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Sample records for point injection combined

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium content in parenteral solutions by combined cloud point preconcentration-flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Sombra, L; Luconi, M; Silva, M F; Olsina, R A; Fernandez, L

    2001-07-01

    A cloud point preconcentration and flow injection (FI) analysis methodology for aluminium(III) determination has been developed. The analyte in the initial aqueous solution was complexed with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) in the presence of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BDTAC). The absorption spectroscopic characteristics of the ternary complex [Al(III)-CAS-BDTAC] were examined in detail. The preconcentration step was carried out by means of the non-ionic surfactant polyethylene glycol p-nonylphenyl ether (PONPE 7.5). The enriched analyte solution was injected into an FI system using an HPLC pump. The chemical variables affecting the analytical performance of the combined methodology were studied and optimised. The developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in parenteral solutions without previous treatment. Under the optimum experimental conditions, 99.9% extraction was achieved for a preconcentration factor of 50. The limit of detection was 1.12 x 10(-7) mol(-1). The calibration plot was linear over at least two orders of magnitude of aluminium concentration. The developed coupled methodology, which thoroughly satisfies the typical requirements for pharmaceutical control processes, is appropriate for monitoring the aluminium concentration in parenteral nutrition.

  2. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  3. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  4. Assessment of trace aluminium content in parenteral solutions by combined cloud point preconcentration-flow injection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sombra, Lorena L; Luconi, Marta O; Fernández, Liliana P; Olsina, Roberto A; Silva, María F; Martínez, Luis D

    2003-01-01

    A micelle-mediated phase separation without added chelating agents to preconcentrate trace levels of aluminium in parenteral solutions as a prior step to its determination by flow injection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The enrichment step is based on the cloud point extraction of aluminium with the non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono-p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5). The chemical variables affecting the sensitivity of the extractive-spectrometric procedure were studied in detail. After optimization, a preconcentration factor of 200 and a %E higher than 99.9 were achieved. The detection limit (DL) value of aluminium for the preconcentration of 50 ml of parenteral solution was 0.25 microgl(-1). The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for aluminium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997 at levels near the DLs up to at least 200 microgl(-1). The developed hyphenated assay, which thoroughly satisfies the typical requirements for pharmaceutical control processes, is appropriate to monitor the aluminium concentration in parenteral nutrition.

  5. Combined vitrectomy and intravitreal injection versus combined laser and injection for treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of combined vitrectomy, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA), and bevacizumab injection with that of IVTA and bevacizumab injection and subsequent macular grid laser photocoagulation for the treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema. Methods This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed at Benha University Hospital, Benha, Egypt, and included 34 eyes from 34 diabetic patients diagnosed with intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema without vitreomacular traction. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid was performed, and at the end of the procedure, IVTA 0.1 mL (40 mg/mL) and bevacizumab 1.25 mg were injected. In group 2, macular grid laser photocoagulation was performed 2 weeks after the same intravitreal injection combination as used in group 1. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness, which were measured using optical coherence tomography at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Changes in BCVA and central foveal thickness at 3, 6, and 12 months from baseline were highly statistically significant (P < 0.01). Mean BCVA was better in group 1 at 3 months, nearly equal at 6 months, and less at 12 months. Mean central foveal thickness was more improved in group 1 than in group 2 at 3 months, and was better in group 2 at subsequent measurement points. The major adverse events were development of cataract (more common in group 1) and elevation of intraocular pressure (more common in group 2). Conclusion The combined therapy described here could represent a solution for the treatment of intractable diabetic macular edema, and could have a favorable long-term outcome. Combined treatment of IVTA and bevacizumab plus grid laser resulted in a more favorable reduction in central foveal thickness and improvement in BCVA at 12 months than vitrectomy

  6. Effect of Trigger Point Injection on Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Source

    PubMed Central

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Rasras, Saleh; Zeinali, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active muscular trigger points (aMTPs) presenting with radiating pain can interfere in diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy. Objectives: We aimed to diagnose and evaluate the trigger point therapy on the outcome of pain in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: A total of 98 patients were enrolled suffered with chronic pain andlumbosacral radiculopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 who were candidates of non-surgical management. All patients received conservative modalities, including bed rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID), and physiotherapy. These treatments continued for a week. Patients were examined for the presence of trigger points in their lower extremities. Those who had trigger points were divided into 2 groups (TP and N). Patients in TP group underwent trigger point injection therapy. No further therapy was done for the N group. Pain scores and straight leg raise (SLR) test in both groups were collected and analyzed on the seventh and 10th days of the therapy. Results were analyzed by paired t test and chi-square test. Results: Out of 98 patients, 64 had trigger points. Thirty-two patients were assigned to each group. Pain scores (Mean ± SD) in TP group was 7.12 ± 1.13 and in N group was 6.7 ± 1.16, P = 0.196. Following the treatment, pain scores were 2.4 ± 1.5 in TP group and 4.06 ± 1.76 in N group P = 0.008. SLR test became negative in all patients in TP group but only in 6 (19%) patients in N group, P = 0.001. Conclusions: Results show that trigger point injection therapy in patients suffering from chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy with trigger points can significantly improve their recovery, and conservative therapy may not be adequate. PMID:25337469

  7. A review of "once-a-month" combined injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Newton, J R; D'arcangues, C; Hall, P E

    1994-01-01

    The once-a-month combined progestogen and estrogen injectables were developed to overcome menstrual irregularity, a major reason for discontinuation of progestogen-only contraceptives. About 2 million women have already used the combined once-a-month injectables, particularly in Latin America and China. The currently available once-a-month combined injectable contraceptives are Chinese Injectable No. 1 (17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, estradiol valerate), another formulation marketed under various brand names in Latin America (dihydroxyprogesterone acetophenide, estradiol enanthate), Cyclofem (medroxyprogesterone acetate [MPA], estradiol cypionate), Mesigyna (norethisterone enanthate, estradiol valerate), and Mego-E (megestrol acetate, 17 beta-estradiol). Cyclofem and Mesigyna are very effective at preventing pregnancy (1-year rate, 99.8-99.6%). The rate for the dihydroxyprogesterone acetophenide/estradiol enanthate formulation is 100%, while that for Chinese Injectable No. 1 is 94%. Even though menstrual disturbances occur less often in once-a-month injectable users, they are the leading medical reason for discontinuation. At 1 year of use, about 70% of Cyclofem and Mesigyna users have regular bleeding patterns compared to 8% of Depo-Provera users. None of the Cyclofem and Mesigyna studies have found them to induce any adverse or clinically relevant metabolic changes. Once-a-month combined estrogen and progestogen injectables do not cause any significant delay in return to ovulation, but researchers should collect more data on conception rates for women who discontinue for planned pregnancy and those who discontinue for bleeding disorders and amenorrhea. Research into service delivery of these injectables is needed to assess managerial requirements or adaptations that would be required should there be more wide scale introduction of a contraceptive into both public and private sectors. Age, contraceptive history, learning about injectables and husbands

  8. Acupuncture and Trigger Point Injections for Fibromyalgia: East-West Medicine Case Report.

    PubMed

    Taw, Lawrence B; Henry, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic widespread pain that is often accompanied by ≥1 concomitant symptoms (eg, fatigue, poor sleep, cognitive alterations, and mood disturbances). In 2005, an estimated 5 million people in the United States suffered from fibromyalgia, and its growing effect on health-related quality of life is substantial. An increasingly popular hypothesis proposes that noxious, peripheral sensory input might contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the diffuse pain seen in patients with fibromyalgia. That theory has led to the evaluation of multiple interventions to stimulate distal areas as a means to modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems. It has been the authors' experiences that the combination of trigger point injections and acupuncture provides improved clinical outcomes. In the current article, the authors present a case report of a patient with fibromyalgia who was successfully treated with an integrative approach that combined acupuncture with trigger point injections.

  9. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  10. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOEpatents

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  11. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI) in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline) alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Results Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. Conclusions There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the Standards for Reporting

  12. Lidocaine injection versus dry needling to myofascial trigger point. The importance of the local twitch response.

    PubMed

    Hong, C Z

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of injection with a local anesthetic agent or dry needling into a myofascial trigger point (TrP) of the upper trapezius muscle in 58 patients. Trigger point injections with 0.5% lidocaine were given to 26 patients (Group I), and dry needling was performed on TrPs in 15 patients (Group II). Local twitch responses (LTRs) were elicited during multiple needle insertions in both Groups I and II. In another 17 patients, no LTR was elicited during TrP injection with lidocaine (9 patients, group Ia) or dry needling (8 patients, group IIa). Improvement was assessed by measuring the subjective pain intensity, the pain threshold of the TrP and the range of motion of the cervical spine. Significant improvement occurred immediately after injection into the patients in both group I and group II. In Groups Ia and Ib, there was little change in pain, tenderness or tightness after injection. Within 2-8 h after injection or dry needling, soreness (different from patients' original myofascial pain) developed in 42% of the patients in group I and in 100% of the patients in group II. Patients treated with dry needling had postinjection soreness of significantly greater intensity and longer duration than those treated with lidocaine injection. The author concludes that it is essential to elicit LTRs during injection to obtain an immediately desirable effect. TrP injection with 0.5% lidocaine is recommended, because it reduces the intensity and duration of postinjection soreness compared with that produced by dry needling.

  13. Treatment strategies for combining immunostimulatory oncolytic virus therapeutics with dendritic cell injections.

    PubMed

    Wares, Joanna R; Crivelli, Joseph J; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choi, Il-Kyu; Gevertz, Jana L; Kim, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to treat cancer, as they selectively replicate inside of and lyse tumor cells. The efficacy of this process is limited and new OVs are being designed to mediate tumor cell release of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, which attract cytotoxic T cells to target tumor cells, thus increasing the tumor-killing effects of OVs. To further promote treatment efficacy, OVs can be combined with other treatments, such as was done by Huang et al., who showed that combining OV injections with dendritic cell (DC) injections was a more effective treatment than either treatment alone. To further investigate this combination, we built a mathematical model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations and fit the model to the hierarchical data provided from Huang et al. We used the model to determine the effect of varying doses of OV and DC injections and to test alternative treatment strategies. We found that the DC dose given in Huang et al. was near a bifurcation point and that a slightly larger dose could cause complete eradication of the tumor. Further, the model results suggest that it is more effective to treat a tumor with immunostimulatory oncolytic viruses first and then follow-up with a sequence of DCs than to alternate OV and DC injections. This protocol, which was not considered in the experiments of Huang et al., allows the infection to initially thrive before the immune response is enhanced. Taken together, our work shows how the ordering, temporal spacing, and dosage of OV and DC can be chosen to maximize efficacy and to potentially eliminate tumors altogether.

  14. Tracing Mercox Injected at Acupuncture Points Under the Protocol of Partial Body Macerations in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Stefanov, Miroslav; Nam, Min-Ho; Kim, Sungchul

    2015-12-01

    We used for the first time a vascular casting material to take advantage of a simple tracing procedure and to isolate the peculiar features of acupuncture point injections. The polymer Mercox was injected into the skin of a dead mouse at acupuncture points along the bladder meridian lines. After a partial maceration of the whole body with a potassium-hydroperoxide solution, we anatomized it under a stereomicroscope to trace the injected Mercox. Many organs were checked to determine whether or not they contained some Mercox tracing. Connections between the injection sites along the acupuncture points were observed. Two to three layers of Mercox in a plate shape were found under the skin at the acupuncture points, and Mercox travelled throughout the adipose tissue, the fascia, and the parietal and visceral serous membranes inside the organ's parenchyma. The casting material Mercox used with a modified partial maceration procedure is a promising method for visualizing the routes of the meridian system and the primo vascular system. The routes for Mercox are different from those of the blood and lymphatic vessels. PMID:26742916

  15. Mixed-point geostatistical simulation: A combination of two- and multiple-point geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh; Barnes, Christophe; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    Multiple-point-based geostatistical methods are used to model complex geological structures. However, a training image containing the characteristic patterns of the Earth model has to be provided. If no training image is available, two-point (i.e., covariance-based) geostatistical methods are typically applied instead because these methods provide fewer constraints on the Earth model. This study is motivated by the case where 1-D vertical training images are available through borehole logs, whereas little or no information about horizontal dependencies exists. This problem is solved by developing theory that makes it possible to combine information from multiple- and two-point geostatistics for different directions, leading to a mixed-point geostatistical model. An example of combining information from the multiple-point-based single normal equation simulation algorithm and two-point-based sequential indicator simulation algorithm is provided. The mixed-point geostatistical model is used for conditional sequential simulation based on vertical training images from five borehole logs and a range parameter describing the horizontal dependencies.

  16. Combined Geometric/radiometric Point Cloud Matching for Shear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the recent past, dense image matching methods such as Semi-Global Matching (SGM) became popular for many applications. The SGM approach has been adapted to and implemented for Leica ADS line-scanner data by North West Geomatics (North West) in co-operation with Leica Geosystems; it is used in North West's production workflow. One of the advantages of ADS imagery is the calibrated color information (RGB and near infrared), extending SGM-derived point clouds to dense "image point clouds" or, more general, information clouds (info clouds). With the goal of automating the quality control of ADS data, info clouds are utilized for Shear Analysis: Three-dimensional offsets of adjacent ADS image strips are determined from a pattern of info cloud pairs in strip overlaps by point cloud matching. The presented approach integrates geometry (height) and radiometry (intensity) information; matching is based on local point-to-plane distances for all points in a given cloud. The offset is derived in a least squares adjustment by applying it to each individual distance computation equation. Using intensities in addition to heights greatly benefits the offset computation, because intensity gradients tend to occur more frequently than height gradients. They can provide or complement the required information for the derivation of planimetric offset components. The paper details the combined geometric/radiometric point cloud matching approach and verifies the results against manual measurements.

  17. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  18. Robust ellipse fitting based on sparse combination of data points.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junli; Zhang, Miaohua; Liu, Ding; Zeng, Xianju; Ojowu, Ode; Zhao, Kexin; Li, Zhan; Liu, Han

    2013-06-01

    Ellipse fitting is widely applied in the fields of computer vision and automatic industry control, in which the procedure of ellipse fitting often follows the preprocessing step of edge detection in the original image. Therefore, the ellipse fitting method also depends on the accuracy of edge detection besides their own performance, especially due to the introduced outliers and edge point errors from edge detection which will cause severe performance degradation. In this paper, we develop a robust ellipse fitting method to alleviate the influence of outliers. The proposed algorithm solves ellipse parameters by linearly combining a subset of ("more accurate") data points (formed from edge points) rather than all data points (which contain possible outliers). In addition, considering that squaring the fitting residuals can magnify the contributions of these extreme data points, our algorithm replaces it with the absolute residuals to reduce this influence. Moreover, the norm of data point errors is bounded, and the worst case performance optimization is formed to be robust against data point errors. The resulting mixed l1-l2 optimization problem is further derived as a second-order cone programming one and solved by the computationally efficient interior-point methods. Note that the fitting approach developed in this paper specifically deals with the overdetermined system, whereas the current sparse representation theory is only applied to underdetermined systems. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can be looked upon as an extended application and development of the sparse representation theory. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed ellipse fitting approach. PMID:23412616

  19. Robust ellipse fitting based on sparse combination of data points.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junli; Zhang, Miaohua; Liu, Ding; Zeng, Xianju; Ojowu, Ode; Zhao, Kexin; Li, Zhan; Liu, Han

    2013-06-01

    Ellipse fitting is widely applied in the fields of computer vision and automatic industry control, in which the procedure of ellipse fitting often follows the preprocessing step of edge detection in the original image. Therefore, the ellipse fitting method also depends on the accuracy of edge detection besides their own performance, especially due to the introduced outliers and edge point errors from edge detection which will cause severe performance degradation. In this paper, we develop a robust ellipse fitting method to alleviate the influence of outliers. The proposed algorithm solves ellipse parameters by linearly combining a subset of ("more accurate") data points (formed from edge points) rather than all data points (which contain possible outliers). In addition, considering that squaring the fitting residuals can magnify the contributions of these extreme data points, our algorithm replaces it with the absolute residuals to reduce this influence. Moreover, the norm of data point errors is bounded, and the worst case performance optimization is formed to be robust against data point errors. The resulting mixed l1-l2 optimization problem is further derived as a second-order cone programming one and solved by the computationally efficient interior-point methods. Note that the fitting approach developed in this paper specifically deals with the overdetermined system, whereas the current sparse representation theory is only applied to underdetermined systems. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can be looked upon as an extended application and development of the sparse representation theory. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed ellipse fitting approach.

  20. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  1. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  2. Retrosternal abscess after trigger point injections in a pregnant woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Although retrosternal abscess is a well known complication of sternotomy and intravenous drug abuse, to date it has not been described as a consequence of trigger point injections. There are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure including epidural abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis and gas gangrene. Case presentation A 37-year-old African-American woman, who was 20 weeks pregnant, presented to our emergency room with complaints of progressively worsening chest pain and shortness of breath over the course of the last two months. She was undergoing trigger point injections at multiple different sites including the sternoclavicular joint for chest pain and dystonia. Two years previously she had developed a left-sided pneumothorax as a result of this procedure, requiring chest tube placement and subsequent pleurodesis. Her vital signs in our emergency room were normal except for resting tachycardia, with a pulse of 100 beats per minute. A physical examination revealed swelling and tenderness of the sternal notch with tenderness to palpation over the left sternoclavicular joint. Laboratory data was significant for a white blood count of 13.3 × 109/L with 82% granulocytes. A chest radiograph revealed left basilar scarring with blunting of the left costophrenic angle. A computed tomography angiogram showed a 4.7 cm abscess in the retrosternal region behind the manubrium with associated sclerosis and cortical irregularity of the manubrium and left clavicle. Conclusion Trigger point injection is generally considered very safe. However, there are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure. A computed tomography scan of the chest should strongly be considered in the evaluation of chest pain and shortness of breath of unclear etiology in patients with even a remote history of trigger point injections. PMID:21859491

  3. GPS and Glonass Combined Static Precise Point Positioning (ppp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, D.; Dwivedi, R.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), satellite navigation is undergoing drastic changes. Presently, more than 70 satellites are already available and nearly 120 more satellites will be available in the coming years after the achievement of complete constellation for all four systems- GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. The significant improvement in terms of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision and accuracy demands the utilization of combining multi-GNSS for Precise Point Positioning (PPP), especially in constrained environments. Currently, PPP is performed based on the processing of only GPS observations. Static and kinematic PPP solutions based on the processing of only GPS observations is limited by the satellite visibility, which is often insufficient for the mountainous and open pit mines areas. One of the easiest options available to enhance the positioning reliability is to integrate GPS and GLONASS observations. This research investigates the efficacy of combining GPS and GLONASS observations for achieving static PPP solution and its sensitivity to different processing methodology. Two static PPP solutions, namely standalone GPS and combined GPS-GLONASS solutions are compared. The datasets are processed using the open source GNSS processing environment gLAB 2.2.7 as well as magicGNSS software package. The results reveal that the addition of GLONASS observations improves the static positioning accuracy in comparison with the standalone GPS point positioning. Further, results show that there is an improvement in the three dimensional positioning accuracy. It is also shown that the addition of GLONASS constellation improves the total number of visible satellites by more than 60% which leads to the improvement of satellite geometry represented by Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) by more than 30%.

  4. Power-combining based on master-slave injection-locking magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuan; Yi, Zhang; Wenjun, Ye; Huacheng, Zhu; Kama, Huang; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A microwave power-combining system composed of two Panasonic 2M244-M1 magnetrons based on master-slave injection-locking is demonstrated in this paper. The principle of master-slave injection-locking and the locking condition are theoretical analyzed. Experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and the experimental combined efficiency is higher than 96%. Compared with the external-injection-locked system, the power-combining based on the master-slave injection-locking magnetron is superior by taking out the external solid-state driver and the real-time phase control system. Thus, this power-combining system has great potential for obtaining a high efficiency, high stability, low cost, and high power microwave source. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501311).

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 relieved by acupuncture point injections with placental extract.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tae Hwan; Park, Kyeong Mee

    2014-06-01

    This is a case report of a female patient who developed complex regional pain syndrome in the left upper limb after a traumatic injury to the distal part of the left forearm. The pain was immediate and resistant to oral analgesics and continued transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Five months after the injury, the patient presented to our clinic with severe pain, swelling, redness, cold sensation of the left hand, and loss of function from the left hand up to the left shoulder. Acupuncture points LI5, LU2, SI10, HT1, GB21, and SI11 (which are localized in the joints or in the muscles responsible for the movement of the left upper limb) were selected for the application of the placental extract. Injection of placental extract into the acupuncture points resulted in dramatic pain relief, swelling remission, motor recovery, temperature normalization, and disappearance of redness in this patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

  6. [Compatibility research of Yiqi Fumai injection with clinical combination based on isothermal titration calorimetry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-yu; Ma, Li-na; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiao-he; Liu, Shao-gui; Zhang, Ya-ming

    2015-03-01

    To reveal the characterization of interaction between Chinese and western medicinal injections, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was applied to evaluating the interaction of Yiqi Fumai injection (YQFM, as mode drug) with epinephrine hydrochloride injection (YS) and 5% glucose injection (5% GS). The diversification of Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) were determined to judge the reaction types of colliquefaction procedures of different injections. Meanwhile, the fingerprints of YQFM before and after combined with the various injections were compared to validate the results. This work demonstrated that during the titration procedure of YQFM and YS, [ΔH] > T [ΔS] , that was to say the reaction was enthalpy-driving. And the reactive profile indicated that a great deal of heat gave out during the procedure. Obviously, chemical reactions happened and the internal component changed. On the other side, the reaction of YQFM combined with 5% GS was entropy-driving, because [ΔH] < T [ΔS]. The reactive profile showed there was only a little heat released. So non-chemical reactions happened and the major ingredients did not change. ITC could be applied to the evaluation on compatibility of other kinds of Chinese and western medicinal injection combination.

  7. Enhanced in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated groundwater by combined injection of nitrate and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J A; Rahme, H; Hopkins, G D; Lebron, C; Reinhard, M

    2001-04-15

    Enhancement of in situ anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX compounds was demonstrated at a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in Seal Beach, CA. Specifically, combined injection of nitrate and sulfate into the contaminated aquifer was used to accelerate BTEX removal as compared to remediation by natural attenuation. An array of multi-level sampling wells was used to monitor the evolution of the in situ spatial distributions of the electron acceptors and the BTEX compounds. Nitrate was utilized preferentially over sulfate and was completely consumed within a horizontal distance of 4-6 m from the injection well; sulfate reduction occurred in the region outside the denitrifying zone. By combining injection of both nitrate and sulfate, the total electron acceptor capacity was enhanced without violating practical considerations that limit the amount of nitrate or sulfate that can be added individually. Degradation of total xylene appears linked to sulfate utilization, indicating another advantage of combined injection versus injection of nitrate alone. Benzene degradation also appears to have been stimulated by the nitrate and sulfate injection close to the injection well but only toward the end of the 15-month demonstration. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that benzene can be biodegraded anaerobically after other preferentially degraded hydrocarbons have been removed. PMID:11329718

  8. Enhanced in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated groundwater by combined injection of nitrate and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J A; Rahme, H; Hopkins, G D; Lebron, C; Reinhard, M

    2001-04-15

    Enhancement of in situ anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX compounds was demonstrated at a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in Seal Beach, CA. Specifically, combined injection of nitrate and sulfate into the contaminated aquifer was used to accelerate BTEX removal as compared to remediation by natural attenuation. An array of multi-level sampling wells was used to monitor the evolution of the in situ spatial distributions of the electron acceptors and the BTEX compounds. Nitrate was utilized preferentially over sulfate and was completely consumed within a horizontal distance of 4-6 m from the injection well; sulfate reduction occurred in the region outside the denitrifying zone. By combining injection of both nitrate and sulfate, the total electron acceptor capacity was enhanced without violating practical considerations that limit the amount of nitrate or sulfate that can be added individually. Degradation of total xylene appears linked to sulfate utilization, indicating another advantage of combined injection versus injection of nitrate alone. Benzene degradation also appears to have been stimulated by the nitrate and sulfate injection close to the injection well but only toward the end of the 15-month demonstration. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that benzene can be biodegraded anaerobically after other preferentially degraded hydrocarbons have been removed.

  9. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new

  10. Synergistic anti-tumor activity through combinational intratumoral injection of an in-situ injectable drug depot.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da Yeon; Kwon, Doo Yeon; Kwon, Jin Seon; Park, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Ho; Min, Byoung Hyun; Park, Kinam; Kim, Moon Suk

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe combinational chemotherapy via intratumoral injection of doxorubicin (Dox) and 5-fluorouracil (Fu) to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of systemically administered Fu and Dox in cancer patients. As the key concept in this work, mixture formulations of Dox-loaded microcapsules (Dox-M) and Fu-loaded Pluronic(®) hydrogels (Fu-HP) or Fu-loaded diblock copolymer hydrogels (Fu-HC) have been employed as drug depots. The in vitro and in vivo drug depot was designed as a formulation of Dox-M dispersed inside an outer shell of Fu-HP or Fu-HC after injection. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC formulations are free flowing at room temperature, indicating injectability, and formed a structural gelatinous depot in vitro and in vivo at body temperature. The Fu-HP, Fu-HC, Dox-M/Fu-HP, Dox-M/Fu-HC, and Dox-M formulations were easily injected into tumor centers in mice using a needle. Dox-M/Fu-HC produced more significant inhibitory effects against tumor growth than that by Dox-M/Fu-HP, while Fu-HP, Fu-HC and Dox-M had the weakest inhibitory effects of the tested treatments. The in vivo study of Dox and Fu biodistribution showed that high Dox and Fu concentrations were maintained in the target tumor only, while distribution to normal tissues was not observed, indicating that Dox and Fu concentrations below their toxic plasma concentrations should not cause significant systemic toxicity. The Dox-M/Fu-HP and Dox-M/Fu-HC drug depots described in this work showed excellent performance as chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The results reported here indicate that intratumoral injection using combination chemotherapy with Dox-M/Fu-HP or Dox-M/Fu-HC could be of translational research by enhancing the synergistic inhibitory effects of Dox and Fu on tumor growth, while reducing their systemic toxicity in cancer patients. PMID:26874285

  11. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  12. Ion beam injected point defects in crystalline silicon: Migration, interaction, and trapping phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Priolo, F.; Libertino, S. |; Privitera, V.; Coffa, S.

    1997-11-01

    The recent work on the room temperature migration and trapping phenomena of ion beam generated point defects in crystalline Si is reviewed. It is shown that a small fraction ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6}) of the defects generated at the surface by a shallow implant is injected into the bulk. These defects undergo a long range trap-limited diffusion and interact with both impurities, dopants and preexisting defects along their path. In particular, these interactions result in dopant deactivation and/or partial annihilation of pre-existing vacancy-type defect markers. It is found that in highly pure, epitaxial Si layers, these effects extend to several microns from the surface, demonstrating a long range migration of point defects at room temperature. By a detailed analysis of the experimental evidences the authors have identified the Si self-interstitials as the major responsible for the observed phenomena. This allowed them to give a lower limit of 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s for the room temperature diffusion coefficient of the Si self-interstitials. Room temperature trap-limited migration of vacancies is also detected as a broadening in the divacancy profile of as implanted samples. In this case the room temperature diffusion coefficient of vacancies has been found to be {ge}3 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s. These data are presented and their implications discussed.

  13. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt. PMID:25402902

  14. Quality fluctuation detection of an herbal injection based on biological fingerprint combined with chemical fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lele; Ma, Lina; Feng, Wuwen; Zhang, Congen; Sheng, Feiya; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Chen; Dong, Gang; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe; Yan, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Herbal injection is one of the most important preparations of traditional Chinese medicine. More than 130 types of herbal injections are used clinically for 400 million patients annually with total sales of over four billion US dollars per year. However, the current quality control (QC) methods relying mainly on chemical fingerprints (CF) can hardly ensure quality and safety of the herbal injections with complex chemical composition and have resulted in an increase in serious adverse drug reactions. In this study, a comprehensive approach for the QC of a controversial herbal injection Shuang-Huang-Lian lyophilized powder (SHL) was established based on the quality fluctuation detection by a combination of CF and biological fingerprint (BF). High-performance liquid chromatography and the impedance-based xCELLigence system were applied to establish the CF and BF, respectively. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminant ability of the two methods. The results showed that being subjected to environmental influence like oxygen/air, high temperature, and extreme illumination could lead to quality fluctuation of SHL. The combination of chemical and biological fingerprint method is a more powerful tool for the QC of SHL because it can clearly discriminate different groups of abnormal samples. This method can be used for the detection of quality fluctuation of SHL and can provide reference for the quality control of other herbal injections.

  15. Combination Space Station Handrail Clamp and Pointing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for attaching an experiment carrier to a space station handrail is provided. The device has two major components, a clamping mechanism for attachment to a space station handrail, and a pointing carrier on which an experiment package can be mounted and oriented. The handrail clamp uses an overcenter mechanism and the carrier mechanism uses an adjustable preload ball and socket for carrier positioning. The handrail clamp uses a stack of disk springs to provide a spring loaded button. This configuration provides consistent clamping force over a range of possible handrail thicknesses. Three load points are incorporated in the clamping mechanism thereby spreading the clamping load onto three separate points on the handrail. A four bar linkage is used to provide for a single actuation lever for all three load points. For additional safety, a secondary lock consisting of a capture plate and push lock keeps the clamp attached to the handrail in the event of main clamp failure. For the carrier positioning mechanism, a ball in a spring loaded socket uses friction to provide locking torque; however. the ball and socket are torque limited so that the ball ran slip under kick loads (125 pounds or greater). A lead screw attached to disk spring stacks is used to provide an adjustable spring force on the socket. A locking knob is attached to the lead screw to allow for hand manipulation of the lead screw.

  16. The Effect of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture Point Injections on Shoulder Pain after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu-Ri; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Park, Joo-Young

    2013-01-01

    An effective and safe remedy for shoulder pain is needed as shoulder pain is a common complication of stroke and restricts recovery of patients. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Ouhyul herbal acupuncture point injection (O-API) on shoulder pain in patients with stroke. Twenty-four participants with shoulder pain after stroke were recruited and randomized to the O-API and control groups. Treatment was conducted for 2 weeks three times per week. We evaluated the effects of treatment with a numerical rating scale (NRS), painless passive range of motion (PROM) of external shoulder rotation, and the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) at baseline, each week, and 1 week after the final treatment. All measures were similar between the O-API and control groups at baseline. The O-API group showed significant improvement on the NRS compared with that in the control group after 2 weeks of treatment, and the treatment effect was maintained until the follow-up period. PROM decreased significantly in both groups, but the reduction was maintained only in the O-API group. No significant difference was observed on the FMMA between the two groups. O-API resulted in significant improvement in shoulder pain after stroke, and its effect was maintained after termination of treatment without any severe side effects. PMID:23843875

  17. Increasing the effectiveness of intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice: a neurosurgical point of view.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Bertrand; Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Le Duigou, Caroline; Clemenceau, Stéphane; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral injections of tracers or viral constructs in rodents are now commonly used in the neurosciences and must be executed perfectly. The purpose of this article is to update existing protocols for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice. Our procedure for stereotaxic injections in adult mice allows the investigator to improve the effectiveness and safety, and save time. Furthermore, for the first time, we describe a two-handed procedure for intracerebral injections in neonatal mice that can be performed by a single operator in a very short time. Our technique using the stereotaxic arm allows a higher precision than freehand techniques previously described. Stereotaxic injections in adult mice can be performed in 20 min and have >90% efficacy in targeting the injection site. Injections in neonatal mice can be performed in 5 min. Efficacy depends on the difficulty of precisely localizing the injection sites, due to the small size of the animal. We describe an innovative, effortless, and reproducible surgical protocol for intracerebral injections in adult and neonatal mice.

  18. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Amali U; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sun Hyo; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application.

  19. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  20. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  1. Multi-point Observations and Modeling of Particle Injections During Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. G.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Jordanova, V.; Harris, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dispersionless and dispersed particle injections associated with substorms have been studied for many years based on observations acquired primarily at geosynchronous orbit. A general picture that has emerged is that particles are energized and rapidly transported/organized behind an "injection boundary" that penetrates closer to Earth in some magnetic local time sector (e.g. the so-called double-spiral injection boundary model). While this picture provides a very good description of injections at geosynchronous orbit, with the launch of the Van Allen Probes mission, we are now able to explore the evolution of injection signatures well inside of geosynchronous orbit at multiple locations as well. We find that the injection boundary model also appears to reproduce a number of complicated types of dispersion patterns observed in the Van Allen Probes particle data. The dispersion patterns are found to depend dramatically on orbital configuration and timing of onset relative to the phasing of the spacecraft in their orbits. In addition to observational results, we present results of simulated dispersion patterns obtained from the injection boundary model using guiding center particle tracing in two different field configurations: 1) a simplistic dipole magnetic field with Volland-Stern electric field, and 2) RAM/SCB running in the Space Weather Modeling Framework.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Energetic Ion Injections in the Inner Magnetosphere: Multi-Point Observations of a Substorm Event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulidou, M.; Ohtani, S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Turner, D. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Nose, M.; Koga, K.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma transport and energization of ions in the magnetotail has been shown to largely occur in the form of injections of hot plasma, localized in MLT, associated with bursty bulk flows and sharp dipolarizations of the magnetic field. However, the relationship of these transient tail phenomena to energetic particle injections into the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. Recent results by the RBSPICE instrument of the Van Allen Probes mission showed that the occurrence of energetic ion injections inside geosynchronous orbit can be very frequent throughout the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, and indicated that the contribution of such injections to the ring current buildup could be substantial. Understanding the formation and evolution of energetic ion injections in the inner magnetosphere and their relationship to transient phenomena in the tail is, therefore, of great importance. In order to differentiate between temporal and spatial variations, it is essential to investigate injections via multi-point observations. We study a substorm event that occurred during a small storm (Dst ~-40 nT), where two injections of energetic ions (50 - 300 keV), 10 minutes apart, were observed by RBSPICE instrument inside geosynchronous orbit, and six LANL and two GOES spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit. Geosynchronous spacecraft ETS-8, at a similar MLT with Van Allen Probe B, also observed the dipolarization signatures associated with these two injections. At the same time, two THEMIS spacecraft were monitoring the night-side magnetosphere at ~ 10 RE. Using ground-based magnetometer data, we are able to identify the eastward and westward edges of the current wedge associated with each one of these injections. The two injections, as observed in the inner magnetosphere, exhibit distinct differences in their dipolarization signatures as well as their duration. With all the above data at hand, we investigate the inward propagation of the injections into the inner

  3. Combined Therapy of Radiofrequency Ablation and Ethanol Injection of Rabbit Liver: An In Vivo Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2004-03-15

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) on the extent of ablation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue as compared with either therapy alone. Twenty-two New Zealand white rabbits were included in this study and allocated into three groups: group A: conventional RFA (n = 6); group B: PEI (n = 6); group C: combined RFA and PEI (n = 10). For combined RFA and PEI, under ultrasound guidance, 1 mL of absolute ethanol was injected into the target area of the liver parenchyma through a 21-gauge Chiba needle before performing RFA. RFA was performed using a 17- gauge internally cooled electrode with 1-cm active tip, and RF energy (30 W) was applied for 3 minutes, with or without ethanol injection. After RFA or PEI, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and CT-pathologic correlation were performed. The short- axis and long-axis diameters of thermal lesions of each group were compared. All procedures were technically successful and a total of 38 lesions were produced. The mean short-axis and long-axis diameter of the coagulation necrosis in rabbits of group C (combination of RFA and PEI), were significantly larger than those of other groups: group A: 10.3 {+-} 2 mm and 11.4 {+-} 2 mm; group B: 3.1 {+-} 1 mm and 4.3 {+-} 2 mm; group C: 12.8 {+-} 3 mm and 17.8 {+-} 6 mm (p < 0.05). On contrast-enhanced CT scan, the lesions of rabbits of the group C appeared to be more frequently irregular compared to those of group A (20% in group A vs. 67% in group C). There were three complications including two localized hematomas and one cardiopulmonary failure. Combined RFA and PEI could increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis without increasing complications and therefore, may be successfully used for treating larger lesions.

  4. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available.

