan; Fusco, Thierry; Gendron, Eric; Hammer, Francois; Jagourel, Pascal; Morel, Carine; Myers, Richard; Neichel, Benoit; Petit, Cyril; Rodrigues, Myriam; Rousset, Gérard

    2016-07-01

    MOSAIC is the proposed multiple-object spectrograph for the E-ELT that will utilise the widest possible field of view provided by the telescope. In terms of adaptive optics, there are two distinct operating modes required to meet the top-level science requirements. The MOSAIC High Multiplex Mode (HMM) requires either seeing-limited or GLAO correction within a 0.6 (NIR) and 0.9 (VIS) arcsecond sub-fields over the widest possible field for a few hundred objects. To achieve seeing limited operation whilst maintaining the maximum unvignetted field of view for scientific observation will require recreating some of the functionality present in the Pre-Focal Station relating to control of the E-ELT active optics. MOSAIC High Definition Mode Control (HDM) requires a 25% Ensquared Energy (EE) within 150mas in the H-band element for approximately 10 targets distributed across the full E-ELT field, implying the use of Multiple Object AO (MOAO). Initial studies have shown that to meet the EE requirements whilst maintaining high-sky coverage will require the combination of wavefront signals from both high-order NGS and LGS to provide a tomographic estimate for the correction to be applied to the open-loop MOAO DMs. In this paper we present the current MOSAIC AO design and provide the first performance estimates for the baseline instrument design. We then report on the various trade-offs that will be investigated throughout the course of the Phase A study, such as the requirement to mix NGS and LGS signals tomographically. Finally, we discuss how these will impact the AO architecture, the MOSAIC design and ultimately the scientific performance of this wide-field workhorse instrument at the E-ELT.

  15. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  16. Laboratory results and status update for Pathfinder, the LINC-NIRVANA NGS ground-layer AO subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopon, Derek; Conrad, Al; Bertram, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kürster, Martin; Berwein, Juergen; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Viotto, Valentina; Bergomi, Maria; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Baumeister, Harald; De Bonis, Fulvio; Hofferbert, Ralph; Brunelli, Alessandro; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Bizenberger, Peter; Briegel, Florian; Meschke, Daniel; Mohr, Lars; Zhang, Xianyu; Kittmann, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The full LINC-NIRVANA instrument will be one of the most complex ground-based astronomical systems ever built. It will consist of multiple subsystems, including two multi-conjugate ground layer AO systems (MCAO) that drive the LBT adaptive secondaries, two mid-high layer AO systems with their own Xynetics 349 actuator DM's, a fringe tracker, and a beam combiner. In order to mitigate risk, we take a modular approach to instrument testing and commissioning by decoupling these subsystems individually. The first subsystem tested on-sky will be one of the ground-layer AO systems, part of a test-bed known as the Pathfinder. The Pathfinder consists of a 12-star pyramid WFS that drives one of the LBT's adaptive secondaries, a support structure known as "The Foot," and the infrared test camera (IRTC), which is used for acquisition and alignment. The 12 guide stars are acquired by moveable arms called "star enlargers," each of which contains its own optical path. The Pathfinder will be shipped from MPIA in Heidelberg, Germany to the LBT mountain lab on Mt. Graham, Arizona in February. The system will be unpacked, assembled in the LBT clean room, and internally optically aligned. We present the results of our system tests, including star enlarger alignment and system alignment. We also present our immediate plans for on-sky closed loop tests on the LBT scheduled for early Fall. Because plans for all ELTs call for ground layer correction, the Pathfinder provides valuable preliminary information not only for the full LINC-NIRVANA system, but also for future advanced MCAO systems.

  17. Removal of surfactants nonylphenol ethoxylates from municipal sewage-comparison of an A/O process and biological aerated filters.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dawen; Li, Zhe; Guan, Junxue; Li, Yifan; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO, n=1 to 2) and nonylphenol (NP) in water and sludge samples were measured from a full scale sewage treatment plant (STP) with an Anaerobic/Oxic (A/O) and a Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) process. The A/O process was found to exhibit improved performance in comparison to the BAF process. Mean values of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO concentrations in influents from the STP were similar, ranging from 1.8 to 2.0×10(3)ngL(-1). In the A/O process, the removal efficiency of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO from the aqueous phase was 78%, 84%, and 89%, respectively. In contrast, the removal efficiencies of NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO were relatively lower for the BAF process, at 55%, 76%, and 79%, respectively. High concentrations of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO detected in the sludge samples had a maximum value of 2.7μgg(-1) dw, which indicates that improvement in the overall elimination of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO may be associated with adsorption by the sludge. To further investigate the fate of NP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the STP, our research assessed the degradation characteristics of NP by calculating its transformational loss in the STP. The results demonstrate that the quantity of NP measured in the effluent from the oxic unit increased by 32%, which indicates that NP1EO and NP2EO may undergo degradation in the oxic conditions.

  18. pAO1 of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and the spread of catabolic traits by horizontal gene transfer in gram-positive soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mihasan, Marius; Brandsch, Roderich

    2013-08-01

    The 165-kb megaplasmid pAO1 of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans carries two large gene clusters, one involved in nicotine catabolism (nic-gene cluster) and one in carbohydrate utilization (ch-gene cluster). Here, we propose that both gene clusters were acquired by A. nicotinovorans by horizontal gene transfer mediated by pAO1. Protein-protein blast search showed that none of the published Arthrobacter genomes contains nic-genes, but Rhodococcus opacus carries on its chromosome a nic-gene cluster highly similar to that of pAO1. Analysis of the nic-genes in the two species suggested a recombination event between their nic-gene clusters. Apparently, there was a gene exchange between pAO1, or a precursor plasmid, and a nic-gene cluster of an as yet unidentified Arthrobacter specie or other soil bacterium, possibly related to Rhodococcus, leading to the transfer by pAO1 of this catabolic trait to A. nicotinovorans. Analysis of the pAO1 ch-gene cluster revealed a virtually identical counterpart on the chromosome of Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans. Moreover, the sequence analysis of the genes flanking the ch-gene cluster suggested that it was acquired by pAO1 by Xer-related site directed recombination and transferred via the plasmid to A. nicotinovorans. The G+C content, the level of sequence identity, gene co-linearity of nic- and ch-gene clusters as well as the signs of recombination events clearly supports the notion of pAO1 and its precursor plasmids as vehicles in HGT among Gram + soil bacteria.

  19. THE FIRST CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK IMAGED IN SILHOUETTE AT VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS WITH ADAPTIVE OPTICS: MagAO IMAGING OF ORION 218-354

    SciTech Connect

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Wu, Ya-Lin; Morzinski, Katie M.; Hinz, Philip; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kopon, Derek; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2013-09-20

    We present high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging mode at Hα. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with AO and is among the first visible light AO results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity, and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically thin at Hα. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a function of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ∼10% of the total submillimeter derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000 μm spectral energy distribution with a ∼2-540 AU disk of the size, geometry, small versus large grain proportion, and radial mass profile indicated by our data. This inner radius is a factor of ∼15 larger than the sublimation radius of the disk, suggesting that it is likely cleared in the very interior.

  20. Property of Cu2O-CuO/ZSM-5 nanocomposite and degradation process of azo dye AO7 without sacrificial agent (H2O2).

    PubMed

    Kong, Wusong; Qu, Hongxia; Chen, Peng; Ma, Weihua; Xie, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cu2O-CuO/ZSM-5 nanocomposite was synthesized by the impregnation method, and its catalytic performance for the destruction of AO7 in aqueous solutions was investigated. The morphology, structure and surface element valence state of Cu2O-CuO/ZSM-5 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The operating conditions on the degradation of AO7 by Cu2O-CuO/ZSM-5, such as initial pH values, concentration of AO7 and catalyst dosage were investigated and optimized. The results showed that the sample had good catalytic activity for destruction of AO7 in the absence of a sacrificial agent (e.g. H2O2): it could degrade 91% AO7 in 140 min at 25 °C and was not restricted by the initial pH of the AO7 aqueous solutions. Cu2O-CuO/ZSM-5 exhibited stable catalytic activity with little loss after three successive runs. The total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies increased rapidly to 69.36% and 67.3% after 120 min of treatment by Cu2O-CuO/ZSM-5, respectively.

  1. The Triaxial Ellipsoid Diameters and Rotational Pole of Asteroid (9) Metis from AO at Gemini and Keck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Tamblyn, P.; Christou, J.; Carry, B.; Chapman, C.

    2012-10-01

    From Adaptive Optics (AO) images of (9) Metis at 14 epochs over 2008 December 8 and 9 at Gemini North, triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 218x175x112 km are derived with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x47 km. However, by including just two more AO images from Keck-II in June and August of 2003 in a global fit, the fitting uncertainty of the small axis drops by more than a third because of the lower sub-Earth latitude afforded in 2003 (-28°) compared to 2008 (+47°), and the triaxial ellipsoid diameters become 218x175x129 km with fitting uncertainties of 3x3x14 km. We have estimated the systematic uncertainty of our method to be 4.1, 2.7, and 3.8%, respectively, for the three diameters. These values were recently derived (Drummond et al., in prep) from a comparison of KOALA (Carry et al, Planetary and Space Science 66, 200-212) and our triaxial ellipsoid analysis of four asteroids. Quadratically adding this systematic error with the fitting error, the total uncertainty for Metis becomes 9x5x15 km. Concurrently, we find an EQJ2000 rotational pole at [RA; Dec]=[185° +19°] or in ecliptic coordinates, [λ ; β ]=[176° +20°] (ECJ2000).

  2. Simultaneous removal of nutrients from milking parlor wastewater using an AO2 sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a lab-scale, anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor ((AO)2 SBR) to simultaneously remove biological organics, nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy milking parlor wastewater was investigated in this study. Three hydraulic retention times (HRT = 2.1, 2.7, and 3.5 days) and three mixing-to-process time ratios (TM/TP = 0.43, 0.57, and 0.68) were evaluated as two controlling factors using a 3 × 3 experimental design to determine the optimal combination. Results showed that the HRT of 2.7 days with TM/TP = 0.57 was the best to achieve simultaneous nutrients removal for the influent with initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of about 2000 mg L(-1) (only 0.55 mg L(-1) NH4-N, < 0.1 mg L(-1) nitrate, and 0.14 mg L(-1) soluble phosphorus in the effluent). Good correlations between pH and ORP, and ORP and DO, were also obtained with correlation coefficients all higher than or equal to 0.975. These relationships could be used to develop real-time control strategies to optimize the duration of each operating phase in the (AO)2 SBR system to save energy and enhance treatment efficiency.

  3. Greater white and grey matter changes associated with early cannabis use in adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS).

    PubMed

    James, A; Hough, M; James, S; Winmill, L; Burge, L; Nijhawan, S; Matthews, P M; Zarei, M

    2011-05-01

    Cannabis use is associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia, however, its specific long-term effect on the structure of the brain of adolescent-onset schizophrenic patients remains unclear. To study cognitive and structural (grey and white matter) changes in patients with adolescent-onset schizophrenia (AOS) with early cannabis use (CAN+ve) (more than 3 times/week for at least 6 months) and without cannabis use (CAN-ve) versus controls. An optimised voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI study of 32 adolescents with DSM IV schizophrenia-16 CAN+ve and 16 CAN-ve, and 28 healthy adolescents. Compared to CAN-ve subjects, CAN+ve subjects showed GM density loss in temporal fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, ventral striatum, right middle temporal gyrus, insular cortex, precuneus, right paracingulate gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left postcentral gyrus, lateral occipital cortex and cerebellum. Similar group comparison showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in particular in brain stem, internal capsule, corona radiata, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in CAN+ve patients. No cognitive differences were apparent between CAN+ve and CAN-ve subjects, and both were impaired relative to controls. Cannabis use in early adolescence increases WM and GM deficits in AOS, but does not appear to increase the cognitive deficit associated with this illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. English vowel production by native Mandarin speakers: Influences of AoA, LoR, education, perception, and orthography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Yu, Yan Helen

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates relations among several factors that are expected to influence vowel production in second language learning, including AoA, LoR, L2 and general education, L2 perception, and orthography. Vowel production will be examined through duration and formant frequency measurements and listener identification. The results will be analyzed in relation to educational background and language use. Among the educational factors examined are general education level, English education (in their native land and/or New York City), and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin (Pinyin or Zhuyin). The language-use factors include AoA, LoR, language spoken at work and at home, and perception of English vowels. The hypotheses addressed include: (1) educational background, language use, and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin all influence L2 English speakers perception and production of English vowels; (2) the more accurately an L2 listener discriminates a vowel contrast, the more distinctly he/she produces that contrast.

  5. Expression of Pisum sativum PsAO3 gene, which encodes an aldehyde oxidase utilizing abscisic aldehyde, is induced under progressively but not rapidly imposed drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Sobczak, Mirosław

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) catalyzes the final step of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, which is the oxidation of abscisic aldehyde (ABAld) to ABA. Gene expression analyses indicate that the stress-induced Pisum sativum PsAOγ isoform, which effectively uses ABAld as a substrate, is encoded by the PsAO3 gene. PsAO3 was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant PsAO3 protein revealed substrate preferences highly similar to the native PsAOγ protein present in the pea leaves and roots. Both proteins prefer indole-3-aldehyde and naphthaldehyde as substrates, although high activities against abscisic aldehyde and citral were also observed. The Km values of PsAO3 for naphthaldehyde and abscisic aldehyde (4.6 and 5.1 μM, respectively) were the lowest among the substrates tested. PsAO3 activity was almost completely inhibited by potassium cyanide, diphenyleneiodonium, and methanol. Rapidly imposed drought stress did not increase the level of PsAO3 mRNA or activity of any AO isoform, although an enhanced ABA accumulation and induction of PsNCED2 and -3 (9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase; EC 1.13.11.51) expression, both in the pea roots and leaves, was observed. During a progressively induced drought, the level of PsAO3 transcript and PsAOγ activity increased significantly in the roots and leaves, whereas ABA accumulation occurred only in the leaves where it was accompanied by induction of the PsNCED3 expression. Therefore, we suppose that next to NCED, also AO (mainly PsAOγ) might be involved in regulation of the drought-induced ABA synthesis. However, while the "constitutive activity" of PsAOγ is sufficient for the fast generation of ABA under rapid drought stress, the enhanced PsAOγ activity is required for the progressive and long-term ABA accumulation in the leaves under progressive drought stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Insights into Ubiquitination from the Unique Clamp-like Binding of the RING E3 AO7 to the E2 UbcH5B*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengjian; Liang, Yu-He; Mariano, Jennifer; Metzger, Meredith B.; Stringer, Daniel K.; Hristova, Ventzislava A.; Li, Jess; Randazzo, Paul A.; Tsai, Yien Che; Ji, Xinhua; Weissman, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    RING proteins constitute the largest class of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Unlike most RINGs, AO7 (RNF25) binds the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UbcH5B (UBE2D2), with strikingly high affinity. We have defined, by co-crystallization, the distinctive means by which AO7 binds UbcH5B. AO7 contains a structurally unique UbcH5B binding region (U5BR) that is connected by an 11-amino acid linker to its RING domain, forming a clamp surrounding the E2. The U5BR interacts extensively with a region of UbcH5B that is distinct from both the active site and the RING-interacting region, referred to as the backside of the E2. An apparent paradox is that the high-affinity binding of the AO7 clamp to UbcH5B, which is dependent on the U5BR, decreases the rate of ubiquitination. We establish that this is a consequence of blocking the stimulatory, non-covalent, binding of ubiquitin to the backside of UbcH5B. Interestingly, when non-covalent backside ubiquitin binding cannot occur, the AO7 clamp now enhances the rate of ubiquitination. The high-affinity binding of the AO7 clamp to UbcH5B has also allowed for the co-crystallization of previously described and functionally important RING mutants at the RING-E2 interface. We show that mutations having marked effects on function only minimally affect the intermolecular interactions between the AO7 RING and UbcH5B, establishing a high degree of complexity in activation through the RING-E2 interface. PMID:26475854

  7. H-alpha as a Probe of Very Low-mass Planets: The GAPplanetS Survey With the MagAO System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L.; MagAO Team

    2014-03-01

    We utilized the new high-order 585 actuator Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution visible light images of young Transitional Disk with MagAO's VisAO science camera. In the median seeing conditions of the 6.5m Magellan telescope (0.5 - 0.7''), we find MagAO delivers 24-19% Strehl at Ha (0.656 mm). We detect a faint companion embedded in this young transitional disk system at just 86.3±1.9 mas (~12 AU) from the star. The companion is detected in both Ha and a continuum filter (Dmag=6.33±0.20 mag at Ha and 7.50±0.25 mag in the continuum filter). The Ha emission from the ~0.25 solar mass companion (EW=180 Angstroms) implies a mass accretion rate of ~5.9x10-10 Msun/yr, and a total accretion luminosity of 1.2% Lsun. Assuming a similar accretion rate, we estimate that a 1 Jupiter mass gas giant could have considerably better (50-1,000x) planet/star contrasts at Ha than at H band (COND models) for a range of optical extinctions (3.4-0 mag). We suggest that ~0.5-5 Mjup extrasolar planets in their gas accretion phase could be much more luminous at Ha than in the NIR. This is the motivation for our new MagAO GAPplanetS survey for directly imaging lowmass exoplanets in the gaps of transitional disks in the light of H-alpha with MagAO's unique SDI AO camera.

  8. A Survey of the High Order Multiplicity of Nearby Solar-type Binary Stars with Robo-AO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Reed L.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 103.5 to 105 days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 106 to 107.5 days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  9. A SURVEY OF THE HIGH ORDER MULTIPLICITY OF NEARBY SOLAR-TYPE BINARY STARS WITH Robo-AO

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Reed L.; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.

    2015-01-20

    We conducted a survey of nearby binary systems composed of main sequence stars of spectral types F and G in order to improve our understanding of the hierarchical nature of multiple star systems. Using Robo-AO, the first robotic adaptive optics instrument, we collected high angular resolution images with deep and well-defined detection limits in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey i' band. A total of 695 components belonging to 595 systems were observed. We prioritized observations of faint secondary components with separations over 10'' to quantify the still poorly constrained frequency of their subsystems. Of the 214 secondaries observed, 39 contain such subsystems; 19 of those were discovered with Robo-AO. The selection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods from 10{sup 3.5} to 10{sup 5} days is 0.12 ± 0.03, the same as the frequency of such companions to the primary. Half of the secondary pairs belong to quadruple systems where the primary is also a close pair, showing that the presence of subsystems in both components of the outer binary is correlated. The relatively large abundance of 2+2 quadruple systems is a new finding, and will require more exploration of the formation mechanism of multiple star systems. We also targeted close binaries with periods less than 100 yr, searching for their distant tertiary components, and discovered 17 certain and 2 potential new triples. In a subsample of 241 close binaries, 71 have additional outer companions. The overall frequency of tertiary components is not enhanced, compared to all (non-binary) targets, but in the range of outer periods from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7.5} days (separations on the order of 500 AU), the frequency of tertiary components is 0.16 ± 0.03, exceeding the frequency of similar systems among all targets (0.09) by almost a factor of two. Measurements of binary stars with Robo-AO allowed us to compute first orbits for 9 pairs and to improve orbits of another 11 pairs.

  10. A1Ao-ATP synthase of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium couples sodium ions for ATP synthesis under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Duncan G G; Ferguson, Scott A; Dey, Debjit; Schröder, Katja; Aung, Htin Lin; Carbone, Vincenzo; Attwood, Graeme T; Ronimus, Ron S; Meier, Thomas; Janssen, Peter H; Cook, Gregory M

    2011-11-18

    An unresolved question in the bioenergetics of methanogenic archaea is how the generation of proton-motive and sodium-motive forces during methane production is used to synthesize ATP by the membrane-bound A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase, with both proton- and sodium-coupled enzymes being reported in methanogens. To address this question, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase (MbbrA(1)A(o)) of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, a predominant methanogen in the rumen. Growth of M. ruminantium M1 was inhibited by protonophores and sodium ionophores, demonstrating that both ion gradients were essential for growth. To study the role of these ions in ATP synthesis, the ahaHIKECFABD operon encoding the MbbrA(1)A(o) was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DK8 (Δatp) and purified yielding a 9-subunit protein with an SDS-stable c oligomer. Analysis of the c subunit amino acid sequence revealed that it consisted of four transmembrane helices, and each hairpin displayed a complete Na(+)-binding signature made up of identical amino acid residues. The purified MbbrA(1)A(o) was stimulated by sodium ions, and Na(+) provided pH-dependent protection against inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not tributyltin chloride. ATP synthesis in inverted membrane vesicles lacking sodium ions was driven by a membrane potential that was sensitive to cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not to monensin. ATP synthesis could not be driven by a chemical gradient of sodium ions unless a membrane potential was imposed. ATP synthesis under these conditions was sensitive to monensin but not cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. These data suggest that the M. ruminantium M1 A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase exhibits all the properties of a sodium-coupled enzyme, but it is also able to use protons to drive ATP synthesis under conditions that favor proton coupling, such as low pH and low levels of sodium ions.

  11. A novel mammalian expression system derived from components coordinating nicotine degradation in arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1.

    PubMed

    Malphettes, Laetitia; Weber, Cornelia C; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Schoenmakers, Ronald G; Aubel, Dominique; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-07-07

    We describe the design and detailed characterization of 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic)-adjustable transgene expression (NICE) systems engineered for lentiviral transduction and in vivo modulation of angiogenic responses. Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 encodes a unique catabolic machinery on its plasmid pAO1, which enables this Gram-positive soil bacterium to use the tobacco alkaloid nicotine as the exclusive carbon source. The 6HNic-responsive repressor-operator (HdnoR-O(NIC)) interaction, controlling 6HNic oxidase production in A.nicotinovorans pAO1, was engineered for generic 6HNic-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells. HdnoR fused to different transactivation domains retained its O(NIC)-binding capacity in mammalian cells and reversibly adjusted transgene transcription from chimeric O(NIC)-containing promoters (P(NIC); O(NIC) fused to a minimal eukaryotic promoter [P(min)]) in a 6HNic-responsive manner. The combination of transactivators containing various transactivation domains with promoters differing in the number of operator modules as well as in their relative inter-O(NIC) and/or O(NIC)-P(min) spacing revealed steric constraints influencing overall NICE regulation performance in mammalian cells. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for NICE-controlled expression of the human glycoprotein secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) showed high SEAP serum levels in the absence of regulating 6HNic. 6HNic was unable to modulate SEAP expression, suggesting that this nicotine derivative exhibits control-incompatible pharmacokinetics in mice. However, chicken embryos transduced with HIV-1-derived self-inactivating lentiviral particles transgenic for NICE-adjustable expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF121) showed graded 6HNic response following administration of different 6HNic concentrations. Owing to the clinically inert and highly water-soluble compound 6HNic, NICE-adjustable transgene control

  12. ROSAT guest investigator program (AO-1). On a search for coronal x ray emissions from white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1992-01-01

    We have suggested that cool magnetic white dwarfs may be sources of X-ray coronal emission and proposed several prominent candidates for this emission. One of these candidates (EG 250) was approved for the C-category observation by the National and International Committee and was observed by ROSAT on April 17, 1991. Unfortunately, the granted exposure time (1071 s) was much shorter than that which was required by theoretical predictions to observe coronal X-ray emission from this object. The tape containing the data was send to us in November 1991. Since then we have analyzed the data visiting the ROSAT Science Center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The analysis of the data taken during this short observation show, as expected, no X-rays. It is our hope that EG 250 will be observed again during the AO-2 phase of pointed observations, as 10,000 s of observing time was granted to V. Trimble for the C-category observation of this star. We have a close contact with Dr. Trimble regarding this matter. Because our all targets (GD 90, KUV 2316-123 and GD 356) proposed for the observation during the AO-2 phase of pointed observations have been approved by the National and International Committee, we have installed the required software at NASA/MSFC to be able to carry out the data analysis in Huntsville. Two of our targets have already been observed (KUV 2316-123 was observed on Dec. 3, 1991 with 10,000 s of the exposure time, and GD 356 was observed on Jan 4, 1992 with 5,000 s of the exposure time). We just received the data and will begin the analysis soon. The results of our analysis will be reported to the scientific community by publishing papers in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Our intention is to submit a paper when the analysis of the data taken during AO2 is completed. The data taken during the observation of EG 250 will be a part of this paper.

  13. Final performance and lesson-learned of SAXO, the VLT-SPHERE extreme AO: from early design to on-sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Petit, C.; Costille, A.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Kasper, M.; Suarez, M.; Soenke, C.; Fedrigo, E.; Downing, M.; Baudoz, P.; Sevin, A.; Perret, D.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Puget, P.; Feautrier, F.; Rochat, S.; Moulin, T.; Deboulbé, A.; Hugot, E.; Vigan, A.; Mawet, D.; Girard, J.; Hubin, N.

