Science.gov

Sample records for point injection combined

  1. Interaction between injection points during hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Berre, Inga

    2012-11-01

    We study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction in combination with disorder influences the fracturing process. To this end, we develop an effective continuum model of the hydrofracking of heterogeneous poroelastic media that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, our numerical simulations show that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

  2. A new look at trigger point injections.

    PubMed

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  3. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  4. A Comparative Study of Trigger Point Therapy with Local Anaesthetic (0.5 % Bupivacaine) Versus Combined Trigger Point Injection Therapy and Levosulpiride in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Orofacial Region.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of combined local anesthetic injection with 0.5 % bupivacaine and levosulpiride versus local anesthetic injection alone on outcome measures including levels of pain intensity and depression in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in orofacial region. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled and open-label comparative clinical study. Seventy-four patients diagnosed to have myofascial pain syndrome and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group A received local anesthetic injection (0.5 % bupivacaine) on trigger points and Group B received combined trigger point injection therapy and 50 mg of tablet Levosulpiride orally B.I.D. They were assessed for pain intensity and depression at baseline and at follow-up of 1, 4, 6 and 12 week intervals. The mean age of patients was 44.54 + 15.977 years in group A and 39.97 + 14.107 years in group B (P value = 0.2). Group A comprised of 25 females (67.567 %) and 12 males (32.432 %) while group B had 27 females (75 %) and 9 males (25 %). 70.27 % were diagnosed with moderate depression in group A and 75 % in group B. 18.91 % in group A and 19.44 % in group B were diagnosed with severe depression. When the VAS score and BDI score was compared at the follow-up intervals with the baseline scores in both treatment groups, the mean difference was highly significant at all the follow-up intervals. However when the relative efficacies of two interventions were compared between the two groups, improvement in pain was significant at all the follow-up intervals except the 1st week follow-up whereas the improvement in depression was non-significant at 1st and 4th week interval while it was highly significant at 6th and 12th week intervals. The combined therapy with trigger point injection and levosulpiride as antidepressant significantly reduces pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic

  5. Ischemic compression after trigger point injection affect the treatment of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck; Kim, In Kyum

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. SIXTY PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS IN UPPER TRAPEZIUS MUSCLE WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point.

  6. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  7. Comparison of acupuncture to injection for myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Miriam C B; Issy, Adriana M; Avila, Ilíada P; Sakata, Rioko K

    2011-01-01

    Many treatments have been proposed for myofascial pain syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of acupuncture to trigger point injection combined with cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate and sodium dipyrone. A randomized study was performed in 30 patients divided into 2 groups: G1 received trigger point injection with 0.25% bupivacaine twice weekly, and both cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate 10 mg/day and sodium dipyrone 500 mg every 8 hours; G2 received classical and trigger point acupuncture twice weekly. All patients were instructed in physical exercise. The following parameters were evaluated: pain intensity rated on a numerical scale, number of trigger points, and quality of life before and 4 weeks after treatment. The pain scores and the number of trigger points reduced significantly in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Significant improvement in the quality of life scores was observed for some of the functional domains in the 2 groups, whereas there was no improvement of the general health status domain in either group or of the emotional domain in G1. Acupuncture, when compared with trigger point injection, combined with cyclobenzaprine chlorhydrate and sodium dipyrone provided similar pain relief and improvement in quality of life measures at 4 weeks.  © 2010 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Stagnation Point Heat Transfer with Gas Injection Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancrayenest, B.; Tran, M. D.; Fletcher, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with an experimental study of the stagnation-point heat transfer to a cooled copper surface with gas injection under subsonic conditions. Test were made with a probe that combined a steady-state water-cooled calorimeter that allows the capability to study convective blockage and to perform heat transfer measurements in presence of gas injection in the stagnation region. The copper probe was pierced by 52 holes, representing 2.4% of the total probe surface. The 1.2 MW high enthalpy plasma wind tunnel was operated at anode powers between 130 and 230 kW and a static pressures from 35 hPa up to 200 hPa. Air, carbon dioxide and argon were injected in the mass flow range 0-0.4 g/s in the boundary layer developed around the 50 mm diameter probe. The measured stagnation-point heat transfer rates are reported and discussed.

  9. Lidocaine injection of auricular points in the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Lee, T N

    1977-01-01

    By combining knowledge in modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, auricular points were selected for treatment of insomnia. Instead of the placement of needles, injection of small amounts of Lidocaine into these sites was employed. Fifteen out of 16 patients obtained substantial improvement and one patient received moderate improvement. The therapeutic effect was maintained three months after the end of the treatment series. The physiological and clinical implications of this study in terms of modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are also discussed.

  10. Myositis ossificans of the elbow after a trigger point injection.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

    2011-03-01

    Trigger point injection is a simple procedure that is widely performed for relieving pain. Even though there are several complications of trigger point injection, myositis ossificans has not been documented as one of its complications. We treated a patient who suffered from painful limitation of elbow motion and this was caused by myositis ossificans between the insertions of brachialis and supinator muscles after a trigger point injection containing lidocaine mixed with saline, and we also review the relevant medical literature.

  11. Injection-induced turbulence in stagnation-point boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.

    1984-02-01

    A theory is developed for the stagnation point boundary layer with injection under the hypothesis that turbulence is produced at the wall by injection. From the existing experimental heat transfer rate data obtained in wind tunnels, the wall mixing length is deduced to be a product of a time constant and an injection velocity. The theory reproduces the observed increase in heat transfer rates at high injection rates. For graphite and carbon-carbon composite, the time constant is determined to be 0.0002 sec from the existing ablation data taken in an arc-jet tunnel and a balistic range.

  12. Injection-induced turbulence in stagnation-point boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for the stagnation point boundary layer with injection under the hypothesis that turbulence is produced at the wall by injection. From the existing experimental heat transfer rate data obtained in wind tunnels, the wall mixing length is deduced to be a product of a time constant and an injection velocity. The theory reproduces the observed increase in heat transfer rates at high injection rates. For graphite and carbon-carbon composite, the time constant is determined to be 0.0002 sec from the existing ablation data taken in an arc-jet tunnel and a balistic range.

  13. Effect of trigger point injection on lumbosacral radiculopathy source.

    PubMed

    Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Rasras, Saleh; Zeinali, Masud

    2014-10-01

    Active muscular trigger points (aMTPs) presenting with radiating pain can interfere in diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from lumbosacral radiculopathy. We aimed to diagnose and evaluate the trigger point therapy on the outcome of pain in patients with lumbosacral radiculopathy. A total of 98 patients were enrolled suffered with chronic pain andlumbosacral radiculopathy at L4-L5 and L5-S1 who were candidates of non-surgical management. All patients received conservative modalities, including bed rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID), and physiotherapy. These treatments continued for a week. Patients were examined for the presence of trigger points in their lower extremities. Those who had trigger points were divided into 2 groups (TP and N). Patients in TP group underwent trigger point injection therapy. No further therapy was done for the N group. Pain scores and straight leg raise (SLR) test in both groups were collected and analyzed on the seventh and 10th days of the therapy. Results were analyzed by paired t test and chi-square test. Out of 98 patients, 64 had trigger points. Thirty-two patients were assigned to each group. Pain scores (Mean ± SD) in TP group was 7.12 ± 1.13 and in N group was 6.7 ± 1.16, P = 0.196. Following the treatment, pain scores were 2.4 ± 1.5 in TP group and 4.06 ± 1.76 in N group P = 0.008. SLR test became negative in all patients in TP group but only in 6 (19%) patients in N group, P = 0.001. Results show that trigger point injection therapy in patients suffering from chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy with trigger points can significantly improve their recovery, and conservative therapy may not be adequate.

  14. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injections in the cervicothoracic musculature: a new and unreported technique.

    PubMed

    Botwin, Kenneth P; Sharma, Kavita; Saliba, Romeo; Patel, Bharat C

    2008-01-01

    Myofascial pain is defined as pain that originates from myofascial trigger points in skeletal muscle. It is prevalent in regional musculoskeletal pain syndromes, either alone or in combination with other pain generators. The myofascial pain syndrome is one of the largest groups of under diagnosed and under treated medical problems encountered in clinical practice. Trigger points are commonly seen in patients with myofascial pain which is responsible for localized pain in the affected muscles as well as referred pain patterns. Correct needle placement in a myofascial trigger point is vital to prevent complications and improve efficacy of the trigger point injection to help reduce or relieve myofascial pain. In obese patients, these injections may not reach the target tissue. In the cervicothoracic spine, a misguided or misplaced injection can result in a pneumothorax. Here, we describe an ultrasound-guided trigger point injection technique to avoid this potential pitfall. Office based ultrasound-guided injection techniques for musculoskeletal disorders have been described in the literature with regard to tendon, bursa, cystic, and joint pathologies. For the interventionalist, utilizing ultrasound yields multiple advantages technically and practically, including observation of needle placement in real-time, ability to perform dynamic studies, the possibility of diagnosing musculoskeletal pathologies, avoidance of radiation exposure, reduced overall cost, and portability of equipment within the office setting. To our knowledge, the use of ultrasound guidance in performing trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic area, particularly in obese patients, has not been previously reported. A palpable trigger point in the cervicothoracic musculature was localized and marked by indenting the skin with the tip of a plastic needle cover. The skin was then sterile prepped. Then, using an ultrasound machine with sterile coupling gel and a sterile latex free transducer cover

  15. Outbreak of extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection associated with acupuncture point injection.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z; Chen, S; Hao, C; Huang, Y; Liu, Z; Pan, A; Liao, R; Wang, X; Lu, Z

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is rarely reported to be associated with acupuncture practices. We performed a retrospective outbreak investigation of a unique outbreak of 33 extrapulmonary M. tuberculosis infections related to acupuncture point injection therapy (AIT) among clients who visited a private traditional Chinese medicine clinical centre in China. The lumps, abscesses and ulcers occurred mostly on the neck, shoulders, waist, knees and hips, localized at acupuncture point meridian sites. These symptoms appeared from January to November 2011, with a peak cluster of infections in September 2011 (nine cases). M. tuberculosis Beijing strain was isolated and confirmed by DNA sequencing. All diagnosed patients were treated empirically with appropriate antibiotic treatment, and their condition improved. Our study indicated that this outbreak was most likely resulted from contaminated AIT. Drafting standard guidelines for AIT is urgently needed, and routine medical supervision should be provided, including obligating health providers to perform routine physical examinations that include testing for infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Pneumothorax after trigger point injection: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Alici, Haci Ahmet; Dostbil, Aysenur; Celik, Mine; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Aksoy, Mehmet

    2016-11-21

    Myofascial pain syndrome is defined as ``pain and/or autonomic phenomena referred from active myofascial trigger points''. Trigger point injection is an effective treatment option, which is widely used to treat myofascial pain. Trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic regions can be associated with pneumothorax. In this paper, we presented a patient who developed pneumothorax after trigger point injection. This case report indicates there is a risk of pneumothorax during trigger point injection in the cervicothoracic regions.

  17. Acupuncture and Trigger Point Injections for Fibromyalgia: East-West Medicine Case Report.

    PubMed

    Taw, Lawrence B; Henry, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic widespread pain that is often accompanied by ≥1 concomitant symptoms (eg, fatigue, poor sleep, cognitive alterations, and mood disturbances). In 2005, an estimated 5 million people in the United States suffered from fibromyalgia, and its growing effect on health-related quality of life is substantial. An increasingly popular hypothesis proposes that noxious, peripheral sensory input might contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the diffuse pain seen in patients with fibromyalgia. That theory has led to the evaluation of multiple interventions to stimulate distal areas as a means to modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems. It has been the authors' experiences that the combination of trigger point injections and acupuncture provides improved clinical outcomes. In the current article, the authors present a case report of a patient with fibromyalgia who was successfully treated with an integrative approach that combined acupuncture with trigger point injections.

  18. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, Ronald Wayne

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  19. Usefulness of K-Point Injection for the Nonspecific Neck Pain in So-Called K-Point Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jeong Jae; Ahn, Hyo Sae; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Dong Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Background Shoichi Kokubun introduced his successful experience with local anesthetic injection at the occipital insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in K-point syndrome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term and long-term effectiveness of K-point injection and investigate factors affecting treatment results. Methods K-point injection was performed in 58 patients with K-point syndrome at Yeungnam University Medical Center. The syndrome was associated with cervical whiplash injury in 10 patients and was of nonspecific origin in the rest. One milliliter of 2% lidocaine mixed with 1 milliliter of dexamethasone was injected in 50 patients and 2 milliliters of 1% lidocaine alone in the rest. Initially, the severity of local tenderness at the K-point and other tender points was examined and the degree of immediate pain relief effect was assessed within 1 hour after injection. Early effect within 1 month after the injection and current effect were evaluated in 27 patients using a modified Kim's questionnaire with regard to the duration of improvement, degree of improvement in pain and daily living activities, and satisfaction. Results Of the total 58 patients, 44 (75.8%) apparently had immediate pain relief after K-point injection. The only factor associated with successful immediate pain relief was the whiplash injury associated with traffic accident (TA). The early pain control effect was associated with the immediate effect. The current effect was associated with the early effect alone. Satisfaction with the K-point injection was related to early successful pain relief. Conclusions K-point injection would be useful for early pain relief in nonspecific neck pain syndrome so called K-point syndrome, but not for current pain relief. Especially, it was very effective for early pain control in the whiplash injury associated with TA. PMID:27904721

  20. Combining alprazolam with systematic desensitization therapy for dental injection phobia.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, Susan E; Wilhelm, Frank H; Milgrom, Peter; Prall, Christopher W; Getz, Tracy; Spadafora, Agnes; Chiu, I-Yu; Leroux, Brian G; Ramsay, Douglas S

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether a benzodiazepine facilitates systematic desensitization, 144 subjects with dental injection phobia received systematic desensitization in combination with placebo or one of two doses of alprazolam (0.5mg or 0.75mg). Systematic desensitization therapy included computer-controlled presentation of digitized video segments followed by in vivo exposure segments, culminating in an actual dental injection. Subjects advanced to the next hierarchy segment when low anxiety was reported during a segment. Alprazolam and placebo groups progressed at the same rate. The 0.75mg group had elevated heart rates while watching video segments compared with placebo. In a subsequent behavioral avoidance test (during which subjects were randomized to a new drug condition), there was no indication that state-dependent learning had occurred. Dental fear was reduced similarly in all groups for 1 year after study completion. No advantage was found to combining alprazolam with systematic desensitization for dental injection phobia.

  1. Design and development of injection molded Fresnel lenses for point-focus photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grendol, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    A summary of work performed on a method of injection molding an 80% efficient point-focus Fresnel lens is presented. A current optical design for compression molded lenses yields a 68.5% efficiency when translated directly to injection molding. An optical design optimized for injection molding, with a mold and process developed for high efficiency Fresnel lenses, yields an 82% efficiency.

  2. Integrated Simulation of an Aspheric Lens Combining Injection Moulding Analysis with Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keun; Joo, Wonjong

    2007-05-01

    The present study covers an integrated simulation method for injection-moulded plastic lenses by combining a ray tracing simulation with a finite element (FE) analysis of injection moulding. Traditional ray tracing methods have based on the assumption that the optical properties of a lens are homogeneous throughout the entire volume. This assumption is to a certain extent unrealistic for injection-moulded plastic lenses because material properties vary at every point due to the injection moulding effects. To take into account the effects of the inhomogeneous optical properties of the moulded lens, a new ray tracing scheme is proposed in conjunction with an FE analysis of the injection moulding. A numerical scheme is developed to estimate the distribution of refractive indices from injection moulding analysis, and to calculate ray paths on every element layer with more realistic information of the refractive indices. A fully three-dimensional FE analysis is then performed for the aspheric lens moulding process. Through the FE analysis, the distribution of the refractive indices of the lens can be obtained on every mesh point. This information is then used to calculate the ray paths based on the FE mesh of which nodal points have unique index values. The proposed tracing scheme is implemented on the tracing of an aspheric lens, and its validity is ascertained through experimental verification.

  3. Tokamak Startup Using Point-Source dc Helicity Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, D. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Redd, A. J.; Sontag, A. C.

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  4. Myofascial trigger points of the pelvic floor: associations with urological pain syndromes and treatment strategies including injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Moldwin, Robert M; Fariello, Jennifer Yonaitis

    2013-10-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrP), or muscle "contraction knots," of the pelvic floor may be identified in as many as 85 % of patients suffering from urological, colorectal and gynecological pelvic pain syndromes; and can be responsible for some, if not all, symptoms related to these syndromes. Identification and conservative treatment of MTrPs in these populations has often been associated with impressive clinical improvements. In refractory cases, more "aggressive" therapy with varied trigger point needling techniques, including dry needling, anesthetic injections, or onabotulinumtoxinA injections, may be used, in combination with conservative therapies.

  5. Intramuscular hematoma with motor weakness after trigger point injection: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Shim, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang; An, Ji Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Although trigger point injection is known as an easy and low-risk procedure, it is contraindicated to patients with hemorrhagic disorders or who regularly take anticoagulants/antiplatelets. However, taking clopidogrel is not a defined contraindication to this low-risk procedure. The chief complaint of a 76-year old woman regularly taking clopidogrel was low back and left buttock pain which prolonged for several years. The patient was diagnosed with L4-5 and L5-S1 spinal stenosis at the orthopedics department and was referred for lumbar spinal epidural steroid injection. She was treated with trigger point injection. Three hours after the injection, she complained motor weakness and pain in the injection area. A hematoma on left gluteus medium muscle was detected with ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was accomplished to relieve the symptom. Trigger point injection for patients taking clopidogrel should be done with a caution to prevent such complication.

  6. Improved corticosteroid treatment of recalcitrant de Quervain tenosynovitis with a novel 4-point injection technique.

    PubMed

    Pagonis, Thomas; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Toli, Paraskevi; Givissis, Panagiotis; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2011-02-01

    Previously described corticosteroid injection techniques for de Quervain tenosynovitis (DQT) refer to either 1-point or 2-point injection techniques, showing superiority of the latter. The authors' novel 4-point injection technique (point 4 technique) yields more favorable results than do the older techniques. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. The authors treated 2 groups (A and B), each including 24 high-resistance training individuals (randomly allocated to each group) with persistent DQT. Group A received the point 4 technique, and group B, the 2-point injection technique. Follow-up was in 2, 4, 8, and 52 weeks after the first treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, 7 group A patients were symptom-free, whereas the rest scored better than their group B counterparts on the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Outcome Measure, of whom only 1 was symptom-free. Ten group A patients received repeated injections, in contrast to 19 from group B. Four weeks after the first treatment, 13 group A patients were symptom-free, in contrast to 4 from group B. In group A, 2 patients received repeated injections, in contrast to 20 in group B. Eight weeks after the first treatment, 1 group A patient received repeated injection. One group B patient relapsed, whereas 4 opted for surgical decompression and 16 received repeated injections. Fifty-two weeks after the first treatment, 21 patients in group A were symptom-free, 1 was operated on, and 2 relapsed; in group B, 12 were symptom-free, 9 were operated on, 3 relapsed, and 3 received repeated injections. In high-resistance training athletes, recalcitrant DQT responds more favorably to the novel point 4 technique than to the standard 2-point injection technique.

  7. A prospective, randomized, double-blind evaluation of trigger-point injection therapy for low-back pain.

    PubMed

    Garvey, T A; Marks, M R; Wiesel, S W

    1989-09-01

    The efficacy of trigger-point injection therapy in treatment of low-back strain was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The patient population consisted of 63 individuals with low-back strain. Patients with this diagnosis had nonradiating low-back pain, normal neurologic examination, absence of tension signs, and lumbosacral roentgenograms interpreted as being within normal limits. They were treated conservatively for 4 weeks before entering the study. Injection therapy was of four different types: lidocaine, lidocaine combined with a steroid, acupuncture, and vapocoolant spray with acupressure. Results indicated that therapy without injected medication (63% improvement rate) was at least as effective as therapy with drug injection (42% improvement rate), at a P value of 0.09. Trigger-point therapy seems to be a useful adjunct in treatment of low-back strain. The injected substance apparently is not the critical factor, since direct mechanical stimulus to the trigger-point seems to give symptomatic relief equal to that of treatment with various types of injected medication.

  8. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOEpatents

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  9. Comparison of lidocaine injection, botulinum toxin injection, and dry needling to trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamanli, A; Kaya, A; Ardicoglu, O; Ozgocmen, S; Zengin, F Ozkurt; Bayik, Y

    2005-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is one of the most common causes of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Several methods have been recommended for the inactivation of trigger points (TrP). This prospective, single-blind study was proposed to compare TrP injection with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) to dry needling and lidocaine injection in MPS. Eighty-seven trigger points (cervical and/or periscapular regions) in 23 female and six male patients with MPS were treated and randomly assigned to three groups: lidocaine injection (n=10, 32 TrP), dry needling (n=10, 33 TrP), and BTX-A injection (n=9, 22 TrP). Clinical assessment including cervical range of motion, TrP pain pressure threshold (PPT), pain scores (PS), and visual analog scales for pain, fatigue, and work disability were evaluated at entry and the end of the 4th week. Additionally, depression and anxiety were evaluated with the Hamilton depression and anxiety rating scales, and quality of life was assessed using the Nottingham health profile (NHP). The subjects were also asked to describe side effects. INJECTION PROCEDURE: One milliliter of 0.5% lidocaine was administered to each TrP in the lidocaine injection group, 10-20 IU of BTX-A to each TrP in the BTX-A group, and dry needling to each TrP in the last group, followed by stretching of the muscle groups involved. The patients were instructed to continue their home exercise programs. Pain pressure thresholds and PS significantly improved in all three groups. In the lidocaine group, PPT values were significantly higher than in the dry needle group, and PS were significantly lower than in both the BTX-A and dry needle groups. In all, visual analog scores significantly decreased in the lidocaine injection and BTX-A groups and did not significantly change in the dry needle group. Disturbance during the injection procedure was lowest in the lidocaine injection group. Quality of life scores assessed by NHP significantly improved in the lidocaine and BTX-A groups but not

  10. The Influence of the AGS Beam Parameters on the Beam Parameters at the RHIC Injection Point

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianming

    1988-01-03

    The change of the AGS ejected beam parameter will influence the injection efficiency of RHIC, cause phase space dilution and decrease the luminosity of RHIC. The changes of the beam parameters at the RHIC injection point caused by the changes of the AGS ejected beam parameters have been calculated and summarized in this note.

  11. Micropolar boundary layer flow at a stagnation point on a moving wall with suction and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanien, I. A.; Hady, F. M.

    1988-10-01

    The flow of a micropolar fluid at a two-dimensional stagnation point on a moving wall with suction and injection is studied. Numerical computations were carried out on a VME-2955 computer. The effects of the suction/injection parameter and dimensionless material parameters are discussed.

  12. Combined radiofrequency ablation and hot saline injection in rabbit liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kon; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2003-11-01

    To determine whether combining hot saline injection (HSI) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue. In 66 rabbits, RF energy and/or hot saline-induced coagulations were produced using a 17-gauge cooled electrode or 21-gauge needle under ultrasound guidance. Rabbits were allocated into 1 of 5 groups: group A, RFA alone (n = 15); group B, HSI (1 mL hot saline infused, n = 10); group C, combined therapy for HSI followed by RFA (n = 21); group D, combined therapy for RFA immediately followed by HSI (n = 10); and group E, 1 mL room temperature saline infusion before RFA (n = 10). RF energy (30 W) was applied for 3 minutes. The changes in tissue impedance, current, power output, and temperature of the electrode tip were automatically measured. Before RFA, precontrast computed tomography was performed, and after RFA, pre- and postcontrast spiral computed tomographic scans were acquired. The maximum diameters of the thermal lesions on the gross specimens and complications of each group were compared. All procedures were technically successful. There were 9 of 61 procedure-related complications (14.8%) including 6 localized hematomas and 3 thermal injuries to the diaphragm and the stomach. In rabbits in groups C and E, a marked decrease of tissue impedance (43.4 omega, 44.1 omega) and an increase of current (709 mA, 722 mA) occurred with instillation of saline infusion compared with RFA only. Combined therapy for HSI followed by RFA produced a greater short-axis mean diameter of coagulation (14.6 +/- 4.3 mm) than that in rabbits of other groups, for RFA only (10.4 +/- 2.4 mm), HSI only (8.7 +/- 3.3 mm), and combined therapy for RFA immediately followed by HIS (12.0 +/- 1.4 mm; P < 0.05). Combined therapy for HSI followed by RFA can increase the volume of RFA-induced coagulation in the liver with a single application, and therefore may improve the results of RFA for the treatment of larger

  13. Dorsal scapular nerve injury after trigger point injection into the rhomboid major muscle: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Chang, Min Cheol

    2017-08-14

    We report the case of a patient who presented with right dorsal scapular neuropathy after a trigger point injection into the right rhomboid major muscle. Through a nerve conduction study and electromyography, we demonstrated dorsal scapular nerve injury in this patient. A 38-year-old man complained that his right shoulder functioned less optimally during push-up exercises after a trigger point injection 4 weeks prior. Physical examination revealed mildly reduced right shoulder retractor muscle strength compared with the left side. We performed a nerve conduction velocity test and electromyography 5 weeks after the injection. The compound muscle action potential of the right dorsal scapular nerve showed low amplitude (left vs. right side: 5.2 vs. 1.6 mV) and delayed latency (left vs. right side: 4.9 vs. 6.8 ms). Positive sharp wave (1+) and mildly reduced recruitment were seen on electromyography of the rhomboid major muscle. The findings of the nerve conduction velocity test and electromyography indicated partial right dorsal scapular neuropathy. The nerve injury seemed to have been caused by the needle inserted during trigger point injection. Clinicians should pay attention to the occurrence of dorsal scapular nerve injury when performing trigger point injection into the rhomboid muscle.

  14. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. Methods We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI) in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline) alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Results Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. Conclusions There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the Standards for Reporting

  15. Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cotchett, Matthew P; Landorf, Karl B; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2010-09-01

    Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI) in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline) alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool. Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria: two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of

  16. Assessment of the feasibility of TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhaomin, Song; Zifeng, Liu; Chenghui, Yin; Jiali, Yang; Xun, Peng; Peili, Zhao; Xiaolin, Lang

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin as treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. 30 cases receiving TACE were denoted the TACE group, another 30 cases receiving TACE combined with an intratumoral multi-point injection of cisplatin were denoted the TACE/cisplatin group. Cases with partial remission/complete remission (PR/CR) were analyzed using 2 tests; alpha fetoprotein (AFP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), erythrocyte, and platelet levels were detected and the differences between two groups were analyzed using the Student's t-test; cases with complications, including intrahepatic metastasis (IM), upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB), and liver failure were also counted. The correlation of clinical parameters with PR/CR was analyzed using multifactorial correlation analysis. Cases with PR/CR in the TACE/cisplatin group were significantly more than in TACE group, accompanied by significant declination in FAP. There were no significant differences of AST, ALT, TBIL, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), and platelets (PLT) between two groups; 3 cases with IM, one case with UGB and one case with LF were found in the TACE group, but only 1 case with IM was found in the TACE/cisplatin group. In addition, tumor stage was correlated with PR/CR. We concluded that TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin was more effective than TACE, and with fewer complications and side effects.

  17. Assessment of the feasibility of TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhaomin, Song; Zifeng, Liu; Chenghui, Yin; Jiali, Yang; Xun, Peng; Peili, Zhao; Xiaolin, Lang

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin as treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. 30 cases receiving TACE were denoted the TACE group, another 30 cases receiving TACE combined with an intratumoral multi-point injection of cisplatin were denoted the TACE/cisplatin group. Cases with partial remission/complete remission (PR/CR) were analyzed using 2 tests; alpha fetoprotein (AFP), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), erythrocyte, and platelet levels were detected and the differences between two groups were analyzed using the Student’s t-test; cases with complications, including intrahepatic metastasis (IM), upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB), and liver failure were also counted. The correlation of clinical parameters with PR/CR was analyzed using multifactorial correlation analysis. Cases with PR/CR in the TACE/cisplatin group were significantly more than in TACE group, accompanied by significant declination in FAP. There were no significant differences of AST, ALT, TBIL, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), and platelets (PLT) between two groups; 3 cases with IM, one case with UGB and one case with LF were found in the TACE group, but only 1 case with IM was found in the TACE/cisplatin group. In addition, tumor stage was correlated with PR/CR. We concluded that TACE combined with intratumoral injection of cisplatin was more effective than TACE, and with fewer complications and side effects. PMID:28352732

  18. Surrogate and combined end points in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ventetuolo, Corey E; Benza, Raymond L; Peacock, Andrew J; Zamanian, Roham T; Badesch, David B; Kawut, Steven M

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and often devastating disease, although various effective therapies are now available. Clinical trials have used hemodynamic, cardiac imaging, laboratory, and exercise measurements as surrogate and intermediate end points in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Yet, based on the current literature, it is difficult to surmise which of these (if any) have been definitively validated. In addition, investigators have advocated the use of combined clinical end points in future clinical trials. The dependence of clinical trials and clinical management on such end points warrants a review of their use.

  19. Gentamicin injections for Ménière disease: comparison of subjective and objective end points.

    PubMed

    Steenerson, Ronald Leif; Hardin, Robin B; Cronin, Gaye W

    2008-08-01

    This retrospective study reports the overall efficacy and comparative results of intratympanic gentamicin injections for disabling vertigo episodes. All patients received weekly injections for diagnosed Ménière disease. In Group 1 (81 patients), treatment end points were determined by subjective complaints of imbalance, with resolution of vertigo. In Group 2 (23 patients), treatment end points were determined when 2 or more values of nystagmus were demonstrated. (Group 2 patients were assessed before initiation of therapy for head-shaking, head-thrust, and spontaneous nystagmus using infrared video goggles.) After the final injection, all patients had audiograms and balance and oculomotor retraining. Gentamicin therapy was determined to be successful based on 3-month post-therapy findings of vertigo resolution, stable hearing, normalized nystagmus, and functional balance.

  20. Tracing Mercox Injected at Acupuncture Points Under the Protocol of Partial Body Macerations in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Stefanov, Miroslav; Nam, Min-Ho; Kim, Sungchul

    2015-12-01

    We used for the first time a vascular casting material to take advantage of a simple tracing procedure and to isolate the peculiar features of acupuncture point injections. The polymer Mercox was injected into the skin of a dead mouse at acupuncture points along the bladder meridian lines. After a partial maceration of the whole body with a potassium-hydroperoxide solution, we anatomized it under a stereomicroscope to trace the injected Mercox. Many organs were checked to determine whether or not they contained some Mercox tracing. Connections between the injection sites along the acupuncture points were observed. Two to three layers of Mercox in a plate shape were found under the skin at the acupuncture points, and Mercox travelled throughout the adipose tissue, the fascia, and the parietal and visceral serous membranes inside the organ's parenchyma. The casting material Mercox used with a modified partial maceration procedure is a promising method for visualizing the routes of the meridian system and the primo vascular system. The routes for Mercox are different from those of the blood and lymphatic vessels.

  1. Outcomes of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, Mhd Firas; Oxentenko, Shawn C; Locke, G Richard; Hansel, Stephanie; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Farrugia, Gianrico; Grover, Madhusudan

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal wall pain (AWP) is an important cause of chronic abdominal pain. History and physical examination are critical to the diagnosis of AWP. Trigger point injection (TPI) using either a steroid or a local anesthetic or a combination of both is often used to treat AWP. To determine the efficacy of ultrasound-guided TPI and to determine the predictors of a successful response. Patients who received ultrasound-guided TPI between July 2010 and June 2011 were surveyed. The primary outcome was determined using the Treatment Efficacy Questionnaire (TEQ). Electronic medical records were reviewed to determine patient, pain and TPI characteristics. Linear regression was used to determine the predictors of a successful response on the TEQ. Right upper quadrant was the most common site of AWP, and the median pain duration was 12 months. Pain was rated as >8 (1-10 scale) by 57 % and 30 % described it as an ache. Narcotic use was reported in 38 %, and 73 % had a history of at least one abdominal surgery. Forty-four of the 120 (37 %) patients met the criteria for responder on the TEQ. Compared to before treatment, 36 % reported being "significantly better" and 22 % "slightly better." Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher somatization negatively predicted response. None of the other historical, examination or TPI characteristics were associated with response to the TPI. TPI can provide significant, long-term symptom relief in a third of patients with chronic abdominal pain attributed to AWP. Somatization was inversely related to the treatment success.

  2. Treatment strategies for combining immunostimulatory oncolytic virus therapeutics with dendritic cell injections.

    PubMed

    Wares, Joanna R; Crivelli, Joseph J; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choi, Il-Kyu; Gevertz, Jana L; Kim, Peter S

    2015-12-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to treat cancer, as they selectively replicate inside of and lyse tumor cells. The efficacy of this process is limited and new OVs are being designed to mediate tumor cell release of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules, which attract cytotoxic T cells to target tumor cells, thus increasing the tumor-killing effects of OVs. To further promote treatment efficacy, OVs can be combined with other treatments, such as was done by Huang et al., who showed that combining OV injections with dendritic cell (DC) injections was a more effective treatment than either treatment alone. To further investigate this combination, we built a mathematical model consisting of a system of ordinary differential equations and fit the model to the hierarchical data provided from Huang et al. We used the model to determine the effect of varying doses of OV and DC injections and to test alternative treatment strategies. We found that the DC dose given in Huang et al. was near a bifurcation point and that a slightly larger dose could cause complete eradication of the tumor. Further, the model results suggest that it is more effective to treat a tumor with immunostimulatory oncolytic viruses first and then follow-up with a sequence of DCs than to alternate OV and DC injections. This protocol, which was not considered in the experiments of Huang et al., allows the infection to initially thrive before the immune response is enhanced. Taken together, our work shows how the ordering, temporal spacing, and dosage of OV and DC can be chosen to maximize efficacy and to potentially eliminate tumors altogether.

  3. Mixed-point geostatistical simulation: A combination of two- and multiple-point geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordua, Knud Skou; Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh; Barnes, Christophe; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    Multiple-point-based geostatistical methods are used to model complex geological structures. However, a training image containing the characteristic patterns of the Earth model has to be provided. If no training image is available, two-point (i.e., covariance-based) geostatistical methods are typically applied instead because these methods provide fewer constraints on the Earth model. This study is motivated by the case where 1-D vertical training images are available through borehole logs, whereas little or no information about horizontal dependencies exists. This problem is solved by developing theory that makes it possible to combine information from multiple- and two-point geostatistics for different directions, leading to a mixed-point geostatistical model. An example of combining information from the multiple-point-based single normal equation simulation algorithm and two-point-based sequential indicator simulation algorithm is provided. The mixed-point geostatistical model is used for conditional sequential simulation based on vertical training images from five borehole logs and a range parameter describing the horizontal dependencies.

  4. A needle in the neck: trigger point injections as headache management in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent research suggests that the use of trigger point injections are successful in relieving the acute pain of musculoskeletal headaches. Patients with the chief complaint of headache commonly present to the emergency department (ED) and are often treated with multiple intravenous medications including narcotics. The success of outpatient treatment with trigger point injections can be applied to the acute care setting for improved patient outcomes and decongestion of the ED. This article will address the problems of intravenous medication therapy and discuss the benefits of trigger point therapy as management for musculoskeletal headaches specifically in the ED. In addition, discussion aims to provide tools for the nurse practitioner to integrate this skill into clinical practice.

  5. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  6. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  7. Determination of recharge fraction of injection water in combined abstraction-injection wells using continuous radon monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Yong; Kim, Yong-Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Kim, Seong Yun; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Ha, Kyucheol; Ko, Kyung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    The recharge fractions of injection water in combined abstraction-injection wells (AIW) were determined using continuous radon monitoring and radon mass balance model. The recharge system consists of three combined abstraction-injection wells, an observation well, a collection tank, an injection tank, and tubing for heating and transferring used groundwater. Groundwater was abstracted from an AIW and sprayed on the water-curtain heating facility and then the used groundwater was injected into the same AIW well by the recharge system. Radon concentrations of fresh groundwater in the AIWs and of used groundwater in the injection tank were measured continuously using a continuous radon monitoring system. Radon concentrations of fresh groundwater in the AIWs and used groundwater in the injection tank were in the ranges of 10,830-13,530 Bq/m(3) and 1500-5600 Bq/m(3), respectively. A simple radon mass balance model was developed to estimate the recharge fraction of used groundwater in the AIWs. The recharge fraction in the 3 AIWs was in the range of 0.595-0.798. The time series recharge fraction could be obtained using the continuous radon monitoring system with a simple radon mass balance model. The results revealed that the radon mass balance model using continuous radon monitoring was effective for determining the time series recharge fractions in AIWs as well as for characterizing the recharge system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Point and interval estimation in the combination of bioassay results.

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, P.; Bennett, B. M.; Finney, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for combining evidence from different biological assays is shown to be equivalent both to generalized least-squares and to maximum-likelihood estimation. By appropriate nesting of hypotheses, the likelihood function can be used to test the agreement between the assays and to obtain probability limits for the combined estimate of potency. The properties of these limits are examined, with particular reference to the situation, unusual but not impossible in practice, in which the values of relative potency that they define consist of several disjoint segments instead of a single interval. The connection with general theory of estimating linear functional relations is pointed out. PMID:1060692

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Stagnation Point Liquid Injection Influence on Blunt Body Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, William C.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Genzel, Noah N.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been performed to determine the influence of stagnation point water injection on the hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments for two-dimensional blunt bodies. This investigation was performed in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, and represents the qualitative first phase of a study to examine the potential benefits of water injection to reduce aerodynamic drag and aero-heating. Tests with a 4-inch diameter hemisphere cylinder and a 4-inch diameter cylinder with a span 1.5 times the diameter were performed over a range of free-stream unit Reynolds number from two million to six million per ft and of angle of attack (-5 deg to 5 deg) with water and gaseous nitrogen injection at the geometric stagnation point. The momentum flux ratio, that is, the ratio of the momentum flux of the jet to that of the free-stream flow, was varied from the non-blowing value of zero up to 0.00031 by maintaining the jet momentum fixed and varying the free-stream momentum, hence Reynolds number. The effect of water injection on the aerodynamic drag coefficient for the hemisphere cylinder was observed to be negligible as the momentum flux ratio was increased to 0.00017, but decreased significantly as this ratio increased above 0.00017; a nearly 50 percent reduction in drag occurred for a factor of two increase in momentum flux ratio.

  10. Reduction of pain and EMG activity in the masseter region by trapezius trigger point injection.

    PubMed

    Carlson, C R; Okeson, J P; Falace, D A; Nitz, A J; Lindroth, J E

    1993-12-01

    In this open, uncontrolled trial, 20 patients with upper trapezius muscle trigger point pain and ipsilateral masseter muscle pain received a single trigger point injection of 2% lidocaine solution (without epinephrine) in the upper trapezius muscle. Following the trapezius injection, there was a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in pain intensity ratings for pain in the masseter region. In addition, there was a significant (P < 0.03) reduction in EMG activity in the masseter muscle. Overall, however, a significant relationship between EMG activity in the masseter and the self-report of pain was not found with the present data set. These clinical findings support the contention that sources of deep pain can produce heterotopic sensory and motor changes in distant anatomical regions.

  11. Retrosternal abscess after trigger point injections in a pregnant woman: a case report.

    PubMed

    Usman, Faisal; Bajwa, Abubakr; Shujaat, Adil; Cury, James

    2011-08-23

    Although retrosternal abscess is a well known complication of sternotomy and intravenous drug abuse, to date it has not been described as a consequence of trigger point injections. There are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure including epidural abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis and gas gangrene. A 37-year-old African-American woman, who was 20 weeks pregnant, presented to our emergency room with complaints of progressively worsening chest pain and shortness of breath over the course of the last two months. She was undergoing trigger point injections at multiple different sites including the sternoclavicular joint for chest pain and dystonia. Two years previously she had developed a left-sided pneumothorax as a result of this procedure, requiring chest tube placement and subsequent pleurodesis. Her vital signs in our emergency room were normal except for resting tachycardia, with a pulse of 100 beats per minute. A physical examination revealed swelling and tenderness of the sternal notch with tenderness to palpation over the left sternoclavicular joint. Laboratory data was significant for a white blood count of 13.3 × 109/L with 82% granulocytes. A chest radiograph revealed left basilar scarring with blunting of the left costophrenic angle. A computed tomography angiogram showed a 4.7 cm abscess in the retrosternal region behind the manubrium with associated sclerosis and cortical irregularity of the manubrium and left clavicle. Trigger point injection is generally considered very safe. However, there are reported cases of serious complications as a result of this procedure. A computed tomography scan of the chest should strongly be considered in the evaluation of chest pain and shortness of breath of unclear etiology in patients with even a remote history of trigger point injections.

  12. The effects of myofascial trigger point injections on nocturnal calf cramps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyeong; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of injection at trigger points on pain and sleep disturbance in patients with nocturnal calf cramps (NCCs). Patients with NCCs that occurred at least once per week and who had myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the gastrocnemius muscles were enrolled in the study for 9 months. At the first visit (T0), we measured the intensity of NCC pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale, recorded the frequency of NCCs, and calculated the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). We then checked for MTrPs on the gastrocnemius muscles and injected 1-2 mL of 0.25% lidocaine into each of the trigger points. At 1 (T1), 2 (T2), and 4 (T3) weeks after the first visit, we repeated the process performed at T0. Twelve patients completed the treatment schedule and attended the follow-up visits. Mean values of the numeric rating scale pain score, frequency of cramps, and ISI declined significantly at T1, T2, and T3 compared with baseline (all P < .01). Of 12 patients, 10 had clinical insomnia before treatment, and this number decreased significantly to 3 patients at T2 and 1 patient at T3 (P = .012 and P = .001, respectively). These preliminary data show that injection at MTrPs in patients with NCCs not only alleviated pain and reduced the frequency of cramps but also lessened the severity of insomnia as measured by the ISI. A larger randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings and determine whether the effect lasts over the long term. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  13. GPS and Glonass Combined Static Precise Point Positioning (ppp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, D.; Dwivedi, R.; Dikshit, O.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), satellite navigation is undergoing drastic changes. Presently, more than 70 satellites are already available and nearly 120 more satellites will be available in the coming years after the achievement of complete constellation for all four systems- GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. The significant improvement in terms of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision and accuracy demands the utilization of combining multi-GNSS for Precise Point Positioning (PPP), especially in constrained environments. Currently, PPP is performed based on the processing of only GPS observations. Static and kinematic PPP solutions based on the processing of only GPS observations is limited by the satellite visibility, which is often insufficient for the mountainous and open pit mines areas. One of the easiest options available to enhance the positioning reliability is to integrate GPS and GLONASS observations. This research investigates the efficacy of combining GPS and GLONASS observations for achieving static PPP solution and its sensitivity to different processing methodology. Two static PPP solutions, namely standalone GPS and combined GPS-GLONASS solutions are compared. The datasets are processed using the open source GNSS processing environment gLAB 2.2.7 as well as magicGNSS software package. The results reveal that the addition of GLONASS observations improves the static positioning accuracy in comparison with the standalone GPS point positioning. Further, results show that there is an improvement in the three dimensional positioning accuracy. It is also shown that the addition of GLONASS constellation improves the total number of visible satellites by more than 60% which leads to the improvement of satellite geometry represented by Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) by more than 30%.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Wastewater Injection in the Denver Basin combined disposal zone in northeast Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. R. M.; Ge, S.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have correlated seismicity with high rate injection at Underground Injection Control Class II wastewater disposal wells. In this study, we examine the impact of injection in the Denver Basin combined disposal zone that is used by numerous Class II wells. The disposal zone includes the Lyons Formation, a sandstone unit, and the Fountain Formation, an arkose unit just above the basement. Within a 30-km radius of the deep Class II injection well (NGL C4A) closest to the June 1, 2014 M3.2 Greeley earthquake, there are fifteen deep wastewater disposal wells injecting into the disposal zone and two shallow wastewater disposal wells injecting into the Lyons Formation only. One of the shallow wells is located at the same disposal facility as NGL-C4A and started injection in October 2004; the earliest deep injection in this region, at well NGL-C6, began in November 2007. The major episode of seismicity in the area started in November 2013. The timing of injection operation and seismicity occurrence raises several questions. Why did seismicity not begin in the area until nearly 10 years after the start of injection? Nine of the deep wastewater disposal wells began injection after the M3.2 earthquake on June 1, 2014; how does the large increase in the number of injection wells in the area change the pore-pressure in the disposal zone? How does the injection from the various wells interact? Does this increase the chances of induced seismicity? We conduct numerical modeling of 18 injection wells from 2004 to 2016 to explore these questions by better understanding the pore-pressure changes through time, pore-pressure changes in areas of induced earthquakes, and the interactions between injection wells. We include the asymmetry of the basin geometry in the model. We also use this case study to refine how well spacing and injection rate influences the occurrence of induced earthquakes.

  15. Efficacy of Combined Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection and Splinting in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Chi; Liao, Kwong-Kum; Lin, Kon-Ping; Chou, Chen-Liang; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wang, Kevin A; Chiu, Jan-Wei

    2017-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of local steroid injection plus splinting with that of local steroid injection alone using clinical and electrophysiological parameters in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Randomized controlled study with 12 weeks of follow-up. Tertiary care center. Volunteer sample of patients (N=52) diagnosed with CTS. Participants were randomly assigned to the steroid injection group (n=26) or the steroid injection-plus-splinting group (n=26). Patients of both groups received ultrasound-guided steroid injection with 1mL of 10mg (10mg/mL) triamcinolone acetonide (Shincort) and 1mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (Xylocaine). Participants in the second group also wore a volar splint in the neutral position while sleeping and also during daytime whenever possible for the 12-week intervention period. Participants were evaluated before the treatment and at 6 and 12 weeks after the onset of treatment. The primary outcome measure was Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores. The secondary outcome measures were as follows: scores on the visual analog scale for pain; electrophysiological parameters, including median nerve distal motor latency, sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV), and compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes; and patient's subjective impression of improvement. At 12-week follow-up, improvements in symptom severity and functional status scores on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire as well as SNCV and SNAP amplitudes were greater in the group that received steroid injection combined with splinting than in the group that received steroid injection alone. The between-group difference was .48 points (95% confidence interval [CI], .09-.88 points; P=.032) in the Symptom Severity Scale score, .37 points (95% CI, .06-.67 points; P=.019) in the Functional Status Scale score, 3.38m/s (95% CI, 0.54-6.22m/s; P=.015) in the SNCV amplitude, and 3.21μV (95% CI, 0.00-6.46μV; P=.025) in the SNAP

  16. Laminar flow at a three-dimensional stagnation point with large rates of injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Exact calculations of the titled flow are presented and compared to the predictions of an asymptotic analysis for large rates of injection. The inner layer of the boundary layer is found to involve outflow in both orthogonal directions whether the external flow along the y axis is inward or outward. As a result, the flow at a nearly two-dimensional stagnation point involves drastic changes as a weak outflow changes to a weak inflow. It is also found that the velocity profiles in the two directions in the inner layer are quite different.

  17. Power-combining based on master-slave injection-locking magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuan; Yi, Zhang; Wenjun, Ye; Huacheng, Zhu; Kama, Huang; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A microwave power-combining system composed of two Panasonic 2M244-M1 magnetrons based on master-slave injection-locking is demonstrated in this paper. The principle of master-slave injection-locking and the locking condition are theoretical analyzed. Experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and the experimental combined efficiency is higher than 96%. Compared with the external-injection-locked system, the power-combining based on the master-slave injection-locking magnetron is superior by taking out the external solid-state driver and the real-time phase control system. Thus, this power-combining system has great potential for obtaining a high efficiency, high stability, low cost, and high power microwave source. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328902) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501311).

  18. A Case of Trigger-Point Injection-Induced Hypokalemic Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Paolo K; Bhattarai, Mukul; Vogler, Carrie N; Hudali, Tamer H

    2017-04-26

    BACKGROUND Trigger-point injection (TPI) therapy is an effective modality for symptomatic treatment of myofascial pain. Serious adverse effects are rarely observed. In this report, we present the case of a 39-year-old man who experienced severe, transient hypokalemic paralysis in the context of TPI therapy with methylprednisolone, bupivacaine, and epinephrine. He was successfully treated with electrolyte replacement in a closely monitored setting. CASE REPORT A 39-year-old man with no past medical history except for chronic left hip pain from a work-related injury received a TPI with methylprednisolone and bupivacaine. The TPI targeted the left iliopsoas tendon and was administered using ultrasound guidance. There were no immediately perceived complications, but within 12 h he presented with severe hypokalemic paralysis with a serum potassium 1.7 mmol/L. Judicious potassium repletion was initiated. Repeated tests after 6 h consistently showed normal potassium levels of 4.5 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS Severe hypokalemic paralysis in the context of trigger-point injection is an incredibly rare occurrence and this is the first case report in English literature. A high index of clinical suspicion and a systematic approach are therefore required for prompt diagnosis and management of this obscure iatrogenic entity. Clinicians can enhance patient safety by allowing the primary pathology to guide them.

  19. Therapeutic effect of acupuncture point injection with placental extract in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyeong Mee; Cho, Tae Hwan

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture point injection (API) with placental extract on pain reduction and joint function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-two patients with knee OA, with an average age of 64, and having a symptom duration of more than 3 months were studied in this report. Placental extract was injected weekly into acupuncture point ST35, BL23, BL24 and BL25 for 5 weeks; 8 mL of placental extract into ST35 on the affected side, and 1 mL of placental extract to BL23, BL24 and BL25 bilaterally. After a five-week treatment of API with placental extract, pain was substantially decreased in patients of all Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades. Improvement of knee joint swelling was also apparent. Decrease of pain and joint swelling improved daily working productive time among patients of all KL grades. Study results imply that API with placental extract is a potentially useful therapy to control pain and maintain joint functions in knee OA patients.

  20. Differential Rates of Inadvertent Intravascular Injection during Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Injections Using Blunt-Tip, Pencil-Point, and Catheter-Extension Needles.

    PubMed

    Smuck, Matthew; Paulus, Stephen; Patel, Ajay; Demirjian, Ryan; Ith, Ma Agnes; Kennedy, David J

    2015-11-01

    To quantify the incidence of inadvertent vascular penetration during lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injections using blunt-tip, pencil-point, and catheter-extension needles. This is a prospective, observational, consecutive cohort study. Two hundred consecutive patients undergoing lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injections at an academic outpatient spine center. Four hundred seventy-five fluoroscopically guided lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injections were performed on consecutively consenting patients by one interventional spine physician, using three different needle types. The presence or absence of vascular uptake was determined during contrast injection under live fluoroscopy. Vascular uptake of contrast was observed in 58 of the total 475 injections, for an overall incidence of 12.2%. By needle type, the incidence of inadvertent vascular uptake was 16.6% (26/157) in the pencil-point group, 15.6% (24/154) in the blunt-tip group, and 4.9% (8/164) in the catheter-extension group. The difference in rates is statistically significant between the catheter-extension needle group and both the pencil-point group (P = 0.0009) and blunt-tip group (P = 0.0024). A secondary analysis was performed to quantify the incidence of functional pitfalls between needle groups, with a significantly lower incidence in the pencil-point group compared to both the catheter-extension (P = 0.0148) and blunt-tip needle (P = 0.0288) groups. Blunt-tip and pencil-point needles have comparable risk of inadvertent vascular injection during lumbosacral transforaminal injections. Catheter-extension needles demonstrated a reduce incidence of vascular uptake, but also result in a significantly higher rate of functional pitfalls that limits their usefulness in routine practice. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Point-to-plane and plane-to-plane electrostatic charge injection atomization for insulating liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkawi, Ghazi

    An electrostatic charge injection atomizer was fabricated and used to introduce and study the electrostatic charge injection atomization methods for highly viscous vegetable oils and high conductivity low viscosity aviation fuel, JP8. The total, spray and leakage currents and spray breakup characteristics for these liquids were investigated and compared with Diesel fuel data. Jet breakup and spray atomization mechanism showed differences for vegetable oils and lower viscosity hydrocarbon fuels. For vegetable oils, a bending/spinning instability phenomenon was observed similar to the phenomenon found in liquid jets of high viscosity polymer solutions. The spray tip lengths and cone angles were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated with the appropriate empirical formulas. The different stages of the breakup mechanisms for such oils, as a function of specific charges and flow rates, were discussed. In order to make this method of atomization more suitable for practical use in high flow rate applications, a blunt face electrode (plane-to-plane) was used as the charge emitter in place of a single pointed electrode (point-to-plane). This allowed the use of a multi-orifice emitter that maintained a specific charge with the flow rate increase which could not be achieved with the needle electrode. The effect of the nozzle geometry, liquid physical properties and applied bulk flow on the spray charge, total charge, maximum critical spray specific charge and electrical efficiency compared with the needle point-to-plane atomizer results was presented. Our investigation revealed that the electrical efficiency of the atomizer is dominated by the charge forced convection rate rather than charge transport by ion motilities and liquid motion by the electric field. As a result of the electric coulomb forces between the electrified jets, the multi-orifice atomizer provided a unique means of dispersing the fuel in a hollow cone with wide angles making the new

  2. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  3. Application of ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points in the subscapularis and pectoralis muscles to post-mastectomy patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis.

  4. Combined endovascular intervention and percutaneous thrombin injection in the treatment of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M; Juszkat, R; Pukacki, F; Waliszewski, K

    2007-06-01

    One of the basic techniques of treatment of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms is percutaneous thrombin injection. Unfortunately, success rate of this treatment can be limited in cases associated with extensive damage to arterial wall. Our paper presents one case of combined treatment involving endovascular occlusion of the entry to the false aneurysm and percutaneous thrombin injection into the pseudoaneurysm chamber. In our opinion this technique can be successfully applied in patients with contraindications for compression therapy, surgical intervention or failure of traditional injection due to large entry, multiple arterial wall damage or accompanying arteriovenous fistula.

  5. Long-term follow-up after combined fissurectomy and Botox injection for chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Th; Hetzer, F H; Dindo, D; Demartines, N; Clavien, P A; Hahnloser, D

    2007-09-01

    Chronic anal fissures are difficult to treat. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcome of combined fissurectomy and injection of botulinum toxin Type A (BT). Between January 2001 and August 2004, 40 patients (21 women), median age 37 years (range 18 to 57), underwent fissurectomy and BT injection. Fissurectomy was performed followed by injection of 10 U of BT into the internal anal sphincter on both sides of the fissure. All patients were clinically checked 6 weeks after the operation. At 1 year, patients were sent a detailed questionnaire regarding symptoms, recurrence and further treatment for evaluation of long-term results. At 6 weeks, 38 patients (95%) were free of symptoms. No adverse effects were detected. The response rate of questionnaires was 93%; the median follow-up was 1 year (range 0.9 to 1.6). In the long-term, a recurrence was found in four patients. These patients were treated successfully with repeated fissurectomy and BT injections and salvage procedures, respectively. Overall, the success rate of combined fissurectomy and BT injection was 79%. Combined fissurectomy and Botox injection for chronic anal fissure is an excellent and safe procedure with low morbidity and a high healing rate.