  5. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. PMID:26203214

  6. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lawuyi, Lola Elizabeth; Gurbaxani, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3%) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis), miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. PMID:26203214

  7. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T. Kaminou, T. Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ihaya, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  8. A Novel Triple Medicine Combination Injection for the Resolution of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars remain one of the more difficult treatment concerns for clinicians. A variety of therapies have been used in the past with moderate success. On occasion, combination therapy has been used to treat these lesion, in an attempt to lessen the symptoms of pain and pruritus that often accompanies keloids and hypertrophic scars, as well as treating the actual lesions themselves. A novel triple combination injection process is introduced here in an attempt to further reduce the signs and symptoms of these lesions. The combination includes 5-fluoruracil, triamcinolone acetonide, and hyaluronidase. All three work in concert to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars, and this is the first work at looking at these medicines given together, at the same time, in a series of recalcitrant keloids and hypertrophic scars. The positive results warrant further investigation and hope for those with keloids and hypertrophic scars. PMID:25489380

  9. Plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling reveals the potential antipyretic mechanisms of Qingkailing injection in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Huizhen; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Wang, Meiling; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-25

    Qingkailing injection (QKLI) has a notable antipyretic effect and is widely used in China as a clinical emergency medicine. To elucidate the pharmacological action thoroughly, following the investigation of the urine metabolome and hypothalamus metabolome, plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling of the QKLI antipyretic effect in a rat model is described in this paper. Compared with pure metabolomics profiling, this non-targeted plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) could be used for a large-scale detection of features in plasma samples. The results showed that 15 metabolites at the 1 h time point and 19 metabolites at the 2 h time point after QKLI administration were associated with the antipyretic effect of QKLI, including amino acid, phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine. The metabolism pathway analysis revealed that the potential biomarkers, which were important for the antipyretic mechanism of QKLI, were closely responsible for correcting the perturbed pathways of amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the use of complementary UPLC Q-TOF/MS based metabolomics and lipidomics allows for the discovery of new potential plasma biomarkers in the QKLI antipyretic process and the associated pathways, and aided in advancing the understanding of the holism and synergism of the Chinese drug. PMID:27208622

  10. Pharmacological and Combined Interventions to Reduce Vaccine Injection Pain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Halperin, Scott A.; Noel, Melanie; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy and combined interventions for reducing vaccine injection pain in individuals across the lifespan. Design/Methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Self-reported pain and fear as well as observer-rated distress were critically important outcomes. Data were combined using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Fifty-five studies that examined breastfeeding (which combines sweet-tasting solution, holding, and sucking), topical anesthetics, sweet-tasting solutions (sucrose, glucose), vapocoolants, oral analgesics, and combination of 2 versus 1 intervention were included. The following results report findings of analyses of critical outcomes with the largest number of participants. Compared with control, acute distress was lower for infants breastfed: (1) during vaccination (n=792): SMD −1.78 (CI, −2.35, −1.22) and (2) before vaccination (n=100): SMD −1.43 (CI, −2.14, −0.72). Compared with control/placebo, topical anesthetics showed benefit on acute distress in children (n=1424): SMD −0.91 (CI, −1.36, −0.47) and self-reported pain in adults (n=60): SMD −0.85 (CI, −1.38, −0.32). Acute and recovery distress was lower for children who received sucrose (n=2071): SMD −0.76 (CI, −1.19, −0.34) or glucose (n=818): SMD −0.69 (CI, −1.03, −0.35) compared with placebo/no treatment. Vapocoolants reduced acute pain in adults [(n=185), SMD −0.78 (CI, −1.08, −0.48)] but not children. Evidence from other needle procedures showed no benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen. The administration of topical anesthetics before and breastfeeding during vaccine injections showed mixed results when compared with topical anesthetics alone. There were no additive benefits of combining glucose and non-nutritive sucking (pacifier) compared with

  11. Injectable, thermo-reversible and complex coacervate combination gels for protein drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kwang-Mi; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2008-05-01

    Injectable and thermo-reversible physical combination gels were formed in aqueous solution by preparing complex coacervate with two oppositely charged biomacromolecules that composed of negatively charged chondroitin 6-sulfate and positively charged high molecular weight gelatin type A and co-formulating with a negative, thermo-sensitive polysaccharide, methylcellulose containing a salting-out salt, ammonium sulfate. The combination of complex coacervation and a thermo-reversible gel demonstrated synergistic effects on the complex coacervate formation the release rates of model proteins and in situ gel depot formation. Gels indicated sustained release patterns of the protein over 25 days with minimal initial bursts. Optimized novel in situ gel depot systems containing dual advantages of complex coacervation and temperature responsiveness demonstrated a potential for efficient protein drug delivery in terms of high protein loading, sustained protein release, ease of administration, an aqueous environment without toxic organic solvents, and a simple fabrication method.

  12. Combined effects of botulinum toxin injection and hindlimb unloading on bone and muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, Rachel; Grasso, Daniel J.; van Vliet, Miranda; Brooks, Daniel J.; Spatz, Jordan M.; Conlon, Christine; Bouxsein, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone receives mechanical stimulation from two primary sources, muscle contractions and external gravitational loading, but the relative contribution of each source to skeletal health is not fully understood. Understanding the most effective loading for maintaining bone health has important clinical implications for prescribing physical activity for the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis. Therefore, we investigated the relative effects of muscle paralysis and reduced gravitational loading on changes in muscle mass, bone mineral density and microarchitecture. Adult female C57Bl/6J mice (n=10/group) underwent one of the following: unilateral botulinum toxin (BTX) injection of the hindlimb, hindlimb unloading (HLU), both unilateral BTX injection and HLU, or no intervention. BTX and HLU each led to significant muscle and bone loss. The effect of BTX was diminished when combined with HLU, though generally the leg that received the combined intervention (HLU + BTX) had the most detrimental changes in bone and muscle. We found an indirect effect of BTX affecting the uninjected (contralateral) leg that led to significant decreases in bone mineral density and deficits in muscle mass and bone architecture relative to the untreated controls; the magnitude of this indirect BTX effect was comparable to the direct effect of BTX treatment and HLU. Thus, while it was difficult to definitively conclude whether muscle forces or external gravitational loading contribute more to bone maintenance, it appears that BTX-induced muscle paralysis is more detrimental to muscle and bone than hindlimb unloading. PMID:24240478

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Jose L.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Graff-Zivin, Joshua S.; Kahn, James G.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Lozada, M. Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS) to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ) Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008–2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP) in TJ, but not in CJ. Methods A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY) over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs) compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300). Findings For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,360 ($310–$7,200) per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310–$7,200) compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of

  14. Numerical Simulation of Azimuthal Uniformity of Injection Currents in Single-Point-Feed Induction Voltage Adders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WEI, Hao; SUN, Fengju; YIN, Jiahui; HU, Yixiang; LIANG, Tianxue; Peitian, CONG; Aici, QIU

    2015-03-01

    In order to investigate the injection current uniformity around the induction cell bores, two fully electromagnetic (EM) models are respectively established for a single-stage induction cell and an induction voltage adder (IVA) with three cells stacked in series, without considering electron emission. By means of these two models, some factors affecting the injection current uniformity are simulated and analyzed, such as the impedances of adders and loads, cell locations, and feed timing of parallel driving pulses. Simulation results indicate that higher impedances of adder and loads are slightly beneficial to improve injection current uniformity. As the impedances of adder and loads increase from 5 Ω to 30 Ω, the asymmetric coefficient of feed currents decreases from 10.3% to 6.6%. The current non-uniformity within the first cell is a little worse than that in other downstream cells. Simulation results also show that the feed timing would greatly affect current waveforms, and consequently cause some distortion in pulse fronts of cell output voltages. For a given driving pulse with duration time of 70-80 ns, the feed timing with a time deviation of less than 20 ns is acceptable for the three-cell IVAs, just causing the rise time of output voltages to increase about 5 ns at most and making the peak voltage decrease by 3.5%. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51307141), and partly by the State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology) under Contract SKLIPR 1206

  15. Short-term injection of antiapoptotic cytokine combinations soon after lethal gamma -irradiation promotes survival.

    PubMed

    Hérodin, Francis; Bourin, Philippe; Mayol, Jean-François; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Drouet, Michel

    2003-04-01

    Recovery from radiation-induced (RI) myelosuppression depends on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival and the active proliferation/differentiation process, which requires early cytokine support. Single cytokine or late-acting growth factor therapy has proved to be inefficient in ensuring reconstitution after severe RI damage. This work was aimed at evaluating the in vivo survival effect of combinations of early-acting cytokines whose antiapoptotic activity has been demonstrated in vitro: stem cell factor (SCF [S]), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT-3 ligand [F]), thrombopoietin (TPO [T]), interleukin-3 (IL-3 [3]), and stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1). B6D2F1 mice underwent total body irradiation at 8 Gy cesium Cs 137 gamma radiation (ie, lethal dose 90% at 30 days) and were treated soon after irradiation, at 2 hours and at 24 hours, with recombinant murine cytokines, each given intraperitoneally at 50 microg/kg per injection. All treatments induced 30-day survival rates significantly higher than control (survival rate, 8.3%). 4F (SFT3) and 5F (4F + SDF-1) were the most efficient combinations (81.2% and 87.5%, respectively), which was better than 3F (SFT, 50%), TPO alone (58.3%), and SDF-1 alone (29.2%) and also better than 4F given at 10 microg/kg per injection (4F10, 45.8%) or as a 50 microg/kg single injection at 2 hours (4Fs, 62.5%). Despite delayed death occurring mainly from day 150 on and possible long-term hematopoiesis impairment, half the 30-day protective effects of 4F and 5F were preserved at 300 days. Our results show that short- and long-term survival after irradiation depends on appropriate multiple cytokine combinations and at optimal concentrations. The proposal is made that an emergency cytokine regimen could be applied to nuclear accident victims as part of longer cytokine treatment, cell therapy, or both.

  16. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  17. Mesigyna once-a-month combined injectable contraceptive: experience in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bassol, S; Cravioto, M C; Durand, M; Bailon, R; Carranza, S; Fugarolas, J; Gaona, R; Parada, L M; Celis, C; Santoyo, S; Garza-Flores, J; Vazquez, L; Lopez, C; Gurucharri, C; Novelli, J; Carneiro de Oliveira, H; Mendez, J; de Andrade, M E; de Mello, N R; de Melo, K; Chada, E; Yassle, M E; Castañeda, A; Gomez, P; Arboleda, C; Trujillo, L; Bucheli, R; Hidalgo, I; Olavide, R; Parejarios, J; Succar, J; Reyes-Marquez, R; Albrecht, G

    2000-05-01

    A phase III clinical study was carried out among 534 fertile Latin American women to evaluate cycle control, side effects, and contraceptive efficacy of a once-a-month combined injectable, Mesigyna, consisting of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate. The pregnancy rate at 1 year was 0 per 100 woman-years for a total experience of 4688 woman-months. The overall discontinuation rate at one year was 17.9%. Discontinuation rate for bleeding problems was 5.1%. The Colombian women had a significant increase (p <0.001) in bleeding problems compared to other countries. The discontinuation rate for amenorrhea was 1.1%. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding discontinuation for other medical or non-medical reasons. Mean weight gain after one year of use was 1.02 kg. Mesigyna is an appropiate once-a-month injectable contraceptive for Latin American women since it is highly effective and its perception of normal menstrual bleeding is of importance in the Latin American population.

  18. Lidocaine injection of pericranial myofascial trigger points in the treatment of frequent episodic tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of local lidocaine injections into the myofascial trigger points (TPs) located at the pericranial muscles in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH). Methods The study included 108 patients with frequent ETTH that were randomized into 4 groups. One injection of saline (NaCl 0.9%) was administered to group 1 (n = 27), 1 injection of lidocaine (0.5%) was administered to group 2 (n = 27), group 3 (n = 27) received 5 injections of saline (NaCl 0.9%), and group 4 (n = 27) received 5 injections of lidocaine (0.5%); on alternate days 2 mL for each muscle was injected into the frontal, temporal, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, semispinalis capitis, trapezius and splenius capitis muscles bilaterally. The frequency of painful days per month (FPD) and the patients’ visual analogue scales (VAS) were evaluated before treatment, and 2, 4 and 6 months after treatment. Results Mean age of the patients was 36.28 ± 9.41 years (range: 18–54 years). FPD scores improved significantly in group 2, 3 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment compared to pre- treatment (all P < 0.05), and also VAS scores improved significantly in group 2 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment (P < 0.05) but this improvement insisted at the 6 month only in group 4. Group 2 had better VAS and FPD than group 1 only at 2. and 4. months after treatment (for VAS P < 0.0121, P = 0.0232; for FPD P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively). Group 4 had better scores than group 3 at the 2., 4. and 6. months after treatment in both parameters (all P < 0.05). Group 2 had better scores than group 1 in FPD at the 2. and 4. months posttreatment (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively), but not at the 6. month. Conclusion Local lidocaine injections into the myofascial TPs located in the pericranial muscles could be considered as an effective alternative treatment for ETTH. PMID:23698019

  19. A Combination of Intrastromal and Intracameral Injections of Amphotericin B in the Treatment of Severe Fungal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianzhang; Zhang, Jingjin; Li, Yanling; Han, Xiaoli; Zheng, Weidong; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of intrastromal and intracameral injections of amphotericin B in the treatment of severe recalcitrant fungal keratitis. Methods. Patients with severe fungal keratitis who were resistant to conventional antifungal medical treatments and needed potential surgical intervention were recruited at the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University between January 2012 and July 2013. The patients were treated with a combination of intrastromal and intracameral injections of amphotericin B (25 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL, resp.). Selectively repeated injections were performed as necessary. The efficacy, complications, and outcome were evaluated. Results. Nine patients (9 eyes) were involved in this study. All 9 cases responded favorably, and the clinical appearance of serious corneal damage and intraocular extension was resolved after the treatment. Four eyes required only 1 injection, and 5 eyes required repeated injections. Seven corneal ulcers healed with leucoma, and 2 healed with adherent leucoma. All of our cases had a marked increase in the anterior chamber reaction and pain immediately after the injection. There was no obvious clinical evidence of corneal or lenticular toxicity in any patient. Conclusions. A combination of intrastromal and intracameral injections of amphotericin B may be safe and effective for the treatment of severe fungal keratitis that is resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:27721986

  20. Towards Combination HIV Prevention for Injection Drug Users: Addressing Addictophobia, Apathy and Inattention

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Shoptaw, Steven; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Quan, Vu Minh; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent breakthroughs in HIV-prevention science led us to evaluate the current state of combination HIV-prevention for injection drug users (IDUs). We review the recent literature focusing on possible reasons why coverage of prevention interventions for HIV, HCV and tuberculosis among IDUs remains dismal. We make recommendations for future HIV research and policy. Recent findings IDUs disproportionately under-utilize VCT, primary care and ART, especially in countries that have the largest burden of HIV among IDUs. IDUs present later in the course of HIV infection and experience greater morbidity and mortality. Why are IDUs under-represented in HIV-prevention research, access to treatment for both HIV and addiction, and access to HIV combination prevention? Possible explanations include addictophobia, apathy, and inattention, which we describe in the context of recent literature and events. Summary This commentary discusses the current state of HIV-prevention interventions for IDUs including, VCT, NSP, OST, ART and PrEP, and discusses ways to work towards true combination HIV-prevention for IDU populations. Communities need to overcome tacit assumptions that IDUs can navigate through systems that are maintained as separate silos, and take a rights-based approach to HIV-prevention to ensure that IDUs have equitable access to life-saving prevention and treatments. PMID:22498479

  1. Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first

  2. Are tender point injections beneficial: the role of tonic nociception in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) include widespread pain, fatigue, sleep abnormalities, and distress. FM patients show psychophysical evidence for mechanical, thermal, and electrical hyperalgesia. To fulfill FM criteria, the mechanical hyperalgesia needs to be widespread and present in at least 11 out of 18 well-defined body areas (tender points). Peripheral and central abnormalities of nociception have been described in FM and these changes may be relevant for the increased pain experienced by these patients. Important nociceptor systems in the skin and muscle seem to undergo profound changes in FM patients by yet unknown mechanisms. These changes may result from the release of algesic substances after muscle or other soft tissue injury. These pain mediators can sensitize important nociceptor systems, including the transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) receptors, and purino-receptors (P2X3). Subsequently, tissue mediators of inflammation and nerve growth factors can excite these receptors and cause substantial changes in pain sensitivity. FM pain is widespread and does not seem to be restricted to tender points (TP). It frequently comprises multiple areas of deep tissue pain (trigger points) with adjacent much larger areas of referred pain. Analgesia of areas of extensive nociceptive input has been found to provide often long lasting local as well as general pain relief. Thus interventions aimed at reducing local FM pain seem to be effective but need to focus less on tender points but more on trigger points (TrP) and other body areas of heightened pain and inflammation. PMID:16454721

  3. Are tender point injections beneficial: the role of tonic nociception in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Staud, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) include widespread pain, fatigue, sleep abnormalities, and distress. FM patients show psychophysical evidence for mechanical, thermal, and electrical hyperalgesia. To fulfill FM criteria, the mechanical hyperalgesia needs to be widespread and present in at least 11 out of 18 well-defined body areas (tender points). Peripheral and central abnormalities of nociception have been described in FM and these changes may be relevant for the increased pain experienced by these patients. Important nociceptor systems in the skin and muscle seem to undergo profound changes in FM patients by yet unknown mechanisms. These changes may result from the release of algesic substances after muscle or other soft tissue injury. These pain mediators can sensitize important nociceptor systems, including the transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), acid sensing ion channel (ASIC) receptors, and purino-receptors (P2X3). Subsequently, tissue mediators of inflammation and nerve growth factors can excite these receptors and cause substantial changes in pain sensitivity. FM pain is widespread and does not seem to be restricted to tender points (TP). It frequently comprises multiple areas of deep tissue pain (trigger points) with adjacent much larger areas of referred pain. Analgesia of areas of extensive nociceptive input has been found to provide often long lasting local as well as general pain relief. Thus interventions aimed at reducing local FM pain seem to be effective but need to focus less on tender points but more on trigger points (TrP) and other body areas of heightened pain and inflammation.

  4. An investigation of the performance of novel chorded keyboards in combination with pointing input devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Zhou; Wu, Fong-Gong

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in computing power have driven the development of smaller and lighter technology products, with novel input devices constantly being produced in response to new user behaviors and usage contexts. The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of operating chorded keyboard control modules in concert with pointing devices such as styluses and mice. We compared combinations of two novel chorded keyboards with different pointing devices in hopes of finding a better combination for future electronic products. Twelve participants were recruited for simulation testing, and paired sample t testing was conducted to determine whether input and error rates for the novel keyboards were improved significantly over those of traditional input methods. The most efficient input device combination tested was the combination of a novel cross-shaped key keyboard and a stylus, suggesting the high potential for use of this combination with future mobile IT products.

  5. Acceptability of Rapid Point-of-Care Hepatitis C Tests Among People Who Inject Drugs and Utilize Syringe-Exchange Programs.

    PubMed

    Barocas, Joshua A; Linas, Benjamin P; Kim, Arthur Y; Fangman, John; Westergaard, Ryan P

    2016-03-01

    People who inject drugs may benefit from point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing offered at syringe exchanges. We sought to understand whether this population would be willing to undergo rapid HCV testing. We found that there was broad support for rapid HCV testing, especially among younger people who inject drugs with high perceived risk. PMID:27191007

  6. Acceptability of Rapid Point-of-Care Hepatitis C Tests Among People Who Inject Drugs and Utilize Syringe-Exchange Programs

    PubMed Central

    Barocas, Joshua A.; Linas, Benjamin P.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Fangman, John; Westergaard, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs may benefit from point-of-care hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing offered at syringe exchanges. We sought to understand whether this population would be willing to undergo rapid HCV testing. We found that there was broad support for rapid HCV testing, especially among younger people who inject drugs with high perceived risk. PMID:27191007

  7. Structure, Stability and Emissions of Lean Direct Injection Combustion, including a Novel Multi-Point LDI System for NOx Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalva Gomez, Rodrigo

    Experimental research on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for gas turbine applications is presented. LDI combustion is an alternative to lean premixed combustion which has the potential of equivalent reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and of peak combustor exit temperatures, but without some drawbacks of premixed combustors, such as flashback and autoignition. Simultaneous observations of the velocity field and reaction zone of an LDI swirl-stabilized combustor with a mixing tube at atmospheric conditions, with the goal of studying the flame stabilization mechanism, are shown. The flame was consistently anchored at the shear layer formed by the high-speed reactants exiting the mixing tube and the low speed recirculation region. Individual image analysis of the location of the tip of the recirculation zone and tip of the reaction region confirmed previously observed trends, but showed that calculation of the distance between these two points for corresponding image pairs yields results no different than when calculated from random image pairs. This most likely indicates a lag in the anchoring of the flame to changes in the recirculation zone, coupled with significant stochastic variation. An alternate LDI approach, multi-point LDI (MLDI), is also tested experimentally. A single large fuel nozzle is replaced by multiple small fuel nozzles to improve atomization and reduce the total volume of the high-temperature, low velocity recirculation zones, reducing NOx formation. The combustor researched employs a novel staged approach to allow good performance across a wide range of conditions by using a combination of nozzle types optimized to various power settings. The combustor has three independent fuel circuits referenced as pilot, intermediate, and outer. Emissions measurements, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, and thermoacoustic instability studies were run in a pressurized combustion facility at pressures from 2.0 to 5.3 bar. Combustor performance

  8. Interstitial laser irradiation of metastatic mammary tumors in combination with intratumoral injection of immunoadjuvant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chet; Jose, Jessnie; Figueroa, Daniel; Goddard, Jessica; Li, Xiaosong; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Chen, Wei R.

    2012-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed to treat metastatic cancers using a combination of laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. The original design of LIT employs a non-invasive, selective laser photothermal interaction, using an in situ light-absorbing dye. However, this non-invasive treatment mode faces challenges in treating deep, large tumors. Furthermore, it has difficulties in the cases of highly pigmented skin overlying target tumors. To overcome these limitations, interstitial laser immunotherapy (ILIT) was proposed. In ILIT, a cylindrical, side-fire fiber diffuser is placed inside the target tumor to induce thermal damage. To enhance the interstitial irradiation induced photothermal interaction, an immunological modifier, glycated chitosan (GC), is injected into the tumor after the laser treatment. In this study, a cylindrical diffuser with an active length of 1 cm was used to treat tumors of 1 to 1.5 cm in size. Different laser powers (1 to 3 watts) and different irradiation durations (10 to 30 minutes) were used to test the thermal effects of ILIT. Different doses of the GC (1.0%, 0.1 to 0.6 ml per rat) were used to determine the immunological effects of ILIT. Our results show that the animal survival depends on both laser dose and GC dose. A dose of 0.2 ml per tumor appeared to result in the highest survival rate under interstitial laser irradiation with 2.5 watts and 20 minutes. While the results in this study are not conclusive, they indicate that interstitial laser irradiation can be combined with immunotherapy to treat metastatic cancers. Furthermore, our results suggest that an optimal combination of laser dose and GC dose could be obtained for future clinical protocols using interstitial laser immunotherapy.

  9. Multi-point injection: A general purpose delivery system for treatment and containment of hazardous and radiological waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Kubarewicz, J.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a proprietary jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous solid waste dumped into shallow burial trenches, bottom sludge (heel material) inside of underground tanks, and contaminated soils with widely varying soil composition (gravel, silts/clays, soft rock). The robustness of the MPI system is linked to the use of high speed mono-directional jets to deliver various types of agents for a variety of applications, such as: pretreatment of waste prior to insitu vitrification, solidification of waste for creating low conductivity monoliths, oxidants for insitu destruction of organic waste, and grouts for creating barriers (vertical, inclined, and bottom seals). The only strict limitation placed upon the MPI process is that the material can be pumped under high pressure. This paper describes the procedures to inject ordinary grout to form solidified monoliths of solid wastes.

  10. Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form.

  11. Registration of CT and MR brain images using a combination of points and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Aboutanos, Georges B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Margolin, Richard A.; Maciunas, Robert J.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    1995-05-01

    In this paper we present a hybrid registration technique that uses a weighted combination of several feature shapes, e.g. points and surfaces. The technique is a modification of Besl & McKay's iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 14:239-256, 1992). We use the technique to register x-ray computed tomography (CT) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) volume head images acquired from eleven patients that underwent craniotomies in a neurosurgical clinical trial. Each patient had five external markers attached to transcutaneous posts screwed into the outer table of the skull. We define registration error as the distance between corresponding marker positions after registration and transformation. The CT and MR images are registered using points (marker positions) only, surfaces only, and a weighted combination of points and surfaces. The CT surfaces are derived from contours corresponding to the inner surface of the skull. The MR surfaces are derived from contours corresponding to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-dura interface. Registration using points and surfaces is more accurate than registration using only points or surfaces.

  12. On the Benefits and Challenges of Multi-Point Analysis of Energetic Particle Injections in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. L.; Gabrielse, C.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Gkioulidou, M.; Reeves, G. D.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Energetic particle injections (EPIs) are the sudden enhancement of ~10s to ~100s of keV electrons and or ions in the near-Earth plasma sheet and inner magnetosphere. EPIs are known to be associated with substorm activity and reconnection in the magnetotail, though there are still many outstanding questions and competing theories concerning their exact nature (formation and evolution). Here, we focus on multipoint observations of EPIs at L < 10. We present several cases of individual or multiple EPI events observed by spacecraft from the THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, GOES, POES/MetOp, and LANL-GEO constellations. These cases have been chosen to showcase both the benefits of understanding EPIs as well as the challenges in interpreting multi-point observations of EPI events. EPIs are considered potentially important contributors to the seed populations of ring current particles and electrons in the outer radiation belt. Furthermore, due to the temperature anisotropy inherent in drifting bunches of enhanced fluxes of energetic ions and electrons, EPIs also potentially play an important role in electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and whistler-mode chorus wave growth and activity. Thus, it is beneficial to the inner magnetospheric community to study EPIs and better define their role in dynamics of the ring current and outer radiation belt particle populations. However, interpreting multi-point observations of EPIs includes a variety of challenges, which we also outline and discuss here using example cases for supporting evidence. These challenges include: determining the location and width of the injection boundary in MLT and how this may change as a function of L-shell; timing analysis of EPIs observed by multiple spacecraft and drift echoes observed by the same spacecraft considering global field mapping of pitch-angle dependent drift shells; and considerations of energy- and/or pitch angle-dependent boundaries (e.g., Alfven layers, the plasmapause, and bifurcated drift

  13. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  14. Photo-Injected Hot-Electron Damage at the Silicon/silicon Dioxide Interface in Point-Contact Solar Cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenbaum, Peter E.

    1990-01-01

    Point-contact solar cells currently hold the record for the most efficient silicon solar cell, reaching 28.5% under concentrated sunlight. These cells have both p and n contacts on the back, eliminating the losses due to grid shadowing found in a conventional cell. However, this means that the electron-hole pairs created near the front of the cell during illumination must diffuse all the way to the back of the cell without recombining. Therefore, point-contact solar cells have been processed to have the minimum number of recombination centers possible. Unfortunately, a decrease in the efficiency of these highly efficient cells can be measured after exposure to concentrated sunlight for just a few hours. The degradation was found to be due to an increase in the surface recombination velocity at the front surface of the cell. Experimental evidence suggests that what is occurring is an effect called "hot electron photoinjection", where electrons can absorb enough energy from an ultraviolet photon that they can overcome the 3.1 eV barrier between the silicon conduction band and the oxide conduction band, and be injected from the silicon into the oxide. This injection has been reported to create interface states, although the mechanism is not well understood. By utilizing literature results about hot electron injection, we were able to slow the degradation rate considerably by altering oxidation conditions to reduce water and mechanical stress at the interface. The stability of the cells also can be increased greatly by putting a light phosphorus diffusion at the interface. This creates an electric field near the surface that will keep holes away from the interface; since both electrons and holes are needed for recombination, the carrier recombination at the surface will be reduced, even though the surface recombination velocity itself can be very high. We have also been able to utilize the hot -electron resistance of ultrathin oxides by putting them on the front of

  15. [Correlation analysis on combined medication with of Xiyanping injection in treatment of lung infection in real world].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-ping; Xie, Yan-ming; Zhi, Ying-jie; Yang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-fei; Huo, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the regularity in combined medication with Xiyanping injection (Xiyanping for short) in the real world by as- sociation rules. Totally 5 822 patients using Xiyanping injection was collected from the 18 Class III Grade I hospitals nationwide to study the combined medication information of the patient with lung infection and make the analysis by using association rules and Apriori. According to the results, major drugs combined with Xiyanping in treatment of lung infection included compound amino acid, inosine, coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, vitamin C. Common drugs combined with Xiyanping can be divided into 5 categories: nutrition support therapy (vitamin C, compound amino acid) , coenzymes (coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, inosine), expectorants and antiasthmatics (ambroxol, salbutamol, doxofylline), hormones (dexamethasone, budesonide), antibiotics (mainly cefminox). The main combined medicines mostly conformed to the regularity for drugs treating lung infection. In addition, there were two most common medical combination models: the model for Xiyanping combined a single medicine is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy, while the model for Xiyanping combined two or more than two medicines is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy + coenzyme. Pharmacologically, Xiyanping is mostly combined with western medicines with similar pharmacological effects to substitute or supplement the antibiotic effect in treating lung infection. However, further studies shall be conducted for the safety and rationality of the combined medication based on clinical practices, in order to provide reference for clinical medication. PMID:26591539

  16. Comparison of injectable anesthetic combinations in free-ranging two-toed sloths in French guiana.

    PubMed

    Vogel, I; de Thoisy, B; Vié, J C

    1998-07-01

    Immobilization was studied in 202 free-ranging two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus). All the sloths were in good condition with a body weight > 2 kg, and were anesthetized for a variety of minor clinical procedures. Intramuscular anesthetic combinations included 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine + 10 mg/kg ketamine (A/K, n = 30), 1 mg/kg xylazine + 10 mg/kg ketamine (X/K, n = 89), 10 mg/kg tiletamine/zolazepam (T/Z, n = 37), and 0.04 mg/kg medetomidine + 3 mg/kg ketamine (M/K, n = 46) antagonized by 0.2 mg/kg atipamezole. The animals were quiet during the induction stage and complete recumbency was reached in (mean +/- SD) 2.5 +/- 2.0 min with A/K, 2.7 +/- 1.7 min with X/K, 1.8 +/- 0.6 min with T/Z, and 2.5 +/- 5 with M/K. Utilization of A/K was not satisfactory because of poor anesthetic level and lack of muscle relaxation. T/Z induced immobilization was characterized by deep anesthesia and good myorelaxation, but often was associated with irregular respiration and low relative oxyhemoglobin saturation values (SpO2). Ketamine in combination with alpha2-agonists, xylazine or medetomidine, provided suitable anesthesia, with good to excellent muscular relaxation, good analgesia, high SpO2 values, moderate bradycardia, but strong bradypnea with medetomidine. Anesthesia with M/K was reversed after 41.6 min of immobilization with atipamezole. Calm recoveries were obtained and the animals were able to hang up after 10.0 +/- 7.9 min. The first signs of arousal were observed within an average of 43 to 51 min after the injection of the three other combinations. Recoveries from X/K immobilization were quiet; sloths held on after 34 min. With T/Z, recovery duration was long and very irregular at 76.7 +/- 31.3 min, some animals required 3 hr before being able to hang up. Finally, ketamine in association with an alpha2-agonist appeared to give the best chemical immobilization in wild two-toed sloths for 40 min procedures including minor surgery.

  17. Cheilitis granulomatosa. Successful treatment with combined local triamcinolone injections and surgery.

    PubMed

    Krutchkoff, D; James, R

    1978-08-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa is a rare condition that has traditionally proved difficult to treat satisfactorily. Excellent results were obtained in our case with local triamcinolone acetonide injections and surgery. Histopathologic features of the classic, untreated condition were reviewed and compared to the histopathologic features of labial tissues after a seris of triamcinolone injections. It was found that the injected medication was effective in achieving some reduction of labial volume, apparently through a necrotizing effect of granulomas with subsequent replacement by fibrous scars. Discontinuation of local injections after initial surgery apparently contributed to an exacerbation, as shown by the histopathology of a second cheiloplastic procedure. We therefore recommended that patients with chelitis granulomatosa who are receiving combinaed triamcinolone-surgical therapy continue to receive local triamcinolone injections after surgery in order to minimize the tendency for recurrence.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  19. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups.

  20. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642

  1. Cloud-point extraction combined with HPLC for determination of larotaxel in rat plasma: a pharmacokinetic study of liposome formulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiying; You, Jian; Liu, Yafei

    2012-06-01

    A simple and efficient method based on cloud-point extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed and validated for the determination of larotaxel in rat plasma. Nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extraction solvent. Variable parameters affecting the cloud-point extraction efficiency, for example the nature and concentration of surfactant, NaOH concentration, incubation temperature, and time were evaluated and optimized. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Diamonsil C(18) column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid with pH 4.0 (60:40, v/v). The calibration curve showed good linearity over the range of 0.05-10 μg/mL. Under the optimum conditions, the method was shown to be reproducible and reliable with intraday precision below 5.7%, interday precision below 7.2%, accuracy within ±3.5%, and mean extraction recovery of 91.8-94.2%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of larotaxel in rat plasma after a single intravenous administration of larotaxel injection and larotaxel-loaded liposome, respectively. The results indicated that the larotaxel-loaded liposome led to significant differences in pharmacokinetic profile.

  2. Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2014-05-01

    A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

  3. On combining Thole's induced point dipole model with fixed charge distributions in molecular mechanics force fields.

    PubMed

    Antila, Hanne S; Salonen, Emppu

    2015-04-15

    The Thole induced point dipole model is combined with three different point charge fitting methods, Merz-Kollman (MK), charges from electrostatic potentials using a grid (CHELPG), and restrained electrostatic potential (RESP), and two multipole algorithms, distributed multipole analysis (DMA) and Gaussian multipole model (GMM), which can be used to describe the electrostatic potential (ESP) around molecules in molecular mechanics force fields. This is done to study how the different methods perform when intramolecular polarizability contributions are self-consistently removed from the fitting done in the force field parametrization. It is demonstrated that the polarizable versions of the partial charge models provide a good compromise between accuracy and computational efficiency in describing the ESP of small organic molecules undergoing conformational changes. For the point charge models, the inclusion of polarizability reduced the the average root mean square error of ESP over the test set by 4-10%.

  4. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Absorption capacity of renal proximal tubular cells studied by combined injections of YFP and GFP in Rana temporaria L.

    PubMed

    Prutskova, N P; Seliverstova, E V

    2013-09-01

    The capacity for protein reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (PT) was studied in Rana temporaria frogs by separate, simultaneous and sequential introduction of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The uptake patterns of YFP and GFP in PT epithelial cells were investigated 15-120min after their bolus intravenous and intraperitoneal injection. As shown by confocal microscopy, the tubular uptake of YFP and GFP was time- and dose-dependent. These proteins are absorbed in similar way and can be accumulated in the same endocytic vesicles after their combined injections. When GFP was injected 30 and 90min before YFP, and vice versa, the number of vesicles with pre-injected protein increased and the percentage of vesicles with colocalized GFP and YFP reduced. At the same time, the uptake rate of a protein injected later progressively and significantly decreased. Subcellular localization of endocytic receptors, megalin and cubilin, in renal PT cells after intravenous YFP introduction were revealed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Colocalization of internalized YFP with megalin or cubilin in the endocytic vesicles was demonstrated. The data suggest the possibility of protein uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis and the existence of a mechanism limiting the protein absorption rate in wintering frogs.

  6. Rapid sedation induced by fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Tian, X; Yang, Y-H; Wei, H-Y; Lao, J-Q; Wang, H-P; Tian, Y-Y

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the sedative and analgesic effects of fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for acute leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute myelocytic leukemia) among children, to relieve pain and difficulty during intrathecal injection, improve treatment compliance, increase the success rate of single puncture, and reduce procedure failure, with the aim of developing a painless procedure for children with acute leukemia. Fifty person-times received fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection among the hospitalized children with leukemia. The patients' cooperation with the procedure, response to the medication, dosages of fentanyl and propofol, reaction to the procedures, wake-up time, and changes in oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), respiration, and blood pressure (BP) before, during, and after the procedures were observed. The doctors who performed the procedures assessed the quality of sedation and analgesia. In the treatment group, the patients were quiet during the lumbar puncture and intrathecal injection, showing good sedation and analgesia. HR and respiration decreased slightly. There were no changes in SpO2 and BP. No obvious respiratory depression occurred with proper dosages. Only a few patients showed stertorous respiration, which stopped soon after the procedures. In the control group, the patients were agitated, crying, and not cooperative before and during the procedures, which made the procedures very difficult. During intrathecal injection, pain obviously reduced and the success rate of single lumbar puncture increased. It is safe and effective to apply fentanyl combined with propofol for sedation and analgesia. PMID:25966137

  7. Combined influence of visual scene and body tilt on arm pointing movements: gravity matters!

    PubMed

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., 'combined' tilts equal to the sum of 'single' tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues.