    2014-08-01

    The extreme AO system, SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation), is the heart of the SPHERE system, feeding the scientific instruments with flat wave front corrected from all the atmospheric turbulence and internal defects. We will present the final performance of SAXO obtained during the instrument AIT in Europe as well as the very first on-sky results. The main requirements and system characteristics will be recalled and the full AO loop performance will be quantified and compared to original specifications. It will be demonstrated that SAXO meets or even exceeds (especially its limit magnitude and its jitter residuals) its challenging requirements (more than 90% of SR in H band and a 3 mas residual jitter). Finally, after 10 years of AO developments, from early design to final on-sky implementations, some critical system aspects as well as some important lesson-learned will be presented in the perspective of the future generation of complex AO systems for VLTs and ELTs.

  14. Anomalous pressure dependence of the superconducting transition temperature of beta-pyrochlore AOs2O6 oxides.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, T; Takeshita, N; Terakura, C; Takagi, H; Tokura, Y; Yonezawa, S; Muraoka, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2005-10-14

    High-pressure effects on the superconducting transitions of beta-pyrochlore oxide superconductors AOs(2)O(6) (A = Cs,Rb,K) are studied by measuring resistivity under high pressures up to 10 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature T(c) first increases with increasing pressure in every compound and then exhibits a broad maximum at 7.6 K (6 GPa), 8.2 K (2 GPa), and 10 K (0.6 GPa) for A = Cs, Rb, and K, respectively. Finally, the superconductivity is suppressed completely at a critical pressure near 7 GPa and 6 GPa for A = Rb and K and probably above 10 GPa for A = Cs. Characteristic changes in the coefficient A of the T(2) term in resistivity and residual resistivity are observed, both of which are synchronized with the corresponding change in T(c).

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 LC of HD 3167 and Robo-AO image (Vanderburg+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, A.; Bieryla, A.; Duev, D. A.; Jensen-Clem, R.; Latham, D. W.; Mayo, A. W.; Baranec, C.; Berlind, P.; Kulkarni, S.; Law, N. M.; Nieberding, M. N.; Riddle, R.; Maissa, S.

    2016-11-01

    Kepler observed HD 3167 between 2016 January 3 and March 23 during Campaign 8 of its K2 mission. We observed HD 3167 with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5m telescope at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, AZ. We acquired one spectrum with a spectral resolving power of R=44000 on 2016 July 11. We observed HD 3167 with the Robo-AO adaptive optics system installed at the 2.1m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We observed HD 3167 with an i'-band filter on 2016 July 11, taking images at a rate of 8.6Hz for a total of 120s. (2 data files).

  16. A new Huffmanela species, H. schouteni sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from flying fishes in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Campbell, B G

    1991-01-01

    A new nematode species, Huffmanela schouteni sp. n., has been established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters (adult nematodes are unknown). The dark-shelled eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the abdominal cavity, serose covers of internal organs and in the liver of the flying fishes Hirundichthys affinis Günther (type host) and Cypselurus cyanopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes in Curaçao. The eggs of H. schouteni sp. n. differ from those in other congeneric species mainly in the absence of small spines on the surface of the transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, measurements (size of eggs 0.069-0.075 x 0.027-0.030 mm) and their localization in the host. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology has been provided.

  17. Electrothermal Annealing (ETA) Method to Enhance the Electrical Performance of Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor (AOS) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Kim, Eungtaek; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jun-Young; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Jun, Sungwoo; Park, Sang-Hee K; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    An electro-thermal annealing (ETA) method, which uses an electrical pulse of less than 100 ns, was developed to improve the electrical performance of array-level amorphous-oxide-semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The practicality of the ETA method was experimentally demonstrated with transparent amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs. The overall electrical performance metrics were boosted by the proposed method: up to 205% for the trans-conductance (gm), 158% for the linear current (Ilinear), and 206% for the subthreshold swing (SS). The performance enhancement were interpreted by X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), showing a reduction of oxygen vacancies in a-IGZO after the ETA. Furthermore, by virtue of the extremely short operation time (80 ns) of ETA, which neither provokes a delay of the mandatory TFTs operation such as addressing operation for the display refresh nor demands extra physical treatment, the semipermanent use of displays can be realized.

  18. Complex Spiral Structure in the HD 100546 Transitional Disk as Revealed by GPI and MagAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Rameau, Julien; Dong, Ruobing; Pueyo, Laurent; Close, Laird M.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fung, Jeffrey; Leonard, Clare; Macintosh, Bruce; Males, Jared R.; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Mullen, Wyatt; Perrin, Marshall; Spiro, Elijah; Wang, Jason; Ammons, S. Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Barman, Travis; Bulger, Joanna; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Cotten, Tara; De Rosa, Robert J.; Doyon, Rene; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Metchev, Stanimir; Nielsen, Eric L.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Vega, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2017-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared high-contrast images of the transitional disk HD 100546 taken with the Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI data include both polarized intensity and total intensity imagery, and MagAO data are taken in Simultaneous Differential Imaging mode at Hα. The new GPI H-band total intensity data represent a significant enhancement in sensitivity and field rotation compared to previous data sets and enable a detailed exploration of substructure in the disk. The data are processed with a variety of differential imaging techniques (polarized, angular, reference, and simultaneous differential imaging) in an attempt to identify the disk structures that are most consistent across wavelengths, processing techniques, and algorithmic parameters. The inner disk cavity at 15 au is clearly resolved in multiple data sets, as are a variety of spiral features. While the cavity and spiral structures are identified at levels significantly distinct from the neighboring regions of the disk under several algorithms and with a range of algorithmic parameters, emission at the location of HD 100546 “c” varies from point-like under aggressive algorithmic parameters to a smooth continuous structure with conservative parameters, and is consistent with disk emission. Features identified in the HD 100546 disk bear qualitative similarity to computational models of a moderately inclined two-armed spiral disk, where projection effects and wrapping of the spiral arms around the star result in a number of truncated spiral features in forward-modeled images.

  19. On-sky Performance Analysis of the Vector Apodizing Phase Plate Coronagraph on MagAO/Clio2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Gilles P. P. L.; Snik, Frans; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Keller, Christoph U.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Codona, Johanan L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hornburg, Kathryn J.; Brickson, Leandra L.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the performance of a vector apodizing phase plate coronagraph that operates over a wavelength range of 2–5 μm and is installed in MagAO/Clio2 at the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The coronagraph manipulates the phase in the pupil to produce three beams yielding two coronagraphic point-spread functions (PSFs) and one faint leakage PSF. The phase pattern is imposed through the inherently achromatic geometric phase, enabled by liquid crystal technology and polarization techniques. The coronagraphic optic is manufactured using a direct-write technique for precise control of the liquid crystal pattern and multitwist retarders for achromatization. By integrating a linear phase ramp to the coronagraphic phase pattern, two separated coronagraphic PSFs are created with a single pupil-plane optic, which makes it robust and easy to install in existing telescopes. The two coronagraphic PSFs contain a 180° dark hole on each side of a star, and these complementary copies of the star are used to correct the seeing halo close to the star. To characterize the coronagraph, we collected a data set of a bright (mL = 0–1) nearby star with ∼1.5 hr of observing time. By rotating and optimally scaling one PSF and subtracting it from the other PSF, we see a contrast improvement by 1.46 magnitudes at 3.5 λ /D. With regular angular differential imaging at 3.9 μm, the MagAO vector apodizing phase plate coronagraph delivers a 5σ {{Δ }}{mag} contrast of 8.3 (={10}-3.3) at 2 λ /D and 12.2 (={10}-4.8) at 3.5 λ /D.

  20. The First AO Classification System for Fractures of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Rationale, Methodological Background, Developmental Process, and Objectives.

    PubMed

    Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Di Ieva, Antonio; Prein, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    Validated trauma classification systems are the sole means to provide the basis for reliable documentation and evaluation of patient care, which will open the gateway to evidence-based procedures and healthcare in the coming years. With the support of AO Investigation and Documentation, a classification group was established to develop and evaluate a comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. Blueprints for fracture classification in the major constituents of the human skull were drafted and then evaluated by a multispecialty group of experienced CMF surgeons and a radiologist in a structured process during iterative agreement sessions. At each session, surgeons independently classified the radiological imaging of up to 150 consecutive cases with CMF fractures. During subsequent review meetings, all discrepancies in the classification outcome were critically appraised for clarification and improvement until consensus was reached. The resulting CMF classification system is structured in a hierarchical fashion with three levels of increasing complexity. The most elementary level 1 simply distinguishes four fracture locations within the skull: mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). Levels 2 and 3 focus on further defining the fracture locations and for fracture morphology, achieving an almost individual mapping of the fracture pattern. This introductory article describes the rationale for the comprehensive AO CMF classification system, discusses the methodological framework, and provides insight into the experiences and interactions during the evaluation process within the core groups. The details of this system in terms of anatomy and levels are presented in a series of focused tutorials illustrated with case examples in this special issue of the Journal.

  1. The First AO Classification System for Fractures of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton: Rationale, Methodological Background, Developmental Process, and Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Audigé, Laurent; Cornelius, Carl-Peter; Ieva, Antonio Di; Prein, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Validated trauma classification systems are the sole means to provide the basis for reliable documentation and evaluation of patient care, which will open the gateway to evidence-based procedures and healthcare in the coming years. With the support of AO Investigation and Documentation, a classification group was established to develop and evaluate a comprehensive classification system for craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures. Blueprints for fracture classification in the major constituents of the human skull were drafted and then evaluated by a multispecialty group of experienced CMF surgeons and a radiologist in a structured process during iterative agreement sessions. At each session, surgeons independently classified the radiological imaging of up to 150 consecutive cases with CMF fractures. During subsequent review meetings, all discrepancies in the classification outcome were critically appraised for clarification and improvement until consensus was reached. The resulting CMF classification system is structured in a hierarchical fashion with three levels of increasing complexity. The most elementary level 1 simply distinguishes four fracture locations within the skull: mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). Levels 2 and 3 focus on further defining the fracture locations and for fracture morphology, achieving an almost individual mapping of the fracture pattern. This introductory article describes the rationale for the comprehensive AO CMF classification system, discusses the methodological framework, and provides insight into the experiences and interactions during the evaluation process within the core groups. The details of this system in terms of anatomy and levels are presented in a series of focused tutorials illustrated with case examples in this special issue of the Journal. PMID:25489387

  2. Complex AO type C3 distal femur fractures: Results after fixation with a lateral locked plate using modified swashbuckler approach

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anuj; Kiyawat, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Background: Complex AO type C3 fractures of the distal femur are challenging injuries, fraught with complications such as malunion and stiffness. We prospectively evaluated a consecutive series of patients with complex AO type C3 distal femur fractures to determine the clinicoradiological outcome after fixation with a single locked plate using modified swashbuckler approach. Materials and Methods: 12 patients with C3 type distal femur fractures treated with a lateral locked plate, using a modified swashbuckler approach, were included in the study. The extraarticular component was managed either by compression plating or bridge plating (transarticular approach and retrograde plate osteosynthesis) depending on the fracture pattern. Primary bone grafting was not done in any case. The clinical outcome at 1 year was determined using the Knee Society Score (KSS). The presence of any secondary osteoarthritis in the knee joint was noted at final followup. Results: All fractures united at a mean of 14.3 ± 4.7 weeks (range 6–26 weeks). There were no significant complications such as nonunion, deep infection, and implant failure. One of the patients underwent secondary bone grafting at 3 months. The mean range of motion of the knee was 120° ± 14.8° (range 105°–150°). Seven patients had excellent, three patients had good and two patients had a fair outcome according to the KSS at 1 year. At a mean followup of 17.6 months, three patients showed radiological evidence of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee joint. However, only one of these patients was symptomatic. Conclusion: The results of complex C3 type distal femur fractures, fixed with a single lateral locked plate using a modified swashbuckler approach, are encouraging, with a majority of patients achieving good to excellent outcome at 1 year. PMID:28216747

  3. Robo-AO Kitt Peak: status of the system and deployment of a sub-electron readnoise IR camera to detect low-mass companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Maïssa; Baranec, Christoph; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Riddle, Reed; Duev, Dmitry; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Law, Nicholas M.

    2016-07-01

    We have started an initial three-year deployment of Robo-AO at the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona as of November 2015. We report here on the project status and two new developments with the Robo-AO KP system: the commissioning of a sub-electron readnoise SAPHIRA near-infrared camera, which will allow us to widen the scope of possible targets to low-mass stellar and substellar objects; and, performance analysis and tuning of the adaptive optics system, which will improve the sensitivity to these objects. Commissioning of the near-infrared camera and optimizing the AO performance occur in parallel with ongoing visible-light science programs.

  4. Use of the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M H; Langley Hobbs, S J

    2005-01-01

    The use of the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs was evaluated in a retrospective study. All of the 14 dogs in the study weighed 3.5 kg or less. The AO mini 'T'-plate was used as the final means of fixation in all cases. It was used as the primary form of stabilisation in ten dogs, and in four dogs it was used at revision surgery. In all cases, of the fractures healed. Return to function was graded 'as excellent' in six cases, 'good' in four and 'fair' in two. Two dogs were lost to long-term follow up. It was concluded that the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate is a suitable choice of implant for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs, especially when the distal fragment is very small.

  5. Promoter isolation and characterization of GhAO-like1, a Gossypium hirsutum gene similar to multicopper oxidases that is highly expressed in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Lambret-Frotté, Julia; Artico, Sinara; Muniz Nardeli, Sarah; Fonseca, Fernando; Brilhante Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fatima; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most economically important cultivated crops. It is the major source of natural fiber for the textile industry and an important target for genetic modification for both biotic stress and herbicide tolerance. Therefore, the characterization of genes and regulatory regions that might be useful for genetic transformation is indispensable. The isolation and characterization of new regulatory regions is of great importance to drive transgene expression in genetically modified crops. One of the major drawbacks in cotton production is pest damage; therefore, the most promising, cost-effective, and sustainable method for pest control is the development of genetically resistant cotton lines. Considering this scenario, our group isolated and characterized the promoter region of a MCO (multicopper oxidase) from Gossypium hirsutum, named GhAO-like1 (ascorbate oxidase-like1). The quantitative expression, together with the in vivo characterization of the promoter region reveals that GhAO-like1 has a flower- and fruit-specific expression pattern. The GUS activity is mainly observed in stamens, as expected considering that the GhAO-like1 regulatory sequence is enriched in cis elements, which have been characterized as a target of reproductive tissue specific transcription factors. Both histological and quantitative analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana have confirmed flower (mainly in stamens) and fruit expression of GhAO-like1. In the present paper, we isolated and characterized both in silico and in vivo the promoter region of the GhAO-like1 gene. The regulatory region of GhAO-like1 might be useful to confer tissue-specific expression in genetically modified plants.

  6. A biomechanical comparison of headless tapered variable pitch and AO cortical bone screws for fixation of a simulated slab fracture in equine third carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Aloisio C D; Galuppo, Larry D; Taylor, Kenneth T; Jensen, David G; Stover, Susan M

    2003-01-01

    To compare the mechanical shear strengths and stiffnesses obtained from in vitro testing of a simulated complete third carpal bone (C3) frontal plane radial facet slab fracture (osteotomy) stabilized with either a 4/5 Acutrak (AT) compression screw or a 4.5-mm AO cortical bone (AO) screw inserted in lag fashion. Drilling, tapping, and screw insertion torques, forces, and times also were compared between AT and AO implants. In vitro biomechanical assessment of site preparation, screw insertion, and shear failure test variables of bone screw stabilized simulated C3 slab fracture in paired cadaveric equine carpi. Eight pairs of cadaveric equine C3 without orthopedic abnormalities. Standardized simulated C3 slab fractures were repaired with either AO or AT screws (AO/C3 and AT/C3 groups, respectively). Drilling, tapping, and screw insertion torques, forces, and times were measured with a materials testing machine for each screw type. Repaired specimens were tested in axially oriented shear until failure. Paired Students t-tests were used to assess differences between site preparation, screw insertion, and shear testing variables. Significance was set at P <.05. There were no significant differences in bone fragment measurements of the standardized simulated C3 slab fractures created for AO or AT screws. There were no significant differences for mean and maximum drilling torques; however, the tapered AT drill had greater maximum drilling force compared with the 3.2-mm and 4.5-mm AO drill bits. Mean insertion torque and force measured from the self-tapping AT screw were not significantly different compared with the 4.5-mm AO tap. There were no significant differences in maximum screw torque among constructs. Total procedure time was significantly longer for the AT group (5.8 +/- 1.6 minutes) compared with the AO group (2.9 +/- 1.1 minutes; P =.001). AT stabilized specimens had significantly greater mean +/- SD initial shear stiffness (3.64 +/- 1.08 kN/mm) than AO

  7. Monitoring Io volcanic activity using the Keck AO system: 2-5μm sunlit and eclipse observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; de Pater, I.; Le Mignant, D.; Roe, H. G.; Fusco, T.; Graham, J. R.; Prange, R.; Macintosh, B.

    2002-12-01

    Galileo provided us with spectacular images of the volcanically active Io moon over the last 7 years, but we understand little about the physical processes occurring on this moon. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the long time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. Our group started a monitoring program of Io's volcanic activity using the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera NIRC2. Here we report groundbased observations of Io conducted in December 2001 (UT), at 0.05" resolution (120-140 km on Io) in K', i.e., ~4 times better than HST and than global Galileo NIMS images. Our 1-5 micron data enable us to determine the temperature of individual hot spots, a key parameter for geophysical/volcanic flow models. We will present: i) Io in reflected sunlight in K', L', and M bands. We used Io itself as reference source for the wavefront sensor of the AO system. Our L and M-band images show both reflected sunlight and thermal emission from volcanic hot spots. The contrast of images is enhanced using the MISTRAL deconvolution algorithme. The 12 images taken on 10 days provides a complete survey of Io surface during one full rotation. 26 active hot spots were detected on the entire surface in L band (3.8μm), approximatively three times more in M band (4.7μm). One active hot spot is seen in K band (2.2μm) in the Pele area. A study of individual hot spot (temperature, emission area, nature) will be presented. ii) Io in eclipse. While Io is in Jupiter's shadow, it is invisible to the wavefront sensor, but its hot spots are easily visible in the near-infrared. We imaged Io during the 18 Dec. 2001 eclipse using Ganymede (30" from Io, moving relative to Io at ~0.5"/min) as a reference source. A dozen of faint hot spots are detected at both K' and L', allowing temperature estimates for each of them. Keck Science team is composed of

  8. AO-assisted observations of G61.48+0.09. Massive star formation at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puga, E.; Alvarez, C.; Feldt, M.; Henning, Th.; Wolf, S.

    2004-10-01

    The characterisation of the stellar populations of ultra-compact HII (UCHII{}) regions is one of the key means of understanding the formation and evolution of massive stars. Adaptive Optics (AO) assisted near-infrared (NIR) observations provide sufficient resolution and sensitivity to detect such populations at moderate extinction values. We present NIR high-resolution observations of G61.48+0.09, a morphologically complex UCHII region with two components, whose accessible stellar content in the NIR has been widely studied before. A polarimetric map in the K' band, as well as H2(1-0) S(1) and Brγ narrow-band images of the region have been obtained with the AO system ALFA at the Calar Alto Observatory's 3.5 m telescope. We also present high-resolution imaging of the same region in the L' band with NAOS+CONICA at the VLT (UT4). The study of the nebular scattered light points to an internal-illumination model for the eastern component (B2). This model is confirmed by the detection of a point-like source in the L'-band data. In the western component (B1) the observed NIR colours of star 82 are consistent with spectral types BIa or early OV, while star 83 is reproduced by a B0V. Therefore, we identify these objects as the main detected ionising sources. However, in terms of illumination, our polarimetric map indicates that these two stars are not the dominating illuminators of the reflection nebula. Illumination from multiple sources (possibly still undetected) seems to influence the polarisation pattern for this component. Geometric considerations in the calculation of the energetics of this region, combined with the knowledge of the detected stellar content, also points to the presence of other ionising sources. Our study reinforces the hypothesis that there is a champagne flow towards the south-west part of the region. Visiting Astronomer, German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the

  9. Community participation in mosquito breeding site control: an interdisciplinary mixed methods study in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Elsinga, Jelte; van der Veen, Henry T; Gerstenbluth, Izzy; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Arie; Grobusch, Martin P; Tami, Adriana; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-09-19

    As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but by-and-large neglected topic. In June and July 2015, a cross-sectional mixed methods study applying a survey questionnaire (response rate of 82.5%; n = 339), in-depth interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 7; 50 participants) was performed in Curaçao. The study was designed based on an integrated theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants showed a good knowledge of, and a high-level performance of mosquito breeding site control (MBSC) practices. Personal protection against mosquitoes (e.g. topical repellents) was perceived as relatively less effective thus practiced to lower extent compared to MBSC practices (i.e. larval source management). A lower intention to perform MBSC was independently associated with: (i) satisfaction on governmental MBSC (P = 0.012); (ii) barriers to perform MBSC practices, i.e. 'Government doesn't control other breeding sites' (P = 0.005), 'Don't know how to control breeding sites' (P = 0.041), and 'a mosquito does not transmit dengue' (P = 0.016), (iii) attitudes towards MBSC (P = 0.001) and self-efficacy (person's perceived ability to act) to perform MBSC (P = 0.002). Mixed-methods evidence highlights three possible ways of improving community participation in MBSC. First, it highlights the need for ongoing media coverage, targeting (i) communities' perceptions on transmission routes of dengue and chikungunya, and (ii) presence of car tires in yards. Secondly, it shows that promotion of governmental activities in MBSC can enhance MBSC of communities, if people develop a sense of responsibility to perform MBSC at their own properties. Thirdly, this study describes

  10. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 EL-1994-00311 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray D05 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are clearly visible on the upper and lower tray flanges. The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground between the

  11. SRT Evaluation of AIRS Version-6.02 and Version-6.02 AIRS Only (6.02 AO) Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula; Blaisdell, John

    2012-01-01

    Version-6 contains a number of significant improvements over Version-5. This report compares Version-6 products resulting from the advances listed below to those from Version-5. 1. Improved methodology to determine skin temperature (T(sub s)) and spectral emissivity (Epsilon(sub v)). 2. Use of Neural-net start-up state. 3. Improvements which decrease the spurious negative Version-5 trend in tropospheric temperatures. 4. Improved QC methodology. Version-6 uses separate QC thresholds optimized for Data Assimilation (QC=0) and Climate applications (QC=0,1) respectively. 5. Channel-by-channel clear-column radiances R-hat(sub tau) QC flags. 6. Improved cloud parameter retrieval algorithm. 7. Improved OLR RTA. Our evaluation compared V6.02 and V6.02 AIRS Only (V6.02 AO) Quality Controlled products with those of Version-5.0. In particular we evaluated surface skin temperature T(sub s), surface spectral emissivity Epsilon(sub v), temperature profile T(p), water vapor profile q(p), OLR, OLR(sub CLR), effective cloud fraction alpha-Epsilon, and cloud cleared radiances R-hat(sub tau) . We conducted two types of evaluations. The first compared results on 7 focus days to collocated ECMWF truth. The seven focus days are: September 6, 2002; January 25, 2003; September 29, 2004; August 5, 2005; February 24, 2007; August 10, 2007; and May 30, 2010. In these evaluations, we show results for T(sub s), Epsilon(sub v), T(p), and q(p) in terms of yields, and RMS differences and biases with regard to ECMWF. We also show yield trends as well as bias trends of these quantities relative to ECMWF truth. We also show yields and accuracy of channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau) for V6.02 and V6.02 AO. Version-5 did not contain channel by channel QC d values of R-hat(sub tau). In the second type of evaluation, we compared V6.03 monthly mean Level-3 products to those of Version-5.0, for four different months: January, April, July, and October; in 3 different years 2003, 2007, and 2011

  12. Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

  13. Since When or How Often? Dissociating the Roles of Age of Acquisition (AoA) and Lexical Frequency in Early Visual Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of both word age of acquisition (AoA) and frequency of occurrence on the timing and topographical distribution of ERP components. The processing of early- versus late-acquired words was compared with that of high-frequency versus low-frequency words. Participants were asked to perform an…

  14. A proposed adhesin AoMad1 helps nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora recognizing host signals for life-style switching.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lianming; Shen, Renfei; Mo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinkui; Ji, Xinglai; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-08-01

    The nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora is an important natural enemy of nematodes. It can capture nematodes by producing a special mycelial structure called adhesive network or trap. The trap is also a signature of the fungus switching from the saprophytic lifestyle to the predacious lifestyle. At present, little is known about the mechanism of lifestyle switch in nematode-trapping fungi. Here we describe the effect of a cell wall protein called AoMad1 on lifestyle switch. The disruption of the AoMad1-encoding gene in A. oligospora resulted in the formation of more traps in the presence of nematodes. Interestingly, the mutant strain was more sensitive to certain nitrogen sources as trap inducers than the wild type strain. The microscopic examinations revealed that the AoMad1-deletion mutant lacked cell surface adhesive materials and the cell wall structures were more porous than wild-type strains. A great of genes were differentially expressed by transcriptomic analysis when trap formation was induced by sodium nitrate compared to the wild type strain, many of them were related to nitrogen metabolism, host-pathogen interaction and mycelia development. The results suggest that AoMad1 plays an important role in life style switching in A. oligospora. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sea-level history of past interglacial periods: New evidence from uranium-series dating of corals from Curaçao, Leeward Antilles islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Pandolfi, John M.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall

    2012-01-01

    Curaçao has reef terraces with the potential to provide sea-levelhistories of interglacialperiods. Ages of the Hato (upper) unit of the "Lower Terrace" indicate that this reef dates to the last interglacialperiod, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5. On Curaçao, this high sea stand lasted at least 8000 yr (~ 126 to ~ 118 ka). Elevations and age of this reef show that late Quaternary uplift rates on Curaçao are low, 0.026–0.054 m/ka, consistent with its tectonic setting. Ages of ~ 200 ka for corals from the older Cortalein unit of the Lower Terrace correlate this reef to MIS 7, with paleo-sea level estimates ranging from - 3.3 m to + 2.3 m. The estimates are in agreement with those for MIS 7 made from other localities and indicate that the penultimate interglacialperiod was a time of significant warmth, on a par with the present interglacialperiod. The ~ 400 ka (MIS 11) Middle Terrace I on Curaçao, dated by others, may have formed from a paleo-sea level of + 8.3 to + 10.0 m, or (less likely) + 17 m to + 20 m. The lower estimates are conservative compared to previous studies, but still require major ice sheet loss from Greenland and Antarctica.