  6. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, K. M.; Hicks, Y. R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of multiple 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. LDI is a fuel-lean combustor concept for aero gas turbine engines in which multiple small fuel-air mixers replace one traditionally-sized fuel-air mixer. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center (pilot) fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer (main) fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle, which varies with the configuration. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 600 to 800 F and equivalence ratios from 0.4 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section.

  7. A Comparison of Combustion Dynamics for Multiple 7-Point Lean Direct Injection Combustor Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Kathleen M.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2017-01-01

    The combustion dynamics of two 7-point lean direct injection (LDI) combustor configurations are compared. This 7-point LDI configuration has a circular cross section, with a center ("pilot") fuel-air mixer surrounded by six outer ("main") fuel-air mixers. Each fuel-air mixer consists of an axial air swirler followed by a converging-diverging venturi. A simplex fuel injector is inserted through the center of the air swirler, with the fuel injector tip located near the venturi throat. All 7 fuel-air mixers are identical except for the swirler blade angle. In the 'all-60' configuration, the swirler blade angle was 60 deg for all fuel-air mixers. In the '45-60' configuration, the swirler blade angle was 60 deg on the center and 45 deg on the outer fuel-air mixers. Testing was done in a 5-atm flame tube with inlet air temperatures from 630 to 830 F and equivalence ratios from 0.2 to 0.7. Combustion dynamics were measured using a cooled PCB pressure transducer flush-mounted in the wall of the combustor test section. Both configurations had large pressure fluctuations (greater than 2 psi peak-peak) near 730 Hz, the quarter-wave frequency. The all-60 configuration also had large pressure fluctuations near 1170 Hz; the 45-60 configuration did not. The 45-60 configuration had large pressure fluctuations near 480 Hz; the all-60 configuration did not.

  8. Effect of Hyaluronidase Addition to Lidocaine for Trigger Point Injection in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Chul Joong; Lee, Sangmin M; Shin, Byung Seop; Jun, Byunghui; Sim, Woo Seog

    2015-10-07

    This randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy of hyaluronidase co-injection with that of local anesthesia alone on the degree of pain and quality of life in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty-one adults, aged 25 to 75 years, with MPS affecting both trapezius muscles were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups: lidocaine (group L: n = 31) or hyaluronidase (group H: n = 30). All patients received Trigger point injection (TPI). Group L received 3.2 mL 0.5% lidocaine alone. Group H received the same solution of lidocaine mixed with hyaluronidase (600 iu/mL). Patients were followed for 14 days (pre- and post-TPI days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14) with the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS), and the primary outcome was VNRS on day 7. Also, we evaluated the neck disability index (NDI) and the short form of brief pain inventory (BPI-SF) on pre- and post-TPI day 14. In both groups, VNRS decreased on days 4, 7, and 14 compared to the pre-TPI. However, in group H, VNRS decreased on day 1 also. There were no significant differences of VNRS between the 2 groups during 14 days. NDI and BPI-SF scores also significantly decreased after TPI in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of VNRS, NDI, or BPI-SF scores. However, TPI consisting of lidocaine mixed with hyaluronidase worked more effectively than lidocaine alone on post-TPI day 1. Further, hyaluronidase showed a tendency to reduce TPI-related soreness. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Mutual injection phase locking coherent combination of solid-state lasers based on corner cube.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Liu, Xu; Wan, Qiang; Zhu, Mengzhen; Mi, Chaowei; Tan, Chaoyong; Wei, Shangfang; Chen, Xia

    2013-12-01

    Coherent beam combination is an effective way to develop high-power lasers with high beam quality and high brightness. Coherent combination of six solid-state lasers based on the technique of mutual injection phase locking by using the natural coherent combination property of corner cube is first investigated. The coherent combination with 15.3 J of output energy, 1.7 mrad of divergent angle is obtained, and the combining efficiency is as high as 95.6% at 10 Hz and 85 A. The far-field profile is flattened protuberance.

  10. Factors Associated with the Efficacy of Trigger Point Injection in Advanced Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Kanbara, Kenji; Abe, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Hiroko; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have reported the efficacy of trigger point injection (TPI) to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in advanced cancer patients. Factors that are associated with TPI efficacy have not yet been elucidated. The study was aimed at evaluating factors that are associated with TPI efficacy to MTrPs in advanced cancer patients. Factors that are associated with TPI efficacy were retrospectively identified based on a comparison between clinically relevant responders and nonresponders by using multivariate regression analysis. One hundred five advanced cancer patients who visited the Palliative Care Department with a chief complaint of pain and who received TPI treatment to the MTrP at the pain site. The TPI efficacy rate on the day after TPI treatment was 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.68). Significant factors associated with TPI efficacy were coexistence of cancer pain with MTrP at the pain site (odds ratio [OR]: 3.87, 95% CI: 1.21-12.4), MTrP at areas other than lower back or hip (OR: 6.45, 95% CI: 1.98-21.0), and fewer MTrPs (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42-0.99). Coexistence of cancer pain at the pain site of the chief complaint was observed in 64% of study subjects (95% CI: 0.55-0.73). The TPI efficacy is likely high when advanced cancer patients have fewer MTrPs together with cancer pain at areas other than the lower back or hip. MTrPs in advanced cancer patients are more commonly observed together with cancer pain rather than independently. Healthcare providers should recognize the relationship between MTrP and cancer pain and proactively perform physical examinations to detect MTrPs for potential TPI.

  11. Trigger point injections for headache disorders: expert consensus methodology and narrative review.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Matthew S; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Charleston, Larry; Sorrell, Michael; Robertson, Carrie E; Grosberg, Brian M; Bender, Steven D; Napchan, Uri; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2014-10-01

    To review the existing literature and describe a standardized methodology by expert consensus for the performance of trigger point injections (TPIs) in the treatment of headache disorders. Despite their widespread use, the efficacy, safety, and methodology of TPIs have not been reviewed specifically for headache disorders by expert consensus. The Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Other Interventional Procedures Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society over a series of meetings reached a consensus for nomenclature, indications, contraindications, precautions, procedural details, outcomes, and adverse effects for the use of TPIs for headache disorders. A subcommittee of the Section also reviewed the literature. Indications for TPIs may include many types of episodic and chronic primary and secondary headache disorders, with the presence of active trigger points (TPs) on physical examination. Contraindications may include infection, a local open skull defect, or an anesthetic allergy, and precautions are necessary in the setting of anticoagulant use, pregnancy, and obesity with unclear anatomical landmarks. The most common muscles selected for TPIs include the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and temporalis, with bupivacaine and lidocaine the agents used most frequently. Adverse effects are typically mild with careful patient and procedural selection, though pneumothorax and other serious adverse events have been infrequently reported. When performed in the appropriate setting and with the proper expertise, TPIs seem to have a role in the adjunctive treatment of the most common headache disorders. We hope our effort to characterize the methodology of TPIs by expert opinion in the context of published data motivates the performance of evidence-based and standardized treatment protocols. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  12. Fabrication of long-focal-length plano-convex microlens array by combining the micro-milling and injection molding processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Kirchberg, Stefan; Jiang, Bing-Yan; Xie, Lei; Jia, Yun-Long; Sun, Lei-Lei

    2014-11-01

    A uniform plano-convex spherical microlens array with a long focal length was fabricated by combining the micromilling and injection molding processes in this work. This paper presents a quantitative study of the injection molding process parameters on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The variation of the injection process parameters, i.e., barrel temperature, mold temperature, injection speed, and packing pressure, was found to have a significant effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses, especially the barrel temperature. The filling-to-packing switchover point is also critical to the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. The optimal uniformity was achieved when the polymer melts completely filled the mold cavity, or even a little excessively filled the cavity, during the filling stage. In addition, due to the filling resistance, the practical filling-to-packing switchover point can vary with the change of the filling processing conditions and lead to a non-negligible effect on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses. Furthermore, the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses was analyzed in detail. The results indicated that the effect of injection speed on the uniformity of the height of the microlenses is mainly attributed to the two functions of injection speed: transferring the filling-to-packing switchover point and affecting the distribution of residual flow stress in the polymer melt.

  13. Combination Space Station Handrail Clamp and Pointing Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for attaching an experiment carrier to a space station handrail is provided. The device has two major components, a clamping mechanism for attachment to a space station handrail, and a pointing carrier on which an experiment package can be mounted and oriented. The handrail clamp uses an overcenter mechanism and the carrier mechanism uses an adjustable preload ball and socket for carrier positioning. The handrail clamp uses a stack of disk springs to provide a spring loaded button. This configuration provides consistent clamping force over a range of possible handrail thicknesses. Three load points are incorporated in the clamping mechanism thereby spreading the clamping load onto three separate points on the handrail. A four bar linkage is used to provide for a single actuation lever for all three load points. For additional safety, a secondary lock consisting of a capture plate and push lock keeps the clamp attached to the handrail in the event of main clamp failure. For the carrier positioning mechanism, a ball in a spring loaded socket uses friction to provide locking torque; however. the ball and socket are torque limited so that the ball ran slip under kick loads (125 pounds or greater). A lead screw attached to disk spring stacks is used to provide an adjustable spring force on the socket. A locking knob is attached to the lead screw to allow for hand manipulation of the lead screw.

  14. Short-term change of handgrip strength after trigger point injection in women with muscular pain in the upper extremities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jin; Ahn, Dong Heun; Jung, Ji Hun; Kim, Yong Rok; Lee, Young Jin

    2014-04-01

    To determine overall handgrip strength (HGS), we assessed the short-term change of HGS after trigger point injection (TPI) in women with muscular pain in the upper extremities by comparison with established pain scales. The study enrolled 50 female patients (FMS with MPS group: 29 patients with combined fibromyalgia [FMS] and myofascial pain syndrome [MPS]; MPS group: 21 patients with MPS) who presented with muscular pain in the upper extremities at Konyang University Hospital. In addition, a total of 9 healthy women (control group) were prospectively enrolled in the study. We surveyed the three groups using the following established pain scales: the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). HGS was measured in both hands of study participants using a handgrip dynamometer. We performed TPI (0.5% lidocaine, total 10 mL, injected at the pain site of upper extremities). After 20 minutes, we remeasured the patient's HGS and MPQ score. ANOVA analysis was conducted among groups. Based on Tukey multiple comparison test, the majority of FIQ and SF-36 subscales, total FIQ and SF-36 scores, MPQ and HGS were significantly different between FMS with MPS and the other groups. There was no statistically significant difference between MPS and control groups. Higher HGS was positively associated with enhanced physical function, negatively associated with total FIQ and MPQ scores, and positively associated with the total SF-36 score calculated using Spearman correlation. Post-TPI MPQ decreased and HGS increased. In patient groups, a negative correlation was found between MPQ and HGS. The HGS test might potentially be a complementary tool in assessing the short-term treatment effects of women with muscular pain in the upper extremities.

  15. [Evaluation of the combined treatment of oral viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid intra-articular injection on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Panuccio, E; Memeo, A; Richetta, S

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinical evidences support the treatment of knee OA (KOA) with oral formulations based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The formulation aim of the present study (IA) combines a hydrolyzed low molecular weight collagen matrix providing high content of depolymerised HA and CS, with methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), Manganese and a milk glycoprotein. The goal was to evaluate whether combined treatment with intra - articular injection of HA and AI is more effective than treatment with HA only for the symptomatic treatment of knee OA. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients (nr = 100), after undergoing an intra-articular injection with HA, were randomized to receive IA or placebo for 3 months. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by measuring at baseline, 1 and 3 months, the values of the VAS pain scale, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the Tegner Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale, Lequesne algofunctional index and the consumption of NSAIDs and analgesics. The treatment group HA + IA showed a positive trend compared to the group treated with HA only for all the efficacy variables observed, in particular regarding the VAS and the analgesic consumption. The evidences obtained in this study point out that the oral viscosupplementation with the formulation aim of the present study (IA) represents a valuable, manageable, effective and well tolerated aid, useful to maintain and extend the benefits obtained with intra - articular injection of HA, helping to significantly reduce the use of painkillers by patients.

  16. Combining aerosol injection at several different latitudes to optimize the climate response to geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, D. G.; Kravitz, B.; Tilmes, S.; Richter, J.; Mills, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The predicted climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols depends on how it is implemented. By injecting aerosols or precursors to the stratosphere simultaneously at multiple different latitudes, the spatial pattern of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be at least partially controlled; this in turn allows some ability to design geoengineering in order to achieve desired climate objectives. Simulations from the fully-coupled whole-atmosphere chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM) demonstrate that appropriate combinations of SO2 injection at different locations allows at least three distinct spatial degrees of freedom of AOD to be achieved: the level of uniform AOD, the relative AOD in Northern versus Southern hemispheres, and the relative AOD in high versus low latitudes. These three degrees of freedom can be used to independently influence the corresponding three degrees of freedom of surface temperature response. For forcing levels that yield 1-2C cooling, the AOD and surface temperature response in this model are sufficiently linear so that many climate effects can be predicted by combining results from individual simulations for each injection latitude. Optimizing the amount of injection at multiple locations is predicted to improve compensation of CO2-forced climate change by stratospheric-aerosol geoengineering, reducing the area-weighted mean-square error of temperature compensation by more than 40% relative to a case using only equatorial aerosol injection.

  17. [Hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection for unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-qun; Yu, Nan-rong; Liu, Hai-ying

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection in patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Clinical data of 23 patients with multiple liver metastases form colorectal cancer in the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College between January 2005 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 15 males and 8 females with average age of 52.2 years. All the patients underwent hepatectomy combined with ultrasound-guided cryoablation and ethanol injection intraoperatively. Among 98 lesions in 23 patients, 45 were removed intraoperatively and 53 were treated by cryoablation and ethanol injection. Operative time for liver lesions ranged from 27 to 96 minutes and intraoperative blood loss 50 to 450 ml. One patient developed pleural effusion and 1 myoglobinuria after operation. All the patients were followed up with a median follow-up time of 34 months(8 to 70 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 83.2%, 45.5% and 37.6% respectively. Hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

  18. Manufacturing injection-moleded Fresnel lens parquets for point-focus concentrating photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.M.; Masso, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    This project involved the manufacturing of curved-faceted, injection-molded, four-element Fresnel lens parquets for concentrating photovoltaic arrays. Previous efforts showed that high-efficiency (greater than 82%) Fresnel concentrators could be injection molded. This report encompasses the mold design, molding, and physical testing of a four-lens parquet for a solar photovoltaic concentrator system.

  19. Computer-aided detection scheme for sentinel lymph nodes in lymphoscintigrams using symmetrical property around mapped injection point.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Ryohei; Hizukuri, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Koji; Nakako, Nobuo; Nagasawa, Naoki; Takeda, Kan

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) around an injection point of radiopharmaceuticals mapped in lymphoscintigrams. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for SLNs by a subtraction technique using the symmetrical property in the mapped injection point. Our database consisted of 78 lymphoscintigrams with 86 SLNs. In our CAD scheme, the mapped injection point of radiopharmaceuticals was first segmented from the lymphoscintigram using a gray-level thresholding technique. Lymphoscintigram was then divided into four regions by vertical and horizontal straight lines through the center of the segmented injection point. One of the four divided regions was defined as the target region. The correlation coefficients based on pixel values were calculated between the target region and each of the other three regions. The region with the highest correlation coefficient among three regions was selected as the similar region to the target region. The values of pixels on the target region were subtracted by the values of the corresponding pixels on the similar region. This procedure was repeated until every divided region had been used as target region. SLNs were segmented by applying a gray-level thresholding technique to the subtracted image. With our CAD scheme, sensitivity and the number of false positives were 95.3% (82/86) and 2.51 per image, respectively. Our CAD scheme achieved a high level of detection accuracy, and would have a great potential in assisting physicians to detect SLNs in lymphoscintigrams.

  20. Combination of intraneural injection and high injection pressure leads to fascicular injury and neurologic deficits in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hadzic, Admir; Dilberovic, Faruk; Shah, Shruti; Kulenovic, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Zaciragic, Asija; Cosovic, Esad; Vuckovic, Ilvana; Divanovic, Kucuk-Alija; Mornjakovic, Zakira; Thys, Daniel M; Santos, Alan C

    2004-01-01

    Unintentional intraneural injection of local anesthetics may cause mechanical injury and pressure ischemia of the nerve fascicles. One study in small animals showed that intraneural injection may be associated with higher injection pressures. However, the pressure heralding an intraneural injection and the clinical consequences of such injections remain controversial. Our hypothesis is that an intraneural injection is associated with higher pressures and an increase in the risk of neurologic injury as compared with perineural injection. Seven dogs of mixed breed (15-18 kg) were studied. After general endotracheal anesthesia, the sciatic nerves were exposed bilaterally. Under direct microscopic guidance, a 25-gauge needle was placed either perineurally (into the epineurium) or intraneurally (within the perineurium), and 4 mL of lidocaine 2% (1:250,000 epinephrine) was injected by using an automated infusion pump (4 mL/min). Injection pressure data were acquired by using an in-line manometer coupled to a computer via an analog digital conversion board. After injection, the animals were awakened and subjected to serial neurologic examinations. On the 7th day, the dogs were killed, the sciatic nerves were excised, and histologic examination was performed by pathologists blinded to the purpose of the study. Whereas all perineural injections resulted in pressures < or =4 psi, the majority of intraneural injections were associated with high pressures (25-45 psi) at the beginning of the injection. Normal motor function returned 3 hours after all injections associated with low injection pressures (< or =11 psi), whereas persistent motor deficits were observed in all 4 animals having high injection pressures (> or =25 psi). Histologic examination showed destruction of neural architecture and degeneration of axons in all 4 sciatic nerves receiving high-pressure injections. High injection pressures at the onset of injection may indicate an intraneural needle placement and lead

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Calcium Chloride Alone and Combined with Lactic Acid Injected into Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Chicken breast meat was injected with calcium chloride alone and in combination with lactic acid (0.01% and 0.002%, respectively). The inhibitory effects of the treatments on microbial growth were determined in the injected chicken breast meat stored at 4°C under aerobic packaging condition for 0, 3, and 7 d. Calcium chloride combined with 0.002% and 0.01% lactic acid reduced microbial counts by 0.14 and 1.08 Log CFU/g, respectively, however, calcium chloride alone was unable to inhibit microbial growth. Calcium chloride combined with 0.01% lactic acid was the most effective antimicrobial treatment and resulted in the highest initial redness value. Calcium chloride alone and combined with lactic acid suppressed changes in pH and the Hunter color values during storage. However, injection of calcium chloride and lactic acid had adverse effects on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics. The higher TBARS values were observed in samples treated with calcium chloride and lactic acid when compared to control over the storage period. Addition of calcium chloride and lactic acid resulted in lower sensory scores for parameters tested, except odor and color, compared to control samples. Therefore, the formulation should be improved in order to overcome such defects prior to industrial application. PMID:26760942

  2. Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Energetic Ion Injections in the Inner Magnetosphere: Multi-Point Observations of a Substorm Event.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulidou, M.; Ohtani, S.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Turner, D. L.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Nose, M.; Koga, K.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma transport and energization of ions in the magnetotail has been shown to largely occur in the form of injections of hot plasma, localized in MLT, associated with bursty bulk flows and sharp dipolarizations of the magnetic field. However, the relationship of these transient tail phenomena to energetic particle injections into the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. Recent results by the RBSPICE instrument of the Van Allen Probes mission showed that the occurrence of energetic ion injections inside geosynchronous orbit can be very frequent throughout the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, and indicated that the contribution of such injections to the ring current buildup could be substantial. Understanding the formation and evolution of energetic ion injections in the inner magnetosphere and their relationship to transient phenomena in the tail is, therefore, of great importance. In order to differentiate between temporal and spatial variations, it is essential to investigate injections via multi-point observations. We study a substorm event that occurred during a small storm (Dst ~-40 nT), where two injections of energetic ions (50 - 300 keV), 10 minutes apart, were observed by RBSPICE instrument inside geosynchronous orbit, and six LANL and two GOES spacecraft at geosynchronous orbit. Geosynchronous spacecraft ETS-8, at a similar MLT with Van Allen Probe B, also observed the dipolarization signatures associated with these two injections. At the same time, two THEMIS spacecraft were monitoring the night-side magnetosphere at ~ 10 RE. Using ground-based magnetometer data, we are able to identify the eastward and westward edges of the current wedge associated with each one of these injections. The two injections, as observed in the inner magnetosphere, exhibit distinct differences in their dipolarization signatures as well as their duration. With all the above data at hand, we investigate the inward propagation of the injections into the inner

  3. Ultrasound-guided intra-tumor injection of combined immunotherapy cures mice from orthotopic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Giorgio; Chiodoni, Claudia; Parenza, Mariella; Arioli, Ivano; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Intra-tumor injection of immunotherapeutic agents is often the most effective, likely because of concomitant modification of tumor microenvironment. We tested an immunotherapeutic regimen consisting of CpG oligonucleotides and of adenovirus-mediated gene delivery of CCL16 chemokine directly into orthotopically implanted prostate tumors by ultrasound-guided injection, followed by systemic administration of an anti-IL-10R antibody. This combination treatment induced rapid stromal rearrangement, characterized by massive leukocyte infiltration and large areas of necrosis, a scenario that eventually led to complete tumor rejection and systemic immunity in 75 % of the treated mice. In vivo T lymphocyte depletion experiments demonstrated that the efficacy of CCL16/CpG/anti-IL-10R combination treatment relies upon CD8 T lymphocytes whereas CD4 T cells are dispensable. The results underlie the feasibility of echo-guided local immunotherapy of tumors located in visceral organs that are not easily accessible.

  4. Prevention of pain with the injection of microemulsion propofol: a comparison of a combination of lidocaine and ketamine with lidocaine or ketamine alone.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insung; Noh, Jung Il; Kim, Soon Im; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young

    2010-10-01

    Aquafol, a microemulsion propofol, causes more severe and frequent pain on injection than propofol. The purpose of this study was to compare a combination of lidocaine and ketamine on aquafol-induced pain with lidocaine or ketamine alone during the induction of anesthesia. In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, 130 healthy patients who were undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The patients received IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg (Group LK, n = 43), lidocaine 40 mg (Group L, n = 42), or ketamine 25 mg (Group K, n = 45) with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol. The pain score was assessed by a 4-point verbal rating scale (VRS) at 10 seconds after injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg and during the injection of the remaining total dose. The incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK than Group L or Group K at 10 seconds after the injection of microemulsion propofol 30 mg (P < 0.05). And the incidence and severity of pain was significantly lower in Group LK and Group K than Group L during the injection of the remaining total dose (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with IV lidocaine 40 mg plus ketamine 25 mg with a rubber tourniquet on the forearm 1 min before the injection of microemulsion propofol is more effective than lidocaine 40 mg or ketamine 25 mg alone in preventing pain from the injection of microemulsion propofol.

  5. Acupuncture needling versus lidocaine injection of trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome in elderly patients--a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Ga, Hyuk; Choi, Ji-Ho; Park, Chang-Hae; Yoon, Hyun-Jung

    2007-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of acupuncture needling and 0.5% lidocaine injection of trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome of elderly patients. Thirty nine participants with myofascial pain syndrome of one or both upper trapezius muscles were randomised to treatment with either acupuncture needling (n=18) or 0.5% lidocaine injection (n=21) at all the trigger points on days 0, 7 and 14, in a single-blinded study. Pain scores, range of neck movement, pressure pain intensity and depression were measured up to four weeks from the first treatment. Local twitch responses were elicited at least once in 94.9% of all subjects. Both groups improved, but there was no significant difference in reduction of pain in the two groups at any time point up to one month. Overall, the range of cervical movement improved in both groups, apart from extension in the acupuncture needling group. Changes in depression showed only trends. There was no significant difference between acupuncture needling and 0.5% lidocaine injection of trigger points for treating myofascial pain syndrome in elderly patients.

  6. Effect of temperature of CO2 injection on the pH and freezing point of milks and creams.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of CO2 injection temperature (0 degree C and 40 degrees C) on the pH and freezing point (FP) of (a) milks with different fat contents (i.e., 0, 15, 30%) and (b) creams with 15% fat but different fat characteristics. Skim milk and unhomogenized creams containing 15 and 30% fat were prepared from the same batch of whole milk and were carbonated at 0 and 40 degrees C in a continuous flow CO2 injection unit (230 ml/min). At 0 degree C, milk fat was mostly solid; at 40 degrees C, milk fat was liquid. At the same total CO2 concentration with CO2 injection at 0 degree C, milk with a higher fat content had a lower pH and FP, while with CO2 injection at 40 degrees C, milks with 0%, 15%, and 30% fat had the same pH. This indicated that less CO2 was dissolved in the fat portion of the milk when the CO2 was injected at 0 degree C than when it was injected at 40 degrees C. Three creams, 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% butter oil emulsion in skim milk, and 15% vegetable oil emulsion in skim milk were also carbonated and analyzed as described above. Vegetable oil was liquid at both 0 and 40 degrees C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C, the 15% vegetable oil emulsion had a slightly higher pH than the 15% butter oil emulsion and the 15% unhomogenized cream, indicating that the liquid vegetable oil dissolved more CO2 than the mostly solid milk fat and butter oil. No difference in the pH or FP of the 15% unhomogenized cream and 15% butter oil emulsion was observed when CO2 was injected at 0 degree C, suggesting that homogenization or physical dispersion of milk fat globules did not influence the amount of CO2 dissolved in milk fat at a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 40 degrees C and at the same total CO2 concentration, the 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% vegetable oil emulsion, and 15% butter oil emulsion had similar pH. At the same total concentration of CO2 in cream, injection

  7. [Registration of 30 026 cases of Shenqi Fuzheng injection combined with other drugs in real world].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Ai, Qing-Hua; Feng, Qian

    2016-12-01

    Prospective, multi-center, large-sample and registered design was used to analyze the drug combination features of Shenqi Fuzheng injection in the real world clinical application, and comprehend the drug combination in the real world. A total of 30 026 patients with the use of Shenqi Fuzheng injection were registered, where the chemical drugs were used for 57 436 times (accounting for 82.76%), and the Chinese patent medicines were used for 11 962 times (accounting for 17.24%), mainly including anti-acid drugs and anti-ulcer drugs, nutritional agent, immune enhancement agent, etc. According to the association rules, drug combinations of 2 drugs were closely related to inhibiting gastric acid secretion and anti-tumor; drug combinations of 3 drugs were closely related to inhibiting gastric acid secretion, antiemetic and anti tumor; drug combinations of 4 drugs were closely related to inhibiting gastric acid secretion, antiemetic, anti-tumor, and immune enhancement. The above results were consistent with the Instruction, providing clues for accurate treatment, and laying the foundation for clinical rational drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Combination of motherwort injection and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Shihong; Pan, Wenjing; Tan, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of motherwort injection combined with oxytocin for preventing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after cesarean section (CS). From March 2011 and February 2013, a randomized study was conducted on 165 primipara undergoing CS. 83 and 82 cases were placed into the combination of oxytocin and motherwort group and oxytocin group, respectively. Blood loss was calculated and measured during three periods: from placental delivery to the end of CS, from the end of CS to 2 h postpartum and from 2 h postpartum to 24 h postpartum. Vital signs were also measured. Blood loss in the period from placental delivery to the end of CS was similar (P = 0.58) in these two arms. The quantity of total blood loss from the end of CS to 2 h postpartum (P = 0.03) and from 2 h postpartum to 24 h postpartum (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in the combination of oxytocin and motherwort group. No significant abnormal vital signs were observed. Mild, transient side effects occurred more often in the combination of oxytocin and motherwort group. It is efficacious and safe that combination use of motherwort injection and oxytocin could reduce blood loss and prevent PPH after CS.

  9. Riboflavin injection into the corneal channel for combined collagen crosslinking and intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Aylin; Kamburoglu, Gunhal; Akıncı, Arsen

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intracorneal riboflavin injection for combined collagen crosslinking (CXL) and intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation. Kudret Eye Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Noncomparative case series. Keratoconic eyes had combined ICRS (Intacs) implantation and transepithelial CXL with 20% alcohol application and riboflavin injection into the corneal channel. Outcome measures were uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, sphere, cylinder, and keratotomy (K) readings. The study enrolled 131 eyes (105 patients) with a mean follow-up of 7.07 months ± 4.66 (SD). The mean improvement was 0.26 ± 0.16 logMAR in UDVA and 0.24 ± 0.16 logMAR in CDVA (both P<.05). The mean manifest spherical refraction decreased from -3.87 ± 4.55 diopters (D) to -1.25 ± 2.31 D, the mean manifest cylinder improved from -3.89 ± 1.97 D to -2.27 ± 2.18 D, and the mean K reading improved from 50.50 ± 5.26 D to 46.03 ± 4.51 D (all P<.05). There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Combined ICRS and CXL treatment with intracorneal riboflavin injection was effective in keratoconic eyes. Intracorneal riboflavin injection into the tunnel was safe and may provide more penetration without epithelial removal. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined versus sequential injection of mepivacaine and ropivacaine for supraclavicular nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Roberman, Dmitry; Arora, Harendra; Sessler, Daniel I; Ritchey, Michael; You, Jing; Kumar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    An ideal local anesthetic with rapid onset and prolonged duration has yet to be developed. Clinicians use mixtures of local anesthetics in an attempt to combine their advantages. We tested the hypothesis that sequential supraclavicular injection of 1.5% mepivacaine followed 90 secs later by 0.5% ropivacaine speeds onset of sensory block and prolongs duration of analgesia compared with simultaneous injection of the same 2 local anesthetics. We enrolled 103 patients undergoing surgery suitable for supraclavicular anesthesia. The primary outcome was time to 4-nerve sensory block onset in each of the 4 major nerve distributions: median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous. Secondary outcomes included time to onset of first sensory block, time to complete motor block, duration of analgesia, pain scores at rest and with movement, and total opioid consumption. Outcomes were compared using the Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test or the analysis of variance, as appropriate. Times to 4-nerve sensory block onset were not different between sequential and combined anesthetic administration. The time to complete motor block onset was faster in the combined group as compared with the sequential. There were not significant differences between the 2 randomized groups in other secondary outcomes, such as the time to onset of first sensory block, the duration of analgesia, the pain scores at rest or with movement, or the total opioid consumption. Sequential injection of 1.5% mepivacaine followed 90 secs later by 0.5% ropivacaine provides no advantage compared with simultaneous injection of the same doses. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  11. Combined Therapy of Radiofrequency Ablation and Ethanol Injection of Rabbit Liver: An In Vivo Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2004-03-15

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) on the extent of ablation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue as compared with either therapy alone. Twenty-two New Zealand white rabbits were included in this study and allocated into three groups: group A: conventional RFA (n = 6); group B: PEI (n = 6); group C: combined RFA and PEI (n = 10). For combined RFA and PEI, under ultrasound guidance, 1 mL of absolute ethanol was injected into the target area of the liver parenchyma through a 21-gauge Chiba needle before performing RFA. RFA was performed using a 17- gauge internally cooled electrode with 1-cm active tip, and RF energy (30 W) was applied for 3 minutes, with or without ethanol injection. After RFA or PEI, contrast-enhanced computed tomography and CT-pathologic correlation were performed. The short- axis and long-axis diameters of thermal lesions of each group were compared. All procedures were technically successful and a total of 38 lesions were produced. The mean short-axis and long-axis diameter of the coagulation necrosis in rabbits of group C (combination of RFA and PEI), were significantly larger than those of other groups: group A: 10.3 {+-} 2 mm and 11.4 {+-} 2 mm; group B: 3.1 {+-} 1 mm and 4.3 {+-} 2 mm; group C: 12.8 {+-} 3 mm and 17.8 {+-} 6 mm (p < 0.05). On contrast-enhanced CT scan, the lesions of rabbits of the group C appeared to be more frequently irregular compared to those of group A (20% in group A vs. 67% in group C). There were three complications including two localized hematomas and one cardiopulmonary failure. Combined RFA and PEI could increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis without increasing complications and therefore, may be successfully used for treating larger lesions.

  12. A Comparative Pilot Study to Evaluate the Adjunctive Role of Levosulpride with Trigger Point Injection Therapy in the Management of Myofascial Pain Syndrome of Orofacial Region.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pranav; Singh, Virendra; Sethi, Sujata; Kumar, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of therapy with levosulpride combined with conventional trigger point injection therapy in terms of pain and depression in the chronic myofascial pain syndrome patients. This was a comparative prospective study in which subjects with at least one trigger point and symptom duration of at least 3 months were recruited and randomized into two groups. Group A subjects received trigger point injections with 0.5 % bupivacaine and tablet levosulpride and group B received trigger point injections and a placebo. Subjects were assessed for pain with visual analog scale (VAS) and depression with Beck's depression inventory (BDI) at the follow-up periods of 1, 4, 6 and 12 weeks. The treatment effect was measured in terms of mean difference of BDI and VAS scores at various studied intervals from the baseline values. The sample was composed of 15 subjects with 8 in group A (6 females and 2 males, with a mean age of 41.88 ± 15.13 years, disease duration of 12.37 ± 16.11 months) and 7 in group B (6 females and 1 male, with a mean age of 43.86 ± 12.34 years, disease duration of 9.64 ± 9.34 months). The mean baseline VAS score and BDI score was 6.75 ± 1.03 in group A and 6.86 ± 1.06 in group B and 24.25 ± 10.20 in group A and 24.43 ± 11.16 in group B respectively. The mean difference of VAS scores at 12th week interval from the baseline values was highly significant. Although the mean difference of VAS scores at all the other intervals and mean difference of BDI scores at all the intervals was statistically nonsignificant, there was improvement in the mean differences at all the follow-up intervals in terms of both pain as well as depression. The combined therapy with conventional trigger point injection and levosulpride as antidepressant significantly reduce pain and depression in the study subjects suffering from chronic myofascial pain with moderate to severe depression in the orofacial region.

  13. Effect of intratesticular injection of xylazine/ketamine combination on canine castration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-ki; Jeong, Seong-mok; Yi, Na-Young; Jeong, Man-Bok; Lee, Eun-song; Nam, Tchi-chou; Seo, Kang-moon

    2004-06-01

    This study was performed to compare the effect of intratesticular (IT) injection of xylazine/ketamine combination for canine castration with those of intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) injection. Xylazine and ketamine was administered simultaneously via intratesticularly (IT group), intramuscularly (IM group) or intravenously (IV group) at doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Pain response at the time of injection, mean induction time, mean arousal time, mean walking time and cardiopulmonary function during anesthesia were monitored after the xylazine and ketamine administration. In IV and IM groups, heart rates were significantly decreased 30 and 45 min after xylazine and ketamine administration, respectively (p < 0.05). Respiratory rates were significantly decreased in the IV group (p < 0.05). In the IT group, there was no significant changes in heart and respiratory rates. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias was less severe in IT group compared with those in IM and IV groups. The route of administration did not affect rectal temperature. Mean induction time was significantly (p < 0.05) longer in IT group than in IM and IV groups. On the contrary, mean arousal time and mean walking time were shortened in IT group. Clinical signs related to pain response at the time of injection and vomiting were less observed in IT group than in IM group, and head shaking was less shown in IT group than in IM and IV groups during recovery period. These results indicated that intratesticular injection of xylazine/ketamine for castration has several advantages such as less inhibition of cardiopulmonary function and fast recovery from anesthesia without severe complications, and would be an effective anesthetic method for castration in small animal practice.

  14. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, T. Kaminou, T. Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ihaya, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  15. Corticosteroid or placebo injection combined with deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching and eccentric exercise for acute lateral epicondylitis: a randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olaussen, Morten; Holmedal, Øystein; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Brage, Søren; Lindbæk, Morten

    2015-05-20

    Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow is a frequent condition with long-lasting symptoms. Corticosteroid injection is increasingly discouraged and there is little knowledge on the combined effect of corticosteroid injection and physiotherapy for acute conditions. We wanted to investigate the efficacy of physiotherapy alone and combined with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, controlled study with one-year follow-up was conducted in a general practice setting in Sarpsborg, Norway. We included 177 men and women aged 18 to 70 with clinically diagnosed lateral epicondylitis of recent onset (2 weeks to 3 months). They were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: physiotherapy with two corticosteroid injections, physiotherapy with two placebo injections or wait-and-see (control). Physiotherapy consisted of deep transverse friction massage, Mills manipulation, stretching, and eccentric exercises. We used double blind injection of corticosteroid and single blind assessments. The main outcome measure was treatment success defined as patients rating themselves completely recovered or much better on a six-point scale. One hundred fifty-seven patients (89 %) completed the trial. Placebo injection with physiotherapy showed no significant difference compared to control or to corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy at any follow-up. Corticosteroid injection with physiotherapy had a 10.6 times larger odds for success at six weeks (odds ratio 10.60, p < 0.01) compared to control (NNT = 3, 99 % CI 1.5 to 4.2). At 12 weeks there was no significant difference between these groups, but at 26 weeks the odds for success were 91 % lower (OR 0.09, p < 0.01) compared to control, showing a large negative effect (NNT = 5, 99 % CI 2.1 to 67.4). At 52 weeks there was no significant difference. Both control and placebo injection with physiotherapy showed a gradual increase in success. Acute lateral epicondylitis is a self-limiting condition where 3

  16. Fissurectomy combined with botulinum toxin A injection for medically resistant chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Witte, M E; Klaase, J M; Koop, R

    2010-07-01

    Chemical sphincterotomy, the use of pharmacological agents to reduce anal sphincter resting pressure, has become more and more popular in the treatment of chronic anal fissures (CAFs). It offers the possibility to avoid a lateral internal sphincterotomy and its associated risk of incontinence. In our hospital, patient with a chronic anal fissure are consecutively treated with isosorbide dinitrate 1% ointment, applied 6 times a day for 8 weeks, followed by diltiazem 2% ointment, applied 2 times a day for 8 weeks and Botulin Toxin A injections (Dysport; Ipsen, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands) in the internal anal sphincter. In a previous study (1), we describe high healing rates with this regime. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the combination of fissurectomy and Botulin Toxin A in the treatment of CAFs. Twenty-one patients (10 male patients, median age 48 years) with persistent symptoms of chronic anal fissures after following the above mentioned treatment, were enrolled in this study. Fissurectomy was combined with Botulinum Toxin A (80 U of Dysport) under regional anaesthesia in day care. Results After 12 weeks 19/21 CAFs (90%) had healed. Median follow-up was 16 (9-30) months. No recurrences were seen. Fissurectomy in combination with Botulinum Toxin A injection in the internal anal sphincter is an effective treatment for medically resistant CAFs.

  17. Evaluation of dexmedetomidine and ketamine in combination with opioids as injectable anesthesia for castration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barletta, Michele; Austin, Brenda R; Ko, Jeff C; Payton, Mark E; Weil, Ann B; Inoue, Tomohito

    2011-05-01

    To compare efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and ketamine in combination with butorphanol, hydromorphone, or buprenorphine (with or without reversal by atipamezole) in dogs undergoing castration. Prospective, randomized, split-plot, blinded study. 30 healthy client-owned sexually intact male dogs. Dogs (n = 10 dogs/group) were assigned to receive dexmedetomidine (15 μg/kg [6.82 μg/lb]) and ketamine (3 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb]) with butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]; DKBut), the same dosages of dexmedetomidine and ketamine with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]; DKH), or the same dosages of dexmedetomidine and ketamine with buprenorphine (40 μg/kg [18.18 μg/lb]; DKBup). All drugs were administered as a single IM injection for induction and maintenance of anesthesia for castration. At conclusion of the surgery, 5 dogs in each treatment group received atipamezole (150 μg/kg [68.18 μg/lb], IM), and the remainder received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM. Cardiorespiratory variables and quality of anesthesia were assessed. Supplemental isoflurane was administered to the dogs when anesthesia was considered inadequate during surgery. All drug combinations rapidly induced anesthesia. Dogs were intubated within 10 minutes after injection. Supplemental isoflurane was needed during surgery in 1, 3, and 4 dogs in the DKBup, DKBut, and DKH groups, respectively. Dogs that received atipamezole had a significantly shorter recovery time. Some dogs in each group had bradycardia and hypoxemia with hypertension. DKBup was the most suitable injectable anesthetic combination used. Recovery was shortened by IM administration of atipamezole. There were minimal adverse effects in all groups.

  18. Combined treatment of achalasia - botulinum toxin injection followed by pneumatic dilatation: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, R; Hep, A; Dolina, J; Valek, V; Matyasova, Z; Prokesova, J; Mrazova, J; Sedmik, J; Novotny, I

    2010-02-01

    Injection of botulinum toxin (BT) and pneumatic dilatation are available methods in nonsurgical treatment of achalasia. Authors anticipate beneficial effect of prior BT injection on the success of pneumatic dilatation and duration of its effect. There are no long-term data available to assess efficacy of combined treatment. From 1998 to 2007, 51 consecutive patients (20 men and 31 women, age 24-83) with achalasia were included and prospectively followed up. Each patient received injection of 200 IU of BT into the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) during endoscopy and 8 days later pneumatic dilatation (PD) under X-ray control was performed. The follow-up was established every 3 months first year and then annually. The efficacy was evaluated by a questionnaire concerning patient's symptoms and manometry. Results were compared with 40 historical controls (16 men and 24 women, age 26-80) treated by PD alone using the same method and follow-up. Fifty-one patients underwent combined treatment. Four patients failed in follow-up and were not included for analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 48 months with range 12-96 months. Thirty-four of forty-seven (72%) patients were satisfied with results with none or very rare and mild troubles at the time of the last visit. Forty-one patients were followed up more than 2 years. Effect of therapy lasted in 75% (31/41) of them. In 17 patients, more than 5 years after treatment, effect lasted in 12 (70%). Mean tonus of LES before therapy was 29 mm Hg (10-80), 3 months after therapy decreased to 14 mmHg (5-26). The cumulative 5 years remission rate (+/-95% CI) in combined treated patients 69% +/- 8% was higher than in controls 50% +/- 9%; however it, was not statistically significant (P= 0.07). In control group 1, case of perforation (2.5%) occurred. Eight patients (17%) with relapse of dysphagia were referred to laparoscopic Heller myotomy with no surgical complication. The main adverse effect was heartburn that appeared in 17

  19. Plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling reveals the potential antipyretic mechanisms of Qingkailing injection in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Huizhen; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Wang, Meiling; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2016-07-25

    Qingkailing injection (QKLI) has a notable antipyretic effect and is widely used in China as a clinical emergency medicine. To elucidate the pharmacological action thoroughly, following the investigation of the urine metabolome and hypothalamus metabolome, plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling of the QKLI antipyretic effect in a rat model is described in this paper. Compared with pure metabolomics profiling, this non-targeted plasma metabolomics combined with lipidomics profiling based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) could be used for a large-scale detection of features in plasma samples. The results showed that 15 metabolites at the 1 h time point and 19 metabolites at the 2 h time point after QKLI administration were associated with the antipyretic effect of QKLI, including amino acid, phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine. The metabolism pathway analysis revealed that the potential biomarkers, which were important for the antipyretic mechanism of QKLI, were closely responsible for correcting the perturbed pathways of amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, the use of complementary UPLC Q-TOF/MS based metabolomics and lipidomics allows for the discovery of new potential plasma biomarkers in the QKLI antipyretic process and the associated pathways, and aided in advancing the understanding of the holism and synergism of the Chinese drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological and Combined Interventions to Reduce Vaccine Injection Pain in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Halperin, Scott A.; Noel, Melanie; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy and combined interventions for reducing vaccine injection pain in individuals across the lifespan. Design/Methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Self-reported pain and fear as well as observer-rated distress were critically important outcomes. Data were combined using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Fifty-five studies that examined breastfeeding (which combines sweet-tasting solution, holding, and sucking), topical anesthetics, sweet-tasting solutions (sucrose, glucose), vapocoolants, oral analgesics, and combination of 2 versus 1 intervention were included. The following results report findings of analyses of critical outcomes with the largest number of participants. Compared with control, acute distress was lower for infants breastfed: (1) during vaccination (n=792): SMD −1.78 (CI, −2.35, −1.22) and (2) before vaccination (n=100): SMD −1.43 (CI, −2.14, −0.72). Compared with control/placebo, topical anesthetics showed benefit on acute distress in children (n=1424): SMD −0.91 (CI, −1.36, −0.47) and self-reported pain in adults (n=60): SMD −0.85 (CI, −1.38, −0.32). Acute and recovery distress was lower for children who received sucrose (n=2071): SMD −0.76 (CI, −1.19, −0.34) or glucose (n=818): SMD −0.69 (CI, −1.03, −0.35) compared with placebo/no treatment. Vapocoolants reduced acute pain in adults [(n=185), SMD −0.78 (CI, −1.08, −0.48)] but not children. Evidence from other needle procedures showed no benefit of acetaminophen or ibuprofen. The administration of topical anesthetics before and breastfeeding during vaccine injections showed mixed results when compared with topical anesthetics alone. There were no additive benefits of combining glucose and non-nutritive sucking (pacifier) compared with

  1. Botulinum type A toxin complex for the relief of upper back myofascial pain syndrome: how do fixed-location injections compare with trigger point-focused injections?

    PubMed

    Benecke, Reiner; Heinze, Axel; Reichel, Gerhard; Hefter, Harald; Göbel, Hartmut

    2011-11-01

    This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week, multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of fixed location injections of botulinum type A toxin (BoNT-A, Dysport) in predetermined injection sites in patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper back. Patients with moderate-to-severe myofascial pain syndrome affecting cervical and/or shoulder muscles (10 trigger points, disease duration 6-24 months) and moderate-to-severe pain intensity were randomized to BoNT-A (N = 81) or saline (N = 72). Patients received treatment into 10 predetermined fixed injection sites in the head, neck, and shoulder (40 units of BoNT-A per site or saline, a total of 400 units of BoNT-A). The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients with mild or no pain at week 5 (responders). Secondary outcomes included changes in pain intensity and the number of pain-free days per week. At week 5, 49% (37/76) of BoNT-A patients and 38% (27/72) of placebo patients had responded to treatment (P = 0.1873). Duration of daily pain was reduced in the BoNT-A group compared with the placebo group from week 5, with statistically significant differences at weeks 9 and 10 (P = 0.04 for both). Treatment was well tolerated. Fixed-location treatment with BoNT-A of patients with upper back myofascial pain syndrome did not lead to a significant improvement of the main target parameter in week 5 after treatment. Only in week 8 were significant differences found. Several secondary parameters, such as physicians' global assessment and patients' global assessment, significantly favored BoNT-A over placebo at weeks 8 and 12. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Azimuthal Uniformity of Injection Currents in Single-Point-Feed Induction Voltage Adders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WEI, Hao; SUN, Fengju; YIN, Jiahui; HU, Yixiang; LIANG, Tianxue; Peitian, CONG; Aici, QIU

    2015-03-01

    In order to investigate the injection current uniformity around the induction cell bores, two fully electromagnetic (EM) models are respectively established for a single-stage induction cell and an induction voltage adder (IVA) with three cells stacked in series, without considering electron emission. By means of these two models, some factors affecting the injection current uniformity are simulated and analyzed, such as the impedances of adders and loads, cell locations, and feed timing of parallel driving pulses. Simulation results indicate that higher impedances of adder and loads are slightly beneficial to improve injection current uniformity. As the impedances of adder and loads increase from 5 Ω to 30 Ω, the asymmetric coefficient of feed currents decreases from 10.3% to 6.6%. The current non-uniformity within the first cell is a little worse than that in other downstream cells. Simulation results also show that the feed timing would greatly affect current waveforms, and consequently cause some distortion in pulse fronts of cell output voltages. For a given driving pulse with duration time of 70-80 ns, the feed timing with a time deviation of less than 20 ns is acceptable for the three-cell IVAs, just causing the rise time of output voltages to increase about 5 ns at most and making the peak voltage decrease by 3.5%. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51307141), and partly by the State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation (Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology) under Contract SKLIPR 1206

  3. Chronic pain in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): The role of myofascial trigger point injections.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Saipriya; Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K; Khuba, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is a cardinal symptom in hypermobility type of Ehler Danlos Syndrome (EDS type III). The management of pain in EDS, however, has not been studied in depth. A 30 year old female, known case of EDS, presented to the pain clinic with complaints of severe upper back pain for 6 months. Physical examination of the back revealed two myofascial trigger points over the left rhomboids and the left erector spinae. Local anaesthetic trigger point injections were given at these points, followed by stretching exercises under analgesic cover for the first week. After 1 week the patient reported 60-80% pain relief. This case highlights that we must keep a high index of suspicion for the more treatable causes of pain like myofascial pain syndrome in patients suffering from EDS, and should address it promptly and appropriately in order to maximise patient comfort.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of an Injectable Combination Hormonal Contraceptive for Men.

    PubMed

    Behre, Hermann M; Zitzmann, Michael; Anderson, Richard A; Handelsman, David J; Lestari, Silvia W; McLachlan, Robert I; Meriggiola, M Cristina; Misro, Man Mohan; Noe, Gabriela; Wu, Frederick C W; Festin, Mario Philip R; Habib, Ndema A; Vogelsong, Kirsten M; Callahan, Marianne M; Linton, Kim A; Colvard, Doug S

    2016-12-01

    The development of a safe and effective reversible method of male contraception is still an unmet need. Evaluation of suppression of spermatogenesis and contraceptive protection by coadministered im injections of progestogen and testosterone. Prospective multicentre study. Ten study centers. Healthy men, aged 18-45 years, and their 18- to 38-year-old female partners, both without known fertility problems. Intramuscular injections of 200-mg norethisterone enanthate combined with 1000-mg testosterone undecanoate, administered every 8 weeks. Suppression of spermatogenesis by ejaculate analysis, contraceptive protection by pregnancy rate. Of the 320 participants, 95.9 of 100 continuing users (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.8-97.9) suppressed to a sperm concentration less than or equal to 1 million/mL within 24 weeks (Kaplan-Meier method). During the efficacy phase of up to 56 weeks, 4 pregnancies occurred among the partners of the 266 male participants, with the rate of 1.57 per 100 continuing users (95% CI, 0.59-4.14). The cumulative reversibility of suppression of spermatogenesis after 52 weeks of recovery was 94.8 per 100 continuing users (95% CI, 91.5-97.1). The most common adverse events were acne, injection site pain, increased libido, and mood disorders. Following the recommendation of an external safety review committee the recruitment and hormone injections were terminated early. The study regimen led to near-complete and reversible suppression of spermatogenesis. The contraceptive efficacy was relatively good compared with other reversible methods available for men. The frequencies of mild to moderate mood disorders were relatively high.

  5. Prepubertal gonadectomy in cats: different injectable anaesthetic combinations and comparison with gonadectomy at traditional age.

    PubMed

    Porters, Nathalie; de Rooster, Hilde; Moons, Christel P H; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Bosmans, Tim; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2015-06-01

    Anaesthetic and analgesic effects of three different injectable anaesthetic combinations for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) in cats were studied. One anaesthetic protocol was compared with a similar one for gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. For PPG, three different protocols were compared: (1) intramuscular (IM) administration of 60 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of the anaesthetic agent (20 mg/kg ketamine) (DB-IM protocol); (2) oral transmucosal (OTM) administration of 80 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of 20 mg/kg ketamine combined with 20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (DB-OTM protocol); (3) IM injection of a 40 μg/kg medetomidine-20 μg/kg buprenorphine-20 mg/kg ketamine combination (MBK-IM protocol). For TAG, a DB-IM protocol was used, but with different doses for dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg). All cats (PPG and TAG) received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory before surgery. Anaesthetic and analgesic effects were assessed pre- and postoperatively (until 6 h). Cumulative logit, linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Compared with the DB-OTM protocol, the DB-IM and MBK-IM protocols provided better anaesthesia with fewer adverse effects in PPG cats. Postoperative pain was not significantly different between anaesthetic protocols. PPG and TAG cats anaesthetised with the two DB-IM protocols differed significantly only for sedation and pain scores, but sedation and pain scores were generally low. Although there were no anaesthesia-related mortalities in the present study and all anaesthetic protocols for PPG in cats provided a surgical plane of anaesthesia and analgesia up to 6 h postoperatively, our findings were in favour of the intramuscular (DB-IM and MBK-IM) protocols. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  6. Radionuclide therapy using nanoparticle of 131I-Lactosome in combination with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Eri; Makino, Akira; Kurihara, Kensuke; Ueda, Motoki; Hara, Isao; Kawabe, Takashi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Ozeki, Eiichi; Togashi, Kaori; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2013-12-01

    We present here a radionuclide therapy using nanoparticle of 131I-labeled Lactosome (131I-Lactosome) is effective as a tumor therapy when combined with the local therapy of the percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT). A mixture of 131I-labeled poly( l-lactic acid)30 and amphiphilic block polymer of poly(sarcosine)64- block-poly( l-lactic acid)30 was dispersed in saline to generate polymeric micelles of 131I-Lactosome (the diameter of 46 nm with PDI of 0.057). Mice were transplanted with murine mammary cancer (4T1) cells, and a relatively small amount of ethanol was injected percutaneously to the tumor region, followed by intravenous administration of 131I-Lactosome (2.0 × 102 MBq/kg). At 16 days after the 131I-Lactosome dosage with PEIT, the relative tumor volume (RTV) was suppressed as low as 5.32 ± 1.06, while the RTV values became significant to be 15.9 ± 5.0 with PEIT alone and 17.4 ± 3.9 with 131I-Lactosome alone. Indeed, 131I-accumulation in the transplanted tumor region at 48 h after 131I-Lactosome dosage became three times higher with PEIT than that without PEIT. The nanoparticle-based radionuclide therapy in combination with PEIT was, therefore, effective in suppression of tumor proliferation.