  8. Skin friction reduction in supersonic flow by injection through slots, porous sections and combinations of the two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Vanovereem, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of skin friction reduction in a Mach 3.0 air steam with gaseous injection through a tangential slot, a porous wall section, and combinations of the two was conducted. The primary data obtained were wall shear values measured directly with a floating element balance and also inferred from Preston Tube measurements. Detailed profiles at several axial stations, wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs are presented. The data indicate that a slot provides the greatest skin friction reduction in comparison with a reference flat plate experiment. The porous wall section arrangement suffers from an apparent roughness-induced rise in skin friction at low injection rates compared to the flat plate. The combination schemes demonstrated a potential for gain.

  9. Tracer-cocktail injections for combined pre- and intraoperative multimodal imaging of lymph nodes in a spontaneous mouse prostate tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Anne C.; Buckle, Tessa; Bendle, Gavin; Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato; van de Poel, Henk G.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2011-01-01

    To improve surgical guidance toward prostate draining lymph nodes, we investigate the potential of intraoperative fluorescence imaging and combined pre- and intraoperative multimodality imaging approaches. Transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice with spontaneous prostate tumors are injected intratumorally with: 1. a cocktail of patent blue (Pb) and indocyanine green (ICG); 2. a cocktail of albumin radiocolloids (99mTc-NanoColl), Pb, and ICG; or 3. a cocktail of radiolabeled albumin (99mTc-Vasculosis), Pb, and ICG. The distribution of these imaging agents over the lymph nodes (LNs) are studied at different time points after injection. We find that at 60-min postinjection, ICG significantly improves the detection of the LNs compared to Pb, 53 versus 7%, respectively. Moreover, a cocktail of ICG and 99mTc-NanoColl improves the fluorescent detection rate to 86%, equalling that of the clinically applied 99mTc-NanoColl. A similar overlap is observed in our initial clinical pilot data. Fluorescent detection of the LNs using a ICG with 99mTc-Vasculosis gives similar results as ``free'' ICG (58% 60 min). A 99mTc-NanoColl, Pb, and cocktail ICG enriches the standard 99mTc-NanoColl approach by adding optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes. Furthermore, this approach improves fluorescent-based guidance and enables both accurate surgical planning and intraoperative detection, based on a single injection.

  10. A pilot study comparing the efficacy of radiofrequency and microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Kato, Kazuo; Majima, Tokifumi; Shindo, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the efficacy of radiofrequency diathermy with that of microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid into the knee of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects] A total of 17 patients with knee OA were enrolled. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: a radiofrequency diathermy group (RF group, 9 subjects), and a microwave diathermy group (MW group, 8 subjects). [Methods] Subjects received radiofrequency or microwave thermal therapy 3 times at 1-week intervals. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid was administered 10 min before every thermal therapy session. The outcome was evaluated using the Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the Lequesne Index (LI) at baseline, at weeks 1 (1 week after the first thermal therapy) and 3 (1 week after the last thermal therapy). [Results] The JOA scale increased significantly after three sessions of thermal therapy in the RF group, while no significant increase was observed in the MW group. LI decreased significantly after 3 weeks in the RF group. In the MW group, there was no significant difference in LI between the two time points. [Conclusion] This study revealed that symptom relief in patients with knee OA was greater with radiofrequency diathermy than with microwave diathermy with concurrent use of hyaluronic acid injection, presumably due to the different heating characteristics of the two methods. PMID:27065540

  11. Microfluidic-based single cell trapping using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Chen, Zongzheng; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Xie, Handi; Qin, Kairong

    2016-06-01

    Single cell trapping in vitro by microfluidic device is an emerging approach for the study of the relationship between single cells and their dynamic biochemical microenvironments. In this paper, a hydrodynamic-based microfluidic device for single cell trapping is designed using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier. The microfluidic device overcomes the weakness of the traditional ones, which have been only based upon either stagnation point flows or physical barriers, and can conveniently load dynamic biochemical signals to the trapped cell. In addition, it can connect with a programmable syringe pump and a microscope to constitute an integrated experimental system. It is experimentally verified that the microfluidic system can trap single cells in vitro even under flow disturbance and conveniently load biochemical signals to the trapped cell. The designed micro-device would provide a simple yet effective experimental platform for further study of the interactions between single cells and their microenvironments.

  12. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-07-22

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly.

  13. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  14. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  15. Reconstruction of goat tibial defects using an injectable tricalcium phosphate/chitosan in combination with autologous platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Bi, Long; Cheng, Wenjun; Fan, Hongbin; Pei, Guoxian

    2010-04-01

    Injectable scaffolds held great promise for the reconstruction of bone defects. We prepared an injectable composite named PTC by combining TCP/chitosan (TC) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The objective of this study was to investigate the composite's mechanical and biological properties. First, we found that the introduction of PRP in TC showed no adverse effect on mechanical strength and that there were no significant differences in compressive strength between PTC and TC (P>0.05). In cell culture experiments, both cell count and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurements of PTC were higher than those of TC. The high levels of Cbfa1 and TGF-beta were detected early in PTC-induced MSCs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Bone formation following expression of collagen type I, osteocalcin, osteonectin and calcium nodules was also observed in PRP-induced MSCs. Finally, this composite was injected into the tibial bone defect in a goat model, and its ability to induce bone regeneration was observed. Sixteen weeks after the implantation of this composite, the tibial defects had completely recuperated, with significantly better formation of mature bone and less residual material than in the control. These results demonstrate that our composite, with its concomitant mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and osteoinductive properties, has significant potential as an injectable material for the treatment of bone defects.

  16. Manipulating the electron distribution through a combination of electron injection and MacKenzie’s Maxwell Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2015-06-01

    Experiments on electron heating are performed in a biased hot filament-produced argon plasma. Electrons are confined by multi-dipole magnetic fields on the radial wall of the cylindrical chamber but not the planar end walls. Electron heating is provided by a combination of cold electron injection (Hershowitz N and Leung K N 1975 Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 607) and a MacKenzie Maxwell Demon (Mackenzie K R et al 1971 Appl. Phys. Lett. 18 529). This approach allows the manipulation of the electrons by introducing a depleted tail into the electron energy distribution function or by removing a depleted tail. It is found that the injected electrons mimic and thermalize with the electron species with the closest average energy or temperature. The effect of the injected electrons is optimal when they mimic the secondary electrons emitted from the wall instead of the degraded primary electrons. Both approaches combine to achieve increases in electron temperature Te from 0.67 to 2.8 eV, which was not significantly higher than using each approach alone.

  17. Clinical effects and safety of treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Panshi; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Wenzhan; Dong, Yi; Wan, Guangming; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the clinical effects of treating diabetic macular edema with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in combination with retinal photocoagulation. Methods Sixty-two cases (75 eyes) with confirmed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in combination with macular edema were randomly divided into the observation group (37 eyes were given an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation) and the control group (38 eyes received retinal photocoagulation only). Vision, fundus condition, central macular thickness, and the macular leakage area were recorded before and after treatment. Results The best-corrected visual acuity and macular leakage area were similar between the observation and control groups (P>0.05). The best-corrected visual acuity in the observation group was higher than that in the control group 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05) and showed a rising tendency. The macular leakage area in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05). However, the macular leakage area was similar 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). The central macular thickness of the observation group was lower than that in the control group 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). The laser energy used in the observation group was also smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure was not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). No patients in the two groups developed eye or systemic complications, such as glaucoma, cataract, or vitreous hemorrhage during treatment. Conclusion Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation was proven to be effective in treating diabetic macular edema as it improved vision and resulted in fewer complications. PMID:27103811

  18. Application of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia for controlling refractory pain induced by rib metastasis of lung cancer (a STROBE-compliant article)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guang-lun; Guo, Da-peng; Li, Zhi-gang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia on lung cancer rib metastasis-related refractory pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This study contained 27 patients with lung cancer rib metastasis-related moderate or severe pain which had no response to conventional therapy. Under computed tomography (CT)-guidance, radiofrequency puncture need reached the corresponding intervertebral foramens to ensure needle point near dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by sensory and motor stimulation tests, and then radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed on each corresponding DRG followed by injection of 0.5 to 1 mL of adriamycin (0.5%). The conditions of pain and complications were observed before management and 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after management, respectively. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores and dosage of morphine were all significantly decreased after management as compared with those before management (all P < 0.01). Although the number of patients with chest wall numbness was significantly increased after management as compared with that before management (all P < 0.01), the degree of chest wall numbness was tolerable. There were no statistical differences between before and after management in nausea and vomiting, and constipation. CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in DRG can effectively control lung cancer rib metastasis-related pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This combinatory treatment regimen is featured by better therapeutic effects and a few complications, so it is worthy of being recommended in clinical application. PMID:27749531

  19. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Suyama, Kaori; Tanaka, Osamu; Sawada, Makoto; Ito, Miho; Ito, Kenji; Akamatsu, Tadashi; Masuda, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Sakabe, Kou

    2015-01-01

    Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI) in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9), and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia. PMID:26046784

  20. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mikel; Delgado, Diego; Sánchez, Pello; Muiños-López, Emma; Paiva, Bruno; Granero-Moltó, Froilán; Prósper, Felipe; Pompei, Orlando; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Azofra, Juan; Padilla, Sabino; Fiz, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55 ± 14.11) to week 24 (74.60 ± 19.19), after treatment (p = 0.008), in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p = 0.004; ADL, p = 0.022; sport/rec., p = 0.017; QOL, p = 0.012), as well as VAS score (p < 0.001) and Lequesne Index (p = 0.008). The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98 ± 8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04 ± 5.36 MSC/μL (p = 0.019) and from 601.75 ± 312.30 to 139.19 ± 123.61  (p = 0.012), respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32. PMID:27462609

  1. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Pello; Muiños-López, Emma; Prósper, Felipe; Pompei, Orlando; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Padilla, Sabino; Fiz, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55 ± 14.11) to week 24 (74.60 ± 19.19), after treatment (p = 0.008), in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p = 0.004; ADL, p = 0.022; sport/rec., p = 0.017; QOL, p = 0.012), as well as VAS score (p < 0.001) and Lequesne Index (p = 0.008). The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98 ± 8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04 ± 5.36 MSC/μL (p = 0.019) and from 601.75 ± 312.30 to 139.19 ± 123.61  (p = 0.012), respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32. PMID:27462609

  2. Combining isothermal rolling circle amplification and electrochemiluminescence for highly sensitive point mutation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2008-12-01

    Many pathogenic and genetic diseases are associated with changes in the sequence of particular genes. We describe here a rapid and highly efficient assay for the detection of point mutation. This method is a combination of isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) and high sensitive electrochemluminescence (ECL) detection. In the design, a circular template generated by ligation upon the recognition of a point mutation on DNA targets was amplified isothermally by the Phi29 polymerase using a biotinylated primer. The elongation products were hybridized with tris (bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR)-tagged probes and detected in a magnetic bead based ECL platform, indicating the mutation occurrence. P53 was chosen as a model for the identification of this method. The method allowed sensitive determination of the P53 mutation from wild-type and mutant samples. The main advantage of RCA-ECL is that it can be performed under isothermal conditions and avoids the generation of false-positive results. Furthermore, ECL provides a faster, more sensitive, and economical option to currently available electrophoresis-based methods.

  3. Fast optical frequency sweeping using voltage controlled oscillator driven single sideband modulation combined with injection locking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Wei, Fang; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-03-23

    An ultrafast optical frequency sweeping technique for narrow linewidth lasers is reported. This technique exploits the large frequency modulation bandwidth of a wideband voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a high speed electro-optic dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) which works on the state of carrier suppressed single sideband modulation(CS-SSB). Optical frequency sweeping of a narrow linewidth fiber laser with 3.85 GHz sweeping range and 80 GHz/μs tuning speed is demonstrated, which is an extremely high tuning speed for frequency sweeping of narrow linewidth lasers. In addition, injection locking technique is adopted to improve the sweeper's low optical power output and small side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). PMID:25837048

  4. Endoscopic submucosal dissection combined with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for early gastric cancer on gastric fundal varices.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yasuhiko; Asano, Naoki; Yokosawa, Satoshi; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-08-01

    Currently, there is little report of treatment strategy for early gastric cancer (EGC) on gastric fundal varices (GFVs), because controlling GFVs was more challenging than controlling gastric cardiac varices associated with esophageal varices. We first report effective endoscopic treatment of EGC on GFVs of a 77-year-old man with Child-B cirrhosis. Endoscopic ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography studies revealed intramucosal EGC on variceal components, supplied from posterior gastric vein and drained to subphrenic vein without gastrorenal shunt. With informed consent, we performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) after eradication of GFVs by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). Histologic assessment revealed curability of ESD and inflammation and fibrosis around EIS site. Thereafter, no recurrence and complication had occurred. To avoid life-threatening bleeding from GFVs, we achieved complete resection by ESD under direct visualization of submucosa after eradication of GFVs by EIS based on the examination of hemodynamics and local relationship between EGC and GFVs.

  5. Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Glaubius, Robert L.; Parikh, Urvi M.; Hood, Greg; Penrose, Kerri J.; Bendavid, Eran; Mellors, John W.; Abbas, Ume L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods. We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP. Results. Pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up modestly increases the proportion of prevalent drug-resistant infections, from 33% to ≤37%. The change in the number of prevalent drug-resistant infections depends on the interplay between PrEP factors (coverage, efficacy, delivery reliability, and scale-up strategy) and the level of cross-resistance between PrEP and ART. An optimistic scenario of 70% effective RPV PrEP (90% efficacious and 80% reliable delivery), among women aged 20–29 years, prevents 17% of cumulative infections over 10 years while decreasing prevalent resistance; however, prevention decreases and resistance increases with more conservative assumptions. Uncertainty analysis assuming 40%–70% cross-resistance prevalence predicts an increase in prevalent resistance unless PrEP's effectiveness exceeds 90%. Conclusions. Prioritized scale-up of injectable PrEP among women in KwaZulu-Natal could reduce HIV infections, but suboptimal effectiveness could promote the spread of drug resistance. PMID:27703992

  6. Determining ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products by combining direct injection with micelle collapse on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Yao; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-02-27

    The on-line preconcentration technique of analyte focusing by micelle collapse-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (AFMC-MEKC) was combined with direct injection without extraction to determine ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products. The stacking mechanism is based on the transport, release, and accumulation of analytes bound to micelle carriers that are collapsed into the micelle dilution zone. The following optimized conditions were determined: the running buffer was 10mM Tris buffer (pH 9.5) containing 60mM SDS, 7mM γ-CD and 20% ethanol; the SDS concentration was required to be slightly above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value (7.4mM) in the sample matrix, which allowed the micelle dilution zone to form when voltage was applied; and finally, the sample was prepared in 100mM Tris buffer (pH 9.0) containing 7.5mM SDS and 20% (v/v) ethanol to provide sufficient resolution and to improve the sensitivity. Samples were injected at 0.5psi for 40s, and the separation voltage was set at 15kV for first 15min and then increased to 23kV to decrease the analysis time. The detection sensitivity for ultraviolet absorbents was enhanced by approximately 41-fold using AFMC-MEKC compared to conventional MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 98nM for benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-4. The correlation of the regression curve was greater than 0.995. The relative error and relative standard deviation were lower than 9.94% with high precision and accuracy. The recoveries of nine ultraviolet absorbents in a homemade emulsion were between 95.08% and 104.57%. After optimization and validation, this AFMC-MEKC method combined with direct injection is considered to be established and successfully applicable to commercial sunscreen products.

  7. High volume image-guided Injections for patellar tendinopathy: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; King, John; Perry, David; Crisp, Tom; Maffulli, Nicola; Morrissey, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim was to quantify the effect of a novel high volume-image guided injection (HVIGI) technique for recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy (PT). Methods: twenty patients (8 prospective; 12 retrospective) with ultrasonographically confirmed proximal PT were recruited. A HVIGI under ultra-sound guidance of 10 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, 25 mg Hydrocortisone and 30 ml normal saline at the interface of the patellar tendon and Hoffa’s fat pad was administered. A standardised eccentric loading rehabilitation protocol was prescribed. Results: the VISA-P score improved from 45.0 to 64.0 (p<0.01) for all subjects, likely to be clinically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the increase in the retrospective group of 19.9 (± 23.5) and the prospective of 16.4 (± 11.3) p = 0.7262.5% of prospective subjects agreed that they had significantly improved, with 37.5% returning to sport within 12 weeks. Conclusions: HVIGI should be considered in the management of recalcitrant PT. Randomised controlled trials are warranted. PMID:25332938

  8. A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilotin Northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

    2006-04-28

    A geologic sequestration pilot in the Thornton gas field in Northern California, USA involves injection of up to 4000 tons of CO{sub 2} into a stacked gas and saline formation reservoir. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is leading the pilot test in collaboration with Rosetta Resources, Inc. and Calpine Corporation under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and California Energy Commission's WESTCARB, Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. The goals of the pilot include: (1) Demonstrate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations representative of major geologic sinks in California; (2) Test the feasibility of Enhanced Gas Recovery associated with the early stages of a CO{sub 2} storage project in a depleting gas field; (3) Obtain site-specific information to improve capacity estimation, risk assessment, and performance prediction; (4) Demonstrate and test methods for monitoring CO{sub 2} storage in saline formations and storage/enhanced recovery projects in gas fields; and (5) Gain experience with regulatory permitting and public outreach associated with CO{sub 2} storage in California. Test design is currently underway and field work begins in August 2006.

  9. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-06-30

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1-7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%-40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  10. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1-7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%-40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  11. Mechanisms of Action Point Towards Combined PBDE/NDL-PCB Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Milou M L; Kock, Marjolijn; van den Berg, Martin

    2016-10-01

    At present, human risk assessment of the structurally similar non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) is done independently for both groups of compounds. There are however obvious similarities between NDL-PCBs and PBDEs with regard to modulation of the intracellular calcium homeostasis (basal calcium levels, voltage-gated calcium channels, calcium uptake, ryanodine receptor) and thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis (TH levels and transport). which are mechanisms of action related to neurobehavioral effects (spontaneous activity, habituation and learning ability). There also similarities in agonistic interactions with the hepatic nuclear receptors PXR and CAR. Several effects on developmental (reproductive) processes have also been observed, but results were more dispersed and insufficient to compare both groups of compounds. The available mechanistic information is sufficient to warrant a dose addition model for NDL-PCBs and PBDEs, including their hydroxylated metabolites.Although many of the observed effects are similar from a qualitative point of view for both groups, congener or tissue specific differences have also been found. As this is a source of uncertainty in the combined hazard and risk assessment of these compounds, molecular entities involved in the observed mechanisms and adverse outcomes associated with these compounds need to be identified. The systematical generation of (quantitative) structure-activity information for NDL-PCBs and PBDEs on these targets (including potential non-additive effects) will allow a more realistic risk estimation associated with combined exposure to both groups of compounds during early life. Additional validation studies are needed to quantify these uncertainties for risk assessment of NDL-PCBs and PBDEs. PMID:27672163

  12. Mechanisms of Action Point Towards Combined PBDE/NDL-PCB Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Milou M L; Kock, Marjolijn; van den Berg, Martin

    2016-10-01

    At present, human risk assessment of the structurally similar non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) is done independently for both groups of compounds. There are however obvious similarities between NDL-PCBs and PBDEs with regard to modulation of the intracellular calcium homeostasis (basal calcium levels, voltage-gated calcium channels, calcium uptake, ryanodine receptor) and thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis (TH levels and transport). which are mechanisms of action related to neurobehavioral effects (spontaneous activity, habituation and learning ability). There also similarities in agonistic interactions with the hepatic nuclear receptors PXR and CAR. Several effects on developmental (reproductive) processes have also been observed, but results were more dispersed and insufficient to compare both groups of compounds. The available mechanistic information is sufficient to warrant a dose addition model for NDL-PCBs and PBDEs, including their hydroxylated metabolites.Although many of the observed effects are similar from a qualitative point of view for both groups, congener or tissue specific differences have also been found. As this is a source of uncertainty in the combined hazard and risk assessment of these compounds, molecular entities involved in the observed mechanisms and adverse outcomes associated with these compounds need to be identified. The systematical generation of (quantitative) structure-activity information for NDL-PCBs and PBDEs on these targets (including potential non-additive effects) will allow a more realistic risk estimation associated with combined exposure to both groups of compounds during early life. Additional validation studies are needed to quantify these uncertainties for risk assessment of NDL-PCBs and PBDEs.

  13. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1–7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%–40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  14. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... as described in Federal Register Notice (FRN) 76 FR 32994 (June 7, 2011). The NRC is currently... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined...

  15. A randomized trial of upper limb botulimun toxin versus placebo injection, combined with physiotherapy, in children with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Adriano; Maoret, Anna Rosa; Muzzini, Simonetta; Alboresi, Silvia; Lombardi, Francesco; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Paolicelli, Paola Bruna; Sicola, Elisa; Cioni, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A), combined with an individualized intensive physiotherapy/orthoses treatment, in improving upper limb activity and competence in daily activity in children with hemiplegia, and to compare its effectiveness with that of non-pharmacological instruments. It was a Randomized Clinical Trial of 27 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy, outpatients of two high speciality Centres for child rehabilitation. Each child was assigned by simple randomization to experimental group (BoNT-A) or control group (placebo). Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was chosen as primary outcome measure; other measures were selected according to ICF dimensions. Participants were assessed at baseline (T0), at T1, T2, T3 (1-3-6 months after injection, respectively). Every patient was given a specific physiotherapeutic treatment, consisting of individualized goal directed exercises, task oriented activities, daily stretching manoeuvres, functional and/or static orthoses. BoNT-A group showed a significant increase of AHA raw scores at T2, compared to control group (T2-T0: p=.025) and functional goals achievement (GAS) was also slightly better in the same group (p=.033). Other measures indicated some improvement in both groups, without significant intergroup differences. Children with intermediate severity of hand function at House scale for upper limb impairment seem to have a better benefit from BoNT-A protocol. BoNT-A was effective in improving manipulation in the activity domain, in association with individualized goal-directed physiotherapy and orthoses; the combined treatment is recommended. The study brings more evidence for the efficacy of a combined treatment botulinum toxin injection-physiotherapy-orthoses, and it gives some suggestions for candidate selection and individualized treatment.

  16. Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A 9-Month Follow-Up from the Perspectives of Both Child and Caregiver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, I-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) with functional occupational therapy (OT) at 9-month follow-up in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with bilateral upper limb impairments from the perspectives of both child and caregiver. Methods Twelve children with CP and their caregivers were assessed across 5 time points over 9 months based on the ICF after BoNT-A injection and functional OT in this open-label study. Results Significant differences were found across the 5 time points (p < .05) for both grasp and visual-motor integration with small effects (effect sizes = 0.12–0.24) and the self-care capability and performance of social function (p < .05). However, based on the effect sizes (0.02–0.14), no significant effects were found at the 4 post-test time points. Small effects were found on the psychological domain (effect sizes = 0.25–0.37) and environmental domains (effect size = 0.27) at follow-ups. Conclusion Combining a BoNT-A injection with OT not only reduced the muscle tone and increased ROM but also improved the upper limb function and self-care capability in children with CP. More importantly, these effects persisted for up to 9 months. Functional OT extends the effectiveness of a BoNT-A injection. PMID:26599003

  17. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:27482221

  18. Separation and determination of aloperine, sophoridine, matrine and oxymatrine by combination of flow injection with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuqiao; Chen, Hongli; Li, Yuqin; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2004-05-28

    A novel, rapid and accurate method for the separation and determination of aloperine (ALP), sophoridine (SRI), matrine (MT) and oxymatrine (OMT) has been developed by combination of flow injection (FI) with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the first time. In the present paper, a continuous sample introduction interface was described. The interface with an H-channel structure was produced using a non-lithographic approach. The H-channel structure was fixed on a planar plastic base utilizing a horizontal 6.5cm-long separation capillary with two vertical sidearm tubes on each end that served as inlet and outlet flow-through electrode reservoirs. The inlet reservoir also functioned as interface for coupling to the FI system. The buffer solution used was a 50mmoll(-1) borate solution with the pH adjusted to 8.80 with 2moll(-1) HCl. The performance of the system was demonstrated in the separation and determination of ALP, SRI, MT and OMT with UV detection at 215nm, achieving baseline separation within 2min. A series of samples was injected repeatedly without current interruption and subsequent rinsing, and the contents of these four bio-alkaloids in two marketed drugs were determined with satisfactory recovery by this proposed method.

  19. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2013-04-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  20. Combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning with fixed GPS ambiguities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-09-18

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF.

  1. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  2. Tunable release of chemotherapeutic and vascular disrupting agents from injectable fiber fragments potentiates combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaoming; Xu, Guisen; Wei, Jiaojun; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-06-15

    Cancer progression and metastasis relies much on vasculature networks in tumor microenvironment, and the combination treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and vascular disrupting agents represents apparent clinical benefits. In the current study, fiber fragments with loadings of hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) or combretastatin A-4 (CA4) were proposed for tumor inhibition and blood vessel disruption after local administration in tumors. To address challenges in balancing the disruption of tumor vessels and intratumoral uptake of chemotherapeutic agents, this study is focus on release tuning of HCPT and CA4 from the fiber fragment mixtures. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was blended at ratios from 0 to 10% into CA4-loaded fiber fragments (Fc) to modulate CA4 release durations from 0.5 to 24days, and HCPT-loaded fiber fragments (Fh) indicated a sustained release for over 35days. In vitro cytotoxicity tests indicated a sequential inhibition on the endothelial and tumor cell growth, and the growth inhibition of tumor cells was more significant after treatment with mixtures of Fh and Fc containing 2% HPCD (Fc2) than that of other mixtures. In an orthotopic breast tumor model, compared with those of free CA4, or Fc with a fast or slow release of CA4, Fh/Fc mixtures with CA4 release durations from 2 to 12days indicated a lower tumor growth rate, a prolonged animal survival, a lower vessel density in tumors, and a less significant tumor metastasis. In addition, the tumor cell proliferation rate, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression within tumors, and the number of surface metastatic nodules in lungs were significantly lower after treatment with Fh/Fc2 mixtures with a CA4 release duration of 5days than those of other mixtures. It demonstrates the advantages of fiber fragment mixtures in independently modulating the release of multiple drugs and the essential role of release tuning of chemotherapeutic drugs and vascular disrupting agents in improving the therapeutic

  3. Unique cost-effective approach for multisurfaced micro-aspheric lens prototyping and fabrication by single-point diamond turning and micro-injection molding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Ashley M.; Wong, Chi-Choy; Chan, Norman S.; Louie, Derek C.; Li, Li-Man

    2004-02-01

    The latest development of sophisticated high-precision optical devices necessitates precision fabrication methodologies of freeform microlens having very tight, up to micron tolerance. Instead of adopting high-end multi-axis freeform machining approach, the proposed acrylic multi-surfaced microaspheric lens, with the axial diameter of 1.3mm, was cost-effectively prototyped and fabricated by single point diamond turning and micro-injection molding technology respectively. The micro-optical component was used as an opto-electronic module for high-speed data-transmission in fiber optics. Sequential fixturing technique was applied to facilitate the precise fabrication of the optical surfaces from different optical alignments. The aspherical accuracy and surface finish of the machined surfaces were evaluated, and end result was determined to be satisfactory. Further, the ultra precision tooling would be developed for micro-injection molding for carrying out mass production of the micro-optical component.

  4. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  5. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  6. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples. PMID:23657452

  7. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  8. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  9. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  10. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n=10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  11. Stepwise injection potentiometric determination of caffeine in saliva using single-drop microextraction combined with solvent exchange.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, I; Medinskaia, K; Nikolaeva, L; Kirsanov, D; Bulatov, A

    2016-04-01

    A flow potentiometric method for determination of caffeine in saliva is suggested. This task is important for non-invasive assessment of drug metabolizing system activity in hepatocytes. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) was successfully combined with single-drop liquid microextraction (SDLME) and solvent exchange procedure. The method is based on the caffeine SDLME with subsequent solvent evaporation and dissolution of analyte in sulfuric acid followed by potentiometric detection using poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate as electroactive component. SDLME was employed for elimination of interfering matrix effects of saliva and caffeine metabolites such as theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine. A linear range of 10(-5)-10(-2)M was established for caffeine with detection limit at 6 × 10(-6)M. The sample throughput was 6 samples h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of caffeine in saliva and the analytical results agreed well with the results obtained with reference HPLC method.

  12. A combination of metabolomics and metallomics studies of urine and serum from hypercholesterolaemic rats after berberine injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Gan, Pei Pei; Wu, Huanan; Woo, Wei Shan; Ong, Eng Shi; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2012-05-01

    Berberine, long used as a remedy in China and India for intestinal infections, has been discovered in recent years in western countries and is now being used to treat ailments ranging from urinary tract infections to diabetes and obesity. In order to study the effect of berberine more deeply, a combined metabolomic and metallomic approach was developed in this study using the hypercholesterolaemic rat model, which involved the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance for the analysis of rat urine to achieve metabolic fingerprinting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of rat blood serum to achieve metallomic fingerprinting. The results obtained indicated that major metabolic processes like Krebs cycle, cholesterol metabolism and osmoregulation in hypercholesterolaemic rats are perturbed upon berberine injection. In addition, the changes of some elements, such as V, Mn, Na and K, revealed in the metallomic study may contribute to the search of new biomarkers for hypercholesterolaemic disease. We concluded that both the metabolomic and metallomic profiles of berberine-treated hypercholesterolaemic rats were different from those of the control group and that the selected metabolites and elements could probably be applied as potential biomarkers for the understanding of the effect of berberine on biochemical process in the animal model. Such a multi-analytical approach will potentially provide an information-rich platform for the elucidation of effects of xenobiotics and drug efficacy studies.

  13. Co-Registration Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud Data and Synchronous Digital Image Registration Based on Combined Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zheng, T.; Lai, W. B.; Zou, Z. R.; Zou, B.

    2016-06-01

    Aim at the problem of co-registration airborne laser point cloud data with the synchronous digital image, this paper proposed a registration method based on combined adjustment. By integrating tie point, point cloud data with elevation constraint pseudo observations, using the principle of least-squares adjustment to solve the corrections of exterior orientation elements of each image, high-precision registration results can be obtained. In order to ensure the reliability of the tie point, and the effectiveness of pseudo observations, this paper proposed a point cloud data constrain SIFT matching and optimizing method, can ensure that the tie points are located on flat terrain area. Experiments with the airborne laser point cloud data and its synchronous digital image, there are about 43 pixels error in image space using the original POS data. If only considering the bore-sight of POS system, there are still 1.3 pixels error in image space. The proposed method regards the corrections of the exterior orientation elements of each image as unknowns and the errors are reduced to 0.15 pixels.

  14. Combined use of point rain gauges, radar, microwave link and level measurements in urban hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grum, Morten; Kraemer, Stefan; Verworn, Hans-Reinhard; Redder, Axel

    2005-09-01

    A methodology has been developed for the combined exploitation of the information content in several different types of rainfall and hydrological measurements. The methodology is based on simple rain plane and runoff models that are incorporated into a stochastic state-space model approach. State estimation is done using the extended Kalman filter in combination with a maximum likelihood estimation criterion and an off-line optimisation routine. This paper presents the preliminary results of the application of the methodology for the combined use of multiple rainfall and runoff data on a 4800 ha urban catchment within the Emscher river basin in Germany. The time series used come from 12 rain gauges, a C-band and an X-band radar covering the same area and a microwave link. The preliminary results support the methodology's potential as a technique for the combined use of different types of rainfall and runoff data. The results are discussed in terms of applicability, the methodology's limitations and future improvements.

  15. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure.

  16. Injectable alginate/hydroxyapatite gel scaffold combined with gelatin microspheres for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingxuan; Miao, Yuting; Tan, Huaping; Zhou, Tianle; Ling, Zhonghua; Chen, Yong; Xing, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    Injectable and biodegradable alginate-based composite gel scaffolds doubly integrated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and gelatin microspheres (GMs) were cross-linked via in situ release of calcium cations. As triggers of calcium cations, CaCO3 and glucono-D-lactone (GDL) were fixed as a mass ratio of 1:1 to control pH value ranging from 6.8 to 7.2 during gelation. Synchronously, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) was encapsulated into GMs to enhance bioactivity of composite gel scaffolds. The effects of HAp and GMs on characteristics of gel scaffolds, including pH value, gelation time, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, degradation behavior and drug release, were investigated. The results showed that HAp and GMs successfully improved mechanical properties of gel scaffolds at strain from 0.1 to 0.5, which stabilized the gel network and decreased weight loss, as well as swelling ratio and gelation time. TH could be released from this composite gel scaffold into the local microenvironment in a controlled fashion by the organic/inorganic hybrid of hydrogel network. Our results demonstrate that the HAp and GMs doubly integrated alginate-based gel scaffolds, especially the one with 6% (w/v) HAp and 5% (w/v) GMs, have suitable physical performance and bioactive properties, thus provide a potential opportunity to be used for bone tissue engineering. The potential application of this gel scaffold in bone tissue engineering was confirmed by encapsulation behavior of osteoblasts. In combination with TH, the gel scaffold exhibited beneficial effects on osteoblast activity, which suggested a promising future for local treatment of pathologies involving bone loss.

  17. Combined uncertainty estimation for the determination of the dissolved iron amount content in seawater using flow injection with chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Floor, Geerke H.; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C.; Ussher, Simon J.; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work assesses the components contributing to the combined uncertainty budget associated with the measurement of the Fe amount content by flow injection chemiluminescence (FI‐CL) in <0.2 μm filtered and acidified seawater samples. Amounts of loaded standard solutions and samples were determined gravimetrically by differential weighing. Up to 5% variations in the loaded masses were observed during measurements, in contradiction to the usual assumptions made when operating under constant loading time conditions. Hence signal intensities (V) were normalised to the loaded mass and plots of average normalised intensities (in V kg−1) vs. values of the Fe amount content (in nmol kg−1) added to a “low level” iron seawater matrix were used to produce the calibration graphs. The measurement procedure implemented and the uncertainty estimation process developed were validated from the agreement obtained with consensus values for three SAFe and GEOTRACES reference materials (D2, GS, and GD). Relative expanded uncertainties for peak height and peak area based results were estimated to be around 12% and 10% (coverage factor k = 2), respectively. The most important contributory factors were the uncertainty on the sensitivity coefficient (i.e., calibration slope) and the within‐sequence‐stability (i.e., the signal stability over several hours of operation; here 32 h). For GD, using peak height measurements, these factors contributed respectively 69.7% and 21.6% while the short‐term repeatability accounted for only 7.9%. Therefore, an uncertainty estimation based on the intensity repeatability alone, as is often done in FI‐CL studies, is not a realistic estimation of the overall uncertainty of the procedure. PMID:27610049

  18. A hierarchical model combining distance sampling and time removal to estimate detection probability during avian point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Courtney L.; Royle, J. Andrew; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Imperfect detection during animal surveys biases estimates of abundance and can lead to improper conclusions regarding distribution and population trends. Farnsworth et al. (2005) developed a combined distance-sampling and time-removal model for point-transect surveys that addresses both availability (the probability that an animal is available for detection; e.g., that a bird sings) and perceptibility (the probability that an observer detects an animal, given that it is available for detection). We developed a hierarchical extension of the combined model that provides an integrated analysis framework for a collection of survey points at which both distance from the observer and time of initial detection are recorded. Implemented in a Bayesian framework, this extension facilitates evaluating covariates on abundance and detection probability, incorporating excess zero counts (i.e. zero-inflation), accounting for spatial autocorrelation, and estimating population density. Species-specific characteristics, such as behavioral displays and territorial dispersion, may lead to different patterns of availability and perceptibility, which may, in turn, influence the performance of such hierarchical models. Therefore, we first test our proposed model using simulated data under different scenarios of availability and perceptibility. We then illustrate its performance with empirical point-transect data for a songbird that consistently produces loud, frequent, primarily auditory signals, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); and for 2 ptarmigan species (Lagopus spp.) that produce more intermittent, subtle, and primarily visual cues. Data were collected by multiple observers along point transects across a broad landscape in southwest Alaska, so we evaluated point-level covariates on perceptibility (observer and habitat), availability (date within season and time of day), and abundance (habitat, elevation, and slope), and included a nested point

  19. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  20. Propofol injection combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation better improves electrophysiological function in the hindlimb of rats with spinal cord injury than monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Xin; Sun, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Mei; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Hong, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2015-04-01

    The repair effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on nervous system damage are not satisfactory. Propofol has been shown to protect against spinal cord injury. Therefore, this study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of their combination on spinal cord injury. Rat models of spinal cord injury were established using the weight drop method. Rats were subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via tail vein injection and/or propofol injection via tail vein using an infusion pump. Four weeks after cell transplantation and/or propofol treatment, the cavity within the spinal cord was reduced. The numbers of PKH-26-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers apparently increased in the spinal cord. Latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials in the hindlimb were noticeably shortened, amplitude was increased and hindlimb motor function was obviously improved. Moreover, the combined effects were better than cell transplantation or propofol injection alone. The above data suggest that the combination of propofol injection and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can effectively improve hindlimb electrophysiological function, promote the recovery of motor funtion, and play a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury in rats.