  16. Rejuvenation of a ten-year old AO curvature sensor: combining obsolescence correction and performance upgrade of MACAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguenauer, P.; Fedrigo, E.; Pettazzi, L.; Reinero, C.; Gonte, F.; Pallanca, L.; Frahm, R.; Woillez, J.; Lilley, P.

    2016-07-01

    The MACAO curvature wavefront sensors have been designed as a generic adaptive optics sensor for the Very Large Telescope. Six systems have been manufactured and implemented on sky: four installed in the UTs Coudé train as an AO facility for the VLTI, and two in UT's instruments, SINFONI and CRIRES. The MACAO-VLTI have now been in use for scientific operation for more than a decade and are planned to be operated for at least ten more years. As second generation instruments for the VLTI were planned to start implementation in end of 2015, accompanied with a major upgrade of the VLTI infrastructure, we saw it as a good time for a rejuvenation project of these systems, correcting the obsolete components. This obsolescence correction also gave us the opportunity to implement improved capabilities: the correction frequency was pushed from 420 Hz to 1050 Hz, and an automatic vibrations compensation algorithm was added. The implementation on the first MACAO was done in October 2014 and the first phase of obsolescence correction was completed in all four MACAO-VLTI systems in October 2015 with the systems delivered back to operation. The resuming of the scientific operation of the VLTI on the UTs in November 2015 allowed to gather statistics in order to evaluate the improvement of the performances through this upgrade. A second phase of obsolescence correction has now been started, together with a global reflection on possible further improvements to secure observations with the VLTI.

  17. Intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator driven by a KLM Nd:GGG laser with a single AO modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Tao; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao

    2015-05-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM) Nd:GGG laser near 1062 nm with a single AO modulator was realized for the first time. The mode-locking pulses of the signal wave were obtained with a short duration of subnanosecond and a repetition rate of several kilohertz (kHz). Under a diode pump power of 8.25 W, a maximum output power of 104 mW at signal wavelength near 1569 nm was obtained at a repetition rate of 2 kHz. The highest pulse energy and peak power were estimated to be 80 μJ and 102 kW at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, respectively. The shortest pulse duration was measured to be 749 ps. By considering the Gaussian spatial distribution of the photon density and the Kerr-lens effect in the gain medium, a set of the coupled rate equations for QML intracavity optical parametric oscillator are given and the numerical simulations are basically fitted with the experimental results.

  18. Rise of The Machines: First Year Operations of The Robo-AO Visible-Light Laser-Adaptive-Optics Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Riddle, R.; Law, N.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Tendulkar, S.; Hogstrom, K.; Bui, K.; Burse, M.; Chordia, P.; Das, H.; Dekany, R.

    2013-09-01

    Robo-AO is the first autonomous laser adaptive optics system and science instrument operating on sky. With minimal human oversight, the system robotically executes large scale surveys, monitors long-term astrophysical dynamics and characterizes newly discovered transients, all at the visible diffraction limit. The average target-to-target operational overhead, including slew time, is a mere 86 s, enabling up to ~200 observations per night. The first of many envisioned systems went live in June 2012, and has since finished 51 nights of science observing at the Palomar Observatory 60-inch (1.5 m) telescope, with over 5,600 robotic observations executed as of March 2013. The system will be augmented in late 2013 with a low-noise wide field infrared camera, which will double as a tip-tilt sensor, to widen the spectral bandwidth of observations, increase available sky coverage as well as enable deeper visible imaging using adaptive-optics sharpened infrared tip-tilt guide sources.

  19. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. III. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 1629 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Baker, Anna; Roberts, Sarah; Ciardi, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results of our search for stars nearby 1629 Kepler planet candidate hosts. With survey sensitivity to objects as close as ˜0.″15, and magnitude differences Δm ≤slant 6, we find 223 stars in the vicinity of 206 target KOIs; 209 of these nearby stars have not been previously imaged in high resolution. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 12.6 % +/- 0.9 % at separations between 0.″15 and 4.″0. Particularly interesting KOI systems are discussed, including 26 stars with detected companions that host rocky, habitable zone candidates and five new candidate planet-hosting quadruple star systems. We explore the broad correlations between planetary systems and stellar binarity, using the combined data set of Baranec et al. and this paper. Our previous 2σ result of a low detected nearby star fraction of KOIs hosting close-in giant planets is less apparent in this larger data set. We also find a significant correlation between detected nearby star fraction and KOI number, suggesting possible variation between early and late Kepler data releases.

  20. Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ballet, J.; ...

    2012-05-17

    The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February.Here, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazarmore » emission models. We also find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. Finally, we model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.« less

  1. [Optimization of nitrate recirculation flow and external carbon dosage integrated control for A/O biological nitrogen removal process].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Sun, Hong-Wei

    2008-05-01

    In order to improve A/O process denitrification efficiency, five integrated control strategies of nitrate recirculation flow and external carbon dosage for denitrification were proposed and evaluated using the COST/IWA simulation Benchmark. Results show that control strategy No.1 is the best integrated control strategies from both external carbon consumption, effluent quality, and the stability of controller. It comprises two feedback control loops: one is to determine the flow rate of external carbon source, keeping the nitrate concentration at the end of anoxic zone at a pre-specified level 2 mg/L, and the other is to adjust the flow rates of the nitrate recirculation to keep the nitrate concentration at the end of the aerobic zone at a pre-specified level based on the effluent quality (usually 8-12 mg/L). This strategy can guarantee highly effective use of anoxic denitrification capacity in the low-load condition, and meet effluent discharge standards through carbon dosage in the high-load condition.

  2. Electronic structure properties and superconductivity of the β-pyrochlore Os oxides, AOs2O6 (A=alkali metal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniz, R.

    2005-03-01

    The recently discoveredootnotetextT. Muramatsu et al. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73, 10 (2004). family of superconducting β-pyrochlores AOs2O6 (A=alkali metal) represents a particularly interesting example of the interplay between superconductivity and orbital and crystal structure degrees of freedom. Indeed, the pyrochlore lattice formed by the Os-O staggered chains appears to lead to very high Sommerfeld coefficients, increasing of Tc under positive pressure, and other intriguing properties. We present results of a first-principles study of the electronic structure and superconducting properties of these materials (A=Na, K, Rb, and Cs) using the highly precise full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method.ootnotetextWimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981). We show that the observed increase of Tc with decreasing mass of A as well as under positive hydrostatic pressure can both be well understood within a conventional phonon-mediated pairing picture. Furthermore, the density of states at EF depends critically on spin-orbit coupling, due to a van Hove singularity near EF, with a direct effect on Tc; the Fermi surface shows strong nesting, which is reflected in the dynamic susceptibility and thus indicates that spin fluctuations may play an important role in these materials.

  3. Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rastawicki, D.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Sbarra, C.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Szostek, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.; Moderski, R.; Nalewajko, K.; Sikora, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Benítez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Boettcher, M.; Bravo Calle, O. J. A.; Buemi, C. S.; Carosati, D.; Chen, W. P.; Diltz, C.; Di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Forné, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Jordan, B.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Lin, H. C.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Oksman, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sievers, A.; Sigua, L. A.; Sillanpää, A.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; Angelakis, E.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Nestoras, I.; Riquelme, D.; Krips, M.; Trippe, S.; Arai, A.; Kawabata, K. S.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Sato, S.; Uemura, M.; Yamanaka, M.; Yoshida, M.; Belloni, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Bonning, E. W.; Isler, J.; Urry, C. M.; Hoversten, E.; Falcone, A.; Pagani, C.; Stroh, M.

    2012-05-17

    The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February.Here, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We also find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. Finally, we model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.

  4. LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The postflight photograph was taken in the KSC SAEF II facility after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. A light tan discoloration is visible on the left and lower flanges of the experiment tray and also on the unpainted aluminum filler to the left of the passive part of the experiment. A darker stain has discolored the lower corners of the tray structure. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment, consisting of an active part in the upper half of the tray and a passive part located in the lower half of the experiment tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The black thermal coating on the active part of the experiment appears to have changed from a flat black to a dark gray while the coating on the passive part of the experiment appears less degraded. The exposed Kapton specimen surfaces in both the active and passive parts of the experiment appear to have changed from specular to diffuse from exposure to the space environment.

  5. Extreme Exoplanet Direct Imaging: New Results with GPI and SCExAO and the Path to Imaging Another Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne

    2015-12-01

    We describe the discovery of a bright, young Kuiper belt-like debris disk around HD 115600, a ˜ 1.4--1.5 M_{⊙}, ˜ 15 Myr old member of the Sco-Cen OB Association. Our H-band coronagraphy/integral field spectroscopy from the Gemini Planet Imager shows the ring has a (luminosity scaled) semi major axis of (˜ 22 AU) ˜ 48 AU, similar to the current Kuiper belt. The disk appears to have neutral scattering dust, is eccentric (e ˜ 0.1--0.2), and could be sculpted by analogues to the outer solar system planets. Spectroscopy of the disk ansae reveal a slightly blue to gray disk color, consistent with major Kuiper belt chemical constituents, where water-ice is a very plausible dominant constituent. Besides being the first object discovered with the next generation of extreme adaptive optics systems (i.e. SCExAO, GPI, SPHERE), HD 115600's debris ring and planetary system provides a key reference point for the early evolution of the solar system, the structure and composition of the Kuiper belt, and the interaction between debris disks and planets.

  6. Multi-wavelength Observations of Blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 Flaring State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rastawicki, D.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Richards, J. L.; Sbarra, C.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Szostek, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Moderski, R.; Nalewajko, K.; Sikora, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Benítez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Boettcher, M.; Bravo Calle, O. J. A.; Buemi, C. S.; Carosati, D.; Chen, W. P.; Diltz, C.; Di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Forné, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Jordan, B.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Lin, H. C.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Oksman, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sievers, A.; Sigua, L. A.; Sillanpää, A.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; GASP-WEBT Consortium; Angelakis, E.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Nestoras, I.; Riquelme, D.; F-GAMMA; Krips, M.; Trippe, S.; Iram-PdBI; Arai, A.; Kawabata, K. S.; Sakimoto, K.; Sasada, M.; Sato, S.; Uemura, M.; Yamanaka, M.; Yoshida, M.; Kanata; Belloni, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; RXTE; Bonning, E. W.; Isler, J.; Urry, C. M.; SMARTS; Hoversten, E.; Falcone, A.; Pagani, C.; Stroh, M.; (Swift-XRT

    2012-06-01

    The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February. In this paper, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. We model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.

  7. Determining the Area of Review (AoR) in Carbon Capture and Storage: A tiered, probabilistic methodology to generate risk map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, A.; Siirila-Woodburn, E. R.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The effects and related risks to potable aquifers due to pressure increases and brine leakage through abandoned wells is a poorly understood phenomena and a potentially significant contributor to the risk profile in Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage. Numerical models are used to investigate the evolution of brine leakage (during and post-injection) through wells located in the region where plugged and abandoned (P&A) wellbores leakage could occur. This area, termed tier 3, builds on a 3-tier methodology to define the Area of Review (AoR) proposed by Birkholzer et al. (2013). This work, in conjunction with a quantitative assessment of tier 1 AoR (an area encompassing the CO2 plume) and tier 2 AoR (an are encompassing the extent where open well-bore brine leakage could occur), will lead to a quantitative understanding of potential risks and a metric for the complete spatial extent of environmental risk in Carbon Capture and Storage. Here, we develop a probabilistic methodology to generate "risk maps" related to tier 3 AoR. The risk maps are based on the premise that the two greatest sources of uncertainty in P&A leakage are 1) the location of the unknown well with respect to the injection well and 2) the permeability of the leaky P&A (which can span over several orders of magnitude). The methodology utilizes numerical simulations and probability theory to generate spatial distributions of risk, defined with no-impact or MCL thresholds. Probabilistic risk maps can be used to provide risk-based descriptions of the AoR to inform site selection and monitoring during and post-injection.

  8. Reliability of the radiographic variables in the International Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set compared with the AO classification.

    PubMed

    Lucantoni, C; Krishnan, R G; Gehrchen, M; Hallager, D W; Biering-Sørensen, F; Dahl, B

    2016-10-01

    Intra- and interrater reliability study for radiological variables of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set. To test reliability of the radiological variables in the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set and compare it with the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) classification. The database of Eastern Denmark Regional SCI Referral Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. Ratings of the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set radiological variables and AO classification were obtained by two international observers for all the surgically treated spine trauma patients between 1st October 2010 and 31st December 2012 at the Spine Unit, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Statistical analyses for intra- and interrater crude agreement and Cohen's unweighted kappa (κ) coefficients were performed. For 283 spine injuries, the intra- and interrater reliability for the individual radiological variables of the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set was at least substantial (κ=0.67-0.97 for interrater, κ=0.79-0.89 for the intrarater agreement). For the AO classification, intrarater reliability was moderate-to-substantial (κ=0.57-0.75), whereas interrater reliability was substantial (κ=0.67-0.69). The crude intra- and interrater agreement for a combined radiographic SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set variable showed no significant difference compared with the AO classification (P=0.067-0.895). The reliability of International SCI Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set radiological variables is comparable to the AO classification system. We encourage its use for spinal column injury description, thus facilitating data collection and comparison between centres and countries.

  9. A Diffraction-limited Survey for Direct Detection of Halpha Emitting/Accreting ExtraSolar Planets with the 6.5m Magellan Telescope and the MagAO Visible AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird

    TECHNICAL BACKGROUND: An advanced adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) with 585 actuators was commissioned at the 6.5-m Magellan Telescope at one of the world’s best sites (Las Campanas Observatory; LCO) in Chile. By the end of the commissioning run (April 2013) the MagAO system was regularly producing the highest spatial resolution deep images to date (0.023” deep images at Halpha (0.656 microns); Close et al. 2013). This is due to its 378 corrective modes at 1kHz on a 6.5-m telescope. Strehl ratis>20% at Halpha were obtained in 75% of the seeing statistics at the site. We propose here to utilize MagAO’s absolutely unique ability to take Halpha, continuum (0.643 microns), and L’ (3.8 microns) thermal images (all simultaneously) to carry out a novel survey to: Discover a population of the lowest mass young accreting extrasolar planets imaged to date. to characterize the spatial distribution, and estimate accretion rates, of young extrasolar planets >5AU, to understand the influence of planets on transitional disk gaps. THEORY BACKGROUND: Extrasolar planets are very difficult to image directly since planets become very faint below ~8 Mjup (Jupiter masses) for ages >1 Myr and such massive planets are rare. There is a class of young stars that are still accreting yet have SED (and often imaging) evidence of a lack of dust and gas inside a r=5-140 AU “gap”. These “transitional disks” are believed to be transitioning into “disk free” stars. These gaps are believed to be maintained by planets that continuously clear (though scattering or accretion) the optically thin gaps. Indeed large >10 AU gaps (>few Hill spheres) must be maintained by multiple ~1 Mjup planets (Dodson-Robinson & Salyk 2011). Since gas must pass through each of these gaps to continuously supply the accreting star, simulations suggest that these “gap planets” are also crossing points for these gas streamers on their way to the star. These streamers “force-feed” these planets a

  10. LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 EL-1994-00299 LDEF (Postflight), AO178 : A High-Resolution Study of Ultra-heavy Cosmic-Ray Nuclei, Tray C11 The postflight photograph of the Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) was taken in SAEF II at KSC after removal of the experiment tray from the LDEF. The experiment tray flanges appear discolored by a light brown stain. Outlines of experiment tray clamp blocks are faint but visible on the upper and lower experiment tray flanges.The experiment tray holding fixture hardware covers the clamp block areas on the end flanges. The UHCRE detectors were contained in 16 peripheral LDEF trays with at least one UHCRE tray located on each row of the LDEF except row 3, row 9 and row 12. Each tray contains three cylindrical aluminum pressure vessels with an integral aluminum support structure. Each cylinder is filled with an Eccofoam insert that houses 4 UHCRE detector stacks. Each stack consist of layers of Lexan polycarbonate sheets (approximately 70) interleaved with several thin sheets of lead. Forty-seven of the 48 pressure vessels were pressurized to 1.0 bar of a dry gas mixture (oxygen, nitrogen and helium) and sealed. One of the units was left unsealed in order to investigate the effects of the vacuum environment on the detector materials. Thermal control was accomplished by attaching an aluminized Kapton thermal cover on the tray bottom (the Kapton facing the LDEF interior), placing the aluminum cylinder support structure on thermal isolators and covering the experiment with a thin (5 mil) silvered TEFLON® thermal cover. The silvered TEFLON® cover was supported by an aluminum frame, an integral part of the experiment structure, and held in place by Velcro pads selectively located on the frame and on the back of the cover. The copper colored strip extending over the trays lower flange is a copper coated pressure sensitive tape used to provide an electrical ground

  11. Analysis of LDEF experiment AO187-2 chemical and isotopic measurements of micrometeoroids by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinner, Ernst

    1995-01-01

    #Experiment AO187-2, that was flown on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility(LDEF), was designed to measure the chemical and isotopic compositions of interplanetary dust impinging on the spacecraft from outer space. Information on the nature and composition of orbital debris was also anticipated. The spacecraft maintained a constant orientation with respect to its velocity vector thereby defining leading and trailing edges that faced respectively into and away from the direction of motion. Arrays of individual capture cells each 80.8 sq cm in size and totaling 237 in number were exposed on both the leading and trailing edges of LDEF. Each cell consisted of a pure Ge target surface slightly separated from a thin (2.5 micrometers) metallized plastic 'entrance foil.' The basic concept was that incoming projectiles would penetrate the foil, strike the Ge target plate at high velocity producing a vapor-liquid cloud that would re-deposit material on the underside of the plastic foil. This material would then be analyzed using the sensitive surface analysis technique of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In practice, most of the plastic entrance foils failed during the extended period of orbital exposure probably due to a combination of UV embrittlement, large densities of impact events and (for the leading edge) the effects of atomic oxygen erosion in orbit. However the foils failed gradually and most remained in place on the capture cells for a significant fraction of the duration of the flight . Because most of the impactors were small (less than 10 micrometers) they were heated and dispersed in traversing the entrance foils producing clouds of molten droplets and vapor that produced easily identifiable 'extended impacts' on the Ge target plates. Fortunately, it proved possible to make ion probe measurements of projectile compositions from material deposited on the Ge in the extended impact structures.

  12. Analysis of LDEF experiment AO187-2 chemical and isotopic measurements of micrometeoroids by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, Ernst

    #Experiment AO187-2, that was flown on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility(LDEF), was designed to measure the chemical and isotopic compositions of interplanetary dust impinging on the spacecraft from outer space. Information on the nature and composition of orbital debris was also anticipated. The spacecraft maintained a constant orientation with respect to its velocity vector thereby defining leading and trailing edges that faced respectively into and away from the direction of motion. Arrays of individual capture cells each 80.8 sq cm in size and totaling 237 in number were exposed on both the leading and trailing edges of LDEF. Each cell consisted of a pure Ge target surface slightly separated from a thin (2.5 micrometers) metallized plastic 'entrance foil.' The basic concept was that incoming projectiles would penetrate the foil, strike the Ge target plate at high velocity producing a vapor-liquid cloud that would re-deposit material on the underside of the plastic foil. This material would then be analyzed using the sensitive surface analysis technique of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In practice, most of the plastic entrance foils failed during the extended period of orbital exposure probably due to a combination of UV embrittlement, large densities of impact events and (for the leading edge) the effects of atomic oxygen erosion in orbit. However the foils failed gradually and most remained in place on the capture cells for a significant fraction of the duration of the flight . Because most of the impactors were small (less than 10 micrometers) they were heated and dispersed in traversing the entrance foils producing clouds of molten droplets and vapor that produced easily identifiable 'extended impacts' on the Ge target plates. Fortunately, it proved possible to make ion probe measurements of projectile compositions from material deposited on the Ge in the extended impact structures.

  13. Customization of UWB 3D-RTLS Based on the New Uncertainty Model of the AoA Ranging Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J.

    2017-01-01

    The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to customize UWB-based RTLS, in order to improve their localization performance in terms of accuracy and precision. The analytical uncertainty model of Angle of Arrival (AoA) localization in a 3D indoor space, which is the foundation of the customization concept, is established in a working environment. Additionally, a suitable angular-based 3D localization algorithm is introduced. The paper investigates the following issues: the influence of the proposed correction vector on the localization accuracy; the impact of the system’s configuration and LS’s relative deployment on the localization precision distribution map. The advantages of the method are verified by comparing them with a reference commercial RTLS localization engine. The results of simulations and physical experiments prove the value of the proposed customization method. The research confirms that the analytical uncertainty model is the valid representation of RTLS’ localization uncertainty in terms of accuracy and precision and can be useful for its performance improvement. The research shows, that the Angle of Arrival localization in a 3D indoor space applying the simple angular-based localization algorithm and correction vector improves of localization accuracy and precision in a way that the system challenges the reference hardware advanced localization engine. Moreover, the research guides the deployment of location sensors to enhance the localization precision. PMID:28125056

  14. Practical experience with test-driven development during commissioning of the multi-star AO system ARGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulas, M.; Borelli, Jose Luis; Gässler, Wolfgang; Peter, Diethard; Rabien, Sebastian; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Rahmer, Gustavo

    2014-07-01

    Commissioning time for an instrument at an observatory is precious, especially the night time. Whenever astronomers come up with a software feature request or point out a software defect, the software engineers have the task to find a solution and implement it as fast as possible. In this project phase, the software engineers work under time pressure and stress to deliver a functional instrument control software (ICS). The shortness of development time during commissioning is a constraint for software engineering teams and applies to the ARGOS project as well. The goal of the ARGOS (Advanced Rayleigh guided Ground layer adaptive Optics System) project is the upgrade of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with an adaptive optics (AO) system consisting of six Rayleigh laser guide stars and wavefront sensors. For developing the ICS, we used the technique Test- Driven Development (TDD) whose main rule demands that the programmer writes test code before production code. Thereby, TDD can yield a software system, that grows without defects and eases maintenance. Having applied TDD in a calm and relaxed environment like office and laboratory, the ARGOS team has profited from the benefits of TDD. Before the commissioning, we were worried that the time pressure in that tough project phase would force us to drop TDD because we would spend more time writing test code than it would be worth. Despite this concern at the beginning, we could keep TDD most of the time also in this project phase This report describes the practical application and performance of TDD including its benefits, limitations and problems during the ARGOS commissioning. Furthermore, it covers our experience with pair programming and continuous integration at the telescope.

  15. Deriving the true mass of an unresolved Brown Dwarf companion to an M-Dwarf with AO aided astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, E.; Kürster, M.

    2011-07-01

    From radial velocity (RV) detections alone one does not get all orbital parameters needed to derive the true mass of a non-transiting, unresolved substellar companion to a star. Additional astrometric measurements are needed to calculate the inclination and the longitude of the ascending node. Until today only few true substellar companion masses have been determined by this method with the HST fine guidance sensor [1, 2]. We aim to derive the true mass of a brown dwarf candidate companion to an early M 2.5V dwarf with groundbased high-resolution astrometry aided by adaptive optics. We found this unique brown dwarf desert object, whose distance to the host star is only 0.42 AU, in our UVES precision RV survey of M dwarfs, inferring a minimum companion mass of 27 Jupiter masses [3]. Combining the data with HIPPARCOS astrometry, we found a probability of only 2.9% that the companion is stellar. We therefore observed the host star together with a reference star within a monitoring program with VLT/NACO to derive the true mass of the companion and establish its nature (brown dwarf vs. star). Simultaneous observations of a reference field in a globular cluster are performed to determine the stability of the adaptive optics (AO) plus detector system and check its suitability for such high-precision astrometric measurements over several epochs which are needed to find and analyse extrasolar planet systems. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, programmes 381.C-0235, 281.C-5057 and 383.C-0248.