  7. Lidocaine injection of pericranial myofascial trigger points in the treatment of frequent episodic tension-type headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of local lidocaine injections into the myofascial trigger points (TPs) located at the pericranial muscles in patients with episodic tension-type headache (ETTH). Methods The study included 108 patients with frequent ETTH that were randomized into 4 groups. One injection of saline (NaCl 0.9%) was administered to group 1 (n = 27), 1 injection of lidocaine (0.5%) was administered to group 2 (n = 27), group 3 (n = 27) received 5 injections of saline (NaCl 0.9%), and group 4 (n = 27) received 5 injections of lidocaine (0.5%); on alternate days 2 mL for each muscle was injected into the frontal, temporal, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, semispinalis capitis, trapezius and splenius capitis muscles bilaterally. The frequency of painful days per month (FPD) and the patients’ visual analogue scales (VAS) were evaluated before treatment, and 2, 4 and 6 months after treatment. Results Mean age of the patients was 36.28 ± 9.41 years (range: 18–54 years). FPD scores improved significantly in group 2, 3 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment compared to pre- treatment (all P < 0.05), and also VAS scores improved significantly in group 2 and 4 at 2 months posttreatment (P < 0.05) but this improvement insisted at the 6 month only in group 4. Group 2 had better VAS and FPD than group 1 only at 2. and 4. months after treatment (for VAS P < 0.0121, P = 0.0232; for FPD P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively). Group 4 had better scores than group 3 at the 2., 4. and 6. months after treatment in both parameters (all P < 0.05). Group 2 had better scores than group 1 in FPD at the 2. and 4. months posttreatment (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0004, respectively), but not at the 6. month. Conclusion Local lidocaine injections into the myofascial TPs located in the pericranial muscles could be considered as an effective alternative treatment for ETTH. PMID:23698019

  8. Power-free sequential injection for microchip immunoassay toward point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuo; Omata, Masaki; Sato, Kae; Maeda, Mizuo

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a simple fluid handling technique for microchip immunoassay. Necessary solutions were sequentially injected into a microchannel by air-evacuated poly(dimethylsiloxane), and were passively regulated by capillary force at the inlet opening. For heterogeneous immunoassay, microchips are potentially useful for reduction of sample consumption and assay time. However, most of the previously reported microchips have limitations in their use because of the needs for external power sources for fluid handling. In this paper, an on-chip heterogeneous immunofluorescence assay without such an external power source is demonstrated. The microchip consisting of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and glass has a simple structure, and therefore is suitable for single-use applications. Necessary solutions were sequentially injected into a microchannel in an autonomous fashion with the power-free pumping technique, which exploits the high solubility and the rapid diffusion of air in PDMS. For deionized water, this method yielded flow rates of 3-5 nL s-1 with reproducibility of 4-10%. The inlet opening of the microchannel functioned as a passive valve to hold the solution when the flow was finished. Rabbit immunoglobulin G (rIgG) and human C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected using the microchannel walls as reaction sites. With the sample consumption of 1 microL and the assay time of approximately 20 min including the antibody immobilization step, the sandwich immunoassay methods for rIgG and CRP exhibited the limits of detection of 0.21 nM (0.21 fmol) and 0.42 nM (0.42 fmol), respectively.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Jose L; Patterson, Thomas L; Graff-Zivin, Joshua S; Kahn, James G; Rangel, M Gudelia; Lozada, M Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS) to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ) Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008-2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP) in TJ, but not in CJ. A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY) over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs) compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300). For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,360 ($310-$7,200) per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310-$7,200) compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of interactive safer sex

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Combined Sexual and Injection Risk Reduction Interventions among Female Sex Workers Who Inject Drugs in Two Very Distinct Mexican Border Cities.

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Jose L.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Graff-Zivin, Joshua S.; Kahn, James G.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Lozada, M. Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of combined single session brief behavioral intervention, either didactic or interactive (Mujer Mas Segura, MMS) to promote safer-sex and safer-injection practices among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana (TJ) and Ciudad-Juarez (CJ) Mexico. Data for this analysis was obtained from a factorial RCT in 2008–2010 coinciding with expansion of needle exchange programs (NEP) in TJ, but not in CJ. Methods A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALY) over a lifetime time frame among a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 FSW-IDUs comparing a less intensive didactic vs. a more intensive interactive format of the MMS, separately for safer sex and safer injection combined behavioral interventions. The costs for antiretroviral therapy was not included in the model. We applied a societal perspective, a discount rate of 3% per year and currency adjusted to US$2014. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed. The combined and individual components of the MMS interactive behavioral intervention were compared with the didactic formats by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER), defined as incremental unit of cost per additional health benefit (e.g., HIV/STI cases averted, QALYs) compared to the next least costly strategy. Following guidelines from the World Health Organization, a combined strategy was considered highly cost-effective if the incremental cost per QALY gained fell below the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in Mexico (equivalent to US$10,300). Findings For CJ, the mixed intervention approach of interactive safer sex/didactic safer injection had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,360 ($310–$7,200) per QALY gained compared with a dually didactic strategy. Using the dually interactive strategy had an ICER of US$5,874 ($310–$7,200) compared with the mixed approach. For TJ, the combination of

  11. Passive coherent beam combining of four Yb-doped fiber amplifier chains with injection-locked seed source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifeng; Hu, Man; He, Bing; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Houkang; Dai, Shoujun; Wei, Yunrong; Lou, Qihong

    2013-03-15

    An injection-locked fiber laser is introduced to the passive fiber laser coherent beam combination with all-optical feedback loop. A coherent beam combining system with two-dimensional four Yb-doped fiber amplifier chains is established, and the injection-locked fiber laser works as a switchable seed source. The 1064 nm output laser of the injection-locked fiber laser is extinguished automatically as the feedback injection power is high enough, and the injection-locked fiber laser acts as an amplifier for the feedback laser with 7.4 dB gains. We find that the phase-locked far-field interference pattern of our system with seed laser extinguished is stable, and the visibility is up to 91.5%, which is slightly higher than the prevalent method with auxiliary seed laser (88.2%).

  12. The Xchange Point: A Drop-In Center for African American Active Injection Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Vail, Kenneth A.; Neff, James Alan

    2002-01-01

    Notes the rise of the harm-reduction model in the provision of substance abuse services and the history and success of syringe exchange programs. Describes the Xchange Point, a nonprofit community-based AIDS services organization founded in 1996 as a street-based outreach and syringe exchange program. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

  13. The Xchange Point: A Drop-In Center for African American Active Injection Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Vail, Kenneth A.; Neff, James Alan

    2002-01-01

    Notes the rise of the harm-reduction model in the provision of substance abuse services and the history and success of syringe exchange programs. Describes the Xchange Point, a nonprofit community-based AIDS services organization founded in 1996 as a street-based outreach and syringe exchange program. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

  14. [The effect of combining intra-aortic balloon pumping with tianma injection on myocardial ischemic-reperfusional injury in goats].

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Xiao, J; Liu, Q; Wang, Z; Li, S; Zhang, L; Xue, Z

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect of combined Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping (I-ABP) and Tianma Injection on necrotic area in goat myocardial ischemic-reperfusional models which were established by two hours ischemia and a follow-up reperfusion. The results showed that the combined effect of IABP and Tianma Injection was more significant than that of IABP or Tianma separately. It is suggested that IABP and Tianma Injection have synergetic effect on the limitation of necrotic area, which possibly results from their mechanisms for decreasing the size of infarct.

  15. An automated optofluidic biosensor platform combining interferometric sensors and injection moulded microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Szydzik, C; Gavela, A F; Herranz, S; Roccisano, J; Knoerzer, M; Thurgood, P; Khoshmanesh, K; Mitchell, A; Lechuga, L M

    2017-08-08

    A primary limitation preventing practical implementation of photonic biosensors within point-of-care platforms is their integration with fluidic automation subsystems. For most diagnostic applications, photonic biosensors require complex fluid handling protocols; this is especially prominent in the case of competitive immunoassays, commonly used for detection of low-concentration, low-molecular weight biomarkers. For this reason, complex automated microfluidic systems are needed to realise the full point-of-care potential of photonic biosensors. To fulfil this requirement, we propose an on-chip valve-based microfluidic automation module, capable of automating such complex fluid handling. This module is realised through application of a PDMS injection moulding fabrication technique, recently described in our previous work, which enables practical fabrication of normally closed pneumatically actuated elastomeric valves. In this work, these valves are configured to achieve multiplexed reagent addressing for an on-chip diaphragm pump, providing the sample and reagent processing capabilities required for automation of cyclic competitive immunoassays. Application of this technique simplifies fabrication and introduces the potential for mass production, bringing point-of-care integration of complex automated microfluidics into the realm of practicality. This module is integrated with a highly sensitive, label-free bimodal waveguide photonic biosensor, and is demonstrated in the context of a proof-of-concept biosensing assay, detecting the low-molecular weight antibiotic tetracycline.

  16. Numerical investigation of liver radioembolization via computational particle-hemodynamics: The role of the microcatheter distal direction and microsphere injection point and velocity.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2016-11-07

    Liver radioembolization is a treatment option for patients with primary and secondary liver cancer. The procedure consists of injecting radiation-emitting microspheres via an intra-arterially placed microcatheter, enabling the deposition of the microspheres in the tumoral bed. The microcatheter location and the particle injection rate are determined during a pretreatment work-up. The purpose of this study was to numerically study the effects of the injection characteristics during the first stage of microsphere travel through the bloodstream in a patient-specific hepatic artery (i.e., the near-tip particle-hemodynamics and the segment-to-segment particle distribution). Specifically, the influence of the distal direction of an end-hole microcatheter and particle injection point and velocity were analyzed. Results showed that the procedure targeted the right lobe when injecting from two of the three injection points under study and the remaining injection point primarily targeted the left lobe. Changes in microcatheter direction and injection velocity resulted in an absolute difference in exiting particle percentage for a given liver segment of up to 20% and 30%, respectively. It can be concluded that even though microcatheter placement is presumably reproduced in the treatment session relative to the pretreatment angiography, the treatment may result in undesired segment-to-segment particle distribution and therefore undesired treatment outcomes due to modifications of any of the parameters studied, i.e., microcatheter direction and particle injection point and velocity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  18. Intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol for sedation in cats.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Julia; Jolliffe, Colette; Archer, Emma; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-06

    To assess quality of sedation following intramuscular (IM) injection of two doses of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol in cats. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A total of 38 cats undergoing diagnostic imaging or noninvasive procedures. Cats were allocated randomly to be administered butorphanol 0.2 mg kg(-1) combined with alfaxalone 2 mg kg(-1) (group AB2) or 5 mg kg(-1) (group AB5) IM. If sedation was inadequate, alfaxalone 2 mg kg(-1) IM was administered and cats were excluded from further analysis. Temperament [1 (friendly) to 5 (aggressive)], response to injection, sedation score at 2, 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, overall sedation quality scored after data collection [1 (excellent) to 4 (inadequate)] and recovery quality were assessed. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR) and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were recorded every 5 minutes. Groups were compared using t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Sedation was analysed using two-way anova, and additional alfaxalone using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Groups were similar for sex, age, body mass and response to injection. Temperament score was lower in group AB2 [2 (1-3)] compared to AB5 [3 (1-5)] (p = 0.006). Group AB5 had better sedation at 6, 8, 20 and 30 minutes and overall sedation quality was better in AB5 [1 (1-3)], compared to AB2 [3 (1-4)] (p = 0.0001). Additional alfaxalone was required for 11 cats in AB2 and two in AB5 (p = 0.005). Recovery quality, HR, fR and SpO2 were similar. Seven cats required oxygen supplementation. Complete recovery times were shorter in AB2 (81.8 ± 24.3 versus 126.6 ± 33.3 minutes; p = 0.009). Twitching was the most common adverse event. In combination with butorphanol, IM alfaxalone at 5 mg kg(-1) provided better quality sedation than 2 mg kg(-1). Monitoring of SpO2 is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia

  19. Comparison of the effects of carbamyl-beta-methylcholine chloride administered by intravenous, intramuscular and intra-acupuncture point injections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min; Gao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Bo; Peng, Juan; Bin, Fan; Cui, Jing-Jing; Wang, Hong-Xin; Ma, Yan-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Chun

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effects of carbamyl-beta-methylcholine chloride (CMCC) administered by intra-acupuncture point injection (IAI), intramuscular injection (IMI), and intravenous injection (IVI), and to analyze the mechanisms. In the IAI group, CMCC was injected into the Zusanli acupoint (ST 36) immediately after 30-min stimulation by electro-acupuncture (EA) at the acupoints, and into the femoral vein and skeletal muscle in IVI and IMI groups, respectively. Intra-gastric pressure was detected. The plasma concentration of CMCC was measured at various times. The gastric effect of CMCC in the IVI group was enhanced and attenuated more rapidly than in the other groups. In the IAI group, this effect was significantly stronger than that in the IMI group at 2 min and 15 min, but not significantly different between the two groups at 5 min and 30 min. Plasma concentration of CMCC in the IAI group was similar to that in the IVI group at 2 min, but higher than that in the IMI group. The concentration in the IAI group was higher than that in the IV group and similar to that in the IMI group at 5, 15 and 30 min, indicating rapid increase and slower reduction of the plasma concentration of the drug in the IAI group. There was a positive correlation between the plasma concentration of CMCC and intragastric pressure in all groups. The effect of IAI with CMCC was stronger than that of IMI and longer-lasting than that of IVI, which correlated with the blood concentration of CMCC.

  20. Relevant climate response tests for stratospheric aerosol injection: A combined ethical and scientific analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenferna, Georges Alexandre; Russotto, Rick D.; Tan, Amanda; Gardiner, Stephen M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we focus on stratospheric sulfate injection as a geoengineering scheme, and provide a combined scientific and ethical analysis of climate response tests, which are a subset of outdoor tests that would seek to impose detectable and attributable changes to climate variables on global or regional scales. We assess the current state of scientific understanding on the plausibility and scalability of climate response tests. Then, we delineate a minimal baseline against which to consider whether certain climate response tests would be relevant for a deployment scenario. Our analysis shows that some climate response tests, such as those attempting to detect changes in regional climate impacts, may not be deployable in time periods relevant to realistic geoengineering scenarios. This might pose significant challenges for justifying stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection deployment overall. We then survey some of the major ethical challenges that proposed climate response tests face. We consider what levels of confidence would be required to ethically justify approving a proposed test; whether the consequences of tests are subject to similar questions of justice, compensation, and informed consent as full-scale deployment; and whether questions of intent and hubris are morally relevant for climate response tests. We suggest further research into laboratory-based work and modeling may help to narrow the scientific uncertainties related to climate response tests, and help inform future ethical debate. However, even if such work is pursued, the ethical issues raised by proposed climate response tests are significant and manifold.

  1. A 16 element quasi-optical FET oscillator power combining array with external injection locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkeland, Joel; Itoh, Tatsuo

    1992-03-01

    The authors present analysis, design and experimental results of a 16 element planar oscillator array for quasi-optical power combining. Each element in the array consists of a single FET oscillator with an input port for injection of the locking signal, and an output port which is connected to a patch radiator. The array is synchronized using a 16-way power dividing network which distributes the locking signal to the oscillating elements. The array is constructed using a two-sided microstrip configuration, with the oscillators and feed network on one side of a ground plane, and the patch radiators on the opposite side. An effective radiated power (ERP) of 28.2 W CW with an isotropic conversion gain of 9.9 dB was measured at 6 GHz. For an injected power of 10.3 dBm, a locking range of 453 MHz at a center frequency of 6.015 GHz was obtained; a bandwidth of 7.5 percent. Because of the simple nature of the individual oscillator elements, this approach is well suited to MMIC implementation.

  2. Pretreatment anxiety and pain acceptance are associated with response to trigger point injection therapy for chronic myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Healy, Gerard M; Finn, David P; O'Gorman, David A; Maharaj, Chris; Raftery, Miriam; Ruane, Nancy; Mitchell, Caroline; Sarma, Kiran; Bohacek, Marek; McGuire, Brian E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the psychosocial profile of patients who responded or did not respond to trigger point injection therapy for chronic myofascial pain. Seventy one patients with a diagnosis of chronic myofascial pain of the paraspinous muscles completed a pretreatment questionnaire measuring demographic and social factors, and validated scales to assess pain intensity, pain interference (physical and emotional), and defined psychological characteristics (pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain self-efficacy, mood and anxiety). Trigger point injection therapy of the affected areas of myofascial pain was performed and follow-up was conducted by telephone at one week (n = 65) and one month (n = 63) post intervention to assess treatment outcome (pain intensity and pain-related physical interference). At one week follow-up and one-month follow-up, using pain-related physical interference as the outcome measure, we found that those who responded well to treatment were characterized by a lower level of pretreatment anxiety and a higher level of pain acceptance, with anxiety being the strongest predictor. These results suggest that responses to interventional pain management in chronic myofascial paraspinous pain may be influenced by psychological characteristics, especially pretreatment anxiety. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Combination of Intrastromal and Intracameral Injections of Amphotericin B in the Treatment of Severe Fungal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianzhang; Zhang, Jingjin; Li, Yanling; Han, Xiaoli; Zheng, Weidong; Yang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of intrastromal and intracameral injections of amphotericin B in the treatment of severe recalcitrant fungal keratitis. Methods. Patients with severe fungal keratitis who were resistant to conventional antifungal medical treatments and needed potential surgical intervention were recruited at the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University between January 2012 and July 2013. The patients were treated with a combination of intrastromal and intracameral injections of amphotericin B (25 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL, resp.). Selectively repeated injections were performed as necessary. The efficacy, complications, and outcome were evaluated. Results. Nine patients (9 eyes) were involved in this study. All 9 cases responded favorably, and the clinical appearance of serious corneal damage and intraocular extension was resolved after the treatment. Four eyes required only 1 injection, and 5 eyes required repeated injections. Seven corneal ulcers healed with leucoma, and 2 healed with adherent leucoma. All of our cases had a marked increase in the anterior chamber reaction and pain immediately after the injection. There was no obvious clinical evidence of corneal or lenticular toxicity in any patient. Conclusions. A combination of intrastromal and intracameral injections of amphotericin B may be safe and effective for the treatment of severe fungal keratitis that is resistant to conventional therapy. PMID:27721986

  4. A novel pretreatment method combining sealing technique with direct injection technique applied for improving biosafety.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Gao, Jing-Lin; Du, Chaohui; An, Jing; Li, MengJiao; Ma, Haiyan; Zhang, Lina; Jiang, Ye

    2017-01-01

    People today have a stronger interest in the risk of biosafety in clinical bioanalysis. A safe, simple, effective method of preparation is needed urgently. To improve biosafety of clinical analysis, we used antiviral drugs of adefovir and tenofovir as model drugs and developed a safe pretreatment method combining sealing technique with direct injection technique. The inter- and intraday precision (RSD %) of the method were <4%, and the extraction recoveries ranged from 99.4 to 100.7%. Meanwhile, the results showed that standard solution could be used to prepare calibration curve instead of spiking plasma, acquiring more accuracy result. Compared with traditional methods, the novel method not only improved biosecurity of the pretreatment method significantly, but also achieved several advantages including higher precision, favorable sensitivity and satisfactory recovery. With these highly practical and desirable characteristics, the novel method may become a feasible platform in bioanalysis.

  5. Dextran backfill tracers combined with Lucifer yellow injections for neuroanatomic studies of the leech head ganglion.

    PubMed

    Daberkow, D P; Vaughan, D K

    1996-08-01

    Several neuronal tracing substances were applied to the cut ends of leech cephalic nerves and the resulting backfills into the subesophageal ganglion (sbEG) were mapped. A 12 h incubation in 3 kDa dextrans conjugated either to a fluorochrome or to biotin (subsequently tagged with peroxidase) was satisfactory. In separate experiments, possible targets of cephalic nerve afferents (R3 Retzius neurons) were injected with Lucifer Yellow (LY) to visualize their projections. Comparison of the LY-R3 Retzius neuron map with that of the dextran-backfilled D1 nerve revealed extensive overlap in the sbEG. Experiments were performed combining the two protocols, confirming this observation. Moreover, confocal microscopy placed D1 nerve processes in close proximity to R3 Retzius neuron processes, suggesting that they could make synaptic contact with one another in the sbEG. With modifications, this method could be used to identify such contacts using electron microscopy.

  6. Towards Combination HIV Prevention for Injection Drug Users: Addressing Addictophobia, Apathy and Inattention

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Shoptaw, Steven; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Quan, Vu Minh; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent breakthroughs in HIV-prevention science led us to evaluate the current state of combination HIV-prevention for injection drug users (IDUs). We review the recent literature focusing on possible reasons why coverage of prevention interventions for HIV, HCV and tuberculosis among IDUs remains dismal. We make recommendations for future HIV research and policy. Recent findings IDUs disproportionately under-utilize VCT, primary care and ART, especially in countries that have the largest burden of HIV among IDUs. IDUs present later in the course of HIV infection and experience greater morbidity and mortality. Why are IDUs under-represented in HIV-prevention research, access to treatment for both HIV and addiction, and access to HIV combination prevention? Possible explanations include addictophobia, apathy, and inattention, which we describe in the context of recent literature and events. Summary This commentary discusses the current state of HIV-prevention interventions for IDUs including, VCT, NSP, OST, ART and PrEP, and discusses ways to work towards true combination HIV-prevention for IDU populations. Communities need to overcome tacit assumptions that IDUs can navigate through systems that are maintained as separate silos, and take a rights-based approach to HIV-prevention to ensure that IDUs have equitable access to life-saving prevention and treatments. PMID:22498479

  7. Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Methods/design FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Discussion Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first

  8. Mujer Mas Segura (Safer Women): a combination prevention intervention to reduce sexual and injection risks among female sex workers who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Vera, Alicia; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-08-14

    Female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) are at risk of acquiring HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne infections through unprotected sex and sharing injection equipment. We conducted a 2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial to evaluate combination interventions to simultaneously reduce sexual and injection risks among FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. FSW-IDUs ≥18 years reporting sharing injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients within the last month were randomized to one of four conditions based on an a priori randomization schedule, blinding interviewer/counselors to assignment. Due to the extreme vulnerability of this population, we did not include a control group that would deny some women access to preventive information. All women received similar information regardless of group allocation; the difference was in the way the information was delivered and the extent to which women had an interactive role. Each condition was a single 60-minute session, including either an interactive or didactic version of an injection risk intervention and sexual risk intervention. Women underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Trichomonas at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Combined HIV/STI incidence will be the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are proportionate reductions in sharing of injection equipment and unprotected sex with clients. Of 1,132 women, 548 (48.4%) were excluded (88.9% were ineligible; 11.1% refused to participate or did not return); 584 eligible women enrolled (284 in Tijuana; 300 in Ciudad Juarez). All 584 participants completed the baseline interview, provided biological samples and were randomized to one of the four groups. During follow-up, 17 participants (2.9%) were lost to follow-up, of whom 10 (58.8%) had died, leaving 567 participants for analysis. This study appears to be the first intervention to attempt to simultaneously

  9. An investigation of the performance of novel chorded keyboards in combination with pointing input devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Zhou; Wu, Fong-Gong

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in computing power have driven the development of smaller and lighter technology products, with novel input devices constantly being produced in response to new user behaviors and usage contexts. The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of operating chorded keyboard control modules in concert with pointing devices such as styluses and mice. We compared combinations of two novel chorded keyboards with different pointing devices in hopes of finding a better combination for future electronic products. Twelve participants were recruited for simulation testing, and paired sample t testing was conducted to determine whether input and error rates for the novel keyboards were improved significantly over those of traditional input methods. The most efficient input device combination tested was the combination of a novel cross-shaped key keyboard and a stylus, suggesting the high potential for use of this combination with future mobile IT products.

  10. Intracellular lucifer yellow injection in fixed brain slices combined with retrograde tracing, light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buhl, E H; Lübke, J

    1989-01-01

    The present paper contains a full methodological description of iontophoretic Lucifer Yellow injections in fixed brain slices in mammals. In brief, cortical tissue was either perfused or immersion-fixed in paraformaldehyde. After Vibratome sectioning, tissue slices were transferred to epifluorescence microscopes equipped with long distance objectives. Under visual guidance, neurons were selectively impaled with Lucifer Yellow-filled electrodes and intracellularly injected until all dendrites appeared brightly fluorescent. Excellent dendritic staining was obtained in both perfusion-fixed cat visual cortex and immersion-fixed human brain biopsies. Dendritic spines, varicosities and growth cones could be readily discerned. Filling of axonal collaterals was, however, incomplete. Callosally projecting neurons in cat visual cortex were retrogradely traced with a mixture of the fluorescent tracers Fast Blue and DiI. Subsequently the morphology of labelled cells was determined by intracellular Lucifer Yellow injection. Although the Fast Blue fluorescence had become undetectable in filled neurons the granular red appearance of DiI was still discernible. Hence the neuronal composition of even relatively sparse projections can be demonstrated. To obtain permanent preparations, dye-filled neurons were immersed in a diaminobenzidine solution and irradiated with epifluorescent illumination until all visible fluorescence had faded. Photo-oxidation resulted in the intracellular formation of a homogeneously distributed brown reaction product visible with the light microscope. Brief osmication enhanced the staining contrast, thus providing a Golgi-like image. Subsequent electron microscopy of photo-converted cells showed the fine granular nature of the electron opaque reaction product, thus revealing numerous cytological features. The precipitate was homogeneously distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, extending into dendrites and axon. Any apparent leakage of the

  11. Local Injection of Methylcobalamin Combined with Lidocaine for Acute Herpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Xǔ, Gang; Xu, Site; Tang, Wei-Zhen; Xú, Gang; Cheng, Chao; Xu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of methylcobalamin combined with lidocaine for acute herpetic neuralgia. Randomized controlled trial with longitudinal analysis. The authors recruited 204 patients (>50 years) with T5-10 dermatomal acute herpetic neuralgia with rash onset within 7 days. Patients were divided into two groups based on the time of onset: immediate-early (IE, 1-3 days) and early stage (ES, 4-7 days) groups and then subdivided randomly into control (IE-Ctl, ES-Ctl) and treatment (IE-Tr, ES-Tr) groups. Control groups received intramuscular methylcobalamin in addition to local lidocaine injection, while treatment groups received local methylcobalamin combined with lidocaine injection for 14 days. Treatment efficacy was assessed based on rash healing time, alteration in pain intensity, and interference with quality of life. Multilevel mixed modeling and survival analysis were employed to examine treatment responses. There was no significant difference in the rash healing time between IE and ES. The mean pain scores in IE-Tr (2.4 ± 0.7) and ES-Tr (1.3 ± 0.7) decreased significantly compared with those in the control groups. The median satisfactory response time was 6 days in ES-Tr and 11 days in IE-Tr. The benefit ratio for ES-Tr versus IE-Tr was 14.94. The subjects in IE-Tr and ES-Tr had higher quality of life scores (81.2 ± 6.9 vs 88.3 ± 8.6, respectively) than those in the control groups. The incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was 1.1% at 3 months. Local methylcobalamin combined with lidocaine, optimally administered within 4-7 days of onset, may be an effective therapeutic option for acute herpetic neuralgia. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Injected nanoparticles: the combination of experimental systems to assess cardiovascular adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S; Riikonen, Joakim; Raula, Janne; Lobach, Anatoly S; Borzykh, Anna A; Smirin, Boris V; Kauppinen, Esko I; Eletskii, Alexander V; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Salonen, Jarno; Tavi, Pasi; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2014-05-01

    When nanocarriers are used for drug delivery they can often achieve superior therapeutic outcomes over standard drug formulations. However, concerns about their adverse effects are growing due to the association between exposure to certain nanosized particles and cardiovascular events. Here we examine the impact of intravenously injected drug-free nanocarriers on the cardiovasculature at both the systemic and organ levels. We combine in vivo and in vitro methods to enable monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in conscious rats, assessments of the function of the vessels after sub-chronic systemic exposure to nanocarriers and evaluation of the direct effect of nanocarriers on vascular tone. We demonstrate that nanocarriers can decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate in vivo via various mechanisms. Depending on the type, nanocarriers induce the dilation of the resistance arteries and/or change the responses induced by vasoconstrictor or vasodilator drugs. No direct correlation between physicochemical properties and cardiovascular effects of nanoparticles was observed. The proposed combination of methods empowers the studies of cardiovascular adverse effects of the nanocarriers.

  13. A low-cost, durable, combined ultrasound and fluoroscopic phantom for cervical transforaminal injections.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Imanuel R; Souzdalnitski, Dmitri; Narouze, Samer

    2012-01-01

    This technical report describes a durable, low-cost, anatomically accurate, and easy-to-prepare combined ultrasound (US) and fluoroscopic phantom of the cervical spine. This phantom is meant to augment training in US- and fluoroscopic-guided pain medicine procedures. The combined US and fluoroscopic phantom (CUF-P) is prepared from commercially available liquid plastic that is ordinarily used to prepare synthetic fishing lures. The liquid plastic is heated and then poured into a metal canister that houses an anatomical cervical spine model. Drops of dark purple dye are added to make the phantom opaque. After cooling, tubing is attached to the CUF-P to simulate blood vessels. The CUF-P accurately simulates human tissue by imitating both the tactile texture of skin and the haptic resistance of human tissue as the needle is advanced. This phantom contains simulated fluid-filled vertebral arteries that exhibit pulsed flow under color Doppler US. Under fluoroscopic examination, the CUF-P-simulated vertebral arteries also exhibit uptake of contrast dye if mistakenly injected. The creation of a training phantom allows the pain physician to practice needle positioning technique while simultaneously visualizing both targeted and avoidable vascular structures under US and fluoroscopic guidance. This low-cost CUF-P is easy to prepare and is reusable, making it an attractive alternative to current homemade and commercially available phantom simulators.

  14. Sympathetic Nerve Entrapment Point Injection as an Antireflux Procedure for Refractory Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: A First Case Report of Innovative Autonomic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangsoo; Oh, Chang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment is not suitable for laryngopharyngeal reflux that is refractory to proton pump inhibitors. We present a case of proton pump inhibitor-refractory laryngopharyngeal reflux that was successfully treated with sympathetic nerve entrapment point injection. The patient had previously been diagnosed with laryngopharyngeal reflux and treated with proton pump inhibitors for six months without substantial improvement. After sympathetic nerve entrapment point injection treatment, her reflux symptom index improved from 15 points to 1 point, and this response was maintained for six months. Hyperexcitability of T5 and T6 sympathetic preganglionic fibers appears to be the main cause of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Sympathetic nerve entrapment point injection may represent an alternative to anti-reflux procedures. PMID:28210524

  15. Shock waves simulated using the dual domain material point method combined with molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duan Z.; Dhakal, Tilak R.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we combine the dual domain material point method with molecular dynamics in an attempt to create a multiscale numerical method to simulate materials undergoing large deformations with high strain rates. In these types of problems, the material is often in a thermodynamically nonequilibrium state, and conventional constitutive relations or equations of state are often not available. In this method, the closure quantities, such as stress, at each material point are calculated from a molecular dynamics simulation of a group of atoms surrounding the material point. Rather than restricting the multiscale simulation in a small spatial region, such as phase interfaces, or crack tips, this multiscale method can be used to consider nonequilibrium thermodynamic effects in a macroscopic domain. This method takes the advantage that the material points only communicate with mesh nodes, not among themselves; therefore molecular dynamics simulations for material points can be performed independently in parallel. The dual domain material point method is chosen for this multiscale method because it can be used in history dependent problems with large deformation without generating numerical noise as material points move across cells, and also because of its convergence and conservation properties. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of this method, we compare the results of a shock wave propagation in a cerium crystal calculated using the direct molecular dynamics simulation with the results from this combined multiscale calculation.

  16. Shock waves simulated using the dual domain material point method combined with molecular dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Duan Z.; Dhakal, Tilak Raj

    2017-01-17

    Here in this work we combine the dual domain material point method with molecular dynamics in an attempt to create a multiscale numerical method to simulate materials undergoing large deformations with high strain rates. In these types of problems, the material is often in a thermodynamically nonequilibrium state, and conventional constitutive relations or equations of state are often not available. In this method, the closure quantities, such as stress, at each material point are calculated from a molecular dynamics simulation of a group of atoms surrounding the material point. Rather than restricting the multiscale simulation in a small spatial region,more » such as phase interfaces, or crack tips, this multiscale method can be used to consider nonequilibrium thermodynamic effects in a macroscopic domain. This method takes the advantage that the material points only communicate with mesh nodes, not among themselves; therefore molecular dynamics simulations for material points can be performed independently in parallel. The dual domain material point method is chosen for this multiscale method because it can be used in history dependent problems with large deformation without generating numerical noise as material points move across cells, and also because of its convergence and conservation properties. In conclusion, to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of this method, we compare the results of a shock wave propagation in a cerium crystal calculated using the direct molecular dynamics simulation with the results from this combined multiscale calculation.« less

  17. Multi-point injection: A general purpose delivery system for treatment and containment of hazardous and radiological waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Kubarewicz, J.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a proprietary jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous solid waste dumped into shallow burial trenches, bottom sludge (heel material) inside of underground tanks, and contaminated soils with widely varying soil composition (gravel, silts/clays, soft rock). The robustness of the MPI system is linked to the use of high speed mono-directional jets to deliver various types of agents for a variety of applications, such as: pretreatment of waste prior to insitu vitrification, solidification of waste for creating low conductivity monoliths, oxidants for insitu destruction of organic waste, and grouts for creating barriers (vertical, inclined, and bottom seals). The only strict limitation placed upon the MPI process is that the material can be pumped under high pressure. This paper describes the procedures to inject ordinary grout to form solidified monoliths of solid wastes.

  18. Multi-point injection demonstration for solidification of shallow buried waste at Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The multi-point injection (MPI) technology is a precision, high-velocity jetting process for the in situ delivery of various agents to treat radiological and/or chemical wastes. A wide variety of waste forms can be treated, varying from heterogeneous waste dumped into shallow burial trenches to contaminated soils consisting of sands/gravels, silts/clays and soft rock. The robustness of the MPI system is linked to its broad range of applications which vary from in situ waste treatment to creation of both vertical and horizontal barriers. The only major constraint on the type of in situ treatment which can be delivered by the NTI system is that agents must be in a slurry form.

  19. Interstitial laser irradiation of metastatic mammary tumors in combination with intratumoral injection of immunoadjuvant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chet; Jose, Jessnie; Figueroa, Daniel; Goddard, Jessica; Li, Xiaosong; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Chen, Wei R.

    2012-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) was developed to treat metastatic cancers using a combination of laser irradiation and immunological stimulation. The original design of LIT employs a non-invasive, selective laser photothermal interaction, using an in situ light-absorbing dye. However, this non-invasive treatment mode faces challenges in treating deep, large tumors. Furthermore, it has difficulties in the cases of highly pigmented skin overlying target tumors. To overcome these limitations, interstitial laser immunotherapy (ILIT) was proposed. In ILIT, a cylindrical, side-fire fiber diffuser is placed inside the target tumor to induce thermal damage. To enhance the interstitial irradiation induced photothermal interaction, an immunological modifier, glycated chitosan (GC), is injected into the tumor after the laser treatment. In this study, a cylindrical diffuser with an active length of 1 cm was used to treat tumors of 1 to 1.5 cm in size. Different laser powers (1 to 3 watts) and different irradiation durations (10 to 30 minutes) were used to test the thermal effects of ILIT. Different doses of the GC (1.0%, 0.1 to 0.6 ml per rat) were used to determine the immunological effects of ILIT. Our results show that the animal survival depends on both laser dose and GC dose. A dose of 0.2 ml per tumor appeared to result in the highest survival rate under interstitial laser irradiation with 2.5 watts and 20 minutes. While the results in this study are not conclusive, they indicate that interstitial laser irradiation can be combined with immunotherapy to treat metastatic cancers. Furthermore, our results suggest that an optimal combination of laser dose and GC dose could be obtained for future clinical protocols using interstitial laser immunotherapy.

  20. Cloud point sample clean-up and capillary zone electrophoresis with field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking for the analysis of herbicides in milk.

    PubMed

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Srijaranai, Supalax; Kato, Masaru; Quirino, Joselito P

    2014-07-18

    Sample clean-up by cloud point phase separation and analysis by capillary electrophoresis with stacking was developed for quaternary ammonium herbicides (i.e., paraquat and diquat) in milk. For sample clean-up, a mixture of 845μL of milk sample, 5μL of 100mM phosphoric acid, and 150μL of Triton X-114 was heated (60°C for 2min) and centrifugated (3000rpm for 2min) in 2-mL Eppendorf tube. The upper phase was directly analysed by capillary electrophoresis via electrokinetic injection at 10kV for 150s. The separation electrolyte was 100mM phosphate buffer with 20% acetonitrile at pH 2.5. Before sample injection, a micellar solution (10mM SDS in 80mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5) and an organic solvent rich solution (30% ACN) was hydrodynamically introduced into the capillary. These solutions provided the necessary conditions for stacking the cationic herbicides via the combination of field enhanced sample injection and micelle to solvent stacking. The LODs (S/N=3) obtained from the entire strategy for paraquat and diquat in milk was 0.004 and 0.018μg/mL, respectively. This is 1.5 to >2 orders of magnitude better than the corresponding LODs obtained from the electrophoretic analysis of herbicide standards prepared in the separation electrolyte. The strategy was also successfully applied to 5 milk samples available in the market. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Meeting Rural Demand: A Case for Combining Community-Based Distribution and Social Marketing of Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can

  2. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family

  3. Providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Ahmad A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2012-10-23

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing nearest neighbor point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: identifying each link in the global combining network for each compute node of the operational group; designating one of a plurality of point-to-point class routing identifiers for each link such that no compute node in the operational group is connected to two adjacent compute nodes in the operational group with links designated for the same class routing identifiers; and configuring each compute node of the operational group for point-to-point communications with each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through the link between that compute node and that adjacent compute node using that link's designated class routing identifier.

  4. Preoperative subconjunctival combined injection of bevacizumab and mitomycin C before the surgical excision of primary pterygium: clinical and histological results.

    PubMed

    Alsmman, Alahmady Hamad; Radwan, Gamal; Abozaid, Mortada Ahmed; Mohammed, Usama Ali; Abd Elhaleim, Nesreen Gamal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the clinical and histological effects of preoperative subconjunctival injection of both bevacizumab and mitomycin C (MMC) 1 month before the surgical excision of primary pterygium using a bare sclera technique. A total of 20 patients with primary pterygium underwent subconjunctival combined injection of 0.1 mL of MMC (0.1 mg/mL) and 0.1 mL of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.1 mL) 1 month before bare sclera excision of the pterygium. The excised pterygium tissues were examined histologically and immunohistologically by CD31 staining, and the patients were followed up clinically for at least 2 years. The excised pterygia of two patients without preoperative injection were used for histological comparison. Clinically, there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. No recurrence was noted during the follow-up period. Histologically, the previously injected pterygia showed a decreased number of epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. The latter were rounded or oval and swollen rather than spindle shaped, and some were degenerating or apoptotic. Collagen and elastic fibers were degenerated, distorted, and decreased in density, while blood capillaries were obliterated. There was a significant decrease in CD31-positive cells in previously injected pterygia. Preoperative subpterygium combined injection of bevacizumab and MMC is safe and effective in reducing the postoperative recurrence of primary pterygium. Histological and immunohistological changes in the form of decreased fibrovascular activity and degeneration of the extracellular matrix and nerve axons were noted.

  5. Tear glucose detection combining microfluidic thread based device, amperometric biosensor and microflow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2017-12-15

    The tear glucose analysis is an important alternative for the indirect, simple and less invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. However, the high cost and complex manufacturing process of tear glucose analyzers combined with the need to exchange the sensor after each analysis in the disposable tests prevent widespread application of the tear in glucose monitoring. Here, we present the integration of a biosensor made by the electropolymerization of poly(toluidine blue O) (PTB) and glucose oxidase (GOx) with an electroanalytical microfluidic device of easy assembly based on cotton threads, low cost materials and measurements by microflow injection analysis (µFIA) through passive pumping for performing tear glucose analyses in a simple, rapid and inexpensive way. A high stability between the analyses (RSD = 2.54%) and among the different systems (RSD = 3.13%) was obtained for the determination of glucose, in addition to a wide linear range between 0.075 and 7.5mmolL(-1) and a limit of detection of 22.2µmolL(-1). The proposed method was efficiently employed in the determination of tear glucose in non-diabetic volunteers, obtaining a close correlation with their blood glucose levels, simplifying and reducing the costs of the analyses, making the tear glucose monitoring more accessible for the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A combined bottom-up/top-down approach to prepare a sterile injectable nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing; Wang, Yanjiao

    2014-09-10

    To prepare a uniform nanosuspension of strongly hydrophobic riboflavin laurate (RFL) allowing sterile filtration, physical modification (bottom-up) was combined with high-pressure homogenization (top-down) method. Unlike other bottom-up approaches, physical modification with surfactants (TPGS and PL-100) by lyophilization controlled crystallization and compensated for the poor wettability of RFL. On one hand, crystal growth and aggregation during freezing was restricted by a stabilizer-layer adsorbed on the drug surface by hydrophobic interaction. On the other hand, subsequent crystallization of drug in the sublimation process was limited to the interstitial spaces between solvent crystals. After lyophilization, modified drug with a smaller particle size and better wettability was obtained. When adding surfactant solution, water molecules passed between the hydrophilic groups of surface active molecules and activated the polymer chains allowing them to stretch into water. The coarse suspension was crushed into a nanosuspension (MP=162 nm) by high-pressure homogenization. For long term stability, lyophilization was applied again to solidify the nanosuspension (sorbitol as cryoprotectant). A slight crystal growth to about 600 nm was obtained to allow slow release for a sustained effect after muscular administration. Moreover, no paw-licking responses and very slight muscular inflammation demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility of this long-acting RFL injection.

  7. On-line flow injection-cloud point preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheuk Fai; Wong, Jonathan W C; Huie, Carmen W; Choi, Martin M F

    2008-12-19

    Cloud point methodology has been used to develop a novel preconcentration and an analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil sample. The nonionic surfactant Tergitol 15-S-7 was successfully used as the surfactant-mediated extractant in both ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extractions. Over 90% of recoveries for various PAHs in soil were obtained under the optimal experimental conditions. The extracts were then preconcentrated and analyzed by our proposed on-line coupling method "flow injection-cloud point preconcentration-high-performance liquid chromatography" (FI-CPP-HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector and an excitation/emission wavelength program. The preconcentration system and optimal working conditions were established. The limit of detection of the FI-CPE-HPLC system ranges from 0.101 to 0.456 microg/L for the selected PAHs, i.e., phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene. Our proposed technique provides a reliable, simple and automatic analytical method for the determination of PAHs in environmental soil samples.

  8. Ultrasound-guided myofascial trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle.

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  10. Rapid sedation induced by fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Tian, X; Yang, Y-H; Wei, H-Y; Lao, J-Q; Wang, H-P; Tian, Y-Y

    2015-04-17

    This study explored the sedative and analgesic effects of fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for acute leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute myelocytic leukemia) among children, to relieve pain and difficulty during intrathecal injection, improve treatment compliance, increase the success rate of single puncture, and reduce procedure failure, with the aim of developing a painless procedure for children with acute leukemia. Fifty person-times received fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection among the hospitalized children with leukemia. The patients' cooperation with the procedure, response to the medication, dosages of fentanyl and propofol, reaction to the procedures, wake-up time, and changes in oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), respiration, and blood pressure (BP) before, during, and after the procedures were observed. The doctors who performed the procedures assessed the quality of sedation and analgesia. In the treatment group, the patients were quiet during the lumbar puncture and intrathecal injection, showing good sedation and analgesia. HR and respiration decreased slightly. There were no changes in SpO2 and BP. No obvious respiratory depression occurred with proper dosages. Only a few patients showed stertorous respiration, which stopped soon after the procedures. In the control group, the patients were agitated, crying, and not cooperative before and during the procedures, which made the procedures very difficult. During intrathecal injection, pain obviously reduced and the success rate of single lumbar puncture increased. It is safe and effective to apply fentanyl combined with propofol for sedation and analgesia.

  11. [Low-frequency pulsed magnetotherapy combined with electrostimulation of biologically active points in the combined treatment of traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Korotkikh, N G; Oreshkin, A V

    1999-01-01

    The results of treatment are analyzed in 51 patients (35 with exacerbation of chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis and 16 with chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis). Low-intensity pulsed magnetic therapy of the focus in combination with electric stimulation of segmentary bioactive points, synchronized by the patient's pulse, are proposed to be added to the therapeutic complex. Such a modality improved the regional hemodynamics, promoted liquidation of the postoperative edema on days 1-2 after intervention, and sooner than after traditional therapy repaired the energy of the patient's organism.

  12. Comparison of injectable anesthetic combinations in free-ranging two-toed sloths in French guiana.

    PubMed

    Vogel, I; de Thoisy, B; Vié, J C

    1998-07-01

    Immobilization was studied in 202 free-ranging two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus). All the sloths were in good condition with a body weight > 2 kg, and were anesthetized for a variety of minor clinical procedures. Intramuscular anesthetic combinations included 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine + 10 mg/kg ketamine (A/K, n = 30), 1 mg/kg xylazine + 10 mg/kg ketamine (X/K, n = 89), 10 mg/kg tiletamine/zolazepam (T/Z, n = 37), and 0.04 mg/kg medetomidine + 3 mg/kg ketamine (M/K, n = 46) antagonized by 0.2 mg/kg atipamezole. The animals were quiet during the induction stage and complete recumbency was reached in (mean +/- SD) 2.5 +/- 2.0 min with A/K, 2.7 +/- 1.7 min with X/K, 1.8 +/- 0.6 min with T/Z, and 2.5 +/- 5 with M/K. Utilization of A/K was not satisfactory because of poor anesthetic level and lack of muscle relaxation. T/Z induced immobilization was characterized by deep anesthesia and good myorelaxation, but often was associated with irregular respiration and low relative oxyhemoglobin saturation values (SpO2). Ketamine in combination with alpha2-agonists, xylazine or medetomidine, provided suitable anesthesia, with good to excellent muscular relaxation, good analgesia, high SpO2 values, moderate bradycardia, but strong bradypnea with medetomidine. Anesthesia with M/K was reversed after 41.6 min of immobilization with atipamezole. Calm recoveries were obtained and the animals were able to hang up after 10.0 +/- 7.9 min. The first signs of arousal were observed within an average of 43 to 51 min after the injection of the three other combinations. Recoveries from X/K immobilization were quiet; sloths held on after 34 min. With T/Z, recovery duration was long and very irregular at 76.7 +/- 31.3 min, some animals required 3 hr before being able to hang up. Finally, ketamine in association with an alpha2-agonist appeared to give the best chemical immobilization in wild two-toed sloths for 40 min procedures including minor surgery.

  13. Biological material detection identification and monitoring: combining point and standoff sensors technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Rowsell, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Detection, Identification and Monitoring (DIM) of biological material is critical to enhancing Situational Awareness (SA) in a timely manner, supporting decisions, and enabling the endangered force to take the most appropriate actions in a recognized CB environment. An optimum Bio DIM capability would include both point sensors to provide local monitoring and sampling for confirmatory ID of the material, and standoff sensors to provide wide-area monitoring from a distance, increasing available response time and enhancing SA. In June 2015, a Canadian team co-deployed a point (VPBio) and a standoff (BioSense) bio sensor during the international S/K Challenge II event, at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), USA. The co-deployment of the point and standoff sensors allowed the assessment of their respective strengths and limitations with regards to Bio DIM and SA in a realistic CB environment. Moreover, the initial hypothesis stating the existence of valuable leverages between the two sensors in a context of Bio DIM was confirmed. Indeed, the spatial limitation of the point sensor was overcome with the wide area coverage of the standoff technology. In contrast, the sampling capability of the point sensor can allow confirmatory identification of the detected material. Additionally, in most scenarios, the combined results allowed an increase in detection confidence. In conclusion, the demonstration of valuable leverages between point and standoff sensors in a context of Bio DIM was made, confirming the mitigation effect of co-deploying these systems for bio surveillance.

  14. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David

    2015-01-01

    It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014). 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5) for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3) for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8). An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis) for all racial/ethnic groups.

  15. Efficacy of Vitrectomy Combined with Subretinal rtPA Injection with Gas or Air Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Waizel, M; Todorova, M G; Rickmann, A; Blanke, B R; Szurman, P

    2017-01-31

    Background Functional and anatomical outcome after vitrectomy with rtPA combined with gas or air tamponade. Patients and methods Retrospective analysis of pseudophakic patients treated with subretinal rtPA and gas or air tamponade. The primary endpoint was displacement of haemorrhage six months after surgery. The secondary endpoints were visual acuity (BCVA), haemorrhage diameter (MHD) and central macular thickness (CMT), as measured by SD-OCT. Results 53 of 85 eyes were pseudophakic. 27 of these eyes were treated with air tamponade and 26 with gas tamponade. For patients with air tamponade, the mean BCVA improved from 20/530 to 20/355 (p = 0.01). MHD and CMT decreased from 6386 ± 2281 µm to 3805 ± 2397 µm (p < 0.001) and 895 ± 592 µm to 532 ± 386 µm (p < 0.001), respectively. For patients with gas tamponade, the mean BCVA improved only slightly, from 20/471 to 20/394 (p = 0.17). MHD and CMT exhibited statistically significant decreases from 6759 ± 1773 µm to 3525 ± 1548 µm (p < 0.001) and 1089 ± 587 µm to 537 ± 251 µm (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions Vitrectomy with subretinal rtPA injection has strong functional and anatomical effects on submacular haemorrhages with both gas and air tamponade.

  16. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients.

  17. Combination treatment with risperidone long-acting injection and psychoeducational approaches for preventing relapse in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yueren; Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao; Ikeda, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics were not superior to oral antipsychotics for preventing relapse in patients with schizophrenia. We therefore designed a treatment strategy combining risperidone LAI and COMPASS (COMprehensive Psycho-educational Approach and Scheme Set), an original psychoeducational program supporting treatment with risperidone LAI and evaluating subjective treatment satisfaction, transition of symptoms, and effectiveness in preventing symptomatic relapse. The aim of this study was to examine whether addition of COMPASS to risperidone LAI was more effective in preventing relapse in schizophrenia patients than risperidone LAI alone, with the latter group consisting of patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients were followed up for 6 months, with COMPASS continuously implemented from the transition to the observation phase. The primary efficacy measurements were relapse rate (rates of rehospitalization and discontinuation due to inefficacy). Secondary efficacy measurements were the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores. Of the 96 patients originally enrolled, 19 (19.8%) were discontinued from all causes. During the 6-month study period, ten of the 96 patients (10.4%) relapsed, compared with a 12.2% relapse rate in patients enrolled in a Phase III trial of risperidone LAI in Japan. Patients showed significant improvements in BPRS total scores (P = 0.0031), BPRS positive (P = 0.0451), BRPS negative (P < 0.0001), and general subscale scores (P = 0.0031), and GAF (P < 0.0001) from baseline to 6 months. In conclusion, the lower relapse rate observed in patients treated with COMPASS plus risperidone LAI than in patients treated with risperidone LAI alone suggests that COMPASS may have benefits in the treatment of schizophrenia, indicating a need for randomized, controlled trials in larger numbers of patients. PMID:24194642

  18. Usefulness of a myofascial trigger point injection for groin pain in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Suk; Jeong, Tae Yoong; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Yoon, Jeong-Gyu; Lee, Sang Chul

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of trigger point injection into the muscles around the groin in patients with clinically diagnosed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Prospective, unicenter trial. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=21) with clinically diagnosed CP/CPPS who are suspected of having myofascial pain syndrome. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injection. Visual analog scale (VAS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score, and injection-associated complications. Ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection of the iliopsoas, hip adductor, and lower abdominal muscles resulted in excellent outcomes. The mean values of the NIH-CPSI score decreased significantly from 20.2 pretreatment to 12.5 after the first treatment (P<.05). The mean values of VAS decreased significantly from 6.3 pretreatment to 2.9 after the first treatment (P<.05). In patients with CP/CPPS, US-guided trigger point injections of the iliopsoas, hip adductor, and abdominal muscles are safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of groin pain is suspected to originate from muscles. In particular, the iliopsoas muscle was affected in all patients in this study. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomic localization of motor entry points and accurate regions for botulinum toxin injection in the flexor digitorum superficialis.

    PubMed

    Ye, J F; Lee, J H; An, X C; Lin, C H; Yue, B; Han, Seung-Ho

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the motor entry points (MEPs) and the precise intramuscular nerve distribution of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and to provide accurate injection regions for botulinum toxin. This study was performed on 46 fresh cadaveric arms with exposed intramuscular innervation of the FDS. For each main motor branch of the FDS, MEPs, where the nerve branch first pierced the muscle belly, and the proximal and distal limit points (PLPs and DLPs, respectively) of the terminal intramuscular nerve endings were located. These data were expressed as relative percentages and absolute distances in relation to the coordinate system, which defined the line between medial and lateral epicondyle of the humerus (ME and LE, respectively) as y-axis and the midpoint of ME and LE as origin. MEP distributions were analyzed using distances measured in tenths of the x and y axes. Two main branches innervated the FDS in 27 cases, the distal main branches of the FDS were classified into three types by origin. For proximal main branches, MEPs were located at x = 19.7% and y = 18.5%, whereas PLPs were located at x = 16.4%, and DLPs were located at x = 37.7%. For distal main branches, corresponding values were 31.6, 5.5, 50.9, and 73.1%. The parameters provided by this study should increase the efficacy and precision of neuromuscular botulinum toxin blockades administered to treat finger spasticity.

  20. [The first exploration of a minimally invasive lysis subcutaneouly for the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture based on relatively safe region around standard injection point of gluteal muscle].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Tang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Si-rong; Zou, Guo-yao; Xiao, Rong-chi; Liu, Rui-duan; Hu, Jun-zu

    2011-06-01

    To explore the solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site for gluteal muscle contracture patient based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle. from September 2008 to August 2010, 25 patients (14 males and 11 females with an average of 16.5 years, ranging from 12 to 26 years) with injected gluteal muscle contracture were prospectively studied. The course of disease was from 6 to 12 years. Firstly, the connective skin Surface line from anterior superior iliac spine to coccyx (line AD) was delineated and the point (point O) was marked out as the standard gluteal muscle injection site which was on the one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine(point A) to the coccyx (point D). Secondly, the anterior and posterior edge lines of surface projection of the gluteal muscle contracture banding (line a, line p) were delineated. Thirdly, the distance from B to O and C to O (B is the point of intersection of line a and line AD,C is the point of intersection of line P and line AD)were measured which was the intersection of line a,p and line AD to point O. Lastly, the minimally invasive surgery was operformed via the skin entry of point C. OB = (0 +/- 0.76) cm, OC = (2.86 +/- 0.78) cm, BC = (2.86 +/- 1.01) cm,the mean postoperative drainage was less than 10 ml,there was no nerve damage,hematoma and other complications. All patients achieved the function of squatting in 4 to 6 days. The solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle has advantages of positioning precisely,handling easily, recoverying quickly, less trauma and safety, etc.