  1. Meta-analysis: therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with compound kushen injection in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhe; Ma, Wenli; Gao, Yuan; Zheng, Wenling; Zhang, Bao; Peng, Yifei

    2012-01-01

    Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is Sophora Flavescens and Heterosmilacis Japonicae extract. Meta-analysis confirmed that CKI plus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is more superior to TACE alone for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (UHCC) patients. PMID:23983333

  2. Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Combined with Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yanhong; Zhang, Guijuan; Ma, Yi; Ma, Min; Liao, Rui; Xiang, Jingfang; Chen, Ruixue; Yan, Xianxin; Bie, Fengjie; Huang, Maojie; Liang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of shenqi fuzheng injection (SFI) in the associated chemotherapy of breast cancer. Methods. 1247 subjects were included in this study for meta-analysis with RevMan 5.3. Results. The clinical curative effective rate (OR = 2.03, 95% Cl [1.44, 2.86], P < 0.0001), grades of KPS (OR = 4.11, 95% Cl [2.74, 6.16], P < 0.00001), CD3+ cells (MD = 7.05, 95% Cl [0.45, 13.64], P = 0.04) and CD4+ cells (MD = 8.60, 95% Cl [2.67, 14.54], P = 0.004) and CD4/CD8+ cells (MD = 0.35, 95% Cl [0.14, 0.56], P = 0.001), WBC (OR = 0.30, 95% Cl [0.20, 0.46], P ≤ 0.0001), PLT (OR = 0.36, 95% Cl [0.20, 0.67], P = 0.001), gastrointestinal reaction (OR = 0.21, 95% Cl [0.14, 0.32], P < 0.00001), and ECG (OR = 0.26, 95% Cl [0.13, 0.51], P < 0.0001) in the experimental group were superior to the control group. While there were no differences between two groups in CD8+ (MD = 0.21, 95% Cl [−2.81, 3.23], P = 0.89), NK+ (MD = 1.06, 95% Cl [−9.40, 11.53], P = 0.84), RBC (OR = 0.49, 95% Cl [0.14, 1.74], P = 0.27), liver function (OR = 0.59, 95% Cl [0.28, 1.24], P = 0.16), renal function (OR = 0.56, 95% Cl [0.13, 2.45], P = 0.44), and bone marrow suppression (OR = 0.50, 95% Cl [0.25, 1.01], P = 0.05). Conclusion. SFI combined with chemotherapy, to some extent, can improve the effectiveness and the security in the treatment of breast cancer; the mechanism may be related to the elevated immunity. PMID:26495018

  3. Combination of Tls Point Clouds and 3d Data from Kinect v2 Sensor to Complete Indoor Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2016-06-01

    The combination of data coming from multiple sensors is more and more applied for remote sensing issues (multi-sensor imagery) but also in cultural heritage or robotics, since it often results in increased robustness and accuracy of the final data. In this paper, the reconstruction of building elements such as window frames or door jambs scanned thanks to a low cost 3D sensor (Kinect v2) is presented. Their combination within a global point cloud of an indoor scene acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is considered. If the added elements acquired with the Kinect sensor enable to reach a better level of detail of the final model, an adapted acquisition protocol may also provide several benefits as for example time gain. The paper aims at analyzing whether the two measurement techniques can be complementary in this context. The limitations encountered during the acquisition and reconstruction steps are also investigated.

  4. Impact analysis of autoantibody level and NR2 antibody level in neuropsychiatric SLE treated by methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yinhuan; Zhang, Jihui; Lei, Hongwei; Zhu, Guiqi; Fu, Bingbing

    2014-11-01

    The objective is to explore the clinical curative effects of methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection in treating neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and its effects on autoantibody level and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype NR2a/2b antibody (anti-NR2 antibody) level. Thirty six admitted NPSLE patients were treated by methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection. Thirty six SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms were selected as non-NPSLE group. Clinical indexes including SLE activity index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), cerebrospinal fluid protein were observed before and after treatment. Autoantibodies including anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA antibody), anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody (ENA-Ab) were detected before and after treatment. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect NR2 antibody level before and after treatment in two groups. Upon treatment of methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection, SLE activity index, ESR, CSFP, cerebrospinal fluid protein of 36 NPSLE patients were significantly decreased. Before treatment, positive rates of ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody, and anti-ENA antibody in both NPSLE group and non-NPSLE group had no significant difference. However, positive rate of anti-NR2 antibody in NPSLE group was significantly higher than that of non-NPSLE group. After treatment, positive rates of autoantibodies and anti-NR2 antibody in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE group were significantly decreased. Anti-NR2 antibody can be a screening index of NPSLE, and methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection has significant curative effects and can effectively decrease autoantibody level and anti-NR2 antibody level.

  5. Cervical intervertebral disc herniation treatment via radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior using an anterior cervical approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhu, Meng-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Xue-Xue; Zhang, Da-Ying; Wei, Jian-Mei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injected into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach for cervical intervertebral disc herniation.Forty-three patients (26-62-year old; male/female ratio: 31/12) with cervical intervertebral disc herniation received radiofrequency combined with 60 to 100 U of collagenase, injected via an anterior cervical approach. The degree of nerve function was assessed using the current Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system at 3 and 12 months postoperation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain preoperation and 7 days postoperation. The preoperative and 3 month postoperative protrusion areas were measured and compared via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).Compared with the preoperative pain scores, the 7-day postoperative pain was significantly reduced (P <0.01). The excellent and good rates of nerve function amelioration were 93.0% and 90.7% at 3 and 12 months postoperation, respectively, which was not significantly different. Twenty-seven cases exhibited a significantly reduced protrusion area (P <0.01) at 3 months postoperation. No serious side effects were noted.To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach is effective and safe for the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation.

  6. Cervical intervertebral disc herniation treatment via radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior using an anterior cervical approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhu, Meng-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Xue-Xue; Zhang, Da-Ying; Wei, Jian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injected into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach for cervical intervertebral disc herniation. Forty-three patients (26–62-year old; male/female ratio: 31/12) with cervical intervertebral disc herniation received radiofrequency combined with 60 to 100 U of collagenase, injected via an anterior cervical approach. The degree of nerve function was assessed using the current Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system at 3 and 12 months postoperation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain preoperation and 7 days postoperation. The preoperative and 3 month postoperative protrusion areas were measured and compared via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Compared with the preoperative pain scores, the 7-day postoperative pain was significantly reduced (P <0.01). The excellent and good rates of nerve function amelioration were 93.0% and 90.7% at 3 and 12 months postoperation, respectively, which was not significantly different. Twenty-seven cases exhibited a significantly reduced protrusion area (P <0.01) at 3 months postoperation. No serious side effects were noted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach is effective and safe for the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:27336892

  7. Cervical intervertebral disc herniation treatment via radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior using an anterior cervical approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhu, Meng-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Xue-Xue; Zhang, Da-Ying; Wei, Jian-Mei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injected into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach for cervical intervertebral disc herniation.Forty-three patients (26-62-year old; male/female ratio: 31/12) with cervical intervertebral disc herniation received radiofrequency combined with 60 to 100 U of collagenase, injected via an anterior cervical approach. The degree of nerve function was assessed using the current Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system at 3 and 12 months postoperation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain preoperation and 7 days postoperation. The preoperative and 3 month postoperative protrusion areas were measured and compared via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).Compared with the preoperative pain scores, the 7-day postoperative pain was significantly reduced (P <0.01). The excellent and good rates of nerve function amelioration were 93.0% and 90.7% at 3 and 12 months postoperation, respectively, which was not significantly different. Twenty-seven cases exhibited a significantly reduced protrusion area (P <0.01) at 3 months postoperation. No serious side effects were noted.To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach is effective and safe for the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:27336892

  8. Suppressing the Skin-Core Structure of Injection-Molded Isotactic Polypropylene via Combination of an in situ Microfibrillar Network and an Interfacial Compatibilizer

    SciTech Connect

    X Yi; C Chen; G Zhong; L Xu; J Tang; X Ji; B Hsiao; Z Li

    2011-12-31

    Injection-molded semicrystalline polymer parts generally exhibited a so-called skin-core structure basically as a result of the large gradients of temperature, shear rate, stress, and pressure fields created by the boundary conditions of injection molding. Suppression of the skin-core structure is a long-term practical challenge. In the current work, the skin-core structure of the conventional injection-molded isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was largely relieved by the cooperative effects of an in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer. The in situ poly(ethylene terephthalate) microfibrils of 1-8 {micro}m in diameter and large aspect ratios of above 40 tended to entangle with each other to generate a microfibrillar network in the iPP melt. During injection molding, the iPP molecules experienced confined flow in the microchannels or pores formed by the microfibrillar network, which could redistribute and homogenize the flow field of polymer melt. Addition of the compatibilizer, glycidyl methacrylate-grafted iPP, restrained the molecular orientation but facilitated preservation of oriented molecules due to the chemical bonds at the interface between PET microfibrils and iPP. The cooperative effects of in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer led to almost the same molecular orientation across the whole thickness of the injection-molded parts. Additionally, the content of {beta} crystals in different layers of injection-molded iPP parts depended on the combined effects of the molecular orientation, the amount of oriented crystals, and the crystallization time between 105 and 140 C. The presence of the interfacial compatibilizer facilitated formation of the {beta} crystals because of preservation of the oriented molecules.

  9. Suppressing the skin-core structure of injection-molded isotactic polypropylene via combination of an in situ microfibrillar network and an interfacial compatibilizer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Xu, Ling; Tang, Jian-Hua; Ji, Xu; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2011-06-16

    Injection-molded semicrystalline polymer parts generally exhibited a so-called skin-core structure basically as a result of the large gradients of temperature, shear rate, stress, and pressure fields created by the boundary conditions of injection molding. Suppression of the skin-core structure is a long-term practical challenge. In the current work, the skin-core structure of the conventional injection-molded isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was largely relieved by the cooperative effects of an in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer. The in situ poly(ethylene terephthalate) microfibrils of 1-8 μm in diameter and large aspect ratios of above 40 tended to entangle with each other to generate a microfibrillar network in the iPP melt. During injection molding, the iPP molecules experienced confined flow in the microchannels or pores formed by the microfibrillar network, which could redistribute and homogenize the flow field of polymer melt. Addition of the compatibilizer, glycidyl methacrylate-grafted iPP, restrained the molecular orientation but facilitated preservation of oriented molecules due to the chemical bonds at the interface between PET microfibrils and iPP. The cooperative effects of in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer led to almost the same molecular orientation across the whole thickness of the injection-molded parts. Additionally, the content of β crystals in different layers of injection-molded iPP parts depended on the combined effects of the molecular orientation, the amount of oriented crystals, and the crystallization time between 105 and 140 °C. The presence of the interfacial compatibilizer facilitated formation of the β crystals because of preservation of the oriented molecules.

  10. Physiotherapy alone or in combination with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis in general practice: A protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition responsible for loss of function and sick leave for long periods of time. In many countries, the treatment guidelines recommend a wait-and-see policy, reflecting that no conclusions on the best treatment can be drawn from the available research, published studies and meta-analyses. Methods/Design Randomized double blind controlled clinical trial in a primary care setting. While earlier trials have either compared corticosteroid injections to physical therapy or to naproxen orally, we will compare the clinical effect of physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy combined with corticosteroid injection in the initial treatment of acute tennis elbow. Patients seeing their general practitioner with lateral elbow pain of recent onset will be randomised to one of three interventions: 1: physiotherapy, corticosteroid injection and naproxen or 2: physiotherapy, placebo injection and naproxen or 3: wait and see treatment with naproxen alone. Treatment and assessments are done by two different doctors, and the contents of the injection is unknown to both the treating doctor and patient. The primary outcome measure is the patient's evaluation of improvement after 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcome measures are pain, function and severity of main complaint, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, pressure-pain threshold, the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and duration of sick leave. Conclusion This article describes a randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial with a one year follow up to investigate the effects of adding steroid injections to physiotherapy in acute lateral epicondylitis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00826462 PMID:19961603

  11. Sensitive determination of mercury in tap water by cloud point extraction pre-concentration and flow injection-cold vapor-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wuilloud, Jorgelina C. A.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.; Silva, María. F.; Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D.

    2002-02-01

    A pre-concentration and determination methodology for mercury at trace levels in water samples was developed. Cloud point extraction was successfully employed for the pre-concentration of mercury prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry coupled to a flow injection with cold vapor generation system. The mercury was extracted as mercury-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol [Hg(II)-(5-Br-PADAP)] complex, at pH 9.2 mediated by micelles of the non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono- p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 5). Cold vapor generation was developed from 100 μl of the extracted surfactant-rich phase by means of a stannous chloride (SnCl 2) solution as reluctant. An exhaustive study of the variables affecting the cloud point extraction with PONPE 5 and cold vapor mercury generation from the surfactant phase was performed. The 50-ml sample solution pre-concentration allowed us to raise an enrichment factor of 200-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained under the optimal conditions was 4 ng l -1. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 0.5-μg l -1 Hg level was 3.4% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), calculated with the peak heights. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system for mercury was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 50 μg l -1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in tap water samples.

  12. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  13. Preconcentration and determination of iron and copper in spice samples by cloud point extraction and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ciğdem Arpa; Tokgöz, Ilknur; Bektaş, Sema

    2010-09-15

    A flow injection (FI) cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of iron and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) has been improved. The analytes were complexed with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral Red, NR) and octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114)wasadded as a surfactant. The micellar solutionwasheated above 50 degrees C and loaded through a column packed with cotton for phase separation. Then the surfactant-rich phase was eluted using 0.05 mol L(-1) H2SO4 and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables influencing the instrumental and extraction conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions for 25 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enrichment factors were 98 and 69, the limits of detection (3s) were 0.7 and 0.3 ng mL(-1), the limits of quantification (10s) were 2.2 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) for iron and copper, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten replicate measurements of 10 ng mL(-1) iron and copper were 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of iron and copper in spice samples.

  14. Investigation of analytical performance for rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction of trace amounts of copper combined with spectrophotometric determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaodong; Ye, Liqing; Deng, Qingwen; Peng, Li

    2011-12-01

    In this work, an improved preconcentration method named as rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was established for copper preconcentration and determination. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) was used as extractant. Octanol worked as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent, which successfully decreased the cloud point temperature (CPT) of TX-100 to realize the room temperature (about 20 °C) CPE without heating. The established RS-CPE pretreatment was simple, rapid and effective. Compared with traditional CPE (about 40 min for heating, incubation and cooling), the extraction time of the proposed method was very short (1 min). The improved extraction technique RS-CPE was combined with traditional spectrophotometer to improve the analytical performance and expand the application of spectrophotometric determination. The influence factors relevant to RS-CPE, such as concentrations of TX-100 and octanol, concentration of chelating agent, pH, conditions of phase separation, salt effect, environmental temperature and instrumental conditions, were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for copper was 0.4 μg L -1, with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) of 18. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace copper in real samples and certified samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  15. Diagnosing dengue at the point-of-care: utility of a rapid combined diagnostic kit in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gan, Victor C; Tan, Li-Kiang; Lye, David C; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Mok, Shi-Qi; Chua, Rachel Choon-Rong; Leo, Yee-Sin; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2014-01-01

    WHO recommendations for dengue diagnosis require laboratory facilities. Antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have performed poorly, and clinical diagnosis remains the mainstay in dengue-endemic countries. We evaluated a combination antigen-antibody RDT for point-of-care testing in a high-prevalence setting. In this prospective cohort study, adults were enrolled from a tertiary infectious disease centre for evaluation of undifferentiated febrile illness from October 2011 to May 2012. SD Bioline Dengue Duo was evaluated at point-of-care against a WHO-based reference standard of viral isolation, RT-PCR, NS1-, IgM-, and IgG-ELISA. 246 adults were enrolled (median age 34 years, range 18-69), of which 197 could be confirmed definitively as either dengue or non-dengue. DENV-2 was the predominant serotype (79.5%) and the ratio of primary to secondary cases was 1∶1.1. There were no test failures and minimal interobserver variation with a Fleiss' kappa of 0.983 (95% CI 0.827-1.00). Overall sensitivity and specificity were 93.9% (95% CI 88.8-96.8%) and 92.0% (95% CI 81.2-96.9%) respectively. Using WHO clinical criteria alone for diagnosis had similar sensitivities (95.9%, 95% CI 91.4-98.1%) and lower specificities (20.0%, 95% CI 11.2-33.0%). No significant difference in performance was found when testing early versus late presenters, primary versus secondary cases, or DENV-1 versus DENV-2 infections. The use of a combination RDT fulfills WHO ASSURED criteria for point-of-care testing and can enhance dengue diagnosis in an endemic setting. This has the potential to markedly improve clinical management of dengue in the field.

  16. Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco by Chemometric Optimization and Cation-Selective Exhaustive Injection in Combination with Sweeping-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Ko, Po-Yun; Lee, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine is a potent chemical that excites the central nervous system and refreshes people. It is also physically addictive and causes dependence. To reduce the harm of tobacco products for smokers, a law was introduced that requires tobacco product containers to be marked with the amount of nicotine as well as tar. In this paper, an online stacking capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with cation-selective exhaustive injection sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweeping-MEKC) is proposed for the optimized analysis of nicotine in tobacco. A higher conductivity buffer (160 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3)) zone was injected into the capillary, allowing for the analytes to be electrokinetically injected at a voltage of 15 kV for 15 min. Using 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 25% methanol in the sweeping buffer, nicotine was detected with high sensitivity. Thus, optimized conditions adapted from a chemometric approach provided a 6000-fold increase in the nicotine detection sensitivity using the CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method in comparison to normal CZE. The limits of detection were 0.5 nM for nicotine. The stacking method in combination with direct injection which matrix components would not interfere with assay performance was successfully applied to the detection of nicotine in tobacco samples. PMID:26101695

  17. Individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate and glucose on somatic characteristics, energy status, and posthatch performance of broiler embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhu, X D; Wang, X F; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2016-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate ( CMH: ) and glucose on the somatic characteristics and energy status of broiler embryos and hatchlings and the growth performance of chicks during the first wk posthatch. In trial 1, 550 17.5-day-old living, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups, including 1) a noninjected control, 2) a 0.4 mL diluent-injected control, or 0.4 mL diluents containing 3) 6 mg CMH, 4) 25 mg glucose, or 5) a combination of 6 mg CMH and 25 mg glucose (identified as CMH+G: ). In trial 2, after hatch, 48 hatchlings with individual body weight ( BW: ) close to the average BW of their incubation group were randomly selected and placed in 6 replicates of 8 birds each to evaluate their growth performance during the first wk posthatch. Compared with the noninjected and the 0.4-mL diluent-injected control groups, individual injection of CMH or glucose did not affect the hatching time, hatchability, somatic characteristics, or concentrations of glycogen and glucose in the liver and pectoralis major ( PM: ) muscle, although injection of CMH increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of creatine ( CR: ) and phosphocreatine ( PCR: ) in the PM muscle on d 19 of incubation (E19.5). However, the CMH+G treatment increased (P < 0.05) BW relative to set egg weight ( SEW: ) on E19.5, as well as residual yolk sac weight on the day of hatch. Moreover, the CMH+G treatment also increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycogen and glucose in the liver and concentrations of Cr and PCr in the PM muscle on E19.5. Chicks in the CMH+G group also exhibited higher BW gain during the first wk than controls (P < 0.05). These results indicate that combined injection of CMH and glucose during the last stage of incubation have a synergistic effect on improvement of the energy status of embryos and hatchlings, which is useful for enhancing embryo development, and subsequently improving

  18. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  19. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  20. Duration of symptom relief after intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid combined with sorbitol (anti-ox-vs) in symptomatic hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Massafra, U; Bizzi, E; Tormenta, S; Cassol, M; Granata, M

    2014-01-01

    The intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) in hip osteoarthritis (OA) has been recently increased following the use of ultrasound guidance to perform an accurate delivery of the injected product. Viscosupplementation in hip OA seems to show similar results to those obtained by viscosupplementation in knee OA. However, an unmet need is the duration of symptomatic relief, therefore several new products are proposed to prolong and increase symptomatic effects. Among these, an innovative viscosupplement has been produced from high a concentration of HA combined with a high concentration of sorbitol as a free radical scavenger. The aim of this study is to evaluate the mid-term pain-relief effect of an ultrasound-guided injection of SynolisV-A (ANTI-OX-VS) in patients suffering from symptomatic hip osteoarthritis. Lequesne index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain reduction, Global Patient Assessment (GPA), Global Medical Assessment (GMA) and reduction in monthly analgesic consumption were assessed during the 12-month follow-up after the injection. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study and received one IA US-guided injection of two syringes of ANTI-OX-VS into the target hip. Eleven drop-out patients were registered, of whom 2 were for loss of efficacy at 6 months, 1 for loss of efficacy at 9 months and 8 patients for severe comorbilities. Mean scores of all clinical parameters evaluated at each control visit were significantly different when compared with baseline mean value. No systemic adverse events were observed. Even though the sample size of this study is limited, the results suggest a durable good efficacy of a 4-ml single injection of ANTI-OX-VS in hip OA, at least for the patients who completed the study. A larger number of patients and an RCT are needed to confirm these data, investigating also the predictive factors of clinical response to ANTI-OX-VS.

  1. Sub-5 nm hard x-ray point focusing by a combined Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and multilayer zone plate.

    PubMed

    Döring, F; Robisch, A L; Eberl, C; Osterhoff, M; Ruhlandt, A; Liese, T; Schlenkrich, F; Hoffmann, S; Bartels, M; Salditt, T; Krebs, H U

    2013-08-12

    Compound optics such as lens systems can overcome the limitations concerning resolution, efficiency, or aberrations which fabrication constraints would impose on any single optical element. In this work we demonstrate unprecedented sub-5 nm point focusing of hard x-rays, based on the combination of a high gain Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system and a high resolution W/Si multilayer zone plate (MZP) for ultra-short focal length f. The pre-focusing allows limiting the MZP radius to below 2 μm, compatible with the required 5 nm structure width and essentially unlimited aspect ratios, provided by enabling fabrication technology based on pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and focused ion beam (FIB).

  2. MoO3 as combined hole injection layer and tapered spacer in combinatorial multicolor microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.; Xu, Chun; Biswas, Rana; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2011-09-01

    Multicolor microcavity ({mu}C) organic light-emitting diode (OLED) arrays were fabricated simply by controlling the hole injection and spacer MoO{sub 3} layer thickness. The normal emission was tunable from {approx}490 to 640 nm and can be further expanded. A compact, integrated spectrometer with two-dimensional combinatorial arrays of {mu}C OLEDs was realized. The MoO{sub 3} yields more efficient and stable devices, revealing a new breakdown mechanism. The pixel current density reaches {approx}4 A/cm{sup 2} and a maximal normal brightness {approx}140 000 Cd/m{sup 2}, which improves photoluminescence-based sensing and absorption measurements.

  3. MR imaging of Ménière's disease after combined intratympanic and intravenous injection of gadolinium using HYDROPS2.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Kawai, Hisashi; Bokura, Kiminori; Iida, Tatsuo; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in Ménière's disease is currently evaluated by 3-dimensional (3D)-real inversion recovery (IR) sequence after intratympanic (IT) administration of gadolinium (Gd) or by heavily T2-weighted (hT2W)-3D-fluid-attenuated IR (FLAIR) sequence after intravenous (IV) injection of Gd. Unilateral IT injection is usually performed. We employed a method in which we simultaneously administered contrast into one ear intravenously (IV side) and into the other ear both intravenously and intratympanically (IT + IV side) to evaluate EH in 10 patients with Ménière's disease. We then compared a HYDROPS2 image obtained by subtracting magnetic resonance cisternography from hT2W-3D-FLAIR with an image obtained by 3D-real IR and found that we could evaluate EH in all ears on the HYDROPS2 image but only in the IT + IV side on the 3D-real IR image.

  4. Optical sensor based on combined GI/DSPI technique for strain monitoring in crucial points of big engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukaszewski, Dariusz; Sałbut, Leszek; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Malowany, Krzysztof

    2011-05-01

    The data from a monitored structure/object should be easy acquired, processed and sent to the user, who can assess the health of a structure in short time and schedule necessary maintenance in order to prevent accidences. Systems which provide such information are fundamental for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In the paper novel optical sensor designed for in-plane displacement and strain monitoring in crucial points of a big engineering and civil structures is presented. It combines two techniques: Grating Interferometry (GI) and Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI). GI requires specimen grating attached to the surface of an object under test. It is the unique technique which may provide the information about fatigue process and increased residual stresses. DSPI works with a rough object surface but due to differential measurements cannot be simply used for long time monitoring but to explore the actual behavior of a structure. The sensor which combines these techniques provides user with wide possibilities concerning functionality, measuring range, object surface and environmental conditions. The crucial issue in implementation of this sensor is the choice of its location(s) at the investigated structure. Therefore it is proposed to be as one of the elements of hierarchical sensors net, which gives complete information about structure state. As the method for supporting the choice of GI/DSPI sensor location we proposed the system based on 3D digital correlation method. The paper presents mechanical and optical sensor design along with laboratory tests of main component such as sensor heads in form of monolithic (plastic) and cavity waveguides. Finally the possible application of proposed sensor in combination with 3D DIC system is presented.

  5. A study of the geo-herbalism of evodiae fructus based on a flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting method combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Xin; Zhao, Yun-Ling; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Zhao, Chao

    2015-02-03

    A flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) was used to study the geo-herbalism of Evodiae Fructus (EF) samples. Twenty four EF samples from different regions in China were collected and analyzed. The PCA scores plot showed that the samples from Guizhou Province were scattered in different groups, however, most of the samples from other provinces were basically scattered in the same group. Nine characteristic compounds responsible for the classification of the samples were tentatively characterized. These nine compounds might help differentiating EF samples from different regions.

  6. Bioanalysis of the enantiomers of (+/-)-sarin using automated thermal cold-trap injection combined with two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Spruit, H E; Trap, H C; Langenberg, J P; Benschop, H P

    2001-01-01

    A fully automated multidimensional gas chromatographic system with thermal desorption injection and alkali flame detection was developed for analysis of the enantiomers of the nerve agent (+/-)-sarin. The chiral stationary phase was CP Cyclodex B on which the sarin enantiomers were completely resolved. The absolute detection limit was 2.5 pg per enantiomer. The method is intended to be used for the analysis of the sarin enantiomers in biological samples. For this purpose, sarin was isolated from guinea pig blood via solid-phase extraction. Deuterated sarin was used as internal standard. Stabilization of sarin in the blood sample by acidification and addition of an excess of a competitive organophosphorus compound (neopentyl sarin) appeared to be essential. The absolute recovery of the extraction procedure was 60%, whereas the recovery relative to the internal standard was 100%.

  7. Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) With Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells as Neo-Adjuvant Treatment of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven E.; Iclozan, Cristina; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Ahmed, Jamil; Noyes, David R.; Cheong, David; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Heysek, Randy V.; Berman, Claudia; Lenox, Brianna C.; Janssen, William; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Antonia, Scott J.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of combination of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) and fractionated external beam radiation (EBRT) on tumor-specific immune responses in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Material: Seventeen patients with large (>5 cm) high-grade STS were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the neoadjuvant setting with 5,040 cGy of EBRT, split into 28 fractions and delivered 5 days per week, combined with intratumoral injection of 10{sup 7} DCs followed by complete resection. DCs were injected on the second, third, and fourth Friday of the treatment cycle. Clinical evaluation and immunological assessments were performed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. No patient had tumor-specific immune responses before combined EBRT/DC therapy; 9 patients (52.9%) developed tumor-specific immune responses, which lasted from 11 to 42 weeks. Twelve of 17 patients (70.6%) were progression free after 1 year. Treatment caused a dramatic accumulation of T cells in the tumor. The presence of CD4{sup +} T cells in the tumor positively correlated with tumor-specific immune responses that developed following combined therapy. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not regulatory T cells negatively correlated with the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Experiments with {sup 111}In labeled DCs demonstrated that these antigen presenting cells need at least 48 h to start migrating from tumor site. Conclusions: Combination of intratumoral DC administration with EBRT was safe and resulted in induction of antitumor immune responses. This suggests that this therapy is promising and needs further testing in clinical trials design to assess clinical efficacy.

  8. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Removal of Residual Elements in The Steel Ladle by a Combination of Top Slag and Deep Injection Practice

    SciTech Connect

    S. Street; K.S. Coley; G.A. Iron

    2001-08-31

    The objective of this work was to determine if tin could be removed from liquid steel by a combination of deep injection of calcium and a reducing top-slag practice. The work was carried out in three stages: injection of Ca wire into 35 Kg heats in an induction furnace under laboratory condition; a fundamental study of the solubility of Sn in the slag as a function of oxygen potential, temperature and slag composition; and, two full-scale plant trials. During the first stage, it was found that 7 to 50% of the Sn was removed from initial Sn contents of 0.1%, using 8 to 16 Kg of calcium per tonne of steel. The Sn solubility study suggested that low oxygen potential, high basicity of the slag and lower temperature would aid Sn removal by deep injection of Ca in the bath. However, two full-scale trials at the LMF station in Dofasco's plant showed virtually no Sn removal, mainly because of very low Ca consumption rates used (0.5 to 1.1 Kg/tonne vs. 8 to 16 Kg/tonne used during the induction furnace study in the laboratory). Based on the current price of Ca, addition of 8 to 16 Kg/tonne of steel to remove Sn is too cost prohibitive, and therefore, it is not worthwhile to pursue this process further, even though it may be technically feasible.

  9. A simple 96 well microfluidic chip combined with visual and densitometry detection for resource-poor point of care testing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Minghui; Sun, Steven; Kostov, Yordan

    2010-01-01

    There is a well-recognized need for low cost biodetection technologies for resource-poor settings with minimal medical infrastructure. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has the ability to perform biological assays in such settings. The aim of this work is to develop a low cost, high-throughput detection system for the analysis of 96 samples simultaneously outside the laboratory setting. To achieve this aim, several biosensing elements were combined: a syringe operated ELISA lab-on-a-chip (ELISA-LOC) which integrates fluid delivery system into a miniature 96-well plate; a simplified non-enzymatic reporter and detection approach using a gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugate as a secondary antibody and silver enhancement of the visual signal; and Carbon nanotubes (CNT) to increase primary antibody immobilization and improve assay sensitivity. Combined, these elements obviate the need for an ELISA washer, electrical power for operation and a sophisticated detector. We demonstrate the use of the device for detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, a major foodborne toxin using three modes of detection, visual detection, CCD camera and document scanner. With visual detection or using a document scanner to measure the signal, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5ng/ml. In addition to visual detection, for precise quantitation of signal using densitometry and a CCD camera, the LOD was 0.1ng/ml for the CCD analysis and 0.5 ng/ml for the document scanner. The observed sensitivity is in the same range as laboratory-based ELISA testing. The point of care device can analyze 96 samples simultaneously, permitting high throughput diagnostics in the field and in resource poor areas without ready access to laboratory facilities or electricity. PMID:21503269

  10. The use of injectable alphaxalone as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea.

    PubMed

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Posner, Lysa P; Stoskopf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of the injectable anesthetic, alphaxalone, as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea. Between two and four animals were evaluated for each anesthetic protocol, and two unanesthetized animals were evaluated for comparative purposes. Anesthetic duration, depth, and quality were assessed by scoring responses to tactile and trichobothria stimulation, muscle tone, purposeful movement, righting response, and heart rate throughout each anesthetic event. Alphaxalone administered into the dorsal opisthosoma in the location of the heart at 200 mg/kg produced moderate anesthetic effect with a median duration of 28 min (n = 3; range 25-50). A combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of ketamine induced a deep anesthetic state with a median anesthetic duration of 27 min (n = 4; range 16-42). The combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of xylazine produced deep anesthesia with a median duration of 70 min (n = 4; range 37-207). Morphine administered at 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to injection with 200 mg/kg alphaxalone had anesthetic durations of 9 and 30 min (n = 2). Heartbeats could not be detected for periods of 7-27 min following anesthetic induction for the majority of animals receiving the alphaxalone/ketamine and alphaxalone/xylazine anesthetic combinations. No mortality was associated with any of the anesthetic protocols used; however, ambient temperature and ecdysis were identified as important factors that may alter response to anesthetics in these animals.

  11. The use of injectable alphaxalone as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea.

    PubMed

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Posner, Lysa P; Stoskopf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of the injectable anesthetic, alphaxalone, as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea. Between two and four animals were evaluated for each anesthetic protocol, and two unanesthetized animals were evaluated for comparative purposes. Anesthetic duration, depth, and quality were assessed by scoring responses to tactile and trichobothria stimulation, muscle tone, purposeful movement, righting response, and heart rate throughout each anesthetic event. Alphaxalone administered into the dorsal opisthosoma in the location of the heart at 200 mg/kg produced moderate anesthetic effect with a median duration of 28 min (n = 3; range 25-50). A combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of ketamine induced a deep anesthetic state with a median anesthetic duration of 27 min (n = 4; range 16-42). The combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of xylazine produced deep anesthesia with a median duration of 70 min (n = 4; range 37-207). Morphine administered at 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to injection with 200 mg/kg alphaxalone had anesthetic durations of 9 and 30 min (n = 2). Heartbeats could not be detected for periods of 7-27 min following anesthetic induction for the majority of animals receiving the alphaxalone/ketamine and alphaxalone/xylazine anesthetic combinations. No mortality was associated with any of the anesthetic protocols used; however, ambient temperature and ecdysis were identified as important factors that may alter response to anesthetics in these animals. PMID:25632665

  12. Combining Carbon Ion Radiotherapy and Local Injection of {alpha}-Galactosylceramide-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Inhibits Lung Metastases in an In Vivo Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Yu; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Seino, Ken-Ichiro; Nakawatari, Miyako; Wada, Haruka; Kamijuku, Hajime; Nakamura, Etsuko; Nakano, Takashi; Imai, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Our previous report indicated that carbon ion beam irradiation upregulated membrane-associated immunogenic molecules, underlining the potential clinical application of radioimmunotherapy. The antimetastatic efficacy of local combination therapy of carbon ion radiotherapy and immunotherapy was examined by use of an in vivo murine model. Methods and Materials: Tumors of mouse squamous cell carcinoma (NR-S1) cells inoculated in the legs of C3H/HeSlc mice were locally irradiated with a single 6-Gy dose of carbon ions (290 MeV/nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak). Thirty-six hours after irradiation, {alpha}-galactosylceramide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were injected into the leg tumor. We investigated the effects on distant lung metastases by counting the numbers of lung tumor colonies, making pathologic observations, and assessing immunohistochemistry. Results: The mice with no treatment (control) presented with 168 {+-} 53.8 metastatic nodules in the lungs, whereas the mice that received the combination therapy of carbon ion irradiation and DCs presented with 2.6 {+-} 1.9 (P = 0.009) at 2 weeks after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that intracellular adhesion molecule 1, which activates DCs, increased from 6 h to 36 h after irradiation in the local tumors of the carbon ion-irradiated group. The expression of S100A8 in lung tissue, a marker of the lung pre-metastatic phase, was decreased only in the group with a combination of carbon ions and DCs. Conclusions: The combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with the injection of {alpha}-galactosylceramide-pulsed DCs into the primary tumor effectively inhibited distant lung metastases.

  13. Motion artifacts in capacitive ECG measurements: reducing the combined effect of DC voltages and capacitance changes using an injection signal.

    PubMed

    Serteyn, A; Vullings, R; Meftah, M; Bergmans, J W M

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive electrodes are a promising alternative to the conventional adhesive electrodes for ECG measurements. They provide more comfort to the patient when integrated in everyday objects (e.g., beds or seats) for long-term monitoring. However, the application of capacitive sensors is limited by their high sensitivity to motion artifacts. For example, motion at the body-electrode interface causes variations of the coupling capacitance which, in the presence of a dc voltage across the coupling capacitor, create strong artifacts in the measurements. The origin, relevance, and reduction of this specific and important type of artifacts are studied here. An injection signal is exploited to track the variations of the coupling capacitance in real time. This information is then used by an identification scheme to estimate the artifacts and subtract them from the measurements. The method was evaluated in simulations, lab environments, and in a real-life recording on an adult's chest. For the type of artifact under study, a strong artifact reduction ranging from 40 dB for simulated data to 9 dB for a given real-life recording was achieved. The proposed method is automated, does not require any knowledge about the measurement system parameters, and provides an online estimate for the dc voltage across the coupling capacitor.