  16. Spatiotemporal and species-specific patterns of diseases affecting crustose coralline algae in Curaçao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéré, G.; Steneck, R. S.; Nugues, M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Distribution and abundance of coral diseases have been well documented, but only a few studies considered diseases affecting crustose coralline algae (CCA), particularly at the species level. We investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of diseases affecting CCA along the south coast of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Two syndromes were detected: the Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS) previously described and the Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD) reported here for the first time. Diseases were present at all six study sites, and our results did not reveal a relationship between disease occurrence and human influence. Both diseases were more prevalent on the shallower reef flat than on the deeper reef slope, and during the warm/rainy season than during the cold/dry season. The patterns observed were consistent with a positive link between temperature and disease occurrence. Reef flat communities were dominated by Neogoniolithon mamillare and Paragoniolithon solubile, whereas deeper habitats were dominated by Hydrolithon boergesenii. Diseases affected all the species encountered, and no preferable host was detected. There was a significant relationship between both disease occurrences and CCA cover. Monitoring of affected patches revealed that 90 % of lesions in CWBS increased in size, whereas 88 % of CWPD lesions regenerated over time. CWBS linear progression rate did not vary between seasons or species and ranged from 0.15 to 0.36 cm month-1, which is in the same order of magnitude as rates previously documented. We conclude that diseases have the potential to cause major loss in CCA cover, particularly in shallow waters. As CCA play a key role in reef ecosystems, our study suggests that the emergence of diseases affecting these algae may pose a real threat to coral reef ecosystems. The levels of disease reported here will provide a much-needed local baseline allowing future comparisons.

  17. The AO comprehensive classification of pediatric long-bone fractures: a web-based multicenter agreement study.

    PubMed

    Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent; Clavert, Jean-Michel; Lutz, Nicolas; Frick, Steve; Hunter, James

    2007-03-01

    The first AO comprehensive pediatric long-bone fracture classification system has been proposed following a structured path of development and validation with experienced pediatric surgeons. A Web-based multicenter agreement study involving 70 surgeons in 15 clinics and 5 countries was conducted to assess the reliability and accuracy of this classification when used by a wide range of surgeons with various levels of experience. Training was provided at each clinic before the session. Using the Internet, participants could log in at any time and classify 275 supracondylar, radius, and tibia fractures at their own pace. The fracture diagnosis was made following the hierarchy of the classification system using both clinical terminology and codes. kappa coefficients for the single-surgeon diagnosis of epiphyseal, metaphyseal, or diaphyseal fracture type were 0.66, 0.80, and 0.91, respectively. Median accuracy estimates for each bone and type were all greater than 80%. Depending on their experience and specialization, surgeons greatly varied in their ability to classify fractures. Pediatric training and at least 2 years of experience were associated with significant improvement in reliability and accuracy. Kappa coefficients for diagnosis of specific child patterns were 0.51, 0.63, and 0.48 for epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal fractures, respectively. Identified reasons for coding discrepancies were related to different understandings of terminology and definitions, as well as poor quality radiographic images. Results supported some minor adjustments in the coding of fracture type and child patterns. This classification system received wide acceptance and support among the surgeons involved. As long as appropriate training could be performed, the system classification was reliable, especially among surgeons with a minimum of 2 years of clinical experience. We encourage broad-based consultation between surgeons' international societies and the use of this

  18. Customization of UWB 3D-RTLS Based on the New Uncertainty Model of the AoA Ranging Technique.

    PubMed

    Jachimczyk, Bartosz; Dziak, Damian; Kulesza, Wlodek J

    2017-01-25

    The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to customize UWB-based RTLS, in order to improve their localization performance in terms of accuracy and precision. The analytical uncertainty model of Angle of Arrival (AoA) localization in a 3D indoor space, which is the foundation of the customization concept, is established in a working environment. Additionally, a suitable angular-based 3D localization algorithm is introduced. The paper investigates the following issues: the influence of the proposed correction vector on the localization accuracy; the impact of the system's configuration and LS's relative deployment on the localization precision distribution map. The advantages of the method are verified by comparing them with a reference commercial RTLS localization engine. The results of simulations and physical experiments prove the value of the proposed customization method. The research confirms that the analytical uncertainty model is the valid representation of RTLS' localization uncertainty in terms of accuracy and precision and can be useful for its performance improvement. The research shows, that the Angle of Arrival localization in a 3D indoor space applying the simple angular-based localization algorithm and correction vector improves of localization accuracy and precision in a way that the system challenges the reference hardware advanced localization engine. Moreover, the research guides the deployment of location sensors to enhance the localization precision.

  19. An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Follette, Katherine B.; Pueyo, Laurent; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Wang, Jason J.; Vega, David; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Nielsen, Eric L.; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Close, Laird M.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Males, Jared R.; Metchev, Stanimir; Morzinski, Katie M.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. M.; Barman, Travis S.; Bulger, Joanna; Cotten, Tara; De Rosa, Robert J.; Duchene, Gaspard; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Goodsell, Stephen; Graham, James R.; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Hibon, Pascale; Hung, Li-Wei; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jérôme; Marchis, Franck; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall D.; Poyneer, Lisa; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Marley, Mark S.; Savransky, Dmitry; Schneider, Adam C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wiktorowicz, Sloane

    2017-06-01

    We present H band spectroscopic and Hα photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hα imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 × 10-4 L ⊙ and M\\dot{M}< 6.3× {10}-7 {M}{Jup}2 {{yr}}-1 for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.

  20. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Chun, Mark; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Hayward, Thomas L. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c and others

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  1. Magellan Adaptive Optics First-light Observations of the Exoplanet β Pic B. I. Direct Imaging in the Far-red Optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the Near-ir with NICI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.; Wu, Ya-Lin

    2014-05-01

    We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1% (1.58 μm), KS (2.18 μm), and K cont (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L bol/L ⊙) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ~250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

  2. Start-up of a two-stage bioaugmented anoxic-oxic (A/O) biofilm process treating petrochemical wastewater under different DO concentrations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingbo; Ma, Fang; Chang, Chein-Chi; Cui, Di; Wang, Li; Yang, Jixian; Wang, Liang

    2009-07-01

    The traditional two-stage anoxic-oxic (A/O) activated sludge process might be inefficient in pollutants removal and could not ensure the effluent quality. By installing polyurethane foams as carriers and inoculating specialized bacteria in the oxic compartments, the activated sludge systems could be transformed into bioaugmented biofilm processes to enhance the removal efficiency to recalcitrant pollutants. Optimal environment should be provided for the bioaugmented bacteria during systems' start-up. In the present research, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was studied as a crucial environmental factor on the performances of the bioagumented systems. The results indicated that the system adopted lower DO concentration took less time to start-up, performed higher pollutants removal efficiency and stronger resistance to shock loadings compared to the system with higher DO level. This was the first attempt to evaluate the importance of DO concentration on the start-up of the two-stage bioaugmented A/O biofilm process.

  3. The progress of Chinese burn medicine from the Third Military Medical University-in memory of its pioneer, Professor Li Ao.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisheng; Zhou, Junyi; Peng, Yizhi; Zhang, Jiaping; Peng, Xi; Luo, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Yan, Hong; Peng, Daizhi; He, Weifeng; Wang, Fengjun; Liang, Guangping; Huang, Yuesheng; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2017-01-01

    Professor Li Ao was one of the founders of Chinese burn medicine and one of the most renowned doctors and researchers of burns in China. He established one of the Chinese earliest special departments for burns at Third Military Medical University (TMMU) in 1958. To memorialize Professor Li Ao on his 100th birthday in 2017 and introduce our extensive experience, it is our honor to briefly review the development and achievement of the Chinese burn medicine from TMMU. The epidemiology and outcomes of admitted burn patients since 1958 were reviewed. Furthermore, main achievements of basic and clinical research for the past roughly 60 years were presented. These achievements mainly included the Chinese Rule of Nine, fluid resuscitation protocol, experience in inhalation injury, wound treatment strategies, prevention and treatment of burn infections, nutrition therapy, organ support therapies, and rehabilitation. The progress shaped and enriched modern Chinese burn medicine and promoted the development of world burn medicine.

  4. Site symmetry of AO{sub 4} complexes (A are s- or p-elements of periods III and IV) in crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Serezhkin, V. N. Savchenkov, A. V.; Urusov, V. S.

    2010-03-15

    The symmetry of the sites occupied in crystal structures by 17 405 crystallographically different A atoms (A are s or p elements of periods III and IV) entering the composition of AO{sub 4}{sup z-} complexes has been analyzed. A periodicity in the ability of A atoms for implementing a certain site symmetry is established. Some features of the stereochemistry of A elements in the dependence of their position in the periodic table are discussed.

  5. Eco-friendly chitosan production by Syncephalastrum racemosum and application to the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Batista, Anabelle C L; Silva, Marta C Freitas; Batista, Jefferson B; Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2013-07-01

    Due to the existence of new methodologies that have reduced the production costs of microbiological chitosan, this paper puts forward the use of agro-industrial residues in order to produce microbiological chitosan and to apply chitosan as an innovative resource for removing acid orange 7 (AO7) from wastewaters. The best culture conditions were selected by a full 24 factorial design, and the removal of the dye was optimized by a 23 central composite rotational design. The results showed that corn steep liquor (CSL) is an agro-industrial residue that can be advantageously used to produce microbiological chitosan with yields up to 7.8 g/kg of substrate. FT-IR spectra of the product showed typical peak distributions like those of standard chitosan which confirmed the extracted product was chitosan-like. The efficiency of removing low concentrations of AO7 by using microbiological chitosan in distilled water (up to 89.96%) and tap water (up to 80.60%) was significantly higher than the efficiency of the control (chitosan obtained from crustaceans), suggesting that this biopolymer is a better economic alternative for discoloring wastewater where a low concentration of the dye is considered toxic. The high percentage recovery of AO7 from the microbiological chitosan particles used favors this biopolymer as a possible bleaching agent which may be reusable.

  6. InnoPOL: an EMCCD imaging polarimeter and 85-element curvature AO system on the 3.6-m AEOS telescope for cost effective polarimetric speckle suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, David; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Gisler, Daniel; Kuhn, Jeff

    2014-08-01

    The Hokupa'a-85 curvature adaptive optics system components have been adapted to create a new AO-corrected coudé instrument at the 3.67m Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) telescope. This new AO-corrected optical path is designed to deliver an f/40 diffraction-limited focus at wavelengths longer than 800nm. A new EMCCD-based dual-beam imaging polarimeter called InnoPOL has been designed and is presently being installed behind this corrected f/40 beam. The InnoPOL system is a flexible platform for optimizing polarimetric performance using commercial solutions and for testing modulation strategies. The system is designed as a technology test and demonstration platform as the coudé path is built using off-the-shelf components wherever possible. Models of the polarimetric performance after AO correction show that polarization modulation at rates as slow as 200Hz can cause speckle correlations in brightness and focal plane location sufficient enough to change the speckle suppression behavior of the modulators. These models are also verified by initial EMCCD scoring camera data at AEOS. Substantial instrument trades and development efforts are explored between instrument performance parameters and various polarimetric noise sources.

  7. Identification of a copper-responsive promoter and development of a copper biosensor in the soil bacterium Achromobacter sp. AO22.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shee Ping; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2012-05-01

    A number of human activities result in environmental contamination with copper compounds that can cause severe detrimental effects on the ecosystem as well as human health. The physico-chemical methods of metal detection have limitations such as inability to distinguish between total versus bio-available metals and differences in metal uptake in different organisms. The heavy metal resistance-encoding genetic systems of certain bacteria provide critical tools for development of biosensors for these purposes. This study reports a copper biosensor utilizing the cop operon of the heavy metal resistant bacterial isolate, Achromobacter sp. AO22, isolated from a contaminated site in Australia. A section located between the divergently transcribed putative response regulator gene copR and multicopper oxidase gene copA that included a palindromic cop box was identified as a copper-responsive promoter using a lacZ reporter construct, pCOPRP, in E. coli. The expression was found to be enhanced by inclusion of copR. Another engineered strain, AO22(pCOPRP), showed stronger induction, and the lacZ expression in both backgrounds was enhanced significantly (250-400 fold) by copper but minimally by other metals. The construct in Achromobacter sp. AO22 thus has a high potential as biosensor for detecting copper bioavailability (hence potential toxicity) in a soil bacterial background, while the construct in E. coli is ideal for laboratory-based testing.

  8. Interfragmentary compression and pull-out properties of 6.5-mm AO cancellous lag screws in a uniform synthetic material during tightening procedures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peidong; Xu, Daqiang; Zhao, Weidong; Jiao, Peifeng; Li, Zeyu; Liu, Chang; Ouyang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    AO lag screws are widely used in surgical intra-articular fracture treatment for anatomical reduction and rigid fixation. Interfragmentary compressive force (IFCF) and pull-out strength (POS) are two critical parameters generated by AO lag screws during tightening, and both of these parameters could be used to estimate screw insert conditions to prevent screw stripping. The aim of this study is to evaluate the IFCF and POS of AO cancellous screws inserted into uniform synthetic cancellous bone during tightening procedures. Seven synthetic cancellous bone blocks were used for this research. Each test contained two continuous portions as follows: the rotation test portion and the pull-out test portion. IFCF and POS were captured by the pressure transducer and the sensor of the test machine. The properties of IFCF and POS based on tightening degrees were obtained in this study. The ideal balance between POS and IFCF during screw tightening exists, and the peak values of these parameters cannot be simultaneously achieved. Moreover, rotation angles of 100-150° appear to serve as the optimum balance between IFCF and POS in the present study. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SIMS chemical analysis of extended impacts on the leading and trailing edges of LDEF experiment AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Simon, Charles G.; Swan, P.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Jessberger, E. K.; Lange, G.; Stadermann, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment AO187-2 consisted of 237 capture cells, 120 on the leading edge and 117 on the trailing edge. Each cell was made of polished Ge plates covered with 2.5 micron thick mylar foil at 200 microns from the Ge. Although all leading edge cells and 105 trailing edge cells had lost their plastic covers during flight, optical and electron microscope examination revealed extended impacts in bare cells from either edge that apparently were produced by high velocity projectiles while the plastic foils were still in place. Detailed optical scanning yielded 53 extended impacts on 100 bare cells from the trailing edge that were selected for SIMS chemical analysis. Lateral multi-element ion probe profiles were obtained on 40 of these impacts. Material that can be attributed to the incoming projectiles was found in all analyzed extended compact features and most seem to be associated with cosmic dust particles. However, LDEF deposits are systematically enriched in the refractory elements Al, Ca, and Ti relative to Mg and Fe when compared to IDP's collected in the stratosphere and to chondritic compositions. These differences are most likely due to elemental fractionation effects during the high velocity impact but real differences between interplanetary particles captured on LDEF and stratospheric IDP's cannot be excluded. Recently we extended our studies to cells from the leading edge and the covered cells from the trailing edge. The 12 covered cells contain 20 extended impact candidates. Ion probe analysis of 3 yielded results similar to those obtained for impacts on the bare cells from the trailing edge. Optical scanning of the bare leading edge cell also reveals many extended impacts (42 on 22 cells scanned to date), demonstrating that the cover foils remained intact at least for some time. However, SIMS analysis showed elements that can reasonably be attributed to micrometeoroids in only 2 out of 11 impacts. Eight impacts

  10. SIMS chemical analysis of extended impacts on the leading and trailing edges of LDEF experiment AO187-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Simon, Charles G.; Swan, P.; Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Jessberger, E. K.; Lange, G.; Stadermann, F.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment AO187-2 consisted of 237 capture cells, 120 on the leading edge and 117 on the trailing edge. Each cell was made of polished Ge plates covered with 2.5 micron thick mylar foil at 200 microns from the Ge. Although all leading edge cells and 105 trailing edge cells had lost their plastic covers during flight, optical and electron microscope examination revealed extended impacts in bare cells from either edge that apparently were produced by high velocity projectiles while the plastic foils were still in place. Detailed optical scanning yielded 53 extended impacts on 100 bare cells from the trailing edge that were selected for SIMS chemical analysis. Lateral multi-element ion probe profiles were obtained on 40 of these impacts. Material that can be attributed to the incoming projectiles was found in all analyzed extended compact features and most seem to be associated with cosmic dust particles. However, LDEF deposits are systematically enriched in the refractory elements Al, Ca, and Ti relative to Mg and Fe when compared to IDP's collected in the stratosphere and to chondritic compositions. These differences are most likely due to elemental fractionation effects during the high velocity impact but real differences between interplanetary particles captured on LDEF and stratospheric IDP's cannot be excluded. Recently we extended our studies to cells from the leading edge and the covered cells from the trailing edge. The 12 covered cells contain 20 extended impact candidates. Ion probe analysis of 3 yielded results similar to those obtained for impacts on the bare cells from the trailing edge. Optical scanning of the bare leading edge cell also reveals many extended impacts (42 on 22 cells scanned to date), demonstrating that the cover foils remained intact at least for some time. However, SIMS analysis showed elements that can reasonably be attributed to micrometeoroids in only 2 out of 11 impacts. Eight impacts

  11. Time Differential Electrical Resistivity for Water Resource Assessment: A Case Study in Cura‡ao, Netherlands Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, D.; Vichabian, Y.; Sogade, J.; Spiertz, P.; Morgan, F. D.

    2003-12-01

    A method of groundwater prospecting is presented that capitalizes on changes in electrical resistivity arising from annual variability in subsurface fluid flow. According to Archie's Law, effective resistivity is a function of pore fluid resistivity, saturation, and porosity. For competent Earth materials, short-term temporal changes in near-surface porosity are negligible because changes in effective pressure are small with respect to the bulk moduli of the materials. Therefore, annual variability in effective resistivity is dependent only on fluid flow via changes in saturation and, to a lesser extent, pore fluid resistivity. Aquifer detection is but the first step; thereafter, it is necessary to estimate permeability, capacity, and, importantly, sustainability. Time differential resistivity is well matched to the task because it detects prospective aquifers and also illuminates their natural hydrodynamics. Explicitly, this method captures an undeveloped aquifer's seasonal volumetric variability, which is important as engineers reconcile monthly demand with monthly supply. The best scenario would be to detect a capacious, intermediate-resistivity (high pore fluid resistivity and high porosity) zone that is invariant from season to season (clays and ore bodies excepted). Less desirable, but still manageable, is the case where a large, porous formation undergoes significant seasonal resistivity variation; it behaves as a subterranean river with little lag-time between meteoric water input and groundwater throughput; carefully timed extraction and storage would be required in this case. A suite of thirty-eight electrical resistivity soundings were collected from the wet and dry seasons at Plantages PortoMari, an ecotourist plantation on the semiarid island of Cura‡ao, N.A. The data were analyzed with special attention paid to wet-to-dry season resistivity ratios. The results suggest two possible courses of action. (1) A hypothetical limestone terrace was detected

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF ORBITAL MOTION IN THE ORION TRAPEZIUM CLUSTER WITH THE LBT AO SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Skemer, A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Xompero, M.; Kulesa, C.; Puglisi, A.; Busoni, L.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Argomedo, J.; Esposito, S.; Mannucci, F.; Arcidiacono, C.; Guerra, J. C.; Brusa, G.; Miller, D. L.; Brynnel, J.; Boutsia, K.; and others

    2012-04-20

    The new 8.4 m LBT adaptive secondary AO system, with its novel pyramid wavefront sensor, was used to produce very high Strehl ({approx}> 75% at 2.16 {mu}m) near-infrared narrowband (Br{gamma}: 2.16 {mu}m and [Fe II]: 1.64 {mu}m) images of 47 young ({approx}1 Myr) Orion Trapezium {theta}{sup 1} Ori cluster members. The inner {approx}41 Multiplication-Sign 53'' of the cluster was imaged at spatial resolutions of {approx}0.''050 (at 1.64 {mu}m). A combination of high spatial resolution and high S/N yielded relative binary positions to {approx}0.5 mas accuracies. Including previous speckle data, we analyze a 15 year baseline of high-resolution observations of this cluster. We are now sensitive to relative proper motions of just {approx}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} (0.6 km s{sup -1} at 450 pc); this is a {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign improvement in orbital velocity accuracy compared to previous efforts. We now detect clear orbital motions in the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 2} B{sub 3} system of 4.9 {+-} 0.3 km s{sup -1} and 7.2 {+-} 0.8 km s{sup -1} in the {theta}{sup 1} Ori A{sub 1} A{sub 2} system (with correlations of P.A. versus time at >99% confidence). All five members of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system appear likely a gravitationally bound 'mini-cluster'. The very lowest mass member of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system (B{sub 4}; mass {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) has, for the first time, a clearly detected motion (at 4.3 {+-} 2.0 km s{sup -1}; correlation = 99.7%) w.r.t. B{sub 1}. However, B{sub 4} is most likely in a long-term unstable (non-hierarchical) orbit and may 'soon' be ejected from this 'mini-cluster'. This 'ejection' process could play a major role in the formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  13. A randomised study in all cervical hip fractures osteosynthesis with Hansson hook-pins versus AO-screws in 199 consecutive patients followed for two years.

    PubMed

    Mjørud, Jan; Skaro, Olav; Solhaug, Jan Helge; Thorngren, Karl-Göran

    2006-08-01

    A consecutive series of patients with all types of cervical hip fracture (both undisplaced and displaced) were randomised to osteosynthesis with Hansson hook-pins (n = 98) or AO-screws (n = 101). Background parameters, fracture type and reduction of the fracture did not differ significantly between the groups. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were operated on within 6 h of admission to hospital, 74% within 12 h and 92% within 24 h. The mean (median) time for operation was 36 (30) min for the hook-pins and 40 (35) min for the AO-screws. The devices were significantly better positioned in the hook-pin group (81% of cases good) compared to the AO-screws (66% good) (p = 0.04). In all, 72% of the patients had no deficiency either in reduction of the fracture, positioning of the implants or had drill penetration of the femoral head. Direct unrestricted weight bearing was encouraged in 92% of the hook-pin and 90% of the AO-screws group. The mean (median) hospital time was 13 (10) days with no significant difference between the groups. Following treatment, 5% walked without aids, 76% of the patients walked with some aids, and 16% could not walk. The walking ability was not known for 4%. At four months, 59% of the patients were living in their own home (64% before fracture), 18% (25% before) in a nursing home, 5% (11% before) in other accommodation and 18% were dead. After two years, 77% of the hook-pin patients had not needed any re-operation compared to 73% in the AO-screw group. In total a secondary hemi-arthroplasty had been performed in 7% and total hip arthroplasty in 12% of the patients. Extraction only of osteosynthesis material had been performed in 5%. The difference in the reoperation rates between the two methods was not significant. In the undisplaced fractures, 84% of the patients had not needed any reoperation after two years compared to 70% among the displaced fractures. Major reoperation had been performed in 10% (1% hemi and 9% total hip arthroplasty

  14. Tracing The Origin Of Methane And Water On Mars: Mapping Regions Of Active Release At Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Using Keck And VLT Under AO Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, G. L.; Campbell, R.; Lyke, J.; Conrad, A.; Encrenaz, T.; Hartogh, P.; Kauefl, U.; Novak, R. E.; Tokunaga, A.

    2009-09-01

    Strong release of methane from active regions on Mars has been reported in northern summer (1) and southern spring (2). The spatial resolution of these measurements was about 500 km, sufficient to reveal discrete active regions. Regions of methane release appear mainly over ancient terrain (Noachian/Hesperian) known to have a rich hydration history, and often marked by fossae or other scarps. However, higher resolution is needed to test whether methane release is confined to a small number of narrowly defined vents or is widely distributed over the 500 km footprint. If narrowly confined, the plume should have correspondingly higher local density, enhancing spectral searches for water, methane, their isotopologues, and other trace gases that could reveal aspects of methane generation and depth of release. Ground-based telescopes equipped with both adaptive optics (AO) and high dispersion infrared spectrometers have delivered much higher spatial resolution on planetary bodies, but until now have not been applied to Mars. We acquired images and spectra of Mars under AO control at infrared wavelengths, using Keck-2 and ESO-VLT. In June 2009, we acquired test images with NIRC2/Keck-2 using AO in the natural guide star mode and achieved 0.12” FWHM resolution at 3.0 µm wavelength (Mars diameter was 4.7"). Diffraction-limited performance (0.06” at 3 µm) is expected during follow-up observations in September 2009. We observed Mars with UT1 under AO control (MACAO) in August and September 2009, and acquired spectra with CRIRES. We expect to achieve spatial resolution approaching 40 km in November-December 2009, representing a reduction in area by nearly a factor of 100 compared with earlier non-AO searches. Preliminary results will be presented. This work was funded by NASA grants 08-PAST08-0034 (Planetary Astronomy) and 08-PATM080-0031 (Planetary Atmospheres). 1. Mumma, Villanueva, Novak et al., Science 323, 1041 (2009) 2. Villanueva, Mumma, Novak, (in prep) 2009.