  1. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Trigger Point Injection in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Quadratus Lumborum.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang; Jeon, Dae Geun; Yoon, Wang Hyeon; Park, Jung Hyun

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and trigger point injection (TPI) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. In a retrospective study at our institute, 30 patients with myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum were assigned to ESWT or TPI groups. We assessed ESWT and TPI treatment according to their affects on pain relief and disability improvement. The outcome measures for the pain assessment were a visual analogue scale score and pain pressure threshold. The outcome measures for the disability assessment were Oswestry Disability Index, Roles and Maudsley, and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores. Both groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in pain and disability measures after treatment. However, in comparing the treatments, we found ESWT to be more effective than TPI for pain relief. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to disability. Compared to TPI, ESWT showed superior results for pain relief. Thus, we consider ESWT as an effective treatment for myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum.

  2. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Trigger Point Injection in the Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in the Quadratus Lumborum

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and trigger point injection (TPI) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. Methods In a retrospective study at our institute, 30 patients with myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum were assigned to ESWT or TPI groups. We assessed ESWT and TPI treatment according to their affects on pain relief and disability improvement. The outcome measures for the pain assessment were a visual analogue scale score and pain pressure threshold. The outcome measures for the disability assessment were Oswestry Disability Index, Roles and Maudsley, and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale scores. Results Both groups demonstrated statistically significant improvements in pain and disability measures after treatment. However, in comparing the treatments, we found ESWT to be more effective than TPI for pain relief. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to disability. Conclusion Compared to TPI, ESWT showed superior results for pain relief. Thus, we consider ESWT as an effective treatment for myofascial pain syndrome in the quadratus lumborum. PMID:28971042

  3. Combination brain and systemic injections of AAV provide maximal functional and survival benefits in the Niemann-Pick mouse

    PubMed Central

    Passini, Marco A.; Bu, Jie; Fidler, Jonathan A.; Ziegler, Robin J.; Foley, Joseph W.; Dodge, James C.; Yang, Wendy W.; Clarke, Jennifer; Taksir, Tatyana V.; Griffiths, Denise A.; Zhao, Michael A.; O'Riordan, Catherine R.; Schuchman, Edward H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.; Cheng, Seng H.

    2007-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is caused by the loss of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity, which results in widespread accumulation of undegraded lipids in cells of the viscera and CNS. In this study, we tested the effect of combination brain and systemic injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding human ASM (hASM) in a mouse model of NPD. Animals treated by combination therapy exhibited high levels of hASM in the viscera and brain, which resulted in near-complete correction of storage throughout the body. This global reversal of pathology translated to normal weight gain and superior recovery of motor and cognitive functions compared to animals treated by either brain or systemic injection alone. Furthermore, animals in the combination group did not generate antibodies to hASM, demonstrating the first application of systemic-mediated tolerization to improve the efficacy of brain injections. All of the animals treated by combination therapy survived in good health to an investigator-selected 54 weeks, whereas the median lifespans of the systemic-alone, brain-alone, or untreated ASM knockout groups were 47, 48, and 34 weeks, respectively. These data demonstrate that combination therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for treating NPD and suggest a potential strategy for treating disease indications that cause both visceral and CNS pathologies. PMID:17517638

  4. Adhesion strength between thermoplastics and its polyurethane coating made by using the technology combination of injection molding and reaction injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloß, P.; Böhme, A.; Müller, J.; Krajewsky, P.; Michaelis, J.

    2014-05-01

    A complete equipment for injection molding (IM) of a thermoplastic (TP) carrier and reaction injection molding (RIM) of polyurethane (PUR) coatings including IM and RIM machines, a color module for PUR, and a robot was built up. A modularly composed sliding split mold was constructed and manufactured allowing different parts including thicker (2 mm thickness) soft touch and thin (0.4 mm) lacquer PUR coatings. As TP PC/ABS and PA6 GF15 compounds were used, and aromatic and aliphatic PUR systems as well. From the parts made by IM+RIM, test specimens for peel force measurements were cut. These investigations were performed prior and after ageing under climatic conditions @ 50 % RH and temperature changes between -30 °C and 90 °C. By varying IM processing parameters, we have found that mold and TP temperatures are particularly important for the adhesion strength between TP and PUR. The waiting time between the end of TP cooling and PUR injection has a minor influence on its mean value. However, to short waiting times may result in inhomogeneous adhesion. It was surprising that surface defects of the TP carrier leads also to inhomogeneous adhesion. We have observed that ageing may cause an increase and decrease of adhesions strength depending on the TP+PUR system used. We have found that the results are valid only for the actual TP and PUR combination. A generalization seems to be inappropriate, hence, the actual combination should be investigated to prevent unwanted surprises when the coated TP part is in its application.

  5. Efficient vitreolysis by combining plasmin and sulfur hexafluoride injection in a preclinical study in rabbit eyes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Chi; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Chun; Wang, Nan-Kai; Chen, Kwan-Jen; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Li, Lien-Min

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of plasmin and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) on the vitreoretinal junction, as well as the long-term safety in the eye and effect on the recipient’s general health after application in the eye. Methods The study design included four groups of rabbits with three animals in each group. Group 1 received an intravitreal injection (IVI) of plasmin and SF6 in the right eye; group 2 received an IVI of plasmin in the right eye; group 3 received an IVI of SF6 in the right eye; and group 4 received an IVI of balanced salt solution in the right eye, which served as a normal control. Long-term safety (up to approximately three months) after plasmin and/or SF6 injection was evaluated morphologically by clinical examination, histology, and immunohistochemistry, and functionally by electroretinograms (ERGs). General health evaluations after intravitreal injection included the assessment of weight gain, food intake, body temperature, and complete blood count analysis. Results Plasmin plus SF6 injection resulted in complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), whereas plasmin or SF6 injection alone resulted in only partial PVD. Balanced salt solution did not induce PVD. Eighty days after intravitreal injection, there were no major differences among the eyes of the three groups of animals compared with the normal control animals upon clinical evaluation, or regarding retinal morphology and ERGs. The lenses examined remained clear for up to 80 days following the intravitreal injection of plasmin plus SF6, except one eye in the plasmin-treated group. ERGs decreased transiently one week after intravitreal injection in groups 1 through 3, but animals recovered fully to normal status afterward. General health was not affected after the injection of plasmin plus SF6. Conclusions Efficient vitreoretinal separation could be achieved, and an acceptable long-term safety profile was noted after plasmin plus SF6 injection in the eye. No major ocular toxicity or

  6. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Ehsan; Kong, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM), which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA) architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance (1Area×Time=1AT) and Area × Time × Energy (ATE) product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature. PMID:28459831

  7. Parallel point-multiplication architecture using combined group operations for high-speed cryptographic applications.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Selim; Saeedi, Ehsan; Kong, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel parallel architecture for fast hardware implementation of elliptic curve point multiplication (ECPM), which is the key operation of an elliptic curve cryptography processor. The point multiplication over binary fields is synthesized on both FPGA and ASIC technology by designing fast elliptic curve group operations in Jacobian projective coordinates. A novel combined point doubling and point addition (PDPA) architecture is proposed for group operations to achieve high speed and low hardware requirements for ECPM. It has been implemented over the binary field which is recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The proposed ECPM supports two Koblitz and random curves for the key sizes 233 and 163 bits. For group operations, a finite-field arithmetic operation, e.g. multiplication, is designed on a polynomial basis. The delay of a 233-bit point multiplication is only 3.05 and 3.56 μs, in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA, for Koblitz and random curves, respectively, and 0.81 μs in an ASIC 65-nm technology, which are the fastest hardware implementation results reported in the literature to date. In addition, a 163-bit point multiplication is also implemented in FPGA and ASIC for fair comparison which takes around 0.33 and 0.46 μs, respectively. The area-time product of the proposed point multiplication is very low compared to similar designs. The performance ([Formula: see text]) and Area × Time × Energy (ATE) product of the proposed design are far better than the most significant studies found in the literature.

  8. Combined influence of visual scene and body tilt on arm pointing movements: gravity matters!

    PubMed

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., 'combined' tilts equal to the sum of 'single' tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues.

  9. Extended-bandwidth frequency sweeps of a distributed feedback laser using combined injection current and temperature modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferman, Gerald; Chen, Zhen; Wei, Tao

    2017-07-01

    This article details the generation of an extended-bandwidth frequency sweep using a single, communication grade distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The frequency sweep is generated using a two-step technique. In the first step, injection current modulation is employed as a means of varying the output frequency of a DFB laser over a bandwidth of 99.26 GHz. A digital optical phase lock loop is used to lock the frequency sweep speed during current modulation, resulting in a linear frequency chirp. In the second step, the temperature of the DFB laser is modulated, resulting in a shifted starting laser output frequency. A laser frequency chirp is again generated beginning at this shifted starting frequency, resulting in a frequency-shifted spectrum relative to the first recorded data. This process is then repeated across a range of starting temperatures, resulting in a series of partially overlapping, frequency-shifted spectra. These spectra are then aligned using cross-correlation and combined using averaging to form a single, broadband spectrum with a total bandwidth of 510.9 GHz. In order to investigate the utility of this technique, experimental testing was performed in which the approach was used as the swept-frequency source of a coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry system. This system was used to interrogate an optical fiber containing a 20 point, 1-mm pitch length fiber Bragg grating, corresponding to a period of 100 GHz. Using this technique, both the periodicity of the grating in the frequency domain and the individual reflector elements of the structure in the time domain were resolved, demonstrating the technique's potential as a method of extending the sweeping bandwidth of semiconductor lasers for frequency-based sensing applications.

  10. Preoperative subconjunctival combined injection of bevacizumab and mitomycin C before the surgical excision of primary pterygium: clinical and histological results

    PubMed Central

    Alsmman, Alahmady Hamad; Radwan, Gamal; Abozaid, Mortada Ahmed; Mohammed, Usama Ali; Abd Elhaleim, Nesreen Gamal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to detect the clinical and histological effects of preoperative subconjunctival injection of both bevacizumab and mitomycin C (MMC) 1 month before the surgical excision of primary pterygium using a bare sclera technique. Patients and methods A total of 20 patients with primary pterygium underwent subconjunctival combined injection of 0.1 mL of MMC (0.1 mg/mL) and 0.1 mL of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.1 mL) 1 month before bare sclera excision of the pterygium. The excised pterygium tissues were examined histologically and immunohistologically by CD31 staining, and the patients were followed up clinically for at least 2 years. The excised pterygia of two patients without preoperative injection were used for histological comparison. Results Clinically, there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. No recurrence was noted during the follow-up period. Histologically, the previously injected pterygia showed a decreased number of epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. The latter were rounded or oval and swollen rather than spindle shaped, and some were degenerating or apoptotic. Collagen and elastic fibers were degenerated, distorted, and decreased in density, while blood capillaries were obliterated. There was a significant decrease in CD31-positive cells in previously injected pterygia. Conclusion Preoperative subpterygium combined injection of bevacizumab and MMC is safe and effective in reducing the postoperative recurrence of primary pterygium. Histological and immunohistological changes in the form of decreased fibrovascular activity and degeneration of the extracellular matrix and nerve axons were noted. PMID:28331283

  11. The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Heiko; Schmidt, Albrecht

    In this paper, we show how to use the combination of eye-gaze and a touch-sensitive mouse to ease pointing tasks in graphical user interfaces. A touch of the mouse positions the mouse pointer at the current gaze position of the user. Thus, the pointer is always at the position where the user expects it on the screen. This approach changes the user experience in tasks that include frequent switching between keyboard and mouse input (e.g. working with spreadsheets). In a user study, we compared the touch-sensitive mouse with a traditional mouse and observed speed improvements for pointing tasks on complex backgrounds. For pointing task on plain backgrounds, performances with both devices were similar, but users perceived the gaze-sensitive interaction of the touch-sensitive mouse as being faster and more convenient. Our results show that using a touch-sensitive mouse that positions the pointer on the user’s gaze position reduces the need for mouse movements in pointing tasks enormously.

  12. Microfluidic-based single cell trapping using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Chen, Zongzheng; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Xie, Handi; Qin, Kairong

    2016-06-01

    Single cell trapping in vitro by microfluidic device is an emerging approach for the study of the relationship between single cells and their dynamic biochemical microenvironments. In this paper, a hydrodynamic-based microfluidic device for single cell trapping is designed using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier. The microfluidic device overcomes the weakness of the traditional ones, which have been only based upon either stagnation point flows or physical barriers, and can conveniently load dynamic biochemical signals to the trapped cell. In addition, it can connect with a programmable syringe pump and a microscope to constitute an integrated experimental system. It is experimentally verified that the microfluidic system can trap single cells in vitro even under flow disturbance and conveniently load biochemical signals to the trapped cell. The designed micro-device would provide a simple yet effective experimental platform for further study of the interactions between single cells and their microenvironments.

  13. [Real world analysis to explore Xiyanping injection combined with other drugs for hand-foot-mouth disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Fei; Fan, Hai-Wei; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Integrated network analysis was used in this paper to analyze Xiyanping injection combined therapy for hand-foot-mouth disease based on the registered research data of 3 204 cases. It was found that the drug combination therapy was almost consistent with the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand foot mouth disease, but there were some problems to be noticed: there were too many applications of antibiotics, more than the need in preventing secondary infection; and ribavirin was not necessary for use. This article showed that the clinical antibacterial and antiviral values of Xiyanping injection has not been well recognized for hand-foot-mouth disease. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Skin friction reduction in supersonic flow by injection through slots, porous sections and combinations of the two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Vanovereem, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of skin friction reduction in a Mach 3.0 air steam with gaseous injection through a tangential slot, a porous wall section, and combinations of the two was conducted. The primary data obtained were wall shear values measured directly with a floating element balance and also inferred from Preston Tube measurements. Detailed profiles at several axial stations, wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs are presented. The data indicate that a slot provides the greatest skin friction reduction in comparison with a reference flat plate experiment. The porous wall section arrangement suffers from an apparent roughness-induced rise in skin friction at low injection rates compared to the flat plate. The combination schemes demonstrated a potential for gain.

  15. Combined Influence of Visual Scene and Body Tilt on Arm Pointing Movements: Gravity Matters!

    PubMed Central

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R.; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R.; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., ‘combined’ tilts equal to the sum of ‘single’ tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues. PMID:24925371

  16. Tracer-cocktail injections for combined pre- and intraoperative multimodal imaging of lymph nodes in a spontaneous mouse prostate tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Anne C.; Buckle, Tessa; Bendle, Gavin; Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato; van de Poel, Henk G.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2011-01-01

    To improve surgical guidance toward prostate draining lymph nodes, we investigate the potential of intraoperative fluorescence imaging and combined pre- and intraoperative multimodality imaging approaches. Transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice with spontaneous prostate tumors are injected intratumorally with: 1. a cocktail of patent blue (Pb) and indocyanine green (ICG); 2. a cocktail of albumin radiocolloids (99mTc-NanoColl), Pb, and ICG; or 3. a cocktail of radiolabeled albumin (99mTc-Vasculosis), Pb, and ICG. The distribution of these imaging agents over the lymph nodes (LNs) are studied at different time points after injection. We find that at 60-min postinjection, ICG significantly improves the detection of the LNs compared to Pb, 53 versus 7%, respectively. Moreover, a cocktail of ICG and 99mTc-NanoColl improves the fluorescent detection rate to 86%, equalling that of the clinically applied 99mTc-NanoColl. A similar overlap is observed in our initial clinical pilot data. Fluorescent detection of the LNs using a ICG with 99mTc-Vasculosis gives similar results as ``free'' ICG (58% 60 min). A 99mTc-NanoColl, Pb, and cocktail ICG enriches the standard 99mTc-NanoColl approach by adding optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes. Furthermore, this approach improves fluorescent-based guidance and enables both accurate surgical planning and intraoperative detection, based on a single injection.

  17. Tracer-cocktail injections for combined pre- and intraoperative multimodal imaging of lymph nodes in a spontaneous mouse prostate tumor model.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Anne C; Buckle, Tessa; Bendle, Gavin; Vermeeren, Lenka; Valdés Olmos, Renato; van de Poel, Henk G; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2011-01-01

    To improve surgical guidance toward prostate draining lymph nodes, we investigate the potential of intraoperative fluorescence imaging and combined pre- and intraoperative multimodality imaging approaches. Transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice with spontaneous prostate tumors are injected intratumorally with: 1. a cocktail of patent blue (Pb) and indocyanine green (ICG); 2. a cocktail of albumin radiocolloids (99mTc-NanoColl), Pb, and ICG; or 3. a cocktail of radiolabeled albumin (99mTc-Vasculosis), Pb, and ICG. The distribution of these imaging agents over the lymph nodes (LNs) are studied at different time points after injection. We find that at 60-min postinjection, ICG significantly improves the detection of the LNs compared to Pb, 53 versus 7%, respectively. Moreover, a cocktail of ICG and 99mTc-NanoColl improves the fluorescent detection rate to 86%, equalling that of the clinically applied 99mTc-NanoColl. A similar overlap is observed in our initial clinical pilot data. Fluorescent detection of the LNs using a ICG with 99mTc-Vasculosis gives similar results as "free" ICG (58%; 60 min). A 99mTc-NanoColl, Pb, and cocktail ICG enriches the standard 99mTc-NanoColl approach by adding optical detection of the sentinel lymph nodes. Furthermore, this approach improves fluorescent-based guidance and enables both accurate surgical planning and intraoperative detection, based on a single injection.

  18. Treatment of neglected elbow dislocations with combination of speed V-Y muscleplasty and intra-articular injection of hydrocorticosone.

    PubMed

    Bansal, P; Lal, H; Khare, R; Mittal, D

    2010-01-01

    Neglected dislocations of the elbow are not uncommon in developing countries. We report case series of 3 cases of neglected dislocations of elbow. All the three cases were treated by combination of Speeds procedure and intraarticular injection of 25mg of hydrocorticosone acetate in 5 ml of distilled water. Mean time from injury was 5 months and mean follow-up was 10 months. According to Mayo Elbow Performance Index, 2 outcomes were excellent and 1 outcome was good.

  19. Combined prevention for persons who inject drugs in the HIV epidemic in a transitional country: the case of Tallinn, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Raag, Mait; Pinkerton, Steven D; Feelemyer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the potential effectiveness of combined HIV prevention on the very high seroprevalence epidemic among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tallinn, Estonia, a transitional country. Data from community-based cross-sectional (respondent-driven sampling) surveys of PWID in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 were used together with mathematical modeling of injection-associated HIV acquisition to estimate changes in injection-related HIV incidence during these periods. Utilization of one, two, or three of the interventions available in the community (needle and syringes exchange program, antiretroviral treatment [ART], HIV testing, opioid substitution treatment) was reported by 42.5%, 30.5%, and 11.5% of HIV+ and 34.7%, 36.4%, and 5.7% of HIV- PWIDs, respectively, in 2011. The modeling results suggest that the combination of needle/syringe programs and provision of ART to PWID in Tallinn substantially reduced the incidence of HIV infection in this population, from an estimated 20.7/100 person-years in 2005 to 7.5/100 person-years in 2011. In conclusion, combined prevention targeting HIV acquisition and transmission-related risks among PWID in Tallinn has paralleled the downturn of the HIV epidemic in this population.

  20. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  1. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-07-22

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly.

  2. Comparison between intrarticular injection of hyaluronic acid, oxygen ozone, and the combination of both in the treatment of knee osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Di Cesare, A; Giovannangeli, F; Rizzo, M; Moffa, S; Martinelli, F

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare short-term clinical outcomes between intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA), oxygen ozone (O2O3), and the combination of both, in patients affected by osteoarthrosis (OA) of the knee. Seventy patients (age 45-75 years) with knee OA were randomized to intra-articular injections of HA (n=23), or O2O3 (n=23) or combined (n=24) one per week for 5 consecutive weeks. KOOS questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS), before treatment (pre) at the end (post), and at 2 months after treatment ended (follow-up) were used as outcome measures. Analysis showed a significant effect (P < 0.05) of the conditions (pre, post and follow-up) in all parameters of the KOOS score and a significant effect (P < 0.05) of groups (HA, O2O3 and combined) for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living and quality of life. The combined group scores were higher compared to the HA and O2O3 groups, especially at follow-up. The combination of O2O3 and HA treatment led to a significantly better outcome especially at 2-month follow-up compared to HA and O2O3 given separately to patients affected by OA of the knee.

  3. Geometric Calibration of ZIYUAN-3 Three-Line Cameras Combining Ground Control Points and Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinshan; Yuan, Xiuxiao; Gong, Jianya

    2016-06-01

    Due to the large biases between the laboratory-calibrated values of the orientation parameters and their in-orbit true values, the initial direct georeferencing accuracy of the Ziyuan-3 (ZY-3) three-line camera (TLC) images can only reach the kilometre level. In this paper, a point-based geometric calibration model of the ZY-3 TLCs is firstly established by using the collinearity constraint, and then a line-based geometric calibration model is established by using the coplanarity constraint. With the help of both the point-based and the line-based models, a feasible in-orbit geometric calibration approach for the ZY-3 TLCs combining ground control points (GCPs) and ground control lines (GCLs) is presented. Experimental results show that like GCPs, GCLs can also provide effective ground control information for the geometric calibration of the ZY-3 TLCs. The calibration accuracy of the look angles of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors achieved by using the presented approach reached up to about 1.0''. After the geometric calibration, the direct georeferencing accuracy of the ZY-3 TLC images without ground controls was significantly improved from the kilometre level to better than 11 m in planimetry and 9 m in height. A more satisfactory georeferencing accuracy of better than 3.5 m in planimetry and 3.0 m in height was achieved after the block adjustment with four GCPs.

  4. Monitoring of adenovirus serotypes in environmental samples by combined PCR and melting point analyses.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Nils Marten; Dartscht, Melanie; Szewzyk, Regine; Selinka, Hans-Christoph

    2013-06-10

    Human adenoviruses are promising candidates for addressing health risks associated with enteric viruses in environmental waters. Relatively harmless but common, these DNA viruses persist within the population and are generally considered extremely stable, remaining infectious in water for long periods of time. Group-specific or single species detection of human adenoviruses in environmental samples is usually based on polymerase chain reaction assays. Simultaneous identification of specific species or serotypes needs additional processing. Here we present a simple molecular approach for the monitoring of serotypic diversity in the human adenovirus populations in contaminated water sites. Diversity patterns of human adenoviruses in environmental samples, collected in an outdoor artificial stream and pond simulation system, were analyzed using a closed tube polymerase chain reaction method with subsequent melting point analysis. Human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most prominent adenovirus serotype detected in environmental water samples, but melting point analyses indicated the presence of additional adenovirus serotypes. Based on investigations with spiked and environmental samples, a combination of qPCR and melting point analysis was shown to identify adenovirus serotypes in sewage contaminated water.

  5. Monitoring of adenovirus serotypes in environmental samples by combined PCR and melting point analyses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses are promising candidates for addressing health risks associated with enteric viruses in environmental waters. Relatively harmless but common, these DNA viruses persist within the population and are generally considered extremely stable, remaining infectious in water for long periods of time. Group-specific or single species detection of human adenoviruses in environmental samples is usually based on polymerase chain reaction assays. Simultaneous identification of specific species or serotypes needs additional processing. Here we present a simple molecular approach for the monitoring of serotypic diversity in the human adenovirus populations in contaminated water sites. Methods Diversity patterns of human adenoviruses in environmental samples, collected in an outdoor artificial stream and pond simulation system, were analyzed using a closed tube polymerase chain reaction method with subsequent melting point analysis. Results Human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most prominent adenovirus serotype detected in environmental water samples, but melting point analyses indicated the presence of additional adenovirus serotypes. Conclusions Based on investigations with spiked and environmental samples, a combination of qPCR and melting point analysis was shown to identify adenovirus serotypes in sewage contaminated water. PMID:23758742

  6. [Efficacy of semiconductor laser therapy combined with botulinum toxin A type injection in treatment of temporomandibular disorders].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei-Yuan; You, Qing-Ling

    2016-12-01

    To observe the efficacy of semiconductor laser therapy in combination with botulinum toxin A type injection in treating temporomandibular disorders and the influence on serum levels of interleukin(IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. Ninety patients with temporomandibular disorders were selected and randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 45 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received semiconductor laser therapy,once per day and 1 course for 1 week. Patients in the treatment group was given semiconductor laser therapy in combination with botulinum toxin A type. 50 U botulinum toxin A type were injected into the masseteric and temporal muscles with 5 injections at different sites in each side. The treatment course of patients was 2 weeks. Fricton scale indexes, pain index, and efficacy were compared between the two groups. Serum levels of IL-1 and TNF-α were detected in both groups. SPSS19.0 software package was used for data analysis. After treatment, PI, DI and CMI in the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01). After 1 and 2 weeks of treatment, VAS score of the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01). The total efficacy rate of the treatment group was 93.33%,which was significantly higher than control group (66.67%, P<0.05). Serum levels of IL-1 and TNF-α of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01). The efficacy of semiconductor laser therapy in combination with botulinum toxin A type injection in treating temporomandibular disorders is significant,and may be related to decreased serum levels of IL-1 and TNF-α.

  7. [Membrane peeling combined with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab for treatment of macular epiretinal membrane: analysis of 33 cases].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Guoming; Su, Kangjin; Song, Xiangmei; Tian, Ruyin; Gu, Xunqing

    2014-07-01

    To assess efficacy of membrane peeling combined with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macular epiretinal membrane. From January, 2012 to June, 2013, 33 patients (33 eyes) with the diagnosis of macular epiretinal membrane underwent vitreous surgery and membrane peeling. The patients were randomly divided into intravitreal bevacizumab group (IVB group) and non-intravitreal bevacizumab group (non-IVB group). All the patients underwent standard three-port vitrectomy and peeling of epiretinal membrane, with intravitreal injection of 1.5 mg bevacizumab at the end of operation in IVB group. The best corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were examined before and after the treatment. The patients were followed up for 3-14 months (mean 6.5 months). Macular epiretinal membranes were successfully peeled during operation in all the patients without postoperative intraocular infection or bleeding. Fifteen eyes received vitrectomy combined with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, and 18 underwent only vitreous operation and membrane peeling. At the end of the follow up, the visual acuity improved in 11 eyes (73.3%) in IVB group, as compared to 13 eyes (72.2%) in the non-IVB group (P=0.627). Central macular thickness decreased by 143∓62 µm in IVB group and by 96∓28 µm in non-IVB group, showing a significant difference between the two groups (t=5.564, P<0.01). Vitrectomy and membrane peeling combined with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab can promote the recovery of macular morphology but not visual function, and its clinical use still needs to be tested in a long-term and large-sample randomized controlled study.

  8. Blue vitiligo following intralesional injection of psoralen combined with ultraviolet B radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J A; Yu, J B; Lv, Y; Thapa, P

    2015-04-01

    A 23-year-old Chinese man presented with a 16-month history of white patches on his abdomen and neck. He had previously received an intralesional injection of psoralen along with narrowband psoralen ultraviolet B radiation (PUVB) therapy. Blue macules had appeared in and around the injection sites 1 week later. Dermoscopy revealed blue spots and reticular telangiectasia within the white patches. Histological examination revealed an absence of epidermal melanocytes and pigment in the basal layer, as well as deposition of melanophages between collagen bundles or surrounding blood vessels and appendages in the middle and lower parts of the dermis. A diagnosis of blue vitiligo was made. The blue colour faded gradually over time. Our case provides direct evidence to support the previous surmise that PUVB can contribute to blue vitiligo. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of blue vitiligo in the English literature. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Multi-Acupuncture Point Injections and Their Anatomical Study in Relation to Neck and Shoulder Pain Syndrome (So-Called Katakori) in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Teruhisa; Suyama, Kaori; Tanaka, Osamu; Sawada, Makoto; Ito, Miho; Ito, Kenji; Akamatsu, Tadashi; Masuda, Ritsuko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Sakabe, Kou

    2015-01-01

    Katakori is a symptom name that is unique to Japan, and refers to myofascial pain syndrome-like clinical signs in the shoulder girdle. Various methods of pain relief for katakori have been reported, but in the present study, we examined the clinical effects of multi-acupuncture point injections (MAPI) in the acupuncture points with which we empirically achieved an effect, as well as the anatomical sites affected by liquid medicine. The subjects were idiopathic katakori patients (n = 9), and three cadavers for anatomical investigation. BL-10, GB-21, LI-16, SI-14, and BL-38 as the WHO notation were selected as the acupuncture point. Injections of 1 mL of 1% w/v mepivacaine were introduced at the same time into each of these points in the patients. Assessment items were the Pain Relief Score and the therapeutic effect period. Dissections were centered at the puncture sites of cadavers. India ink was similarly injected into each point, and each site that was darkly-stained with India ink was evaluated. Katakori pain in the present study was significantly reduced by MAPI. Regardless of the presence or absence of trigger points, pain was significantly reduced in these cases. Dark staining with India ink at each of the points in the anatomical analysis was as follows: BL-10: over the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and rectus capitis posterior major muscle fascia; GB-21: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; LI-16: over the supraspinatus muscle fascia; SI-14: over the rhomboid muscle fascia; and BL-38: over the rhomboid muscle fascia. The anatomical study suggested that the drug effect was exerted on the muscles above and below the muscle fascia, as well as the peripheral nerves because the points of action in acupuncture were darkly-stained in the spaces between the muscle and the muscle fascia. PMID:26046784

  10. Efficacy and safety of point-of-care ultrasound-guided intra-articular corticosteroid joint injections in patients with haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Martin, E J; Cooke, E J; Ceponis, A; Barnes, R F W; Moran, C M; Holle, S; Hughes, T H; Moore, R E; von Drygalski, A

    2017-01-01

    Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are standard of care for managing joint pain secondary to osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis but are rarely used in haemophilic arthropathy. We have introduced and evaluated the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections for pain relief in patients with haemophilic arthropathy. Ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections performed on haemophilia patients at UCSD between March 2012 and January 2016 were analysed. Needle placement and injection (40 mg triamcinolone; 3-5 mL lidocaine) were performed with musculoskeletal ultrasound and Power Doppler. Analysis included patient demographics, joint-specific parameters such as tissue hypervascularity and effusions, pain relief, and procedure-associated complications. Forty-five injections (14 ankles, 13 elbows, 18 knees) were administered in 25 patients. Advanced arthropathy with hypervascularity and/or effusions was present in 91% and 61% of joints, respectively. Ninety-one per cent of injections resulted in pain relief which was significant in 84% (>30% reduction). Median pain score was reduced from 7 of 10 to 1 of 10 (P < 0.001), usually within 24 h. Median duration of pain relief was 8 weeks (range 1-16 weeks). Haemophilia B patients experienced longer periods of relief, and high Pettersson scores were associated with shorter duration of relief. There were no procedure-associated complications. Repeat ultrasound of eight joints within 4 weeks of injection demonstrated nearly complete resolution of hypervascularity. Point-of-care ultrasound enabled intra-articular corticosteroid injections that provided highly effective, safe, and relatively long-lasting pain relief in haemophilic arthropathy. This approach should be used to improve pain management in haemophilic arthropathy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in Nigerian women using combined oral and progestin-only injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oyelola, O O

    1993-05-01

    Fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein (apo) profiles were determined in Nigerian women using a low-dose combined oral (Lo-Feminal + Fe) (n = 18), a progestin-only injectable (Depo-Provera) (n = 16) contraceptives and matched controls (n = 18). The mean of plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apo B and Lp(a) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in women using contraceptives than the controls. The mean of total and LDL-cholesterol and apo B were also significantly higher in the oral contraceptive users than those on progestin-only injectables. Furthermore, the mean of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indices, total/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01), were significantly higher in women on oral contraceptives than the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the indices in the women using progestin-only injectables and the controls. Based on this finding, it is concluded that the use of steroidal contraceptives is associated with alterations of lipid and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian women and that the use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased CVD risk.

  12. Combined intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole in the treatment of resistant cases of keratomycosis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nada, Waled Mahdy; Al Aswad, Mahmoud A; El-Haig, Wael M

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of a single intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole in resistant cases of fungal keratitis, and also topical amphotericin B as monotherapy in terms of the duration of the recovery period and toxic drug effects. This retrospective 2-year study reviewed 68 cases of unilateral fungal keratitis diagnosed by clinical features and positive laboratory culture results. Forty-one cases were resistant and did not respond to monotherapy with an antifungal agent. Thus, they were treated with a single intrastromal injection of amphotericin B in addition to topical fluconazole as combined antifungal therapy, representing group A. Twenty-seven cases were treated with topical amphotericin B as antifungal monotherapy, representing group B. Topical atropine 1% and different antibiotic eye drops were added to the antifungal agents in both groups. Follow-up of patient records was performed monitoring cure rate, duration of recovery period, and toxic drug effects such as pain, burning sensation, and corneal melting. The results revealed that group A, treated with combination therapy, showed recovery of 34 cases (82.9%) with a mean duration of 24±6.42 days, significantly different from group B which showed recovery of 16 cases (59.3%) with a mean duration of 39.66±13.6 days. Group A also showed less manifestation of drug toxicity than group B. Combined intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole can provide a good modality in the treatment of resistant cases of fungal keratitis, exhibiting highly potent antifungal effects, shorter recovery period, and reduced corneal toxicity.

  13. Combined intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole in the treatment of resistant cases of keratomycosis: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nada, Waled Mahdy; Al Aswad, Mahmoud A; El-Haig, Wael M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of a single intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole in resistant cases of fungal keratitis, and also topical amphotericin B as monotherapy in terms of the duration of the recovery period and toxic drug effects. Methods This retrospective 2-year study reviewed 68 cases of unilateral fungal keratitis diagnosed by clinical features and positive laboratory culture results. Forty-one cases were resistant and did not respond to monotherapy with an antifungal agent. Thus, they were treated with a single intrastromal injection of amphotericin B in addition to topical fluconazole as combined antifungal therapy, representing group A. Twenty-seven cases were treated with topical amphotericin B as antifungal monotherapy, representing group B. Topical atropine 1% and different antibiotic eye drops were added to the antifungal agents in both groups. Follow-up of patient records was performed monitoring cure rate, duration of recovery period, and toxic drug effects such as pain, burning sensation, and corneal melting. Results The results revealed that group A, treated with combination therapy, showed recovery of 34 cases (82.9%) with a mean duration of 24±6.42 days, significantly different from group B which showed recovery of 16 cases (59.3%) with a mean duration of 39.66±13.6 days. Group A also showed less manifestation of drug toxicity than group B. Conclusion Combined intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole can provide a good modality in the treatment of resistant cases of fungal keratitis, exhibiting highly potent antifungal effects, shorter recovery period, and reduced corneal toxicity. PMID:28503064

  14. Clinical effects and safety of treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Panshi; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Wenzhan; Dong, Yi; Wan, Guangming; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the clinical effects of treating diabetic macular edema with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in combination with retinal photocoagulation. Methods Sixty-two cases (75 eyes) with confirmed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in combination with macular edema were randomly divided into the observation group (37 eyes were given an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation) and the control group (38 eyes received retinal photocoagulation only). Vision, fundus condition, central macular thickness, and the macular leakage area were recorded before and after treatment. Results The best-corrected visual acuity and macular leakage area were similar between the observation and control groups (P>0.05). The best-corrected visual acuity in the observation group was higher than that in the control group 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05) and showed a rising tendency. The macular leakage area in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05). However, the macular leakage area was similar 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). The central macular thickness of the observation group was lower than that in the control group 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). The laser energy used in the observation group was also smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure was not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). No patients in the two groups developed eye or systemic complications, such as glaucoma, cataract, or vitreous hemorrhage during treatment. Conclusion Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation was proven to be effective in treating diabetic macular edema as it improved vision and resulted in fewer complications. PMID:27103811

  15. Application of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia for controlling refractory pain induced by rib metastasis of lung cancer (a STROBE-compliant article).

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Lun; Guo, Da-Peng; Li, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia on lung cancer rib metastasis-related refractory pain which has no response to conventional therapy.This study contained 27 patients with lung cancer rib metastasis-related moderate or severe pain which had no response to conventional therapy. Under computed tomography (CT)-guidance, radiofrequency puncture need reached the corresponding intervertebral foramens to ensure needle point near dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by sensory and motor stimulation tests, and then radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed on each corresponding DRG followed by injection of 0.5 to 1 mL of adriamycin (0.5%). The conditions of pain and complications were observed before management and 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after management, respectively.Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores and dosage of morphine were all significantly decreased after management as compared with those before management (all P < 0.01). Although the number of patients with chest wall numbness was significantly increased after management as compared with that before management (all P < 0.01), the degree of chest wall numbness was tolerable. There were no statistical differences between before and after management in nausea and vomiting, and constipation.CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in DRG can effectively control lung cancer rib metastasis-related pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This combinatory treatment regimen is featured by better therapeutic effects and a few complications, so it is worthy of being recommended in clinical application.

  16. Application of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia for controlling refractory pain induced by rib metastasis of lung cancer (a STROBE-compliant article)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guang-lun; Guo, Da-peng; Li, Zhi-gang; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to observe the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in dorsal root ganglia on lung cancer rib metastasis-related refractory pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This study contained 27 patients with lung cancer rib metastasis-related moderate or severe pain which had no response to conventional therapy. Under computed tomography (CT)-guidance, radiofrequency puncture need reached the corresponding intervertebral foramens to ensure needle point near dorsal root ganglia (DRG) by sensory and motor stimulation tests, and then radiofrequency thermocoagulation was performed on each corresponding DRG followed by injection of 0.5 to 1 mL of adriamycin (0.5%). The conditions of pain and complications were observed before management and 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after management, respectively. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores and dosage of morphine were all significantly decreased after management as compared with those before management (all P < 0.01). Although the number of patients with chest wall numbness was significantly increased after management as compared with that before management (all P < 0.01), the degree of chest wall numbness was tolerable. There were no statistical differences between before and after management in nausea and vomiting, and constipation. CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with adriamycin injection in DRG can effectively control lung cancer rib metastasis-related pain which has no response to conventional therapy. This combinatory treatment regimen is featured by better therapeutic effects and a few complications, so it is worthy of being recommended in clinical application. PMID:27749531

  17. Clozapine and long-acting injectable antipsychotic combination: A retrospective one-year mirror-image study.

    PubMed

    Souaiby, Lama; Gauthier, Claire; Rieu, Christine; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Advenier-Iakovlev, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Raphaël

    2017-01-27

    To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of the combination of clozapine with an antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) in multi-episode patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed in seventeen patients admitted to a hospital in Paris between January 2010 and June 2015, using a one-year mirror-image design. Number and length of hospitalizations significantly decreased after introducing the combination (2.1 vs 0.8, p=0.004 and 155.4days vs 26.6days, p<0.001 respectively). No major adverse events occurred in terms of increased weight, agranulocytosis, hyperglycemia and/or dyslipidemia. This combination can be beneficial and safe in multi-episode patients.

  18. Sequential injection setup for capillary isoelectric focusing combined with MS detection.

    PubMed

    Páger, Csilla; Dörnyei, Agnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-07-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing in the presence of electroosmosis with sequential injection of carrier ampholytes and sample was found to be suitable for MS detection. The separate injection of the sample and the ampholytes provides good condition to suppress and overcome the undesirable effect of the presence of ampholytes in MS. By the appropriate selection of ampholyte solutions, whose pH range not necessarily covers the pI values of the analytes, the migration of the components can be controlled, and the impact of the ampholytes on MS detection is decreased. The unique applicability of this setup is shown by testing several parameters, such as the application of volatile electrolyte solutions, the type of the ampholytes, the order and the number of the ampholyte and sample zones. Broad and narrow pH range ampholytes were applied in experiments using uncoated capillaries with different lengths for the analyses of substituted nitrophenol dyes to achieve optimal conditions for the MS detection. Although the sample components are not leaving the pH gradient, due to the decrease in the ampholyte concentration at the position of the components, and because the sample components migrate in charged state, the ionisation is more effective for MS detection.

  19. Combined impedance and dielectrophoresis portable device for point-of-care analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Moral Zamora, B.; Colomer-Farrarons, J.; Mir-Llorente, M.; Homs-Corbera, A.; Miribel-Català, P.; Samitier-Martí, J.

    2011-05-01

    In the 90s, efforts arise in the scientific world to automate and integrate one or several laboratory applications in tinny devices by using microfluidic principles and fabrication technologies used mainly in the microelectronics field. It showed to be a valid method to obtain better reactions efficiency, shorter analysis times, and lower reagents consumption over existing analytical techniques. Traditionally, these fluidic microsystems able to realize laboratory essays are known as Lab-On-a-Chip (LOC) devices. The capability to transport cells, bacteria or biomolecules in an aqueous medium has significant potential for these microdevices, also known as micro-Total-Analysis Systems (uTAS) when their application is of analytical nature. In particular, the technique of dielectrophoresis (DEP) opened the possibility to manipulate, actuate or transport such biological particles being of great potential in medical diagnostics, environmental control or food processing. This technique consists on applying amplitude and frequency controlled AC signal to a given microsystem in order to manipulate or sort cells. Furthermore, the combination of this technique with electrical impedance measurements, at a single or multiple frequencies, is of great importance to achieve novel reliable diagnostic devices. This is because the sorting and manipulating mechanism can be easily combined with a fully characterizing method able to discriminate cells. The paper is focused in the electronics design of the quadrature DEP generator and the four-electrode impedance measurement modules. These together with the lab-on-a-chip device define a full conception of an envisaged Point-of-Care (POC) device.

  20. Fast Occlusion and Shadow Detection for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Combined with LIDAR Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    The orthophoto is an important component of GIS database and has been applied in many fields. But occlusion and shadow causes the loss of feature information which has a great effect on the quality of images. One of the critical steps in true orthophoto generation is the detection of occlusion and shadow. Nowadays LiDAR can obtain the digital surface model (DSM) directly. Combined with this technology, image occlusion and shadow can be detected automatically. In this paper, the Z-Buffer is applied for occlusion detection. The shadow detection can be regarded as a same problem with occlusion detection considering the angle between the sun and the camera. However, the Z-Buffer algorithm is computationally expensive. And the volume of scanned data and remote sensing images is very large. Efficient algorithm is another challenge. Modern graphics processing unit (GPU) is much more powerful than central processing unit (CPU). We introduce this technology to speed up the Z-Buffer algorithm and get 7 times increase in speed compared with CPU. The results of experiments demonstrate that Z-Buffer algorithm plays well in occlusion and shadow detection combined with high density of point cloud and GPU can speed up the computation significantly.

  1. Assessment of combination therapy in BALB/c mice injected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Noor A.; Kissoyan, Kohar Annie B.; Fadlallah, Sukayna; Cheaito, Katia; Araj, George F.; Wakim, Rima; Kanj, Souha; Kanafani, Zeina; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Matar, Ghassan M.

    2015-01-01

    Monotherapeutic options for carbapenem resistant infections are limited. Studies suggest that combination therapy may be associated with better outcomes than monotherapies. However, this is still controversial. This study assessed, the efficacy of combination therapy against carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae harboring singly various extended spectrum beta lactamase or carbapenemase encoding genes. Thus, four isolates harboring either blaCTXM-15, blaCTXM-15 and blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, or blaKPC-2 genes were selected for testing. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by broth dilution method. Gene transcript levels on single and combined treatments were done in vitro and in vivo by qRT-PCR. Assessment of treatments was done in BALB/c mice according to a specific protocol. As such, the qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease of transcript levels in all isolates upon using rifampicin or tigecycline, singly or in combination with colistin. However, variable levels were obtained using colistin singly or in combination with meropenem or fosfomycin. In vivo assessment showed that all combinations used were effective against isolates harboring blaCTXM-15, blaOXA-48, and blaNDM-1. Conversely, the most significant combination against the isolate harboring blaKPC-2 gene was colistin with either carbapenem, fosfomycin, or kanamycin. As a conclusion, combination therapy selected based on the type of carbapenemase produced, appeared to be non-toxic and might be effective in BALB/c mice. Therefore, the use of a rationally optimized combination therapy might lead to better results than monotherapy, however, clinical trials are needed for human consumption. PMID:26441926

  2. Combination of Intra-Articular and Intraosseous Injections of Platelet Rich Plasma for Severe Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Pello; Muiños-López, Emma; Prósper, Felipe; Pompei, Orlando; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Padilla, Sabino; Fiz, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a novel approach to treating severe knee osteoarthritis by targeting synovial membrane, superficial articular cartilage, synovial fluid, and subchondral bone by combining intra-articular injections and intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma. We explored a new strategy consisting of intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma into the subchondral bone in combination with the conventional intra-articular injection in order to tackle several knee joint tissues simultaneously. We assessed the clinical outcomes through osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and the inflammatory response by quantifying mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid. There was a significant pain reduction in the KOOS from baseline (61.55 ± 14.11) to week 24 (74.60 ± 19.19), after treatment (p = 0.008), in the secondary outcomes (symptoms, p = 0.004; ADL, p = 0.022; sport/rec., p = 0.017; QOL, p = 0.012), as well as VAS score (p < 0.001) and Lequesne Index (p = 0.008). The presence of mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid and colony-forming cells one week after treatment decreased substantially from 7.98 ± 8.21 MSC/μL to 4.04 ± 5.36 MSC/μL (p = 0.019) and from 601.75 ± 312.30 to 139.19 ± 123.61  (p = 0.012), respectively. Intra-articular injections combined with intraosseous infiltrations of platelet rich plasma reduce pain and mesenchymal stem cells in synovial fluid, besides significantly improving knee joint function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. This trial is registered on EudraCT with the number 2013-003982-32. PMID:27462609

  3. [Clinical effect of ultrasound combined with anatomy-measure guidance botulinum toxin type A injection in poststroke patients with spasticity].

    PubMed

    JIANG, Li; WEI, Xiao-mei; DOU, Zu-lin; LI, Xin; WANG, Qiao-yuan; LAN, Yue; HU, Xi-quan; ZHENG, Hai-qing

    2012-04-17

    To evaluate the clinical efficacies of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection under ultrasonic guidance and body surface positioning in poststroke patients with lower extremities spasticity. From January 2009 to January 2011, a total of 18 patients with stroke-related spasticity in lower extremities were recruited at Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Under the guide of color Doppler ultrasound and body surface positioning, BTX-A was injected into multi-points of muscles. The outcome after BTX-A injection was assessed by modified Ashworth scale (MAS), passive range of movement (PROM), 10-meter walking test (10 MWT) and Berg balance scale (BBS). Assessments were performed at baseline, Day 3, Weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12 post-injection respectively. Compared the scores of MAS (MAS(pre-treatment) 2.6 ± 0.5, MAS(post-treatment) 1.9 ± 0.2 - 1.1 ± 0.3 score), PROM (PROM(pre-treatment) 7.2 ± 2.4°, PROM(post-treatment) 12.3 ± 2.0 - 18.6 ± 2.2°) between baseline and follow-up at Weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12 post-treatment, there were significant statistical differences (P < 0.05).10 MW (10 MWT(pre-treatment) 55.1 ± 5.2 s, 10 MWT(post-treatment) 48.6 ± 4.2 - 42.9 ± 3.8 s) and BBS (BBS(pre-treatment) 34.7 ± 5.1, BBS(post-treatment) 39.9 ± 4.9 - 45.8 ± 2.1 score) improved greatly at Weeks 2, 4 and 12 post-treatment. Ultrasonic guidance and body surface positioning is an accurate positioning modality of using BTX-A for treating the spasticity of lower extremities.

  4. Efficacy of multimodal analgesia injection combined with corticosteroids after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Perdreau, A; Joudet, T

    2015-12-01

    Although arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is minimally invasive, there is still considerable postoperative pain, especially during the first 48 hours. The present study assessed the short-term efficacy and safety of multimodal analgesic (MMA) injection associated to corticosteroids in arthroscopic rotator cuff tear surgery. A single-center prospective randomized study included 50 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff tear surgery. The study group received subacromial injection of a mixture of morphine, ropivacaine and methylprednisolone associated to intra-articular injection of morphine plus methylprednisolone; the control group received only isotonic saline. All patients had had 24 hours self-administered morphine associated to standard analgesia. Postoperative data were recorded at 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours: pain intensity, morphine intake and side effects, and also time to first morphine bolus and additional analgesic intake. Constant, ASES and SST functional scores were recorded at 3 months. Postoperative pain was significantly less intense in the MMA group than in controls at 30 min, H1, H4, H6, H12, H18 and H24 (P<0.05). A rebound at D10 occurred in both groups. During the first 24 hours, MMA significantly reduced cumulative resort to morphine (P<0.05 at H1/2, P<0.001 at H1-24). Mean time to first bolus was significantly longer in the MMA group (71.6 vs. 33 min; P<0.05). The rate of opioid-related side effects was similar between groups. At last follow-up, functional scores were similar between groups. There were no cases of infection or delayed skin healing. MMA associated to corticosteroids after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear surgery provided immediate benefit in terms of analgesia and morphine sparing, without apparent risk of infection. The practice is presently little known in France and deserves longer-term assessment, especially as regards functional rehabilitation and tendon healing. 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson

  5. [Use of local injections of tolperisone (midocalm) in combination with tractional therapy in the treatment of vertebral static syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Ia Iu; Kutarev, R V; Shelkov, S N; Suslov, S A

    2007-01-01

    A randomized double-blind study of the efficacy of midocalm combined with tractional therapy has been carried out in 24 patients (indexed group) comparing to the tractional therapy without midocalm (the drug has been substituted with placebo) in 25 patients (comparison group). The effective number of injections was 3-6 in the indexed group and 7 in the comparison group. A quantitative assessment revealed that in the indexed group treatment efficacy was 1,56 times higher and the effect achieved sooner than in the comparison group.

  6. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection combined with preimplantation genetic diagnosis for the prevention of recurrent gestational trophoblastic disease.

    PubMed

    Reubinoff, B E; Lewin, A; Verner, M; Safran, A; Schenker, J G; Abeliovich, D

    1997-04-01

    A strategy for the prevention of repeated molar pregnancies by using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) coupled with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was developed. In this approach, complete moles which arise from dispermic fertilization are avoided by the use of ICSI. ICSI is followed by preimplantation selection against the transfer of 46,XX embryos, thus preventing complete moles resulting from a fertilization of an inactive oocyte, by a haploid X-bearing spermatozoon which subsequently duplicates. Triploid partial moles which arise mainly from dispermic fertilization may also be prevented by ICSI. The preimplantation confirmation of diploidy by FISH guards against triploid partial moles which may result from mechanisms other than dispermic fertilization. The employment of this strategy in an attempt to prevent a repeated event of molar pregnancy in a patient with a history of two previous episodes of gestational trophoblastic disease is reported.

  7. Physicochemical compatibility between thiocolchicoside injections (Miotens) and pharmaceutical products frequently used for combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Anacardio, Roberto; Perilli, Orietta; Pagnanelli, Federica; Bartolini, Sandro; Gentile, Marco M; Mazzeo, Pietro; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2002-11-01

    Thiocolchicoside (Miotens), a muscle relaxant agent, is frequently administered in association regimen with other drugs, such as anti-inflammatory drugs or vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical compatibility between thiocolchicoside (Miotens) and other injectable drugs frequently used in association. Physicochemical properties of thiocolchicoside mixtures with different drugs, including colour, clarity, pH and drug content were observed or measured before and after (3 h) mixing at room temperature. Results show that the association of Miotens with different anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamins does not cause, up to 3 h from mixing, any significant variation in the physicochemical parameters mentioned above. In conclusion the results obtained demonstrated the physicochemical compatibility of thiocolchicoside (Miotens) with diverse anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamins.

  8. Deciphering the Effects of Injectable Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Combination Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Glaubius, Robert L.; Parikh, Urvi M.; Hood, Greg; Penrose, Kerri J.; Bendavid, Eran; Mellors, John W.; Abbas, Ume L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A long-acting injectable formulation of rilpivirine (RPV), under investigation as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), may facilitate PrEP adherence. In contrast, cross-resistance between RPV and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors comprising first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) could promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance and reduce PrEP's effectiveness. Methods. We use novel mathematical modeling of different RPV PrEP scale-up strategies in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate their effects on HIV prevention and drug resistance, compared with a reference scenario without PrEP. Results. Pre-exposure prophylaxis scale-up modestly increases the proportion of prevalent drug-resistant infections, from 33% to ≤37%. The change in the number of prevalent drug-resistant infections depends on the interplay between PrEP factors (coverage, efficacy, delivery reliability, and scale-up strategy) and the level of cross-resistance between PrEP and ART. An optimistic scenario of 70% effective RPV PrEP (90% efficacious and 80% reliable delivery), among women aged 20–29 years, prevents 17% of cumulative infections over 10 years while decreasing prevalent resistance; however, prevention decreases and resistance increases with more conservative assumptions. Uncertainty analysis assuming 40%–70% cross-resistance prevalence predicts an increase in prevalent resistance unless PrEP's effectiveness exceeds 90%. Conclusions. Prioritized scale-up of injectable PrEP among women in KwaZulu-Natal could reduce HIV infections, but suboptimal effectiveness could promote the spread of drug resistance. PMID:27703992

  9. Effectiveness of ultrasound-guided injections combined with shoulder exercises in the treatment of subacromial adhesive bursitis.

    PubMed

    Gasparre, Giuseppe; Fusaro, Isabella; Galletti, Stefano; Volini, Silvia; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the association of exercises for the shoulder with ultrasound-guided injection into the bursa significantly improves the treatment outcome in adhesive bursitis. Two groups of 35 patients, one treated with ultrasound-guided injection (UGI) and the other one with ultrasound-guided injection and home exercise program (UGI-exercise) for 1 month, were assessed for pain and shoulder function before treatment, 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Fourteen patients in UGI group and 23 patients in the UGI-exercises group were completely free of pain after 1 month (p = 0.031). At 3 months' follow-up, patients in the UGI-exercise group showed a significant improvement with respect to the other group (p = 0.005). No differences were found in function assessment. The UGI combined with shoulder exercises in the treatment of subacromial adhesive bursitis is effective to ensure a more frequent complete pain relief in the medium term.

  10. Patterns of Use of Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Trigger Point Injections for Pediatric Headache: Results of a Survey of the American Headache Society Pediatric and Adolescent Section.