  14. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Honglei; Lei, Bo; Meng, Shan; Liu, Hailing; Wei, Yongchang; He, Aili; Zhang, Wanggang

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. PMID:27738441

  15. Combination of injectable ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone drug-delivery systems and characterization of their in vitro release.

    PubMed

    Nippe, Stefanie; General, Sascha

    2012-11-20

    Our aim was to investigate the in vitro release and combination of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and drospirenone (DRSP) drug-delivery systems. DRSP poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles and organogels containing DRSP microcrystals were prepared and characterized with regard to properties influencing drug release. The morphology and release kinetics of DRSP PLGA microparticles indicated that DRSP is dispersed in the polymer. The in vitro release profiles correlated well with in vivo data. Although DRSP degradation is known to be acid-catalyzed, DRSP was relatively stable in the PLGA matrix. Aqueous DRSP PLGA microparticle suspensions were combinable with EE PLGA microparticles and EE poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) microcapsules without interacting. EE release from PLGA microparticles was faster than DRSP release; EE release is assumed to be primarily controlled by drug diffusion. Liquid-filled EE PBCA microcapsules were shown to be more robust than air-filled EE PBCA microcapsules; the bursting of microcapsules accelerating the drug delivery was therefore delayed. The drug release profile for DRSP organogels was fairly linear with the square root of time. The system was not combinable with EE PBCA microcapsules. In contrast, incorporation of EE PLGA microparticles in organogels resulted in prolonged EE release. The drug release of EE and DRSP was thus approximated.

  16. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates.

  17. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table. PMID:21030134

  18. 76 FR 32994 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... License Application for Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Nine Mile Point 3... 52, ``Licenses, Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Power Plant (NMP3NPP), and located adjacent to the current Nine...

  19. Effect of Danhong Injection Combined with Naoxintong Tablets on Prognosis and Inflammatory Factor Expression in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lv*, Yun; Pan, Yaping; Gao*, Yan; Lu, Jingqian; Li, Yi; Bai, Jie; Zhai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Danhong is a Chinese medical component that has been broadly used to treat various cerebrovascular diseases. This work aimed to investigate the effect of Danhong injection combined with Naoxintong tablets on the short-term prognosis and expression of inflammatory factor-soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 100 ACS patients with PCI were randomly divided equally into treatment and control groups. The control group was treated with conventional secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Based on secondary prevention, Danhong injection combined with Naoxintong tablets was administered in the treatment group. The incidences of major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac functions, including ejection fraction (EF) and six-minute walk test distance, during hospital discharge and at the third postoperative month were observed. The serum sCD40 levels at different times were also noted. Results There were 2 patients in the treatment group and 7 in the control group that were lost during follow-up, so the collected data were from only 48 patients in the treatment and 43 in the control group. During hospital discharge and at the third postoperative month, no significant difference in death, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris and readmission were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Upon hospital discharge, EF, six-minute walk test distance and serum sCD40L level in the two groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). At the third postoperative month, EF and six-minute walk test distance in treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05), and the serum sCD40L level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.01). In addition, serum sCD40L levels in the two groups at the third postoperative month were significantly lower than those during hospital

  20. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n = 10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  1. Observation on therapeutic efficacy of rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis combined with compound anisodine injection on central retinal artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Feng; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) combined with compound anisodine in treating central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Forty-eight patients diagnosed with CRAO were randomly divided into a treatment group (24 cases) and a control group (24 cases). For the control group, nitroglycerin, 654-2, methazolamide, puerarin and compound anisodine were used for the treatment, along with oxygen, massage and other conventional treatments. Besides conventional therapy, the treatment group was also given intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis. Visual acuity, fundus oculi, visual field changes were taken as indicators for efficacy evaluation. It was found that the total effective rate of the control group was 70.83%, while that for the treatment group was 91.67%, and the comparative difference between the two groups was of statistical significance (p<0.05). The visual field defect of the control group after treatment was approximately 74.26±12.91%, and the visual field defect of the treatment group after treatment approximately 35.08±16.33%; thus, the comparative difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). The comparative difference of the original contents of fibrous protein in blood in the treatment group before and after treatment was statistically significant (p<0.01). In conclusion, the result show that intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA combined with compound anisodine is safe and effective in treating CRAO, which can significantly improve the prognosis of patients. PMID:27698763

  2. Observation on therapeutic efficacy of rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis combined with compound anisodine injection on central retinal artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Feng; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) combined with compound anisodine in treating central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Forty-eight patients diagnosed with CRAO were randomly divided into a treatment group (24 cases) and a control group (24 cases). For the control group, nitroglycerin, 654-2, methazolamide, puerarin and compound anisodine were used for the treatment, along with oxygen, massage and other conventional treatments. Besides conventional therapy, the treatment group was also given intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis. Visual acuity, fundus oculi, visual field changes were taken as indicators for efficacy evaluation. It was found that the total effective rate of the control group was 70.83%, while that for the treatment group was 91.67%, and the comparative difference between the two groups was of statistical significance (p<0.05). The visual field defect of the control group after treatment was approximately 74.26±12.91%, and the visual field defect of the treatment group after treatment approximately 35.08±16.33%; thus, the comparative difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). The comparative difference of the original contents of fibrous protein in blood in the treatment group before and after treatment was statistically significant (p<0.01). In conclusion, the result show that intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA combined with compound anisodine is safe and effective in treating CRAO, which can significantly improve the prognosis of patients.

  3. Flow injection analysis combined with a hydrothermal flow reactor: application to kinetic determination of trace amounts of iridium using a water-soluble porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kunio; Ikoma, Keisuke; Igarashi, Shukuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Yao, Toshio

    2011-06-15

    A new type of flow injection analysis (FIA) system combined with an extremely high temperature reactor, namely hydrothermal flow injection analysis (HT-FIA), has been successfully constructed for the first time. Fundamental characteristics of HT-FIA system, such as limit temperature, pressure, and flow rate, were examined as an analytical tool. To demonstrate the potential of HT-FIA, the catalytic activity of Ir(IV) for the degradation of a water-soluble porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic acid (TPPS), was applied for the determination of trace amounts of Ir(IV). Although the indicator reaction is very slow at room temperature, HT-FIA system enables to accelerate the reaction. A linear calibration curve was acquired at 10(-8)M level of Ir(IV) and the interferences of platinum group metal ions were examined. The detection limit of Ir(IV) was 5.8 × 10(-9)M and a fairly high-throughput analysis, of which more than 30 samples can be analyzed within 80 min, was achieved.

  4. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  5. In situ vaccination against mycosis fungoides by intratumoral injection of a TLR9 agonist combined with radiation: a phase 1/2 study

    PubMed Central

    Gratzinger, Dita; Harrison, Cameron; Brody, Joshua D.; Czerwinski, Debra K.; Ai, Weiyun Z.; Morales, Anjali; Abdulla, Farah; Xing, Leon; Navi, Daniel; Tibshirani, Robert J.; Advani, Ranjana H.; Lingala, Bharathi; Shah, Sumit; Hoppe, Richard T.; Levy, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and previously reported on a therapeutic vaccination strategy for indolent B-cell lymphoma that combines local radiation to enhance tumor immunogenicity with the injection into the tumor of a TLR9 agonist. As a result, antitumor CD8+ T cells are induced, and systemic tumor regression was documented. Because the vaccination occurs in situ, there is no need to manufacture a vaccine product. We have now explored this strategy in a second disease: mycosis fungoides (MF). We treated 15 patients. Clinical responses were assessed at the distant, untreated sites as a measure of systemic antitumor activity. Five clinically meaningful responses were observed. The procedure was well tolerated and adverse effects consisted mostly of mild and transient injection site or flu-like symptoms. The immunized sites showed a significant reduction of CD25+, Foxp3+ T cells that could be either MF cells or tissue regulatory T cells and a similar reduction in S100+, CD1a+ dendritic cells. There was a trend toward greater reduction of CD25+ T cells and skin dendritic cells in clinical responders versus nonresponders. Our in situ vaccination strategy is feasible also in MF and the clinical responses that occurred in a subset of patients warrant further study with modifications to augment these therapeutic effects. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00226993. PMID:22045986

  6. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Sibel; Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient's walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport(®)) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  7. An Accelerated Multi-Modality Rehabilitation Protocol Combined with Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Ferdi; Balaban, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Adult Idiopathic Toe Walking (AITW) is very rare in clinical practice. High quality studies regarding AITW and its treatment options have not been conducted previously. A 28-year-old male patient complaining of lower leg pain was referred to outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Physical examination revealed a gait abnormality of insufficient heel strike at initial contact. The aetiology was investigated and the patient’s walking parameters were assessed using a computerized gait analysis system. The AITW was diagnosed. Botulinum toxin-A (Dysport®) was injected to the bilateral gastrocnemius muscles. A combined 10-days rehabilitation program was designed, including a daily one-hour physiotherapist supervised exercise program, ankle dorsiflexion exercises using an EMG-biofeedback unit assisted virtual rehabilitation system (Biometrics) and virtual gait training (Rehawalk) every other day. After treatment, the patient was able to heel strike at the initiation of the stance phase of the gait. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motions increased. The most prominent improvement was seen in maximum pressure and heel force. In addition center of pressure evaluations were also improved. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case, of AITW treated with combined botulinum toxin, exercise and virtual rehabilitation systems. This short report demonstrates the rapid effect of this 10-days combined therapy. PMID:27504395

  8. A prospective series of patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy treated with autologous-conditioned plasma injections combined with exercise and therapeutic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Deans, Victoria M; Miller, Alison; Ramos, James

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Achilles tendinopathy is a difficult problem to manage, because it can result in significant patient morbidity. We conducted a prospective case series involving 26 patients (2 bilateral cases) with painful and ultrasound-confirmed Achilles tendinopathy for a minimum duration of 6 months. Our objective was to assess whether this condition can be effectively treated with a treatment protocol combining an intratendinous autologous-conditioned plasma injection followed by a standardized rehabilitation protocol. The rehabilitation protocol consisted of full weightbearing in a pneumatic cast boot for 6 weeks, therapeutic ultrasound treatment, and an eccentric exercise program. Our results showed statistically significant improvements in terms of pain (p < .0001), other symptoms (p = .0003), activities of daily living (p = .0002), sports activities (p = .0001), and quality of life (p = .0002). We believe that the use of autologous-conditioned plasma can provide a potential treatment solution for chronic Achilles tendinopathy.

  9. Murine xenograft model demonstrates significant radio-sensitising effect of liposomal doxorubicin in a combination therapy for Feline Injection Site Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Petznek, H; Kleiter, M; Tichy, A; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Hohenadl, C

    2014-10-01

    Therapy of cats suffering from feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) is still a challenging problem, as the recurrence rate after surgery is up to 70%. Four FISS-derived primary tumour cell lines and corresponding xenograft tumour mouse models were established to evaluate the efficacy of a concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy with doxorubicin. In vitro, strongly depending upon the timing of administration, pre-treatment with 0.25 µmol doxorubicin resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation-induced (3.5 Gy) tumour cell death. This result was confirmed in vivo, where only the combined chemo-/radiation therapy resulted in a significant reduction in tumour growth compared to the respective mono-therapies with either doxorubicin or radiation. These results support the use of the concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy for adjuvant treatment of FISS, particularly in advanced or recurrent disease where surgery alone is no longer feasible. PMID:25104320

  10. A novel magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia combined with ACMF-dependant drug release by DAMMs injection in VX-2 liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanan; Tong, Jinlong; Chen, Huijuan; Jiang, Linlin; Zhu, Huiping; Zhu, Xiaofang; Yu, Hui; Liu, Jiwei; Liu, Baorui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the feasibility and effect of a novel combination therapy of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) hyperthermia with anticancer drugs for solid malignancies using doxorubicin-loaded alginate-templated magnetic microcapsules (DAMMs) in an animal liver cancer model. Firstly, DAMMs containing 18 nm gamma-Fe2O3 with doxorubicin (Dox) were synthesized and characterized. Then, the particular behavior of Dox release under external alternating current magnetic filed (ACMF) was tested in vitro. Moreover, to obtain accurate thermotherapy, the dose of DAMMs and temperature rise were computed by Hyperthermia treatment plan (HTP) and a fiber optic temperature sensor (FOTS) was used to monitor the temperature rise during treatments on VX-2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits. Furthermore, the therapeutic effect was studied by histopathological examinations and animal survival. The results showed that ACMF can induce Dox fast release during the treatment and the high MNPs content of DMMAs guaranteed the temperature rise for hyperthermia in tumors. The rabbits bearing VX-2 tumors in the magnetic hyperthermia using DMMAs group gained the most tumor necrosis and survival time. It was indicated that DAMMs-based magnetic hyperthermia could be a feasible and effective remedy which could be targeted at liver tumors by dual effects of hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

  11. [Systematic review and Meta-analysis of Shenqi Fuzheng injection combined with first-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Hao, Teng-teng; Xie, Yan-ming; Liao, Xing; Wang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    The paper is to systematically evaluate the effect and safety of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) combined with first-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) combined with first-line chemotherapy (experiment group) and chemotherapy alone group ( control group) were electronically retrieved from Medline, EMbase, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data base. All trials were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention and then Meta-analysis was performed withRevMan5. 2 Software. A total of 43 RCTs (3433 patients) were included after screening and selecting. Results of Meta-analysis showed that: Objective remission rate (ORR): ORR of experimental group was about 20% higher than that of control group [RR = 1.23, 95% CI (1.11,1.35), P < 0.0001]. Disease control rate (DCR):DCR of SFI combined with first-line chemotherapy was 11% higher than that of first-line chemotherapy alone [RR = 1.11, 95% CI (1.07, 1.16), P < 0.000 01]. Life quality evaluated by Kosovan performance status (KPS) showed that: life quality improvement rate of experimental group was about twice of that in control group [RR = 2.02, 95% CI (1.81, 2.26), P < 0.000 01]. Toxic and side reaction analysis showed that: the incidence of side reactions in experimental group was about 50% lower than that in control group [RR = 0.59, 95% CI (0.53, 0.66), P < 0.000 01]. Immune function test showed that: the function of experimental group was 3.2 (standard deviations) times greater than that of control group [MD = 3.23, 95% CI (2.86, 3.60), P < 0.000 01]. We can see that SFI combined with first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC can increase objective efficacy, improve life quality, decrease toxic and side reactionsinduced by chemotherapy, and improve the immune functions. As most of the included studies in this systematic evaluation had poor quality

  12. [Systematic review and Meta-analysis of Shenqi Fuzheng injection combined with first-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Hao, Teng-teng; Xie, Yan-ming; Liao, Xing; Wang, Jing

    2015-10-01

    The paper is to systematically evaluate the effect and safety of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) combined with first-line chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Shenqi Fuzheng injection (SFI) combined with first-line chemotherapy (experiment group) and chemotherapy alone group ( control group) were electronically retrieved from Medline, EMbase, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data base. All trials were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention and then Meta-analysis was performed withRevMan5. 2 Software. A total of 43 RCTs (3433 patients) were included after screening and selecting. Results of Meta-analysis showed that: Objective remission rate (ORR): ORR of experimental group was about 20% higher than that of control group [RR = 1.23, 95% CI (1.11,1.35), P < 0.0001]. Disease control rate (DCR):DCR of SFI combined with first-line chemotherapy was 11% higher than that of first-line chemotherapy alone [RR = 1.11, 95% CI (1.07, 1.16), P < 0.000 01]. Life quality evaluated by Kosovan performance status (KPS) showed that: life quality improvement rate of experimental group was about twice of that in control group [RR = 2.02, 95% CI (1.81, 2.26), P < 0.000 01]. Toxic and side reaction analysis showed that: the incidence of side reactions in experimental group was about 50% lower than that in control group [RR = 0.59, 95% CI (0.53, 0.66), P < 0.000 01]. Immune function test showed that: the function of experimental group was 3.2 (standard deviations) times greater than that of control group [MD = 3.23, 95% CI (2.86, 3.60), P < 0.000 01]. We can see that SFI combined with first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC can increase objective efficacy, improve life quality, decrease toxic and side reactionsinduced by chemotherapy, and improve the immune functions. As most of the included studies in this systematic evaluation had poor quality

  13. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  14. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  15. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  16. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. The Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Compound Kushen Injection Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao; Li, Rui-Sheng; Wang, Jian; Huang, Yin-Qiu; Li, Peng-Yan; Wang, Ji; Su, Hai-Bin; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Liu, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Cong-En; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese patent medicine approved by the China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. CKI, combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), is believed to increase the therapeutic efficacy of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report an updated and extended meta-analysis with detailed outcomes of both the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CKI combined with TACE therapy. Materials and methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Wanfang, the VIP medicine information system (VMIS) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were examined for relevant articles before November 13, 2015. An odds ratio (OR) was used to estimate tumor response (TR), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) improvement, Child-Pugh (CP) improvement, survival rate (SR) and AEs. A publication bias and a subgroup analysis were also assessed. Results: Eighteen studies, with a total of 1,338 HCC patients who met the criteria for the meta-analysis, were included. TR, KPS improvement and CP improvement were significantly enhanced for the combination therapy compared to TACE alone (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: [1.46, 2.33], P < 0.00001; OR = 2.37, 95% CI: [1.76, 3.18], P < 0.00001; OR = 1.81, 95% CI: [1.08, 3.03], P = 0.02, respectively). The combination therapy was associated with an improvement in 1-year and 2-year SRs but not an improved 3-year SR (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: [1.59, 3.62], P < 0.0001; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [1.24, 5.00], P = 0.01; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [0.94, 6.61], P = 0.07, respectively). A safety analysis indicated that AEs (including nausea/vomiting, fever, hepatalgia, increased transaminase, increased bilirubin and leukopenia) were reduced for the combination treatment compared to TACE alone. Conclusion: The combination treatment of TACE and CKI was associated with improved TR, KPS and CP improvement and improved

  18. Intratumoral spread of wild-type adenovirus is limited after local injection of human xenograft tumors: virus persists and spreads systemically at late time points.

    PubMed

    Sauthoff, Harald; Hu, Jing; Maca, Cielo; Goldman, Michael; Heitner, Sheila; Yee, Herman; Pipiya, Teona; Rom, William N; Hay, John G

    2003-03-20

    Oncolytic replicating adenoviruses are a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer. Despite the assumed biologic advantage of continued viral replication and spread from infected to uninfected cancer cells, early clinical trials demonstrate that the efficacy of current vectors is limited. In xenograft tumor models using immune-incompetent mice, wild-type adenovirus is also rarely able to eradicate established tumors. This suggests that innate immune mechanisms may clear the virus or that barriers within the tumor prevent viral spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of viral distribution and spread after intratumoral injection of virus in a human tumor xenograft model. After intratumoral injection of wild-type virus, high levels of titratable virus persisted within the xenograft tumors for at least 8 weeks. Virus distribution within the tumors as determined by immunohistochemistry was patchy, and virus-infected cells appeared to be flanked by tumor necrosis and connective tissue. The close proximity of virus-infected cells to the tumor-supporting structure, which is of murine origin, was clearly demonstrated using a DNA probe that specifically hybridizes to the B1 murine DNA repeat. Importantly, although virus was cleared from the circulation 6 hr after intratumoral injection, after 4 weeks systemic spread of virus was detected. In addition, vessels of infected tumors were surrounded by necrosis and an advancing rim of virus-infected tumor cells, suggesting reinfection of the xenograft tumor through the vasculature. These data suggest that human adenoviral spread within tumor xenografts is impaired by murine tumor-supporting structures. In addition, there is evidence for continued viral replication within the tumor, with subsequent systemic dissemination and reinfection of tumors via the tumor vasculature. Despite the limitations of immune-incompetent models, an understanding of the interactions between the virus and the tumor

  19. Combined Treatment of Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection with a Multipronged Needle: Experimental and Clinical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Rinako; Seki, Toshihito Umehara, Hideto; Ikeda, Kozo; Inokuchi, Ryosuke; Asayama, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Yu; Sakao, Masayuki; Lencioni, Riccardo; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) with a multipronged needle for the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An experimental animal study and a clinical investigation were performed. Methods: In the experimental study, 20 ml of 99.5% ethanol was injected into porcine liver in vivo with a multipronged needle (n = 5) or a straight needle (n = 5), and the volumes of coagulation necrosis were compared. In the clinical investigation, PEI was performed in 17 patients (10 men, 7 women; mean age 73.4 {+-} 6.7 years) with single, large HCC (mean tumor diameter, 47.2 {+-} 11.5 mm; range, 32-70 mm) by using a multipronged needle. Fifteen of 17 patients received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before PEI. Results: The volume of coagulation in porcine liver in vivo was significantly increased with the multipronged needle compared with the straight needle (longest perpendicular diameters, 34.2 {+-} 3.6 mm Multiplication-Sign 30.2 {+-} 3.6 mm vs. 22.6 {+-} 2.5 mm Multiplication-Sign 19 {+-} 2.2 mm, respectively; P < 0.05). In the clinical trial, initial complete response (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 17 of 17 patients, 7 of whom required two PEI sessions. During the follow-up, local recurrence was detected in 4 of 17 patients at 3-19 months after the procedure, for a rate of sustained local CR of 76%. No major complication occurred. Conclusions: Use of a multipronged needle substantially increases the volume of coagulation in vivo with respect to the conventional PEI technique. Combined TACE and PEI with multipronged needles is a safe and effective option for percutaneous treatment of single, large HCC.

  20. Flow injection of liquid samples to a mass spectrometer with ionization under vacuum conditions: a combined ion source for single-photon and electron impact ionization.

    PubMed

    Schepler, Claudia; Sklorz, Martin; Passig, Johannes; Famiglini, Giorgio; Cappiello, Achille; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and atmospheric pressure photo-ionization (APPI) are the most important techniques for the ionization of liquid samples. However, working under atmospheric pressure conditions, all these techniques involve some chemical rather than purely physical processes, and therefore, side reactions often yield to matrix-dependent ionization efficiencies. Here, a system is presented that combines both soft single-photon ionization (SPI) and hard 70 eV electron impact ionization (EI) of dissolved compounds under vacuum conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was modified to enable direct EI, a technique developed by Cappiello et al. to obtain library-searchable EI mass spectra as well as soft SPI mass spectra of sample solutions. An electron beam-pumped rare gas excimer lamp working at 126 nm was used as well as a focusable vacuum UV light source for single-photon ionization. Both techniques, EI and SPI, were applied successfully for flow injection experiments providing library-matchable EI fragment mass spectra and soft SPI mass spectra, showing dominant signals for the molecular ion. Four model compounds were analyzed: hexadecane, propofol, chlorpropham, and eugenol, with detection limits in the picomolar range. This novel combination of EI and SPI promises great analytical benefits, thanks to the possibility of combining database alignment for EI data and molecular mass information provided by SPI. Possible applications for the presented ionization technology system are a matrix-effect-free detection and a rapid screening of different complex mixtures without time-consuming sample preparation or separation techniques (e.g., for analysis of reaction solutions in combinatorial chemistry) or a switchable hard (EI) and soft (SPI) MS method as detection step for liquid chromatography.

  1. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  2. THE COMBINATION OF GELATIN WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID : II. NEW DETERMINATIONS OF THE ISOELECTRIC POINT AND COMBINING CAPACITY OF A PURIFIED GELATIN.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, D I

    1929-03-20

    1. Cooper's gelatin purified according to Northrop and Kunitz exhibited a minimum of osmotic pressure and a maximum of opacity at pH 5.05 +/-0.05. The pH of solutions of this gelatin in water was also close to this value. It is inferred that such gelatin is isoelectric at this pH and not at pH 4.70. 2. Hydrogen electrode measurements with KCl-agar junctions were made with concentrated solutions of this gelatin in HCl up to 0.1 M. The combination curve calculated from these data is quite exactly horizontal between pH 2 and 1, indicating that 1 gm. of this gelatin can combine with a maximum of 9.35 x 10(-4) equivalents of H(+). 3. Conductivity titrations of this gelatin with HCl gave an endpoint at 9.41 (+/-0.05) x 10(-4) equivalents of HCl per gram gelatin. 4. E.M.F. measurements of the cell without liquid junction, Ag, AgCl, HCl + gelatin, H(2), lead to the conclusion that this gelatin in 0.1 M HCl combines with a maximum of 9.4 x 10(-4) equivalents of H(+) and 1.7 x 10(-4) equivalents of Cl(-) per gram gelatin.

  3. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  4. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Conrozier, Thierry; Bozgan, Ana-Maria; Bossert, Marie; Sondag, Maxime; Lohse-Walliser, Anne; Balblanc, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of HAnox-M-XL (4.4 mL), viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL) + mannitol (35 mg/mL), in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50) and WOMAC total (0–240) and patient’s global assessment (PGA). Patient’s self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3) and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS Mean (SD) age was 60.7 (13.9) years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0). Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8) and 89.9 (42.8), respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were −8.2 (8.9) and −38.4 (35.6), respectively, at month 6 (P = 0.001). PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0) to 3.0 (2.2) (P = 0.006). Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. CONCLUSION Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data.

  5. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Conrozier, Thierry; Bozgan, Ana-Maria; Bossert, Marie; Sondag, Maxime; Lohse-Walliser, Anne; Balblanc, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of HAnox-M-XL (4.4 mL), viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL) + mannitol (35 mg/mL), in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50) and WOMAC total (0–240) and patient’s global assessment (PGA). Patient’s self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3) and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS Mean (SD) age was 60.7 (13.9) years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0). Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8) and 89.9 (42.8), respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were −8.2 (8.9) and −38.4 (35.6), respectively, at month 6 (P = 0.001). PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0) to 3.0 (2.2) (P = 0.006). Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. CONCLUSION Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data. PMID:27688712

  6. Evaluation of the combination of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping and cation selective exhaustive injection for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles in egg samples.

    PubMed

    Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2016-12-15

    A methodology is presented for the sensitive determination of nitromidazole residues in egg by means of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in combination with cation selective exhaustive injection and ultraviolet detection. Six compounds have been considered and the separation has been achieved in less than 12min in a 61.5-cm effective length capillary with 50-μm internal diameter. Phosphate buffer 44mM pH 2.5, containing 8% tetrahydrofurane and 123mM sodium dodecyl sulfate was employed as running buffer. Solid phase extraction has been employed for sample clean-up. The methodology has been successfully validated in hen eggs, obtaining method detection limits in the range of 2.1-5.0ng/g. Precision was studied in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations lower than 18.0%. Recoveries were calculated in quail eggs and a commercial pasteurized egg white product, reaching over 70% for most of the considered 5-nitroimidazoles. PMID:27451174

  7. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint–efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  8. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  9. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations.

  10. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  11. Triangular libration points in the R3BP under combined effects of oblateness, radiation and power-law profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, B. J.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Oyewumi, K. J.; Falaiye, O. A.; Joshua, E. S.; Omojola, J.; Abimbola, O. J.; Kalu, O.; Ikhdair, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of oblateness up to J4 of the primaries and power-law density profile (PDP) on the linear stability of libration location of an infinitesimal mass within the framework of restricted three body problem (R3BP), by using a more realistic model in which a disc with PDP is rotating around the common center of the system mass with perturbed mean motion. The existence and stability of triangular equilibrium points have been explored. It has been shown that triangular equilibrium points are stable for 0 < μ <μc and unstable for μc ⩽ μ≤ 1 / 2 , where μc denotes the critical mass parameter. We find that, the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries and the radiation reduces the stability range while the oblateness up to J4 of the primaries increases the size of stability both in the context where PDP is considered and ignored. The PDP has an effect of about ≈ 0.01 reduction on the application of μc to Earth-Moon and Jupiter-Moons systems. We find that the comprehensive effects of the perturbations have a stabilizing proclivity. However, the oblateness up to J2 of the primaries and the radiation of the primaries have tendency for instability, while coefficients up to J4 of the primaries have stability predisposition. In the limiting case c = 0 , and also by setting appropriate parameter(s) to zero, our results are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained previously. Libration points play a very important role in space mission and as a consequence, our results have a practical application in space dynamics and related areas. The model may be applied to study the navigation and stationkeeping operations of spacecraft (infinitesimal mass) around the Jupiter (more massive) -Callisto (less massive) system, where PDP accounts for the circumsolar ring of asteroidal dust, which has a cloud of dust permanently in its wake.

  12. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E ‑2.5 and E ‑2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  13. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E -2.5 and E -2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  14. Combined Transcriptomics Analysis for Classification of Adverse Effects As a Potential End Point in Effect Based Screening.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Tjalf E; Janssens, Thierry K S; Legler, Juliette; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-12-15

    Environmental risk assessment relies on the use of bioassays to assess the environmental impact of chemicals. Gene expression is gaining acceptance as a valuable mechanistic end point in bioassays and effect-based screening. Data analysis and its results, however, are complex and often not directly applicable in risk assessment. Classifier analysis is a promising method to turn complex gene expression analysis results into answers suitable for risk assessment. We have assembled a large gene expression data set assembled from multiple studies and experiments in the springtail Folsomia candida, with the aim of selecting a set of genes that can be trained to classify general toxic stress. By performing differential expression analysis prior to classifier training, we were able to select a set of 135 genes which was enriched in stress related processes. Classifier models from this set were used to classify two test sets comprised of chemical spiked, polluted, and clean soils and compared to another, more traditional classifier feature selection. The gene set presented here outperformed the more traditionally selected gene set. This gene set has the potential to be used as a biomarker to test for adverse effects caused by chemicals in springtails to provide end points in environmental risk assessment. PMID:26523736

  15. Determination of ofloxacin and gatifloxacin by mixed micelle-mediated cloud point extraction-fluorimetry combined methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Zhao, Guo-yan; Du, Li-ming

    2010-05-01

    A cloud point extraction process using mixed micelle of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(7.5)nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5) to extract two fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin, from aqueous media was investigated. The method is based on the mixed micelle-mediated extraction of fluoroquinolones in the presence of NaCl as an inducing agent in phase separation, followed by spectrofluorimetric determination. The effect of different variables such as pH, PONPE7.5 concentration, SDS concentration, NaCl concentration, cloud point temperature, and time was investigated, and optimum conditions were established. At optimum conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.1-150 and 0.1-250 ng mL -1 for ofloxacin and gatifloxacin, and the limits of detection were 0.04 and 0.06 ng mL -1, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied successfully for the detection of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms, in spiked plasma, spiked urine, and urine samples, with good precision and accuracy.

  16. High volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation improve greater trochanter pain syndrome in the short and medium term: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; Price, Jessica; Pritchard, Melanie; Crisp, Tom; Perry, John D.; Morrissey, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the aim of this study was to measure the effects of high volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation (HVIGI&SR) for greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS). Methods 31 consecutive subjects were recruited (23 retrospectively; 8 prospectively) over 5 months. GTPS was diagnosed based on history and examination findings, alongside radiological examination. The HVI-GI used a 22-gauge spinal needle to administer 10ml of 0.5% Marcaine and 50 mg hydrocortisone just deep to the periosteum underlying the gluteal tendon insertion under ultrasound guidance, followed by structured rehabilitation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used as the main outcome measure. Results the mean VAS improved from 81.7 mm (±17.6) to 42.3 mm (±28.3), (p<0.05) in the prospective subjects at a mean of 6 weeks, considered clinically significant. In the retrospective subjects the mean VAS had improved from 74.6 (±10.9) mm to 38.2(±31.2) mm at two weeks (p<0.01) and 31.3 (±27.6) mm at the final time point, a mean of 60 weeks (p<0.01). The Hip and Groin Outcome Score in the prospective group showed a non-significant increase from 173.2 to 296.1 (p=0.12). Conclusion HVIGI&SR should be considered when short- and medium-term pain-relieving treatment for GTPS is required. Controlled studies are warranted to fully establish effectiveness, and assess long term effects. Level of evidence case series. PMID:26261785

  17. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  18. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  19. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  20. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  1. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  2. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  3. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  4. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  5. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  6. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  7. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  8. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  9. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  10. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  11. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  12. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  13. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  14. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  15. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Wiley, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  16. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, Todd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Willey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms which make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses 4 stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  17. Effect of neural stem cell transplantation combined with erythropoietin injection on axon regeneration in adult rats with transected spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Zuo, Y; Wang, X L; Huo, H J; Jiang, J M; Yan, H B; Xiao, Y L

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of neural stem cells (NSC) and erythropoietin (EPO) on axon regeneration in adult rats with transected spinal cord injury, and provided an experimental basis for clinical treatment. Forty Wistar rats with T10-transected spinal cord injury were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats: a control group (group A), an NSC-transplant group (group B), an NSC-transplant and EPO group (group C), and an EPO group (group D). Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) anterograde corticospinal cord neuronal tracing and Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing were carried out at the 8th week after operation to observe the regeneration of nerve fibers. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score was used to evaluate restoration. 1) BDA and FG immunofluorescence staining: in group C, a large number of regenerated axons were observed and some penetrated the injured area. In group B, only a small number of regenerated axons were observed and none penetrated the injured area. In group D, only sporadic regenerated nerve fibers were observed occasionally, while in group A, no axonal regeneration was observed. In group C, a small number of cones and axons emitted yellow fluorescence, and no FG-labeled cells were observed in the other groups. 2) The BBB scores for group C were higher than those for the other groups, and the differences were statistically significance (P < 0.05). NSC transplantation combined with EPO intraperitoneal injection may benefit axon regeneration in rats with transected spinal cord injury, and accelerate the functional recovery of the hindlimb locomotor. PMID:26782425

  18. Proteomic analysis of testis biopsies in men treated with injectable testosterone undecanoate alone or in combination with oral levonorgestrel as potential male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yugui; Zhu, Hui; Zhu, Yefei; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran; Wang, Xinghai; Tong, Jiansun; Qian, Lixin; Zhou, Zuomin; Jia, Yue; Lue, Yan-He; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Sha, Jiahao

    2008-09-01

    Treatment with injectable testosterone undecanoate (TU) alone or in combination with oral levonorgestrel (LNG) resulted in marked decreases in sperm concentrations. In this study, we used proteomic analyses to examine the cellular/molecular events occurring in the human testis after TU or TU + LNG treatment. We conducted a global proteomic analysis of the human testicular biopsies before and at 2 weeks after TU alone or TU + LNG treatment. Proteins showing significant changes in expression were identified and analyzed. As a result, 17 and 46 protein spots were found with significant differential expression after the treatment with TU alone and TU + LNG, respectively. TU treatment changed the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit (PSMF1), and superoxide dismutase [Mn] mitochondrial precursor (SOD2). These proteins inhibit "assembly", induce cell death, and promote compensatory "cell survival" in the testis. After TU + LNG treatment, "proliferation/cell survival" and "apoptosis/death" were the predominant responses in the testis. TU + LNG treatment inhibited the expression of Prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta subunit (P4HB) and Annexin A2 (Annexin II). These proteins are involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively. TU + LNG treatment also enhanced the expression of SOD2 and Parvalbumin alpha (Pvalb). These two proteins may protect testicular cells against apoptosis/death and promote cell survival. In conclusion, TU and TU + LNG treatments suppress spermatogenesis through different pathways by changing the expression of different proteins. hnRNP K, PSMF1, SOD2, P4HB, Annexin II, and Pvalb, are key proteins that may be early molecular targets responsible for spermatogenesis suppression induced by hormone treatment. PMID:18702538

  19. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates. PMID:26998128

  20. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in public catering services: a modified method, combined to bacteriologic assay.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P

    1992-01-01

    During 1990 and 1991 the Veterinary and Public Health Services of USL 35 of Ravenna carried out a research programme aimed at the control of food-borne diseases in the sector of public catering services, in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory (Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione). The objectives were: obtaining sure information about health hazards in public catering services; checking structural characteristics and equipment of workrooms in restaurants, hotels and refectories; verifying food preparation and preservation methods; promoting health education to increase employees' awareness of hygiene-related problems. The first objective, evaluation of the level of the control of the workrooms exerted on the food contamination hazard by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms, was carried out by allotting specific scores to several characteristics of laboratories or workers' habits, as suggested by the "Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point" (HACCP) method for butcher's shops and fish markets. Five hundred ninety-eight public catering service units have been inspected in restaurants, hotels, school-refectories, factories, hospitals and social houses; 2,097 bacteriological examinations by agar-contact plates and swabs were carried out; 118 preserved-food temperatures were measured, especially in deep-frozen and cooked food; 70 food specimens were tested to search for Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and measure Total Aerobic Mesophilic Weight. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli was also tested.

  1. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred.