  15. Ao38, a new cell line from eggs of the black witch moth, Ascalapha odorata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is permissive for AcMNPV infection and produces high levels of recombinant proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect cell line is a critical component in the production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system and new cell lines hold the promise of increasing both quantity and quality of protein production. Results Seventy cell lines were established by single-cell cloning from a primary culture of cells derived from eggs of the black witch moth (Ascalapha odorata; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Among 8 rapidly growing lines, cell line 38 (Ao38) was selected for further analysis, based on susceptibility to AcMNPV infection and production of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) from a baculovirus expression vector. In comparisons with low-passage High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4) cells, infected Ao38 cells produced β-galactosidase and SEAP at levels higher (153% and 150%, respectively) than those measured from High Five cells. Analysis of N-glycans of SEAP produced in Ao38 cells revealed two N-glycosylation sites and glycosylation patterns similar to those reported for High Five and Sf9 cells. Glycopeptide isoforms consisted of pauci- or oligomannose, with and without fucose on N-acetylglucosamine(s) linked to asparagine residues. Estimates of Ao38 cell volume suggest that Ao38 cells are approximately 2.5× larger than Sf9 cells but only approximately 74% of the size of High Five cells. Ao38 cells were highly susceptible to AcMNPV infection, similar to infectivity of Sf9 cells. Production of infectious AcMNPV budded virions from Ao38 cells peaked at approximately 4.5 × 107 IU/ml, exceeding that from High Five cells while lower than that from Sf9 cells. Ao38 cells grew rapidly in stationary culture with a population doubling time of 20.2 hr, and Ao38 cells were readily adapted to serum-free medium (Sf-900III) and to a suspension culture system. Analysis of Ao38 and a parental Ascalapha odorata cell line indicated that these lines were free of the alphanodavirus that was recently identified as an adventitious agent in High Five cell lines. Conclusions Ao

  16. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  17. Variation characteristics and influences of climate factors on aridity index and its association with AO and ENSO in northern China from 1961 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kexin; Qian, Xiaoqing; Liu, Puxing; Xu, Yihong; Cao, Liguo; Hao, Yongpei; Dai, Shengpei

    2016-08-01

    Analyses of the variation characteristics for aridity index (AI) can further enhance the understanding of climate change and have effect on hydrology and agriculture. In this paper, based on the data of 283 standard meteorological stations, the temporal-spatial variations and the influences of climate factors on AI were investigated and the relationship between AI and two climate indices (the Arctic Oscillation (AO); El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) were also assessed in northern China (NC) during the period from 1961 to 2012. The results revealed that the annual mean AI decreased at the rate of -0.031 per decade in the past 52 years and the trend was statistically significant at the 0.01 level. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test presented that the percentages of stations with positive trends and negative trends for AI were 10 and 81.9 % (22.6 % statistically significant), respectively. Spatially, in the western part of 100° E, the extremely dry area declined and the climate tended to become wet obviously. In the eastern part of 100° E, dry area moved toward the east and the south, which resulted in the enhancement of semiarid area and the shrinkage of subhumid area. The contributions of sunshine duration and precipitation to the decline of AI are more than those of other meteorological variables in NC. Moreover, the average temperature has risen significantly and AI decreased in NC, which indicated the existence of "paradox." Relationship between climate indices (AO and ENSO) and AI demonstrated that the influence of ENSO on AI overweight the AO on AI in NC.

  18. [Effects of dissolved oxygen in the oxic parts of A/O reactor on degradation of organic pollutants and analysis of microbial community for treating petrochemical wastewater].

    PubMed

    Ding, Peng-Yuan; Chu, Li-Bing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Jian-Long

    2015-02-01

    Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the biodegradation of organic pollutants were investigated using A/O reactors for the treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater. Two A/O reactors, DO were controlled at 2-3 mg x L(-1) in the oxic parts of reactor A and 5-6 mg x L(-1) of reactor B, were operated in parallel for comparison. The nearly a half of year operation results showed that the effluent COD in reactor A (72.5 ± 14.8 mg x L(-1)) was slightly higher than that in reactor B (68.7 ± 14.6 mg x L(-1)) at a HRT of 20 h. The average COD removal efficiencies were 67.0% and 68.8%, respectively. The effluent ammonium concentration was maintained at 0.8 mg x L(-1) and approximately 95% of ammonium removal was achieved. The effluent BOD, concentration was lower than 5 mg x L(-1). This indicated that the organic pollutants could be degraded thoroughly by the A/O processes, which were affected slightly by DO. Results of 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the sludge in oxic parts showed that at the phylum levels, sequences belonged to Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant with 58.7% and 59.2%, 14.7% and 12.7%, 10.8% and 12.4% of total bacterial sequences in reactor A and B, respectively. Ammonium oxidation bacteria Nitrosomonas, nitrite oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira and obligate aerobic bacteria were highly enriched in reactor B with high DO levels, while the anaerobic denitrifiers Azospira and Acidovora were highly enriched in reactor A with low DO levels. The identified bacteria belonged to genera Novosphingobium, Comamonas, Sphingobium and Altererythrobacter were reported to degrade PAHs, chloronitrobenzene, pesticides and petroleum, which contributed to the degradation of petrochemical wastewater.

  19. Dose-dependent exposure and metabolism of GNE-892, a β-secretase inhibitor, in monkeys: contributions by P450, AO, and P-gp.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryan; Ma, Shuguang; Yue, Qin; Kim-Kang, Heasook; Yi, Yijun; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Regal, Kelly; Hunt, Kevin W; Kallan, Nicholas C; Siu, Michael; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Liu, Xingrong; Khojasteh, S Cyrus

    2015-06-01

    (R)-2-Amino-1,3',3'-trimethyl-7'-(pyrimidin-5-yl)-3',4'-dihydro-2'H-spiro[imidazole-4,1'-naphthalen]-5(1H)-one (GNE-892) is an orally administered inhibitor of β-secretase 1 (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, BACE1) that was developed as an intervention therapy against Alzheimer's disease. A clinical microdosing strategy was being considered for de-risking the potential pharmacokinetic liabilities of GNE-892. We tested whether dose-proportionality was observed in cynomolgus monkey as proof-of-concept for a human microdosing study. With cryopreserved monkey hepatocytes, concentration-dependency for substrate turnover and the relative contribution of P450- versus AO-mediated metabolism were observed. Characterization of the kinetics of these metabolic pathways demonstrated differences in the affinities of P450 and AO for GNE-892, which supported the metabolic profiles that had been obtained. To test if this metabolic shift occurred in vivo, mass balance studies in monkeys were conducted at doses of 0.085 and 15 mg/kg. Plasma exposure of GNE-892 following oral administration was more than 20-fold greater than dose proportional at the high-dose. P-gp-mediated efflux was unable to explain the discrepancy. The profiles of metabolites in circulation and excreta were indicative that oxidative metabolism limited the exposure to unchanged GNE-892 at the low dose. Further, the in vivo data supported the concentration-dependent metabolic shift between P450 and AO. In conclusion, microdosing of GNE-892 was not predictive of pharmacokinetics at a more pharmacologically relevant dose due to saturable absorption and metabolism. Therefore, it is important to consider ADME liabilities and their potential concentration-dependency when deciding upon a clinical microdosing strategy.

  20. Asteroid (16) Psyche: Triaxial Ellipsoid Dimensions and Rotational Pole from Keck II NIRC2 AO Images and Keck I OSIRIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Conrad, Al; Reddy, Vishnu; de Kleer, Katherine R.; Adamkovics, Mate; de Pater, Imke; Merline, William J.; Tamblyn, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) images of asteroid (16) Psyche obtained at 4 epochs with the NIRC2 camera at the 10m W. M. Keck Observatory (Keck II) on UT 2015 December 25 lead to triaxial ellipsoid diameters of 279±4 x 230±2 x 195±14 km, and a rotational pole at RA=29° and Dec=-2°. Adding 6 more epochs obtained nearly simultaneously with the OSIRIS system at Keck I, as well as two more epochs from Keck II in 2009, yields diameters of 273±2 x 232±2 x 165±3 km, and a pole at RA=37° and Dec=+1°. (Errors are formal fit parameter uncertainties; an additional 4% uncertainty is possible from systematic biases.) The differing perspectives between 2015 (sub-Earth latitude Θ=-50°) and 2009 (Θ=-6°) improves primarily the c dimension and the location of the rotational pole, but illustrates how well images from even a single night can determine the size, shape, and pole of an asteroid. The 2015 observations were obtained as part of a campaign to study Psyche with many techniques over a few months, including radar from Arecibo and images from Magellan.These handful of images show the same rugged outline as the radius vector model available on the DAMIT website, constructed from many lightcurves and scaled by previous Keck AO images. In fact Psyche has rotated some 125,350 times between the first lightcurve in 1955 and our 2015 AO images, exactly 60 years apart to the day. Since the asteroid has such a high obliquity, these lightcurves have scanned well into both northern and southern hemispheres. The difference between the pole derived from our images and the radius vector model pole is only 7°, and the mean diameters of Psyche are 219 and 211 km, respectively.

  1. Backside-illuminated, high-QE, 3e- RoN, fast 700fps, 1760x1680 pixels CMOS imager for AO with highly parallel readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Mark; Kolb, Johann; Baade, Dietrich; Balard, Philippe; Dierickx, Bart; Defernez, Arnaud; Dupont, Benoit; Feautrier, Philippe; Finger, Gert; Fryer, Martin; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Iwert, Olaf; Jerram, Paul; Jorden, Paul; Pike, Andrew; Pratlong, Jerome; Reyes, Javier; Stadler, Eric; Walker, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend upon improving the image quality (correcting the distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence) by exploiting sophisticated Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. One of the critical components of the AO systems for the E-ELT has been identified as the Laser/Natural Guide Star (LGS/NGS) WaveFront Sensing (WFS) detector. The combination of large format, 1760x1680 pixels to finely sample (84x84 sub-apertures) the wavefront and the spot elongation of laser guide stars, fast frame rate of 700 (up to 1000) frames per second, low read noise (< 3e-), and high QE (> 90%) makes the development of such a device extremely challenging. Design studies by industry concluded that a thinned and backside-illuminated CMOS Imager as the most promising technology. This paper describes the multi-phased development plan that will ensure devices are available on-time for E-ELT first-light AO systems; the different CMOS pixel architectures studied; measured results of technology demonstrators that have validated the CMOS Imager approach; the design explaining the approach of massive parallelism (70,000 ADCs) needed to achieve low noise at high pixel rates of ~3 Gpixel/s ; the 88 channel LVDS data interface; the restriction that stitching (required due to the 5x6cm size) posed on the design and the solutions found to overcome these limitations. Two generations of the CMOS Imager will be built: a pioneering quarter sized device of 880x840 pixels capable of meeting first light needs of the E-ELT called NGSD (Natural Guide Star Detector); followed by the full size device, the LGSD (Laser Guide Star Detector). Funding sources: OPTICON FP6 and FP7 from European Commission and ESO.

  2. Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Gravili, Cinzia; Boero, Ferdinando; Tredici, Salvatore M; Alifano, Pietro

    2010-04-01

    Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the species V. harveyi, and the benthic hydrozoan Aglaophenia octodonta. In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility to antibiotics (ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, or co-trimoxazole = mix of sulfamethoxazole and trimetoprim) of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host by using microcosm experiments. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments demonstrated that Vibrio sp. AO1 was highly resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin in pure culture. Nevertheless, these antibiotics, when used at sub-MIC values, significantly reduced the hydroid fluorescence. Co-trimoxazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on fluorescence of A. octodonta. However, in all treatments, the fluorescence was reduced after 48 h, but never disappeared completely around the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrothecae of A. octodonta when the antibiotic was used at concentration completely inhibiting growth in vitro. The apparent discrepancy between the MIC data and the fluorescence patterns may be due to either heterogeneity of the bacterial population in terms of antibiotic susceptibility or specific chemical-physical conditions of the hydroid microenvironment that may decrease the antibiotic susceptibility of the whole population. The latter hypothesis is supported by scanning electron microscope evidence for development of bacterial biofilm on the hydroid surface. On the basis of the results obtained, we infer that A. octodonta might behave as a reservoir of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria

  3. [Application of bone flap pedicled on retrograde branch of radial artery for treatment of old scaphoid bone fractures of type AO-B].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-peng

    2015-05-01

    To investigate application of the bone flap pedicled on the retrograde branch of radial artery for treatment of old scaphoid bone fractures of type AO-B. From October 2007 to October 2011,41 patients with old scaphoid bone fractures of type AO-B were treated by transplantation of the bone flap pedicled on the retrograde branch of radial artery including 26 males and 15 females with an average of (27.3±4.5) years old ranging from 16 to 43 years old. The courses before operation ranged from 6 to 22 months with an average of 11 months. All fractures belonged to the type B of AO classification, that is old wrist fracture of scaphoid bone. All patients' wrist function (pain, function, motion, grip strength) were evaluated by Cooney's modifiedwrist scoring system before and 6 months after operation,and the conditions of bone healing were observed during the follow-up time. Among them, 36 patients were followed up from 4 to 15 months with an average of 8.3 months. The wounds were healed well without other complications as infection appearing. X-rays or CT confirmed that all fractures were healed completely. The Cooney wrist score was improved from preoperative 53.61±13.97 to postoperative 81.81±8.71 (P<0.01). The operation of transplantation of the bone flap pedicled on the retrograde branch of radial artery is an effective method to treat old scaphoid bone fractures,which is scientific and has curative effects, and valuable for clinical application.

  4. Pleurolucina from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans: a new intertidal species from Curaçao with unusual shell microstructure (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Emily A.; Taylor, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new shallow water species of the lucinid bivalve Pleurolucina is described from Curaçao in the southern Caribbean Sea and compared with known species of the genus from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Although confused with the Floridian species Pleurolucina leucocyma, it is most similar to the eastern Pacific Pleurolucina undata. As in all studied lucinids, the new species possesses symbiotic bacteria housed in the ctenidia. The shell microstructure is unusual with repeated and intercalated conchiolin layers that have sublayers of ‘tulip-shaped’ calcareous spherules. Predatory drillings by naticid gastropods frequently terminate at the conchiolin layers. PMID:27853404

  5. Vibrations in MagAO: frequency-based analysis of on-sky data, resonance sources identification, and future challenges in vibrations mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga, Sebastián.; Garcés, Javier; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Escárate, Pedro; Castro, Mario; Marchioni, José; Zagals, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Frequency-based analysis and comparisons of tip-tilt on-sky data registered with 6.5 Magellan Telescope Adaptive Optics (MagAO) system on April and Oct 2014 was performed. Twelve tests are conducted under different operation conditions in order to observe the influence of system instrumentation (such as fans, pumps and louvers). Vibration peaks can be detected, power spectral densities (PSDs) are presented to reveal their presence. Instrumentation-induced resonances, close-loop gain and future challenges in vibrations mitigation techniques are discussed.

  6. Amorphization of Al[sub 6]Mn phase in an Al-14 a/o Mn alloy during low energy helium ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, K.G.M.; Krishan, K. . Materials Science Division); Vijayalakshmi, M. . Metallurgy Division)

    1993-10-01

    Amorphization of ordered intermetallic compounds has been observed during ion, electron and neutron irradiations. Investigations have been carried out in a number of systems. It has been generally observed that intermetallic compounds with a narrow range of homogeneity (line compounds) amorphize on irradiation. The present paper reports the observation of irradiation-induced amorphization in the Al[sub 6]Mn phase in an Al-14 a/o Mn alloy. The dose and energy dependence of the amorphization process are discussed. The present studies suggest that the defects produced during irradiation rather than the implanted atoms (helium) play a major role in the crystalline to amorphous transition.

  7. Biomechanical Comparison of Volar Fixed-Angle Locking Plates for AO C3 Distal Radius Fractures: Titanium Versus Stainless Steel With Compression.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Tyler; Momaya, Amit; Eberhardt, Alan; Chaudhari, Nilesh; Hunt, Thomas R

    2015-10-01

    To determine biomechanical differences between a fixed-angle locking volar titanium plate (VariAx; Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) and a fixed-angle compression locking volar stainless steel plate (CoverLoc Volar Plate; Tornier, Amsterdam, Netherlands) in the fixation of simulated AO C3 distal radius fractures. Eighteen cadaveric upper extremities (9 matched pairs) with an average age of 54 years were tested. A 4-part AO C3 fracture pattern was created in each specimen. The fractures were reduced under direct vision and fixed with either the fixed-angle locking volar titanium plate or the fixed-angle compression locking volar stainless steel plate. Motion tracking analysis was then performed while the specimens underwent cyclic loading. Changes in displacement, rotation, load to failure, and mode of failure were recorded. The fragments, when secured with the fixed-angle compression locking stainless steel construct, demonstrated less displacement and rotation than the fragments secured with the fixed-angle locking titanium plate under physiological loading conditions. In the fixed-angle compression locking stainless steel group, aggregate displacement and rotation of fracture fragments were 5 mm and 3° less, respectively, than those for the fixed-angle locking titanium group. The differences between axial loads at mechanical failure and stiffness were not statistically significant. The compression locking stainless steel group showed no trend in mode of failure, and the locking titanium plate group failed most often by articular fixation failure (5 of 9 specimens). The fixed-angle compression locking stainless steel volar plate may result in less displacement and rotation of fracture fragments in the fixation of AO C3 distal radius fractures than fixation by the fixed-angle locking volar titanium plate. However, there were no differences between the plates in mechanical load to failure and stiffness. Fixation of distal radius AO C3 fracture patterns with the fixed

  8. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP).

  9. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two "golden basses" found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3-135 m, 30-150 m, 133-411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182-241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  10. Reassessment of the active site quino-cofactor proposed to occur in the Aspergillus niger amine oxidase AO-I from the properties of model compounds.

    PubMed

    Melville, C R; Green, E L; Sanders-Loehr, J; Klinman, J P

    2000-06-27

    Quino-cofactors have been found in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Two variants have, thus far, been demonstrated to derive from tyrosine precursors: these are the 2,4, 5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (topa quinone or TPQ) [Janes, S. M. , et al. (1990) Science 248, 98] and an o-quinone analogue containing the side chain of a lysine residue (lysyltyrosine quinone or LTQ) [Wang, S. Z., et al. (1996) Science 273, 1078]. Additionally, a third variant of the family of tyrosine-derived cofactors has been reported to exist in an Aspergillus niger amine oxidase AO-I. This was described as an o-quinone cross-linked to the side chain of a glutamate residue [Frebort, I. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1295, 59]. We have synthesized model compounds related to the proposed structure. Characterization of the redox properties for the model compound and spectral properties of its 4-nitrophenylhydrazine derivative lead us to conclude that the cofactor in A. niger amine oxidase AO-I has been misidentified. A TPQ carboxylate ester is considered an unlikely candidate for a biologically functional quino-cofactor.

  11. The stimulating role of subunit F in ATPase activity inside the A1-complex of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A1AO ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dhirendra; Sielaff, Hendrik; Sundararaman, Lavanya; Bhushan, Shashi; Grüber, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    A1AO ATP synthases couple ion-transport of the AO sector and ATP synthesis/hydrolysis of the A3B3-headpiece via their stalk subunits D and F. Here, we produced and purified stable A3B3D- and A3B3DF-complexes of the Methanosarcina mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase as confirmed by electron microscopy. Enzymatic studies with these complexes showed that the M. mazei Gö1 A-ATP synthase subunit F is an ATPase activating subunit. The maximum ATP hydrolysis rates (Vmax) of A3B3D and A3B3DF were determined by substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis experiments resulting in a Vmax of 7.9 s(-1) and 30.4 s(-1), respectively, while the KM is the same for both. Deletions of the N- or C-termini of subunit F abolished the effect of ATP hydrolysis activation. We generated subunit F mutant proteins with single amino acid substitutions and demonstrated that the subunit F residues S84 and R88 are important in stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Hybrid formation of the A3B3D-complex with subunit F of the related eukaryotic V-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or subunit ε of the F-ATP synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed that subunit F of the archaea and eukaryotic enzymes are important in ATP hydrolysis.

  12. Investigation of retinal microstructure in healthy eyes and dry age-related macular degeneration using a combined AO-OCT-SLO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells-Gray, Elaine M.; Choi, Stacey S.; Ohr, Matthew; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Doble, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    Combined adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) imaging allows simultaneous en face and cross sectional views of the retina. We describe improvements to our AO-OCT-SLO system and highlight its resolution capability and clinical utility by presenting results from 3 control and 4 dry agerelated macular degeneration (AMD) subjects. From a group of subjects with healthy eyes, OCT A-scans were grouped as originating from cones or rods and were averaged. The resulting reflectance profiles were then used to identify the location of cone and rod segments. Results for rods and cones were compared, with the focus on inner segment (IS) and outer segment (OS) structures and where these cells embed into the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the AMD patients, cone IS and OS lengths were measured over and around drusen for two retinal regions (fovea-2° and 2°-4°), and those results were correlated to drusen height. For the fovea-2° region, the drusen height that caused statistically significant shortening of cone ISL and OSL compared to the unaffected adjacent area were 40 μm and 50 μm respectively (p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively). For the 2°-4° region, the equivalent drusen heights that caused significant shortening of segment length were 60 μm for IS (p = 0.017) and 80 μm for OS (p < 0.001)

  13. Construction of a mouse Aos1-Uba2 chimeric SUMO-E1 enzyme, mAU, and its expression in baculovirus-insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Tomofumi; Yuasa, Eri; Kanemaru, Ayumi; Saito, Masayuki; Saitoh, Hisato

    2014-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a highly conserved protein that is covalently attached to target proteins. This posttranslational modification, designated SUMOylation, is a major protein-conjugation-driven strategy designed to regulate structure and function of cellular proteins. SUMOylation consists of an enzymatic cascade involving the E1-activating enzyme and the E2-conjugating enzyme. The SUMO-E1 enzyme consists of two subunits, a heterodimer of activation of Smt3p 1 (Aos1) and ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (Uba2), which resembles the N- and C-terminal halves of ubiquitin E1 (Uba1). Herein, we describe the rational design of a single polypeptide version of SUMO-E1, a chimera of mouse Aos1 and Uba2 subunits, termed mAU, in which the functional domains appear to be arranged in a fashion similar to Uba1. We also describe the construction of a mAU plasmid for expression in a baculovirus-insect cell system and present an in situ SUMOylation assay using the recombinant mAU. Our results showed that mAU has SUMO-E1 activity, thereby indicating that mAU can be expressed in baculovirus-insect cells and represents a suitable source of SUMO-E1. PMID:24637489

  14. Dust and Diffuse Interstellar Bands in the z{sub a} = 0.524 Absorption System toward AO 0235+164

    SciTech Connect

    Junkkarinen, V.

    2004-08-06

    The authors present new HST STIS NUV-MAMA and STIS CCD observations of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 and the intervening damped Ly {alpha} (DLA) line at z{sub {alpha}} = 0.524. The line profile gives N(HI) = 5 {+-} 1 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} and, combined with the H I 21 cm absorption data leads to a spin temperature of Ts = 220 K {+-} 60 K. Those spectra also show a strong, broad feature at the expected position of the 2175 {angstrom} graphitic dust feature at z{sup {alpha}} = 0.524. Assuming a Galactic type dust extinction curve at z{sub {alpha}} = 0.524 gives a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 Galactic, but the fit, assuming the underlying, un-reddened spectrum is a single power-law, is poor in the far-UV. A dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 Galactic is similar to the LMC, but the AO 0235+164 spectrum does not fit the LMC extinction curve, or the SMC extinction curve (which has practically no 2175 {angstrom} feature). A possible interpretation includes dust similar to Galactic, but with less of the small particles that produce the far-UV extinction. The metallicity of the z{sub {alpha}} = 0.524 absorber, estimated from the observed N(HI) and excess X-ray absorption (beyond Galactic) derived from contemporaneous and archival ASCA and ROSAT.

  15. Interrater reliability for the basic categories of the AO/ASIF's system as a frame of reference for classifying distal radial fractures.

    PubMed

    Oskam, J; Kingma, J; Klasen, H J

    2001-04-01

    This study is about agreement on the assignment into the three basic classes or categories (A, B, C) of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation's (AO/ASIF) classification system for distal radial fractures. A random sample of 124 distal radial fractures was classified by two experienced observers. Their agreement was calculated according to Cohen's kappa statistic. To investigate the possible bases for disagreement, all conflicting X-ray assessments were discussed in a consensus meeting. It appeared that the kappa value was .65 (good agreement) before the meeting; kappa rose to .86 (excellent agreement) after the consensus meeting. It appeared that the undisplaced fractures were a major source of disagreement. Further, the presence of articular involvement was an important issue. It was frequently noted that one observer classified the fracture as extraarticular (basic Class A), while the other observer chose classification as an intra-articular fracture (basic Class C) or vice versa. This phenomenon has been called the A/C reversal shift. It is concluded that radiological innovations might enhance agreement on articular involvement, and a separate category for undisplaced fractures should be defined in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) system. However, agreement on relevant distinctive features and discussion of conflicting assessments may also be important in achieving excellent agreement.