    PubMed

    Szperka, Christina L; Gelfand, Amy A; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    To describe current patterns of use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for treatment of pediatric headache. Peripheral nerve blocks are often used to treat headaches in adults and children, but the available studies and practice data from adult headache specialists have shown wide variability in diagnostic indications, sites injected, and medication(s) used. The purpose of this study was to describe current practice patterns in the use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for pediatric headache disorders. A survey was created in REDCap, and sent via email to the 82 members of the Pediatric and Adolescent Section of the American Headache Society in June 2015. The survey queried about current practice and use of nerve blocks, as well as respondents' opinions regarding gaps in the evidence for use of nerve blocks in this patient population. Forty-one complete, five incomplete, and three duplicate responses were submitted (response rate complete 50%). About 78% of the respondents identified their primary specialty as Child Neurology, and 51% were certified in headache medicine. Twenty-six (63%) respondents perform nerve blocks themselves, and seven (17%) refer patients to another provider for nerve blocks. Chronic migraine with status migrainosus was the most common indication for nerve blocks (82%), though occipital neuralgia (79%), status migrainosus (73%), chronic migraine without flare (70%), post-traumatic headache (70%), and new daily persistent headache (67%) were also common indications. The most commonly selected clinically meaningful response for status migrainosus was ≥50% reduction in severity, while for chronic migraine this was a ≥50% decrease in frequency at 4 weeks. Respondents inject the following locations: 100% inject the greater occipital nerve, 69% lesser occipital nerve, 50% supraorbital, 46% trigger point injections, 42% auriculotemporal, and 34% supratrochlear. All respondents used local anesthetic, while 12 (46%) also use

  11. Utility of trigger point injection as an adjunct to physical therapy in men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Nicholas N; Shah, Anup B; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2017-06-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is often associated with pelvic floor muscle spasm. While pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is effective, some men are unable to resolve their symptoms and have residual trigger points (TPs). TP injection has been used for treatment in several neuromuscular pain syndromes. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and side effects of TP injection in men with CP/CPPS and pelvic floor spasm refractory to PT. Using an IRB approved Men's Health Registry we reviewed the records of all men with a diagnosis of CP/CPPS who received at least 1 TP injection. Patients were phenotyped with UPOINT (all had the "T" domain for tenderness of muscle) and symptoms measured with the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI). Response was measured by a 5-point Global Response Assessment (GRA) and change in CPSI (paired t-test). For pelvic TPs, a pudendal block was done in lithotomy position and then each TP was identified transrectally by palpation. A nerve block needle was passed through the perineum into the TP confirmed by palpation. Between 0.5-1 cc was injected into each TP of a local anesthetic mixture (30:70 of 2% lidocaine and 0.25% bupivacaine). For anterior TPs, an ultrasound guided ilioinguinal block was done first and then each TP injected by direct palpation through the abdominal skin. Men were offered up to three sets of injections separated by 6 weeks each. We identified 37 patients who had a total of 68 procedures. Three men had no follow-up after their first injection and were included for side effects but not included for outcome. The indication was failure to progress on PT in 33, recurrent symptoms in 1 and refusal to do PT in 3. Mean age was 43.7 years (range 21-70 years) and median UPOINT domains was 3 (range 1-5). Initial CPSI was pain 13.7±3.4, urinary 5.3±2.2, quality of life 9.8±2.1 and total 28.8±6.0. 16 men had 1 injection, 11 had 2 and 10 had 3. All had pelvic TPs injected

  12. A new strategy for solving matrix effect in multivariate calibration standard addition data using combination of H-point curve isolation and H-point standard addition methods.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Abbasi-Tarighat, Maryam; Bahram, Morteza; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2008-04-21

    This work presents a new and simple strategy for solving matrix effects using combination of H-point curve isolation method (HPCIM) and H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). The method uses spectrophotometric multivariate calibration data constructed by successive standard addition of an analyte into an unknown matrix. By successive standard addition of the analyte, the concentrations of remaining components (interferents) remain constant and therefore give constant cumulative spectrum for interferents in the unknown mixture. The proposed method firstly extracts such spectrum using H-point curve isolation method and then applies the obtained cumulative interferents spectrum for determination of analyte by H-point standard addition method. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method a simulated as well as several experimental data sets were tested. The method was then applied to the determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical tablets and copper in urine samples and in a copper alloy.

  13. Combination therapy in skin of color including injectables, laser, and light devices.

    PubMed

    Guss, Lark; Bolton, Joanna G; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid increase in patients seeking cosmetic treatments, the variation in responses of lightly pigmented skin versus darkly pigmented skin has become increasingly apparent. Despite extensive treatment options in patients with skin of color, there is a paucity of well-designed studies performed on this patient population. The lack of research is concerning, as it is well documented that patients with darker skin types are at an increased risk of adverse events when treated with many of the available modalities used in cosmetic procedures. Fortunately, by combining a variety of treatments, these risks may be abrogated, and combination treatments may be a promising regimen for a wide variety of cosmetic complaints. An overview and evaluation of the research of combination therapy in skin of color is presented. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  14. Safety and Efficacy of Various Combinations of Injectable Anesthetics in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Sandra; Martin, Thomas E; Tetens-Woodring, Joanne; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Wilding, Gregory E

    2008-01-01

    Four combinations of drugs—ketamine–xylazine, ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (KXA), ketamine–xylazine–buprenorphine, and ketamine–xylazine–carprofen—were compared for their ability to produce anesthesia in BALB/c mice. Induction time, anesthetic duration, blood pressure, pulse rate, and time to recovery were recorded. The anesthesia induced by each anesthetic combination was assessed by using reflex responses to standardized stimuli. The KXA combination produced stable physiologic parameters and was associated with the longest duration of anesthesia (40 ± 8 min); immobility was produced in all other groups (38 ± 5 min), but a surgical plane of anesthesia could not be confirmed. All anesthetic protocols produced significant hypotension. No deaths occurred. We recommend KXA as a safe and reliable anesthetic for mice requiring a surgical plane of anesthesia. PMID:18210992

  15. Safety and efficacy of various combinations of injectable anesthetics in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Sandra; Martin, Thomas E; Tetens-Woodring, Joanne; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Wilding, Gregory E

    2008-01-01

    Four combinations of drugs--ketamine-xylazine, ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (KXA), ketamine-xylazine-buprenorphine, and ketamine-xylazine-carprofen--were compared for their ability to produce anesthesia in BALB/c mice. Induction time, anesthetic duration, blood pressure, pulse rate, and time to recovery were recorded. The anesthesia induced by each anesthetic combination was assessed by using reflex responses to standardized stimuli. The KXA combination produced stable physiologic parameters and was associated with the longest duration of anesthesia (40 +/- 8 min); immobility was produced in all other groups (38 +/- 5 min), but a surgical plane of anesthesia could not be confirmed. All anesthetic protocols produced significant hypotension. No deaths occurred. We recommend KXA as a safe and reliable anesthetic for mice requiring a surgical plane of anesthesia.

  16. Differentiating organic and conventional sage by chromatographic and mass spectrometry flow injection fingerprints combined with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Lu, Yingjian; Sheng, Yi; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-03-27

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The individual components in the sage samples were also characterized with an ultraperformance liquid chromatograph with a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC Q-TOF MS). The results suggested that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints combined with PCA could differentiate organic and conventional sage samples effectively. FIMS may serve as a quick test capable of distinguishing organic and conventional sages in 1 min and could potentially be developed for high-throughput applications, whereas HPLC fingerprints could provide more chemical composition information with a longer analytical time.

  17. Determining ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products by combining direct injection with micelle collapse on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Yao; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Feng, Chia-Hsien; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2015-02-27

    The on-line preconcentration technique of analyte focusing by micelle collapse-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (AFMC-MEKC) was combined with direct injection without extraction to determine ultraviolet absorbents in sunscreen products. The stacking mechanism is based on the transport, release, and accumulation of analytes bound to micelle carriers that are collapsed into the micelle dilution zone. The following optimized conditions were determined: the running buffer was 10mM Tris buffer (pH 9.5) containing 60mM SDS, 7mM γ-CD and 20% ethanol; the SDS concentration was required to be slightly above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) value (7.4mM) in the sample matrix, which allowed the micelle dilution zone to form when voltage was applied; and finally, the sample was prepared in 100mM Tris buffer (pH 9.0) containing 7.5mM SDS and 20% (v/v) ethanol to provide sufficient resolution and to improve the sensitivity. Samples were injected at 0.5psi for 40s, and the separation voltage was set at 15kV for first 15min and then increased to 23kV to decrease the analysis time. The detection sensitivity for ultraviolet absorbents was enhanced by approximately 41-fold using AFMC-MEKC compared to conventional MEKC. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 98nM for benzophenone-2 and benzophenone-4. The correlation of the regression curve was greater than 0.995. The relative error and relative standard deviation were lower than 9.94% with high precision and accuracy. The recoveries of nine ultraviolet absorbents in a homemade emulsion were between 95.08% and 104.57%. After optimization and validation, this AFMC-MEKC method combined with direct injection is considered to be established and successfully applicable to commercial sunscreen products.

  18. The combination of phacoemulsification surgery and intravitreal triamcinolone injection in patients with cataract and diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Ozgur, Ozlen Rodop; Ozkurt, Yelda; Kulekci, Zeynep; Evciman, Tufan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficiency of combined phacoemulsification (PHACO) surgery and intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) injection with or without macular grid laser photocoagulation in patients with cataract and diabetic macular edema. Material and methods This prospective study included 41 eyes of 36 diabetic patients with cataract and coexisting clinically significant macular edema (CSME). After PHACO and IVTA injection eyes were divided into two groups: the laser and IVTA group (Group 1) and only IVTA group (Group 2). Preoperative and postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded. Paired sample t-test was used to compare data in the groups and C square test for qualitative variables. Results Postoperative BCVA was significantly higher than the initial BCVA during the follow-up period in both groups (p < 0.01). The BCVA 6 months after surgery was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in IOP between two groups preoperatively and postoperatively during the follow-up period (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in mean CMT preoperatively and 2nd week, 2nd month and 3rd month after surgery (p > 0.05). The mean CMT 6 months after surgery was statistically significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (p < 0.01). Conclusions PHACO surgery combined with IVTA injection improves BCVA and provides a decrease in CMT in diabetic patients with CSME. Additional macular grid laser photocoagulation after surgery helps to preserve this improvement in BCVA and decrease in CMT. PMID:26949356

  19. Combination of radar and daily precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-daily point precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this paper we are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to combine daily precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-daily extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the daily observations are investigated. Observed gauged daily amounts are interpolated to unsampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-daily values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the subdaily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. Additionally a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving a small number of L days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these L day maxima is first iterpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to daily values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The daily sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest L radar based days. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at

  20. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fixed-Dose Combination of Dexketoprofen and Dicyclomine Injection in Acute Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, A.; Mahajan, A. D.; Oswal, D. S.; Erram, S. S.; Sheth, D. N.; Balamurugan, S.; Kamat, V.; Enadle, R. P.; Badadare, A.; Bhatnagar, S. K.; Walvekar, R. S.; Dhorepatil, S.; Naik, R. C.; Basu, I.; Kshirsagar, S. N.; Keny, J. V.; Sengupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of dexketoprofen and dicyclomine (DXD) injection in patients with acute renal colic. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and seventeen patients were randomized to receive either DXD (n = 109) or fixed-dose combination of diclofenac and dicyclomine injection (DLD; n = 108), intramuscularly. Pain intensity (PI) was self-evaluated by patients on visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours. Efficacy parameters were proportion of responders, difference in PI (PID) at 8 hours, and sum of analogue of pain intensity differences (SAPID). Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Results. DXD showed superior efficacy in terms of proportion of responders (98.17% versus 81.48; P < 0.0001), PID at 8 hours (P = 0.002), and SAPID0–8 hours (P = 0.004). The clinical global impression for change in pain was significantly better for DXD than DLD. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in both groups. However, global assessment of tolerability was rated significantly better for DXD. Conclusion. DXD showed superior efficacy and tolerability than DLD in patients clinically diagnosed to be suffering from acute renal colic. PMID:22577544

  1. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1–7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%–40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  2. GPS/GLONASS Combined Precise Point Positioning with Receiver Clock Modeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhong; Chen, Xinghan; Guo, Fei

    2015-06-30

    Research has demonstrated that receiver clock modeling can reduce the correlation coefficients among the parameters of receiver clock bias, station height and zenith tropospheric delay. This paper introduces the receiver clock modeling to GPS/GLONASS combined precise point positioning (PPP), aiming to better separate the receiver clock bias and station coordinates and therefore improve positioning accuracy. Firstly, the basic mathematic models including the GPS/GLONASS observation equations, stochastic model, and receiver clock model are briefly introduced. Then datasets from several IGS stations equipped with high-stability atomic clocks are used for kinematic PPP tests. To investigate the performance of PPP, including the positioning accuracy and convergence time, a week of (1-7 January 2014) GPS/GLONASS data retrieved from these IGS stations are processed with different schemes. The results indicate that the positioning accuracy as well as convergence time can benefit from the receiver clock modeling. This is particularly pronounced for the vertical component. Statistic RMSs show that the average improvement of three-dimensional positioning accuracy reaches up to 30%-40%. Sometimes, it even reaches over 60% for specific stations. Compared to the GPS-only PPP, solutions of the GPS/GLONASS combined PPP are much better no matter if the receiver clock offsets are modeled or not, indicating that the positioning accuracy and reliability are significantly improved with the additional GLONASS satellites in the case of insufficient number of GPS satellites or poor geometry conditions. In addition to the receiver clock modeling, the impacts of different inter-system timing bias (ISB) models are investigated. For the case of a sufficient number of satellites with fairly good geometry, the PPP performances are not seriously affected by the ISB model due to the low correlation between the ISB and the other parameters. However, the refinement of ISB model weakens the

  3. High volume image-guided Injections for patellar tendinopathy: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; King, John; Perry, David; Crisp, Tom; Maffulli, Nicola; Morrissey, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim was to quantify the effect of a novel high volume-image guided injection (HVIGI) technique for recalcitrant patellar tendinopathy (PT). Methods: twenty patients (8 prospective; 12 retrospective) with ultrasonographically confirmed proximal PT were recruited. A HVIGI under ultra-sound guidance of 10 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, 25 mg Hydrocortisone and 30 ml normal saline at the interface of the patellar tendon and Hoffa’s fat pad was administered. A standardised eccentric loading rehabilitation protocol was prescribed. Results: the VISA-P score improved from 45.0 to 64.0 (p<0.01) for all subjects, likely to be clinically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the increase in the retrospective group of 19.9 (± 23.5) and the prospective of 16.4 (± 11.3) p = 0.7262.5% of prospective subjects agreed that they had significantly improved, with 37.5% returning to sport within 12 weeks. Conclusions: HVIGI should be considered in the management of recalcitrant PT. Randomised controlled trials are warranted. PMID:25332938

  4. Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fröberg, Andreas; Berg, Christina; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia; Raustorp, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined…

  5. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... COMMISSION Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined... Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC (UniStar), submitted a Combined License...) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC docketed the...

  6. Injectable Anesthesia for Mice: Combined Effects of Dexmedetomidine, Tiletamine-Zolazepam, and Butorphanol

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Steven E.

    2017-01-01

    Anesthetic protocols for murine models are varied within the literature and medetomidine has been implicated in the development of urethral plugs in male mice. Our objective was to evaluate the combination of butorphanol, dexmedetomidine, and tiletamine-zolazepam. A secondary objective was to identify which class of agent was associated with urethral obstructions in male mice. BALB/c male (n = 13) and female (n = 23) mice were assigned to dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam with or without butorphanol or to single agent dexmedetomidine or tiletamine-zolazepam. Anesthesia was achieved in 58% (14/24) of mice without butorphanol and in 100% (24/24) of mice with butorphanol. The combination of dexmedetomidine (0.2 mg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam (40 mg/kg), and butorphanol (3 mg/kg) resulted in an induction and anesthetic duration of 12 and 143 minutes, respectively. Urethral obstructions occurred in 66% (25/38) of trials in male mice that received dexmedetomidine with a mortality rate of 38% (5/13). Tiletamine-zolazepam, when used alone, resulted in a 0% (0/21) incidence of urethral obstructions. Combination use of dexmedetomidine, tiletamine-zolazepam, and butorphanol results in a longer and more reliable duration of anesthesia than the use of dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam alone. Dexmedetomidine is not recommended for use in nonterminal procedures in male mice due to the high incidence of urethral obstructions and resultant high mortality rate. PMID:28210272

  7. Determination of malachite green in fish water samples by cloud-point extraction coupled to cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping-MEKC.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xubiao; Jiang, Xin; Tu, Xinman; Luo, Shenglian; Yan, Liushui; Chen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We have employed a high-sensitivity off-line coupled with on-line preconcentration method, cloud-point extraction (CPE)/cation-selective exhaustive injection (CSEI) and sweeping-MEKC, for the analysis of malachite green. The variables that affect CPE were investigated. The optimal conditions were 250 g/L of Triton X-100, 10% of Na(2)SO(4) (w/v), heat-assisted at 60 degrees C for 20 min. We monitored the effects of several of the CSEI-sweeping-MEKC parameters - including the type of BGE, the concentrations of SDS, the injection length of the high-conductivity buffer, and the injection time of the sample - to optimize the separation process. The optimal BGE was 50 mM citric acid (pH 2.2) containing 100 mM SDS. In addition, electrokinetic injection of the sample at 15 kV for 800 s provided both high separation efficiency and enhanced sweeping sensitivity. The sensitivity enhancement for malachite green was 1.9 x 10(4) relative to CZE; the coefficients of determination exceeded 0.9928. The LOD, based on an S/N of 3:1, of CSEI-sweeping-MEKC was 0.87 ng/mL; in contrast, when using off-line CPE/CSEI-sweeping-MEKC the sensitivity increased to 69.6 pg/mL. This proposed method was successfully applied to determine trace amounts of malachite green in fish water samples.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:27482221

  9. [Impacts on analgesia and detumescence in ankle sprain treated with acupuncture at Xiaojie point combined with tendon-regulation manipulation].

    PubMed

    Du, Wei-Bin; Bao, Guan-Ai; Quan, Ren-Fu

    2014-07-01

    To compare the efficacy difference of analgesia and detumescence on ankle sprain among acupuncture at Xiaojie point combined with tendon regulation manipulation, acupuncture at Xiaojie point and tendon regulation manipulation. Sixty cases of ankle sprain were randomized into a combined therapy group, a Xiaojie point group and a tendon-regulation manipulation group, 20 cases in each one. The combined therapy of acupuncture at Xiaojie point and tendon regulation manipulation, the acupuncture at Xiaojie point and the simple application of tendon-regulation manipulation were applied respectively in the three groups, once a day, 3 treatments were required. The symptom score such as pain, ecchymosis, swelling and motor dysfunction and the total score were observed before and after treatment in the three groups. The different values of pain and swelling scores were compared before and after treatment in the three groups. The efficacy was compared among the groups. The total effective rate was 100.0% (20/20) in each group. But the curative rate was 85.0% (17/20) in the combined group, 65.0% (13/20) in the Xiaojie point tion manipulation group. After treatment, the symptom scores of pain, ecchymosis, swelling and motor dysfunction and the total score were all improved as compared with those before treatment in the three groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The pain score in either the combined therapy group or Xiaojie point group was lower than that in the tendon-regulation manipulation group after treatment (0.20 -/+ 0.41, 0.15 +/- 0.37 vs 0.60 +/- 0.50, both P < 0.05). Swelling score in the Xiaojie point group was different significantly from that in the tendon-regulation manipulation 0.49 vs 06.4 vs. 20+0.41, P < 0.05). The different value of pain score in either the combined therapy group or Xiaojie point group was higher than that in the tendon-regulation manipulation group before group after treatment (0.65 bined therapy group or Xiaojie point group was higher than that in

  10. A randomized trial of upper limb botulimun toxin versus placebo injection, combined with physiotherapy, in children with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Adriano; Maoret, Anna Rosa; Muzzini, Simonetta; Alboresi, Silvia; Lombardi, Francesco; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Paolicelli, Paola Bruna; Sicola, Elisa; Cioni, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A), combined with an individualized intensive physiotherapy/orthoses treatment, in improving upper limb activity and competence in daily activity in children with hemiplegia, and to compare its effectiveness with that of non-pharmacological instruments. It was a Randomized Clinical Trial of 27 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy, outpatients of two high speciality Centres for child rehabilitation. Each child was assigned by simple randomization to experimental group (BoNT-A) or control group (placebo). Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was chosen as primary outcome measure; other measures were selected according to ICF dimensions. Participants were assessed at baseline (T0), at T1, T2, T3 (1-3-6 months after injection, respectively). Every patient was given a specific physiotherapeutic treatment, consisting of individualized goal directed exercises, task oriented activities, daily stretching manoeuvres, functional and/or static orthoses. BoNT-A group showed a significant increase of AHA raw scores at T2, compared to control group (T2-T0: p=.025) and functional goals achievement (GAS) was also slightly better in the same group (p=.033). Other measures indicated some improvement in both groups, without significant intergroup differences. Children with intermediate severity of hand function at House scale for upper limb impairment seem to have a better benefit from BoNT-A protocol. BoNT-A was effective in improving manipulation in the activity domain, in association with individualized goal-directed physiotherapy and orthoses; the combined treatment is recommended. The study brings more evidence for the efficacy of a combined treatment botulinum toxin injection-physiotherapy-orthoses, and it gives some suggestions for candidate selection and individualized treatment.

  11. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A; Inglett, Todd A; Ratterman, Joseph D

    2013-04-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  12. Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A 9-Month Follow-Up from the Perspectives of Both Child and Caregiver.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, I-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) with functional occupational therapy (OT) at 9-month follow-up in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with bilateral upper limb impairments from the perspectives of both child and caregiver. Twelve children with CP and their caregivers were assessed across 5 time points over 9 months based on the ICF after BoNT-A injection and functional OT in this open-label study. Significant differences were found across the 5 time points (p < .05) for both grasp and visual-motor integration with small effects (effect sizes = 0.12-0.24) and the self-care capability and performance of social function (p < .05). However, based on the effect sizes (0.02-0.14), no significant effects were found at the 4 post-test time points. Small effects were found on the psychological domain (effect sizes = 0.25-0.37) and environmental domains (effect size = 0.27) at follow-ups. Combining a BoNT-A injection with OT not only reduced the muscle tone and increased ROM but also improved the upper limb function and self-care capability in children with CP. More importantly, these effects persisted for up to 9 months. Functional OT extends the effectiveness of a BoNT-A injection.

  13. Evaluating Functional Outcomes of Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Combined with Occupational Therapy in the Upper Limbs of Children with Cerebral Palsy: A 9-Month Follow-Up from the Perspectives of Both Child and Caregiver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, I-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Chung, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) with functional occupational therapy (OT) at 9-month follow-up in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with bilateral upper limb impairments from the perspectives of both child and caregiver. Methods Twelve children with CP and their caregivers were assessed across 5 time points over 9 months based on the ICF after BoNT-A injection and functional OT in this open-label study. Results Significant differences were found across the 5 time points (p < .05) for both grasp and visual-motor integration with small effects (effect sizes = 0.12–0.24) and the self-care capability and performance of social function (p < .05). However, based on the effect sizes (0.02–0.14), no significant effects were found at the 4 post-test time points. Small effects were found on the psychological domain (effect sizes = 0.25–0.37) and environmental domains (effect size = 0.27) at follow-ups. Conclusion Combining a BoNT-A injection with OT not only reduced the muscle tone and increased ROM but also improved the upper limb function and self-care capability in children with CP. More importantly, these effects persisted for up to 9 months. Functional OT extends the effectiveness of a BoNT-A injection. PMID:26599003

  14. Combined GPS/GLONASS precise point positioning with fixed GPS ambiguities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-09-18

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF.

  15. The combined SOHO-STEREO dataset: Simultaneous observations of comets from multiple vantage points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, M.; Begun, J.; Kelley, M.; Battams, K.; A'Hearn, M.

    2014-07-01

    The set of comets observed by Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) provides a large (>2500 comets) and unique database for studying cometary properties. Sungrazing comets are discovered in SOHO or STEREO images on average every few days, with individual comets typically observable for up to a few days. We compiled photometry of more than 20 comets observed simultaneously by the same telescope and filter on both STEREO spacecraft to construct the first dust scattering phase function ever directly computed from simultaneous observations of the same object from two vantage points, thus removing uncertainty caused by changing heliocentric distance between observations. The collective dust scattering phase function spans phase angles from 28--153 deg and agrees reasonably well with the theoretical curve from [1]. However, individual comets deviate from the predicted curve by varying amounts during their apparition. This may suggest that the dust properties of individual comets change on the timescale of hours due to the dramatically different heliocentric distance or that the number of dust grains in the coma is changing due to nucleus activity, rotation, and/or erosion. We have also begun a study of the dust tails of selected well-observed comets in our database. This project utilizes the 3-D aspects of the combined SOHO and STEREO dataset to constrain the dust properties and time of release better than is possible with observations from a single location. We will present ongoing results of these investigations and place them into the wider context of sungrazing comet studies, notably by comparison with SOHO and STEREO observations of comet C/2012 S1 ISON [2], the most extensively observed sungrazing comet in history.

  16. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  17. Combination of radar and daily precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-daily point precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, Geoff; Bardossy, Andras; Sinclair, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this presentation we are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the presentation is to develop a methodology to combine daily precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-daily extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the daily observations are investigated. Observed gauged daily amounts are interpolated to un-sampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-daily values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the sub-daily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. In addition, a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure, as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these 12 day maxima is first interpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to daily values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The daily sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest 12 radar based days in each year. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the new method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated

  18. Simultaneous flow injection preconcentration of lead and cadmium using cloud point extraction and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo Dos Santos

    2009-01-15

    A flow injection (FI) micelle-mediated separation/preconcentration procedure for the determination of lead and cadmium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) has been proposed. The analytes reacted with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of 0.05% (w/v) Triton X-114 in a solution buffered at pH 8.4. In the preconcentration stage, the micellar solution was continuously injected into a flow system with four mini-columns packed with cotton, glass wool, or TNT compresses for phase separation. The analytes-containing micelles were eluted from the mini-columns by a stream of 3molL(-1) HCl solution and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables affecting the preconcentration of the analytes were studied. For 15mL of preconcentrated solution, the enhancement factors varied between 15.1 and 20.3, the limits of detection were approximately 4.5 and 0.75microgL(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. For a solution containing 100 and 10microgL(-1) of lead and cadmium, respectively, the R.S.D. values varied from 1.6 to 3.2% (n=7). The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. The method was susceptible to matrix effects, but these interferences were minimized by adding barium ions as masking agent in the sample solutions, and recoveries from spiked sample varied in the range of 95.1-107.3%.

  19. A validated and stability indicating HPLC method for analysis of diminazene aceturate and antipyrine combination in a ready injectable solution.

    PubMed

    Abualhasan, M N; Batrawi, N; Zaid, A N; Watson, D G

    2013-06-01

    Diminazene aceturate and Antipyrine combination therapy is widely used in veterinary medicine. A simple reverse HPLC method for the analysis of samples of a ready injectable formulation containing a mixture of active ingredients and inactive excipients has been developed. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a reversed phase (RP)-C18 (250 mm×4.0 mm, 5 μm) column. The isocratic mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, phosphate buffer and hexane sulfonate; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min and ultraviolet detection was at 291 nm. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed good linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and the system suitability results were within the acceptance criteria. A stability-indicating study was also carried out and indicated that this method could be used for purity and degradation evaluation of these formulations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. A Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin and Enrofloxacin Combination in an Injectable Suspension.

    PubMed

    Batrawi, Nidal; Wahdan, Shorouq; Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2017-02-16

    The combination of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin is a well-known mixture of veterinary drugs; it is used for the treatment of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the scientific literature, there is no high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the simultaneous determination of this combination. The objective of this work is to develop and validate an HPLC method for the determination of this combination. In this regard, a new, simple and efficient reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of inactive excipients, has been developed and validated. The HPLC separation method was performed using a reversed-phase (RP)-C18e (250 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μm) column at room temperature, with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer containing methanol at pH 5.0, a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 267 nm. This method was validated in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria. A stability-indicating study was also carried out and indicated that this method can also be used for purity and degradation evaluation of these formulations.

  1. Effects of injectable anesthetic combinations on left ventricular function and cardiac morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Carla F; O'Sullivan, M Lynne; Valcour, James E; Sears, William; Johnson, Ron J

    2013-01-01

    Novel anesthetic agents or combinations may provide superior general anesthesia for echocardiography in rodents with the potential for reduced adverse effects. This study sought to characterize the effects of 3 injectable anesthetics on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and cardiac morphology in healthy male and female rats. Rats underwent echocardiographic assessment after general anesthesia via pentobarbital or combinations of ketamine and medetomidine (KME) and ketamine and midazolam (KMI) according to a crossover Latin-square design. Blood samples for serum estradiol measurements were obtained from all females after echocardiography with each anesthetic. Rats given KMI showed superior LV systolic function with the highest values for fractional shortening (FS), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume, whereas heart rate was greatest with pentobarbital, followed by KMI and then KME. KME produced the greatest effects on cardiac morphology, most notably during systole, including reduced septal and posterior wall thickness and increased LV chamber dimensions and volumes. In addition, KME had the greatest cardiac-depressing effects on LV systolic function, including reduced FS, EF, and heart rate values. Compared with male rats, female rats had superior LV function with greater EF and FS values, whereas male rats showed higher heart rate. Significant negative correlations were noted between serum estradiol levels and FS and EF values in female rats receiving KME. We conclude that the combination of KMI may be a superior anesthetic for use in male and female rats undergoing echocardiography.

  2. Determination of trace bismuth in human serum by cloud point extraction coupled flow injection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Wu, Qianghua

    2011-09-15

    A cloud point extraction method for the preconcentration of ultra-trace bismuth in human serum prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry had been developed in this paper. The cloud point extraction method was based on the complex of Bi(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline and Triton X-114 was used as non-ionic surfactant. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of solution, concentration of complexing agent, concentration of non-ionic surfactant, equilibration temperature and time were investigated in detail. An enrichment factor of 81 was obtained for the preconcentration of Bi(III) with 25 mL solution. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of Bi(III) is 0.12 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (n = 7) of determination was 2.3%, values of recovery of bismuth were from 92.3% to 94.7% for three samples. This method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can be applied to the determination trace bismuth in human serum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pb enamel biomarker: Deposition of pre- and postnatal Pb isotope injection in reconstructed time points along rat enamel transect

    SciTech Connect

    Rinderknecht, A.L.; Kleinman, M.T.; Ericson, J.E. . E-mail: jeericso@uci.edu

    2005-10-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) as well as other heavy metals in the environment is still a matter of public health concern. The development of the enamel biomarker for heavy metal exposure assessment is designed to improve studies of dose-effect relationships to developmental anomalies, particularly embryonic dysfunctions, and to provide a time-specific recount of past exposures. The work presented in this paper demonstrates maternal transfer across the placental barrier of the enriched isotope {sup 206}Pb tracer to the enamel of the rat pup. Likewise, injections of {sup 204}Pb-enriched tracer in the neonate rat resulted in deposition of the tracer in the enamel histology as measured by secondary ion microprobe spectrometry. Through enamel, we were able to observe biological removal and assimilation of prenatal and postnatal tracers, respectively. This research demonstrates that enamel can be used as a biomarker of exposure to Pb and may illustrate the toxicokinetics of incorporating Pb into fetal and neonatal steady-state system processes. The biomarker technique, when completely developed, may be applied to cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological research.

  4. Modeling Combination HCV Prevention among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men and People Who Inject Drugs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natasha K; Skaathun, Britt; Vickerman, Peter; Stuart, David

    People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM. Harm reduction interventions, such as opiate substitution therapy and needle and syringe programs, are effective in reducing HCV incidence among PWID. Modeling and limited empirical data indicate that HCV treatment could additionally be used for prevention. No studies have evaluated the effectiveness of behavior change interventions to reduce HCV incidence among MSM, but existing interventions to reduce HIV risk could be effective. Mathematical modeling and empirical data indicate that scale-up of harm reduction could reduce HCV transmission, but in isolation is unlikely to eliminate HCV among PWID. By contrast, elimination is possibly achievable through combination scale-up of harm reduction and HCV treatment. Similarly, among HIV-infected MSM, eliminating the emerging epidemics will likely require HCV treatment scale-up in combination with additional interventions to reduce HCV-related risk behaviors. In summary, elimination of HCV will likely require combination prevention efforts among both PWID and HIV-infected MSM populations. Further empirical research is required to validate HCV treatment as prevention among these populations, and to identify effective behavioral interventions to reduce HCV incidence among MSM.

  5. Combination of mesenchymal stem cell injection with icariin for the treatment of diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiyou; Liu, Chuanhai; Xu, Yong; Chen, Ping; Shen, Yue; Xu, Yansheng; Zhao, Yubo; Chen, Weihao; Zhang, Xinyu; Ouyang, Yun; Wang, Yi; Xie, Changliang; Zhou, Maojun; Liu, Cuilong

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine whether icariin, a traditional Chinese medicine, could improve therapeutic effects of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction (DMED). DMED were induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and confirmed by erectile function measurement. Then, rats of diabetic ED were randomly divided to receive the treatment of saline, ADSCs, icariin or ADSCs combined with icariin respectively. Compared with the treatment by ADSCs or icariin alone, intracavernosum injection of ADSCs combined with the following daily gastric gavage of icariin significantly augmented the value of ICP and ICP/MAP (p<0.01). Meanwhile, the survival of transplanted ADSCs was much improved due to the application of icariin. Similarly, immunofluorescent staining analysis demonstrated that the improved erectile tissue structure by combination of ADSCs and icariin was significantly associated with the increased expression of endothelial markers (vWF) (p<0.01) and smooth muscle markers (α-SMA) (p<0.01). Furthermore, the structure changes in corpus cavernosum were further confirmed by the Masson’s trichrome staining. To explore the possible mechanism underlying icariin-enhanced therapeutic efficacy of MSCs, we employed an in vitro testing system by introducing H2O2 to imitate oxidative stress condition considering the oxidative environment faced by engrafted ADSCs and anti-oxidative capacity of icariin. In vitro, we found that the addition of icariin considerably reduced the apoptosis of ADSCs, and attenuated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Subsequently, we examined the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and explored the potential signaling pathway through which icariin promoted the survival of ADSCs against oxidative stress. It was demonstrated that icariin significantly inhibited the upregulation

  6. Combination of mesenchymal stem cell injection with icariin for the treatment of diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiyou; Liu, Chuanhai; Xu, Yong; Chen, Ping; Shen, Yue; Xu, Yansheng; Zhao, Yubo; Chen, Weihao; Zhang, Xinyu; Ouyang, Yun; Wang, Yi; Xie, Changliang; Zhou, Maojun; Liu, Cuilong

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to examine whether icariin, a traditional Chinese medicine, could improve therapeutic effects of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for diabetes-associated erectile dysfunction (DMED). DMED were induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and confirmed by erectile function measurement. Then, rats of diabetic ED were randomly divided to receive the treatment of saline, ADSCs, icariin or ADSCs combined with icariin respectively. Compared with the treatment by ADSCs or icariin alone, intracavernosum injection of ADSCs combined with the following daily gastric gavage of icariin significantly augmented the value of ICP and ICP/MAP (p<0.01). Meanwhile, the survival of transplanted ADSCs was much improved due to the application of icariin. Similarly, immunofluorescent staining analysis demonstrated that the improved erectile tissue structure by combination of ADSCs and icariin was significantly associated with the increased expression of endothelial markers (vWF) (p<0.01) and smooth muscle markers (α-SMA) (p<0.01). Furthermore, the structure changes in corpus cavernosum were further confirmed by the Masson's trichrome staining. To explore the possible mechanism underlying icariin-enhanced therapeutic efficacy of MSCs, we employed an in vitro testing system by introducing H2O2 to imitate oxidative stress condition considering the oxidative environment faced by engrafted ADSCs and anti-oxidative capacity of icariin. In vitro, we found that the addition of icariin considerably reduced the apoptosis of ADSCs, and attenuated the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Subsequently, we examined the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and explored the potential signaling pathway through which icariin promoted the survival of ADSCs against oxidative stress. It was demonstrated that icariin significantly inhibited the upregulation of

  7. Molecularly imprinted on-line solid-phase extraction combined with flow-injection chemiluminescence for the determination of tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Zhou, Houjiang; Zhang, Zhujun; He, Deyong; He, Chao

    2006-07-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction (MISPE) method combined with flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) for the determination of residual tetracycline (TC) in fish samples is presented. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) of TC was synthesized and particles of this MIP were packed into a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube, which was connected into the sampling loop of an eight-way injection valve and served as the MISPE column for on-line selective adsorption of TC. The eluent (CH3CN : HNO3 (0.01 mol L(-1)) = 4 ratio 1, v ratio v) was used for extracting the adsorbed TC, which could be detected by its good enhancing effect on the CL reaction between Ce(iv) and rhodamine B. The CL intensity is linear to TC concentration in the range from 4 x 10(-9) to 4 x 10(-7) g mL(-1). The detection limit is 1 x 10(-9) g mL(-1) (3 sigma) and the relative standard deviation is 2.4% (n = 9). The conditions of preconcentration, extraction and CL reaction were carefully studied. The selectivity experiment shows that the selectivity and sensitivity of the CL method could be improved greatly when MIP was used as a recognition material in SPE. However, the MISPE column interacted indiscriminately with oxytetracycline (OTC) with a 49 +/- 2% binding. An intermediate differential pulsed elution (DPE) step using 3% acetic acid as eluent was employed to remove OTC and other interfering substances. The proposed MISPE-CL method has been applied successfully to the determination of TC in fish samples. At the same time, the binding characteristics of the polymer to tetracycline were evaluated by batch and dynamic methods.

  8. Comparative in vivo study of injectable biomaterials combined with BMP for enhancing tendon graft osteointegration for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pan, Weimin; Wei, Yiyong; Zhou, Li; Li, Dan

    2011-07-01

    This study was to compare effect of osteointegration of grafted tendon in bone tunnels between injected calcium phosphate cement (ICPC) and injected fibrin sealant (IFS) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. ACL reconstruction was performed bilaterally in 51 rabbits. ICPC-BMP composite was injected into one knee, with the contralateral knee IFS-BMP composite. The rabbits were killed at postoperative weeks 2, 6, and 12 for testing. Histological observations showed the ICPC composite gradually increased the new bone formation during the whole healing process, while the IFS composite had a burst effect on enhancing the healing of tendon-to-bone at 2 and 6 weeks. By 12 weeks, there was more new cartilage and new bone in the interface in the ICPC-bBMP group. Micro-CT showed that the values of BMD in the ICPC-bBMP group were lower than those in the IFS-bBMP group at 6 weeks, while the values in the ICPC-bBMP group were higher than those in the IFS-bBMP group at 12 weeks (p > 0.05). Fluorescent labels showed that the rate of new bone formation of IFS-BMP composite was significantly higher than that of ICPC composite at 6 weeks (3.45 ± 0.62 µm/day vs. 2.93 ± 0.51 µm/day), but the rate was decreased compared with ICPC composite at 12 weeks (2.58 ± 0.72 µm/day vs. 3.05 ± 0.68 µm/day; p < 0.05). Biomechanically, the ultimate failure load in the ICPC-BMP group was always higher than that in the IFS-BMP group. It is evident that the ICPC composite achieved a more prolonged osteogenic effect than that by IFS composite. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Combining GPS and Terrestrial Methods In VLBI Antenna's Reference Point Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, P.; Vittuari, L.; Tomasi, P.

    Surveying the reference point of VLBI radiotelescopes within a local ground control network is, nowadays, a very important task. Reference point can be determined using a molteplicity of approaches. We have choosen and tested a purely theoretical ap- proach, writing two routines for best-fitting 3-D surfaces computation. Surveying the antenna structure as it moves in azimuth and elevation permits the determination of a set of points' positions that are used to determine best-fit spheres and planes whose intersections relates to VLBI antenna axes, i.e.: to the reference point. Our opera- tive dataset has been created during a 14 days campaign performed in June 2001 at Medicina (Bologna-Italy) observatory using both Kinematic GPS and two total sta- tions. GPS data have been analysed using both commercial (GeoGenius 2000 and Geotracer V2.29) and scientific software (GIPSY V.2.6.1). We will present the es- timated reference point's coordinates for the VLBI radiotelescope within ITRF2000 and a local reference frame obtained using KGPS and classical geodesy.

  10. Effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans: a crossover double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Ayaka; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2015-04-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to dexmedetomidine, a selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, as a possible additive for local anesthesia. However, the effect of locally injected dexmedetomidine on the anesthetic action in humans has not fully been clarified. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine injected into the oral mucosa in combination with lidocaine on local anesthetic potency in humans. Twenty healthy volunteers were included in the present crossover double-blinded study. Lidocaine solution or lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution was submucosally injected into the alveolar mucosa in a crossover and double-blinded manner. The local anesthetic effect of the solutions was evaluated by measuring the current perception threshold (CPT) in the oral mucosa for 120 minutes after injection. Furthermore, the sedation level, blood pressure, and heart rate of the volunteers were evaluated. For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon signed rank test and 2-way repeated measures analysis of variation were used. The CPT was increased with the 2 solutions and peaked 10 minutes after injection. CPT values 10 and 20 minutes after injection of lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution were considerably higher than those with lidocaine solution. The duration of an important increase in the CPT after injection with lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution was longer than that with lidocaine. Furthermore, the area under the time curve of CPT was considerably higher with lidocaine plus dexmedetomidine solution than with lidocaine solution. No volunteer showed a change in sedation level, blood pressure, or heart rate after injection with either test solution throughout the experiment. The present study showed that a combination of dexmedetomidine plus lidocaine considerably enhances the local anesthetic potency of lidocaine without any major influences on the cardiovascular system when locally injected into the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015

  11. Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Effectiveness of Intravitreal Injections of Bevacizumab, Triamcinolone, or Their Combination in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Neto, Hermelino O; Regatieri, Caio V; Nobrega, Mário J; Muccioli, Cristina; Casella, Antonio M; Andrade, Rafael E; Maia, Mauricio; Kniggendorf, Vinicius; Ferreira, Magno; Branco, André C; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined bevacizumab-triamcinolone intravitreal injection in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) compared to monotherapy. At eight clinical sites, 111 patients with DME were randomly assigned to receive an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA), triamcinolone (Ophthalmos Pharmaceutical Industry, São Paulo-SP, Brazil), or their combination. The primary outcome was visual acuity (VA) at 6 months' follow-up. The average number of injections was 3.2 in the bevacizumab group, 2.4 in the combined group, and 2.1 in the triamcinolone group. All groups presented with improvements in VA (P < .001); however, no differences between groups were observed (P = .436). Mean reduction in central retinal thickness was statistically different only between the triamcinolone and bevacizumab groups (P < .015). Mono- or combination therapy was effective for DME treatment. No synergistic effects were observed; however, triamcinolone alone or a drug combination may reduce the number of injections required when compared to bevacizumab alone. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:734-740.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Mechanisms behind injecting the combination of nano-clay particles and polymer solution for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili Nezhad, Seyyed Shahram; Cheraghian, Goshtasp

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory investigations and field applications have proved injection of polymer solution to be an effective means to improve oil recovery for reservoirs of medium oil viscosity. The incremental oil produced in this case is the result of an increase in areal and vertical sweep efficiencies. Biopolymers and synthetic polymers are the major categories used in the petroleum industry for specific reasons. Biopolymers like xanthan are limited in their application as they are more susceptible to biodegradation. Synthetic polymers like Hydrolyzed PolyAcrylaMide (HPAM) have a much wider application as they are less susceptible to biodegradation. Furthermore, development of nanotechnology has successfully provided technical and economical viable alternatives for present materials. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of combining clay nanoparticles with polymer solution on oil recovery. This paper includes a history match of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymer floods using a three-dimensional numerical model for fluid flow and mass transport. Results indicated that the amount of polymer adsorption decreased when clay nanoparticles were added to the PolyAcrylaMide solution; however, mobility ratio improvement is believed to be the main contributor for the proposed method in order to enhance much oil recovery compared to xanthan flood and HPAM flood.

  13. Stepwise injection potentiometric determination of caffeine in saliva using single-drop microextraction combined with solvent exchange.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, I; Medinskaia, K; Nikolaeva, L; Kirsanov, D; Bulatov, A

    2016-04-01

    A flow potentiometric method for determination of caffeine in saliva is suggested. This task is important for non-invasive assessment of drug metabolizing system activity in hepatocytes. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis (SWIA) was successfully combined with single-drop liquid microextraction (SDLME) and solvent exchange procedure. The method is based on the caffeine SDLME with subsequent solvent evaporation and dissolution of analyte in sulfuric acid followed by potentiometric detection using poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode containing potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate as electroactive component. SDLME was employed for elimination of interfering matrix effects of saliva and caffeine metabolites such as theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine. A linear range of 10(-5)-10(-2)M was established for caffeine with detection limit at 6 × 10(-6)M. The sample throughput was 6 samples h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of caffeine in saliva and the analytical results agreed well with the results obtained with reference HPLC method.

  14. Behavior of Gingival Fibroblasts on Titanium Implant Surfaces in Combination with either Injectable-PRF or PRP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuzhu; Zhang, Yufeng; Choukroun, Joseph; Ghanaati, Shahram; Miron, Richard J

    2017-02-04

    Various strategies have been employed to speed tissue regeneration using bioactive molecules. Interestingly, platelet concentrates derived from a patient's own blood have been utilized as a regenerative strategy in recent years. In the present study, a novel liquid platelet formulation prepared without the use of anti-coagulants (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin, i-PRF) was compared to standard platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with gingival fibroblasts cultured on smooth and roughened titanium implant surfaces. Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60× g) for 3 min) were compared by assays for fibroblast biocompatibility, migration, adhesion, proliferation, as well as expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), collagen1 (COL1) and fibronectin (FN). The results demonstrate that i-PRF induced significantly higher cell migration, as well as higher messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of PDGF, TGF-β, collagen1 and fibronectin when compared to PRP. Furthermore, collagen1 synthesis was highest in the i-PRF group. These findings demonstrate that liquid platelet concentrates can be formulated without the use of anticoagulants and present much translational potential for future research. Future animal and clinical trials are now necessary to further investigate the potential of utilizing i-PRF for soft tissue regenerative protocols in combination with various biomaterials.

  15. A combination of metabolomics and metallomics studies of urine and serum from hypercholesterolaemic rats after berberine injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Gan, Pei Pei; Wu, Huanan; Woo, Wei Shan; Ong, Eng Shi; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2012-05-01

    Berberine, long used as a remedy in China and India for intestinal infections, has been discovered in recent years in western countries and is now being used to treat ailments ranging from urinary tract infections to diabetes and obesity. In order to study the effect of berberine more deeply, a combined metabolomic and metallomic approach was developed in this study using the hypercholesterolaemic rat model, which involved the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance for the analysis of rat urine to achieve metabolic fingerprinting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the analysis of rat blood serum to achieve metallomic fingerprinting. The results obtained indicated that major metabolic processes like Krebs cycle, cholesterol metabolism and osmoregulation in hypercholesterolaemic rats are perturbed upon berberine injection. In addition, the changes of some elements, such as V, Mn, Na and K, revealed in the metallomic study may contribute to the search of new biomarkers for hypercholesterolaemic disease. We concluded that both the metabolomic and metallomic profiles of berberine-treated hypercholesterolaemic rats were different from those of the control group and that the selected metabolites and elements could probably be applied as potential biomarkers for the understanding of the effect of berberine on biochemical process in the animal model. Such a multi-analytical approach will potentially provide an information-rich platform for the elucidation of effects of xenobiotics and drug efficacy studies.

  16. Behavior of Gingival Fibroblasts on Titanium Implant Surfaces in Combination with either Injectable-PRF or PRP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuzhu; Zhang, Yufeng; Choukroun, Joseph; Ghanaati, Shahram; Miron, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Various strategies have been employed to speed tissue regeneration using bioactive molecules. Interestingly, platelet concentrates derived from a patient’s own blood have been utilized as a regenerative strategy in recent years. In the present study, a novel liquid platelet formulation prepared without the use of anti-coagulants (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin, i-PRF) was compared to standard platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with gingival fibroblasts cultured on smooth and roughened titanium implant surfaces. Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60× g) for 3 min) were compared by assays for fibroblast biocompatibility, migration, adhesion, proliferation, as well as expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), collagen1 (COL1) and fibronectin (FN). The results demonstrate that i-PRF induced significantly higher cell migration, as well as higher messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of PDGF, TGF-β, collagen1 and fibronectin when compared to PRP. Furthermore, collagen1 synthesis was highest in the i-PRF group. These findings demonstrate that liquid platelet concentrates can be formulated without the use of anticoagulants and present much translational potential for future research. Future animal and clinical trials are now necessary to further investigate the potential of utilizing i-PRF for soft tissue regenerative protocols in combination with various biomaterials. PMID:28165420

  17. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy combined with anatomical resection of feline injection-site sarcoma: results in 21 cats.

    PubMed

    Bray, J; Polton, G

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the outcome of two combined treatment strategies for the treatment of feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS). Twenty-one cats with primary or recurrent FISS received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin (25 mg m(-2) ), then an anatomical resection of the entire muscle compartment containing the tumour was performed based on the findings of co-axial imaging. Cats then received a further 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was performed by telephone contact with a median follow-up time of 1072 days. Three cats (14%) developed local tumour recurrence at days 264, 664 and 1573 after surgery. A median survival time could not be calculated as over 80% of the study population remained alive or were censored due to death from other causes. When compared to historical controls, the results of this study demonstrate superior rates of tumour-free survival and disease-free interval.

  18. Combination of Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and Photocoagulation for the Treatment of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity with Vitreous Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiujing; Lv, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) combined with laser photocoagulation for aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP) patients with vitreous hemorrhage, we conducted a retrospective observational case series study. A total of 37 eyes of 20 patients' medical records were reviewed. Patients first received IVR (0.25 mg/0.025 mL) and later photocoagulation. The mean postconceptual age of injection was 34.6 ± 1.4 weeks, and the mean follow-up period was 39.3 ± 8.3 weeks. During the follow-up, 96.6% eyes had various degree of rapid absorption of vitreous hemorrhage after IVR. The mean time of received first photocoagulation after IVR was 4.8 ± 2.9 weeks. Ten (27.0%) eyes received second laser therapy and the mean time of second laser therapy after IVR was 3.2 ± 0.8 weeks. All eyes exhibited adequate regression of ROP and were stable with attached retina. Fibrosis membrane was observed in seven eyes (18.9%) and three of them demonstrated mild ectopic macula. No significant side effects related to IVR were observed. So IVR could be conducted as primary treatment of AP-ROP associated with vitreous hemorrhage, which can improve the fundus visibility, followed by conventional photocoagulation. Further randomized controlled trials are necessary to compare the clinical efficacy and safety with conventional interventions. PMID:28070414

  19. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  20. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-05

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n=10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain methanethiol and ammonia concentrations in experimental hepatic coma and coma induced by injections of various combinations of these substances.

    PubMed

    Zieve, L; Doizaki, W M; Lyftogt, C

    1984-11-01

    In normal rats in a coma induced by NH+4 alone or by methanethiol alone, the brain and blood levels of ammonia or methanethiol are much higher than those observed in rats in experimental hepatic coma. When various smaller dosage combinations of NH+4, methanethiol, and octanoic acid were injected simultaneously, coma occurred at lower brain and blood concentrations of ammonia and methanethiol. Brain ammonia and methanethiol concentrations in normal rats receiving 0.75 mmol NH+4 plus 0.15 mmol octanoic acid plus 18 mumol methanethiol were comparable with those observed in 24 rats in hepatic coma after fulminant hepatic failure caused by acute massive ischemic liver necrosis. The normal rats became comatose. In these rats and in the rats in hepatic coma, the ammonia level in the brain was increased threefold and the methanethiol level in the brain was increased fivefold. Because these levels of ammonia and methanethiol were sufficient to induce coma in normal rats, they should also have been sufficient to induce coma in rats with damaged livers. Therefore, the accumulation of ammonia and methanethiol in the central nervous system after the acute massive ischemic necrosis may have been sufficient to account for the coma that ensued, without the involvement of other factors.

  2. Migraine responds better to a combination of medical therapy and trigger point management than routine medical therapy alone.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Ali; Askarzadeh, Saghar; Petramfar, Peyman; Mohamadi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequent headaches. Cervical myofascial and trigger point disorders are effective factors on accession of this type of headache. PRT is an indirect technique that treats trigger points. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of trigger points' management by positional release therapy (PRT) combined with routine medical therapy and routine medical therapy alone in treatment of migraine headache. Forty-four patients with active trigger points in cervical muscles entered to the study. They were randomly assigned to PRT-medical therapy or medical therapy group. Headache frequency, intensity, duration and tablet count were recorded by use of a daily headache diary. The sensitivity of trigger points was assessed by the use of a digital force gauge (Wagner-FDIX). Cervical range of motion was measured by a goniometer. Both groups showed significant reduction in headache intensity, frequency, duration and tablet count after 4 months follow up. The sensitivity of trigger points and all cervical range of motions significantly increased in PRT-medical group after 4 months follow up; however in medication group except cervical right lateral flexion, right and left rotation the other factors showed no change after 4 months follow up. In comparison of the two study groups, there was no significant difference in headache-related variables. Apart from the headache intensity and tablet count, the trends of other factors were significantly different between the two groups (p <  0.05). The combined PRT-medical therapy is more effective than the medical therapy alone. Thus, the combination of PRT and medical therapy is suggested as a treatment choice for patients with migraine headache.

  3. Combining SVM and flame radiation to forecast BOF end-point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hongyuan; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Lingfei; Zhou, Munchun; Chen, Yanru

    2009-05-01

    Because of complex reactions in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) for steelmaking, the main end-point control methods of steelmaking have insurmountable difficulties. Aiming at these problems, a support vector machine (SVM) method for forecasting the BOF steelmaking end-point is presented based on flame radiation information. The basis is that the furnace flame is the performance of the carbon oxygen reaction, because the carbon oxygen reaction is the major reaction in the steelmaking furnace. The system can acquire spectrum and image data quickly in the steelmaking adverse environment. The structure of SVM and the multilayer feed-ward neural network are similar, but SVM model could overcome the inherent defects of the latter. The model is trained and forecasted by using SVM and some appropriate variables of light and image characteristic information. The model training process follows the structure risk minimum (SRM) criterion and the design parameter can be adjusted automatically according to the sampled data in the training process. Experimental results indicate that the prediction precision of the SVM model and the executive time both meet the requirements of end-point judgment online.