  2. Treatment of myofascial trigger-points with ultrasound combined with massage and exercise--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gam, A N; Warming, S; Larsen, L H; Jensen, B; Høydalsmo, O; Allon, I; Andersen, B; Gøtzsche, N E; Petersen, M; Mathiesen, B

    1998-07-01

    The effect of treatment with ultrasound, massage and exercises on myofascial trigger-points (MTrP) in the neck and shoulder was assessed in a randomised controlled trial. The outcome measures were pain at rest and on daily function (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), analgesic usage, global preference and index of MTrP. Long-term effect for treatment and control groups was assessed after 6 months using a questionnaire. The patients were randomised to three groups. The first group was treated with ultrasound, massage and exercise (A), the second group with sham-ultrasound, massage and exercise (B), while the third group was a control group (C). The duration of the study was 6 weeks. Treatment was given twice a week from the second to the fifth week. The number and index of MTrPs were recorded at each treatment session in groups A and B but only at entry as well as end of study in group C. VAS and analgesic usage was recorded in all three groups throughout the study period. Six months after the last treatment session a questionnaire was send to the patients. A total of 67 patients were included. Nine patients dropped-out during the study, which left 58 patients that could be included in the final analysis. Twenty patients were randomised to group A, 18 to group B and 18 to group C. A significant reduction in index were found between treatment groups (A and B) and control group (C), but no difference between group A and B. VAS scores, analgesic usage or global preference showed no difference between group A, B or C. The patients in the group C were offered treatment (ultrasound, massage, exercise) after the 6 weeks treatment period. At the questionnaire after 6 month 44 (87%) of the 52 patients from all three groups who had treatment responded. Sixty-four percent answered that they had had good or some effects, 68 percent were still doing the exercise programme and 17 percent had received other forms of therapy after they had completed the study. No difference between

  3. Combined influence of epoch length, cut-point and bout duration on accelerometry-derived physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is difficult to compare accelerometer-derived estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between studies due to differences in data processing procedures. We aimed to evaluate the effects of accelerometer processing options on total and bout-accumulated time spent in MVPA in adults. Methods 267 participants from the ProActive Trial provided 1236 days of valid physical activity (PA) data, collected using a 5-s epoch with ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers. We integrated data over 5-s to 60-s epoch lengths (EL) and applied two-level mixed effects regression models to MVPA time, defined using 1500 to 2500 counts/minute (cpm) cut-points (CP) and bout durations (BD) from 1 to 15 min. Results Total MVPA time was lower on longer EL and higher CP (47 vs 26 min/day and 26 vs 5 min/day on 1500 vs 2500 cpm on 5-s and 60-s epoch, respectively); this could be approximated as MVPA = exp[2.197 + 0.279*log(CP) + 6.120*log(EL) - 0.869*log(CP)*log(EL)] with an 800 min/day wear-time. In contrast, EL was positively associated with time spent in bout-accumulated MVPA; the approximating equation being MVPA = exp[54.679 - 6.268*log(CP) + 6.387*log(EL) - 10.000*log(BD) - 0.162*log(EL)*log(BD) - 0.626*log(CP)*log(EL) + 1.033*log(CP)*log(BD)]. BD and CP were inversely associated with MVPA, with higher values attenuating the influence of EL. Conclusions EL, CP and BD interact to influence estimates of accelerometer-determined MVPA. In general, higher CP and longer BD result in lower MVPA but the direction of association for EL depends on BD. Reporting scaling coefficients for these key parameters across their frequently used ranges would facilitate comparisons of population-level accelerometry estimates of MVPA. PMID:24612726

  4. Combination of a modified block PCR and endonuclease IV-based signal amplification system for ultra-sensitive detection of low-abundance point mutations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xianjin; Xu, Anqin; Zhai, Junqiu; Zhao, Meiping

    2013-12-15

    By combination of a modified block PCR and endonuclease IV-based signal amplification system, we have developed a novel approach for ultra-sensitive detection of point mutations. The method can effectively identify mutant target sequence immersed in a large background of wild-type sequences with abundance down to 0.03% (for C→A) and 0.005% (for C→G). This sensitivity is among the highest in comparison with other existing approaches and the operating procedures are simple and time saving. The method holds great potential for future application in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.

  5. Study of thermal behavior of vitamin D3 by pyrolysis-GC-MS in combination with boiling point-retention time correlation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu'an; Liu, Baoxia; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Rongjie; Xie, Bing

    2005-01-01

    The thermal behavior of vitamin D3 was studied based on pyrolysis-GC-MS technique. It was pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C, 750 degrees C, 900 degrees C, respectively. The pyrolysis product were separated With an HP-5 column and identified by the NIST mass spectral search program in combination with the correlation of boiling point and retention time (BP-RT). There are totally 50 components, including mono aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were determined. It is shown that the contents of the PAHs are increasing with the increasing of the pyrolysis temperature. The contents of the determined components vary from 0.04% to 37.08%.

  6. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Topical Benzocaine Gel Combined with Hyaluronidase for Supplemental Intrapulpal Injection in Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis- A Double Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Abarajithan, M.; Sathish, Emmanuel Solomon; Suryakumari, Nujella Bhaskara Padma; Gade, Winner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrapulpal injection technique is one of the most commonly employed method to achieve profound pulpal anaesthesia during an endodontic procedure. To determine if the topical application of benzocaine gel along with hyaluronidase to the pulp chamber could reduce the pain felt with the intrapulpal injection technique. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients with chronic irreversible pulpitis undergoing endodontic treatment for mandibular first molars in which the primary anaesthetic technique failed were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the control group intrapulpal injection was administered with backpressure. In the experimental group topical application of 20% benzocaine gel mixed with hyaluronidase was done over the exposed pulp following which intrapulpal injection was administered with backpressure. Pain assessment was done on a visual analogue scale. Results There was statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between the two groups. The mean value in the control group corresponded to the pain perception "strong”, whereas that of the experimental group corresponded to the pain perception "weak”. Conclusion Topical application of 20% benzocaine gel mixed with hyaluronidase to the exposed pulp reduces the pain encountered with the intrapulpal injection. PMID:26436058

  7. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  8. Multijunction Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Device Combined with Online Membrane-Assisted Buffer Exchanger Enables Isoelectric Point Fractionation of Intact Human Plasma Proteins for Biomarker Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    Prefractionation of proteins is often employed to improve analysis specificity in proteomics. Prefractionation based on the isoelectric point (pI) is particularly attractive because pI is a well-defined parameter and it is orthogonal to hydrophobicity on which reversed-phase chromatography is based. However, direct capillary electrophoresis of blood proteins is challenging due to its high content of salts and charged small molecules. Here, we couple an online desalinator device to our multijunction capillary isoelectric focusing (MJ-CIEF) instrument and perform direct isoelectric separation of human blood plasma. In a proof-of-principle experiment, pooled samples of patients with progressive mild cognitive impairment and corresponding healthy controls were investigated. Injection of 3 μL of plasma containing over 100 μg of proteins into the desalinator was followed by pI fractionation with MJ-CIEF in less than 1 h. Shotgun proteomics of 12 collected fractions from each of the 5 replicates of pooled samples resulted in the identification and accurate quantification (median CV between the replicates is <4%) of nearly 365 protein groups from 4030 unique peptides (with <1% FDR for both peptides and proteins). The obtained results include several proteins previously reported as AD markers. The isoelectric point of each quantified protein was calculated using a set of 7 synthetic peptides spiked into the samples. Several proteins with a significant pI shift between their isoforms in the patient and control samples were identified. The presented method is straightforward, robust, and scalable; therefore, it can be used in both biological and clinical applications.

  9. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  10. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  11. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  12. Synergistic enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination nickel in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chujie; Xu, Xili; Zhou, Neng; Lin, Yao

    A new method based on enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction trace amounts of nickel combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination was developed. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) were used enhancement reagent and chelating reagent, respectively. The addition of room temperature ionic liquids leads to 3.0 times improvement in the determination of nickel. The nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was used as the extractant. When the temperature of the system was higher than the cloud point of Triton X-100, Ni-DTC complex was extracted into Triton X-100 and separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Some parameters that influenced cloud point extraction and subsequent determination were evaluated in detail, such as the concentrations of RTILs, DDTC and Triton X-100; pH of sample solution, as well as interferences. Under optimized conditions, an enrichment factor of 72 could be obtained, and the detection limit (LOD) for Ni was 0.5 ng mL-1. Relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the standard solution containing 50 ng mL-1 Ni was 3.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of nickel in certified reference materials with satisfactory results.

  13. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  14. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system. PMID:23703587

  15. Length of mechanical restraint following haloperidol injections versus oral atypical antipsychotics for the initial treatment of acute schizophrenia: a propensity-matched analysis from the Japanese diagnosis procedure combination database.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Yasunaga, Hideo; Haraguchi, Tadashi; Ando, Shuntaro; Sugihara, Toru; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Ohe, Kazuhiko; Matsuda, Shinya; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2013-10-30

    Differences in effectiveness between haloperidol injection and oral atypical antipsychotics in the acute-phase treatment of schizophrenia are not well examined. We retrospectively investigated whether these treatment options affected the length of mechanical restraint. We used the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination Database to identify schizophrenia patients who were involuntarily hospitalized and receiving mechanical restraint between July and December, 2006-2009. Data included patient demographics, use of antipsychotics, and number of days on which patients underwent mechanical restraint. Propensity score matching was performed to compare the number of days of mechanical restraint between the haloperidol injection group and the oral atypical antipsychotics group. We used survival analysis to examine whether the initial difference in treatment affected the number of days of mechanical restraint. Cox regression was performed to compare the concurrent effects of various factors. Among 1731 eligible patients, 574 were treated with haloperidol injections and 420 with atypical antipsychotics. Matching produced 274 patients in each group. Cox regression analysis showed that the initial therapeutic agents did not significantly affect the number of days of mechanical restraint. The results indicate that atypical antipsychotics were as effective as haloperidol injections in the acute-phase treatment of schizophrenia.

  16. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before you plan to inject it to allow the medication to ... supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  17. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  18. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... including other medications or surgery to remove the spleen. Romiplostim injection should not be used to treat ... tell your doctor if you have had your spleen removed.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  19. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin). ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... you are using golimumab injection to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ...

  20. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  1. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  2. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  3. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusions ( ... how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  4. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  5. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  6. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  7. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  8. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  9. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron ... should not be used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. ...

  10. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  11. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  12. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  13. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  14. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... drowsiness uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body problems with coordination, balance, or walking weakness itching redness, irritation, pain, or discomfort at the injection spot Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  15. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  16. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  17. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  18. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  19. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  20. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  1. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  2. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  3. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  4. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  5. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  6. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  7. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  8. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  9. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  10. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  11. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ciprofloxacin injection is also sometimes used to treat cat scratch disease (an infection that may develop after a person is bitten or scratched by a cat), Legionnaires' disease (type of lung infection), and infections of the ...

  12. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people whose immune system is not working normally, including those people who have ...

  13. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  14. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  15. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  16. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... docetaxel (Taxotere) to treat a certain type of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Pertuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ...

  17. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial ...

  18. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  19. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  20. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  1. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  2. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  3. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  4. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  5. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  6. Development and characterization of a novel semiautomated arrangement for electrochemically assisted injection in combination with capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Palatzky, Peter; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2012-09-01

    Electrochemically assisted injection (EAI) is an attractive injection concept for CE that enables the separation of neutral analytes via electrochemical generation of charged species during the injection process. A new semiautomated EAI configuration was developed and applied in conjunction with CE-MS (EAI-CE-MS). The EAI cell arrangement consists of an integrated buffer reservoir for CE separations and a compartment holding screen-printed electrodes. A drop of sample solution (50 μL) was sufficient to cover the three-electrode structures. A piezo motor provided a fast and precise capillary positioning over the screen-printed electrode assembly. Using ferrocene methanol as a model system, the EAI arrangement was characterized regarding coulometric efficiency, precision, and sensitivity of electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-MS. The formation of the cationic oxidation product of ferrocene methanol enhanced the sensitivity of CE-MS determination by two orders of magnitude and the electrochemically formed product showed a migration time corresponding to its individual electrophoretic mobility. Preliminary studies of EAI-CE-MS in the field of the analysis of nitroaromatic compounds were carried out. The formation of corresponding hydroxylamines and amines paved the way for selective and sensitive CE-MS determinations without the need of adding surfactants to the electrophoresis buffer.

  7. Analysis of Efficacy Differences between Caudal and Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Chronic Lumbar Axial Discogenic Pain: Local Anesthetic Alone vs. Local Combined with Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Benyamin, Ramsin M.; Boswell, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Comparative assessment of randomized controlled trials of caudal and lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in chronic lumbar discogenic pain. Objective: To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections are commonly performed utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach to treat chronic lumbar axial or discogenic pain, which is pain exclusive of that associated with a herniated intervertebral disc, or that is due to degeneration of the zygapophyseal joints, or due to dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints, respectively. The literature on the efficacy of epidural injections in managing chronic axial lumbar pain of presumed discogenic origin is limited. Methods: The present analysis is based on 2 randomized controlled trials of chronic axial low back pain not caused by disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain, utilizing either a caudal or lumbar interlaminar approach, with a total of 240 patients studied, and a 24-month follow-up. Patients were assigned to receive either local anesthetic only or local anesthetic with a steroid in each 60 patient group. Results: The primary outcome measure was significant improvement, defined as pain relief and functional status improvement of at least 50% from baseline, which was reported at 24-month follow-ups in 72% who received local anesthetic only with a lumbar interlaminar approach and 54% who received local anesthetic only with a caudal approach. In patients receiving local anesthetic with a steroid, the response rate was 67% for those who had a lumbar interlaminar approach and 68% for those who had a caudal approach at 12 months. The response was significantly better in the lumbar interlaminar group who received local anesthetic only, 77% versus 56% at 12 months and 72% versus 54% at 24 months. Conclusion: This assessment shows that in patients

  8. Laser cooling of the vibrational motion of Na{sub 2} combining the effects of zero-width resonances and exceptional points

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.; Jaouadi, A.; Dulieu, O.; Atabek, O.

    2011-10-15

    We propose various scenarios for molecular vibrational cooling combining the effects of two kinds of resonance states occurring during the photodissociation of Na{sub 2} taken as an illustrative example. Such resonances result from an appropriate sampling of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity): (a) For particular choices of intensity and wavelength, two resonance energies can be brought to complete coalescence, with their positions and widths becoming equal and leading to a so-called exceptional point (EP) in the parameter plane. Advantage can be taken from such points for very selective laser-controlled vibrational transfer strategies. (b) For specific intensities, far beyond the perturbation regime, some resonances can have a zero width (infinite lifetime). They are referred to as a zero-width resonance (ZWR) and may be used for vibrational purification purposes. We show how appropriately shaped, experimentally reachable laser pulses, encircling EPs or inducing ZWRs, may be used for a thorough and comprehensive control aiming at population transfer or purification schemes, which, starting from an initial field-free vibrational distribution, ends up in the ground vibrational level.

  9. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  10. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies.

  11. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  12. FY 1999 cold demonstration of the Multi-Point Injection (MPI) process for stabilizing contaminated sludge in buried horizontal tanks with limited access at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Spence, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of buried tank waste. Exhumation of the sludge is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation does not typically remove all the contaminated material from the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and uniformly mixed with the sludge. Ground Environmental Services, Inc., has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity, jet-delivery system, which is termed Multi-Point-Injection (MPI{trademark}). This robust jet-delivery system has been used to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow-buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in a cylindrical test tank (FY 1998). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process was able to successfully form a 32-ton uniform monolith in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of a zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within the 40-inch-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies of Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily mixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  13. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding.if you ... Hydromorphone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... vomiting constipation dry mouth lightheadedness dizziness drowsiness ...

  14. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... which too many red blood cells are broken down in the body, so there are not enough healthy cells to bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; an inherited condition in which small blood ...

  15. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), abdomen (area between the chest and waist), lungs, blood, and ... to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  16. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved or that had improved after treatment with other medications, but later returned. Tositumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer cells and releasing radiation to damage the cancer ...

  17. Lanreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  18. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  19. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  20. Characterisation of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-07-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time.

  1. Characterization of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli (Lucy)

    2014-01-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum., is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1 min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time. PMID:24518341

  2. Characterisation of organic and conventional sweet basil leaves using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Gao, Boyan; Chen, Pei; Charles, Denys; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-07-01

    Sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, is one of the most important and wildly used spices and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diarrheal activities. In this study, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were used to differentiate organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fingerprints indicated that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints could effectively detect the chemical differences in the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples. This study suggested that the organic basil sample contained greater concentrations of almost all the major compounds than its conventional counterpart on a per same botanical weight basis. The FIMS method was able to rapidly differentiate the organic and conventional sweet basil leaf samples (1min analysis time), whereas the HPLC fingerprints provided more information about the chemical composition of the basil samples with a longer analytical time. PMID:24518341

  3. Quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in medical records: evaluation of combined interventions in a teaching hospital by repeated point prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Vercheval, C; Gillet, M; Maes, N; Albert, A; Frippiat, F; Damas, P; Van Hees, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to improve the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the computerized medical records of inpatients. A prospective, uncontrolled, interrupted time series (ITS) study was conducted by repeated point prevalence survey (PPS) to audit the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the medical records before and after a combined intervention strategy (implementation of guidelines, distribution of educational materials, educational outreach visits, group educational interactive sessions) from the antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) in the academic teaching hospital (CHU) of Liège, Belgium. The primary outcome measure was the documentation rate on three quality indicators in the computerized medical records: (1) indication for treatment, (2) antibiotics prescribed, and (3) duration or review date. Segmented regression analysis was used to analyze the ITS. The medical records of 2306 patients receiving antibiotics for an infection (1177 in the pre-intervention period and 1129 in the post-intervention period) were analyzed. A significant increase in mean percentages in the post-intervention period was observed as compared with the pre-intervention period for the three quality indicators (indication documented 83.4 ± 10.4 % vs. 90.3 ± 6.6 %, p = 0.0013; antibiotics documented 87.9 ± 9.0 % vs. 95.6 ± 5.1 %, p < 0.0001; and duration or review date documented 31.9 ± 15.4 % vs. 67.7 ± 15.2 %, p < 0.0001). The study demonstrated the successful implementation of a combined intervention strategy from the AST. This strategy was associated with significant changes in the documentation rate in the computerized medical records for the three quality indicators. PMID:27255220

  4. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-11-03

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration.

  5. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-01-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration. PMID:26526140

  6. A novel approach combining self-organizing map and parallel factor analysis for monitoring water quality of watersheds under non-point source pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yixiang; Liang, Xinqiang; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian

    2015-11-01

    High content of organic matter in the downstream of watersheds underscored the severity of non-point source (NPS) pollution. The major objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify dissolved organic matter (DOM) in watersheds affected by NPS pollution, and to apply self-organizing map (SOM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to assess fluorescence properties as proxy indicators for NPS pollution and labor-intensive routine water quality indicators. Water from upstreams and downstreams was sampled to measure dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Five fluorescence components were modeled with PARAFAC. The regression analysis between PARAFAC intensities (Fmax) and raw EEM measurements indicated that several raw fluorescence measurements at target excitation-emission wavelength region could provide similar DOM information to massive EEM measurements combined with PARAFAC. Regression analysis between DOC concentration and raw EEM measurements suggested that some regions in raw EEM could be used as surrogates for labor-intensive routine indicators. SOM can be used to visualize the occurrence of pollution. Relationship between DOC concentration and PARAFAC components analyzed with SOM suggested that PARAFAC component 2 might be the major part of bulk DOC and could be recognized as a proxy indicator to predict the DOC concentration.

  7. Highly sensitive DNA detection and point mutation identification: an electrochemical approach based on the combined use of ligase and reverse molecular beacon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zai-Sheng; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2007-06-01

    A novel strategy is described for highly sensitive DNA detection and point mutation identification based on the combination of reverse molecular beacon with DNA ligase. A 5'-phosphoryl and 3'-ferrocene terminated DNA sequence is used as detection probe, which may be ligated to capture DNA immobilized on an electrode surface in the presence of a target DNA strand that is complementary to the ends of each DNA, since this allows formation of a nicked, double-stranded DNA. The ligation product may form a hairpin structure after the removal of target DNA. By this method, target DNA can be determined in the range from 3.4 x 10(-12) to 1.4 x 10(-7) M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-12) M. In contrast to existing methods based on the conformation change of redox-labeled oligonucleotides, the proposed strategy offers several substantial advantages: first, the background peak current is eliminated as the ferrocene (Fc)-tagged oligonucleotide probe is specifically ligated to capture DNA; second, a "signal-on" mechanism makes the current intensity increase with increasing target DNA concentration; third, improved current signal is obtained due to the formation of the hairpin structure of ligation products. Additionally, the present system exhibits excellent capability to discriminate mutant target sequences from fully complementary target sequences.

  8. Complex frequency-dependent polarizability through the π → π* excitation energy of azobenzene molecules by a combined charge-transfer and point-dipole interaction model.

    PubMed

    Haghdani, Shokouh; Davari, Nazanin; Sandnes, Runar; Åstrand, Per-Olof

    2014-11-26

    The complex frequency-dependent polarizability and π → π* excitation energy of azobenzene compounds are investigated by a combined charge-transfer and point-dipole interaction (CT/PDI) model. To parametrize the model, we adopted time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations of the frequency-dependent polarizability extended with excited-state lifetimes to include also its imaginary part. The results of the CT/PDI model are compared with the TDDFT calculations and experimental data demonstrating that the CT/PDI model is fully capable to reproduce the static polarizability as well as the π → π* excitation energy for these compounds. In particular, azobenzene molecules with different functional groups in the para-position have been included serving as a severe test of the model. The π → π* excitation is to a large extent localized to the azo bond, and substituting with electron-donating or electron-attracting groups on the phenyl rings results in charge-transfer effects and a shift in the excitation energy giving rise to azobenzene compounds with a range of different colors. In the CT/PDI model, the π → π* excitation in azobenzenes is manifested as drastically increasing atomic induced dipole moments in the azo group as well as in the adjacent carbon atoms, whereas the shifts in the excitation energies are due to charge-transfer effects.

  9. Effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine alone and combined with adriamycin or vindesine on L1210 leukemia in mice, EMT6 solid tumors in mice, and solid tumors induced by injection of hepatoma tissue culture cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Bartholeyns, J; Koch-Weser, J

    1981-12-01

    The effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; RMI 71782) in combination with vindesine or Adriamycin were investigated in three different animal tumor models. When given in a concentration of 2% in drinking water to C57BL/6 X DBA/2 F1 mice inoculated i.p. with L1210 leukemia cells, DFMO prolonged the survival time 1,2-fold. Treatment with vindesine (0.1 mg/kg/week i.p. or Adriamycin (2.5 mg/kg/week i.p.) increased the mean survival time 1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively. DFMO with vindesine doubled survival time, while DFMO with Adriamycin increased it 3.5-fold and yielded 30% long-term survivors. The growth of solid tumors induced in Buffalo rats by i.m. injection of hepatoma tissue culture cells was inhibited 65% after 2 weeks of DFMO treatment. Similar inhibition of growth could be achieved by weekly i.p. injections of vindesine (0.2 mg/kg) or Adriamycin (2.5 mg/kg). When the same doses of these drugs were administered in combination with DFMO, the growth of this hepatoma was completely arrested. Combined treatment of BALB/c mice bearing s.c. solid EMT6 tumors with DFMO and adriamycin or vindesine also resulted in enhanced inhibition of tumor growth compared to single-drug therapy. These results indicate that combination of DFMO with vindesine or Adriamycin is an effective approach to the treatment of several animal cancers.

  10. Combining stir-bar sorptive extraction and large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of benzotriazole UV stabilizers in wastewater matrices.

    PubMed

    Carpinteiro, Inma; Ramil, Maria; Rodríguez, Isaac; Nogueira, José Manuel F

    2012-02-01

    Stir-bar sorptive extraction and liquid desorption followed by large volume injection-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry under selected ion monitoring mode acquisition (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was applied for the determination of six benzotriazole UV stabilizers (Tinuvin P, Allyl-bzt, Tinuvin 320, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 327 and Tinuvin 328) in wastewater matrices. Parameters affecting the performance of extraction and desorption steps were thoroughly evaluated using uni- and multivariate optimization strategies, based on the use of experimental factorial designs. Assays performed with stir bars, coated with 24 μL of polydimethylsiloxane, on 25 mL of ultra-pure water samples spiked at the 0.5 ng/mL level, yielded recoveries ranging from 47.9±1.4% (Tinuvin P) to 103.1±3.6% (Tinuvin 326), under optimized experimental conditions. When applied to complex matrices (e.g. wastewater), the methodology showed also excellent linear dynamic ranges (0.02-10.00 ng/mL) for the six benzotriazole UV stabilizers studied with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9970, limits of quantification in between 0.004 and 0.015 ng/mL, suitable repeatability (RSD<12.7%) and reproducibility (RSD<4.5%). The application of the proposed methodology to urban sewage waters from Spain and Portugal wastewater plants revealed the presence of low contents of some benzotriazole UV stabilizers.

  11. Dyke and sill injections: what mostly trigger volcano flank collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catry, Thibault; Cayol, Valérie; Michon, Laurent; Famin, Vincent; Romagnoli, Claudia; Chaput, Marie

    2010-05-01

    There is a large number of evidences that the morphostructural evolution of basaltic oceanic volcanoes (e.g. Stromboli, Hawaï and Canary Islands) results of alternating phases of growth and destruction. Among dismantling processes, flank collapses have been largely documented and interpreted as gravitational destabilization triggered by vertical injections of magma (dykes). In most cases, this interpretation has not been sustained by field observations because active volcanoes have poor occurrence of outcropped intrusions. From this point of view, Piton des Neiges volcano (La Réunion Island) represents a case in point because it has been deeply incised by erosion, providing large outcropped surfaces exhibiting the geometrical relationship between intrusions and host volcanic formations. The recent discovery of a highly deformed pile of sills at the interface between a debris avalanche deposit and a fossilized magma chamber brought to light the role of horizontal injections in the triggering of lateral collapses. The validation of this assumption rests on a digital model developed from the Mixed Boundary Element Method of elastic deformation field analysis. In this study, we modelled the intensity and the distribution of deformation and Coulomb stresses perturbation due to the injection of dykes along rift zones and a sill below the flank of a basaltic volcano. We quantified the influence of the intrusions in the mechanical state of the edifice, based on the deformation detected during an intrusion of magma at Piton de la Fournaise volcano. By comparing the deformation generated by sills to that generated by dykes, our modelling approach concludes that the area deformed by a sill injection is much wider than that deformed by a dyke injection. Moreover, we found that sill injection reaches higher intensities of lateral displacements. The combination of field data and our modelling results suggests therefore that repeated sill injection is an underestimated trigger

  12. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Jin, Yan; Han, Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi, Shuping

    2006-07-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h - 1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l - 1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l - 1 for CH 3Hg +. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l - 1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  13. On-line pretreatment and determination of parabens in cosmetic products by combination of flow injection analysis, solid-phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; He, You-Zhao; Yu, Chang-Zhu

    2008-02-15

    A convenient and automated method for on-line pretreatment and determination of three parabens (i.e. methyl, ethyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate) in cosmetic products is proposed by using flow injection analysis (FIA), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). An improved split-flow interface is used to couple SPE on C(8)-bonded silica with MEKC separation, which can avoid running buffer contamination and reduce buffer consumption, especially, containing expensive reagents. The analytes are loaded onto a C(8) column at 0.6 mL/min for 60s and eluted with a mixed eluent of 40% (v/v) 10 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9.3) and 60% (v/v) ethanol at 0.75 mL/min. The MEKC separation is accomplished with a running buffer of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate (pH 9.3) containing 100 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 15 kV. For butyl p-hydroxybenzoate did not be detected in the cosmetic products, it was used as an internal standard (IS) added into the real samples. This FIA-SPE-MEKC method using IS allows the sample separation within 12 min and the sample throughput of five samples per hour with the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) less than 2.3% (n=5). The limits of detection (LOD) are in the range from 0.07 to 0.1 microg/mL (S/N=3 and n=11). The proposed method has been used to determine three parabens in real cosmetic products satisfactorily.

  14. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  15. A comparison of booster immunisation with a combination DTPa-IPV vaccine or DTPa plus IPV in separate injections when co-administered with MMR, at age 4-6 years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H; Nolan, T; Roberton, D; Richmond, P; Lambert, S; Jacquet, J M; Schuerman, L

    2006-08-28

    This study evaluated GSK's combined DTPa-IPV vaccine (Infanrix-IPV) given as a fifth consecutive acellular pertussis booster dose in conjunction with the second dose of MMR vaccine (Priorix) in children aged 4-6 years. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this vaccine regimen was compared with separate injections of DTPa and IPV when given concomitantly with MMR. A cohort of 362 children previously primed with four doses of DTPa and OPV, and a single dose of MMR were randomized to receive either DTPa-IPV+MMR (N=181) or DTPa+IPV+MMR (N=181). Antibody concentrations were measured prior to and 1 month after the booster dose. After immunisation all subjects from both groups had seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus and the three poliovirus serotypes, > or = 96% showed vaccine response to PT, FHA and PRN, all were seropositive to mumps and rubella, and all but one subject were seropositive to measles. Immunogenicity results for each component antigen were similar for DTPa-IPV and separately co-administered DTPa and IPV. Local reactions were common with 24.0% and 31.1% of children experiencing swelling >50mm at the DTPa-IPV and DTPa injection sites, respectively. The DTPa-IPV combination did not increase the incidence or intensity of adverse events compared with separately administered DTPa+IPV. The response to the concomitantly administered MMR vaccine was similar in the two groups and similar to previously reported responses for a second dose of MMR. This combined DTPa-IPV vaccine has a similar reactogenicity profile to DTPa, is immunogenic when given as a booster dose at 4-6 years of age, and has no impact on the immunogenicity of a co-administered second dose of MMR vaccine.

  16. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  17. Injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1989-06-01

    The most effective, convenient, reversible method of birth control is considered to be long-acting progestogen injections. Used by over 90 countries, Depot medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera, Upjohn) has yet to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The reluctance of the FDA to approve DMPA and much of the controversy surrounding this method revolve around the results of testing done on animals who were given large doses of the progestogen over a long period of time and developed tumors. However, the large body of research and records on this method that have been compiled over the past 30 years is positive. The injectable method works like oral contraceptives, inhibiting ovulation. Changes in menstruation have been the chief complaint of women who use this method; however, the duration and frequency of spotting and bleeding diminish over time. Other side effects of DMPA and Norethindrone enanthate (NET EN, Noristerat, Schering) are discussed. Also discussed is the history of development and testing for the 2 methods and subdermal implants, specifically Norplant.

  18. Myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers; Lavelle, William; Smith, Howard S

    2007-03-01

    Painful conditions of the musculoskeletal system, including myofascial pain syndrome, constitute some of the most important chronic problems encountered in a clinical practice. A myofascial trigger points is a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena. Trigger points may be relieved through noninvasive measures, such as spray and stretch, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, physical therapy, and massage. Invasive treatments for myofascial trigger points include injections with local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or botulism toxin or dry needling. The etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of myofascial trigger points are addressed in this article.

  19. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined With Cast Immobilization for Treating Recurrent Peroneal Spastic Flatfoot Without Bone Coalitions: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Muhammad, Hassan; Wang, Xu; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Peroneal spastic flatfoot is an uncommon condition. It often presents as a rigid and usually painful valgus deformity in the hindfoot with peroneal muscles spasms. Although tarsal coalition is an important cause, a few patients have not undergone bone coalitions. We describe a 27-year-old female who experienced recurrent peroneal spastic flatfoot after an injury. She was treated successfully with a combination of botulinum toxin type A and immobilization of the foot in a neutral position with a cast. After 3 years, the condition had not recurred, and she was pain free and walked normally, with no increase in muscle tone. This unique treatment could be of potential use to treat many patients with such conditions.

  20. Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

    2012-08-01

    Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (ΩP) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

  1. Irinotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Irinotecan is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat colon or rectal cancer (cancer that begins in the large intestine). Irinotecan is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  2. Cisplatin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Cisplatin is used alone or in combination ... has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Cisplatin is also used alone or in ...

  3. Ustekinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also used alone or in combination with methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) to treat psoriatic arthritis (a condition ... such as azathioprine (Imuran), cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), sirolimus (Rapamune), and tacrolimus (Prograf); or oral ...

  4. Verteporfin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; treatment with a laser light) to treat abnormal growth of leaky blood ... verteporfin infusion, your doctor will administer a special laser light to your eye. If both of your ...

  5. Bevacizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used in combination with another medication to treat renal cell cancer (RCC, a type of cancer that begins in ... cancer of the colon or rectum, glioblastoma, or renal cell cancer and once every 3 weeks to treat lung ...

  6. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  7. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  8. Combined indicator of vitamin B12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status, and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: We propose a novel approach to diagnose B12 status by combining four blood markers: total B12 (B12), holo-transcobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). Combined B12 status is expressed as cB12=log10[(holoTC•B12)/(MMA•Hcy)]–(reference, age function). Her...

  9. Surface-assisted defect engineering of point defects in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Ertekin, Elif; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2016-06-01

    Semiconductor surfaces facilitate the injection of highly mobile point defects into the underlying bulk, thereby offering a special means to manipulate bulk defect concentrations. The present work combines diffusion experiments and first-principles calculations for polar ZnO (0001) surface to demonstrate such manipulation. The rate behavior of oxygen interstitial injection varies dramatically between the Zn- and O-terminated ZnO surfaces. A specific injection pathway for the Zn-terminated surface is identified, and activation barrier determined from the first-principles calculations agrees closely with the experimental activation energy of 1.7 eV.

  10. Critical lines for an unequal size of molecules in a binary gas-liquid mixture around the van Laar point using the combination of the Tompa model and the van der Waals equation.

    PubMed

    Gençaslan, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-02-14

    We combine the modified Tompa model with the van der Waals equation to study critical lines for an unequal size of molecules in a binary gas-liquid mixture around the van Laar point. The van Laar point is coined by Meijer and it is the only point at which the mathematical double point curve is stable. It is the intersection of the tricritical point and the double critical end point. We calculate the critical lines as a function of χ(1) and χ(2), the density of type I molecules and the density of type II molecules for various values of the system parameters; hence the global phase diagrams are presented and discussed in the density-density plane. We also investigate the connectivity of critical lines at the van Laar point and its vicinity and discuss these connections according to the Scott and van Konynenburg classifications. It is also found that the critical lines and phase behavior are extremely sensitive to small modifications in the system parameters.

  11. Combination Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Skibinski, David AG; Baudner, Barbara C; Singh, Manmohan; O’Hagan, Derek T

    2011-01-01

    The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B); and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines. PMID:21572611

  12. Anthropological perspectives on injections: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, A. V.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative studies from developing countries have pointed to the widespread popularity of injections. In addition to their use by formal and informal providers and traditional healers, there is now increasing evidence of the use of injections and injection equipment by lay people. Epidemiological research links the large number of unsafe injections to serious bloodborne infections such as viral hepatitis B and C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The present article examines the reasons behind the demand for injections by consumers and the administration of unnecessary or unsafe injections by different types of provider. Interventions aimed at reducing the risk of unsafe injections are discussed in relation to cultural and social factors as well as those factors associated with health systems. Suggestions are made for approaches to the design of such interventions. PMID:10686748

  13. Autologous Growth Factor Injections in Chronic Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sandrey, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Reference: de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63–77. Clinical Question: The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich–plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? Data Sources: The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). Data Extraction: All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of

  14. Investigation of critical lines and global phase behavior of unequal size of molecules in binary gas-liquid mixtures in the combined pressure-temperature-concentration planes around the van Laar point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençaslan, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    We investigate critical curves and global phase behavior of unequal size of molecules in binary gas-liquid mixtures at the van Laar point and its vicinity. The van Laar point is only point at which the mathematical double point curve is stable, and also the intersection of the tricritical point and the double critical end point. The critical line structure is displayed for various combinations of the chain length and system parameters in the reduced pressure (P∗) temperature (T∗) plane, as is usually done with experimental results and temperature-concentration (T, x) plane. The P∗,T∗ diagrams are discussed in accordance with the Scott and van Konynenburg binary phase diagram classification. We found that our P∗,T∗ plots correspond to the type II, type III, type IV phase diagram behaviors and they are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental studies. It is also found that the critical lines and phase behavior are extremely sensitive to small modifications in the system parameters.

  15. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected so the provider can see where to place the medicine. The steroid medicine is slowly injected into the joint. After the injection, you will remain on the table for another 5 to 10 minutes or so. ...