  16. Mifepristone followed by home administration of buccal misoprostol for medical abortion up to 70 days of amenorrhoea in a general practice in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Adriana A; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; Kleiverda, Gunilla

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of home administration of buccal misoprostol after mifepristone for medical abortion up to 70 days' gestation in a general practice in Curaçao, where induced abortion is severely restricted by law. In a prospective study 330 women received 200 mg mifepristone and were instructed to take four tablets (800 μg) of misoprostol via the buccal route 24-36 h later, at home. One week later, follow-up took place. The outcome could be evaluated in 307 of the 330 women. The efficacy of the mifepristone-buccal misoprostol procedure was 97.7% (300/307). In seven women vacuum aspirations for continuing pregnancy or incomplete abortion following treatment were required. Success rates at 64-70 days' gestation were the same as for gestations of less than 64 days duration. The main adverse effects were nausea and diarrhoea. Home administration of buccal misoprostol 24-36 h after mifepristone is a safe and effective method of medical abortion up to 70 days. It could be applied in a general practice in Curaçao, where induced abortion is legally restricted.

  17. DIFFRACTION-LIMITED VISIBLE LIGHT IMAGES OF ORION TRAPEZIUM CLUSTER WITH THE MAGELLAN ADAPTIVE SECONDARY ADAPTIVE OPTICS SYSTEM (MagAO)

    SciTech Connect

    Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Follette, K.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Wu, Y-L.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Riccardi, A.; Pinna, E.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Uomoto, A; Hare, T.

    2013-09-10

    We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high spatial resolution observations in ''visible light'' with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.''5-0.''7), we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60 s) r' (0.63 {mu}m) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl {approx}28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young ({approx}1 Myr) Orion Trapezium {theta}{sup 1} Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary {theta}{sup 1} Ori C{sub 1} C{sub 2} was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. The relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with {approx}0.6-5 mas accuracy. We are now sensitive to relative proper motions of just {approx}0.2 mas yr{sup -1} ({approx}0.4 km s{sup -1} at 414 pc)-this is a {approx}2-10 Multiplication-Sign improvement in orbital velocity accuracy compared to previous efforts. For the first time, we see clear motion of the barycenter of {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 2} B{sub 3} about {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 1}. All five members of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system appear likely to be a gravitationally bound ''mini cluster'', but we find that not all the orbits can be both circular and co-planar. The lowest mass member of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system (B{sub 4}; mass {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) has a very clearly detected motion (at 4.1 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1}; correlation = 99.9%) w.r.t. B{sub 1}. Previous work has suggested that B{sub 4} and B{sub 3} are on long-term unstable orbits and will be ejected from this ''mini cluster''. However, our new ''baseline'' model of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system suggests a more hierarchical system than previously thought, and so

  18. Telescópio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluição luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Júnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmissão de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar fórmulas e, eventualmente, a repetição de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, é conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da ciência. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu caráter observacional, é uma das áreas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenário. A Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescópio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as câmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino médio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a condução de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nível apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com técnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulação de dados e gráficos, programas de tratamento e redução de dados, uso de equipamentos óptico-eletrônicos (telescópio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisição de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenômenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrência relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o céu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no último ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observação da variável pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da variável cataclísmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trânsito da lua de Júpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras estão concordantes com as da literatura, assim

  19. Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

  20. Dynamic hip screw versus proximal femur locking compression plate in intertrochanteric femur fractures (AO 31A1 and 31A2): A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Prabhat; Gaba, Sahil; Das, Saubhik; Singh, Ranjit; Kumar, Arvind; Yadav, Gajanand

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Intertrochanteric fractures are common in elderly population and pose a significant financial burden to the society. Anatomically contoured proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP) is the latest addition in the surgeons’ armamentarium to deal with these fractures. It creates an angular stable construct, which will theoretically lessen the risk of failure by screw cut-out and varus collapse, the common mode of DHS failure. We compared DHS with PFLCP in AO type 31A1 and 31A2 intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: A randomized prospective study was carried out between June 2011 and June 2013. 26 cases each of DHS and PFLCP were included. Results: Functional and radiological outcome was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Both DHS and PFLCP are good choices for stable intertrochanteric fractures, and both lead to excellent functional outcomes, but non-union might be more common with PFLCP.

  1. NEARLY PERIODIC FLUCTUATIONS IN THE LONG-TERM X-RAY LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZARS AO 0235+164 AND 1ES 2321+419

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Bindu; Gupta, Alok C.; Wiita, Paul J. E-mail: acgupta30@gmail.com

    2009-05-10

    We have performed a structure function analysis of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor data to search for variability in 24 blazars using data trains that each exceed 12 yr. Although 20 of them show nominal periods through this technique, the great majority of these 'periods' are clearly related to yearly variations arising from the instrument. Nonetheless, an apparently real periodic component of about 17 days was detected for the blazar AO 0235+164 and it was confirmed by discrete correlation function and periodogram analyses. For 1ES 2321+419, a component of variability with a near periodicity of about 420 days was detected by all of these methods. We discuss several possible explanations for these nearly periodic components and conclude that they most likely arise from the intersections of a shock propagating down a relativistic jet that possesses a helical structure.

  2. Levels, composition profiles and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Nan'ao Island, a representative mariculture base in South China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Lu, Teng-Teng; Ke, Chang-Liang; Sun, Run-Xia; Du, Fei-Yan

    2013-10-15

    Levels, composition profiles and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Nan'ao Island, one of the largest mariculture bases in South China were investigated. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 265.49 to 951.27 ng/g (dry weight) with a mean of 515.90 ng/g, and seven possible carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 76.94% of total PAHs. Among various mariculture sections, the highest PAHs level was found in the large seaweed culture; while the lowest concentration was detected in the abandoned culture. The composition of PAHs was characterized by low molecular weight PAHs, and Phe Ant and Pyr were the dominant constituent. PAHs may be mainly originated from petroleum and combustion of biomass and coal. Risk assessments suggested that the probability of adverse effect was lower than 25% and PAHs exposure was moderately carcinogenic.

  3. Volcanic activity of Io observed in December 2001 with the Keck AO system: 2-5μ m sunlit and eclipse observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; de Pater, I.; Le Mignant, D.; Roe, H.; Fusco, T.; Graham, J. R.; Prange, R.; Macintosh, B.; Keck Science Team

    2002-09-01

    Volcanically active Io remains a mysterious and intriguing moon, despite numerous spacecraft flybys. Groundbased monitoring programs help characterize the time evolution of Io's volcanic activity, such as the frequency, spatial distribution and temperature of hot spots and outbursts. The satellite was observed intensively in December 2001 with the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system and its recently installed near-infrared camera NIRC2. The spatial resolution after applying the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method (130 km in K band and 200 km in L band) is better than that of the global images from the Galileo/NIMS instrument. A movie produced from 12 pictures taken every 30o in Ionian longitude provides a complete survey of Io's surface during one full rotation. A total of 26 active hot spots were detected in L band (3.8μ m), and approximatively three times more in M band (4.7μ m). One active hot spot is seen in K band (2.2μ m) in the Pele area. While Io is in Jupiter's shadow, it is invisible to the wavefront sensor, but its hot spots are easily visible in the near-infrared. We imaged Io during the 18 Dec. 2001 eclipse using Ganymede (30" from Io, moving relative to Io at 0.5"/min) as a reference source. Although isoplanatic effects limited AO performance, numerous spots are detected at both K' and L'. We will show the results of detailed studies (temperature, emission area, nature) for several of the hot spots. Keck Science team is composed of S. Kwok, P. Amico, R. Campbell, F. Chaffee, A. Conrad, A. Contos, B. Goodrich, G. Hill, D. Sprayberry, P. Stomski, P. Wizinowich (W.M. Keck Observatory). This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST-9876783.

  4. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini. PMID:24899845

  5. Cluster Glimpses with RAVEN: AO-corrected Near and Mid-infrared Images of GLIMPSE C01 and GLIMPSE C02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidge, T. J.; Andersen, D. R.; Lardière, O.; Bradley, C.; Blain, C.; Oya, S.; Terada, H.; Hayano, Y.; Lamb, M.; Akiyama, M.; Ono, Y. H.; Suzuki, G.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss images of the star clusters GLIMPSE C01 (GC01) and GLIMPSE C02 (GC02) that were recorded with the Subaru IRCS. Distortions in the wavefront were corrected with the RAVEN adaptive optics (AO) science demonstrator, allowing individual stars in the central regions of both clusters—where the fractional contamination from non-cluster objects is lowest—to be imaged. In addition to J, H, and K‧ images, both clusters were observed through a narrow-band filter centered near 3.05 μm GC01 was also observed through two other narrow-band filters that sample longer wavelengths. Stars in the narrow-band images have an FWHM that is close to the telescope diffraction limit, demonstrating that open-loop AO systems like RAVEN can deliver exceptional image quality. The near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of GC01 is smeared by non-uniform extinction with a 1σ dispersion ΔA K = ±0.13 mag. Spatial variations in A K are not related in a systematic way to location in the field. The Red Clump is identified in the K luminosity function (LF) of GC01, and a distance modulus of 13.6 is found. The K LF of GC01 is consistent with a system that is dominated by stars with an age >1 Gyr. As for GC02, the K LF is flat for K > 16, and the absence of a sub-giant branch argues against an old age if the cluster is at a distance of ˜7 kpc. Archival SPITZER [3.6] and [4.5] images of the clusters are also examined, and the red giant branch-tip is identified. It is demonstrated in the Appendix that the [3.6] surface brightness profiles of both clusters can be traced out to radii of at least 100 arcsec.

  6. A Worldwide Analysis of the Reliability and Perceived Importance of an Injury to the Posterior Ligamentous Complex in AO Type A Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Kepler, Christopher K.; Koerner, John D.; Oner, F. Cumhur; Fehlings, Michael G.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Kandziora, Frank; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of spine surgeons. Objective To determine the reliability with which international spine surgeons identify a posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) injury in a patient with a compression-type vertebral body fracture (type A). Methods A survey was sent to all AOSpine members from the six AO regions of the world. The survey consisted of 10 cases of type A fractures (2 subtype A1, 2 subtype A2, 3 subtype A3, and 3 subtype A4 fractures) with appropriate imaging (plain radiographs, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and the respondent was asked to identify fractures with a PLC disruption, as well as to indicate if the integrity of the PLC would affect their treatment recommendation. Results Five hundred twenty-nine spine surgeons from all six AO regions of the world completed the survey. The overall interobserver reliability in determining the integrity of the PLC was slight (kappa = 0.11). No substantial regional or experiential difference was identified in determining PLC integrity or its absence; however, a regional difference was identified (p < 0.001) in how PLC integrity influenced the treatment of type A fractures. Conclusion The results of this survey indicate that there is only slight international reliability in determining the integrity of the PLC in type A fractures. Although the biomechanical importance of the PLC is not in doubt, the inability to reliably determine the integrity of the PLC may limit the utility of the M1 modifier in the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. PMID:26430591

  7. Identification of Jasmonic Acid and Jasmonoyl-Isoleucine, and Characterization of AOS, AOC, OPR and JAR1 in the Model Lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii.

    PubMed

    Pratiwi, Putri; Tanaka, Genta; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Koichi; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku

    2017-04-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in a variety of physiological responses in seed plants. However, the detection and role of JA in lycophytes, a group of seedless vascular plants, have remained elusive until recently. This study provides the first evidence of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) in the model lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Mechanical wounding stimulated the accumulation of OPDA, JA and JA-Ile. These data were corroborated by the detection of enzymatically active allene oxide synthase (AOS), allene oxide cyclase (AOC), 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) and JA-Ile synthase (JAR1) in S. moellendorffii. SmAOS2 is involved in the first committed step of JA biosynthesis. SmAOC1 is a crucial enzyme for generating the basic structure of jasmonates and is actively involved in the formation of OPDA. SmOPR5, a functionally active OPR3-like enzyme, is also vital for the reduction of (+)-cis-OPDA, the only isomer of the JA precursor. The conjugation of JA to Ile by SmJAR1 demonstrates that S. moellendorffii produces JA-Ile. Thus, the four active enzymes have characteristics similar to those in seed plants. Wounding and JA treatment induced the expression of SmAOC1 and SmOPR5. Furthermore, JA inhibited the growth of shoots in S. moellendorffii, which suggests that JA functions as a signaling molecule in S. moellendorffii. This study proposes that JA evolved as a plant hormone for stress adaptation, beginning with the emergence of vascular plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Worldwide Analysis of the Reliability and Perceived Importance of an Injury to the Posterior Ligamentous Complex in AO Type A Fractures.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Koerner, John D; Oner, F Cumhur; Fehlings, Michael G; Aarabi, Bizhan; Dvorak, Marcel F; Reinhold, Max; Kandziora, Frank; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R; Vialle, Luiz R; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Survey of spine surgeons. Objective To determine the reliability with which international spine surgeons identify a posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) injury in a patient with a compression-type vertebral body fracture (type A). Methods A survey was sent to all AOSpine members from the six AO regions of the world. The survey consisted of 10 cases of type A fractures (2 subtype A1, 2 subtype A2, 3 subtype A3, and 3 subtype A4 fractures) with appropriate imaging (plain radiographs, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and the respondent was asked to identify fractures with a PLC disruption, as well as to indicate if the integrity of the PLC would affect their treatment recommendation. Results Five hundred twenty-nine spine surgeons from all six AO regions of the world completed the survey. The overall interobserver reliability in determining the integrity of the PLC was slight (kappa = 0.11). No substantial regional or experiential difference was identified in determining PLC integrity or its absence; however, a regional difference was identified (p < 0.001) in how PLC integrity influenced the treatment of type A fractures. Conclusion The results of this survey indicate that there is only slight international reliability in determining the integrity of the PLC in type A fractures. Although the biomechanical importance of the PLC is not in doubt, the inability to reliably determine the integrity of the PLC may limit the utility of the M1 modifier in the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System.

  9. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  10. Insights on germinability and desiccation tolerance in developing neem seeds (Azadirachta indica): Role of AOS, antioxidative enzymes and dehydrin-like protein.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Balram; Sahu, Alok Kumar; Chennareddy, Srinivasa Rao; Soni, Avinash; Naithani, Subhash Chandra

    2017-03-01

    The germinability and desiccation tolerance (DT) in developing seed are regulated by cellular metabolism involving active oxygen species (AOS) and protective proteins during maturation drying. The aim of the present investigation was to unravel the functions of AOS (superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical), antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX) and dehydrin-like proteins in regulating the germinability and DT in undried and artificially desiccated developing neem seeds. Germination was first observed in seeds of 8 weeks after anthesis (waa) whereas DT was noticed from 9 waa. High levels of superoxide in undried and artificially desiccated seeds of 9 waa were rapidly declined up to 15 waa with simultaneous increase in levels of SOD (quantitative and isoenzymes) that dismutates superoxide with corresponding formation and accumulation of H2O2. Activities and isoenzymes of APX and CAT were promoted in seeds from 9 to 12 waa. Intensity of dehydrin-like proteins increased as development progressed in seeds with higher intensities in slow dried (SD) seeds. Desiccation modulated the metabolism for the acquisition of germinability and DT in the developing neem seeds from 8 to 15 waa by altering the levels of superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical those possibly act as signalling molecules for reprogramming protective proteins. Desiccation mediated the expression of new bands of SOD and APX in undried as well as SD seeds during 9-12 waa but the bands were more intense in SD seeds. The superoxide and H2O2-regulated intensity of dehydrin-like protein in SD seeds further validated our conclusion.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Efficacy of Di'ao Xinxuekang Capsule and Isosorbide Dinitrate in Treating Angina Pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yongliang; Chen, Cong; Ng, Choi-San; Leung, Siu-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on di'ao xinxuekang capsule (XXK) in treating angina pectoris were published only in Chinese and have not been systematically reviewed particularly for comparing XXK with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). This study aims to provide a comprehensive PRISMA compliant and internationally accessible systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacies of XXK and ISDN in treating angina pectoris. Methods. The RCTs published between 1989 and 2011 on XXK and ISDN in treating angina pectoris were selected according to specific criteria. Meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the symptomatic (SYMPTOMS) and electrocardiographic (ECG) improvements after treatment. Odds ratios (OR) were used to measure effect sizes. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and metaregression were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. Results. Seven RCTs with 550 participants were eligible. Overall ORs for comparing XXK with ISDN were 4.11 (95% CI :  2.57, 6.55) in SYMPTOMS and 2.37 (95% CI : 1.46, 3.84) in ECG. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and metaregression found no significant dependence of overall ORs upon specific study characteristics. Conclusion. The meta-analysis of eligible but limited RCTs demonstrates that XXK seems to be more effective than ISDN in treating angina pectoris. Further RCTs of high quality are warranted to be conducted for update of the results of this meta-analysis. PMID:22474528

  12. Traditional healing practices originating in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao: A review of the literature on psychiatry and Brua.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Poulina, Igmar T; van Gellecum, Trevor L; Hoek, Hans W

    2015-12-01

    Brua is an Afro-Caribbean religion and healing tradition from the southern part of the former Netherlands Antilles. Like other Caribbean healing traditions, it plays a significant role in shaping how individuals experience and express disorders which Western health professionals consider to require psychiatric care. Because little has been published on Brua, and because patients from Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao are often reluctant to discuss their commitment to this tradition, they are often misdiagnosed and either over- or undertreated by biomedically trained health professionals. The present paper provides a review of the literature on Brua and its relation to psychiatry. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, the Ovid database, Google Scholar, and the historical literature. Our search yielded 35 texts on Brua, including three peer-reviewed scientific papers and eight academic theses. From those texts Brua emerges as a holistic patchwork of creolized beliefs and practices which are considered to be both cause and remedy for a wide variety of ailments. Despite the fact that tension between the Brua discourse and Western-oriented psychiatric practice is significant, adherence to Brua does not seem to cause much patient delay in help-seeking. However, belief in Brua as a possible source of mental and physical complaints, as well as patients' frequent recourse to Brua practices, including the use of hallucinogens, may affect the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

  13. Summary Report of the First International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances and Workshop on AoA/Model Deformation Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping; Burner, Alpheus W.; Finley, Tom D.

    1999-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances was sponsored under the auspices of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton, Virginia during October 22-25, 1996. Held at the LaRC Reid Conference Center, the Symposium provided an open international forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and strain gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant international technical communities. The program included a panel discussion, technical paper sessions, tours of local facilities, and vendor exhibits. Over 130 delegates were in attendance from 15 countries. A steering committee was formed to plan a second international balance symposium tentatively scheduled to be hosted in the United Kingdom in 1998 or 1999. The Balance Symposium was followed by the half-day Workshop on Angle of Attack and Model Deformation on the afternoon of October 25. The thrust of the Workshop was to assess the state of the art in angle of attack (AoA) and model deformation measurement techniques and to discuss future developments.

  14. Electron spin resonance and radiocarbon dating of coral deposited by Holocene tsunami events on Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, Ulrich; Schellmann, Gerhard; Scheffers, Anja; Kelletat, Dieter; Kromer, Bernd; Uwe Kasper, Haino

    2003-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of coral has become an efficient geochronological tool for studying the last 500,000 years. This study presents results of ESR dating of Holocene coral from Curaçao, Bonaire and Aruba, Leeward Netherlands Antilles. The coral accumulated in rubble ridges and ramparts onshore and the depositional process is attributed to a series of tsunami events. In addition to the calculation of equivalent dose ( DE) values, it is crucial for ESR dating to obtain the correct D0 value for each sample. The annual dose rate ( D0) estimation of the samples in this study is uncertain as the timing of the tsunami event and the residence time of a component of the dated sediment in different environments (marine versus terrestrial) is difficult to quantify. Assuming that the tsunami event deposited coral shortly after death, the ESR and 14C ages of 22 samples reaching from 3650 to 128 years correspond well with each other. This confirms the idea that the living coral reef was partly destroyed by tsunami events. The ESR dating uncertainties coincide with the variability of 14C ages caused by the marine reservoir effect. The local marine reservoir effect was estimated using four recent samples from 1920 and provided values between 375 and 595 yr BP.

  15. Soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 as a tracer of elemental abundances at z approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg

    1994-01-01

    We report the soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lac object AO 0235+164, observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). This object (z = 0.94) has an intervening galaxy (or a protogalactic disk) at z = 0.524 present in the line of sight, producing both radio and optical absorption lines in the background BL Lac continuum. The X-ray spectrum exhibits a substantial soft X-ray cutoff, corresponding to several times that expected from our own Galaxy; we interpret that excess cutoff as due to the intervening galaxy. The comparison of the hydrogen column density inferred from the 21 cm radio data and the X-ray absorption allows, in principle, the determination of the elemental abundances in the intervening galaxy. However, the uncertainties in both the H I spin temperature and X-ray spectral parameters only loosely restrict these abundances to be 2 +/- 1 solar, which even at the lower limit appears higher than that inferred from studies of samples of optical absoprtion-line systems.

  16. Soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 as a tracer of elemental abundances at z approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg

    1994-01-01

    We report the soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lac object AO 0235+164, observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). This object (z = 0.94) has an intervening galaxy (or a protogalactic disk) at z = 0.524 present in the line of sight, producing both radio and optical absorption lines in the background BL Lac continuum. The X-ray spectrum exhibits a substantial soft X-ray cutoff, corresponding to several times that expected from our own Galaxy; we interpret that excess cutoff as due to the intervening galaxy. The comparison of the hydrogen column density inferred from the 21 cm radio data and the X-ray absorption allows, in principle, the determination of the elemental abundances in the intervening galaxy. However, the uncertainties in both the H I spin temperature and X-ray spectral parameters only loosely restrict these abundances to be 2 +/- 1 solar, which even at the lower limit appears higher than that inferred from studies of samples of optical absoprtion-line systems.

  17. [Heavy metal accumulation during last hundred years and its assessment of potential ecological risk in the coastal wetland of Qi'ao Island, Pearl River Estuary of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-jun; Ye, Xiang; Li, Tuan-jie; Huang, Cai-bin

    2011-05-01

    The processes of fine sediment transport and deposition can record some relative anthropogenic information in estuarine environments. Grain size analysis of the sediment core collected from coastal wetland of Qi'ao Island in the Pearl River Estuary of China show that the sediment is mainly composed by clayey silt, and the mean grain size, contents of clay and silt increase upward gradually. Chronology analysis show that the sedimentation rate above 59 cm is about 4.15 cm x a(-1), and 0.97 cm x a(-1) beneath 59 cm. Heavy metal analysis indicate that the contents of the each heavy metal increased slowly with a slight intensity of potential ecological risk; however, from 1966 to 1992, the heavy metal contents increased obviously because of the quick social-economy development around the Pearl River Estuary area, and the order of polluting degree of these heavy metals in core sediment is Cd > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn. The potential ecological risk intensity of Cd increased from slight risk before 1966 to strong risk since 1992, and the potential ecological risk intensities other heavy metal are slight risk; the potential ecological risk index is weak level. The variations of core sediment heavy metal contents and its ecological risk assessments along the vertical profile reveal the interaction processes and intent of anthropogenic influences from the areas around the Pearl River Estuary and the catchments.

  18. Summary Report of the First International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances and Workshop on AoA/Model Deformation Measurement Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping; Burner, Alpheus W.; Finley, Tom D.

    1998-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Strain Gauge Balances was sponsored under the auspices of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton, Virginia. Held at the LaRC Reid Conference Center, the Symposium provided an open international forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and strain gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant international technical communities. The program included a panel discussion, technical paper sessions, tours of local facilities, and vendor exhibits. Over 130 delegates were in attendance from 15 countries. A steering committee was formed to plan a second international balance symposium tentatively scheduled to be hosted in the United Kingdom in 1998 or 1999. The Balance Symposium was followed bv the half-day, Workshop on Angle of Attack and Model Deformation on the afternoon of October 25. The thrust of the Workshop was to assess the state of the art in angle of attack (AoA) and model deformation measurement techniques and to discuss future developments.

  19. Spatial, temporal, and speciation variations of heavy metals in sediments of Nan'ao Island, a representative mariculture base in Guangdong coast, China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yangguang; Yang, Yufeng; Lin, Qin; Li, Qusheng; Wang, Zenghuan; Wang, Xunuo

    2012-07-01

    Heavy metals in sediments from Baisha Bay, Nan'ao Island, one of Guangdong Province's largest mariculture bases in Southern China, were investigated. The results display that the concentrations of 6 heavy metals from surface sediments were 0.040-0.220 (Cd), 24.22-39.61 (Pb), 25.30-42.66 (Cr), 10.83-19.54 (Ni), 15.06-39.24 (Cu) and 55.12-141.73 mg kg(-1) (Zn), respectively. The highest concentrations and the greatest increasing rates of heavy metals were found in a sediment core in a fish cage culture area due to receiving sewage discharge, uneaten fish bait, and boat gasoline combustion. Cd was preferentially associated with the acid-soluble fraction and Pb mainly with the reducible fraction in surface sediments. Meanwhile, Cd and Pb displayed greatest labile fractions, indicating anthropogenic origin. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three groupings (Cd; Cr, Ni and Cu; Pb and Zn) that mainly result from different distributions of the metals in the various fractions. The ecological risk of the polluted sediments stemmed mainly from Cd, and from Pb and Cu to a lesser degree. It is suggested that the density of fish-stocking be controlled, periodic movement of rafts (cages) be introduced, and the total numbers of net-cages and human activities in the mariculture zones be restricted. in order to facilitate the recovery of the polluted sediment.