  4. Grid point surface air temperature calculations with a fast turnaround: Combining the results of IMAGE and a GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, M.; Olendrzynski, K.; Ganopolski, A.V.; Petoukhov, V.K.; Shaw, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    This study describes a methodology that combines the outputs of (1) the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE Version 1.0) of the Netherlands National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) and (2) ECHAM-1/LSG, the Global Circulation Model (GCM) of the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany. The combination enables one to calculate grid point surface air temperature changes for different scenarios with a turnaround time that is much quicker than that for a GCM.

  5. Normal mode solutions for seismo-acoustic propagation resulting from shear and combined wave point sources.

    PubMed

    Nealy, Jennifer L; Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Normal mode solutions to range-independent seismo-acoustic problems are benchmarked against elastic parabolic equation solutions and then used to benchmark the shear elastic parabolic equation self-starter [Frank, Odom, and Collis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1358-1367 (2013)]. The Pekeris waveguide with an elastic seafloor is considered for a point source located in the ocean emitting compressional waves, or in the seafloor, emitting both compressional and shear waves. Accurate solutions are obtained when the source is in the seafloor, and when the source is at the interface between the fluid and elastic layers.

  6. Pointing and Jitter Control for the USNA Multi-Beam Combining System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    adaptive controller and other controllers to the multiple-beam combining system in a multiple-input, multiple-output feedback control environment...block contained all of the controllers for this system and was masked. The mask allowed the user to choose which PSM provided feedback to each mirror... control of each beam. Beams were controlled using feedback from PSMs and classical PI control to set performance metrics for the system . PI

  7. Role of caffeine in combined analgesic drugs from the point of view of experimental pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, G; Mauz, A B; Pairet, M

    1997-08-01

    The interactions of caffeine (CAS 58-08-2) with acetylsalicylic acid (CAS 50-78-2, ASA) and paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) were investigated with regard to the analgesic, antiphlogistic, antipyretic and other properties. The inhibitory effect of paracetamol and ASA on the prostaglandin biosynthesis in a cyclooxygenase preparation from bovine brain in vitro was not affected by the addition of caffeine. Caffeine additively increases the antinociceptive effect of paracetamol with regard to the heat-induced pain in the mouse, as does aminophenazone. The antinociceptive effect of aminophenazone on the mechanically induced pain in the mouse is also additively increased by caffeine. In contrast to the effect of aminophenazone on the inflammatory pain in the rat, the effect of ASA is not increased by caffeine and that of paracetamol only negligibly. The antipyretic effect of paracetamol is additively increased by caffeine in the normothermic rat. The antipyretic effect of ASA and paracetamol on the yeast-induced pyrexia of the rat is not affected by caffeine. Caffeine additively increases the acute antiexudative effect of ASA and aminophenazone on the carageenin-induced oedema of the hind paw of the rat. The increase in locomotor activity caused by caffeine in mouse and rat is neutralised or diminished when the caffeine is given in combination with paracetamol. This effect is maintained even if the rats are pretreated with the combination of active ingredients for 3 weeks. The ulcerogenic effect of ASA in the stomach of the rat is not increased by caffeine. The protective effect of ASA against the hepatotoxic effect of paracetamol in the mouse is not influenced by the addition of caffeine. The plasma levels after the oral administration of 20 mg/caffeine/ kg and 80 mg paracetamol/kg in the rat are not significantly changed when the substances are given in combination. The toxicological advantages resulting from combining ASA and paracetamol with caffeine are discussed.

  8. A hierarchical model combining distance sampling and time removal to estimate detection probability during avian point counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Courtney L.; Royle, J. Andrew; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Imperfect detection during animal surveys biases estimates of abundance and can lead to improper conclusions regarding distribution and population trends. Farnsworth et al. (2005) developed a combined distance-sampling and time-removal model for point-transect surveys that addresses both availability (the probability that an animal is available for detection; e.g., that a bird sings) and perceptibility (the probability that an observer detects an animal, given that it is available for detection). We developed a hierarchical extension of the combined model that provides an integrated analysis framework for a collection of survey points at which both distance from the observer and time of initial detection are recorded. Implemented in a Bayesian framework, this extension facilitates evaluating covariates on abundance and detection probability, incorporating excess zero counts (i.e. zero-inflation), accounting for spatial autocorrelation, and estimating population density. Species-specific characteristics, such as behavioral displays and territorial dispersion, may lead to different patterns of availability and perceptibility, which may, in turn, influence the performance of such hierarchical models. Therefore, we first test our proposed model using simulated data under different scenarios of availability and perceptibility. We then illustrate its performance with empirical point-transect data for a songbird that consistently produces loud, frequent, primarily auditory signals, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); and for 2 ptarmigan species (Lagopus spp.) that produce more intermittent, subtle, and primarily visual cues. Data were collected by multiple observers along point transects across a broad landscape in southwest Alaska, so we evaluated point-level covariates on perceptibility (observer and habitat), availability (date within season and time of day), and abundance (habitat, elevation, and slope), and included a nested point

  9. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  10. Treatment of myofascial pain syndrome with lidocaine injection and physical therapy, alone or in combination: a single blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Luz Helena; García, Hector Ivan; Rogers, Heather L; Plata, Jesús Alberto

    2016-02-24

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) of the shoulder girdle and cervical region is a common musculoskeletal problem that is often chronic or recurrent. Physical therapy (PT) and lidocaine injections (LI) are two treatments with demonstrated effectiveness compared to a control group, however little is known about their combined value. The objective of this study was to determine whether LI into trigger points combined with a PT program would be more effective than each separate treatment alone in improving pain, function, and quality of life in a group of patients with MPS of the shoulder girdle and cervical region. A single-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial (RCT) was conducted with three parallel groups in the Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of two urban hospitals in Medellin, Colombia. One hundred and twenty seven patients with shoulder girdle MPS for more than 6 weeks and pain greater than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were assigned to 1 of 3 intervention groups: PT, LI, or the combination of both (PT + LI). The primary outcome was VAS pain rating at 1-month post-treatment. The secondary outcomes included VAS pain rating at 3 months, and, at both 1 and 3 months post-treatment: (a) function, evaluated by hand-back maneuver and the hand-mouth maneuver, (b) quality of life, as measured by sub-scales of the Short Form - 36 (SF-36), and (c) depressive symptoms, as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9). Independent t-tests were used to compare outcomes between groups at 1 month and 3 months post-treatment. In the per protocol analysis, there were no significant intergroup differences in VAS at 1 month PT + LI, 40.8 [25.3] vs. PT, 37.8 [21.9], p = 0.560 and vs. LI, 44.2 [24.9], p = 0.545. There were also no differences between groups on secondary outcomes except that the PT and PT + LI groups had higher right upper limb hand-back maneuver scores compared to the LI alone group at both 1 and 3 months (p = 0.013 and p

  11. Physiotherapy alone or in combination with corticosteroid injection for acute lateral epicondylitis in general practice: a protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Olaussen, Morten; Holmedal, Øystein; Lindbaek, Morten; Brage, Søren

    2009-12-04

    Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition responsible for loss of function and sick leave for long periods of time. In many countries, the treatment guidelines recommend a wait-and-see policy, reflecting that no conclusions on the best treatment can be drawn from the available research, published studies and meta-analyses. Randomized double blind controlled clinical trial in a primary care setting. While earlier trials have either compared corticosteroid injections to physical therapy or to naproxen orally, we will compare the clinical effect of physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy combined with corticosteroid injection in the initial treatment of acute tennis elbow. Patients seeing their general practitioner with lateral elbow pain of recent onset will be randomised to one of three interventions: 1: physiotherapy, corticosteroid injection and naproxen or 2: physiotherapy, placebo injection and naproxen or 3: wait and see treatment with naproxen alone. Treatment and assessments are done by two different doctors, and the contents of the injection is unknown to both the treating doctor and patient. The primary outcome measure is the patient's evaluation of improvement after 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcome measures are pain, function and severity of main complaint, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, pressure-pain threshold, the patient's satisfaction with the treatment and duration of sick leave. This article describes a randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trial with a one year follow up to investigate the effects of adding steroid injections to physiotherapy in acute lateral epicondylitis.

  12. Injectable alginate/hydroxyapatite gel scaffold combined with gelatin microspheres for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingxuan; Miao, Yuting; Tan, Huaping; Zhou, Tianle; Ling, Zhonghua; Chen, Yong; Xing, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    Injectable and biodegradable alginate-based composite gel scaffolds doubly integrated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and gelatin microspheres (GMs) were cross-linked via in situ release of calcium cations. As triggers of calcium cations, CaCO3 and glucono-D-lactone (GDL) were fixed as a mass ratio of 1:1 to control pH value ranging from 6.8 to 7.2 during gelation. Synchronously, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) was encapsulated into GMs to enhance bioactivity of composite gel scaffolds. The effects of HAp and GMs on characteristics of gel scaffolds, including pH value, gelation time, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, degradation behavior and drug release, were investigated. The results showed that HAp and GMs successfully improved mechanical properties of gel scaffolds at strain from 0.1 to 0.5, which stabilized the gel network and decreased weight loss, as well as swelling ratio and gelation time. TH could be released from this composite gel scaffold into the local microenvironment in a controlled fashion by the organic/inorganic hybrid of hydrogel network. Our results demonstrate that the HAp and GMs doubly integrated alginate-based gel scaffolds, especially the one with 6% (w/v) HAp and 5% (w/v) GMs, have suitable physical performance and bioactive properties, thus provide a potential opportunity to be used for bone tissue engineering. The potential application of this gel scaffold in bone tissue engineering was confirmed by encapsulation behavior of osteoblasts. In combination with TH, the gel scaffold exhibited beneficial effects on osteoblast activity, which suggested a promising future for local treatment of pathologies involving bone loss.

  13. Value of Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) Mapping and Biopsy using Combined Intracervical Radiotracers and Blue Dye Injections for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed

    Farzaneh, Farah; Moridi, Atefeh; Azizmohammadi, Zahra; Ansari J, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Maryam Sadat; Arab, Maliheh; Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh; Mazaheri, Mina

    2017-02-01

    Background: Lymphadenectomy, as part of the initial surgical staging of patients with endometrial carcinoma, remains a controversial topic in gynecologic oncology. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has become a well-accepted procedure for melanomas and breast cancer; a number of investigators have begun to explore the utility and accuracy of this technique with regard to endometrial cancer. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate SLN mapping of early stage endometrial cancer with blue dye in conjunction with a radioactive tracer. Subjects and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with stage I and II endometrial cancer who were candidates for systemic lymph node dissection during surgery were enrolled, some underwent lymph node mapping and SLN biopsy using combined intra cervical radiotracer and blue dye injections and some applying only an intra cervical radiotracer. SLNs and other lymph nodes were sent for pathological assessment. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value were calculated as predictive values for the radiotracer and blue dye. Results: Pre-operative lymph node mapping showed SLN in 29 out of 30 patients. Intra operations in 29/30 patients, SLNs were harvested by gamma probe; in 13 out of 19 patients SLNs were detected by blue dye. The median number of SLNs per patient was 3 and the total number of SLNs detected was 81. Four patients had positive pelvic lymph nodes. All of the positive nodes were SLNs. Using this technique (radiotracer and blue dye) an overall detection rate of 96.7%, an NPV of 100%, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 3.85% were achieved. Conclusion: Results of SLN research for endometrial cancer are promising and make feasible the possibility of avoiding unnecessary aggressive surgical procedures in near future by advances in SLN mapping. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. ShenQi FuZheng Injection combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongzhong; Lin, Liubing; Li, Yong; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate cellular immunity and clinical efficacy of ShenQi FuZheng Injection (SFI) in the associated chemotherapy of colorectal cancer (CRC). PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), WanFang Database and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) searches were undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials of SFI plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in CRC patients. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Jadad's scale, and Review Manager 5 was used to statisitically analyze the outcomes. Eight studies involving 722 patients were included in this review. The meta-analyses suggested there was a significantly higher overall response rate (OR 1.89; CI: 1.10-3.24; p = 0.02), grades of KPS (OR 2.35; CI: 1.55-3.56; p<0.01), CD3+cells (MD 10.29; CI: 8.46-12.12; p<0.01), CD4+cells (MD 7.06; CI: 5.33-8.794; p<0.01), CD4/CD8+cells (MD 0.32; CI: 0.25-0.40; p<0.01), NK+ (MD 7.20; CI: 2.02-12.37, p = 0.006), WBC (MD 1.24; CI: 0.59-1.89; p<0.01), HB (MD 14.55; CI: 7.47-21.63; p<0.01), and PLT (MD 19.05; CI: 4.29-33.81; p = 0.01), but lower severe toxicity for leukocytopenia (OR 0.37; CI: 0.17-0.80; p = 0.01), thrombocytopenia (OR 0.32; CI: 0.14-0.74; p = 0.008), gastrointestinal toxicity (OR 0.48; CI: 0.24-0.96; p = 0.04), when chemotherapy combined with SFI was compared with chemotherapy alone. There were similarities between two groups in liver dysfunction (OR 0.44; CI: 0.18-1.08; p = 0.07) and CD8+ (MD 0.54; CI: -1.89-2.96; p = 0.66). Also, there was presence of heterogeneity in the CD8 results; after the sensitivity analysis, the result of CD8+ was reversed (MD 1.57; CI: 0.32-2.81; p = 0.01). There was no significant publication bias across studies according to the Egger's (P = 0.19) and Begg's test (P = 0.23). SFI enhances chemotherapy efficiency as they are combined and used in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. At the

  15. Physiotherapy and lumbar facet joint injections as a combination treatment for chronic low back pain. A narrative review of lumbar facet joint injections, lumbar spinal mobilizations, soft tissue massage and lower back mobility exercises.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Hannah

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to summarize the available evidence on lumbar facet joint injections and the physiotherapy treatments, land-based lower back mobility exercise, soft tissue massage and lumbar spinal mobilizations for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The plausibility of physiotherapy and lumbar facet joint injections as a combination treatment is discussed. Using a systematic process, an online electronic search was performed using key words utilizing all available databases and hand searching reference lists. Using a critical appraisal tool from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP), the literature was screened to include primary research. The main aspects of the research were summarized. The evidence for lumbar facet joint injections suggests an overall short-term positive effect on CLBP. Land-based lower back mobility exercise and soft tissue massage appear to have a positive effect on CLBP in the short term and possibly in the longer term. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions for lumbar spinal mobilizations. The review indicates that lumbar facet joint injections create a short period when pain is reduced. Physiotherapy treatments including land-based lower back mobility exercise and soft tissue massage may be of benefit during this time to improve the longer-term outcomes of patients with CLBP. It is not possible to make generalizations or firm conclusions. The current review highlights the need for further research. A randomized controlled trial is recommended to assess the impact of physiotherapy in combination with lumbar facet joint injections on CLBP. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Combined nonmetallic electronegativity equalisation and point-dipole interaction model for the frequency-dependent polarisability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalø, Hans S.; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Mayer, Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    A molecular mechanics model for the frequency-dependent polarisability is presented. It is a combination of a recent model for the frequency dependence in a charge-dipole model [Nanotechnology 19, 025203, 2008] and a nonmetallic modification of the electronegativity equalisation model rephrased as atom-atom charge-transfer terms [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044101, 2009]. An accurate model for the frequency-dependent polarisability requires a more accurate partitioning into charge and dipole contributions than the static polarisability, which has resulted in several modifications of the charge-transfer model. Results are presented for hydrocarbons, including among others, alkanes, polyenes and aromatic systems. Although their responses to an electric field are quite different in terms of the importance of charge-transfer contributions, it is demonstrated that their frequency-dependent polarisabilities can be described with the same model and the same set of atom-type parameters.

  17. Combining point context and dynamic time warping for online gesture recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Chen

    2017-05-01

    Previous gesture recognition methods usually focused on recognizing gestures after the entire gesture sequences were obtained. However, in many practical applications, a system has to identify gestures before they end to give instant feedback. We present an online gesture recognition approach that can realize early recognition of unfinished gestures with low latency. First, a curvature buffer-based point context (CBPC) descriptor is proposed to extract the shape feature of a gesture trajectory. The CBPC descriptor is a complete descriptor with a simple computation, and thus has its superiority in online scenarios. Then, we introduce an online windowed dynamic time warping algorithm to realize online matching between the ongoing gesture and the template gestures. In the algorithm, computational complexity is effectively decreased by adding a sliding window to the accumulative distance matrix. Lastly, the experiments are conducted on the Australian sign language data set and the Kinect hand gesture (KHG) data set. Results show that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods especially when gesture information is incomplete.

  18. Direct sorbent injection for combined SO/sub 2//NO/sub x/ removal: Final report, Volume 2: Supplementary material

    SciTech Connect

    Dowdy, T.E.; Lee, J.J.; Henry, J.M.; Smith, J.R.; Qian, X.Q.; Schulz, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data is presented on the removal of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ through direct sorbent injection of hydrated dolomite and sodium bicarbonate. Subsystem specifications are discussed. 130 figs., 42 tabs. (CBS)

  19. The combined use of cryosurgery and intralesional injections of suspensions of fluorinated adrenocorticosteroids for reducing keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, R I; Babin, R W

    1979-01-01

    Freezing with liquid nitrogen in the conventional manner of cryosurgery followed immediately by injection of a suspension of a fluorinated adrenocorticosteroid is an effective way of treating keloids and hypertrophic scars. Details of the method are given.

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kristen L; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    New rapid point-of-care (POC) tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California. Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP) Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA), rapid plasma reagin (RPR), HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and HIV-1/2 EIA. A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8. The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  1. Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on

  2. Clinical study of botulinum toxin A injection combined with spasmodic muscle therapeutic instrument on lower limb spasticity in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xudong; Huang, Li; Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Yanping; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Huaxian

    2017-01-01

    The clinical effect of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection combined with spasmodic muscle therapeutic instrument with simple BTX-A injection was compared. Eighty patients with stroke were randomly divided into the treatment and control groups of 41 and 39 cases, respectively. The two groups of patients were given routine rehabilitation therapy. Ultrasound-guide positioning technology was used; treatment group was administered BTX-A injection combined spasmodic muscle therapeutic instrument while the control group received only BTX-A injection. Muscle tension and motor function were evaluated at 1, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatments by rehabilitation physician who was not aware of the grouping of the patients. Muscle tension was significantly reduced after BTX-A injection in the treatment and control groups. Modified Ashworth scale scores of the treatment and control groups 1 and 4 weeks after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment. Motor function of lower limbs of patients, 1 and 4 weeks after treatment improved significantly. The comparison of step size and walking speed of the groups showed obvious differences with statistical significance (P<0.01). In conclusion, ultrasonic guidance BTX-A injection is easy to operate with good safety. It can effectively improve extensor myospasm of lower limb of patients with rapid onset and the spasm relief can last for three months. Spasmodic muscle therapeutic instrument can improve the spasm condition of lower limb muscle after stroke as well as motor function of lower limbs and activity of daily living, which can make spasmolysis of BTX-A last for a longer period of time. PMID:28587407

  3. Combination of Tls Point Clouds and 3d Data from Kinect v2 Sensor to Complete Indoor Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2016-06-01

    The combination of data coming from multiple sensors is more and more applied for remote sensing issues (multi-sensor imagery) but also in cultural heritage or robotics, since it often results in increased robustness and accuracy of the final data. In this paper, the reconstruction of building elements such as window frames or door jambs scanned thanks to a low cost 3D sensor (Kinect v2) is presented. Their combination within a global point cloud of an indoor scene acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is considered. If the added elements acquired with the Kinect sensor enable to reach a better level of detail of the final model, an adapted acquisition protocol may also provide several benefits as for example time gain. The paper aims at analyzing whether the two measurement techniques can be complementary in this context. The limitations encountered during the acquisition and reconstruction steps are also investigated.

  4. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The National Energy Strategy Plan (NES) has called for 900,000 barrels/day production of heavy oil in the mid-1990s to meet our national needs. To achieve this goal, it is important that the Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought to production. Alaska has more than 25 billion barrels of heavy oil deposits. Conoco, and now BP Exploration have been producing from Schrader Bluff Pool, which is part of the super heavy oil field known as West Sak Field. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, North Slope of Alaska, is estimated to contain up to 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21{degrees}API) oil in place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion; however, the primary recovery will be much smaller than expected. Hence, waterflooding will be implemented earlier than anticipated. The eventual use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques, such as hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process, is vital for recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The purpose of this research project was to determine the nature of miscible solvent slug which would be commercially feasible, to evaluate the performance of the hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug process, and to assess the feasibility of this process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir. The laboratory experimental work includes: slim tube displacement experiments and coreflood experiments. The components of solvent slug includes only those which are available on the North Slope of Alaska.

  5. Impact analysis of autoantibody level and NR2 antibody level in neuropsychiatric SLE treated by methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yinhuan; Zhang, Jihui; Lei, Hongwei; Zhu, Guiqi; Fu, Bingbing

    2014-11-01

    The objective is to explore the clinical curative effects of methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection in treating neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and its effects on autoantibody level and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype NR2a/2b antibody (anti-NR2 antibody) level. Thirty six admitted NPSLE patients were treated by methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection. Thirty six SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms were selected as non-NPSLE group. Clinical indexes including SLE activity index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), cerebrospinal fluid protein were observed before and after treatment. Autoantibodies including anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA antibody), anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibody (ENA-Ab) were detected before and after treatment. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect NR2 antibody level before and after treatment in two groups. Upon treatment of methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection, SLE activity index, ESR, CSFP, cerebrospinal fluid protein of 36 NPSLE patients were significantly decreased. Before treatment, positive rates of ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody, and anti-ENA antibody in both NPSLE group and non-NPSLE group had no significant difference. However, positive rate of anti-NR2 antibody in NPSLE group was significantly higher than that of non-NPSLE group. After treatment, positive rates of autoantibodies and anti-NR2 antibody in both NPSLE and non-NPSLE group were significantly decreased. Anti-NR2 antibody can be a screening index of NPSLE, and methylprednisolone combined with MTX and DXM intrathecal injection has significant curative effects and can effectively decrease autoantibody level and anti-NR2 antibody level.

  6. Cloning of Asian yellow goat (C. hircus) by somatic cell nuclear transfer: telophase enucleation combined with whole cell intracytoplasmic injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Yuan; Jiang, Man-Xi; Zhao, Zhen-Jun; Wang, Hai-Long; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Li, Rui-Chang; Cao, Heng-Hua; Zhang, Quan-Jun; Ma, Dong-Lian

    2007-01-01

    Our and other previous studies have shown that telophase enucleation is an efficient method for preparing recipient cytoplasts in nuclear transfer. Conventional methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer either by electro-fusion or direct nucleus injection have very low efficiency in animal somatic cell cloning. To simplify the manipulation procedure and increase the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer, this study was designed to study in vitro and in vivo development of Asian yellow goat cloned embryos reconstructed by direct whole cell intracytoplasmic injection (WCICI) into in vitro matured oocytes enucleated at telophase II stage. Our results demonstrated that the rates of cleavage and blastocyst development of embryos reconstructed by WCICI were slightly higher than in conventional subzonal injection (SUZI) group, but no statistic difference (P > 0.05) existed between these two methods. However, the percentage of successful embryonic reconstruction in WCICI group was significantly higher than that in SUZI group (P < 0.05). After embryo transfer at 4-cell stage, the foster in both groups gave birth to offspring. Therefore, the present study suggests that the telophase ooplasm could properly reprogram the genome of somatic cells, produce Asian yellow goat cloned embryos and viable kids, and whole cell intracytoplasmic injection is an efficient protocol for goat somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  7. Can combined use of low-level lasers and hyaluronic acid injections prolong the longevity of degenerative knee joints?

    PubMed Central

    Ip, David; Fu, Nga Yue

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection together with low-level laser therapy in addition to standard conventional physical therapy can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery in elderly patients with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 consecutive unselected elderly patients with bilateral tricompartmental knee arthritis were assigned at random to either one of two conservative treatment protocols to either one of the painful knees. Protocol A consisted of conventional physical therapy plus a sham light source plus saline injection, and protocol B consisted of protocol A with addition of half-yearly hyaluronic acid injection as well as low-level laser treatment instead of using saline and a sham light source. Treatment failure was defined as breakthrough pain necessitating joint replacement. Results Among the 140 painful knees treated with either protocol A or protocol B, only one of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol B required joint replacement, whereas 15 of the 70 painful knees treated by protocol A needed joint replacement surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that half-yearly hyaluronic acid injections together with low-level laser therapy should be incorporated into the standard conservative treatment protocol for symptomatic knee arthritis, because it may prolong the longevity of the knee joint without the need for joint replacement. PMID:26346122

  8. Investigation of analytical performance for rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction of trace amounts of copper combined with spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaodong; Ye, Liqing; Deng, Qingwen; Peng, Li

    2011-12-01

    In this work, an improved preconcentration method named as rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was established for copper preconcentration and determination. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) was used as extractant. Octanol worked as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent, which successfully decreased the cloud point temperature (CPT) of TX-100 to realize the room temperature (about 20°C) CPE without heating. The established RS-CPE pretreatment was simple, rapid and effective. Compared with traditional CPE (about 40 min for heating, incubation and cooling), the extraction time of the proposed method was very short (1 min). The improved extraction technique RS-CPE was combined with traditional spectrophotometer to improve the analytical performance and expand the application of spectrophotometric determination. The influence factors relevant to RS-CPE, such as concentrations of TX-100 and octanol, concentration of chelating agent, pH, conditions of phase separation, salt effect, environmental temperature and instrumental conditions, were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for copper was 0.4 μg L(-1), with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) of 18. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace copper in real samples and certified samples with satisfactory analytical results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An efficient reliability algorithm for locating design point using the combination of importance sampling concepts and response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayanfar, Mohsen Ali; Barkhordari, Mohammad Ali; Roudak, Mohammad Amin

    2017-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is a useful tool for computation of probability of failure in reliability analysis. However, the large number of required random samples makes it time-consuming. Response surface method (RSM) is another common method in reliability analysis. Although RSM is widely used for its simplicity, it cannot be trusted in highly nonlinear problems due to its linear nature. In this paper, a new efficient algorithm, employing the combination of importance sampling, as a class of MCS, and RSM is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, analysis starts with importance sampling concepts and using a represented two-step updating rule of design point. This part finishes after a small number of samples are generated. Then RSM starts to work using Bucher experimental design, with the last design point and a represented effective length as the center point and radius of Bucher's approach, respectively. Through illustrative numerical examples, simplicity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the represented rules are shown.

  10. Cervical intervertebral disc herniation treatment via radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior using an anterior cervical approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Jian; Zhu, Meng-Ye; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Xue-Xue; Zhang, Da-Ying; Wei, Jian-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injected into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach for cervical intervertebral disc herniation. Forty-three patients (26–62-year old; male/female ratio: 31/12) with cervical intervertebral disc herniation received radiofrequency combined with 60 to 100 U of collagenase, injected via an anterior cervical approach. The degree of nerve function was assessed using the current Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scoring system at 3 and 12 months postoperation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the degree of pain preoperation and 7 days postoperation. The preoperative and 3 month postoperative protrusion areas were measured and compared via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Compared with the preoperative pain scores, the 7-day postoperative pain was significantly reduced (P <0.01). The excellent and good rates of nerve function amelioration were 93.0% and 90.7% at 3 and 12 months postoperation, respectively, which was not significantly different. Twenty-seven cases exhibited a significantly reduced protrusion area (P <0.01) at 3 months postoperation. No serious side effects were noted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the use of radiofrequency combined with low-dose collagenase injection into the disc interior via an anterior cervical approach is effective and safe for the treatment of cervical intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:27336892

  11. Role of sentinel node in differentiated thyroid cancer: a prospective study comparing patent blue injection technique, lymphoscintigraphy and the combined technique.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, R; Campanelli, M; Cabry, F; Franceschetto, A; Ceresini, G; Ruffini, L; Zaccaroni, A; Del Rio, P

    2017-08-31

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLNs) biopsy in differentiated thyroid cancer using patent blue injection, lymphoscintigraphy and the combined techniques. Between January 2011 and January 2013, 82 consecutive patients were enrolled in our prospective multicentre study. Inclusion criteria were 18 years of age, preoperative diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, no evidence of lymph node enlargement and multifocal neoplasm. To investigate the benefits of each procedure, all patients underwent total thyroidectomy plus central compartment lymphadenectomy, and in all cases, the SLN was identified via one of three techniques using the same protocol. Lymphoscintigraphy was used in five patients, patent blue injection was used in 40 patients, and a combined technique was used in 40 patients to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). SLNs were identified in 61 cases. In the patent blue injection technique, the sensitivity, specificity and false negative rates were 88.9, 94.4 and 3.8%, respectively. In the lymphoscintigraphy technique, the percentages of sensitivity and specificity were 100%, and the percentage false negative was 0%. For the combined techniques, the corresponding values were, respectively, 69.2, 90, and 17.4%. Metastases were detected in nine cases of lateral-cervical nodes, ipsilateral tumour metastases were observed in eight cases, and contralateral tumour metastasis was observed in one case. Additional well-designed randomized studies are needed to validate and further optimize the SLN biopsy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  12. Triple-combination treatment with oral α-lipoic acid, betamethasone injection, and NB-UVB for non-segmental progressive vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Lu; Wu, Yan; Gao, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-06-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disease with uncertain etiopathogenesis and the treatment modalities need to be consistently updated. To evaluate a triple-combination treatment with oral α-lipoic acid (ALA), betamethasone injection, and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) on vitiligo. Patients with non-segmental and progressive vitiligo lesions were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group and the control group were respectively treated with oral ALA and placebo, in combination with betamethasone injection and NB-UVB. The effectiveness and adverse events were evaluated by investigators and patients before and after treatment. Fifty non-segmental progressive vitiligo patients were enrolled in the study. The treatment period was 6 months. In treatment group, over 40% patients achieved > 50% improvement and ≥ 5 satisfaction score by 3-month therapy (M3). This percentage increased to 90% at M6. Treatment group achieved better efficacy than control group at M3, while no difference was seen at M6. The combined treatment with oral ALA, betamethasone injection, and NB-UVB was effective and safe on non-segmental progressive vitiligo. ALA could accelerate the initial response of repigmentation.

  13. Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy guided injection of methylene blue combined with hookwire for preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions in thoracoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiayuan; Mao, Xiaowei; Xie, Fangfang

    2015-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used in the resection of small pulmonary lesions in the clinical practice. The accurate preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions is significant to guide the operation. We report a thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection with electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) guided injection of methylene blue combined with hookwire to localize the small pulmonary lesion in a 50-year-old woman. We successfully performed VATS followed by the combined localization of these two methods. This localization method has a higher accuracy and fewer complications, which can effectively guide the surgical resection. PMID:26793384

  14. Suppressing the Skin-Core Structure of Injection-Molded Isotactic Polypropylene via Combination of an in situ Microfibrillar Network and an Interfacial Compatibilizer

    SciTech Connect

    X Yi; C Chen; G Zhong; L Xu; J Tang; X Ji; B Hsiao; Z Li

    2011-12-31

    Injection-molded semicrystalline polymer parts generally exhibited a so-called skin-core structure basically as a result of the large gradients of temperature, shear rate, stress, and pressure fields created by the boundary conditions of injection molding. Suppression of the skin-core structure is a long-term practical challenge. In the current work, the skin-core structure of the conventional injection-molded isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was largely relieved by the cooperative effects of an in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer. The in situ poly(ethylene terephthalate) microfibrils of 1-8 {micro}m in diameter and large aspect ratios of above 40 tended to entangle with each other to generate a microfibrillar network in the iPP melt. During injection molding, the iPP molecules experienced confined flow in the microchannels or pores formed by the microfibrillar network, which could redistribute and homogenize the flow field of polymer melt. Addition of the compatibilizer, glycidyl methacrylate-grafted iPP, restrained the molecular orientation but facilitated preservation of oriented molecules due to the chemical bonds at the interface between PET microfibrils and iPP. The cooperative effects of in situ microfibrillar network and interfacial compatibilizer led to almost the same molecular orientation across the whole thickness of the injection-molded parts. Additionally, the content of {beta} crystals in different layers of injection-molded iPP parts depended on the combined effects of the molecular orientation, the amount of oriented crystals, and the crystallization time between 105 and 140 C. The presence of the interfacial compatibilizer facilitated formation of the {beta} crystals because of preservation of the oriented molecules.

  15. Clinical behaviour and long-term therapeutic response in orofacial granulomatosis patients treated with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injections alone or in combination with topical pimecrolimus 1%.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, Michele D; Pollio, Annamaria; Leuci, Stefania; Ruoppo, Elvira; Fortuna, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology and non-standardized treatment protocols. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical behaviour and long-term therapeutic response in OFG patients treated with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injections alone or in combination with topical pimecrolimus 1%, as adjuvant, in those patients partially responders to TA. We analysed data from 19 OFG patients followed-up for 7 years. Demographic characteristics, clinical behaviour and long-term therapeutic response were investigated. Eleven (57.9%) OFG patients treated with intralesional TA injections therapy reached first complete clinical remission in a mean time of 10 ± 2.2 (95% CI, 8.5-11.5) weeks, while eight (42.1%) patients, partially responders to intralesional TA injections, were treated with TA injections plus topical pimecrolimus 1%, as adjuvant, achieving complete clinical remission in a mean time of 29.8 ± 7.8 (95% CI, 23.2-36.3) weeks. Relapses occurred in four TA responder patients with a disease-free time of 35.8 ± 8.7 (95% CI, 21.9-46.4) weeks and in five patients treated with TA and topical pimecrolimus 1% with a disease-free time of 55.8 ± 18.5 (95% CI, 32.8-78.8) weeks. Patients were followed-up for a mean time of 56.3 ± 18.2 (95% CI, 47.6-65.1) months. At last control, all 19 patients were in complete clinical remission. These preliminary data suggest that intralesional TA injections still represent a mainstay in the treatment of OFG. It is unclear the role of topical pimecrolimus, as adjuvant, in leading OFG patients, partly responders to intralesional TA injections, to a complete clinical remission. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Object Based Image Analysis Combining High Spatial Resolution Imagery and Laser Point Clouds for Urban Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid developments of the sensor technology, high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds can be captured nowadays, which make classification, extraction, evaluation and analysis of a broad range of object features available. High resolution imagery, Lidar dataset and parcel map can be widely used for classification as information carriers. Therefore, refinement of objects classification is made possible for the urban land cover. The paper presents an approach to object based image analysis (OBIA) combing high spatial resolution imagery and airborne Lidar point clouds. The advanced workflow for urban land cover is designed with four components. Firstly, colour-infrared TrueOrtho photo and laser point clouds were pre-processed to derive the parcel map of water bodies and nDSM respectively. Secondly, image objects are created via multi-resolution image segmentation integrating scale parameter, the colour and shape properties with compactness criterion. Image can be subdivided into separate object regions. Thirdly, image objects classification is performed on the basis of segmentation and a rule set of knowledge decision tree. These objects imagery are classified into six classes such as water bodies, low vegetation/grass, tree, low building, high building and road. Finally, in order to assess the validity of the classification results for six classes, accuracy assessment is performed through comparing randomly distributed reference points of TrueOrtho imagery with the classification results, forming the confusion matrix and calculating overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient. The study area focuses on test site Vaihingen/Enz and a patch of test datasets comes from the benchmark of ISPRS WG III/4 test project. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most types of urban land cover. Overall accuracy is 89.5% and Kappa coefficient equals to 0.865. The OBIA approach provides an effective and convenient way to combine high

  17. Combined motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves plateaued manual dexterity performance.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Munoz-Rubke, Felipe; Wan, Hsuan-Yu; Block, Hannah J

    2016-10-28

    Motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) in hand muscles is known to modify motor cortex excitability and improve learning rate, but not plateau of performance, in manual dexterity tasks. Central stimulation of motor cortex, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can have similar effects if accompanied by motor practice, which can be difficult and tiring for patients. Here we asked whether adding tDCS to MPAS could improve manual dexterity in healthy individuals who are already performing at their plateau, with no motor practice during stimulation. We hypothesized that MPAS could provide enough coordinated muscle activity to make motor practice unnecessary, and that this combination of stimulation techniques could yield improvements even in subjects at or near their peak. If so, this approach could have a substantial effect on patients with impaired dexterity, who are far from their peak. MPAS was applied for 30min to two right hand muscles important for manual dexterity. tDCS was simultaneously applied over left sensorimotor cortex. The motor cortex input/output (I/O) curve was assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and manual dexterity was assessed with the Purdue Pegboard Test. Compared to sham or cathodal tDCS combined with MPAS, anodal tDCS combined with MPAS significantly increased the plateau of manual dexterity. This result suggests that MPAS has the potential to substitute for motor practice in mediating a beneficial effect of tDCS on manual dexterity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost savings of home bortezomib injection in patients with multiple myeloma treated by a combination care in Outpatient Hospital and Hospital care at Home.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mohamed; Lamarsalle, Ludovic; Moreau, Stéphane; Vergnenègre, Françoise; Lefort, Sophie; Brillat, Catherine; Jeannet, Laetitia; Lagarde, Aline; Daulange, Annick; Jaccard, Arnaud; Vergnenègre, Alain; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    At home injectable chemotherapy for patients receiving treatment for hematological diseases is still in debate. Given the expense of new innovative medicines, at home treatment has been proposed as a suitable option for improving patient quality of life and decreasing treatment costs. We decided to assess the cost of bortezomib administration in France among multiple myeloma patients from an economic standpoint. Patients in this study were treated within a regional hematological network combining outpatient hospital care and Hospital care at Home administration. To make the cost comparison, our team simulated outpatient hospital care expenses. Fifty-four consecutive multiple myeloma patients who received at least one injection of bortezomib in Hospital care at Home from January 2009 to December 2011 were included in the study. The median number of injections was 12 (range 1-44) at home and 6 (range 0-30) in the outpatient care unit. When compared with the cost simulation of outpatient hospital care alone, bortezomib administration with combined care was significantly less expensive for the National Health Insurance (NHI) budget. The mean total cost per patient and per injection was 954.20 € for combined outpatient and Hospital care at Home vs 1143.42 € for outpatient hospital care alone. This resulted in an estimated 16.5 % cost saving (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.0001). The greatest savings were observed in administration costs (37.5 % less) and transportation costs (68.1 % less). This study reflects results for a regionally implemented program for multiple myeloma patients treated with bortezomib in routine practice in a large rural area.

  19. Aidi injection combined with radiation in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis evaluation the efficacy and side effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Huijuan; Hu, Xigang; Jia, Zongling

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the clinical efficacy and side effects of Aidi injection combined with radiation in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). By searching PubMed, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, EMBSE and CNKI databases, the efficacy and side effect data of Aidi injection combined with radiation in the treatment of NSCLC from the published clinical studies were collected. The data were pooled using Stata version 11.0 software (http://www.stata.com; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). Ten clinical studies with 1084 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The combined data showed the clinical efficacy in experiment group was higher than that of control group (risk ratio [RR] = 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-1.96, P = 0.00); four articles reported the life quality improvement. The pooled data showed that the use of Aidi can significantly improve the quality of life in the procedure of radiation (RR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.76-2.98, P = 0.00); six studies reported the radiation toxicities. The pooled data showed that Aidi injection can significant decrease the radiation pneumonia (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0. 34-0.63), radiation esophagitis (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.71), and marrow suppression (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.42-0.59). Aidi injection can improve the clinical efficacy, quality of life, and decrease the radiation-related toxicities in NSCLC patients who received radiation.

  20. [Effect of Magnesium Sulfate, Nifedipine Tablet Combined Salvia Injection on ET-1/NO, TXA2/PGI2 and Hemorheology of Preeclampsia Patients].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-ying; Yao, Jing; Zhu, Jia-mei; Li, Mei; Qiu, Shu-qiong; Zhu, Zhao-xia; Zhang, Ming

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of magnesium sulfate, Nifedipine Tablet (NT) combined Salvia Injection (SI) on endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), thromboxane A2(TXA2), prostacyclin I2(PG2), and hemorheology of preeclampsia patients. Totally 704 preeclampsia patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 352 cases in each group. All patients were treated with magnesium sulfate combined NT (on the first day: slow intravenous injection of magnesium sulfate 5 g + intravenous dripping of magnesium sulfate injection 10 g + oral administration of NT 30 mg; on the second and third day, intravenous dripping of magnesium sulfate injection 10 g + oral administration of NT 30 mg), while those in the treatment group were dripped with SI additionally at 20 mL per day for 3 consecutive days. Before and after treatment plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), TXA2, PGi2, and hemorheology indicators [such as high blood viscosity (HBV), low blood viscosity (LBV), plasma viscosity (PV), erythrocyte rigidity index (ERI), fibrinogen (FIB)] of two groups were detected. Compared with the same group before treatment, serum levels of ET-1, TXA2, HBV, LBV, PV, ERI, and FIB decreased in the two groups after treatment (P <0. 05), but levels of NO and PG2 increased (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group in the same period, levels of ET-1, TXA2, HBV, LBV, PV, ERI, and FIB decreased in the treatment group after treatment (P <0. 05), but levels of NO and PGI2 increased (P <0. 05). Magnesium sulfate, NT combined SI could effectively regulate the balance of ET-1/NO and TXA2/PGI2, and improve hemorheology of preeclampsia patients.

  1. Individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate and glucose on somatic characteristics, energy status, and posthatch performance of broiler embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhu, X D; Wang, X F; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2016-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the individual and combined effects of in-ovo injection of creatine monohydrate ( CMH: ) and glucose on the somatic characteristics and energy status of broiler embryos and hatchlings and the growth performance of chicks during the first wk posthatch. In trial 1, 550 17.5-day-old living, fertile eggs were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups, including 1) a noninjected control, 2) a 0.4 mL diluent-injected control, or 0.4 mL diluents containing 3) 6 mg CMH, 4) 25 mg glucose, or 5) a combination of 6 mg CMH and 25 mg glucose (identified as CMH+G: ). In trial 2, after hatch, 48 hatchlings with individual body weight ( BW: ) close to the average BW of their incubation group were randomly selected and placed in 6 replicates of 8 birds each to evaluate their growth performance during the first wk posthatch. Compared with the noninjected and the 0.4-mL diluent-injected control groups, individual injection of CMH or glucose did not affect the hatching time, hatchability, somatic characteristics, or concentrations of glycogen and glucose in the liver and pectoralis major ( PM: ) muscle, although injection of CMH increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of creatine ( CR: ) and phosphocreatine ( PCR: ) in the PM muscle on d 19 of incubation (E19.5). However, the CMH+G treatment increased (P < 0.05) BW relative to set egg weight ( SEW: ) on E19.5, as well as residual yolk sac weight on the day of hatch. Moreover, the CMH+G treatment also increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycogen and glucose in the liver and concentrations of Cr and PCr in the PM muscle on E19.5. Chicks in the CMH+G group also exhibited higher BW gain during the first wk than controls (P < 0.05). These results indicate that combined injection of CMH and glucose during the last stage of incubation have a synergistic effect on improvement of the energy status of embryos and hatchlings, which is useful for enhancing embryo development, and subsequently improving

  2. On-line complexation/cloud point preconcentration for the sensitive determination of dysprosium in urine by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Claudia; Cerutti, Soledad; Olsina, Roberto A; Silva, María F; Martinez, Luis D

    2003-01-01

    An on-line dysprosium preconcentration and determination system based on the hyphenation of cloud point extraction (CPE) to flow injection analysis (FIA) associated with ICP-OES was studied. For the preconcentration of dysprosium, a Dy(III)-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex was formed on-line at pH 9.22 in the presence of nonionic micelles of PONPE-7.5. The micellar system containing the complex was thermostated at 30 degrees C in order to promote phase separation, and the surfactant-rich phase was retained in a microcolumn packed with cotton at pH 9.2. The surfactant-rich phase was eluted with 4 mol L(-1) nitric acid at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1), directly in the nebulizer of the plasma. An enhancement factor of 50 was obtained for the preconcentration of 50 mL of sample solution. The detection limit value for the preconcentration of 50 mL of aqueous solution of Dy was 0.03 microg L(-1). The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 microg L(-1)Dy level was 2.2% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for dysprosium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 100 microg L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of dysprosium in urine.

  3. Fetal Gene Therapy for Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency by Intrahepatic Plasmid DNA-Micro-Bubble Injection Combined with Hepatic Ultrasound Insonation.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshie; Kakimoto, Takashi; Yuan, Wenji; Kuno, Shuichi; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of hepatic transfection of plasmid DNA using micro-bubbles and ultrasound insonation for fetal correction of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency in mice. Twenty-three sparse-fur heterozygous pregnant mice (day 16 of gestation) were divided into three groups: injection of plasmid-DNA micro-bubble mixture into fetal liver with ultrasound insonation (Tr, n = 11); control group 1 (C1), injection of plasmid-DNA micro-bubble mixture into fetal liver with no insonation (n = 5); and control group 2 (C2), injection of saline-micro-bubble mixture into fetal liver with ultrasound insonation (n = 7). Levels of blood ammonia and urinary orotic acid were significantly lower in the Tr group than in the C1 and C2 groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas OTC activity was not different between groups. Therefore, ultrasound insonation with micro-bubbles enhanced plasmid DNA transfection into fetal mouse liver, leading to one of the therapeutic methods in ammonia metabolism. This might provide more time for OTC-deficient infants until liver transplantation.

  4. The importance of para-aortic lymph nodes in sentinel lymph node mapping for endometrial cancer by using hysteroscopic radio-isotope tracer injection combined with subserosal dye injection: Prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Fumio; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Wataru; Kuwahata, Michiko; Takigawa, Aya; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kameyama, Kaori; Aoki, Daisuke

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the detection rate and diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SN) mapping using hysteroscopic sub-endometrial injection of 99m-Technetium labeled phytate (Radio-isotope; RI method) and subserosal Indocyanine green (ICG) injection (Dye method) in patients with endometrial cancer. From April 2009 to December 2012, prospective evaluation of 57 Japanese endometrial cancer patients undergoing SN mapping using RI method combined with Dye method was done. To combine RI method or no was determined by a status of RI supply of the tracer injection day. As for 32 cases, both (RI+Dye) methods were used and 23 cases were performed only in Dye method. The primary endpoint was estimation of sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of SN, and analysis of the distribution of SNs with metastasis. At least one SN was detected in 100% and average number of detected SNs was 6.0 in RI+Dye method. Sensitivity and NPV were 100%, 100%, respectively. From results of SN mapping, 62.8% of SNs were present in pelvic and 37.1% in para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN). Total 56.3% of lymph nodes with metastasis were present in pelvic and 43.8% in PAN, and the distribution has no difference with SN mapping results (P=0.602). Among 13 cases with metastatic SNs, 76.9% cases showed metastasis in PAN. This SN mapping procedure for endometrial cancer patients revealed high detection rate, sensitivity, NPV, and also indicated the importance of the SN exploration in PAN area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Clinical research of electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A in treating the muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Xing, Shi-Tong; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Zhong-Qing; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Dong-Wei; Cheng, Yi; Yan, Dong; Yu, Fei

    2010-05-01

    To explore clinical safety and efficiency of electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury. Thirty-eight patients with muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury were treated from December 2006 to December 2009 including 26 males and 12 females, with an average age of 45.4 years old ranging from 21 to 68 years. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups according to admission time, 13 patients in group A were treated with electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A, and 13 patients in group B were treated with acupoint-injection botulinum toxin A and 12 patients in group C were treated with electroacupuncture. After 6 months these patients were evaluated by improved muscle Ashworth scoring (MAS) and clinical spasticity index (SCI). Thirty-eight patients were followed-up at 6 months after the treatment. The result showed that the MAS scores of group A, B, C before treatment were (3.10 +/- 0.14), (3.20 +/- 0.17), (3.10 +/- 0.16) respectively and the CSI scores were (14.10 +/- 0.14), (14.30 +/- 0.11), (14.20 +/- 0.12) respectively; there were no statistical different among the three groups (P > 0.05). After 6 months of treatment, the MAS scores were (1.10 +/- 0.16), (2.10 +/- 0.13), (2.00 +/- 0.14) respectively and the CSI scores were (9.10 +/- 0.11), (12.10 +/- 0.14), (13.10 +/- 0.12) respectively. The MAS scores and CSI scores of group A were better than the other two groups (P < 0.05). The combination of Chinese hydropower needles and acupoints with BTX-A injection can achieve a comprehensive treatment and reduce pain and improve life quality quickly. The electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-inject botulinum toxin A is a noval safe and effective technique for the treatment of muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury.

  6. A Measurement Method for Large Parts Combining with Feature Compression Extraction and Directed Edge-Point Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Fan; Gao, Peng; Lan, Zhiguang; Jia, Zhenyuan; Gao, Hang

    2016-01-01

    High-accuracy surface measurement of large aviation parts is a significant guarantee of aircraft assembly with high quality. The result of boundary measurement is a significant parameter for aviation-part measurement. This paper proposes a measurement method for accurately measuring the surface and boundary of aviation part with feature compression extraction and directed edge-point criterion. To improve the measurement accuracy of both the surface and boundary of large parts, extraction method of global boundary and feature analysis of local stripe are combined. The center feature of laser stripe is obtained with high accuracy and less calculation using a sub-pixel centroid extraction method based on compress processing. This method consists of a compressing process of images and judgment criterion of laser stripe centers. An edge-point extraction method based on directed arc-length criterion is proposed to obtain accurate boundary. Finally, a high-precision reconstruction of aerospace part is achieved. Experiments are performed both in a laboratory and an industrial field. The physical measurements validate that the mean distance deviation of the proposed method is 0.47 mm. The results of the field experimentation show the validity of the proposed method. PMID:28035975

  7. A Measurement Method for Large Parts Combining with Feature Compression Extraction and Directed Edge-Point Criterion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Fan; Gao, Peng; Lan, Zhiguang; Jia, Zhenyuan; Gao, Hang

    2016-12-26

    High-accuracy surface measurement of large aviation parts is a significant guarantee of aircraft assembly with high quality. The result of boundary measurement is a significant parameter for aviation-part measurement. This paper proposes a measurement method for accurately measuring the surface and boundary of aviation part with feature compression extraction and directed edge-point criterion. To improve the measurement accuracy of both the surface and boundary of large parts, extraction method of global boundary and feature analysis of local stripe are combined. The center feature of laser stripe is obtained with high accuracy and less calculation using a sub-pixel centroid extraction method based on compress processing. This method consists of a compressing process of images and judgment criterion of laser stripe centers. An edge-point extraction method based on directed arc-length criterion is proposed to obtain accurate boundary. Finally, a high-precision reconstruction of aerospace part is achieved. Experiments are performed both in a laboratory and an industrial field. The physical measurements validate that the mean distance deviation of the proposed method is 0.47 mm. The results of the field experimentation show the validity of the proposed method.

  8. [Clinical observation on therapeutic effect of cupping combined with acupuncture stimulation at trigger points for lumbar myofascial pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong

    2014-08-01

    To observe the clinical effect of cupping combined with acupuncture stimulation of trigger points on lumbar myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Sixty MPS patients were randomly divided into acupuncture + TDP group (n = 30), and cupping + acupuncture group (n = 30). Patients in the acupuncture + TDP group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of trigger points and local TDP irradiation, and patients of the cupping + acupuncture group treated by intensive cupping applied to the myofascial band and acupuncture stimulation of the locus according to the position of muscular tension band. The therapeutic effects were assessed according to the score of the McGill pain questionnaire composing of pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI) before, immediately and 1 month after the treatment. After the treatment, the total effective rates of the acupuncture+ TDP and cupping + acupuncture groups were 83.3% (25/30) and 96.6% (29/30), respectively, without significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). One month's follow-up showed that the total effective rates of the acupuncture + TDP and cupping + acupuncture groups were 40.0% and 90.0% respectively, and the latter group was significantly better than the acupuncture + TDP group in the therapeutic effect (P < 0.05). The scores of PRI, VAS, PPI after the treatment were markedly decreased in both groups (P < 0.05). One month later, the scores of PRI, VAS and PPI in the cupping + acupuncture group were obviously lower than those of the acupuncture group (P < 0.05). Both acupuncture stimulation of trigger points plus TDP and cupping plus acupuncture can effectively relieve pain in MPS patients, while the therapeutic effect of cupping plus acupuncture treatment lasts longer analgesic effect.

  9. The effect of the combination of dry needling and MET on latent trigger point upper trapezius in females.

    PubMed

    Yeganeh Lari, Ameneh; Okhovatian, Farshad; Naimi, Sedigheh sadat; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial experiment was to compare the effects of the combination of dry needling (DN) and the muscle energy technique (MET) on the upper trapezius latent myofascial trigger point. Sixty female patients, aged 18-30 with latent myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 20) received DN and MET, group 2 (n = 20) received only MET, and group 3 (n = 20) received only DN. The visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and range of active contra lateral flexion (CLF) were measured before each treatment. The patients were treated for three sessions in a one-week period with at least a two-day break between each session, and in session four, an assessment of primary outcomes was conducted without any treatment. All three treatment groups showed decreases in pain (p = 0.001) and increases in PPT levels (p = 0.001) as well as increases in CLF (p = 0.001). But the group receiving trigger point DN together with MET showed more significant improvement than the other two groups in VAS, PPT and ROM. No significant differences were found between the MET-only group and the DN-only group. Our results indicate that all three treatments used in this study were effective for treating MTP. According to this study, DN and MET is suggested as a new method for the treatment of MTP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differentiation of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus using flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) metabolic fingerprinting method combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chen, Pei

    2015-03-25

    A flow-injection mass spectrometric metabolic fingerprinting method in combination with chemometrics was used to differentiate Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from its counterfeit Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus. Flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints of 9 Aurantii Fructus Immaturus samples and 12 Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus samples were acquired and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The authentic herbs were differentiated from their counterfeits easily. Eight characteristic components which were responsible for the differences between the samples were tentatively identified. Furthermore, three out of the eight components, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, were quantified. The results are useful to help identify the authenticity of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus.