  16. The Vaccination of 35,000 Dogs in 20 Working Days Using Combined Static Point and Door-to-Door Methods in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Andrew D; Handel, Ian G; Shervell, Kate; Roux, Tarryn; Mayer, Dagmar; Muyila, Stanford; Maruwo, Golden B; Nkhulungo, Edwin M. S; Foster, Rachel A; Chikungwa, Patrick; Chimera, Bernard; Bronsvoort, Barend M.deC; Mellanby, Richard J; Gamble, Luke

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 60,000 people die of rabies annually. The vast majority of cases of human rabies develop following a bite from an infected dog. Rabies can be controlled in both human and canine populations through widespread vaccination of dogs. Rabies is particularly problematic in Malawi, costing the country an estimated 13 million USD and 484 human deaths annually, with an increasing paediatric incidence in Blantyre City. Consequently, the aim of this study was to vaccinate a minimum of 75% of all the dogs within Blantyre city during a one month period. Blantyre’s 25 administrative wards were divided into 204 working zones. For initial planning, a mean human:dog ratio from the literature enabled estimation of dog population size and dog surveys were then performed in 29 working zones in order to assess dog distribution by land type. Vaccination was conducted at static point stations at weekends, at a total of 44 sites, with each operating for an average of 1.3 days. On Monday to Wednesday, door-to-door vaccination sessions were undertaken in the areas surrounding the preceding static point stations. 23,442 dogs were vaccinated at static point stations and 11,774 dogs were vaccinated during door-to-door vaccinations. At the end of the 20 day vaccination programme, an assessment of vaccination coverage through door-to-door surveys found that of 10,919 dogs observed, 8,661 were vaccinated resulting in a vaccination coverage of 79.3% (95%CI 78.6–80.1%). The estimated human:dog ratio for Blantyre city was 18.1:1. Mobile technology facilitated the collection of data as well as efficient direction and coordination of vaccination teams in near real time. This study demonstrates the feasibility of vaccinating large numbers of dogs at a high vaccination coverage, over a short time period in a large African city. PMID:27414810

  17. The Vaccination of 35,000 Dogs in 20 Working Days Using Combined Static Point and Door-to-Door Methods in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Andrew D; Handel, Ian G; Shervell, Kate; Roux, Tarryn; Mayer, Dagmar; Muyila, Stanford; Maruwo, Golden B; Nkhulungo, Edwin M S; Foster, Rachel A; Chikungwa, Patrick; Chimera, Bernard; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Mellanby, Richard J; Gamble, Luke

    2016-07-01

    An estimated 60,000 people die of rabies annually. The vast majority of cases of human rabies develop following a bite from an infected dog. Rabies can be controlled in both human and canine populations through widespread vaccination of dogs. Rabies is particularly problematic in Malawi, costing the country an estimated 13 million USD and 484 human deaths annually, with an increasing paediatric incidence in Blantyre City. Consequently, the aim of this study was to vaccinate a minimum of 75% of all the dogs within Blantyre city during a one month period. Blantyre's 25 administrative wards were divided into 204 working zones. For initial planning, a mean human:dog ratio from the literature enabled estimation of dog population size and dog surveys were then performed in 29 working zones in order to assess dog distribution by land type. Vaccination was conducted at static point stations at weekends, at a total of 44 sites, with each operating for an average of 1.3 days. On Monday to Wednesday, door-to-door vaccination sessions were undertaken in the areas surrounding the preceding static point stations. 23,442 dogs were vaccinated at static point stations and 11,774 dogs were vaccinated during door-to-door vaccinations. At the end of the 20 day vaccination programme, an assessment of vaccination coverage through door-to-door surveys found that of 10,919 dogs observed, 8,661 were vaccinated resulting in a vaccination coverage of 79.3% (95%CI 78.6-80.1%). The estimated human:dog ratio for Blantyre city was 18.1:1. Mobile technology facilitated the collection of data as well as efficient direction and coordination of vaccination teams in near real time. This study demonstrates the feasibility of vaccinating large numbers of dogs at a high vaccination coverage, over a short time period in a large African city. PMID:27414810

  18. The Vaccination of 35,000 Dogs in 20 Working Days Using Combined Static Point and Door-to-Door Methods in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Andrew D; Handel, Ian G; Shervell, Kate; Roux, Tarryn; Mayer, Dagmar; Muyila, Stanford; Maruwo, Golden B; Nkhulungo, Edwin M S; Foster, Rachel A; Chikungwa, Patrick; Chimera, Bernard; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Mellanby, Richard J; Gamble, Luke

    2016-07-01

    An estimated 60,000 people die of rabies annually. The vast majority of cases of human rabies develop following a bite from an infected dog. Rabies can be controlled in both human and canine populations through widespread vaccination of dogs. Rabies is particularly problematic in Malawi, costing the country an estimated 13 million USD and 484 human deaths annually, with an increasing paediatric incidence in Blantyre City. Consequently, the aim of this study was to vaccinate a minimum of 75% of all the dogs within Blantyre city during a one month period. Blantyre's 25 administrative wards were divided into 204 working zones. For initial planning, a mean human:dog ratio from the literature enabled estimation of dog population size and dog surveys were then performed in 29 working zones in order to assess dog distribution by land type. Vaccination was conducted at static point stations at weekends, at a total of 44 sites, with each operating for an average of 1.3 days. On Monday to Wednesday, door-to-door vaccination sessions were undertaken in the areas surrounding the preceding static point stations. 23,442 dogs were vaccinated at static point stations and 11,774 dogs were vaccinated during door-to-door vaccinations. At the end of the 20 day vaccination programme, an assessment of vaccination coverage through door-to-door surveys found that of 10,919 dogs observed, 8,661 were vaccinated resulting in a vaccination coverage of 79.3% (95%CI 78.6-80.1%). The estimated human:dog ratio for Blantyre city was 18.1:1. Mobile technology facilitated the collection of data as well as efficient direction and coordination of vaccination teams in near real time. This study demonstrates the feasibility of vaccinating large numbers of dogs at a high vaccination coverage, over a short time period in a large African city.

  19. A clinical study on SSP (silver spike point) electro-therapy combined with splint therapy for temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, K; Konda, T; Shimahara, M; Hyodo, M; Kitade, T

    1995-01-01

    When the functional limits of the muscles related to the temporo-mandibular joint and adjacent tissue exceed their anatomical capability, pain, crepitation, and functional abnormality appear as the main complaints. Although the precise nature of the condition is unknown, pain at the temporo-mandibular joint sometimes in combination with muscular tension is assumed to be due to compression of the myoneural mechanism. It is reported that occlusal lifting using a splint enables the alleviation of this muscular tension. On the other hand, there are only a few reports on the usefulness of SSP therapy for Temporo-Mandibular Joint Dysfunction. We studied the efficacy of SSP therapy combined with splint therapy in 33 patients diagnosed as having Temporo-Mandibular Joint Dysfunction who consulted our department primarily due to pain, and report our findings below. Evaluation of the results was conducted 2 weeks later. Very beneficial results were seen in 6 cases. Beneficial results were seen in 7 cases. Slightly beneficial results were seen in 18 cases, while there were no changes found in 2 cases. When combined SSP and splint therapies were conducted for Temporo-Mandibular Joint Dysfunction, favorable results were seen in about 90% of the cases.

  20. Differentiating organically and conventionally grown oregano using ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (headspace-GC-FID), and flow injection mass spectrum (FIMS) fingerprints combined with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Qin, Fang; Ding, Tingting; Chen, Yineng; Lu, Weiying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-08-13

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS), and headspace gas chromatography (headspace-GC) combined with multivariate data analysis techniques were examined and compared in differentiating organically grown oregano from that grown conventionally. It is the first time that headspace-GC fingerprinting technology is reported in differentiating organically and conventionally grown spice samples. The results also indicated that UPLC-MS, FIMS, and headspace-GC-FID fingerprints with OPLS-DA were able to effectively distinguish oreganos under different growing conditions, whereas with PCA, only FIMS fingerprint could differentiate the organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. UPLC fingerprinting provided detailed information about the chemical composition of oregano with a longer analysis time, whereas FIMS finished a sample analysis within 1 min. On the other hand, headspace GC-FID fingerprinting required no sample pretreatment, suggesting its potential as a high-throughput method in distinguishing organically and conventionally grown oregano samples. In addition, chemical components in oregano were identified by their molecular weight using QTOF-MS and headspace-GC-MS.

  1. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  2. Cloud-Point Extraction Combined with Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Ergosterol, a Natural Product with Diuretic Activity, in Rat Plasma, Urine, and Faeces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan-Qian; An, Jun-Min; Feng, Ya-Long; Tian, Ting; Qin, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol from many medicinal fungi has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. A new method based on cloud-point extraction has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of ergosterol in rat plasma, urine and faeces by liquid chromatography. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (98 : 2, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The methodology was validated completely. The results indicated good performance in terms of specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of ergosterol in rats. The results indicate that the ergosterol levels in feces are much higher than those in plasma and urine of the rat. PMID:23691436

  3. Cloud-point extraction combined with liquid chromatography for the determination of ergosterol, a natural product with diuretic activity, in rat plasma, urine, and faeces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan-Qian; An, Jun-Min; Feng, Ya-Long; Tian, Ting; Qin, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol from many medicinal fungi has been demonstrated to possess a variety of pharmacological activities in vivo and in vitro. A new method based on cloud-point extraction has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of ergosterol in rat plasma, urine and faeces by liquid chromatography. The non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water (98 : 2, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The methodology was validated completely. The results indicated good performance in terms of specificity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of ergosterol in rats. The results indicate that the ergosterol levels in feces are much higher than those in plasma and urine of the rat.

  4. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  5. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  6. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors in Combination with Local OK-432 Injection Prolongs Survival and Suppresses Distant Tumor Growth in the Rabbit Model with Intra- and Extrahepatic VX2 Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, Ken Yamamoto, Akira Okuma, Tomohisa Hamamoto, Shinichi Takeshita, Toru Sakai, Yukimasa Nishida, Norifumi Matsuoka, Toshiyuki Miki, Yukio

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and distant tumor growth after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and local OK-432 injection at a single tumor site in a rabbit model with intra- and extrahepatic VX2 tumors and to examine the effect of this combination therapy, which we termed immuno-radiofrequency ablation (immunoRFA), on systemic antitumor immunity in a rechallenge test. Methods: Our institutional animal care committee approved all experiments. VX2 tumors were implanted to three sites: two in the liver and one in the left ear. Rabbits were randomized into four groups of seven to receive control, RFA alone, OK-432 alone, and immunoRFA treatments at a single liver tumor at 1 week after implantation. Untreated liver and ear tumor volumes were measured after the treatment. As the rechallenge test, tumors were reimplanted into the right ear of rabbits, which survived the 35 weeks and were followed up without additional treatment. Statistical significance was examined by log-rank test for survival and Student's t test for tumor volume. Results: Survival was significantly prolonged in the immunoRFA group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Untreated liver and ear tumor sizes became significantly smaller after immunoRFA compared to controls (P < 0.05). In the rechallenge test, the reimplanted tumors regressed without further therapy compared to the ear tumors of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ImmunoRFA led to improved survival and suppression of distant untreated tumor growth. Decreases in size of the distant untreated tumors and reimplanted tumors suggested that systemic antitumor immunity was enhanced by immunoRFA.

  8. Solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification through a valve-free stepwise injection of multiple reagents employing centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic capillary barrier pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hainan; Tran, Hong Hanh; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2013-03-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple technique for sequentially introducing multiple sample liquids into microchannels driven by centrifugal force combined with a hydrophobic barrier pressure and apply the technique for performing solid-phase based on-chip DNA purification. Three microchannels with varying widths, all equipped with independent sample reservoirs at the inlets, were fabricated on a hydrophobic elastomer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). First, glass beads were packed inside the reaction chamber, and a whole cell containing the DNA extract was introduced into the widest channel by applying centrifugal force for physical adsorption of the DNA onto the glass beads. Next, washing and elution solutions were sequentially introduced into the intermediate and narrowest microchannels, respectively, by gradually increasing the amount of centrifugal force. Through a precise manipulation of the centrifugal force, the DNA adsorbed onto the glass beads was successfully washed and eluted in a continuous manner without the need to introduce each solution manually. A stepwise injection of liquids was successfully demonstrated using multiple ink solutions, the results of which corresponded well with the theoretical analyses. As a practical application, the D1S80 locus of human genomic DNA, which is widely used for forensic purposes, was successfully purified using the microdevice introduced in this study, as demonstrated through successful target amplification. This will pave the way for the construction of a control-free valve system for realizing on-chip DNA purification, which is one of the most labor-intensive and hard-to-miniaturize components, on a greatly simplified and miniaturized platform employing hydrophobic PDMS.

  9. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Julien; Ford, Jon; Bates, Dan; Boyd, Richard; Hahne, Andrew; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Huguenin, Leesa; Norsworthy, Cameron; Shah, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of intra-articular chondral defects in the knee remains a challenge. Inadequate healing in areas of weight bearing leads to impairment in load transmission and these defects predispose to later development of osteoarthritis. Surgical management of full thickness chondral defects include arthroscopic microfracture and when appropriate autologous chondrocyte implantation. This latter method however is technically challenging, and may not offer significant improvement over microfracture. Preclinical and limited clinical trials have indicated the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to influence chondral repair. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a pilot randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic microfracture alone for isolated knee chondral defects versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell injections. Methods and analysis A pilot single-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. 40 participants aged 18–50 years, with isolated femoral condyle chondral defects and awaiting planned arthroscopic microfracture will be randomly allocated to a control group (receiving no additional treatment) or treatment group (receiving postoperative adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment). Primary outcome measures will include MRI assessment of cartilage volume and defects and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will include further MRI assessment of bone marrow lesions, bone area and T2 cartilage mapping, a 0–10 Numerical Pain Rating Scale, a Global Impression of Change score and a treatment satisfaction scale. Adverse events and cointerventions will be recorded. Initial outcome follow-up for publication of results will be at 12 months. Further annual follow-up to assess long-term differences between the two group will occur. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received prospective ethics approval through

  10. Optical pure spin current injection in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Julien; Burkard, Guido

    2013-03-01

    Pure spin current injection by optical methods is investigated in single-layer and bilayer graphene within the tight-binding model, including bias and interlayer coupling effects. Interlayer coupling in bilayer graphene has a distinct qualitative effect on the polarization dependence of the spin current injection. In combination with interlayer coupling, which induces trigonal warping of the electronic bands, the bias voltage allows to control the warping at the Fermi surface. The resulting implications for the spin current injection are presented. Unlike the previously presented charge current injection [J. Rioux et al., PRB 83, 195406 (2011)], the effect presented here relies on a single monochromatic beam.

  11. Research and operational products from the combination of a monthly hydrographic station and an oceanic buoy: The Biscay AGL fixed-point water column observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, Alicia; Cano, Daniel; González-Pola, Cesar; Tel, Elena; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz, Manuel; Somavilla, Raquel

    2015-04-01

    Long term time series are an important tool for increasing the knowledge of ocean processes as well as for studying water masses variability in different time scales and changes and tendencies in marine ecosystems. Time series has been classically obtained by oceanographic ships that regularly cover standard sections and stations. From 1991, shelf and slope waters of the Southern Bay of Biscay are regularly sampled in a monthly hydrographic line north of Santander to a depth of 1000 m in early stages and for the whole water column down to 2580 m in recent times. Nearby, in June 2007, the IEO deployed an oceanic-meteorological buoy (AGL Buoy, 43° 50.67'N; 3° 46.20'W, and 40 km offshore, www.boya-agl.st.ieo.es). The long-term hydrographical record have allowed to define the seasonality, trends, and interannual variability at all levels, including the mixing layer and the main water masses North Atlantic Central Water and Mediterranean Water. The relation of these changes with high frequency surface conditions has been examined using the AGL buoy data from 2007 as well as satellite and reanalysis data. On that context and using that combination of sources, some products and quality controlled series of high interest and utility for scientific purposes have been developed and are offered hourly in the web page. Main products obtained are: SST and SSS anomalies, wave significant height character with respect to monthly average, and currents with respect to seasonal averages. Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes (latent and sensible) are computed from the buoy atmospheric and oceanic measurements. Estimations of the mixed layer depth and bulk series at different water levels are provided in a monthly basis. Quality controlled series are provided for sea surface salinity, oxygen and chlorophyll data. Some sensors are particularly affected by biofouling, and monthly visits to the buoy permit to follow these sensors behaviour. Chlorophyll-fluorescence sensor is the main concern

  12. Treatment Outcomes of Transurethral Macroplastique Injection for Postprostatectomy Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Woo; Kang, Jung Hun; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeong, U-Seok; Lee, Young-Suk; Baek, Minki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the efficacy of transurethral injection of Macroplastique bulking agent (Uroplasty) for male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after prostate surgery. Materials and Methods This retrospective review included men with SUI treated by transurethral injection for symptoms resulting from prostate surgery. Patients were evaluated at 1 month and 6 months after injection by determining the number of pads used per day and changes in incontinence symptoms. Treatment success was defined as use of 1 pad or fewer per day combined with subjective symptom improvement. Results The study population comprised 30 men with a mean age of 66.1±5.3 years. Of the 30 patients, 24 (80.0%) underwent prostate cancer surgery and the remaining 6 (20.0%) underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The preinjection pad number was 2.9±1.9 pads per day. After injection treatment, the mean follow-up period was 9.3±12.7 months and the success rate was 43% (13/30) at 1 month and 32% (6/19) at 6 months. Injection was more likely to result in a successful outcome in patients with no preinjection radiation treatment history and higher abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) than in those with a previous history of radiation treatment and lower ALPP, although this result was not statistically significant. Acute urinary retention occurred in 5 patients (17%). Conclusions Transurethral Macroplastique injection treatment is a relatively non-invasive treatment method for male SUI with a success rate of 43% at 1 month and 32% at 6 months. Patients with a higher ALPP and no previous history of radiation therapy may experience better treatment outcomes. PMID:24648873

  13. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  14. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  15. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  16. Optimal transfer trajectories with intermediate velocity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, T. N.; Nangia, A. K.

    An analytical optimization technique for spacecraft transfer trajectories is developed and demonstrated. The optimization criterion is defined as the minimum impulsive velocity change at initial, intermediate, and final points of the trajectory. Numerical results for earth-Mars transfer are presented in tables and graphs, and the case of injection at the initial point only is considered separately.

  17. Tipping Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2007-12-01

    A climate tipping point, at least as I have used the phrase, refers to a situation in which a changing climate forcing has reached a point such that little additional forcing (or global temperature change) is needed to cause large, relatively rapid, climate change. Present examples include potential loss of all Arctic sea ice and instability of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Tipping points are characterized by ready feedbacks that amplify the effect of forcings. The notion that these may be runaway feedbacks is a misconception. However, present "unrealized" global warming, due to the climate system's thermal inertia, exacerbates the difficulty of avoiding global warming tipping points. I argue that prompt efforts to slow CO2 emissions and absolutely reduce non-CO2 forcings are both essential if we are to avoid tipping points that would be disastrous for humanity and creation, the planet as civilization knows it.

  18. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  19. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  1. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  3. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  4. Intravitreal injection of octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Westra, I; Woltering, E A; Winthrop, K L; Barrie, R; O'Dorisio, T M; Holmes, D

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of injecting the somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate (OA), into the vitreous cavity. Previous work suggests that octreotide effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vitro, thus its use in vivo may slow the progression of proliferative eye disease. Fifty micrograms of aqueous OA in 50 microliters aqueous solution was injected into the mid-vitreous of kitten eyes (n = 6), and OA levels were monitored over 4 days. A long-acting release form of octreotide (OA-LAR) was also injected into the mid-vitreous of rabbit eyes at doses of 0.36 (n = 16), 1.1 (n = 1), 2.1 (n = 1), 4.05 (n = 1), 8.2 (n = 1), and 36 mg (n = 3) in solution; and octreotide concentrations were measured at various time points over 42 days. OA concentrations were determined by a highly specific radioimmunoassay. Aqueous octreotide was eliminated rapidly (t1/2 = 16 hours) from the vitreous of the kitten eye, with only negligible amounts recoverable 4 days post-injection. In the long-acting form, OA in the rabbit eye reached peak levels at 28 days. By 42 days, OA levels had declined to the 14-day level. Doses of OA-LAR of 1.1 mg or less produced no gross evidence of clinical toxicity and elicited no grossly visible ocular side effects. Doses greater than 1.1 mg produced significant toxicity, including cataracts and rubeosis. The 28-day peak release for long-acting OA implies that monthly intravitreal injections could provide continual high levels of OA. Intravitreal injection of long-acting OA provides sustained, high concentrations of drug, and deserves further study as a potential treatment of proliferative eye diseases.

  5. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  6. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash format. Almost weekly, we see ...

  7. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  10. Paraspinous Lidocaine Injection for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Marta; Imamura, Satiko Tomikawa; Targino, Rosa Alves; Morales-Quezada, León; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis C.; Onoda Tomikawa, Luis G.; Alfieri, Fabio M.; Filippo, Thais R.; da Rocha, Ivan D.; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    In this large, sham-controlled, randomized trial, we examined the efficacy of the combination of standard treatment and paraspinous lidocaine injection compared with standard therapy alone in subjects with chronic low back pain. There is little research-based evidence for the routine clinical use of paraspinous lidocaine injection for low back pain. A total of 378 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomized to 3 groups: paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 1, LID-INJ); sham paraspinous lidocaine injection, analgesics, and exercises (group 2, SH-INJ); and analgesics and exercises (group 3, STD-TTR). A blinded rater assessed the study outcomes at 3 time points: baseline, after treatment, and after 3 months of follow-up. There were increased frequency of pain responses and better low back functional scores in the LID-INJ group compared with the SH-INJ and STD-TTR groups. These effects remained at the 3-month follow-up but differed between all 3 groups. There were significant changes in pain threshold immediately after treatment, supporting the effects of this intervention in reducing central sensitization. Paraspinous lidocaine injection therapy is not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects compared with conventional treatment and sham injection. Its effects on hyperalgesia might correlate with changes in central sensitization. PMID:26828801

  11. Development of bioactive and biodegradable chitosan-based injectable systems containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Couto, Daniela S; Hong, Zhongkui; Mano, João F

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of new tissue engineering strategies to deliver cells and bioactive agents encapsulated in a biodegradable matrix through minimally invasive procedures. The present work proposes to combine chitosan-beta-glycerophosphate salt formulations with bioactive glass nanoparticles in order to conceive novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogels for orthopaedic reconstructive and regenerative medicine applications. The initial rheological properties and the gelation points of the developed organic-inorganic in situ thermosetting systems were revealed to be adequate for intracorporal injection. In vitro bioactivity tests, using incubation protocols in simulated body fluid (SBF), allowed the observation of bone-like apatite formation in the hydrogel formulations containing bioactive nanoparticles. The density of the apatite formed increased with increasing bioactive glass content and soaking time in SBF. These results indicate that the stimuli-responsive hydrogels could potentially be used as temporary injectable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18835230

  12. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  13. Laboratory studies of injection into horizonal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Pruess, Karsten; van Rappard, Diederik M.

    1996-01-24

    Most geothermal reservoirs are extensively fractured and injected fluids usually enter the reservoir formation at distinct feed points. As the cold water passes through the hot rock, it is heated, and may be recovered at production wells for power production. The influence of fractures is two-fold. Firstly, preferential pathways exist along major faults and the general motion of fluids away from injection wells is controlled by the effective permeability structure. Secondly, since fractures can be spaced several metres or more apart and the flow rates within each fracture can be relatively high, the injected fluid does not necessarily attain thermal equilibrium will all of the host rock at a given distance from the injection well. It is important that sufficient heat transfer between the fluid and rock occurs before the injected fluid is recovered at an injection well in order to prevent thermal breakthrough. In this paper we present preliminary results of an experimental research program examining the effects of injection into fractures. We build upon previous theoretical work by seeking to confirm the results and then discuss the initial results of injection into superheated reservoirs.

  14. Treatment of vertebral body compression fractures using percutaneous kyphoplasty guided by a combination of computed tomography and C-arm fluoroscopy with finger-touch guidance to determine the needle entry point.

    PubMed

    Wang, G Y; Zhang, C C; Ren, K; Zhang, P P; Liu, C H; Zheng, Z A; Chen, Y; Fang, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the results and complications of image-guided percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) using computed tomography (CT) and C-arm fluoroscopy, with finger-touch guidance to determine the needle entry point. Of the 86 patients (106 PKP) examined, 56 were treated for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and 30 for vertebral tumors. All patients underwent image-guided treatment using CT and conventional fluoroscopy, with finger-touch identification of a puncture point within a small incision (1.5 to 2 cm). Partial or complete pain relief was achieved in 98% of patients within 24 h of treatment. Moreover, a significant improvement in functional mobility and reduction in analgesic use was observed. CT allowed the detection of cement leakage in 20.7% of the interventions. No bone cement leakages with neurologic symptoms were noted. All work channels were made only once, and bone cement was distributed near the center of the vertebral body. Our study confirms the efficacy of PKP treatment in osteoporotic and oncological patients. The combination of CT and C-arm fluoroscopy with finger-touch guidance reduces the risk of complications compared with conventional fluoroscopy alone, facilitates the detection of minor cement leakage, improves the operative procedure, and results in a favorable bone cement distribution.

  15. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  16. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  17. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  18. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  19. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  20. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  1. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  2. [Intra-articular injections].

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  3. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  4. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  5. Membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with field-amplified sample injection CE-UV for high-sensitivity analysis of six cardiovascular drugs in human urine sample.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Qing; Hu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    An effective dual preconcentration method involving off-line membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) and on-line field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was proposed for the extraction of six cardiovascular drugs, including mexiletine, xylocaine, propafenone, propranolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol from aqueous solution prior to CE-UV. In MS-LLLME, the analytes were extracted from 9 mL sample solution into toluene, and then back extracted into a drop of acceptor phase of 10 μL 20 mmol/L acetic acid. After that, the acceptor phase was directly introduced into CE for FASI without any modification. In FASI process, water plug was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar, 3 s) into the capillary prior to sample injection (+6 kV, 18 s). Six target analytes were separated in less than 10 min at 25°C with a BGE consisting of 70 mmol/L Tris-H3 PO4 (pH 2.2) containing 10% v/v methanol. Under the optimized conditions, LODs obtained by the proposed MS-LLLME-FASI-CE-UV method were in the range of 0.02-0.82 μg/L (based on S/N = 3) with enrichment factors of 546- to 7300-fold for the target analytes. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.7-12.9% (n = 7). Good linearity (R(2) = 0.9928-0.9997) was obtained in concentration range of 0.1-100 μg/L for mexiletine and propranolol, 0.2-100 μg/L for xylocaine and metoprolol, 0.5-100 μg/L for propafenone and 2.0-100 μg/L for carvedilol, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for real-time determination of metoprolol in human urine samples within 26 h after uptake. PMID:26763094

  6. Membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with field-amplified sample injection CE-UV for high-sensitivity analysis of six cardiovascular drugs in human urine sample.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Qing; Hu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    An effective dual preconcentration method involving off-line membrane supported liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (MS-LLLME) and on-line field-amplified sample injection (FASI) was proposed for the extraction of six cardiovascular drugs, including mexiletine, xylocaine, propafenone, propranolol, metoprolol, and carvedilol from aqueous solution prior to CE-UV. In MS-LLLME, the analytes were extracted from 9 mL sample solution into toluene, and then back extracted into a drop of acceptor phase of 10 μL 20 mmol/L acetic acid. After that, the acceptor phase was directly introduced into CE for FASI without any modification. In FASI process, water plug was hydrodynamically injected (50 mbar, 3 s) into the capillary prior to sample injection (+6 kV, 18 s). Six target analytes were separated in less than 10 min at 25°C with a BGE consisting of 70 mmol/L Tris-H3 PO4 (pH 2.2) containing 10% v/v methanol. Under the optimized conditions, LODs obtained by the proposed MS-LLLME-FASI-CE-UV method were in the range of 0.02-0.82 μg/L (based on S/N = 3) with enrichment factors of 546- to 7300-fold for the target analytes. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.7-12.9% (n = 7). Good linearity (R(2) = 0.9928-0.9997) was obtained in concentration range of 0.1-100 μg/L for mexiletine and propranolol, 0.2-100 μg/L for xylocaine and metoprolol, 0.5-100 μg/L for propafenone and 2.0-100 μg/L for carvedilol, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for real-time determination of metoprolol in human urine samples within 26 h after uptake.

  7. Antiproton Production beam and Reverse Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.

    1981-08-16

    The objectives of this project are two fold: (1) To extract high energy protons from the Main Ring (MR) and target them to produce antiprotons which are subsequently captured in the existing Booster accelerator; and (2) to provide a channel for injecting either protons or antiprotons into the MR from the booster in a direction opposite to that of the normal proton acceleration as colliding beams can be created. The present design, therefore, is in support of two separate larger projects, viz., the collisions of protons in the Tevatron (normal circulation direction) with 'reverse injected' protons in the MR, and the collision of normal direction protons with reverse injected antiprotons either in the MR or in the Tevatron. Figure 1 shows the layout of the project area. It spans the shortest distance between possible injection/ejection points in the existing accelerator structures, hence minimizing costs. The tunnel will lie underground at the level of the MR and booster.

  8. Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dreifke, Michael B.; Ebraheim, Nabil A.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the potential injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds currently being investigated for application in bone tissue regeneration. Two types of injectable biomaterial scaffolds are focused in this review, including injectable microspheres and injectable gels. The injectable microspheres section covers several polymeric materials, including poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA, poly (propylene fumarate), and chitosan. The injectable gel section covers alginate gels, hyaluronan hydrogels, poly(ethylene-glycol)-PEG hydrogels, and PEG-PLGA copolymer hydrogels. This review focuses on the effect of cellular behaviorin vitro andin vivo in terms of material properties of polymers, such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porosity, microsphere size, and cross-linking nature. Injectable polymeric biomaterials offer a major advantage for orthopedic applications by allowing the ability to use noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment methods. Therefore, combining injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds with cells have a significant potential to treat orthopedic bone defects, including spine fusion, and craniofacial and periodontal defects. PMID:23401336

  9. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  10. [Intravitreal injections of corticoids].

    PubMed

    Demols, P

    2007-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide are today widely performed as a therapeutic tool for a large variety of ocular diseases. The risk of toxicity of the product and its vehicle is quite real and is still at the center of investigations. Complications related to the substance and the technique of injections are already well-known (intraocular pressure rise, cataract, endophthalmitis, pseudo-endophthalmitis, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment). Carefulness and rigor in the indication, realization and follow-up of these injections are therefore mandatory.

  11. Combined cloud point-solid phase extraction by dispersion of TiO₂ nanoparticles in micellar media followed by semi-microvolume UV-vis spectrophotometric detection of zinc.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Naghdi, Tina

    2014-10-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper by using dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a combined cloud point and solid phase extraction for the efficient preconcentration and determination of Zn(2+) in various samples. In this method Zn(2+) ions are adsorbed on TiO2-NPs and transferred into surfactant rich phase. Subsequently the Zn(2+) ions are desorbed from TiO2-NPs by a dithizone solution via forming a color complex which could be detected colorimetrically. The influence of chemical variables such as pH of the sample solution, electrolyte, amount of TiO2-NPs, type and volume of the eluent on the extraction system was studied. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5-90.0 µg L(-1) of Zn(2+) (r=0.9996). An enrichment factor of 80 was achieved and the limit of detection for Zn(2+) was 0.33 µg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate measurements of 10 µg L(-1) and 60 µg L(-1) of Zn(2+) was 1.8% and 1.5% respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of Zn(2+) in tap water, powder milk and Zinc sulfate tablet with satisfactory results. PMID:25059144

  12. Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, N D; Ewen, R J; de Lacy Costello, B; Garner, C E; Probert, C S J; Vaughan, K.; Ratcliffe, N M

    2016-01-01

    Rapid volatile profiling of stool sample headspace was achieved using a combination of short multi-capillary chromatography column (SMCC), highly sensitive heated metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensor and artificial neural network (ANN) software. For direct analysis of biological samples this prototype offers alternatives to conventional GC detectors and electronic nose technology. The performance was compared to an identical instrument incorporating a long single capillary column (LSCC). The ability of the prototypes to separate complex mixtures was assessed using gas standards and homogenised in house ‘standard’ stool samples, with both capable of detecting more than 24 peaks per sample. The elution time was considerably faster with the SMCC resulting in a run time of 10 minutes compared to 30 minutes for the LSCC. The diagnostic potential of the prototypes was assessed using 50 C. difficile positive and 50 negative samples. The prototypes demonstrated similar capability of discriminating between positive and negative samples with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 80% respectively. C. difficile is an important cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea, with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A device capable of rapidly diagnosing the disease at the point of care would reduce cases, deaths and financial burden. PMID:27212803

  13. Combined cloud point-solid phase extraction by dispersion of TiO₂ nanoparticles in micellar media followed by semi-microvolume UV-vis spectrophotometric detection of zinc.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Naghdi, Tina

    2014-10-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper by using dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in a combined cloud point and solid phase extraction for the efficient preconcentration and determination of Zn(2+) in various samples. In this method Zn(2+) ions are adsorbed on TiO2-NPs and transferred into surfactant rich phase. Subsequently the Zn(2+) ions are desorbed from TiO2-NPs by a dithizone solution via forming a color complex which could be detected colorimetrically. The influence of chemical variables such as pH of the sample solution, electrolyte, amount of TiO2-NPs, type and volume of the eluent on the extraction system was studied. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5-90.0 µg L(-1) of Zn(2+) (r=0.9996). An enrichment factor of 80 was achieved and the limit of detection for Zn(2+) was 0.33 µg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate measurements of 10 µg L(-1) and 60 µg L(-1) of Zn(2+) was 1.8% and 1.5% respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of Zn(2+) in tap water, powder milk and Zinc sulfate tablet with satisfactory results.

  14. Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, N. D.; Ewen, R. J.; de Lacy Costello, B.; Garner, C. E.; Probert, C. S. J.; Vaughan, K.; Ratcliffe, N. M.

    2014-06-01

    Rapid volatile profiling of stool sample headspace was achieved using a combination of short multi-capillary chromatography column (SMCC), highly sensitive heated metal oxide semiconductor sensor and artificial neural network software. For direct analysis of biological samples this prototype offers alternatives to conventional gas chromatography (GC) detectors and electronic nose technology. The performance was compared to an identical instrument incorporating a long single capillary column (LSCC). The ability of the prototypes to separate complex mixtures was assessed using gas standards and homogenized in house ‘standard’ stool samples, with both capable of detecting more than 24 peaks per sample. The elution time was considerably faster with the SMCC resulting in a run time of 10 min compared to 30 min for the LSCC. The diagnostic potential of the prototypes was assessed using 50 C. difficile positive and 50 negative samples. The prototypes demonstrated similar capability of discriminating between positive and negative samples with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 80% respectively. C. difficile is an important cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea, with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A device capable of rapidly diagnosing the disease at the point of care would reduce cases, deaths and financial burden.

  15. Human grasp point selection.

    PubMed

    Kleinholdermann, Urs; Franz, Volker H; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-07-25

    When we grasp an object, our visuomotor system has to solve an intricate problem: how to find the best out of an infinity of possible contact points of the fingers with the object? The contact point selection model (CoPS) we present here solves this problem and predicts human grasp point selection in precision grip grasping by combining a few basic rules that have been identified in human and robotic grasping. Usually, not all of the rules can be perfectly satisfied. Therefore, we assessed their relative importance by creating simple stimuli that put them into conflict with each other in pairs. Based on these conflict experiments we made model-based grasp point predictions for another experiment with a novel set of complexly shaped objects. The results show that our model predicts the human choice of grasp points very well, and that observers' preferences for their natural grasp angles is as important as physical stability constraints. Incorporating a human grasp point selection model like the one presented here could markedly improve current approaches to cortically guided arm and hand prostheses by making movements more natural while also allowing for a more efficient use of the available information.

  16. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... onabotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  17. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body; blurred vision; or drooping eyelids. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  18. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... incobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  19. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rimabotulinumtoxinB injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  20. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  1. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  2. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  3. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  4. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... carboxymaltose injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... medication is also used to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to ...

  5. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  6. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... position or distract the child with a noisy toy while you are injecting the medication. You can ... recognizing reality vision problems excessive tiredness increased thirst ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  7. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  8. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... often you receive iron sucrose injection and your total number of doses based on your condition and ... hands or feet; swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. ...