  20. Effect of sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) on synthetic wastewater treatment in an A/O combined biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuxin; Yue, Qinyan; Yue, Min; Gao, Baoyu; Zhao, Yaqin; Cheng, Wenjing

    2009-02-01

    Novel media-sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) employed in an upflow lab-scale A/O BAF were investigated for synthetic wastewater treatment. The influences of hydraulic retention time (HRT), air-liquid ratio (A/L) and recirculation on the removals of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr), ammonia (NH(4)(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) were discussed. The optimum operation conditions were obtained as HRT of 2.0 h, A/L of 15:1 and 200% recirculation. Under the optimal conditions, 90% CODcr, more than 98% NH(3)-N and approximately 70% TN were removed. The average consumed volumetric loading rates for CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and TN with 200% recirculation were 4.06, 0.36 and 0.29 kg(m(3)d)(-1), respectively. The CODcr and TN removal mainly occurred in the anoxic zone, while nitrification was completed at the height of 70 cm from the inlet of the bottom due to a suitable column layout of biological aerated filter (BAF). The characteristics of wastewater and backwashing affected TN removal to a large degree. In addition, the features of media (SFCP) and synthetic wastewater contributed to a strong buffer capacity in the BAF system so that the effluent pH at different media height fluctuated slightly and was insensitive to recirculation.

  1. NEW EXTINCTION AND MASS ESTIMATES FROM OPTICAL PHOTOMETRY OF THE VERY LOW MASS BROWN DWARF COMPANION CT CHAMAELEONTIS B WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Bailey, Vanessa; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip; Barman, Travis S.; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa

    2015-03-01

    We used the Magellan adaptive optics system and its VisAO CCD camera to image the young low mass brown dwarf companion CT Chamaeleontis B for the first time at visible wavelengths. We detect it at r', i', z', and Y{sub S}. With our new photometry and T {sub eff} ∼ 2500 K derived from the shape of its K-band spectrum, we find that CT Cha B has A{sub V} = 3.4 ± 1.1 mag, and a mass of 14-24 M{sub J} according to the DUSTY evolutionary tracks and its 1-5 Myr age. The overluminosity of our r' detection indicates that the companion has significant Hα emission and a mass accretion rate ∼6 × 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, similar to some substellar companions. Proper motion analysis shows that another point source within 2'' of CT Cha A is not physical. This paper demonstrates how visible wavelength adaptive optics photometry (r', i', z', Y{sub S}) allows for a better estimate of extinction, luminosity, and mass accretion rate of young substellar companions.

  2. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  3. Regional climate change over South Korea projected by the HadGEM2-AO and WRF model chain under RCP emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Im, Eun-Soon; Jo, Sera

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the regional climate projection newly projected within the framework of the national downscaling project in South Korea. The fine-scale climate information (12.5 km) is produced by dynamical downscaling of the HadGEM2-AO global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and 8.5) scenarios using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system. Changes in temperature and precipitation in terms of long-term trends, daily characteristics and extremes are presented by comparing two 30 yr periods (2041-2070 vs. 2071-2100). The temperature increase presents a relevant trend, but the degree of warming varies in different periods and emission scenarios. While the temperature distribution from the RCP8.5 projection is continuously shifted toward warmer conditions by the end of the 21st century, the RCP4.5 projection appears to stabilize warming in accordance with emission forcing. This shift in distribution directly affects the magnitude of extremes, which enhances extreme hot days but reduces extreme cold days. Precipitation changes, however, do not respond monotonically to emission forcing, as they exhibit less sensitivity to different emission scenarios. An enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation are discernible, implying an intensified hydrologic cycle. Changes in return levels of annual maximum precipitation suggest an increased probability of extreme precipitation with 20 yr and 50 yr return periods. Acknowledgement : This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA 2015-2081

  4. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; Heidt, Jochien; Gurwell, Mark; Thum, Clemens; Wehrle, Ann E.; Nikolashvili, Maria G.; Aller, Hugh D.; Benitez, Erika; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Hiriart, David; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Joshi, Manasvita; Kimeridze, Givi N.; Kurtanidze, Omar M.; Kurtanidze, Sofia O.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  5. Using UPLC-QTOF-MS to analyze the chemical changes between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of San-Ao-Tang.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Qian, Yefei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, ErXin; Yao, Xin; Ma, Shiping

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a chemical profiling approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS) was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of traditional medicine combinatorial formulae and validated using San-Ao-Tang (SAT) as a model combinatorial formula. SAT is an effective traditional Chinese medicine, which is usually used in treating asthma and other diseases of the respiratory system. Two decoctions were prepared: traditional decoction, which is a water extract of three mixed constituent herbs of SAT; and dispensing granule decoction, which is a mixed water extract of each individual herb of SAT. Batches of these two decoction samples were subjected to UPLC-PDA-TOF-MS analysis and the data sets of t(R)-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis to holistically compare their differences. Once a clear classification trend was found in the score plot, further statistics were performed to generate points at the two ends of S, and the components that correlated to these ions were regarded as the most changed components during decoction of the combinatorial formula. The changed components were identified by comparing the mass/ultraviolet spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, licorice saponine H2, licorice saponine G2 and amygdalin.

  6. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  7. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (i.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (< 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 57 (1.9 kpc) at full width at half maximum (FWHM)) than the extended stellar continuum emission region determined by the Gemini/GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. [Alimentary, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women in attendance at the Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso, Recife/2005].

    PubMed

    Amado, Tânia Campos Fell; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de; Ferreira, Rogério Anderson Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Aging has become a worldwide problem. In order to identify food, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women, a across-sectional study was carried out in 2005 with 106 women over 60 years of age cared for at Núcleo de Atenção ao idoso-NAI at Federal University of Pernambuco. Clinical and social-demographic variables, along with the nutritional status by BMI (OMS and Lipschtz) were assessed, and the frequency of food intake according to food groups. The results disclosed that 38% of the elderly were pre-obese (WHO) and 47.2% were overweight (Lipschitz). As for blood pressure (BP) 69% was found to be hypertensive and 31% normotensive. The BMI mean of hypertensive and normal elderly women was statistically significant (p=0.027). Cereal and bread groups were reported to have been the highest consumption on a daily basis by the elderly women, 89% and 82% respectively. Legumes were present in 53% of the women's meals followed by vegetables with 61% and fruits with 66%. Concerning water intake, 51.9% stated to have ingested one to four glasses of water daily. There was a positive correlation between BMI and systolic (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) (p<0.001). SP and DP levels showed no correlation with the food intake studied. The results are indicative of an overweight and not conscientious population as regards adequate food intake and point to the necessity of more effective actions in control and/or prevention, particularly for those still young.

  9. SPHERE eXtreme AO control scheme: final performance assessment and on sky validation of the first auto-tuned LQG based operational system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, C.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Fusco, T.; Sevin, A.; Suarez, M.; Costille, A.; Vigan, A.; Soenke, C.; Perret, D.; Rochat, S.; Barrufolo, A.; Salasnich, B.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Kasper, M.; Conan, J.-M.; Kulcsár, C.; Raynaud, H.-F.

    2014-08-01

    The SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetry High-contrast Exoplanet Research) instrument is an ESO project aiming at the direct detection of extra-solar planets. SPHERE has been successfully integrated and tested in Europe end 2013 and has been re-integrated at Paranal in Chile early 2014 for a first light at the beginning of May. The heart of the SPHERE instrument is its eXtreme Adaptive Optics (XAO) SAXO (SPHERE AO for eXoplanet Observation) subsystem that provides extremely high correction of turbulence and very accurate stabilization of images for coronagraphic purpose. However, SAXO, as well as the overall instrument, must also provide constant operability overnights, ensuring robustness and autonomy. An original control scheme has been developed to satisfy this challenging dichotomy. It includes in particular both an Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI) to control the Deformable Mirror (DM) and a Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law to manage the tip-tilt (TT) mirror. LQG allows optimal estimation and prediction of turbulent angle of arrival but also of possible vibrations. A specific and unprecedented control scheme has been developed to continuously adapt and optimize LQG control ensuring a constant match to turbulence and vibrations characteristics. SPHERE is thus the first operational system implementing LQG, with automatic adjustment of its models. SAXO has demonstrated performance beyond expectations during tests in Europe, in spite of internal limitations. Very first results have been obtained on sky last May. We thus come back to SAXO control scheme, focusing in particular on the LQG based TT control and the various upgrades that have been made to enhance further the performance ensuring constant operability and robustness. We finally propose performance assessment based on in lab performance and first on sky results and discuss further possible improvements.

  10. A measurement of the systematic astrometric error in GeMS and the short-term astrometric precision in ShaneAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. M.; Neichel, Benoit; Lu, Jessica; Gavel, Donald T.; Srinath, Srikar; McGurk, Rosalie; Rudy, Alex; Rockosi, Connie; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Galicher, Raphael; Bendek, Eduardo; Guyon, Olivier; Marin, Eduardo; Garrel, Vincent; Sivo, Gaetano

    2014-08-01

    We measure the long-term systematic component of the astrometric error in the GeMS MCAO system as a function of field radius and Ks magnitude. The experiment uses two epochs of observations of NGC 1851 separated by one month. The systematic component is estimated for each of three field of view cases (15'' radius, 30'' radius, and full field) and each of three distortion correction schemes: 8 DOF/chip + local distortion correction (LDC), 8 DOF/chip with no LDC, and 4 DOF/chip with no LDC. For bright, unsaturated stars with 13 < Ks < 16, the systematic component is < 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mas, respectively, for the 15'' radius, 30'' radius, and full field cases, provided that an 8 DOF/chip distortion correction with LDC (for the full-field case) is used to correct distortions. An 8 DOF/chip distortion-correction model always outperforms a 4 DOF/chip model, at all field positions and magnitudes and for all field-of-view cases, indicating the presence of high-order distortion changes. Given the order of the models needed to correct these distortions (~8 DOF/chip or 32 degrees of freedom total), it is expected that at least 25 stars per square arcminute would be needed to keep systematic errors at less than 0.3 milliarcseconds for multi-year programs. We also estimate the short-term astrometric precision of the newly upgraded Shane AO system with undithered M92 observations. Using a 6-parameter linear transformation to register images, the system delivers ~0.3 mas astrometric error over short-term observations of 2-3 minutes.

  11. MOSE: a feasibility study for optical turbulence forecast with the Meso-Nh mesoscale model to support AO facilities at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck

    2012-07-01

    We present very encouraging preliminary results obtained in the context of the MOSE project, an on-going study aiming at investigating the feasibility of the forecast of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters (in the free atmosphere as well as in the boundary and surface layer) at Cerro Paranal (site of the Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), both in Chile. The study employs the Meso-Nh atmospheric mesoscale model and aims at supplying a tool for optical turbulence forecasts to support the scheduling of the scientific programs and the use of AO facilities at the VLT and the E-ELT. In this study we take advantage of the huge amount of measurements performed so far at Paranal and Armazones by ESO and the TMT consortium in the context of the site selection for the E-ELT and the TMT to constraint / validate the model. A detailed analysis of the model performances in reproducing the atmospheric parameters (T, V, p, H, ...) near the ground as well as in the free atmosphere, is critical and fundamental because the optical turbulence depends on most of these parameters. This approach permits us to provide an exhaustive and complete analysis of the model performances and to better define the model operational application. This also helps us to identify the sources of discrepancies with optical turbulence measurements (when they appear) and to discriminate between different origins of the problem: model parameterization, initial conditions, ... Preliminary results indicate a great accuracy of the model in reproducing most of the main meteorological parameters in statistical terms as well as in each individual night in the free atmosphere and in proximity of the surface. The study is co-funded by ESO and INAF-Arcetri (Italy).

  12. Mechanical properties of 18 different AO bone plates and the clamp-rod internal fixation system tested on a gap model construct.

    PubMed

    Zahn, K; Frei, R; Wunderle, D; Linke, B; Schwieger, K; Guerguiev, B; Pohler, O; Matis, U

    2008-01-01

    To compare the stiffness and strength of AO bone plates (DCP, LC-DCP, VCP, RCP, and LP) and the Clamp-Rod Internal Fixation System (CRIF). In vitro. 12 individual implants of 18 plate dimensions and four sizes of CRIF, each corresponding to 2.0, 2.4/2.7, 3.5, or 4.5 mm screw sizes. Implant-constructs of each plate and CRIF were created using Canevasit rods as a bone substitute in an unstable gap fracture model. Six implant-constructs of each type were tested under single cycle four-point bending loading, and six were tested under single cycle torsional loading until permanent plastic deformation occurred. Torsional stiffness and yield load of the DCP were always significantly greater than the CRIF within the same group. Bending properties of the 2.0 DCP were not significantly different to the 2.0 CRIF. The 2.7 DCP had significantly higher bending values than the 2.7 CRIF. The bending stiffness of the 3.5 DCP and 4.5 DCP was significantly less than their CRIF counterparts. While the bending yield load of the 3.5 DCP was significantly greater than the 3.5 CRIF, the bending yield load of the 4.5 DCP was significantly less than the 4.5 CRIF. A weakness was found in the torsional resistance of the CRIF constructs compared to the DCP constructs. Bone holding power and applied screw torque should be considered when using the CRIF system in clinical application.

  13. Analysis of LDEF experiment AO187-2 chemical and isotopic measurements of micrometeoroids by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, E.

    1995-11-01

    Experiment AO187-2, that was flown on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), was designed to measure the chemical and isotopic compositions of interplanetary dust impinging on the spacecraft from outer space. Information on the nature and composition of orbital debris was also anticipated. The spacecraft maintained a constant orientation with respect to its velocity vector thereby defining leading and trailing edges that faced respectively into and away from the direction of motion. Arrays of individual capture cells each 80.8 sq cm in size and totaling 237 in number were exposed on both the leading and trailing edges of LDEF. Each cell consisted of a pure Ge target surface slightly separated from a thin (2.5 micrometers) metallized plastic `entrance foil.` The basic concept was that incoming projectiles would penetrate the foil, strike the Ge target plate at high velocity producing a vapor-liquid cloud that would re-deposit material on the underside of the plastic foil. This material would then be analyzed using the sensitive surface analysis technique of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). In practice, most of the plastic entrance foils failed during the extended period of orbital exposure probably due to a combination of UV embrittlement, large densities of impact events and (for the leading edge) the effects of atomic oxygen erosion in orbit. However the foils failed gradually and most remained in place on the capture cells for a significant fraction of the duration of the flight. Because most of the impactors were small (less than 10 micrometers) they were heated and dispersed in traversing the entrance foils producing clouds of molten droplets and vapor that produced easily identifiable `extended impacts` on the Ge target plates.

  14. Studies of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago water transport and its relationship to basin-local forcings: Results from AO-FVCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Gao, Guoping; Lai, Zhigang; Curry, Beth; Lee, Craig M.; Lin, Huichan; Qi, Jianhua; Xu, Qichun

    2016-06-01

    A high-resolution (up to 2 km), unstructured-grid, fully coupled Arctic sea ice-ocean Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (AO-FVCOM) was employed to simulate the flow and transport through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) over the period 1978-2013. The model-simulated CAA outflow flux was in reasonable agreement with the flux estimated based on measurements across Davis Strait, Nares Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Jones Sounds. The model was capable of reproducing the observed interannual variability in Davis Strait and Lancaster Sound. The simulated CAA outflow transport was highly correlated with the along-strait and cross-strait sea surface height (SSH) difference. Compared with the wind forcing, the sea level pressure (SLP) played a dominant role in establishing the SSH difference and the correlation of the CAA outflow with the cross-strait SSH difference can be explained by a simple geostrophic balance. The change in the simulated CAA outflow transport through Davis Strait showed a negative correlation with the net flux through Fram Strait. This correlation was related to the variation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the slope current over the Beaufort Sea and Greenland shelves. The different basin-scale surface forcings can increase the model uncertainty in the CAA outflow flux up to 15%. The daily adjustment of the model elevation to the satellite-derived SSH in the North Atlantic region outside Fram Strait could produce a larger North Atlantic inflow through west Svalbard and weaken the outflow from the Arctic Ocean through east Greenland.

  15. Molecular dynamics evidence for alkali-metal rattling in the β-pyrochlores, AOs2O6 (A = K, Rb, Cs).

    PubMed

    Shoko, E; Peterson, V K; Kearley, G J

    2013-11-27

    We have used ab initio molecular dynamics simulations validated against inelastic neutron scattering data to study alkali-metal dynamics in the β-pyrochlore osmates AOs2O6 (A=K, Rb, Cs) at 300 K to gain insight into the microscopic nature of rattling dynamics in these materials. Our results provide new evidence at the microscopic level for rattling dynamics: (1) the elemental magnitude spectra calculated from the MD show a striking dominance by the alkali metals at low energies indicating weak coupling to the cage, (2) the atomic root-mean-square displacements for the alkali metals are significantly larger than for the other atoms, e.g., 25% and 150% larger than O and Os, respectively, in KOs2O6, and (3) motions of the alkali metals are weakly correlated to the dynamics in their immediate environment, e.g. K in KOs2O6 is 6 times less sensitive to its local environment than Os, indicating weak bonding of the K. There is broadening of the elemental spectra of the alkali metals from Cs to K corresponding to a similar broadening of the local potential around these atoms as determined from potential of mean-force calculations. This feature of the spectra is partly explained by the well-known increase in the relative cage volume with decreasing atomic size of the alkali metal. We find that for the smallest rattler in this series (K) the larger relative cage volume allows this atom freedom to explore a large space inside the cage leading to vibration at a broader range of frequencies, hence a broader spectrum. Thus, since K is considered the best rattler in this series, these findings suggest that a significant feature of a good rattler is the ability to vibrate at several different but closely spaced frequencies.

  16. Coordinate expression of AOS genes and JA accumulation: JA is not required for initiation of closing layer in wound healing tubers.

    PubMed

    Lulai, Edward; Huckle, Linda; Neubauer, Jonathan; Suttle, Jeffrey

    2011-06-15

    Wounding induces a series of coordinated physiological responses essential for protection and healing of the damaged tissue. Wound-induced formation of jasmonic acid (JA) is important in defense responses in leaves, but comparatively little is known about the induction of JA biosynthesis and its role(s) in tuber wound-healing. In this study, the effects of wounding on JA content, expression of JA biosynthetic genes, and the involvement of JA in the initiation of closing layer formation in potato tubers were determined. In addition, the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in wound-induced JA accumulation was examined. The basal JA content in non-wounded tuber tissues was low (< 3 ng g⁻¹ FW). Two hours after wounding, the JA content increased by > 5-fold, reached a maximum between 4 and 6h after wounding, and declined to near-basal levels thereafter. Tuber age (storage duration) had little effect on the pattern of JA accumulation. The expressions of the JA biosynthetic genes (StAOS2, StAOC, and StOPR3) were greatly increased by wounding reaching a maximum 2-4 h after wounding and declining thereafter. A 1-h aqueous wash of tuber discs immediately after wounding resulted in a 94% inhibition of wound-induced JA accumulation. Neither JA treatment nor inhibition of JA accumulation affected suberin polyphenolic accumulation during closing layer development indicating that JA was not essential for the initiation of primary suberization. ABA treatment did not restore JA accumulation in washed tuber tissues suggesting that leaching of endogenous ABA was either not involved or not solely involved in this loss of JA accumulation by washing. Collectively, these results indicate that JA is not required for the induction of processes essential to the initiation of suberization during closing layer development, but do not exclude the possibility that JA may be involved in other wound related responses. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. 40 Years of benthic community change on the Caribbean reefs of Curaçao and Bonaire: the rise of slimy cyanobacterial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, Didier M.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Bak, Rolf P. M.; Nugues, Maggy M.; Nieuwland, Gerard; Meesters, Erik H.

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decades numerous studies have reported declines in stony corals and, in many cases, phase shifts to fleshy macroalgae. However, long-term studies documenting changes in other benthic reef organisms are scarce. Here, we studied changes in cover of corals, algal turfs, benthic cyanobacterial mats, macroalgae, sponges and crustose coralline algae at four reef sites of the Caribbean islands of Curaçao and Bonaire over a time span of 40 yr. Permanent 9 m2 quadrats at 10, 20, 30 and 40 m depth were photographed at 3- to 6-yr intervals from 1973 to 2013. The temporal and spatial dynamics in the six dominant benthic groups were assessed based on image point-analysis. Our results show consistent patterns of benthic community change with a decrease in the cover of calcifying organisms across all sites and depths from 32.6 (1973) to 9.2% (2013) for corals and from 6.4 to 1% for crustose coralline algae. Initially, coral cover was replaced by algal turfs increasing from 24.5 (1973) to 38% around the early 1990s. Fleshy macroalgae, still absent in 1973, also proliferated covering 12% of the substratum approximately 20 yr later. However, these new dominants largely declined in abundance from 2002 to 2013 (11 and 2%, respectively), marking the rise of benthic cyanobacterial mats. Cyanobacterial mats became the most dominant benthic component increasing from a mere 7.1 (2002) to 22.2% (2013). The observed increase was paralleled by a small but significant increase in sponge cover (0.5 to 2.3%). Strikingly, this pattern of degradation and phase change occurred over the reef slope down to mesophotic depths of 40 m. These findings suggest that reefs dominated by algae may be less stable than previously thought and that the next phase may be the dominance of slimy cyanobacterial mats with some sponges.

  18. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2.