  11. Duration of symptom relief after intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid combined with sorbitol (anti-ox-vs) in symptomatic hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Migliore, A; Massafra, U; Bizzi, E; Tormenta, S; Cassol, M; Granata, M

    2014-01-01

    The intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) in hip osteoarthritis (OA) has been recently increased following the use of ultrasound guidance to perform an accurate delivery of the injected product. Viscosupplementation in hip OA seems to show similar results to those obtained by viscosupplementation in knee OA. However, an unmet need is the duration of symptomatic relief, therefore several new products are proposed to prolong and increase symptomatic effects. Among these, an innovative viscosupplement has been produced from high a concentration of HA combined with a high concentration of sorbitol as a free radical scavenger. The aim of this study is to evaluate the mid-term pain-relief effect of an ultrasound-guided injection of SynolisV-A (ANTI-OX-VS) in patients suffering from symptomatic hip osteoarthritis. Lequesne index, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain reduction, Global Patient Assessment (GPA), Global Medical Assessment (GMA) and reduction in monthly analgesic consumption were assessed during the 12-month follow-up after the injection. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study and received one IA US-guided injection of two syringes of ANTI-OX-VS into the target hip. Eleven drop-out patients were registered, of whom 2 were for loss of efficacy at 6 months, 1 for loss of efficacy at 9 months and 8 patients for severe comorbilities. Mean scores of all clinical parameters evaluated at each control visit were significantly different when compared with baseline mean value. No systemic adverse events were observed. Even though the sample size of this study is limited, the results suggest a durable good efficacy of a 4-ml single injection of ANTI-OX-VS in hip OA, at least for the patients who completed the study. A larger number of patients and an RCT are needed to confirm these data, investigating also the predictive factors of clinical response to ANTI-OX-VS.

  12. Effects of letrozole in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin on ovulation and pregnancy of 156 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Mengzhen; Qiao, Yuhuan; Yang, Junjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of letrozole (LE) in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) on the ovulation induction and pregnancy of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: A total of 156 patients with PCOS infertility were randomly divided into an LE group, a clomiphene citrate (CC) group and an LE + HMG group (n= 52). LE and CC were orally taken according to the prescribed dosage on the 3rd-5th days of menstruation respectively, and 75 IU HMG was given through intramuscular injection. The ovulation induction parameters and pregnancy outcomes were observed. Results: The number of ovulation cycle of LE + HMG group was significantly higher than that of LE group (χ2=8.451, P<0.001). After injection of human chorionic gonadotropin, both endometrial thickness and number of mature follicles of LE + HMG group were significantly higher than those of other two groups (P<0.001), and the daily estradiol (E2) level was also higher (q=4.531, P<0.05). The pregnancy rate of LE + HMG group was 55.7%, which exceeded those of other two groups (compared to LE group, χ2=4.012, P<0.05). In LE + HMG group, the average medication cycle of clinically pregnant patients was (2.9 ± 0.3) weeks, which was significantly shorter than those of CC and LE groups (F=17.241, P<0.001). Conclusion: The regimen using LE in combination with low-dose intramuscular injection of HMG has satisfactory therapeutic effects on ovulation induction, short medication cycle and high clinical pregnancy rate, which is promising for treating patients with PCOS infertility. PMID:28083040

  13. [Stimulation of pelvic fracture healing by local injection of autologous plasma in combination with metabolically active substances that have an antioxidant and antihypoxic effect].

    PubMed

    Silant'eva, T A; Krasnov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed at performing an experimental trial of the reparative osteogenesis stimulation by local injection of autologous plasma in combination with metabolically active substances such as L-ascorbic acid and D-glucose for management of pelvic fractures. The experiment was carried out on twenty-six mongrel dog of both sexes aged 1.5 ± 0.09 years and with body weight of 17 ± 0.5kg. Transverse osteotomy was performed in the acetabulum (n = 20) and in the ilium body (n = 6). The fractures were stabilized with external fixators. On days two through 5 after the operation all dogs had intraarticular or intraosseous injections of the saline solution throughout 24 hours in the dose of 0.4 ml per day. Experimental animals were additionally injected once a day with 1 ml of a composition consisting of the ascorbic acid and glucose. The external apparatuses were dismounted on day 21 after the operation. The animals for histological study were euthanized on day 14 and 42 after the operation. The study used radiographic and histological methods of study as well as the method of radiographic electron probe microanalysis. The control animals that had either intraosseous or intraarticular saline injections alone had fibro-cartilaginous union of the pelvic fragments. They developed bone deformity due to secondary displacement upon apparatus removal. The experimental animals had primary bone union on day 14. The bone was consolidated after the removal of the apparatus. Autologous blood plasma in combination with active substances of ascorbic acid and glucose had a marked stimulating effect on pelvic fracture healing if applied locally in the posttraumatic period. The method of reparative osteogenesis stimulation that was developed is low traumatic. It does not hinder early functional loading and allows control of reparative process basing on the biological principles of tissue regeneration.

  14. Enlargement of thermal ablation zone by the combination of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation in excised bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Seishiro; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Masaki, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Yoshiaki; Funaki, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hideyuki; Himoto, Takashi; Kita, Yuko; Uchida, Naohito; Touge, Tetsuo; Tatsukawa, Toshiaki; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2004-02-01

    The efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and RFA with concurrent ethanol injection (EI-RFA) was compared. RFA (3-cm-electrode) was applied to bovine liver using three types of RFA equipment; Radionics, RITA and Radio Therapeutics Corporation (RTC). For EI-RFA, 5 ml of 99.5% ethanol was injected around the electrode. A total number of 40 RFA and EI-RFA treatments were performed. We compared RFA with EI-RFA by examining the size, shape of ablation zone, treatment time, power, and needle tip temperature. Liver specimens were examined for pathological changes. EI-RFA produced a larger zone of ablation than RFA alone using Radionics and RITA (Radionics, 35.3+/-7.4 cm(3) vs 23.2+/-7.7 cm(3), p<0.05; RITA, 30.7+/-10.3 cm(3) vs 19.7+/-4.7 cm(3), p<0.05), corresponding to shortest diameters of coagulation zone (Radionics, 3.7+/-0.4 cm vs 3.0+/-0.4 cm, p<0.05; RITA, 3.8+/-0.4 cm vs 3.1+/-0.3 cm, p<0.01). However, a larger ablation zone was not seen with the RTC device. The ablated volume per energy and the ablated volume per current density administered were greater with EI-RFA than with RFA using Radionics (p<0.05). The shape of the ablated zone changed from ellipsoid to spherical with EI-RFA using Radionics. No pathological differences between RFA and EI-RFA samples were detected. For a given amount of energy and current administered, ethanol injection caused a better ablation effect, in terms of the size and shape of the ablated zone, than RFA with Radionics and RITA equipment.

  15. MoO3 as combined hole injection layer and tapered spacer in combinatorial multicolor microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.; Xu, Chun; Biswas, Rana; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2011-09-01

    Multicolor microcavity ({mu}C) organic light-emitting diode (OLED) arrays were fabricated simply by controlling the hole injection and spacer MoO{sub 3} layer thickness. The normal emission was tunable from {approx}490 to 640 nm and can be further expanded. A compact, integrated spectrometer with two-dimensional combinatorial arrays of {mu}C OLEDs was realized. The MoO{sub 3} yields more efficient and stable devices, revealing a new breakdown mechanism. The pixel current density reaches {approx}4 A/cm{sup 2} and a maximal normal brightness {approx}140 000 Cd/m{sup 2}, which improves photoluminescence-based sensing and absorption measurements.

  16. Optical sensor based on combined GI/DSPI technique for strain monitoring in crucial points of big engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukaszewski, Dariusz; Sałbut, Leszek; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Malowany, Krzysztof

    2011-05-01

    The data from a monitored structure/object should be easy acquired, processed and sent to the user, who can assess the health of a structure in short time and schedule necessary maintenance in order to prevent accidences. Systems which provide such information are fundamental for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In the paper novel optical sensor designed for in-plane displacement and strain monitoring in crucial points of a big engineering and civil structures is presented. It combines two techniques: Grating Interferometry (GI) and Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI). GI requires specimen grating attached to the surface of an object under test. It is the unique technique which may provide the information about fatigue process and increased residual stresses. DSPI works with a rough object surface but due to differential measurements cannot be simply used for long time monitoring but to explore the actual behavior of a structure. The sensor which combines these techniques provides user with wide possibilities concerning functionality, measuring range, object surface and environmental conditions. The crucial issue in implementation of this sensor is the choice of its location(s) at the investigated structure. Therefore it is proposed to be as one of the elements of hierarchical sensors net, which gives complete information about structure state. As the method for supporting the choice of GI/DSPI sensor location we proposed the system based on 3D digital correlation method. The paper presents mechanical and optical sensor design along with laboratory tests of main component such as sensor heads in form of monolithic (plastic) and cavity waveguides. Finally the possible application of proposed sensor in combination with 3D DIC system is presented.

  17. Management of recurrent inflammatory choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, using combined intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and triamcinolone acetate

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Sivakami A; Hebri, Sudhira P; Lootah, Afra M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) for recurrent inflammatory choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM). It was a prospective interventional study of a young female, who was a known case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. She presented with an inflammatory choroidal neovascualar membrane and signs of panuveitis in the right eye. She underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. She was given intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and IVTA at different sites. There was complete regression of CNVM and ocular inflammation within a week. After six months, she had recurrence of CNVM in the same eye, which was treated similarly. There was a complete resolution of CNVM and ocular inflammation after the combination therapy and systemic steroids, until one year of follow-up. No serious systemic or ocular adverse events were noted. Combination therapy appears to be an effective and safe method in the management of recurrent inflammatory CNVM. PMID:23202396

  18. [Clinical study of Ruiyun procedure for hemorrhoids combined with Xiaozhiling injections in treatment of hemorrhoids complicated with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Hua, Xin; Zhao, Yong; Hu, Minghui; Gou, Fang; Liu, Lin; Cai, Lin; He, Yong; He, Shenghua

    2014-12-01

    To explore the efficacy of Ruiyun procedure for hemorrhoids (RPH) combined with Xiaozhiling injection in the treatment of hemorrhoids complicated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its influence on cellular immune function. Clinical data of 76 hemorrhoid patients, including 36 positive HIV and 40 negative HIV, undergoing RPH combined with Xiaozhiling injections in our center from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical efficacy and cellular immune function preoperative day 1, postoperative day 7, 30 were compared between positive and negative groups. Recurrence rates of positive group and negative group postoperative 6 months were 22.2% (8/36) and 22.5% (9/40), postoperative 1 year were 30.6% (11/36) and 30.0% (12/40) without significant differences (all P>0.05). Morbidity of postoperative complication was also not significantly different between two groups (P>0.05). According to HIV classification, peripheral lymph cell ratio, CD4 count, CD4/CD8, white blood cell count and neutrophil ratio were not significantly different between preoperative day 1 and postoperative day 7 in both groups (all P>0.05). Decreasing velocity and amplitude of CD4 in both groups from high to low was HIV III, HIV II, HIV I, HIV-, while after 30 days the increase of CD4 from high to low was HIV-, HIV I, HIV II, HIV III, which were significantly different as compared to postoperative day 7 (all P<0.05). RPH combined with Xiaozhiling injection in the treatment of hemorrhoids complicated with HIV infection is effective and safe. Postoperative inhibited cellular immune function can recover quickly.

  19. Bioanalysis of the enantiomers of (+/-)-sarin using automated thermal cold-trap injection combined with two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Spruit, H E; Trap, H C; Langenberg, J P; Benschop, H P

    2001-01-01

    A fully automated multidimensional gas chromatographic system with thermal desorption injection and alkali flame detection was developed for analysis of the enantiomers of the nerve agent (+/-)-sarin. The chiral stationary phase was CP Cyclodex B on which the sarin enantiomers were completely resolved. The absolute detection limit was 2.5 pg per enantiomer. The method is intended to be used for the analysis of the sarin enantiomers in biological samples. For this purpose, sarin was isolated from guinea pig blood via solid-phase extraction. Deuterated sarin was used as internal standard. Stabilization of sarin in the blood sample by acidification and addition of an excess of a competitive organophosphorus compound (neopentyl sarin) appeared to be essential. The absolute recovery of the extraction procedure was 60%, whereas the recovery relative to the internal standard was 100%.

  20. Set points, settling points and some alternative models: theoretical options to understand how genes and environments combine to regulate body adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.; Levitsky, David A.; Allison, David B.; Bray, Molly S.; de Castro, John M.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Clapham, John C.; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Gruer, Laurence; Haw, Sally; Hebebrand, Johannes; Hetherington, Marion M.; Higgs, Susanne; Jebb, Susan A.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Luckman, Simon; Luke, Amy; Mohammed-Ali, Vidya; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Pereira, Mark; Perusse, Louis; Robinson, Tom N.; Rolls, Barbara; Symonds, Michael E.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2011-01-01

    The close correspondence between energy intake and expenditure over prolonged time periods, coupled with an apparent protection of the level of body adiposity in the face of perturbations of energy balance, has led to the idea that body fatness is regulated via mechanisms that control intake and energy expenditure. Two models have dominated the discussion of how this regulation might take place. The set point model is rooted in physiology, genetics and molecular biology, and suggests that there is an active feedback mechanism linking adipose tissue (stored energy) to intake and expenditure via a set point, presumably encoded in the brain. This model is consistent with many of the biological aspects of energy balance, but struggles to explain the many significant environmental and social influences on obesity, food intake and physical activity. More importantly, the set point model does not effectively explain the ‘obesity epidemic’ – the large increase in body weight and adiposity of a large proportion of individuals in many countries since the 1980s. An alternative model, called the settling point model, is based on the idea that there is passive feedback between the size of the body stores and aspects of expenditure. This model accommodates many of the social and environmental characteristics of energy balance, but struggles to explain some of the biological and genetic aspects. The shortcomings of these two models reflect their failure to address the gene-by-environment interactions that dominate the regulation of body weight. We discuss two additional models – the general intake model and the dual intervention point model – that address this issue and might offer better ways to understand how body fatness is controlled. PMID:22065844

  1. Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) With Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells as Neo-Adjuvant Treatment of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven E.; Iclozan, Cristina; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Ahmed, Jamil; Noyes, David R.; Cheong, David; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Heysek, Randy V.; Berman, Claudia; Lenox, Brianna C.; Janssen, William; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Antonia, Scott J.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of combination of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) and fractionated external beam radiation (EBRT) on tumor-specific immune responses in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Material: Seventeen patients with large (>5 cm) high-grade STS were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the neoadjuvant setting with 5,040 cGy of EBRT, split into 28 fractions and delivered 5 days per week, combined with intratumoral injection of 10{sup 7} DCs followed by complete resection. DCs were injected on the second, third, and fourth Friday of the treatment cycle. Clinical evaluation and immunological assessments were performed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. No patient had tumor-specific immune responses before combined EBRT/DC therapy; 9 patients (52.9%) developed tumor-specific immune responses, which lasted from 11 to 42 weeks. Twelve of 17 patients (70.6%) were progression free after 1 year. Treatment caused a dramatic accumulation of T cells in the tumor. The presence of CD4{sup +} T cells in the tumor positively correlated with tumor-specific immune responses that developed following combined therapy. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not regulatory T cells negatively correlated with the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Experiments with {sup 111}In labeled DCs demonstrated that these antigen presenting cells need at least 48 h to start migrating from tumor site. Conclusions: Combination of intratumoral DC administration with EBRT was safe and resulted in induction of antitumor immune responses. This suggests that this therapy is promising and needs further testing in clinical trials design to assess clinical efficacy.

  2. Local injection of liposomal bupivacaine combined with intravenous dexamethasone reduces postoperative pain and hospital stay after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Routman, Howard D; Israel, Logan R; Moor, Molly A; Boltuch, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Alternative techniques have been developed to address pain after shoulder arthroplasty and are well documented. We evaluated the effect of adding intraoperative liposomal bupivacaine and intravenous dexamethasone during shoulder arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 2 consecutive cohorts undergoing elective shoulder arthroplasty. The 24 patients in cohort 1 and the 31 patients in cohort 2 received perioperative multimodal management with preoperative and postoperative intravenous and oral narcotics, gabapentin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and single-injection interscalene block. Cohort 2 also received 8 to 10 mg of intravenous dexamethasone intraoperatively after the skin incision and liposomal bupivacaine injected at surgery. Patients who did and did not use preoperative narcotics were analyzed together and separately. We evaluated hospitalization length of stay, narcotic use, and visual analog scale pain before and after the change in the perioperative protocol. Cohort 1 was hospitalized longer (2 vs. 1 day; P < .001), required more narcotics on postoperative day 1 (21.0 vs. 10.0 mg; P < .001) and days 0 and 1 cumulatively (30.5 vs. 17.5 mg; P = .001), and had more pain on postoperative days 0 (6.5 vs. 3.5; P < .001) and 1 (7.5 vs. 3.5; P < .001) than cohort 2. In patients using preoperative narcotics, cohort 2 had less pain on postoperative day 1 (3.5 vs. 7.0; P = .006), less cumulative narcotic use (20 vs. 58.5 mg; P = .03), and shorter hospitalization (1 vs. 2 days; P = .052) than cohort 1. These changes to the perioperative shoulder arthroplasty protocol decreased hospitalization length of stay, narcotic requirement, and pain. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Combination therapy with intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells and articulated joint distraction for repair of a chronic osteochondral defect in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yohei; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Mahmoud, Elhussein Elbadry; Kamei, Goki; Adachi, Nobuo; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated intra-articular injection of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with articulated joint distraction as treatment for osteochondral defects. Large osteochondral defects were created in the weight-bearing area of the medial femoral condyle in rabbit knees. Four weeks after defect creation, rabbits were divided into six groups: control group, MSC group, distraction group, distraction + MSC group, temporary distraction group, and temporary distraction + MSC group. Groups with MSC received intra-articular injection of MSCs. Groups with distraction underwent articulated distraction arthroplasty. Groups with temporary distraction discontinued the distraction after 4 weeks. The rabbits were euthanized at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment except temporary distraction groups which were euthanized at only 12 weeks. Histological scores in the distraction + MSC group were significantly better than in the control, MSC group or distraction group at 4 and 8 weeks, but showed no further improvement. At 12 weeks, the temporary distraction + MSC group showed the best results, demonstrating hyaline cartilage repair with regeneration of the osteochondral junction. In conclusion, joint distraction with intra-articular injection of MSCs promotes early cartilage repair, and compressive loading of the repair tissue after temporary distraction stimulates articular cartilage regeneration. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Removal of Residual Elements in The Steel Ladle by a Combination of Top Slag and Deep Injection Practice

    SciTech Connect

    S. Street; K.S. Coley; G.A. Iron

    2001-08-31

    The objective of this work was to determine if tin could be removed from liquid steel by a combination of deep injection of calcium and a reducing top-slag practice. The work was carried out in three stages: injection of Ca wire into 35 Kg heats in an induction furnace under laboratory condition; a fundamental study of the solubility of Sn in the slag as a function of oxygen potential, temperature and slag composition; and, two full-scale plant trials. During the first stage, it was found that 7 to 50% of the Sn was removed from initial Sn contents of 0.1%, using 8 to 16 Kg of calcium per tonne of steel. The Sn solubility study suggested that low oxygen potential, high basicity of the slag and lower temperature would aid Sn removal by deep injection of Ca in the bath. However, two full-scale trials at the LMF station in Dofasco's plant showed virtually no Sn removal, mainly because of very low Ca consumption rates used (0.5 to 1.1 Kg/tonne vs. 8 to 16 Kg/tonne used during the induction furnace study in the laboratory). Based on the current price of Ca, addition of 8 to 16 Kg/tonne of steel to remove Sn is too cost prohibitive, and therefore, it is not worthwhile to pursue this process further, even though it may be technically feasible.

  5. A simple 96 well microfluidic chip combined with visual and densitometry detection for resource-poor point of care testing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Minghui; Sun, Steven; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2011-03-31

    There is a well-recognized need for low cost biodetection technologies for resource-poor settings with minimal medical infrastructure. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has the ability to perform biological assays in such settings. The aim of this work is to develop a low cost, high-throughput detection system for the analysis of 96 samples simultaneously outside the laboratory setting. To achieve this aim, several biosensing elements were combined: a syringe operated ELISA lab-on-a-chip (ELISA-LOC) which integrates fluid delivery system into a miniature 96-well plate; a simplified non-enzymatic reporter and detection approach using a gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugate as a secondary antibody and silver enhancement of the visual signal; and Carbon nanotubes (CNT) to increase primary antibody immobilization and improve assay sensitivity. Combined, these elements obviate the need for an ELISA washer, electrical power for operation and a sophisticated detector. We demonstrate the use of the device for detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, a major foodborne toxin using three modes of detection, visual detection, CCD camera and document scanner. With visual detection or using a document scanner to measure the signal, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5ng/ml. In addition to visual detection, for precise quantitation of signal using densitometry and a CCD camera, the LOD was 0.1ng/ml for the CCD analysis and 0.5 ng/ml for the document scanner. The observed sensitivity is in the same range as laboratory-based ELISA testing. The point of care device can analyze 96 samples simultaneously, permitting high throughput diagnostics in the field and in resource poor areas without ready access to laboratory facilities or electricity.

  6. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  7. Combined HIV prevention, the New York City condom distribution program, and the evolution of safer sex behavior among persons who inject drugs in New York City.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Arasteh, K; McKnight, C; Feelemyer, J; Hagan, H; Cooper, H L F; Perlman, D C

    2014-03-01

    Examine long term sexual risk behaviors among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City following implementation of "combined" prevention programming, including condom social marketing. Quantitative interviews and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing were conducted among PWID entering Beth Israel Medical Center drug treatment programs 1990-2012. Data were analyzed by four time periods corresponding to the cumulative implementation of HIV prevention interventions. 7,132 subjects were recruited from 1990 to 2012; little change in sexual behavior occurred among HIV seronegative subjects, while HIV seropositive subjects reported significant decreases in being sexually active and significant increases in consistent condom use. HIV transmission risk (being HIV positive and engaging in unprotected sex) declined from 14 % in 1990-1995 to 2 % in 2007-2012 for primary sexual partners and from 6 to 1 % for casual partners. Cumulative implementation of combined prevention programming for PWID was associated with substantial decreases in sexual risk behavior among HIV seropositives.

  8. Color Doppler ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A injection combined with an ankle foot brace for treating lower limb spasticity after a stroke.

    PubMed

    Ding, X-D; Zhang, G-B; Chen, H-X; Wang, W; Song, J-H; Fu, D-G

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of the color Doppler ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection combined with an ankle foot brace (AFO) for treating lower limb spasticity after a stroke. A total of 103 post-stroke patients with lower limb spasticity were divided into three groups: the control group treated with conventional therapy and rehabilitation training, the observation group treated with conventional therapy, rehabilitation training and botulinum toxin type A injection, the treatment group treated with AFO plus the same treatment received by the observation group. The muscle spasms were evaluated using the Clinic Spasticity Influx (CSI), movement with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), dynamic and static balance with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and daily life activities with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), respectively. Compared the first month after treatment with the prior treatment, there were significant differences in CSI, FMA and FIM scores in both control group and the observation group (p < 0.05). However, no differences were noticed in the control group (p > 0.05). Compared the third and sixth month after treatment with prior treatment, there were significant differences in these three groups (p < 0.05). In terms of treatment time, the BBS scores were always higher in all three groups after one month, three months and six months treatment than prior treatment (p < 0.05), and there were significant differences in third month and sixth month after treatment compared with the first month treatment (p < 0.05). Compared the third month after treatment with the sixth month, there were significant differences in all three groups (p < 0.05). The color Doppler ultrasound-guided BTX-A injection combined with AFO can effectively promote patients with post-stroke lower limb spasticity in lower limb muscle spasm, movement, balance and daily life activities.

  9. Effect of Combined Single-Injection Femoral Nerve Block and Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ae-Ryung; Choi, Duck-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Joo; Hahm, Tae-Soo; Kim, Ga-Hyun; Moon, Young-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Total knee replacement is one of the most painful orthopedic procedures, and effective pain relief is essential for early mobility and discharge from hospital. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether addition of single-injection femoral nerve block to epidural analgesia would provide better postoperative pain control, compared to epidural analgesia alone, after total knee replacement. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight patients received a single-injection femoral nerve block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (30 mL) combined with epidural analgesia (femoral nerve block group) and 40 patients received epidural analgesia alone (control group). Pain intensity and volume of patient-controlled epidural analgesia medication and rescue analgesic requirements were measured in the first 48 hours after surgery at three time periods; 0-6 hours, 6-24 hours, and 24-48 hours. Also, side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and pruritus were evaluated. Results Median visual analog scale at rest and movement was significantly lower until 48 hours in the femoral nerve block group. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia volume was significantly lower throughout the study period, however, rescue analgesia requirements were significantly lower only up to 6 hours in the femoral nerve block group. The incidences of nausea and vomiting and rescue antiemetic requirement were significantly lower in the femoral nerve block group up to 6 hours. Conclusion The combination of femoral nerve block with epidural analgesia is an effective pain management regimen in patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement. PMID:21155047

  10. The use of injectable alphaxalone as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea.

    PubMed

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Posner, Lysa P; Stoskopf, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of the injectable anesthetic, alphaxalone, as a single agent and in combination with ketamine, xylazine, and morphine in the Chilean rose tarantula, Grammostola rosea. Between two and four animals were evaluated for each anesthetic protocol, and two unanesthetized animals were evaluated for comparative purposes. Anesthetic duration, depth, and quality were assessed by scoring responses to tactile and trichobothria stimulation, muscle tone, purposeful movement, righting response, and heart rate throughout each anesthetic event. Alphaxalone administered into the dorsal opisthosoma in the location of the heart at 200 mg/kg produced moderate anesthetic effect with a median duration of 28 min (n = 3; range 25-50). A combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of ketamine induced a deep anesthetic state with a median anesthetic duration of 27 min (n = 4; range 16-42). The combination of 200 mg/kg of alphaxalone and 20 mg/kg of xylazine produced deep anesthesia with a median duration of 70 min (n = 4; range 37-207). Morphine administered at 5 mg/kg 30 min prior to injection with 200 mg/kg alphaxalone had anesthetic durations of 9 and 30 min (n = 2). Heartbeats could not be detected for periods of 7-27 min following anesthetic induction for the majority of animals receiving the alphaxalone/ketamine and alphaxalone/xylazine anesthetic combinations. No mortality was associated with any of the anesthetic protocols used; however, ambient temperature and ecdysis were identified as important factors that may alter response to anesthetics in these animals.

  11. Combining Carbon Ion Radiotherapy and Local Injection of {alpha}-Galactosylceramide-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Inhibits Lung Metastases in an In Vivo Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Yu; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Seino, Ken-Ichiro; Nakawatari, Miyako; Wada, Haruka; Kamijuku, Hajime; Nakamura, Etsuko; Nakano, Takashi; Imai, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Our previous report indicated that carbon ion beam irradiation upregulated membrane-associated immunogenic molecules, underlining the potential clinical application of radioimmunotherapy. The antimetastatic efficacy of local combination therapy of carbon ion radiotherapy and immunotherapy was examined by use of an in vivo murine model. Methods and Materials: Tumors of mouse squamous cell carcinoma (NR-S1) cells inoculated in the legs of C3H/HeSlc mice were locally irradiated with a single 6-Gy dose of carbon ions (290 MeV/nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak). Thirty-six hours after irradiation, {alpha}-galactosylceramide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were injected into the leg tumor. We investigated the effects on distant lung metastases by counting the numbers of lung tumor colonies, making pathologic observations, and assessing immunohistochemistry. Results: The mice with no treatment (control) presented with 168 {+-} 53.8 metastatic nodules in the lungs, whereas the mice that received the combination therapy of carbon ion irradiation and DCs presented with 2.6 {+-} 1.9 (P = 0.009) at 2 weeks after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that intracellular adhesion molecule 1, which activates DCs, increased from 6 h to 36 h after irradiation in the local tumors of the carbon ion-irradiated group. The expression of S100A8 in lung tissue, a marker of the lung pre-metastatic phase, was decreased only in the group with a combination of carbon ions and DCs. Conclusions: The combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with the injection of {alpha}-galactosylceramide-pulsed DCs into the primary tumor effectively inhibited distant lung metastases.

  12. 75 FR 33851 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point, Units 6 and 7; Combined License Application, Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Point site. Possible alternatives to the proposed action (issuance of the COLs for the Turkey Point site) include no action, reasonable alternative energy sources, and alternate sites. This notice is...

  13. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Honglei; Lei, Bo; Meng, Shan; Liu, Hailing; Wei, Yongchang; He, Aili; Zhang, Wanggang

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. PMID:27738441

  14. Physicochemical compatibility between ketoprofen lysine salt injections (Artrosilene Fiale) and pharmaceutical products frequently used for combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Anacardio, R; Perilli, O; Bartolini, S; Gentile, M M; Mazzeo, P; Carlucci, G

    2002-01-01

    Ketoprofen lysine salt (Artrosilene Fiale), a non steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, is frequently administered in association regimen with other drugs, such as steroidal anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, local anaesthetic and anti-spastic drugs or vitamins. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical compatibility between ketoprofen lysine salt (Artrosilene Fiale) and other injectable drugs frequently used in association. Physicochemical properties of ketoprofen lysine salt mixtures with different drugs, including colour, clarity, pH and drug content were observed or measured before and after (up to 3 hours) mixing at room temperature and under light protection. Results show that the association of Artrosilene Fiale with different drugs and vitamins does not cause, up to three hours f rom mixing, any significant variation in thephysicochemical parameters mentioned above, except for the association with Benexor B12 where a persistent phase separation occurs. In conclusion the results obtained demonstrated the physicochemical compatibility of Ketoprofen lysine salt (Artrosilene Fiale) with diverse drugs and vitamins, with a single exception.

  15. Motion artifacts in capacitive ECG measurements: reducing the combined effect of DC voltages and capacitance changes using an injection signal.

    PubMed

    Serteyn, A; Vullings, R; Meftah, M; Bergmans, J W M

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive electrodes are a promising alternative to the conventional adhesive electrodes for ECG measurements. They provide more comfort to the patient when integrated in everyday objects (e.g., beds or seats) for long-term monitoring. However, the application of capacitive sensors is limited by their high sensitivity to motion artifacts. For example, motion at the body-electrode interface causes variations of the coupling capacitance which, in the presence of a dc voltage across the coupling capacitor, create strong artifacts in the measurements. The origin, relevance, and reduction of this specific and important type of artifacts are studied here. An injection signal is exploited to track the variations of the coupling capacitance in real time. This information is then used by an identification scheme to estimate the artifacts and subtract them from the measurements. The method was evaluated in simulations, lab environments, and in a real-life recording on an adult's chest. For the type of artifact under study, a strong artifact reduction ranging from 40 dB for simulated data to 9 dB for a given real-life recording was achieved. The proposed method is automated, does not require any knowledge about the measurement system parameters, and provides an online estimate for the dc voltage across the coupling capacitor.

  16. Sensitive determination of gentiopicroside in medicine and bio-fluids using luminol-myoglobin chemiluminescence combined with flow injection technique.

    PubMed

    He, Xili; Xie, Xiaofeng; Shao, Xiaodong; Song, Zhenghua

    2010-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of gentiopicroside is presented, which was based on the inhibitory effect of gentiopicroside on the chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and myoglobin in a flow-injection system. The decrement of chemiluminescence intensity was linear with the logarithm of gentiopicroside concentration over the range from 10.0 pg mL(-1) to 500.0 ng mL(-1) (r(2) = 0.9992), with a detection limit of 3.0 pg mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), a complete analytical process could be performed within 0.5 min, including sampling and washing, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.0% (n = 5). The proposed procedure was applied successfully in the determination of gentiopicroside in pharmaceutical preparations, human urine and serum without any pretreatment procedure. The possible mechanism of the reaction was also discussed.

  17. Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point to catchment scale in a lowland stream: combining hydraulic and tracer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, J. B.; Sebok, E.; Duque, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Engesgaard, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Detecting, quantifying, and understanding groundwater discharge to streams are crucial for the assessment of water, nutrient and contaminant exchange at the surface water-groundwater interface. In lowland agricultural catchments with significant groundwater discharge this is of particular importance because of the risk of excess leaching of nutrients to streams. Here we aim to combine hydraulic and tracer methods from point to catchment scale to assess the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge in a lowland, groundwater gaining stream in Denmark. At the point scale groundwater fluxes to the stream were quantified based on Vertical streambed Temperature Profiles (VTP). At the reach scale (0.15-2 km) the spatial distribution of zones of focused groundwater discharge was investigated by the use of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). Groundwater discharge to the stream was quantified using differential gauging with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). At the catchment scale (26-114 km2) runoff sources during main rain events were investigated by hydrograph separations based on Electrical Conductivity (EC) and stable isotopes 2H / 1H. Clear differences in runoff sources between catchments were detected, ranging from approximately 65% event water for the most responsive sub-catchment and less than 10% event water for the least responsive sub-catchment. This shows a large variability in groundwater discharge to the stream, despite the similar lowland characteristics of sub-catchments, indicating the usefulness of environmental tracers for obtaining information about integrated catchment functioning during events. There were also clear spatial patterns of focused groundwater discharge detected by the DTS and ADCP measurements at the reach scale suggesting high spatial variability, where a significant part of groundwater discharge was concentrated in few zones indicating the possibility of concentrated nutrient or pollutant transport-zones from

  18. Detecting groundwater discharge dynamics from point-to-catchment scale in a lowland stream: combining hydraulic and tracer methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, J. R.; Sebok, E.; Duque, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Engesgaard, P. K.

    2015-04-01

    Detecting, quantifying and understanding groundwater discharge to streams are crucial for the assessment of water, nutrient and contaminant exchange at the groundwater-surface water interface. In lowland agricultural catchments with significant groundwater discharge this is of particular importance because of the risk of excess leaching of nutrients to streams. Here we aim to combine hydraulic and tracer methods from point-to-catchment scale to assess the temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge in a lowland, groundwater gaining stream in Denmark. At the point-scale, groundwater fluxes to the stream were quantified based on vertical streambed temperature profiles (VTPs). At the reach scale (0.15-2 km), the spatial distribution of zones of focused groundwater discharge was investigated by the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS). Groundwater discharge to the stream was quantified using differential gauging with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). At the catchment scale (26-114 km2), runoff sources during main rain events were investigated by hydrograph separations based on electrical conductivity (EC) and stable isotopes 2H/1H. Clear differences in runoff sources between catchments were detected, ranging from approximately 65% event water for the most responsive sub-catchment to less than 10% event water for the least responsive sub-catchment. This was supported by the groundwater head gradients, where the location of weaker gradients correlated with a stronger response to precipitation events. This shows a large variability in groundwater discharge to the stream, despite the similar lowland characteristics of sub-catchments indicating the usefulness of environmental tracers for obtaining information about integrated catchment functioning during precipitation events. There were also clear spatial patterns of focused groundwater discharge detected by the DTS and ADCP measurements at the reach scale indicating high spatial variability

  19. Fabrication and assembling of a microfluidic optical stretcher polymeric chip combining femtosecond laser and micro injection molding technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Annalisa; Ancona, Antonio; Trotta, Gianluca; Martínez Vázquez, Rebeca; Fassi, Irene; Osellame, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Microfluidic optical stretchers are valuable optofluidic devices for studying single cell mechanical properties. These usually consist of a single microfluidic channel where cells, with dimensions ranging from 5 to 20 μm are trapped and manipulated through optical forces induced by two counter-propagating laser beams. Recently, monolithic optical stretchers have been directly fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser micromachining (FLM). Such a technology allows writing in a single step in the substrate volume both the microfluidic channel and the optical waveguides with a high degree of precision and flexibility. However, this method is very slow and cannot be applied to cheaper materials like polymers. Therefore, novel technological platforms are needed to boost the production of such devices on a mass scale. In this work, we propose integration of FLM with micro-injection moulding (μIM) as a novel route towards the cost-effective and flexible manufacturing of polymeric Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices. In particular, we have fabricated and assembled a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic optical stretcher by exploiting firstly FLM to manufacture a metallic mould prototype with reconfigurable inserts. Afterwards, such mould was employed for the production, through μIM, of the two PMMA thin plates composing the device. The microchannel with reservoirs and lodgings for the optical fibers delivering the laser radiation for cell trapping were reproduced on one plate, while the other included access holes to the channel. The device was assembled by direct fs-laser welding, ensuring sealing of the channel and avoiding thermal deformation and/or contamination.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Single Botulinum Toxin Type A (Botox®) Injection for Relief of Upper Trapezius Myofascial Trigger Point: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kwanchuay, Photsawee; Petchnumsin, Thavatchai; Yiemsiri, Pichet; Pasuk, Nakkamol; Srikanok, Wannarat; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injection has been applied for pain relief in various chronic pain syndromes. Recently, systematic review studies reported inconclusive effects of Botulinum toxin in myofascial pain management. The present study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin type A (BTxA) (Botox®) injection for pain reduction in myofascial trigger point (MTrP) of the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-three patients with 48 MTrP on the upper trapezius muscles over three months with moderate to severe pain intensity diagnosed at physical medicine and rehabilitation outpatient department were recruited between December 2011 and March 2012. Eligible patients were blinded and randomly injected with single 0.2 ml (20 IU) of BTxA for 24 MTrP and 0.2 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution for 24 MTrP at the most tender trigger point on the upper trapezius muscle. All patients were advised for stretching exercise and ergonomic adaptation throughout the study. At 3- and 6-week after injections, visual analogue scale (VAS), the pressure pain threshold (PPT), and reported adverse effects were measured. Both BTxA and control groups demonstrated statistically significant differences in VAS reduction and increased PPT after 3 weeks and 6 weeks compared with before treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in VAS reduction from baseline between the two groups at 3- and 6-week after treatment. A statistically significant difference in improvement of PPT from baseline and 6-week after BTxA injection compared with 0.9% NaCl group was shown (1.0 ± 0.9 and 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.036). There was mild degree side-effects that spontaneous resolved within one week in both groups without significant difference in percentage. No severe adverse effects were reported during the study. The efficacy in VAS reduction of a single 20 IU of Botulinum toxin type A (Botox®) injection was not different from 0.9% NaCl for myofascial trigger point at the upper trapezius muscle. However

  1. Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Bertel; Tzovolou, Dimitra; Jeczalik, Maciej; Kasela, Tomasz; Slack, William; Klint, Knud E; Haeseler, Frank; Tsakiroglou, Christos D

    2011-03-01

    A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency. The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼ 43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼ 72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples. The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table.

  2. Safety assessment and therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous microwave ablation therapy combined with percutaneous ethanol injection for hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiao-ling; Cheng, Zhi-gang; Han, Zhi-yu; Yu, Jie; Liu, Fang-yi

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation combined with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) to treat liver tumours adjacent to the gallbladder. A total of 136 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to the gallbladder, who underwent ultra-sonographically-guided percutaneous MW ablation, which was combined with PEI in 132 patients, were retrospectively assessed. The patient population characteristics, tumour features, local tumour progression and treatment were compared and analysed. The safety and efficacy of the therapy were assessed by clinical data and imaging in follow-up examinations. All patients were completely treated with two sessions; 120 patients underwent one session, 16 patients underwent two sessions. The primary technique was effective in 95.6% of the cases, according to the computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the one-month follow-up (132 of 138 sessions). PEI and other therapies were performed in the patients who had been incompletely treated (all six patients underwent PEI, and some underwent other therapies, including one transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE), one liver transplantation and two liver resections). There was a median follow-up period of 30.1 months and a range of 4 to 68 months. None of the patients had major complications. There were no treatment-related deaths. Twenty-six patients died of primary disease progression that was not directly attributable to MW ablation (19.1%, 26/136). Local tumour progression was noted in five patients (3.7%, 5/136), who had completely ablated tumours at follow-up. The patients with locally progressing tumours underwent additional therapy (three patients underwent PEI, one patient TACE, and one liver resection). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous MW ablation, in combination with percutaneous ethanol injection and thermal monitoring, is a safe and effective treatment for

  3. Combining Injectable Plasma Scaffold with Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells for Repairing Infarct Cavity after Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxia; Sun, Fen; Wang, Jixian; Xie, Luokun; Yang, Chenqi; Pan, Mengxiong; Shao, Bei; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Yang, Shao-Hua; ZhuGe, Qichuan; Jin, Kunlin

    2017-01-01

    Stroke survivors are typically left with structural brain damage and associated functional impairment in the chronic phase of injury, for which few therapeutic options exist. We reported previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem cells together with Matrigel scaffolding into the brains of rats after focal ischemia reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral performance. Matrigel is a gelatinous protein mixture extracted from mouse sarcoma cells, thus would not be approved for use as a scaffold clinically. In this study, we generated a gel-like scaffold from plasma that was controlled by changing the concentration of CaCl2. In vitro study confirmed that 10-20 mM CaCl2 and 10-40% plasma did not affect the viability and proliferation of human and rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs). We transplanted plasma scaffold in combination of BMSCs into the cystic cavity after focal cerebral ischemia, and found that the atrophy volume was dramatically reduced and motor function was significantly improved in the group transplanted with scaffold/BMSCs compared with the groups treated with vehicle, scaffold or BMSCs only. Our data suggest that plasma-derived scaffold in combination of BMSCs is feasible for tissue engineering approach for the stroke treatment. PMID:28400986

  4. Partial lateral internal sphincterotomy versus combined botulinum toxin A injection and topical diltiazem in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gandomkar, Hossein; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; Amoli, Hadi Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and complications associated with combined topical diltiazem cream and botulinum toxin A injection versus partial lateral internal sphincterotomy in chronic anal fissure. This study is a parallel, randomized controlled trial (using the block randomization method). This study was performed at a university hospital in Iran. Ninety-nine patients who had chronic anal fissures were included. A total of 99 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups; the first group received combined topical diltiazem ointment (for 6 weeks) and botulinum toxin A injection (once) (n = 49), and the second group received partial lateral internal sphincterotomy (n = 50). All the patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary outcomes measured were the healing of the anal fissure and the development of incontinence as the major adverse event during the 1-year follow-up period. The overall healing rate was 65% and 94% in the botulinum toxin A-diltiazem and partial lateral internal sphincterotomy groups (p < 0.001). The patients in the partial lateral internal sphincterotomy group experienced significantly higher incontinence scores (p = 0.04) according to the Cleveland Clinic Florida-Fecal Incontinence scoring system. In patients who had chronic anal fissure for ≤12 months, no statistical difference was observed in the healing rate between the botulinum toxin A-diltiazem and partial lateral internal sphincterotomy groups (100% vs 100%). However, in the patients with longer chronic fissures, the healing rate was significantly higher in the partial lateral internal sphincterotomy group (86% [18/21] vs 23% [5/21], p < 0.001). The 1-year follow-up period, subjective definitions of itching, and lack of anorectal manometry examinations and data regarding the effect of each treatment on anal sphincter pressure at rest and contraction are the key limitations of this study. Combined botulinum toxin A injection with a topical application of

  5. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n=10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  6. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  7. Drug-protein binding of Danhong injection and the potential influence of drug combination with aspirin: Insight by ultrafiltration LC-MS and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yi, Xiaojiao; Huang, Peng; Chen, Shuqing; Wu, Yongjiang

    2017-02-05

    Danhong injection (DHI) is a widely used Chinese medicine injection (CMI) for the clinical treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this study, a simple and efficient in vitro method based on ultrafiltration LC-MS and molecular modeling has been developed to study the human serum albumin (HSA) binding of the compounds in DHI. Seven major components including protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, salvianolic acid D, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid E, lithospermic acid and salvianolic acid B were identified as HSA ligands and their binding degrees in the proposed non-saturated model were 26.17, 37.69, 99.77, 91.78, 96.91, 99.42 and 98.10%, respectively. Considering the drug-HSA binding property of the compounds in DHI may change during drug combination therapy, competitive binding assay was carried out to evaluate the influence of aspirin on the DHI-HSA binding. Experimental results revealed that the salvianolic acids in DHI had stronger binding ability to HSA than sodium salicylate. To further verify the results above, molecular modeling and probe displacement assay were conducted to investigate the optimum binding site and binding affinity of the ligands on HSA. Our findings suggested that the established method could be a powerful tool to study the drug-HSA binding property of CMIs.

  8. Long-term administration of Wilms tumor-1 peptide vaccine in combination with gemcitabine causes severe local skin inflammation at injection sites.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Atsuko; Morita-Hoshi, Yuriko; Kaida, Miho; Wakeda, Takako; Yamaki, Yuni; Kojima, Yasushi; Ueno, Hideki; Kondo, Shunsuke; Morizane, Chigusa; Ikeda, Masafumi; Okusaka, Takuji; Heike, Yuji

    2010-12-01

    The skin toxicity of vaccine therapy at injection sites is generally limited to Grades 1-2 due to the nature of their function. We experienced two cases of severe and prolonged local adverse effects in 25 patients following a Phase I study of gemcitabine and Wilms tumor-1 peptide vaccine mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for inoperable pancreatic or biliary tract cancer. These patients requested to continue the treatment after the study period; however, in the course of compassionate use, they developed unacceptable local skin reactions and terminated their vaccine treatment. One patient (human leukocyte antigen, A0201, 3 mg) developed Grade 3 ulceration at the 10th vaccination and another (human leukocyte antigen, A2402, 1 mg) developed Grade 2 indulation and fibrosis at the 16th vaccination. Skin toxicity occurred at 6.4-8.4 months and continued for several months after the final vaccination during gemcitabine treatment. In these cases, activation or induction of Wilms tumor-1-specific T lymphocytes was not apparent in the peripheral blood despite their severe local reactions. Therefore, we need to monitor patients for late-onset, severe and long-lasting skin reactions at injection sites in Wilms tumor-1 cancer vaccine therapy, particularly for combination treatment with gemcitabine.

  9. Determination of phenol at ng l -1 level by flow-injection chemiluminescence combined with on-line solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Huili; Lv, Jiagen; Li, Baoxin

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, a simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system combined with on-line solid-phase extraction is presented to determine phenol. This method is based on the enhancement effect of phenol on the luminol-K 3Fe(CN) 6 CL system. The solid-phase extraction promised the high sensitivity and improved selectivity of CL detection. With the calibration range from 4.7 ng l -1 to 470 ng l -1 phenol concentration, the proposed method was applied to analyzing phenol in water samples and the obtained results were validated by the standard method. The detection limit was determined as 0.66 ng l -1. The relative standard deviation was 1.5% for determining 4.7 ng l -1 phenol standard ( n = 7).

  10. Combined HIV Prevention, the New York City Condom Distribution Program, and the Evolution of Safer Sex Behavior among Persons who Inject Drugs in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D.C.; Arasteh, K.; Mcknight, C; Feelemyer, J.; Hagan, H.; Cooper, H. L. F.; Perlman, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine long term sexual risk behaviors among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in New York City following implementation of “combined” prevention programming, including condom social marketing. Methods Qualitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among PWID entering Beth Israel Medical Center drug treatment programs 1990–2012. Data were analyzed by four time periods corresponding to the cumulative implementation of HIV prevention interventions. Results 7132 subjects were recruited from 1990–2012; little change in sexual behavior occurred among HIV seronegative subjects, while HIV seropositive subjects reported significant decreases in being sexually active and significant increases in consistent condom use. HIV transmission risk (being HIV positive and engaging in unprotected sex) declined from 14% in 1990–1995 to 2% in 2007–2012 for primary sexual partners and from 6% to 1% for casual partners. Conclusions Cumulative implementation of combined prevention programming for PWID was associated with substantial decreases in sexual risk behavior among HIV seropositives. PMID:24271348

  11. A new strategy to tackle severe knee osteoarthritis: Combination of intra-articular and intraosseous injections of Platelet Rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, Eduardo; Delgado, Diego; Sanchez, Peio; Prado, Roberto; Goiriena, Juan Jose; Prosper, Felipe; Orive, Gorka; Padilla, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a mechanically induced, cytokine and enzyme-mediated disorder involving all the joint tissue of the knee. Rebuilding a physiological-homeostatic network at the tissue level following knee organ failure, such as in severe KOA, is a daunting task with therapeutic targets encompassing the articular cartilage, synovium and subchondral bone. Intraarticular infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors (PRP) has emerged as a promising symptomatic approach, although it is insufficient to reach the subchondral bone. This review addresses current molecular and cellular data in joint homeostasis and osteoarthritis pathophysiology. In particular, it focuses on changes that subchondral bone undergoes in knee osteoarthritis and evaluates recent observations on the crosstalk among articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovial membrane. In addition, we review some mechanistic aspects that have been proposed and provide the rationale for using PRP intraosseously in KOA. The knee joint is a paradigm of autonomy and connectedness of its anatomical structures and tissues from which it is made. We propose an innovative approach to the treatment of severe knee osteoarthritis consisting of a combination of intraarticular and intraosseous infiltrations of PRP, which might offer a new therapeutic tool in KOA therapy.

  12. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  13. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  14. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  15. Dressings combined with injection of meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Alireza; Talaee, Rezvan; Rahshenas, Makan; Khamesipour, Ali; Mehryan, Pedram; Tehrani, Sepideh; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected infectious disease and a major health problem in several developing countries. Despite some reasonable explanation for their potential benefits, there is only trace evidence regarding the role of dressings in the treatment of CL. This randomized, assessor-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in an endemic area for CL caused by Leishmania major in Iran to assess the efficacy of administration of weekly intralesional meglumine antimoniate (i.l.MA) either alone or combined with application of a silver or a non-silver polyester dressing on their lesions for 6 weeks. After screening of 241 patients with CL lesions, 83 eligible patients with 158 lesions were randomly allocated in three arms of the study. Eligibility criteria included parasitologically confirmed CL, age of 12 to 60 years; willingness to participate, duration of lesion<3 months, number of lesions<5, largest ulcer diameter<5 cm. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome was absolute risk reduction (ARR) based on the proportion of complete healing, which was defined as more than 75% reduction in the size of the lesion compared with baseline in each group at the termination of treatment and 1 month later. ARR (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was 5.98% (-7.07% to 20.25%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was -0.23% (-13.53% to 14.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was -6.21%(-18.28% to 6.52%) after 6 weeks of treatment. ARR (95% CI) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was -2.22% (-22.12% to 18.10%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 3.64% (-15.36% to 22.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 5.86% (-12.86% to 24.31%) 1 month later. It could not be demonstrated that the efficacy of i.l.MA was improved by either dressing. Iranian Registry of

  16. Dressings Combined with Injection of Meglumine Antimoniate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Alireza; Talaee, Rezvan; Rahshenas, Makan; Khamesipour, Ali; Mehryan, Pedram; Tehrani, Sepideh; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected infectious disease and a major health problem in several developing countries. Despite some reasonable explanation for their potential benefits, there is only trace evidence regarding the role of dressings in the treatment of CL. Methods This randomized, assessor-blind, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in an endemic area for CL caused by Leishmania major in Iran to assess the efficacy of administration of weekly intralesional meglumine antimoniate (i.l.MA) either alone or combined with application of a silver or a non-silver polyester dressing on their lesions for 6 weeks. After screening of 241 patients with CL lesions, 83 eligible patients with 158 lesions were randomly allocated in three arms of the study. Eligibility criteria included parasitologically confirmed CL, age of 12 to 60 years; willingness to participate, duration of lesion<3 months, number of lesions<5, largest ulcer diameter<5 cm. Pregnant or lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome was absolute risk reduction (ARR) based on the proportion of complete healing, which was defined as more than 75% reduction in the size of the lesion compared with baseline in each group at the termination of treatment and 1 month later. Findings ARR (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was 5.98% (−7.07% to 20.25%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −0.23% (−13.53% to 14.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was −6.21%(−18.28% to 6.52%) after 6 weeks of treatment. ARR (95% CI) in i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+non-silver dressing groups was −2.22% (−22.12% to 18.10%), between i.l.MA versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 3.64% (−15.36% to 22.82%), and between i.l.MA+non-silver dressing versus i.l.MA+silver dressing groups was 5.86% (−12.86% to 24.31%) 1 month later. Conclusion It could not be demonstrated that the efficacy of i

  17. Image mosaic based on the camera self-calibration of combining two vanishing points and pure rotational motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Shaoli; Zang, Huaping; Zhang, Xiaofang; Gong, Qiaoxia; Tian, Yongzhi; Wang, Junqiao; Liang, Erjun; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Shujun

    2016-10-01

    Camera calibration is one of the indispensable processes to obtain 3D depth information from 2D images in the field of computer vision. Camera self-calibration is more convenient and flexible, especially in the application of large depth of fields, wide fields of view, and scene conversion, as well as other occasions like zooms. In this paper, two selfcalibration methods respectively based on two vanishing points and homography are studied, and finally realizing the image mosaic based on self-calibration of the camera purely rotating around optical center. The geometric characteristic of disappear points formed by two groups of orthogonal parallel lines is applied to self-calibration based on two vanishing points. By using the vectors' orthogonal properties of connection optical centers and the vanishing points, the constraint equations on the camera intrinsic parameters are established. By this method, four internal parameters of the camera can be solved though only four images taked from different viewpoints in a scene. Compared with the other selfcalibration based on homography, the method based on two vanishing points has more convenient calibration process and simple algorithm. To check the quality of the self-calibration, we create a spherical mosaic of the images that were used for the self-calibration based on homography. Compared with the experimental results of two methods respectively based on calibration plate and self-calibration method using machine vision software Halcon, the practicability and effectiveness of self-calibration respectively based on two vanishing points and homography is verified.