  9. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  10. Resistance of Female Mice to Vaginal Infection Induced by Herpesvirus hominis Type 2: Effects of Immunization with Mycobacterium bovis, Intravenous Injection of Specific Herpesvirus hominis Type 2 Antiserum, and a Combination of These Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M. B.; Larson, C. L.; Ushijima, R. N.; Anderson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    The susceptibility of 4- to 6-week-old female white Swiss mice to intravaginal inoculation with Herpesvirus hominis type 2 (HVH2) and the effect of prior intravenous immunization with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and/or treatment with specific HVH2 antiserum (SAS) were investigated. Mice inoculated intravaginally developed vaginitis, posterior paralysis, encephalitis, and death. Prior immunization with BCG either had no effect or appeared in some cases to enhance the course of the disease, whereas a single 0.5-ml intravenous injection of SAS provided significant protection. However, synergistic interaction of BCG immunization and treatment with SAS produced the greatest degree of protection in mice challenged intravaginally with HVH2. PMID:4373394

  11. Ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent based on emulsification liquid phase microextraction combined with microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry for valence speciation of chromium(III/VI) in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    A new type of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been prepared and used as extraction solvents for ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent based emulsification liquid phase microextraction method (UA-DES-ELPME) for the determination and speciation of total chromium, chromium(III) and chromium(VI). The chromium concentration in DES rich phase (extraction phase) was determined by using microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit (LOD), the quantification limit (LOQ), preconcentration factor and relative standard deviation were found as 5.5µgL(-1), 18.2µgL(-1), 20 and 6%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated by the analysis of water the certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified environmental water and TMDA-54.4 Fortified Lake Water) and addition-recovery tests for water samples. PMID:27591663

  12. Solid-phase extraction combined with large volume injection-programmable temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the multiresidue determination of priority and emerging organic pollutants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Ros, O; Iparraguirre, A; Navarro, P; Vallejo, A; Usobiaga, A; Zuloaga, O

    2012-07-20

    In the present work the simultaneous extraction for the multiresidue determination in wastewater samples of organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PEs), alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA) or hormones included in different lists of priority and emerging pollutants because of their action as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) was developed. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) variables such as the nature of the solid phase (Oasis-HLC, C18 and Lichrolut), the sample volume, the addition of MeOH and NaCl, the pH of the water phase and the volume of the eluent solvent were optimized in order to analyze simultaneously the priority and emerging families of pollutants mentioned above. Good recoveries were obtained for Milli-Q water (80-120%), however, since the use of deuterated analogues and dilution of the sample did not correct the matrix effect, additional SPE clean-up step using Florisil® cartridges was necessary to obtain good results for wastewater samples (80-125%). In order to improve the limits of detection (LODs), large volume injection (LVI) using programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was also optimized. Since analytes losses in the case of the most volatile congeners occurred during the derivatization step and no separation of the derivatized and the non-derivatized analytes was possible during SPE elution, two different injections were optimized for each analyte group. LODs were in good agreement with those found in the literature and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the 10-25% range for Milli-Q and 12-30% for wastewater samples. The method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, Bakio, Gernika and Galindo (Spain)) and in one water purification plant (WPP) in Zornotza (Spain). PMID

  13. [Combination of programmable temperature vaporizer-large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system for the determination of 32 pesticides in fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Wu, Li; Lin Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2014-12-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 32 pesticides including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid and carbamate pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile, and the organic layer was cleaned up with ENVI-Carb and LC-NH2 cartridges. A large volume of 20 µL purified solution was injected into the GC system using programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). The mass spectrometric detection was operated with full scan mode. The automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS) and an isotopic internal standard were used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 32 pesticides, respectively. The conditions for PTV-large volume injection were studied. Furthermore, the selectivity and durability of the method were also assessed. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental results showed that all the linearities were good within their test ranges, with correlation coefficients more than 0. 995, and the method detection limits of the pesticides were 2.0-5.0 µg/kg. The spiked recoveries (n=6) at three levels in the 0. 010 - 0. 50 mg/kg using spinach, snap bean and cucumber samples as blank matrices were in the range of 65. 2% - 120. 3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varying from 4. 1% to 22. 3%, showing good accuracy of the method. The advantages of the proposed method include high throughput, high sensitivity, reliability, robustness, and the ability to meet the demand of multi-residue pesticide analysis in fruits and vegetables. PMID:25902649

  14. [Combination of programmable temperature vaporizer-large volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system for the determination of 32 pesticides in fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaoyun; Mou, Renxiang; Wu, Li; Lin Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2014-12-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 32 pesticides including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid and carbamate pesticides in fruits and vegetables using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile, and the organic layer was cleaned up with ENVI-Carb and LC-NH2 cartridges. A large volume of 20 µL purified solution was injected into the GC system using programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV). The mass spectrometric detection was operated with full scan mode. The automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS) and an isotopic internal standard were used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the 32 pesticides, respectively. The conditions for PTV-large volume injection were studied. Furthermore, the selectivity and durability of the method were also assessed. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental results showed that all the linearities were good within their test ranges, with correlation coefficients more than 0. 995, and the method detection limits of the pesticides were 2.0-5.0 µg/kg. The spiked recoveries (n=6) at three levels in the 0. 010 - 0. 50 mg/kg using spinach, snap bean and cucumber samples as blank matrices were in the range of 65. 2% - 120. 3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varying from 4. 1% to 22. 3%, showing good accuracy of the method. The advantages of the proposed method include high throughput, high sensitivity, reliability, robustness, and the ability to meet the demand of multi-residue pesticide analysis in fruits and vegetables.

  15. Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

    2008-12-01

    Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures.

  16. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  17. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  18. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  19. Treatment of ischiofemoral impingement: results of diagnostic injections and arthroscopic resection of the lesser trochanter.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark D; Keene, James S

    2016-07-01

    Ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) is an often unrecognized cause of hip pain caused by abnormal contact between the lesser trochanter and the ischium. To date, surgical treatment for those whose pain is not relieved by activity modification and steroid injections has not been defined. This study describes our imaging protocol and reports the results of arthroscopic, lesser trochanteric resections that were performed to treat this condition. Seven patients with symptomatic, MRI-documented IFI had ultrasound injections of ropivicaine and steroid into their ischiofemoral space. The injections provided complete but only transient relief of their groin and buttock pain and thus, all seven ultimately had an arthroscopic resection of their lesser trochanter. All hips were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively with Byrd's modified Harris hip scoring system. Average age of the seven patients was 46 years and there were five females and one male. Preoperative scores averaged 43 points. After surgery, all patients used crutches for 4-6 weeks, and had 6-week scores that averaged 58 points. The patients and their scores continued to improve and at 6 and 12 months, their scores averaged 86 and 91 points, and none had chronic hip flexor weakness or recurrence of their hip pain or snapping. Arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomies in combination with a resection of the lesser trochanter will provide complete relief of the painful snapping, groin and buttock pain caused by ischiofemoral impingement. PMID:27583151

  20. Treatment of ischiofemoral impingement: results of diagnostic injections and arthroscopic resection of the lesser trochanter

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark D.; Keene, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) is an often unrecognized cause of hip pain caused by abnormal contact between the lesser trochanter and the ischium. To date, surgical treatment for those whose pain is not relieved by activity modification and steroid injections has not been defined. This study describes our imaging protocol and reports the results of arthroscopic, lesser trochanteric resections that were performed to treat this condition. Seven patients with symptomatic, MRI-documented IFI had ultrasound injections of ropivicaine and steroid into their ischiofemoral space. The injections provided complete but only transient relief of their groin and buttock pain and thus, all seven ultimately had an arthroscopic resection of their lesser trochanter. All hips were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively with Byrd’s modified Harris hip scoring system. Average age of the seven patients was 46 years and there were five females and one male. Preoperative scores averaged 43 points. After surgery, all patients used crutches for 4–6 weeks, and had 6-week scores that averaged 58 points. The patients and their scores continued to improve and at 6 and 12 months, their scores averaged 86 and 91 points, and none had chronic hip flexor weakness or recurrence of their hip pain or snapping. Arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomies in combination with a resection of the lesser trochanter will provide complete relief of the painful snapping, groin and buttock pain caused by ischiofemoral impingement. PMID:27583151

  1. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations were an IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by another IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination IAN/IO injection followed approximately 30 min later by a mock IO injection. The second premolar, first molar, and second molar were blindly tested with an Analytic Technology pulp tester at 2-min cycles for 120 min postinjection. Anesthesia was considered successful when two consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. One hundred percent of the subjects had lip numbness with IAN/IO and with IAN/IO plus repeated IO techniques. Rates of anesthetic success for the IAN/IO and for the IAN/IO plus repeated IO injection, respectively, were 100% and 97% for the second premolar, 95% and 95% for the first molar, and 87% and 87% for the second molar. The repeated IO injection increased pulpal anesthesia for approximately 14 min in the second premolar and for 6 min in the first molar, but no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) were shown. In conclusion, the repeated IO injection of 0.9 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine given 30 min following a combination IAN/IO injection did not significantly increase pulpal anesthesia in mandibular second premolars or in first and second molars. PMID:10483386

  2. Time-lapse VSP data processing for monitoring CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Rutledge, James; Cheng, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the effort of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration supported by U.S. Department of Energy and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, two sets of time-lapse VSPs were acquired and processed in oil fields undergoing CO{sub 2} injection. One set of VSPs was acquired at the Aneth oil field in Utah, the other set at the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) field in West Texas. One baseline and two repeat VSP surveys were conducted from 2007 to 2009 at the Aneth oil field in Utah for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection. The aim of the time-lapse VSP surveys is to study the combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO{sub 2} sequestration in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources, Inc. VSP data were acquired using a cemented geophone string with 60 levels at depth from 805 m to 1704 m, and CO{sub 2} is injected into a horizontal well nearby within the reservoir at depth approximately from 1730 m to 1780 m. For each VSP survey, the data were acquired for one zero-offset source location and seven offset source locations (Figure 1). The baseline VSP survey was conducted before the CO{sub 2} injection. More than ten thousand tons of CO{sub 2} was injected between each of the two repeat VSP surveys. There are three horizontal injection wells, all originating from the same vertical well. One is drilled towards Southeast, directly towards the monitoring well (Figure 2), and the other two towards Northwest, directly away from the monitoring well. The injection is into the top portion of the Desert Creek formation, just beneath the Gothic shale, which acts as the reservoir seal. The initial baseline acquisition was done in October 2007; subsequent time-lapse acquisitions were conducted in July 2008, and January 2009. The acquisition geometry is shown in Figure 1. Shot point 1 is the zero-offset source location, Shot points 2 to 8 are the seven offset VSPs, arranged in a quarter circle on the Northwest side of the

  3. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  4. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  5. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  6. Combinations Therapies.

    PubMed

    Reinmuth, Niels; Reck, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer encompasses different strategies that elicit or enhance the immune response against tumors. The first results from clinical studies have provided promising data for the treatment of lung cancer patients with immunomodulating monotherapies. To improve the potential benefit of cancer immunotherapy, synergistic combinations of the various immunotherapy approaches or of different elements within each of the immunotherapy approaches are being explored. The rationale typically involves different but complementary mechanisms of action, eventually impinging on more than one immune system mechanism. As a prominent example, the simultaneous blockade of PD-1 and CTLA-4 is giving rise to therapeutic synergy, while still offering room for efficacy improvement. Moreover, combinations of immunomodulating agents with chemotherapy or targeted molecules are being tested. Animal models suggest that immunotherapies in combination with these various options offer evidence for synergistic effects and are likely to radically change cancer treatment paradigms. However, data obtained so far indicate that toxic side effects are also potentiated, which may even restrict the selection of patients that are suitable for these combinational approaches. Advancing the field of combinatorial immunotherapy will require changes in the way investigational agents are clinically developed as well as novel experimental end-points for efficacy evaluation. However, this combined therapeutic manipulation of both tumor and stromal cells may lead to a dramatic change in the therapeutic options of lung cancer patients in any disease stage that can only grossly be appreciated by the current studies. PMID:26384009

  7. Rapid separation and identification of multiple constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formula Shenqi Fuzheng Injection by ultra-fast liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Tong, Xin; Wang, Jin-Xu; Zou, Wei; Cao, Hui; Su, Wei-Wei

    2013-02-23

    Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (SFI) a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been extensively used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy for cancer treatment in clinic. However, the chemical constituents in SFI, especially water-soluble ingredients, had not been investigated so far. In this study, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in SFI. Separation was performed on a C18 reversed-phase column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) by gradient elution mode, using methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow-rate of 0.2 mL/min. Accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. As a result, eighty-one major constituents including organic acids, amino acids, oligosaccharides, alkaloids, nucleosides, phenylpropanoids, polyacetylenes, flavonoids, isoflavonoids and saponins were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data. All compounds were further assigned in the individual raw material. In conclusion, the UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS is a highly efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of traditional Chinese medicines. These results obtained in this research will provide a basis for quality control and further study in vivo of SFI.

  8. Trigger point therapy.

    PubMed

    Janssens, L A

    1992-03-01

    Trigger points (TP) are objectively demonstrable foci in muscles. They are painful on compression and trigger pain in a referred area. This area may be the only locus of complaint in humans. In dogs we cannot prove the existence of referred zones of pain. Therefore, we can only diagnose a TP-induced claudication if we cannot find bone, joint, or neurologic abnormalities, and we do find TP that disappear after treatment together with the original lameness. Several methods have been developed to demonstrate TP existence objectively. These are pressure algometry, pressure threshold measurements, magnetic resonance thermography, and histology. In humans, 71% of the TP described are acupuncture points. TP treatment consists of TP stimulation with non-invasive or invasive methods such as dry needling or injections. In the dog, ten TP are described in two categories of clinical patients. First, those with one or few TP reacting favorably on treatment (+/- 80% success in +/- 2-3 weeks). Second, those with many TPs reacting badly on treatment. Most probably the latter group are fibromyalgia patients.

  9. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  10. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  11. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  12. Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Daniel

    2000-08-20

    Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

  13. Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Rita M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    Stir-bar-sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large-volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring acquisition mode (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) has been developed to monitor ultra-traces of four musks (celestolide (ADBI), galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK)) in environmental water matrices. Instrumental calibration (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) and experimental conditions that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency are discussed. Assays performed on 30-mL water samples spiked at 200 ng L(-1) under optimized experimental conditions yielded recoveries ranging from 83.7 ± 8.1% (MK) to 107.6 ± 10.8% (HHCB). Furthermore, the experimental data were in very good agreement with predicted theoretical equilibria described by octanol-water partition coefficients (K (PDMS/W) ≈ K (O/W)). The methodology also showed excellent linear dynamic ranges for the four musks studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9961, limits of detection and quantification between 12 and 19 ng L(-1) and between 41 and 62 ng L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (< 20%). Application of this method for analysis of the musks in real water matrices such as tap, river, sea, and urban wastewater samples resulted in convenient selectivity, high sensitivity and accuracy using the standard addition methodology. The proposed method (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was shown to be feasible and sensitive, with a low-sample volume requirement, for determination of musk compounds in environmental water matrices at the ultra-trace level, overcoming several disadvantages presented by other sample-preparation techniques.

  14. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  15. Procedural and Physical Interventions for Vaccine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vibhuti; McMurtry, C. Meghan; MacDonald, Noni E.; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical and procedural interventions for reducing pain and related outcomes during vaccination. Design/Methods: Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, and combinations of these) and pooled using established methods. Results: A total of 31 studies were included. Acute infant distress was diminished during intramuscular injection without aspiration (n=313): standardized mean difference (SMD) −0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.18, −0.46). Injecting the most painful vaccine last during vaccinations reduced acute infant distress (n=196): SMD −0.69 (95% CI: −0.98, −0.4). Simultaneous injections reduced acute infant distress compared with sequential injections (n=172): SMD −0.56 (95% CI: −0.87, −0.25). There was no benefit of simultaneous injections in children. Less infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined occurred with vastus lateralis (vs. deltoid) injections (n=185): SMD −0.70 (95% CI: −1.00, −0.41). Skin-to-skin contact in neonates (n=736) reduced acute distress: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.05, −0.25). Holding infants reduced acute distress after removal of the data from 1 methodologically diverse study (n=107): SMD −1.25 (95% CI: −2.05, −0.46). Holding after vaccination (n=417) reduced infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.08, −0.22). Self-reported fear was reduced for children positioned upright (n=107): SMD −0.39 (95% CI: −0.77, −0.01). Non-nutritive sucking (n=186) reduced acute distress in infants: SMD −1.88 (95% CI: −2.57, −1.18). Manual tactile stimulation did not reduce pain across the lifespan. An external vibrating device and cold reduced pain in children (n=145): SMD −1.23 (95% CI: −1.58, −0

  16. Energy and combination systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsock, D.K.

    1995-08-01

    Energy and combination systems are outlined. The following topics are discussed: NO{sub x} control technologies; coal fired boilers; gas reburning (GR); NO{sub x} emissions using GR; integration of GR and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR); enhanced temperature windows; methanol injection; combi NO{sub x}; integrated GR technologies, reburning alternate fuels, reburning fuel types; and comparison of GR technologies.

  17. COMBINES AND COMBINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIDENOUR, HARLAN E.

    THROUGH THE USE OF THIS MANUAL, VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS WITH OCCUPATIONAL INTEREST IN GRAIN FARMING AND CUSTOM COMBINE OPERATION MAY GAIN KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE BASIC DESIGN AND OPERATION OF COMBINES. DEVELOPMENT BY A STATE CURRICULUM MATERIALS DIRECTOR INCLUDED CONSULTATION WITH ENGINEERS, TRIAL, AND REVISION. OBJECTIVES ARE STATED IN TERMS…

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... and order certain lab tests to check your body's response to iron dextran injection.Before having any laboratory test, tell ...

  19. A fully automated and fast method using direct sample injection combined with fused-core column on-line SPE-HPLC for determination of ochratoxin A and citrinin in lager beers.

    PubMed

    Lhotská, Ivona; Šatínský, Dalibor; Havlíková, Lucie; Solich, Petr

    2016-05-01

    A new fast and sensitive method based on on-line solid-phase extraction on a fused-core precolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection has been developed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) determination in lager beer samples. Direct injection of 100 μL filtered beer samples into an on-line SPE-HPLC system enabled fast and effective sample extraction including separation in less than 6 min. Preconcentration of OTA and CIT from beer samples was performed on an Ascentis Express RP C18 guard column (5 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase of methanol/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). The flow switch from extraction column to analytical column in back-flush mode was set at 2.0 min and the separation was performed on the fused-core column Ascentis Express Phenyl-Hexyl (100 × 4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 μm, with a mobile phase acetonitrile/0.5% aqueous acetic acid pH 2.8 in a gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and temperature of 50 °C. Fluorescence excitation/emission detection wavelengths were set at 335/497 nm. The accuracy of the method, defined as the mean recoveries of OTA and CIT from light and dark beer samples, was in the range 98.3-102.1%. The method showed high sensitivity owing to on-line preconcentration; LOQ values were found to be 10 and 20 ng L(-1) for OTA and CIT, respectively. The found values of OTA and CIT in all tested light, dark and wheat beer samples were significantly below the maximum tolerable limits (3.0 μg kg(-1) for OTA and 2000 μg kg(-1) for CIT) set by the European Union. PMID:26993307

  20. Effects of injection pressure and injection timing to exhaust gas opacity for a conventional indirect diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, Agus; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Pambayun, Nirmala Adhi Yoga; Yuswono, Lilik Chaerul; Sukoco

    2016-06-01

    In relation to pollution control and environmental friendliness, the quality of exhaust gas from diesel engine needs to be considered. The influences of injection pressure and timing to exhaust gas opacity were investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in a one-cylinder conventional diesel engine with a naturally aspirated system and indirect injection. The default specification of injection pressure was 120 kg/cm2. To investigate the injection pressure, the engine speed was retained on 1000 rpm with pressure variations from 80 to 215 kg/cm2. On the other hand, the various injection timing (8, 10, 12, 16 degrees before TDC point and exact 18 degrees before TDC point) were used to determine their effects to exhaust gas opacity. In this case, the engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2400 rpm. The injector tester was used to measure injection pressure whereas the exhaust gas opacity was determined by the smoke meter. Those data were also statistically analyzed by product moment correlation. As the results, the injection pressure of diesel engine had a non-significant positive correlation to the exhaust gas opacity with r = 0.113 and p > 5 %. Injection pressure should be adjusted to the specification listed on the diesel engine as if it was too high or too low will lead to the higher opacity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between injection timing and the exhaust gas opacity in all engine speeds.

  1. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  2. Precipitated Fluxes of Radiation Belt Electrons via Injection of Whistler-Mode Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    Inan et al. (U.S. Inan et al., Controlled precipitation of radiation belt electrons, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108 (A5), 1186, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009580, 2003.) suggested that the lifetime of energetic (a few MeV) electrons in the inner radiation belts may be moderated by in situ injection of whistler mode waves at frequencies of a few kHz. We use the Stanford 2D VLF raytracing program (along with an accurate estimation of the path-integrated Landau damping based on data from the HYDRA instrument on the POLAR spacecraft) to determine the distribution of wave energy throughout the inner radiation belts as a function of injection point, wave frequency and injection wave normal angle. To determine the total wave power injected and its initial distribution in k-space (i.e., wave-normal angle), we apply the formulation of Wang and Bell ( T.N.C. Wang and T.F. Bell, Radiation resistance of a short dipole immersed in a cold magnetoionic medium, Radio Science, 4 (2), 167-177, February 1969) for an electric dipole antenna placed at a variety of locations throughout the inner radiation belts. For many wave frequencies and wave normal angles the results establish that most of the radiated power is concentrated in waves whose wave normals are located near the resonance cone. The combined use of the radiation pattern and ray-tracing including Landau damping allows us to make quantitative estimates of the magnetospheric distribution of wave power density for different source injection points. We use these results to estimate the number of individual space-based transmitters needed to significantly impact the lifetimes of energetic electrons in the inner radiation belts. Using the wave power distribution, we finally determine the energetic electron pitch angle scattering and the precipitated flux signatures that would be detected.

  3. Connecting Wastewater Injection and Seismicity through Pore Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Weingarten, M.; Person, M. A.; Bekins, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Increased seismicity in recent years in some geologically quiescent regions in the US has been linked to wastewater injection associated with oil and gas production. While seismicity in some cases appears to be well correlated with injection activities, in many other injection locations no seismicity has been reported. How pore pressures generated from injection propagate spatially and evolve temporally is likely a key control in inducing earthquakes, providing a physical linkage between injection activity and seismicity occurrence. Yet, the linkage remains controversial and inconclusive, in spite of the basic physics of pore pressure propagation being well established. This study aims at better understanding the physical processes of pore pressure propagation around injection sites and identifying factors that are most likely contributors to induced seismicity. Numerical modeling suggests that pore pressure increases in the Jones seismicity swarm northeast of Oklahoma City were primarily from several high rate injection wells. Preliminary analysis on injection and seismicity data from Greeley, Colorado also points to a potential pore pressure link between high injection rates and seismicity. Modeling of pore pressures in the Lake County, Ohio, illustrates that permeable faults in the crystalline basement could facilitate pore pressure propagation from injection in the basal aquifer and host earthquakes, which could explain the earthquakes that occurred in the mid-1980s. In many of the above examples, wastewater injection in basal aquifers promoted downward propagation of pore pressures into the crystalline basement. In connecting injection and seismicity through pore pressure propagation, high rate injection wells and permeable basement faults are merging as important players contributing to induced seismicity. It is the intention of this study that findings like these would provide a scientific basis to inform future regulations and policies on wastewater

  4. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  5. Pointing the SOFIA Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Moore, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    SOFIA is an airborne, gyroscopically stabilized 2.5m infrared telescope, mounted to a spherical bearing. Unlike its predecessors, SOFIA will work in absolute coordinates, despite its continually changing position and attitude. In order to manage this, SOFIA must relate equatorial and telescope coordinates using a combination of avionics data and star identification, manage field rotation and track sky images. We describe the algorithms and systems required to acquire and maintain the equatorial reference frame, relate it to tracking imagers and the science instrument, set up the oscillating secondary mirror, and aggregate pointings into relocatable nods and dithers.

  6. A bio-inspired microstructure induced by slow injection moulding of cylindrical block copolymers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Azimuthal intensity profiles for X-axis scans (a, b and c) and Y-axis scans (d, e and f) and various sample thicknesses: 0.95 mm (a and d), 0.45 mm (b and e), 0.23 mm (c and f). The injection point was at X = 0 and Y = 0 and the injection rate was 7 × 10–8 m3 s–1. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sm00884g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Joanna; Brubert, Jacob; Serrani, Marta; Nair, Sukumaran; de Gaetano, Francesco; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that block copolymers with cylindrical morphology show alignment with shear, resulting in anisotropic mechanical properties. Here we show that well-ordered bi-directional orientation can be achieved in such materials by slow injection moulding. This results in a microstructure, and anisotropic mechanical properties, similar to many natural tissues, making this method attractive for engineering prosthetic fibrous tissues. An application of particular interest to us is prosthetic polymeric heart valve leaflets, mimicking the shape, microstructure and hence performance of the native valve. Anisotropic layers have been observed for cylinder-forming block copolymers centrally injected into thin circular discs. The skin layers exhibit orientation parallel to the flow direction, whilst the core layer shows perpendicularly oriented domains; the balance of skin to core layers can be controlled by processing parameters such as temperature and injection rate. Heart valve leaflets with a similar layered structure have been prepared by injection moulding. Numerical modelling demonstrates that such complex orientation can be explained and predicted by the balance of shear and extensional flow. PMID:25005426

  7. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  8. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  9. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  10. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  11. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  12. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  13. Spear 3 Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebek, J.; Arnett, D.; Langton, J.; Pappas, C.

    2002-08-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straightforward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  14. Complications Following BellaGen™ Injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Seo, Seong Jun; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2011-12-01

    BellaGen™ is an injectable acellular dermal matrix granule derived from donated human skin tissue that was recently developed for soft tissue augmentation. Its use has been sporadically reported in penile girth enhancement procedures. Many cases of complications have been reported after injecting acellular dermal matrices like AlloDerm or SureDerm™ but few reports on complications associated with BellaGen™ injection. We report here on penile skin inflammation and necrosis following augmentation phalloplasty with BellaGen™, which developed 3 days after the injection and persisted for more than 2 weeks. The patient had a 15 year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and he was treated with oral antibiotics and wet dressings with KMNO4 solution to combine preservation of the remaining penile soft tissue with debridement of avascular tissue. The lesion improved with this treatment, but the patient experienced pain for about 2 weeks. All patients should be informed of the potential complications with the use of injectable acellular dermal matrices before treatment. Patient selection for augmentation is also important to have the most desirable results. PMID:22346264

  15. Supported-sorbent injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

  16. Analyzing, solving offshore seawater injection problems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rubale, J.S.; Muhsin, A.A.; Shaker, H.A.; Washash, I.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in seawater treatment, necessary cleaning of injection lines, and modifying well completion practices have reduced injection well plugging on pressure maintenance projects operated by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co., (Adma-Opco) in Zakum and Umm Shaif fields, offshore Abu Dhabi, in the Arabian Gulf. Plugging was caused primarily by iron sulfide and corrosion products that were displaced down hole after being formed in the water distribution system. These materials, in turn, resulted from O/sub 2/ inadvertently entering the injection system where it combined with corrosive H/sub 2/S generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The problem was further compounded by debris peeling from the interior of well tubulars, a high solids content of brine used to complete injectors, and slime formation in injection pipe lines. Acidizing wells proved a quick method for partially restoring injectivity, but a continuing concerted effort is being made to achieve more permanent results by eliminating the O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, which are at the root of the difficulty.

  17. The use of RT-PCR for determination of separate end-points for the strains IB H120 and IB D274 in titration of the combination vaccine Poulvac IB® primer.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, H J; Meinders, C A M; Snel, J; Duyves, W

    2013-11-01

    Poulvac IB® Primer is a lyophilized vaccine containing two attenuated infectious bronchitis strains in one vial, IB H120 and IB D274. For quantification of the viral content of the vaccine, dilution series of the final product are inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs. After the incubation period of seven days standard practice is for the embryos to be taken from each egg and examined visually for IB specific lesions; these readings are used to determine an end-point in viral titrations. The result is a titre value to which both strains contribute. However, it is not clear what the live virus titre is for strain IB H120 and for strain IB D274. In order to determine end-points in the titration for each of the two strains, we collected the allantoic fluids from each egg after the incubation period and tested these for the presence of IB H120 and IB D274 by a strain specific reverse phase PCR. Based on the data obtained by PCR we were able to determine an end-point for each of the two strains. For a given commercial batch of Poulvac IB primer we determined titres of 10(6.31) EID50 per vial for IB H120 and 10(6.59) EID50 for IB D274 using PCR for end-point determination. These end-points matched well with the end-point determined for both strains cumulatively after visual examination, i.e. 10(6.67) EID50 per vial. It is concluded that PCR is a suitable means to determine end-points in titrations of live viruses.

  18. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  19. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  20. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.

  1. Effectiveness of hydrochlorothiazide in combination with telmisartan and olmesartan in adults with moderate hypertension not controlled with monotherapy: a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end point (PROBE), parallel-arm study

    PubMed Central

    Fogari, Roberto; Zoppi, Annalisa; Mugellini, Amedeo; Preti, Paola; Destro, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Andrea; Derosa, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Background:The potential combinations of antihypertensive agents are many, and making rational choices depends on the characteristics of each drug and on their complementary mechanisms of action. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg to olmesartan 20 mg or telmisartan 80 mg on blood pressure (BP) in patients with moderate hypertension. Methods: Consecutive outpatients at the Centro per l'Ipertensione e la Fisiopatologia Cardiovascolare, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, of both sexes aged 39 to 75 years were considered eligible for enrollment if they had a sitting diastolic BP (DBP) ->99 mm Hg and <110 mm Hg at the end of an initial 2-week washout period. Patients were random- ized to olmesartan 20 mg QD or telmisartan 80 mg QD according to a prospective, open-label, blinded end point, parallel-arm design. After 8 weeks of monotherapy, patients whose BP was not controlled (DBP ->90 mm Hg) received HCTZ 12.5 mg QD for 8 additional weeks. Clinical and ambulatory BPs were measured at the end of the washout period and at the end of both treatment periods. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded from spontaneous reports and direct inquiry from investigators. Results: One hundred forty-five patients, all of whom were white, were recruited for the study. After the initial washout period, 13 patients did not meet the inclusion criteria and 6 refused to continue. A total of 126 white patients (69 men, 57 women; mean [SD] age, 60.2 [11.6] years) were randomized to receive monotherapy. Of these, 35 patients (56%) in the olmesartan group and 33 (52%) in the telmisartan group had previously received antihypertensive therapy. At the end of monotherapy, the 52 patients in the olmesartan group and the 49 patients in the telmisartan treatment group who were still in the study and had their BP inadequately controlled by treatment had HCTZ 12.5 mg QD added to their treatment regimen. Both combinations induced a

  2. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  3. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  4. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  5. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  6. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  7. Liquid-Crystal Point-Diffraction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid-crystal point-diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) invented to combine flexible control of liquid-crystal phase-shifts with robustness of point-diffraction interferometers. Produces interferograms indicative of shapes of wavefronts of laser beams having passed through or reflected from objects of interest. Interferograms combined in computers to produce phase maps describing wavefronts.

  8. Three dimensional analysis of the pore space in fine-grained Boom Clay, using BIB-SEM (broad-ion beam scanning electron microscopy), combined with FIB (focused ion-beam) serial cross-sectioning, pore network modeling and Wood's metal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemes, Susanne; Klaver, Jop; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    The Boom Clay is, besides the Ypresian clays, one of the potential host rock materials for radioactive waste disposal in Belgium (Gens et al., 2003; Van Marcke & Laenen, 2005; Verhoef et al., 2011). To access parameters, which are relevant for the diffusion controlled transport of radionuclides in the material, such as porosity, pore connectivity and permeability, it is crucial to characterize the pore space at high resolution (nm-scale) and in 3D. Focused-ion-beam (FIB) serial cross-sectioning in combination with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pore network modeling, Wood's metal injection and broad-ion-beam (BIB) milling, constitute a superior set of methods to characterize the 3D pore space in fine-grained, clayey materials, down to the nm-scale resolution. In the present study, we identified characteristic 3D pore space morphologies, determined the 3D volume porosity of the material and applied pore network extraction modeling (Dong and Blunt, 2009), to access the connectivity of the pore space and to discriminate between pore bodies and pore throats. Moreover, we used Wood's metal injection (WMI) in combination with BIB-SEM imaging to assess the pore connectivity at a larger scale and even higher resolution. The FIB-SEM results show a highly (~ 90 %) interconnected pore space in Boom Clay, down to the resolution of ~ 3E+03 nm³ (voxel-size), with a total volume porosity of ~ 20 %. Pore morphologies of large (> 5E+08 nm³), highly interconnected pores are complex, with high surface area to volume ratios (shape factors G ~ 0.01), whereas small (< 1E+06 nm³), often isolated pores are much more compact and show higher shape factors (G) up to 0.03. WMI in combination with BIB-SEM, down to a resolution of ~ 50 nm² pixel-size, indicates an interconnected porosity fraction of ~ 80 %, of a total measured 2D porosity of ~ 20 %. Determining and distinguishing between pore bodies and pore throats enables us to compare 3D FIB-SEM pore

  9. Dynamic substorm injections - Similar magnetospheric phenomena at earth and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Feynman, J.; Slavin, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    Correlations between energetic electrons, plasma electrons, and magnetic fields during the Mercury 1 energetic particle events are examined and comparisons are made with several well-documented substorm injections at the earth. The data reveal that the B and B-prime events possess the same characteristics as single-point observations of terrestrial dynamic injections. Several recently discovered correlations between the energetic electrons, plasma electrons, and magnetic fields at Mercury are discussed.

  10. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  11. Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Chichery, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J P

    2008-07-01

    Poland's syndrome is a deformity of the breast and sometimes of the chest wall. Several techniques, which may be combined if necessary, are generally used to treat the forms involving both the breast and chest wall (breast implants, customised chest wall implants, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap). For some years, we have also grafted autologous fat cells according to Coleman's method to treat this rare disorder. We report the preliminary results of this technique and demonstrate its value in the treatment of Poland's syndrome. We studied patients treated for Poland's syndrome by autologous fat injection between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005. We recorded their age, gender, the other surgical techniques used, and grade of Poland's syndrome according to the classification of Foucras. Concerning fat injections, we recorded the number of sessions, volumes injected and complications. The series was composed of seven women and one man, mean age 25 years (range 13 to 40 years). Four patients were grade I, three were grade II and one grade III. The mean number of fat injection sessions was 2.1 (range 1-5) and mean volume injected 96 cc (range 25-200 cc). Lipofilling was used alone in one case and associated with other reconstruction techniques in seven. We had one complication, fat necrosis which progressed favourably after surgical drainage. Autologous fat injection appears to us to be a treatment which can be used alone, or more often associated with traditional reconstruction techniques in all grades of Poland's syndrome. This technique is useful to add volume and especially to correct the contour defects of this syndrome such as the subclavicular hollow and absence of anterior axillary fold.

  12. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  13. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  14. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  15. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  16. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. A method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ =2 λ2/d ;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  17. Melting point, boiling point, and symmetry.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, R; Yalkowsky, S H

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between the melting point of a compound and its chemical structure remains poorly understood. The melting point of a compound can be related to certain of its other physical chemical properties. The boiling point of a compound can be determined from additive constitutive properties, but the melting point can be estimated only with the aid of nonadditive constitutive parameters. The melting point of some non-hydrogen-bonding, rigid compounds can be estimated by the equation MP = 0.772 * BP + 110.8 * SIGMAL + 11.56 * ORTHO + 31.9 * EXPAN - 240.7 where MP is the melting point of the compound in Kelvin, BP is the boiling point, SIGMAL is the logarithm of the symmetry number, EXPAN is the cube of the eccentricity of the compound, and ORTHO indicates the number of groups that are ortho to another group.

  18. [Mechanisms of muscle pain : significance of trigger points and tender points].

    PubMed

    Brezinschek, H-P

    2008-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) belong to the group of chronic non-inflammatory pain syndromes affecting muscles and tendinous insertions. Important criteria in the diagnosis of both diseases are the presence of "tender points" and "trigger points". According to ACR criteria FMS is characterized by the presence of tender points whereas trigger points are typically found in MPS.The main difference is that until now tender points could only be defined in terms of their localization, whereas trigger points can be found upon palpation which may cause a specific referred pain pattern. In addition, analysis of trigger points by microdialysis demonstrated elevated levels of pro-inflammatory substances at these sites. Moreover, local treatment of trigger points either by manipulative therapy or injection appears to be most effective for prompt relief of symptoms.

  19. Point Source All Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This panoramic view encompasses the entire sky as seen by Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The measured brightnesses of half a billion stars (points) have been combined into colors representing three distinct wavelengths of infrared light: blue at 1.2 microns, green at 1.6 microns, and red at 2.2 microns. This image is centered on the core of our own Milky Way galaxy, toward the constellation of Sagittarius. The reddish stars seemingly hovering in the middle of the Milky Way's disc -- many of them never observed before -- trace the densest dust clouds in our galaxy. The two faint smudges seen in the lower right quadrant are our neighboring galaxies, the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds.

  20. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.