  19. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Perdue, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input

  20. Outcome after internal fixation of intraarticular distal humerus (AO type B & C) fractures: Preliminary results with anatomical distal humerus LCP system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jwalant; Motwani, Girish; Shah, Himanshu; Daveshwar, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of intraarticular fractures of the distal humerus is challenging and involves the risk of complications and bad functional results. Anatomical and stable internal fixation with early postoperative mobilization is expected to improve the functional outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological results, along with the complications associated, of open reduction and internal fixation using precontoured anatomical locking LCP plate system for intraarticular distal humerus fractures in adult patients. This prospective study consist of 31 patients with a mean age of 41.2 years (range 19-62) were treated with open reduction and angular stable internal fixation. All underwent posterior transolecranon surgical approach. Mean follow-up to the final interview was 10 months (from 6 to 20 months). All operated patients were available at the time of last followup. AO classification showed 26 C-fractures (9*13C 1, 12*13C2,5* 13C3) and 5 B-fracture (1* 13B1,1* 13B2,3* 13B3). There were 25 closed fractures and 6 open grade 1 fractures. The clinical followup using Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) and radiographic follow up with elbow anterior-posterior and lateral view X-rays were performed postoperatively. The mean MEPS was 87.9 points out of 100 (range 55-100) with 61% Excellent, 29% good and 10% fair and poor scores. Mean elbow flexion of 115.8° (range 85°-150°). The mean deficit in extension was 19° (range 5°-35°). All olecranon osteotomy were united .Nonunion of distal humerus fracture occurred in 2 cases. Other complications were hardware prominence in 3 cases, superficial infection in 4 cases and Ulnar nerve neuropraxia in 1 case which was recovered uneventfully. Revision surgery was not required in any complication. Open reduction and internal fixation with precontoured distal humerus anatomical locking plate system is a good method of treatment for complex Supra- intercondylar fracture of distal humerus with

  1. Distal tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA type B, and C) treated with the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sasa; Mitković, Milorad; Micić, Ivan; Mladenović, Desimir; Najman, Stevo; Trajanović, Miroslav; Manić, Miodrag; Mitković, Milan

    2013-09-01

    Distal tibial pilon fractures include extra-articular fractures of the tibial metaphysis and the more severe intra-articular tibial pilon fractures. There is no universal method for treating distal tibial pilon fractures. These fractures are treated by means of open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) and external skeletal fixation. The high rate of soft-tissue complications associated with primary ORIF of pilon fractures led to the use of external skeletal fixation, with limited internal fixation as an alternative technique for definitive management. The aim of this study was to estimate efficacy of distal tibial pilon fratures treatment using the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method. We presented a series of 31 operated patients with tibial pilon fractures. The patients were operated on using the method of external skeletal fixation with a minimal internal fixation. According to the AO/OTA classification, 17 patients had type B fracture and 14 patients type C fractures. The rigid external skeletal fixation was transformed into a dynamic external skeletal fixation 6 weeks post-surgery. This retrospective study involved 31 patients with tibial pilon fractures, average age 41.81 (from 21 to 60) years. The average follow-up was 21.86 (from 12 to 48) months. The percentage of union was 90.32%, nonunion 3.22% and malunion 6.45%. The mean to fracture union was 14 (range 12-20) weeks. There were 4 (12.19%) infections around the pins of the external skeletal fixator and one (3.22%) deep infections. The ankle joint arthrosis as a late complication appeared in 4 (12.90%) patients. All arthroses appeared in patients who had type C fractures. The final functional results based on the AOFAS score were excellent in 51.61%, good in 32.25%, average in 12.90% and bad in 3.22% of the patients. External skeletal fixation and minimal internal fixation of distal tibial pilon fractures is a good method for treating all types of inta-articular pilon fractures. In

  2. Steppingstones to the implementation of an inhospital fracture and dislocation registry using the AO/OTA classification: compliance, completeness and commitment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal trauma represents a considerable global health burden, however reliable population-based incidence data are scarce. A fracture and dislocation registry was established within a well-defined population. An audit of the establishment process, feasibility of the registry work and report of the collected data is given. Methods Demographic data, fracture type and location, mode of treatment, and the reasons for the secondary procedures were collected and scored using recognized systems, such as the AO/OTA classification and the Gustilo-Anderson classification for open fractures. The reporting was done in the operation planning program by the involved orthopaedic surgeon. Both inpatient and day-case procedures were collected. Data were collected prospectively from 2006 until 2010. Compliance among the surgeons and completeness and accuracy of the data was continuously assured by an orthopaedic surgeon. Results During the study period, 39 orthopaedic surgeons were involved in the recording of a total of 8,188 procedures, consisting of primary treatment of 4,986 long bone fractures, 467 non long bone fractures, 123 dislocations and 2,612 secondary treatments. In the study period 532 fractures or dislocations were treated at least once for one or more serious complications. For the index year of 2009, a total of 5710 fractures or dislocations were treated in the emergency department or hospitalized, of which the 1594 (28%) were treated at the inpatient or day-case operation rooms, thus registered in the FDR. Quality assurance, educational incentives and continuous feedback between coders and controller in the integrated electronic system are available and used through the features of the electronic database. Conclusions Implementing an integrated registry of fractures and dislocations with the electronic hospital system has been possible despite several users involved. The electronic system and the data controller provide for completeness and

  3. OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb: A Saturn-mass Planet around an M Dwarf with the Mass Constrained by Subaru AO Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, A.; Gould, A.; Sumi, T.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Han, C.; Suzuki, D.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Batista, V.; Udalski, A.; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Hundertmark, M.; Abe, F.; Bhattacharya, A.; Freeman, M.; Itow, Y.; Ling, C. H.; Koshimoto, N.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Philpott, L. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, T.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Choi, J.-Y.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Dong, Subo; Drummond, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Hwang, K.-H.; Kavka, A.; Lee, C.-U.; McCormick, J.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Park, H.; Pogge, R. W.; Shin, I.-G.; Tan, T.-G.; Yee, J. C.; μFUN Collaboration; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; OGLE Collaboration; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Dominik, M.; Horne, K.; Ipatov, S.; Kains, N.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; RoboNet Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of a microlensing exoplanet OGLE-2012-BLG-0563Lb with the planet-star mass ratio of ˜ 1× {10}-3. Intensive photometric observations of a high-magnification microlensing event allow us to detect a clear signal of the planet. Although no parallax signal is detected in the light curve, we instead succeed at detecting the flux from the host star in high-resolution JHK‧-band images obtained by the Subaru/AO188 and Infrared Camera and Spectrograph instruments, allowing us to constrain the absolute physical parameters of the planetary system. With the help of spectroscopic information about the source star obtained during the high-magnification state by Bensby et al., we find that the lens system is located at 1.3{}-0.8+0.6 kpc from us, and consists of an M dwarf (0.34 {}-0.20+0.12M{}⊙ ) orbited by a Saturn-mass planet (0.39 {}-0.23+0.14MJup) at the projected separation of 0.74{}-0.42+0.26 AU (close model) or 4.3{}-2.5+1.5 AU (wide model). The probability of contamination in the host star’s flux, which would reduce the masses by a factor of up to three, is estimated to be 17%. This possibility can be tested by future high-resolution imaging. We also estimate the (J-{K}{{s}}) and (H-{K}{{s}}) colors of the host star, which are marginally consistent with a low metallicity mid-to-early M dwarf, although further observations are required for the metallicity to be conclusive. This is the fifth sub-Jupiter-mass (0.2\\lt {m}{{p}}/{M}{Jup}\\lt 1) microlensing planet around an M dwarf with the mass well constrained. The relatively rich harvest of sub-Jupiters around M dwarfs is contrasted with a possible paucity of ˜1-2 Jupiter-mass planets around the same type of star, which can be explained by the planetary formation process in the core-accretion scheme.

  4. Internal fixation of S1-S3 iliosacral screws and pubic screw as the best configuration for unstable pelvic fracture with unilateral vertical sacral fracture (AO type C1.3).

    PubMed

    Dilogo, Ismail Hadisoebroto; Satria, Oryza; Fiolin, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Although internal fixation is the definitive treatment in unstable pelvic fractures with disruption of the anterior arch and a vertical fracture of the sacrum (AO type C1.3), there have been no agreement of the best technique of internal fixation yet. We aimed to derive comparable objective data on stiffness and load to failure in this type of fracture fixations. Synbone was modified into AO type C1.3 fracture model, while treatments were divided into six internal fixation treatment groups using tension band plate (TBP), symphysis pubis plate (SP) with iliosacral screw at S1 and S2 (IS S1-S2), pubic screw (PS) with iliosacral TBP, PS and IS S1-S2, SP and IS S1-S3, PS and S1-S3 and finally PS and IS S1-S3. Sensor was applied to detect the shifting and rotation of fracture fragments. Mechanical strength test conducted with the application of axial force on the sacrum vertebra (S1). The highest translational stiffness was observed in the group IS S1-S3 + PS (830.36 N/mm, p = 0.031) and there was no difference on the rigidity of the rotation between the groups posterior fixation using IS S1-S2 and IS S1-S3 ( p = 0.51). Meanwhile the highest load to failure was found in group IS S1-S3 + PS (1522.20 N). PS provided advantages compared to the use of plate. Group of PS and S1-S3 IS is the configuration of internal fixation with best translational and rotational stiffness and the largest load to failure compared to other techniques in AO type C1.3 fracture.

  5. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA Barcoding and Morphology Unite an Enigmatic Fish Larva from the Florida Straits with a New Species of Sea Bass from Deep Reefs off Curaçao

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern–most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon. PMID:24825118

  6. Manifestation of screening effects and A-O covalency in the core level spectra of A site elements in the ABO3 structure of Ca1-xSrxRuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi Shankar; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the evolution of Ca2p and Sr3d core level spectra in Ca1-xSrxRuO3 using photoemission spectroscopy. Core level spectra in this system exhibit multiple features and unusual evolution with the composition and temperatures. Analysis of the core level spectra in conjunction with the band structure results indicates final state effects due to different core hole screening channels. Such screening in the photoemission final states can be attributed to the large A-O covalency in these systems. Changes in the core level spectra with temperature and composition suggest significant modification in A-O (A=Ca/Sr) covalency in Ca-dominated samples, which gradually reduces with the increase in Sr content and becomes insignificant in SrRuO3 . This study thus provides a direct evidence of cation-oxygen covalency and its evolution with temperature, which may be useful in understanding the unusual ground state properties of these materials.

  7. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA barcoding and morphology unite an enigmatic fish larva from the Florida straits with a new species of sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern-most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon.

  8. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated ao cortical bone screws for a limited contact: dynamic compression plate fixation of osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal bones.

    PubMed

    Durham, Myra E; Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F

    2015-02-01

    To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Experimental. Adult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair). Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05. Mean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA

  9. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay.

  10. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  11. The maximum overlap method: A general and efficient scheme for reducing basis sets. Application to the generation of approximate AO's for the 3 d transition metal atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, E.; Seijo, L.; Pueyo, L.

    1986-07-01

    The method of maximum overlap, often applied to the problem of basis set reduction, is formulated in terms of weighted least squares with orthogonality restrictions. An analytical solution for the linear parameters of the reduced set is given. In this form, the method is a general and efficient scheme for reducing basis sets. As an application, orthogonal radial wavefunctions of the STO type have been obtained for the 3 d transition metal atoms and ions by simulation of the high-quality sets of Clementi and Roetti. The performance of the reduction has been evaluated by examining several one- and two-electron interactions. Results of these tests reveal that the new functions are highly accurate simulations of the reference AO's. They appear to be appropriate for molecular and solid state calculations.

  12. Genetic data on nine STRs (CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1, F13AO1, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820 and D13S317) and two VNTRs (D1S80 and D17S5) in Rosario population, Santa Fe Argentine.

    PubMed

    Tenaglia, Mariano; Scollo, Adriana; Tripaldi, Regina; Grappiolo, Irene; Perichón, Armando M

    2004-05-10

    Allele frequencies for nine short tandem repeats (STRs) loci (CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1, F13AO1, FES/FPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820 and D13S317) and two variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) were obtained from a sample of 270 unrelated individuals born in the Rosario city, Santa Fe province of Argentina.

  13. Neptunian Satellites observed with Keck AO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Urata, R.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S.; Hammel, H. B.; Berthier, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Neptunian system was observed on 9 different nights between July 2002 and October 2003 with the 10-m Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and its facility instrument NIRC2 coupled with the Adaptive Optics system. Data were recorded in J (1.2μ m), and H (2.2μ m) bands. The angular resolution achieved on a one-minute integration time image is 0.50 arcsec, corresponding to a spatial resolution of 1100 km. The images display small structures such as the rings (de Pater et al. 2004), clouds in the atmosphere (Gibbard et al. 2003), and inner satellites, mainly Proteus, Larissa, Galatea, Despina, and Thalassa. On the 40 images, the positions and intensities of the satellites detected were accurately measured fitting the signal with a gaussian profile. The center of Neptune was obtained by fitting the disk position with an ellipse. After correcting for the detector distortion, we compared the satellite positions with the predicted ones delivered by several ephemerides. We used the JPL (NEP016 + NEP022 + DE405) and two IMCCE ephemerides, an old version (VSOP87+Owen et al., 1991) and a more recent one (DE405+Le Guyader et al., 1993). All cases, we confirmed the presence of an apparent shift between the predicted and the observed positions. Table 1 (see http://astron.berkeley.edu/ fmarchis/Science/Neptune/Satellites/) summarizes the mean distance of the shift for satellites most frequently observed and the various ephemerides. In this presentation, we will report the positions of the satellites, and present their color and possible photometric variations derived from the observations. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, managed by the University of California at Santa Cruz under cooperative agreement No. AST - 9876783.

  14. On-sky AO test bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brousseau, Denis; Thibault, Simon; Lavigne, Jean-François; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the upcoming construction of ELTs, several existing technologies are being pushed beyond their performance limit and it became essential to develop and evaluate alternatives. We present a specifically designed focal plane box which will allow to evaluate, directly on-sky, the performance of a number of next generation adaptive optics related technologies The system will able us to compare the performance of several new wavefront sensors in contrast to a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor. The system has been designed for the "Observatoire du Mont Mégantic" (OMM) which hosts a telescope having a 1.6-meter diameter primary. The OMM telescope, located halfway between Montreal and Quebec City, is known to be an excellent location to develop and test precursor instruments which can then be upscaled to larger telescopes (ex. SPIOMM which led to SITELLE at the CFHT). We present the results of the first run made at the telescope and also identify problems that were encountered. We also propose a series of modifications to the system that will help to solve these issues.

  15. ao~~~- a~ c5

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... ' .., ry o~'~~~ i~~ . , v 1~G~~s~Q c A ^--T-1, Ii -FDM ~j~/lel/~~/'y. ta ~r*,~^~ yr "1°^ 0~ ~~l~ (,~C~'k- D~t~, vi -iin c 0i~~cckr[yr~~ ~ 15030 ...

  16. Presentaciones poco comunes y peligros de la sífilis secundaria: periosteitis, tenosinovitis y anomalías hepáticas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia

    2017-06-02

    We herein describe two cases of secondary syphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with an unusual presentation, a diffuse polyostotic periosteitis. Patients referred mainly intense bone pain. Other relevant aspects of the clinical pictures were flexor tenosynovitis and hepatic abnormalities. Given the persistence of symptoms, the treatment duration performed was different from most described in literature. However, although more slowly than expected, both obtained a favorable clinical response after treatment with benzathine penicillin G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. "Muy poco se sabe de los resultados": Francis E. Bond's expedition to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela (1911).

    PubMed

    Dorr, L J

    2010-01-01

    The natural history expedition of the American banker and stock broker Francis E. Bond and companions to the Paria Peninsula and delta of the Orinoco, Venezuela, in early 1911 is described. Biographical details are provided for the three principles: Francis E. Bond, Stewardson Brown and Thomas S. Gillin. The itinerary of their three and a half month expedition is elaborated, and notes are provided on the collection of plants, animals, and artefacts that they gathered in South America and deposited in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia on their return.

  18. APPLICATION OF WATER FLOW AND GEOCHEMICAL MODELS TO SUPPORT THE REMEDIATION OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE FROM THE URANIUM MINING SITE OF POCOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper discusses the use of two numerical models (HYDRUS-2D and STEADQL-v4) for simulating water flow and relevant geochemical processes in one of the waste rock piles of the first uranium mine in Brazil, in order to facilitate the selection of appropriate remediation strategies. The long time s...

  19. Miscellaneous pocosin peat deposits of North Carolina: Gull Rock; Van Swamp; Bay City - Gum Swamp. Open-grounds pocos in Hofmann Forest; Angola Swamp; Holly Shelter; Green Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-06-01

    In earlier reports the coastal swamp or pocosin peat deposits of Dismal Swamp, Pamlimarle Peninsula, Croatan Forest, and Light Ground Pocosin were described (Ingram and Otte, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, and 1982). This report describes the remaining coastal swamp or pocosin deposits of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Total peat resources of these remaining deposits are: (1) Gull Rock - 8100 acres, 4.6 million tons, moisture free, (2) Van Swamp - 6600 acres, 5.8 million tons, (3) Bay City - Gum Swamp - 12,3000 acres, 5.9 million tons, (4) Open Grounds - 11,000 acres, 6.3 million tons, (5) Hofmann Forest - 5200 acres, 4.2 million tons, (6) Angola Swamp - 21,900 acres, 15.2 million tons, (7) Holly Shelter - 9200 acres, 6.7 million tons, and (8) Green Swamp - 16,400 acres, 10.3 million tons. A revised estimation of the total peat resources of North Carolina is 700,000 acres (1100 sq mi) of peatland with 500 million tons of peat. Of this total, 290,000 acres (460 sq mi) is underlain by peat greater than 4 ft thick with 330 million tons of peat.

  20. Comparison of clinical efficacy: Nd:YAG laser rates after implantation of AcrySof® SN60WF, Akreos® AO-MI60 and Hoya® YA-60BB.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol Ducasse, A-M; Guerzider, V; Velasque, L; Dominguez, M; Lafuma, A; Robert, J

    2013-09-01

    To compare Nd:YAG laser rates following implantation of AcrySof(®) SN60WF (Alcon), Akreos(®) AO-MI60 (Baush & Lomb), and Hoya(®) YA-60BB (Hoya) intraocular lenses. This retrospective study was conducted at three French centers with each implanting at least two of the three implants. Included patients had undergone uncomplicated cataract surgery with at least 3 years of follow-up. Records of patients implanted with one of the three IOL's were drawn randomly from the surgical logs. Postoperative data were obtained from the medical records of either the surgeon or the referring physician. Time elapsing until Nd:YAG laser was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Three hundred eyes were implanted (AcrySof(®) 126, Akreos(®) 89, and Hoya(®) 85). AcrySof(®) recipients were the youngest (AcrySof(®) 72.1, Akreos(®) 76.4, and Hoya(®) 75.2 years of age: P=0.0007). The sex ratio was 4:6 male:female. Follow-up was longest for Hoya eyes (AcrySof(®) 29.4, Akreos(®) 24.6 and Hoya(®) 34.6 months; P=0.0002). Eyes implanted with AcrySof(®) had 1.74 times less chance of Nd:YAG laser treatment than Hoya eyes (P=0.0327) and 3.50 times less than Akreos(®) eyes (P<0.0001). The results remained unchanged when the analysis was restricted to events in the first 24 months (Risk Ratios: Hoya(®)=2.64: P=0.02; and Akreos(®)=4.22: P=0.0001). Adjustment on unbalanced confounding variables did not alter the results. Eyes with AcrySof(®) implants required significantly fewer Nd:YAG laser capsulotomies than those with Hoya(®) and Akreos(®) implants and were therefore less subject to Nd:YAG laser treatment complications, thus ensuring better vision at the lowest cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. From 9 to 12 and Finally 8: how Many Planets are around the Sun? (Spanish Title: De 9 a 12 y Finalmente 8: ¿Cuántos Planetas Hay Alrededor del Sol?) De 9 a 12 e Finalmente 8: Quantos Planetas Existem AO Redor do Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo

    2007-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union, the organization that groups together the professional astronomers over the world, has recently adopted a historical definition: What is a planet in the Solar System? Changing 76 years of tradition, our Solar System has now 8 planets and an increasing number of a new category of bodies named "dwarf planets", among them is the former planet Pluto. In this article we present the reasons that support the resolution and we describe the participation of the Latin-American astronomers in the process to adopt it. La Unión Astronómica Internacional, la organización que agrupa a los astrónomos profesionales del planeta, acaba de adoptar una definición histórica: ¿Qué es un planeta en nuestro Sistema Solar? Cambiando 76 años de tradición, según esta definición, nuestro Sistema Solar cuenta con 8 planetas y una creciente cantidad de "planetas enanos", entre los que quedó incluido el hasta hace poco planeta Plutón. En el presente artículo se presentarán los argumentos que fundamentan esta resolución y la participación que han tenido los astrónomos latinoamericanos en la adopción de la misma. A União Astronômica Internacional, a organização que agrupa os astrônomos profissionais do planeta, acaba de adotar uma definição histórica: O que é um planeta em nosso Sistema Solar? Mudando 76 anos de tradição, segundo esta definição, nosso Sistema Solar conta com 8 planetas e uma crescente quantidade de "planetas anões", entre os quais foi incluido o até há pouco planeta Plutão. No presente artigo serão apresentados os argumentos que fundamentam esta resolução e a participação que tiveram os astrônomos latino-americanos na adoção da mesma.

  2. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films: The response of 2aO film to small dosages of alpha particles from 3/10th's rad to 8 rads at energy levels 153 MeV, 79 MeV and 47 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, E. C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin; Stober, AL

    1984-01-01

    The 2aO film, pre-exposed to a series of neutral density filters which on development under standard conditions will produce the standard H-D curve for that film, were then exposed to Alpha paricles with a dose range of 3/10ths rads to 8 rads while varying the energy of the particles using 153 MeV, 70 MeV, and 47 MeV, respectively. An analysis of the film shows that the 3/10th rad dose produces the lowest optical density changes at 70 MeV and 47 MeV. While the optical density readings for the darker patterns seem to oscillate and decrease when exposed to radiation dosages of 3/10th rads to 8 rads.

  3. Tl/sub 2/Ba/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12/, a new 104. Kappa. superconductor of the family (AO)/sub 3/ (A'CuO/sub 3-y/)/sub m/

    SciTech Connect

    Hervieu, M.; Maignan, A.; Martin, C.; Michel, C.; Provost, J.; Raveau, B. )

    1988-10-01

    A new superconductor Tl/sub 2/Ba/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12/ has been synthesized with a T/sub c/ onset at 120 {Kappa} and a zero resistance at 104 {Kappa}. The X-ray powder investigation and HREM study allow a structural model to be proposed. The tetragonal cell, with a = 3.852A and c = 42.00A, corresponds to the intergrowth of triple rocksalt type layers with quadruple oxygen deficient perovskite layers leading to the structural formulation ((T1O)/sub 2/ (BaO)) (BaCa/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 9/). This oxide which represents the member n = 3, m = 4 of the series (AO)/sub n/(A'CuO/sub 3-y/)/sub m/, shows that T/sub c/ seems to tend towards a limit as the number of copper planes forming the perovskite layers increases.

  4. AO imaging and infrared spectroscopy of exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillen, I.; Pollacco, D.

    2013-05-01

    The telescopes of the ORM, La Palma have gained a worldwide reputation in the discovery and characterisation of exoplanets, which demonstrates the powerful synergy that exists between small, mid-size and large facilities such as SuperWASP, the WHT and GTC, in this rapidly evolving field. We outline a WHT programme of near-infrared adaptive optics imaging with NAOMI/INGRID, and near-infrared spectroscopy with LIRIS, of exoplanet host stars to search for associated stellar and brown dwarf companions.

  5. Extreme AO Observations of Two Triple Asteroid Systems with SPHERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  6. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  7. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Vacuum deposited optical coatings experiment (AO 138-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlier, Jean

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to test the optical behavior of 20 components and coatings subjected to space exposure. Most of them are commonly used for their reflective or transmittive properties in spaceborne optics. They consist in several kind of metallic and dielectric mirrors designed for the 0.12 to 10 microns spectrum, UV, and NIR bandpass filters, visible, and IR antireflecting coatings, visible/IR dichroic beam splitters, and visible beam splitter. The coatings were deposited on various substrates such as glasses, germanium, magnesium fluoride, quartz, zinc selenide, and kanigened aluminum. Several coating materials were used such as Al, Ag, Au, MgF2, LaF3, ThF3, ThF4, SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, MgO, Ge, and ZnSe. Five samples of each component were manufactured. Two flight samples were mounted in such a way that one was directly exposed to space and the other looking backwards. The same arrangement was used for the spare samples stored on ground in a box identical to the flight one and they were kept under vacuum during the LDEF mission. Finally, one set of reference components was stocked in a sealed box under a dry nitrogen atmosphere. By comparing the preflight and postflight optical performances of the five samples of each component, it is possible to detect the degradations due to the space exposure.

  9. Analyses Of Alternatives (AoAs) Across The Milestones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Formerly the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle ( AAAV ) How have the questions/issues changed to support these different decision points? 5 Outline...firepower – COEA: Military benefit not worth the cost • Late 1980s: AAAV program born – Fast swimmer and enhanced firepower 7 Outline • Background...Development Strategy 9 Summary of Milestone I COEA • Examined 13 alternatives – Fast swimmers: AAAV (F); AAV7A2(F) – Slow swimmers: AAV 7A1; AAAV (S

  10. A process activity monitor for AOS/VS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckosky, R. A.; Lindley, S. W.; Chapman, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    With the ever increasing concern for computer security, users of computer systems are becoming more sensitive to unauthorized access. One of the initial security concerns for the Shuttle Management Information System was the problem of users leaving their workstations unattended while still connected to the system. This common habit was a concern for two reasons: it ties up resources unnecessarily and it opens the way for unauthorized access to the system. The Data General MV/10000 does not come equipped with an automatic time-out option on interactive peripherals. The purpose of this memorandum is to describe a system which monitors process activity on the system and disconnects those users who show no activity for some time quantum.

  11. AO Images of Asteroids, Inverting their Lightcurves, and SSA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    twin 10 m Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea . In this paper we compare the models of Kassalainen to images obtained at Keck, and show both the validity of the...and rotational poles of seven asteroids from Lick Observatory adaptive optics images, and of Ceres. Icarus in press, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.009 4

  12. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Surface Eye Disease (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. Methods In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Results Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Conclusions Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC. PMID:19277243

  13. Characterising latency for AO optical sensors: an implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Thomas; Bennet, Francis; Price, Ian; Rigaut, Francois

    2016-07-01

    The latency of electro-optical components is of high importance in the design of Adaptive Optics systems, as it limits the performance of the control loop. There exists a need for a latency measurement method that can be constructed with simple components found in most Adaptive Optics labs that still provides a measurement accurate to sub-microseconds. Through a combination of research and experimentation, potential methodologies were investigated with the aim of producing reliable latency measurements. This document will discuss one such method, involving coupling a LED pulse output and detected pulse input signals to the same clock for easy comparison. For this method, a proof-of-concept was developed using MATLAB and small analogue electronics, and the performance characterised. This characterisation showed that although there is some merit to the method, improvements are necessary to increase the precision of the measurement to a level usable in Adaptive Optics systems.

  14. Direct RF A-O Processor Spectrum Analyzer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    The primary objective was to develop and demonstrate design approach, along with the associated processing technologies, for a wideband acousto optic Bragg...cell spectrum analyzer. The signal processor used to demonstrate feasibility of the technical approach consisted of two bulk wave acousto optic deflectors

  15. ROSAT AO8 Investigation: Variability in Hyades G Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    2001-01-01

    We had proposed to observe 40 G stars twice, to look for variability on timescales of 6-9 months. Due to the failure of the ROSAT spacecraft, we only obtained single observations of 23 stars. We analyzed these images, measured the X-ray fluxes, and compared them to the published fluxes from EINSTEIN and the ROSAT PSPSC Hyades survey. No significant variability was seen. A paper has been drafted, but not yet written. The data reduction formed a part of a summer research project for a high school student, and so contributed to public outreach.