  18. The Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Compound Kushen Injection Combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Update Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao; Li, Rui-Sheng; Wang, Jian; Huang, Yin-Qiu; Li, Peng-Yan; Wang, Ji; Su, Hai-Bin; Wang, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Liu, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Cong-En; Ma, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is a Chinese patent medicine approved by the China Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various types of solid tumors. CKI, combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), is believed to increase the therapeutic efficacy of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report an updated and extended meta-analysis with detailed outcomes of both the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CKI combined with TACE therapy. Materials and methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Wanfang, the VIP medicine information system (VMIS) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were examined for relevant articles before November 13, 2015. An odds ratio (OR) was used to estimate tumor response (TR), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) improvement, Child-Pugh (CP) improvement, survival rate (SR) and AEs. A publication bias and a subgroup analysis were also assessed. Results: Eighteen studies, with a total of 1,338 HCC patients who met the criteria for the meta-analysis, were included. TR, KPS improvement and CP improvement were significantly enhanced for the combination therapy compared to TACE alone (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: [1.46, 2.33], P < 0.00001; OR = 2.37, 95% CI: [1.76, 3.18], P < 0.00001; OR = 1.81, 95% CI: [1.08, 3.03], P = 0.02, respectively). The combination therapy was associated with an improvement in 1-year and 2-year SRs but not an improved 3-year SR (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: [1.59, 3.62], P < 0.0001; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [1.24, 5.00], P = 0.01; OR = 2.49, 95% CI: [0.94, 6.61], P = 0.07, respectively). A safety analysis indicated that AEs (including nausea/vomiting, fever, hepatalgia, increased transaminase, increased bilirubin and leukopenia) were reduced for the combination treatment compared to TACE alone. Conclusion: The combination treatment of TACE and CKI was associated with improved TR, KPS and CP improvement and improved

  19. Study of hydrocarbon miscible solvent slug injection process for improved recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    Alaska is the second largest oil producing state in the nation and currently contributes nearly 24% of the nations oil production. It is imperative that Alaskan heavy oil fields be brought into production. Schrader Bluff reservoir, located in the Milne Point Unit, which is part of the heavy oil field known as West Sak is estimated to contain 1.5 billion barrels of (14 to 21 degree API) oil-in-place. The field is currently under production by primary depletion. The eventual implementation of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques will be vital for the recovery of additional oil from this reservoir. The availability of hydrocarbon gases (solvents) on the Alaska North Slope make the hydrocarbon miscible solvent injection process an important consideration for the EOR project in Schrader Bluff reservoir. Since Schrader Bluff oil is heavy and viscous, a water-alternating-gas (WAG) type of process for oil recovery is appropriate since such a process tends to derive synergetic benefits from both water injection (which provides mobility control and improvement in sweep efficiency) and miscible gas injection (which provides improved displacement efficiency). A miscible solvent slug injection process rather than continuous solvent injection is considered appropriate. Slim tube displacement studies, PVT data and asphaltene precipitation studies are needed for Schrader bluff heavy oil to define possible hydrocarbon solvent suitable for miscible solvent slug displacement process. Coreflood experiments are also needed to determine the effect of solvent slug size, WAG ratio and solvent composition on the recovery and solvent breakthrough. A compositional reservoir simulation study will be conducted later to evaluate the complete performance of the hydrocarbon solvent slug process and to assess the feasibility of this process for improving recovery of heavy oil from Schrader Bluff reservoir.

  20. Point Cloud Classification of Tesserae from Terrestrial Laser Data Combined with Dense Image Matching for Archaeological Information Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2017-08-01

    Reasoning from information extraction given by point cloud data mining allows contextual adaptation and fast decision making. However, to achieve this perceptive level, a point cloud must be semantically rich, retaining relevant information for the end user. This paper presents an automatic knowledge-based method for pre-processing multi-sensory data and classifying a hybrid point cloud from both terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching. Using 18 features including sensor's biased data, each tessera in the high-density point cloud from the 3D captured complex mosaics of Germigny-des-prés (France) is segmented via a colour multi-scale abstraction-based featuring extracting connectivity. A 2D surface and outline polygon of each tessera is generated by a RANSAC plane extraction and convex hull fitting. Knowledge is then used to classify every tesserae based on their size, surface, shape, material properties and their neighbour's class. The detection and semantic enrichment method shows promising results of 94% correct semantization, a first step toward the creation of an archaeological smart point cloud.

  1. Combining radiofrequency ablation and ethanol injection may achieve comparable long-term outcomes in larger hepatocellular carcinoma (3.1-4 cm) and in high-risk locations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Wei; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is more effective for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) < 3 cm. Combining percutaneous ethanol injection and RFA for HCC can increase ablation; however, the long-term outcome remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes between patients with HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations after combination therapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was local tumor progression (LTP). Fifty-four consecutive patients with 72 tumors were enrolled. Twenty-two (30.6%) tumors and 60 (83.3%) tumors were of 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk locations, respectively. Primary technique effectiveness was comparable between HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm (98% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.521), and HCC in non-high risk and high-risk locations (100% vs. 96.7%, p = 1.000). The cumulative survival rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 90.3%, 78.9%, and 60.3%, respectively, in patients with HCC of 2-3 cm; 95.0%, 84.4%, and 69.3% in HCC of 3.1-4.0 cm (p = 0.397); 90.0%, 71.1%, and 71.1% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 92.7%, 81.6%, and 65.4% in high-risk locations (p = 0.979). The cumulative LTP rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 10.2%, 32.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in all HCCs; 12.6%, 33.9%, and 33.9% in HCC of 2-3 cm; 4.8%, 29.5%, and 29.5% in HCC of 3.1-4 cm (p = 0.616); 16.7%, 50.0%, and 50.0% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 8.8%, 29.9%, and 29.9% in patients with HCC in high-risk locations (p = 0.283). The cumulative survival and LTP rates were not significantly different among the various subgroups. Combining RFA and percutaneous ethanol injection achieved comparable long-term outcomes in HCCs of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4.0 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations. A randomized controlled or cohort studies with larger sample size are warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    applicability to this phase of environmen- tal control in the gasification/combined cycle system: • Physical Solvent Processes : - Rectisol - Selexol ...at SPNC 1-9 1.3 Coal Availability 1-22 1.4 References 1-24 2.0 GASIFICATION PROCESSES 2-1 2.1 General Processes 2-2 1 2.2 Commercially Available...Gasifiers 2-14 2.3 Process Comparisons 2-18 1 2.4 References 2-31 3.0 COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE 3-1 3.1 Combined Cycle Configuration 3-1 3.2 Cycle

  3. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  4. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  5. Indocyanine green angiography-guided laser photocoagulation combined with sub-Tenon's capsule injection of triamcinolone acetonide for idiopathic macular telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshio; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Usui, Yoshimi; Nozaki, Miho; Ogura, Yuichiro

    2010-05-01

    AIMS Type 2 (perifoveal) telangiectasia often is refractory to treatment, because focal targets such as aneurysms are not detected by fluorescein angiography (FA) in these eyes. The authors evaluated the efficacy of indocyanine green angiography (IA)-guided laser photocoagulation and sub-Tenon's capsule injection of triamcinolone acetonide (STTA) for idiopathic macular telangiectasia. METHODS Seven eyes (seven patients; mean age, 72 years) were enrolled, five eyes with type 1 and two eyes with type 2. The mean follow-up was 10.6 months (range 7 to 19). FA and IA were performed with the Heidelberg Retina Angiogram 2. Laser photocoagulation was applied to leaky vessels detected by late-phase IA (wavelength, 577 nm; power, 100-200 mW; spot size, 100-200 microm; and duration, 0.2 s). STTA (20 mg) was injected after photocoagulation. The central macular thickness and macular volume were measured periodically by optical coherence tomography. The logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) was measured. RESULTS IA identified leaky aneurysms or vessels. The final mean logMAR VA and the central macular thickness improved significantly from baseline (p=0.040, p=0.0002, respectively). The VA improved by 0.3 or more logMAR unit in two eyes (29%) and stabilised in five eyes (71%). No adverse effects were reported throughout follow-up. CONCLUSIONS IA can detect microangiopathy in eyes with idiopathic macular telangiectasia. IA-guided laser photocoagulation combined with STTA might be effective for treating types 1 and 2 idiopathic macular telangiectasia. Further studies are needed to access the efficacy of IA-guided photocoagulation for treating type 2 telangiectasia.

  6. Combined Treatment of Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection with a Multipronged Needle: Experimental and Clinical Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Rinako; Seki, Toshihito Umehara, Hideto; Ikeda, Kozo; Inokuchi, Ryosuke; Asayama, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Yu; Sakao, Masayuki; Lencioni, Riccardo; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) with a multipronged needle for the treatment of large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An experimental animal study and a clinical investigation were performed. Methods: In the experimental study, 20 ml of 99.5% ethanol was injected into porcine liver in vivo with a multipronged needle (n = 5) or a straight needle (n = 5), and the volumes of coagulation necrosis were compared. In the clinical investigation, PEI was performed in 17 patients (10 men, 7 women; mean age 73.4 {+-} 6.7 years) with single, large HCC (mean tumor diameter, 47.2 {+-} 11.5 mm; range, 32-70 mm) by using a multipronged needle. Fifteen of 17 patients received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before PEI. Results: The volume of coagulation in porcine liver in vivo was significantly increased with the multipronged needle compared with the straight needle (longest perpendicular diameters, 34.2 {+-} 3.6 mm Multiplication-Sign 30.2 {+-} 3.6 mm vs. 22.6 {+-} 2.5 mm Multiplication-Sign 19 {+-} 2.2 mm, respectively; P < 0.05). In the clinical trial, initial complete response (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 17 of 17 patients, 7 of whom required two PEI sessions. During the follow-up, local recurrence was detected in 4 of 17 patients at 3-19 months after the procedure, for a rate of sustained local CR of 76%. No major complication occurred. Conclusions: Use of a multipronged needle substantially increases the volume of coagulation in vivo with respect to the conventional PEI technique. Combined TACE and PEI with multipronged needles is a safe and effective option for percutaneous treatment of single, large HCC.

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid, Separately and in Combination, for Hip Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Dante; Stagni, Cesare; Rani, Nicola; Sabbioni, Giacomo; Pelotti, Patrizia; Torricelli, Paola; Tschon, Matilde; Giavaresi, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The effectiveness of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections has been evaluated in knee chondroplasty and osteoarthritis (OA); however, little evidence of its efficacy in hip OA exists. To compare the therapeutic efficacy of autologous PRP, hyaluronic acid (HA), or a combination of both (PRP+HA) in hip OA. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years who were treated with outpatient surgery and who had hip OA and pain intensity at baseline of >20 on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited for this study. Exclusion criteria were extensive surgery; presence of excessive deformities; or rheumatic, infective, cardiovascular, or immune system disorders. The primary outcome measure was a change in pain intensity as assessed by the VAS at 2, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and concentration of growth factors in PRP and their correlation with clinical outcomes. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by assessors and collectors blinded to the type of treatment administered. A total of 111 patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups and received 3 weekly injections of either PRP (44 patients), PRP+HA (31 patients), or HA (36 patients). At all follow-ups, the PRP group had the lowest VAS scores. In particular, at 6-month follow-up, the mean VAS score was 21 (95% CI, 15-28) in the PRP group, 35 (95% CI, 26-45) in the PRP+HA group, and 44 (95% CI, 36-52) in the HA group (P < .0005 [PRP vs HA] and P = .007 [PRP vs PRP+HA]; F = 0.663). The WOMAC score of the PRP group was significantly better at 2-month follow-up (mean, 73; 95% CI, 68-78) and 6-month follow-up (mean, 72; 95% CI, 67-76) but not at 12-month follow-up. A significant, "moderate" correlation was found between interleukin-10 and variations of the VAS score (r = 0.392; P = .040). Significant improvements were achieved in reducing

  8. A Novel Combination Point-of-View (POV) Action Camera Recording to Capture the Surgical Field and Instrument Ergonomics in Oculoplastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Warrian, Kevin J; Ashenhurst, Michael; Gooi, Adrian; Gooi, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate a novel combination head-mounted/chest-mounted point-of-view recording system for oculoplastic surgical procedures. The point-of-view head camera captures the surgical field, while the point-of-view chest camera captures a wide field of view to record instrument ergonomics. Various methods of recording were trialed. The head camera with a narrow field of view was better for recording fine details of the surgical field. The chest camera recording a wide field of view was optimal for recording hand positions. Stereoscopic recording of the instrument ergonomics was helpful in relaying the relative positions of the surgeon's hands and instruments. Point-of-view cameras are cost-effective means of recording oculoplastics procedures. The authors feel simultaneously recording the surgeon's ergonomics and the corresponding instrument movements within the surgical field, from the "surgeon's view", will augment surgical education.

  9. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  10. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  11. Responses to dural puncture during institution of combined spinal-epidural analgesia: a comparison of 27 gauge pencil-point and 27 gauge cutting-edge needles.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A A; Ghatge, S; Armendariz, G; Cornelius, D; Wang, S

    2011-03-01

    Pencil-point spinal needles are popular for combined spinal-epidural analgesia because they cause less dural puncture headache than cutting-edge spinal needles. However many parturients move, grimace, vocalise or experience paraesthesia or dysaesthesia during dural puncture when performing 'needle through needle' combined spinal-epidural analgesia. We compared dural puncture responses induced by pencil-point and cutting-edge needles (both 27 gauge). With institutional approval, 115 parturients presenting for elective caesarean section or labour analgesia were audited. After lignocaine infiltration, a Tuohy-type needle was inserted to loss of resistance to saline at a mid-lumbar interspace, and either a 27 gauge cutting-edge or 27 gauge pencil-point needle was inserted 'needle through needle' through the dura. During dural penetration, the occurrence of patient movement, grimacing or vocalisation was noted by a blinded observer, as was the patient's response to the question "Did you feel that?" asked by the anaesthetist. The audit comprised two similar groups of patients (caesarean section, n=30; labour analgesia, n=85). In both groups, grimacing and movement during thecal penetration occurred more frequently with pencil-point needles (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively). Pooled data analysis revealed that pencil-point and cutting-edge needles induced grimacing and movement in 17 (22%) and 2 (5%), spontaneous vocalisation in 4 (5%) and 1 (3%) and was perceived by 13 (17%) and 3 (8%) parturients (P < 0.025, P=NS, P=NS), respectively. Overall, 34 and 6 objective and subjective patient responses (P < 0.005) occurred when inserting these needles, respectively. Dural puncture by a 27 gauge pencil-point needle inserted 'needle through needle' when instituting combined spinal-epidural analgesia induces more iatrogenic responses than a 27 gauge cutting-edge needle.

  12. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol.

    PubMed

    Conrozier, Thierry; Bozgan, Ana-Maria; Bossert, Marie; Sondag, Maxime; Lohse-Walliser, Anne; Balblanc, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of HAnox-M-XL (4.4 mL), viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL) + mannitol (35 mg/mL), in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0-50) and WOMAC total (0-240) and patient's global assessment (PGA). Patient's self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0-3) and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Mean (SD) age was 60.7 (13.9) years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0). Kellgren-Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8) and 89.9 (42.8), respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were -8.2 (8.9) and -38.4 (35.6), respectively, at month 6 (P = 0.001). PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0) to 3.0 (2.2) (P = 0.006). Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data.

  13. Standardized Follow-up of Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Treated with a Single Intra-articular Injection of a Combination of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid and Mannitol

    PubMed Central

    Conrozier, Thierry; Bozgan, Ana-Maria; Bossert, Marie; Sondag, Maxime; Lohse-Walliser, Anne; Balblanc, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to obtain pilot data from daily practice conditions of a viscosupplement made of a cross-linked high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with mannitol in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS The data of 40 consecutive patients, 29 women and 11 men, who were prospectively followed up for 6 months, using a standardized procedure, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients have received a single intra-articular injection of HAnox-M-XL (4.4 mL), viscosupplement made of a cross-linked HA (16 mg/mL) + mannitol (35 mg/mL), in the target knee. The primary outcome was safety. The secondary end points included 3- and 6-month change in the WOMAC pain (0–50) and WOMAC total (0–240) and patient’s global assessment (PGA). Patient’s self-assessment of treatment efficacy (0–3) and analgesic consumption were obtained at months 3 and 6. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS Mean (SD) age was 60.7 (13.9) years, and mean BMI was 28.6 (5.0). Kellgren–Lawrence radiological grade was I/II and III/IV in 13 and 27 of the subjects, respectively. The average WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores at baseline were 21.5 (9.8) and 89.9 (42.8), respectively. Thirty-nine patients completed the follow-up. HAnox-M-XL was well tolerated; two patients experienced knee pain after injection, which resolved within three days. No treatment-related severe adverse event was reported. Mean (SD) variations in WOMAC pain and WOMAC total scores were −8.2 (8.9) and −38.4 (35.6), respectively, at month 6 (P = 0.001). PGA decreased from 5.5 (2.0) to 3.0 (2.2) (P = 0.006). Efficacy was rated as good or very good in 76.9% of the cases. Most of the regular analgesics users decreased their consumption. CONCLUSION Treatment with one injection of 4.4 mL HAnox-M-XL is effective to alleviate KOA symptoms over six months, without safety concern. Controlled trials are needed to confirm these pilot data. PMID:27688712

  14. [Clinical study of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy treated with massage therapy combined with Magnetic sticking therapy at the auricular points and the cost comparison].

    PubMed

    Wang, Saina; Sheng, Feng; Pan, Yunhua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Zhichao; Cheng, Lei

    2015-08-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy on cervical spondylotic radiculopathy between the combined therapy of massage and magnetic-sticking at the auricular points and the simple massage therapy, and conduct the health economics evaluation. Seventy-two patients of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were randomized into a combined therapy group, and a simple massage group, 36 cases in each one. Finally, 35 cases and 34 cases were met the inclusive criteria in the corresponding groups separately. In the combined therapy group, the massage therapy and the magnetic sticking therapy at auricular points were combined in the treatment. Massage therapy was mainly applied to Fengchi (GB 20), Jianjing (GB 21), Jianwaishu (SI 14), Jianyu (LI 15) and Quchi (LI 11). The main auricular points for magnetic sticking pressure were Jingzhui (AH13), Gan (On12) Shen (CO10), Shenmen (TF4), Pizhixia (AT4). In the simple massage group, the simple massage therapy was given, the massage parts and methods were the same as those in the combined therapy group. The treatment was given once every two days, three times a week, for 4 weeks totally. The cervical spondylosis effect scale and the simplified McGill pain questionnaire were adopted to observe the improvements in the clinical symptoms, clinical examination, daily life movement, superficial muscular pain in the neck and the health economics cost in the patients of the two groups. The effect was evaluated in the two groups. The effective rate and the clinical curative rate in the combined therapy group were better than those in the control group [100. 0% (35/35) vs 85. 3% (29/34), 42. 9% (15/35) vs 17. 6% (6/34), both P<0. 05]. The scores of the spontaneous symptoms, clinical examnation, daily life movement and superficialmuscular pain in the neck were improved apparently after treatment as compared with those before treatment in the patients of the two groups (all P<0. 001). In terms of the improvements in the spontaneous symptoms, clinical

  15. 76 FR 32994 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and Unistar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC; Combined...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Regulatory Commission (NRC) a Combined License (COL) Application for a single unit of AREVA NP's U.S. EPR in... incorporates by reference AREVA NP's application for a Standard Design Certification for the U.S. EPR... detailed review of the CCNPP3 RCOL application, as well as AREVA NP's application for design...

  16. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia. Summary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Commercially Available Environmental 15 Control Processes Exhibit 10 Integrated Combined Cycle Performance Summary 16 Exhibit 11 Integrated Coal...currently available equipment and process technology serves as the basic scheme assessed. I CONCLUSIONS This Summary presents the elements of the study...SELECTED CANDIDATE INDUSTRIES Process Average Potential Potential Energy Electric Oil Net Requirements Demand (kW) Units Savings Enerqy Savings

  17. Does the combination of 3% mepivacaine plain plus 2% lidocaine with epinephrine improve anesthesia and reduce the pain of anesthetic injection for the inferior alveolar nerve block? A prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Emily; Nusstein, John; Reader, Al; Drum, Melissa; Beck, Mike; Fowler, Sara

    2014-09-01

    In theory, using 3% mepivacaine initially for an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block would decrease the pain of injection, provide faster onset, and increase anesthetic success. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with a combination of 3% mepivacaine/2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) versus a combination of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine)/2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) in IAN blocks. Injection pain was also studied. One hundred asymptomatic subjects were randomly given a combination of a 1-cartridge volume of 3% mepivacaine plus a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and a combination of a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine plus a 1-cartridge volume of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for the IAN block at 2 separate appointments. Subjects rated the pain of injection. The molars, premolars, and incisors were tested with an electric pulp tester in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes. Anesthetic success was defined as the subject achieving 2 consecutive 80 readings within 15 minutes after completion of the IAN blocks and sustaining the 80 reading for 60 minutes. Success was not significantly different (P > .05) between the 2 combinations. No statistical differences in injection pain or onset times were found. The combination of 3% mepivacaine plus 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was equivalent to the combination of 2 cartridges of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in terms of injection pain, onset time, and pulpal anesthetic success for the IAN block. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the combination of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping and cation selective exhaustive injection for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles in egg samples.

    PubMed

    Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2016-12-15

    A methodology is presented for the sensitive determination of nitromidazole residues in egg by means of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in combination with cation selective exhaustive injection and ultraviolet detection. Six compounds have been considered and the separation has been achieved in less than 12min in a 61.5-cm effective length capillary with 50-μm internal diameter. Phosphate buffer 44mM pH 2.5, containing 8% tetrahydrofurane and 123mM sodium dodecyl sulfate was employed as running buffer. Solid phase extraction has been employed for sample clean-up. The methodology has been successfully validated in hen eggs, obtaining method detection limits in the range of 2.1-5.0ng/g. Precision was studied in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations lower than 18.0%. Recoveries were calculated in quail eggs and a commercial pasteurized egg white product, reaching over 70% for most of the considered 5-nitroimidazoles.

  19. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  20. Holistic Evaluation of Quality Consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injectables by Quantitative Fingerprinting in Combination with Antioxidant Activity and Chemometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong; Hou, Zhifei; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A widely used herbal medicine, Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injectable (ISHI) was investigated for quality consistency. Characteristic fingerprints of 23 batches of the ISHI samples were generated at five wavelengths and evaluated by the systematic quantitative fingerprint method (SQFM) as well as simultaneous analysis of the content of seven marker compounds. Chemometric methods, i.e., support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to assist in fingerprint evaluation of the ISHI samples. Qualitative classification of the ISHI samples by SVM was consistent with PCA, and in agreement with the quantitative evaluation by SQFM. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the ISHI samples were determined by both the off-line and on-line DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryldrazyl) radical scavenging assays. A fingerprint–efficacy relationship linking the chemical components and in vitro antioxidant activity was established and validated using the partial least squares (PLS) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) models; and the online DPPH assay further revealed those components that had position contribution to the total antioxidant activity. Therefore, the combined use of the chemometric methods, quantitative fingerprint evaluation by SQFM, and multiple marker compound analysis in conjunction with the assay of antioxidant activity provides a powerful and holistic approach to evaluate quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:26872364

  1. [Clinical effects of shen-nourishing and menstruation-regulating method combined with triptorelin acetate injection on patient with luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yan-hua, Chen; Fang, Lian; Shi, Na

    2011-12-01

    To study the clinical effects of Shen-nourishing and menstruation-regulating method (SNMRM) combined with Triptorelin Acetate Injection (TAI) on patients with luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome (LUFS). Sixty-two LUFS patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. TAI was given to patients in the control group while SNMRM + TAI was given to those in the treatment group. The ovulation rate and the pregnancy rate were observed in the two groups. The ovulation rate in the treatment group was higher than that in the control group, but without significant difference (85.53% versus 79.07%, P > 0.05). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (56.25% vs 30.00%, P < 0.05). Treatment of LUFS by SNMRM + TAI could improve the ovulation rate and the pregnancy rate, indicating that LUFS patients' ovary functions could be improved by using different menstruation regulating methods during different follicular development phases.

  2. Combination of high-intensity focused ultrasound irradiation and hydroxyapatite nanoparticle injection to injure normal goat liver tissue in vivo without costal bone incision.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Xiao, Z; Xiao, Y; Wang, Z; Li, F; Li, M; Peng, X

    2014-10-20

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vivo safety of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), to explore how nano-HA might influence the effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on normal liver tissue, and to investigate whether intravenous nano-HA could enhance HIFU for hepatocellular carcinoma ablation in a goat model. The present study, for the first time, indicated that the delivery of abundant nano-HA into the body over short periods of time could be assembled by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system, subsequently leading to a rapid rise of ultrasound-induced overheating, and ultimately resulting in enlargement of the coagulation necrotic area for ablated hepatocellular carcinoma in goats both in vivo and ex vivo. On the other hand, therapeutic doses of nano-HA were much lower than the lethal dose, and consequently presented transient and mild abnormalities of hepatic enzymes and renal function during the first 24 h after nano-HA injection. These results suggested that the combined application of nano-HA and HIFU is potentially a more effective alternative option compared to surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma local ablation in a safe and feasible manner.

  3. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Flunixin Meglumine Combination in an Injectable Solution

    PubMed Central

    Naseef, Hani

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the powerful antimicrobial agent florfenicol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory flunixin meglumine is used for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and control of BRD-associated pyrexia, in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle. This study describes the development and validation of an HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and flunixin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of excipients. The proposed RP-HPLC method was developed by a reversed phase- (RP-) C18e (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at room temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and water mixture, and pH was adjusted to 2.8 using diluted phosphoric acid, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and ultraviolet detection at 268 nm. The stability-indicating method was developed by exposing the drugs to stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and thermal degradation; the obtained degraded products were successfully separated from the APIs. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, LOD, LOQ, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria. PMID:28781907

  4. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Florfenicol and Flunixin Meglumine Combination in an Injectable Solution.

    PubMed

    Batrawi, Nidal; Naseef, Hani; Al-Rimawi, Fuad

    2017-01-01

    The combination of the powerful antimicrobial agent florfenicol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory flunixin meglumine is used for the treatment of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and control of BRD-associated pyrexia, in beef and nonlactating dairy cattle. This study describes the development and validation of an HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol and flunixin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of excipients. The proposed RP-HPLC method was developed by a reversed phase- (RP-) C18e (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at room temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and water mixture, and pH was adjusted to 2.8 using diluted phosphoric acid, a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and ultraviolet detection at 268 nm. The stability-indicating method was developed by exposing the drugs to stress conditions of acid and base hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and thermal degradation; the obtained degraded products were successfully separated from the APIs. This method was validated in accordance with FDA and ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, LOD, LOQ, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria.

  5. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E -2.5 and E -2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  6. Determination of ofloxacin and gatifloxacin by mixed micelle-mediated cloud point extraction-fluorimetry combined methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Zhao, Guo-yan; Du, Li-ming

    2010-05-01

    A cloud point extraction process using mixed micelle of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(7.5)nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5) to extract two fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents, ofloxacin and gatifloxacin, from aqueous media was investigated. The method is based on the mixed micelle-mediated extraction of fluoroquinolones in the presence of NaCl as an inducing agent in phase separation, followed by spectrofluorimetric determination. The effect of different variables such as pH, PONPE7.5 concentration, SDS concentration, NaCl concentration, cloud point temperature, and time was investigated, and optimum conditions were established. At optimum conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.1-150 and 0.1-250 ng mL -1 for ofloxacin and gatifloxacin, and the limits of detection were 0.04 and 0.06 ng mL -1, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied successfully for the detection of the investigated drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms, in spiked plasma, spiked urine, and urine samples, with good precision and accuracy.

  7. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  8. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  9. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  10. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  11. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  12. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  13. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  14. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  15. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  16. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  17. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  19. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  20. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  1. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  3. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  4. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  5. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  8. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  10. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  11. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  12. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  13. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  14. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  15. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  16. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  17. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  19. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  20. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  1. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  2. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  3. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  4. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  5. Exponentially Decelerated Contrast Media Injection Rate Combined With a Novel Patient-Specific Contrast Formula Reduces Contrast Volume Administration and Radiation Dose During Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Saade, Charbel; Mayat, Ahmad; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Matching contrast injection timing with vessel dynamics significantly improves vessel opacification and reduces contrast dose in the assessment of pulmonary embolism during computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography. The aim of this study was to investigate opacification of the pulmonary vasculature (PV) during CT pulmonary angiography using a patient-specific contrast formula (PSCF) and exponentially decelerated contrast media (EDCM) injection rate. Institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed on 200 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism using a 64-channel CT scanner. Patient demographics were equally distributed. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 equal protocol groups: protocol A used a PSCF, and protocol B involved the use of a PSCF combined with EDCM. The mean cross-sectional opacification profile of 8 central and 11 peripheral PVs were measured for each patient, and arteriovenous contrast ratio was calculated. Protocols were compared using Mann-Whitney U nonparametric statistics. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to assess diagnostic efficacy. Interobserver variations were investigated using kappa methods. A number of pulmonary arteries demonstrated increases in opacification (P < 0.02) for protocol B compared with A, whereas opacification in all veins was reduced in protocol B (P < 0.03). Subsequently, increased arteriovenous contrast ratio in protocol B compared with A was observed at all anatomic locations (P < 0.0002). An increase in jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic figure of merit (P < 0.0002) and interobserver variation was observed with protocol B compared with protocol A (κ = 0.3-0.73). Mean contrast volume was reduced in protocol B (29 [4] mL) compared with protocol A (33 [9] mL). Mean effective radiation dose in protocol B (1.2 [0.4] mSv) was reduced by 14% compared with

  6. Optical pressure sensor based on the combined system of a variable liquid lens and a point diffraction interferometer.

    PubMed

    García, Anmi; Gómez, Manuel; Acosta, Eva

    2012-03-01

    We propose an experimental efficient optical pressure sensor based on a variable liquid lens and a modified point diffraction interferometer. The working principle of the sensor is based on the fact that a variation in pressure induces a change in lens curvature and hence in its focal length, which can be tracked and measured with the interferometer. The pressure is then measured by recording and processing the interferometric images. The sensor in this proposal can change its dynamic range by the simple axial movement of one of the components of the optical system. In this work we show the performance of the system within three working ranges: from 0 to 1 kPa with accuracy of approximately 0.01 kPa, from 0 to 7 kPa with 0.05 kPa accuracy, and from 0 to 30 kPa with 0.3 kPa accuracy. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  7. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Wiley, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  8. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, Todd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; Monroe, Chuck; Pugh, Richard; Willey, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms which make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses 4 stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  9. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  10. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  11. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  12. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  13. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  14. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  15. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  16. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  17. High volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation improve greater trochanter pain syndrome in the short and medium term: a combined retrospective and prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; Price, Jessica; Pritchard, Melanie; Crisp, Tom; Perry, John D.; Morrissey, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the aim of this study was to measure the effects of high volume image-guided injections and structured rehabilitation (HVIGI&SR) for greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS). Methods 31 consecutive subjects were recruited (23 retrospectively; 8 prospectively) over 5 months. GTPS was diagnosed based on history and examination findings, alongside radiological examination. The HVI-GI used a 22-gauge spinal needle to administer 10ml of 0.5% Marcaine and 50 mg hydrocortisone just deep to the periosteum underlying the gluteal tendon insertion under ultrasound guidance, followed by structured rehabilitation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain was used as the main outcome measure. Results the mean VAS improved from 81.7 mm (±17.6) to 42.3 mm (±28.3), (p<0.05) in the prospective subjects at a mean of 6 weeks, considered clinically significant. In the retrospective subjects the mean VAS had improved from 74.6 (±10.9) mm to 38.2(±31.2) mm at two weeks (p<0.01) and 31.3 (±27.6) mm at the final time point, a mean of 60 weeks (p<0.01). The Hip and Groin Outcome Score in the prospective group showed a non-significant increase from 173.2 to 296.1 (p=0.12). Conclusion HVIGI&SR should be considered when short- and medium-term pain-relieving treatment for GTPS is required. Controlled studies are warranted to fully establish effectiveness, and assess long term effects. Level of evidence case series. PMID:26261785

  18. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated for the fi...

  19. Differentiation of leaf and whole-plant samples of di- and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino using flow-injection mass spectrometric(FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric approaches

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the present study, the feasibility and advantages of employing a flow-injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analyses for quality assessment of di- and tetraploid leaf and whole-plant Gynostemma. pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino samples were investigated fo...

  20. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  1. Effect of neural stem cell transplantation combined with erythropoietin injection on axon regeneration in adult rats with transected spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Zuo, Y; Wang, X L; Huo, H J; Jiang, J M; Yan, H B; Xiao, Y L

    2015-12-22

    We investigated the effect of neural stem cells (NSC) and erythropoietin (EPO) on axon regeneration in adult rats with transected spinal cord injury, and provided an experimental basis for clinical treatment. Forty Wistar rats with T10-transected spinal cord injury were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats: a control group (group A), an NSC-transplant group (group B), an NSC-transplant and EPO group (group C), and an EPO group (group D). Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) anterograde corticospinal cord neuronal tracing and Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing were carried out at the 8th week after operation to observe the regeneration of nerve fibers. The Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor score was used to evaluate restoration. 1) BDA and FG immunofluorescence staining: in group C, a large number of regenerated axons were observed and some penetrated the injured area. In group B, only a small number of regenerated axons were observed and none penetrated the injured area. In group D, only sporadic regenerated nerve fibers were observed occasionally, while in group A, no axonal regeneration was observed. In group C, a small number of cones and axons emitted yellow fluorescence, and no FG-labeled cells were observed in the other groups. 2) The BBB scores for group C were higher than those for the other groups, and the differences were statistically significance (P < 0.05). NSC transplantation combined with EPO intraperitoneal injection may benefit axon regeneration in rats with transected spinal cord injury, and accelerate the functional recovery of the hindlimb locomotor.

  2. Proteomic analysis of testis biopsies in men treated with injectable testosterone undecanoate alone or in combination with oral levonorgestrel as potential male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yugui; Zhu, Hui; Zhu, Yefei; Guo, Xuejiang; Huo, Ran; Wang, Xinghai; Tong, Jiansun; Qian, Lixin; Zhou, Zuomin; Jia, Yue; Lue, Yan-He; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Sha, Jiahao

    2008-09-01

    Treatment with injectable testosterone undecanoate (TU) alone or in combination with oral levonorgestrel (LNG) resulted in marked decreases in sperm concentrations. In this study, we used proteomic analyses to examine the cellular/molecular events occurring in the human testis after TU or TU + LNG treatment. We conducted a global proteomic analysis of the human testicular biopsies before and at 2 weeks after TU alone or TU + LNG treatment. Proteins showing significant changes in expression were identified and analyzed. As a result, 17 and 46 protein spots were found with significant differential expression after the treatment with TU alone and TU + LNG, respectively. TU treatment changed the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit (PSMF1), and superoxide dismutase [Mn] mitochondrial precursor (SOD2). These proteins inhibit "assembly", induce cell death, and promote compensatory "cell survival" in the testis. After TU + LNG treatment, "proliferation/cell survival" and "apoptosis/death" were the predominant responses in the testis. TU + LNG treatment inhibited the expression of Prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta subunit (P4HB) and Annexin A2 (Annexin II). These proteins are involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively. TU + LNG treatment also enhanced the expression of SOD2 and Parvalbumin alpha (Pvalb). These two proteins may protect testicular cells against apoptosis/death and promote cell survival. In conclusion, TU and TU + LNG treatments suppress spermatogenesis through different pathways by changing the expression of different proteins. hnRNP K, PSMF1, SOD2, P4HB, Annexin II, and Pvalb, are key proteins that may be early molecular targets responsible for spermatogenesis suppression induced by hormone treatment.

  3. Effect of the male factor on the clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection combined with preimplantation aneuploidy testing: observational longitudinal cohort study of 1,219 consecutive cycles.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Rossella; Cimadomo, Danilo; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Capalbo, Antonio; Dovere, Lisa; Alviggi, Erminia; Dusi, Ludovica; Foresta, Carlo; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Tournaye, Herman; Alviggi, Carlo; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate the impact of the male factor on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles combined with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A). Observational longitudinal cohort study. Private in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. A total of 1,219 oocyte retrievals divided into five study groups according to sperm parameters: normozoospermia (N), moderate male factor (MMF), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT-S), obstructive azoospermia (OA), and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). ICSI with ejaculated/surgically retrieved sperm, blastocyst culture, trophectoderm-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction PGT-A, and frozen-warmed euploid embryo transfer (ET). The primary outcome measures were fertilization, blastocyst development, and euploidy rates; the secondary outcome measures were live birth and miscarriage rates. Perinatal and obstetrical outcomes were monitored as well. A total of 9,042 metaphase II oocytes were inseminated. The fertilization rate was significantly reduced in MMF, OAT-S, OA, and NOA compared with N (74.8%, 68.7%, 67.3%, and 53.1% vs. 77.2%). The blastocyst rate per fertilized oocyte was significantly reduced in MMF and NOA compared with N (48.6% and 40.6% vs. 49.3%). The timing of blastocyst development also was affected in OA and NOA. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders highlighted NOA as a negative predictor of obtaining an euploid blastocyst per OPU (odds ratio 0.5). When the analysis was performed per obtained blastocyst, however, no correlation between male factor and euploidy rate was observed. Embryo transfers also resulted in similar live birth and miscarriage rates. No impact of sperm factor on obstetrical/perinatal outcomes was observed. Severe male factor impairs early embryonic competence in terms of fertilization rate and developmental potential. However, the euploidy rate and implantation potential of the obtained blastocysts are independent from sperm quality

  4. Cloud point extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for speciation of Cr(III) in human serum samples.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Wu, Qianghua

    2012-02-23

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the preconcentration of ultra-trace chromium speciation in human serum samples prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) had been developed in this paper. In this method, Cr(III) reacts with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) yielding a hydrophobic complex, which is then entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase, whereas Cr(VI) remained in aqueous phase. Thus, separation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) could be realized. Total chromium was determined after the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by using ascorbic acid as reducing reagent. PAN was used not only as chelating reagent in CPE, but also as chemical modifier in GFAAS. Triton X-114 non-ionic surfactant had been used as an extraction medium. The main factors affecting CPE efficiency, such as pH of solution, concentration and kind of complexing agent, concentration of non-ionic surfactant, equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An enrichment factor of 83.5 was obtained for the preconcentration of Cr(III) with 10 mL solution. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of Cr(III) was 0.02 μg L⁻¹. The relative standard deviation was 2.6% for intra-day assay precision (n=7, c=10 ng mL⁻¹), values of recovery for chromium were from 92.0% to 94.7% for three samples. This method is simple, accurate, and sensitive and can be applied to determine ultra-trace chromium speciation in human serum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SU-E-T-539: Fixed Versus Variable Optimization Points in Combined-Mode Modulated Arc Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kainz, K; Prah, D; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel modulated arc therapy technique, mARC, enables superposition of step-and-shoot IMRT segments upon a subset of the optimization points (OPs) of a continuous-arc delivery. We compare two approaches to mARC planning: one with the number of OPs fixed throughout optimization, and another where the planning system determines the number of OPs in the final plan, subject to an upper limit defined at the outset. Methods: Fixed-OP mARC planning was performed for representative cases using Panther v. 5.01 (Prowess, Inc.), while variable-OP mARC planning used Monaco v. 5.00 (Elekta, Inc.). All Monaco planning used an upper limit of 91 OPs; those OPs with minimal MU were removed during optimization. Plans were delivered, and delivery times recorded, on a Siemens Artiste accelerator using a flat 6MV beam with 300 MU/min rate. Dose distributions measured using ArcCheck (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Inc.) were compared with the plan calculation; the two were deemed consistent if they agreed to within 3.5% in absolute dose and 3.5 mm in distance-to-agreement among > 95% of the diodes within the direct beam. Results: Example cases included a prostate and a head-and-neck planned with a single arc and fraction doses of 1.8 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Aside from slightly more uniform target dose for the variable-OP plans, the DVHs for the two techniques were similar. For the fixed-OP technique, the number of OPs was 38 and 39, and the delivery time was 228 and 259 seconds, respectively, for the prostate and head-and-neck cases. For the final variable-OP plans, there were 91 and 85 OPs, and the delivery time was 296 and 440 seconds, correspondingly longer than for fixed-OP. Conclusion: For mARC, both the fixed-OP and variable-OP approaches produced comparable-quality plans whose delivery was successfully verified. To keep delivery time per fraction short, a fixed-OP planning approach is preferred.

  6. Combined influence of epoch length, cut-point and bout duration on accelerometry-derived physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is difficult to compare accelerometer-derived estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between studies due to differences in data processing procedures. We aimed to evaluate the effects of accelerometer processing options on total and bout-accumulated time spent in MVPA in adults. Methods 267 participants from the ProActive Trial provided 1236 days of valid physical activity (PA) data, collected using a 5-s epoch with ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers. We integrated data over 5-s to 60-s epoch lengths (EL) and applied two-level mixed effects regression models to MVPA time, defined using 1500 to 2500 counts/minute (cpm) cut-points (CP) and bout durations (BD) from 1 to 15 min. Results Total MVPA time was lower on longer EL and higher CP (47 vs 26 min/day and 26 vs 5 min/day on 1500 vs 2500 cpm on 5-s and 60-s epoch, respectively); this could be approximated as MVPA = exp[2.197 + 0.279*log(CP) + 6.120*log(EL) - 0.869*log(CP)*log(EL)] with an 800 min/day wear-time. In contrast, EL was positively associated with time spent in bout-accumulated MVPA; the approximating equation being MVPA = exp[54.679 - 6.268*log(CP) + 6.387*log(EL) - 10.000*log(BD) - 0.162*log(EL)*log(BD) - 0.626*log(CP)*log(EL) + 1.033*log(CP)*log(BD)]. BD and CP were inversely associated with MVPA, with higher values attenuating the influence of EL. Conclusions EL, CP and BD interact to influence estimates of accelerometer-determined MVPA. In general, higher CP and longer BD result in lower MVPA but the direction of association for EL depends on BD. Reporting scaling coefficients for these key parameters across their frequently used ranges would facilitate comparisons of population-level accelerometry estimates of MVPA. PMID:24612726

  7. Long lasting benefits following the combination of static night upper extremity splinting with botulinum toxin A injections in cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Kanellopoulos, A D; Mavrogenis, A F; Mitsiokapa, E A; Panagopoulos, D; Skouteli, H; Vrettos, S G; Tzanos, G; Papagelopoulos, P J

    2009-12-01

    Botulinum toxin A injections and orthotics have been used to manage upper extremity spasticity in hemiplegic children. The authors performed a study to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of a static night splint following outpatient botulinum toxin A treatment in children with upper limb spastic cerebral palsy. Twenty children with upper limb spastic cerebral palsy were treated with botulinum toxin A injections. A static night splint was applied in half of them. Objective assessment of upper limb function was performed at baseline, at 2 and 6 months after botulinum toxin A injection using the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test. After botulinum toxin A treatment, both groups showed an improvement on their previous functional level of the injected upper extremity. At 2 months, children in group A showed a 15.4% improvement, whereas children in group B improved by 12.2% from baseline; these were not statistically significant (P=0.326). At 6 months, group A still maintained a 15.9% improvement in function compared to group B which differed only by 4.2% from prebotulinum toxin A baseline; these differences were statistically significant (P=0.000). Complications related to the botulinum toxin A injection were not observed. The static Static night splinting following botulinum toxin A injections has shown a definite treatment effect in reducing spasticity and improving function in children with upper limb spastic cerebral palsy.

  8. Combination of a modified block PCR and endonuclease IV-based signal amplification system for ultra-sensitive detection of low-abundance point mutations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xianjin; Xu, Anqin; Zhai, Junqiu; Zhao, Meiping

    2013-12-15

    By combination of a modified block PCR and endonuclease IV-based signal amplification system, we have developed a novel approach for ultra-sensitive detection of point mutations. The method can effectively identify mutant target sequence immersed in a large background of wild-type sequences with abundance down to 0.03% (for C→A) and 0.005% (for C→G). This sensitivity is among the highest in comparison with other existing approaches and the operating procedures are simple and time saving. The method holds great potential for future application in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research.

  9. Study of thermal behavior of vitamin D3 by pyrolysis-GC-MS in combination with boiling point-retention time correlation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu'an; Liu, Baoxia; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Rongjie; Xie, Bing

    2005-01-01

    The thermal behavior of vitamin D3 was studied based on pyrolysis-GC-MS technique. It was pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C, 750 degrees C, 900 degrees C, respectively. The pyrolysis product were separated With an HP-5 column and identified by the NIST mass spectral search program in combination with the correlation of boiling point and retention time (BP-RT). There are totally 50 components, including mono aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were determined. It is shown that the contents of the PAHs are increasing with the increasing of the pyrolysis temperature. The contents of the determined components vary from 0.04% to 37.08%.

  10. The accuracy of computer-assisted pedicle screw placement in degenerative lumbrosacral spine using single-time, paired point registration alone technique combined with the surgeon's experience.

    PubMed

    Iampreechakul, Prasert; Chongchokdee, Chana; Tirakotai, Wuttipong

    2011-03-01

    Evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted pedicle screw placement in patients with degenerative lumbrosacral spine using single-time, paired point registration alone technique in combination with the surgeon's experience. A computer-assisted pedicle screw insertion in lumbrosacral spine were performed in 62 consecutive patients (363 screws) using single-time, paired point registration without surface matching. After finding the entry point and trajectory of the pedicle under image guidance, the surgeon then inserted pedicle screws by his experience. Postoperative DynaCT scans were obtained and interpreted by two neuroradiologists. The Kappa statistic was used to measure the degree of interobserver agreement. The screw position was graded as follows: Grade A = entirely within the pedicle; B = medial or lateral pedicle wall breach less than 2 mm; C = medial or lateral pedicle wall breach equal to 2-4 mm; D = medial or lateral wall breach more than 4 mm. Clinical outcomes including a numeric pain score, neurologic symptoms, and complications were reviewed from all charts of patients. Additionally, the registration error, registration time, screwing time, and estimated blood loss were analyzed. A total of the 363 pedicle screws, the first neuroradiologist interpreted grade A in 95.6%, grade B in 4.1% and grade C in 0.3%, while the second neuroradiologist interpreted grade A in 95.3%, grade B in 3.6%, and grade C in 1.1%. There was no incidence of grade D in this present study. No neurologic or vascular injuries occurred from pedicle screw placement. The mean registration error was 1.54 +/- 1.28 (range, 0.9-2.5) mm with the mean time required for the registration process for each patient was 3.64 +/- 1.92 (range, 2-8) minutes. The mean screwing time for each patient was 20.29 +/- 9.44 (range, 13-40) minutes. The mean pain score improved from 6.45 +/- 1.74 points preoperatively to 3.04 +/- 0.82 points postoperatively. In the radiculopathy group, motor power gradually

  11. Combined Therapy With Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Ciprofloxacin Against Acute Urogenital Organ Damage in Rat Sepsis Syndrome Induced by Intrapelvic Injection of Cecal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Chang, Meng-Wei; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chai, Han-Tan; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that combined treatment with autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) and ciprofloxacin is superior to ciprofloxacin only in reducing sepsis-induced urogenital organ damage and mortality in rat sepsis syndrome (SS) caused by intrapelvic injection of cecal bacteria (1.0 × 104 cells per milliliter; total, 5.0 ml). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (SS), group 3 (SS-ADMSC [5.0 × 105 intravenously at 0.5, 6, and 18 hours after sepsis induction]), group 4 (SS-ciprofloxacin [3.0 mg/kg, b.i.d.] for 5 days), and group 5 (SS-ADMSC-ciprofloxacin) were sacrificed by day 5. Mortality rate and creatinine level were highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1 and significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 than those in group 5, but there was no difference between groups 3 and 4 (all p < .005). The kidney injury score, inflammatory biomarker expressions at protein (tumor necrosis factor-1α, nuclear factor-κB, matrix metallopeptidase-9, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, interleukin-1β) and cellular (CD14+, migratory inhibitor factor positive, CD68+) levels in kidneys and urinary bladder were lowest in group 1 and highest in group 2, higher in group 4 than in groups 3 and 5, and higher in group 3 than in group 5 (all p < .001). Protein expressions of apoptosis (Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p21 protein [Cdc42/Rac]-activated kinase 2) and oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1, NOX-2) in these organs showed an identical pattern compared with that of inflammation in all groups (all p < .001). In conclusion, ADMSC-assisted ciprofloxacin therapy offered an additional benefit by reducing acute urogenital organ damage in rat. Significance Autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-assisted ciprofloxacin therapy offered an additional benefit by reducing acute urogenital organ damage in rats. PMID:27075767

  12. Combined Therapy With Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Ciprofloxacin Against Acute Urogenital Organ Damage in Rat Sepsis Syndrome Induced by Intrapelvic Injection of Cecal Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Chang, Meng-Wei; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chai, Han-Tan; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that combined treatment with autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) and ciprofloxacin is superior to ciprofloxacin only in reducing sepsis-induced urogenital organ damage and mortality in rat sepsis syndrome (SS) caused by intrapelvic injection of cecal bacteria (1.0 × 10(4) cells per milliliter; total, 5.0 ml). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (SS), group 3 (SS-ADMSC [5.0 × 10(5) intravenously at 0.5, 6, and 18 hours after sepsis induction]), group 4 (SS-ciprofloxacin [3.0 mg/kg, b.i.d.] for 5 days), and group 5 (SS-ADMSC-ciprofloxacin) were sacrificed by day 5. Mortality rate and creatinine level were highest in group 2 and lowest in group 1 and significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 than those in group 5, but there was no difference between groups 3 and 4 (all p < .005). The kidney injury score, inflammatory biomarker expressions at protein (tumor necrosis factor-1α, nuclear factor-κB, matrix metallopeptidase-9, regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted, interleukin-1β) and cellular (CD14+, migratory inhibitor factor positive, CD68+) levels in kidneys and urinary bladder were lowest in group 1 and highest in group 2, higher in group 4 than in groups 3 and 5, and higher in group 3 than in group 5 (all p < .001). Protein expressions of apoptosis (Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p21 protein [Cdc42/Rac]-activated kinase 2) and oxidative stress (oxidized protein, NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1, NOX-2) in these organs showed an identical pattern compared with that of inflammation in all groups (all p < .001). In conclusion, ADMSC-assisted ciprofloxacin therapy offered an additional benefit by reducing acute urogenital organ damage in rat. Autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell-assisted ciprofloxacin therapy offered an additional benefit by reducing acute urogenital organ damage in rats. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. Multijunction Capillary Isoelectric Focusing Device Combined with Online Membrane-Assisted Buffer Exchanger Enables Isoelectric Point Fractionation of Intact Human Plasma Proteins for Biomarker Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad; Astorga-Wells, Juan; Zubarev, Roman A

    2015-12-01

    Prefractionation of proteins is often employed to improve analysis specificity in proteomics. Prefractionation based on the isoelectric point (pI) is particularly attractive because pI is a well-defined parameter and it is orthogonal to hydrophobicity on which reversed-phase chromatography is based. However, direct capillary electrophoresis of blood proteins is challenging due to its high content of salts and charged small molecules. Here, we couple an online desalinator device to our multijunction capillary isoelectric focusing (MJ-CIEF) instrument and perform direct isoelectric separation of human blood plasma. In a proof-of-principle experiment, pooled samples of patients with progressive mild cognitive impairment and corresponding healthy controls were investigated. Injection of 3 μL of plasma containing over 100 μg of proteins into the desalinator was followed by pI fractionation with MJ-CIEF in less than 1 h. Shotgun proteomics of 12 collected fractions from each of the 5 replicates of pooled samples resulted in the identification and accurate quantification (median CV between the replicates is <4%) of nearly 365 protein groups from 4030 unique peptides (with <1% FDR for both peptides and proteins). The obtained results include several proteins previously reported as AD markers. The isoelectric point of each quantified protein was calculated using a set of 7 synthetic peptides spiked into the samples. Several proteins with a significant pI shift between their isoforms in the patient and control samples were identified. The presented method is straightforward, robust, and scalable; therefore, it can be used in both biological and clinical applications.

  14. A combination of experimental and finite element analyses of needle-tissue interaction to compute the stresses and deformations during injection at different angles.

    PubMed

    Halabian, Mahdi; Beigzadeh, Borhan; Karimi, Alireza; Shirazi, Hadi Asgharzadeh; Shaali, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-12-01

    One of the main clinical applications of the needles is its practical usage in the femoral vein catheterization. Annually more than two million peoples in the United States are exposed to femoral vein catheterization. How to use the input needles into the femoral vein has a key role in the sense of pain in post-injection and possible injuries, such as tissue damage and bleeding. It has been shown that there might be a correlation between the stresses and deformations due to femoral injection to the tissue and the sense of pain and, consequently, injuries caused by needles. In this study, the stresses and deformations induced by the needle to the femoral tissue were experimentally and numerically investigated in response to an input needle at four different angles, i.e., 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°, via finite element method. In addition, a set of experimental injections at different angles were carried out to compare the numerical results with that of the experimental ones, namely pain score. The results revealed that by increasing the angle of injection up to 60°, the strain at the interaction site of the needle-tissue is increased accordingly while a significant falling is observed at the angle of 90°. In contrast, the stress due to injection was decreased at the region of needle-tissue interaction with showing the lowest one at the angle of 90°. Experimental results were also well confirmed the numerical observations since the lowest pain score was seen at the angle of 90°. The results suggest that the most effective angle of injection would be 90° due to a lower amount of stresses and deformations compared to the other angles of injection. These findings may have implications not only for understating the stresses and deformations induced during injection around the needle-tissue interaction, but also to give an outlook to the doctors to implement the most suitable angle of injection in order to reduce the pain as well as post injury of the patients.

  15. Combination of anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, retrograde fluorescent tracing and fixed-slice intracellular injection of lucifer yellow.

    PubMed

    Wouterlood, F G; Jorritsma-Byham, B; Goede, P H

    1990-08-01

    A method is described for visualizing, in one histological section, three successive components of a putative neuronal network in the central nervous system: (i) fibres from neurones in an area A that innervate (ii) dendrites of morphologically identified neurones in an area B projecting (iii) to a specific target area C. The tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) is injected in area A in order to anterogradely label fibres and terminal varicosities in area B. In the same surgical session, the fluorescent tracer Fast blue is injected in area C to retrogradely label neuronal perikarya in area B. After the fixation of the brain and the preparation of 200-microns thick slices, cell bodies in area B containing retrogradely transported fluorescent label are intracellularly injected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow. This reveals the full morphology of these cells. Hereafter, the slices are resectioned at 30 microns and subjected to dual immunocytochemistry with different chromogens in order to visualize the transported PHA-L (chromogen nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine, blue-black reaction product) and to stabilize the Lucifer yellow (chromogen diaminobenzidine, brown reaction product). As a result, the PHA-L labelled fibres are stained blue-black, whereas the perikarya, dendritic trees and part of the axonal configurations of the retrogradely labelled, Lucifer yellow injected cells are stained brown. The relationships between the PHA-L labelled afferent fibres and the dendrites of the intracellularly Lucifer yellow-injected, retrogradely Fast blue-labelled cells can now be studied in detail.

  16. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Topical Benzocaine Gel Combined with Hyaluronidase for Supplemental Intrapulpal Injection in Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis- A Double Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sooraparaju, Sujatha Gopal; Abarajithan, M.; Sathish, Emmanuel Solomon; Suryakumari, Nujella Bhaskara Padma; Gade, Winner

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrapulpal injection technique is one of the most commonly employed method to achieve profound pulpal anaesthesia during an endodontic procedure. To determine if the topical application of benzocaine gel along with hyaluronidase to the pulp chamber could reduce the pain felt with the intrapulpal injection technique. Materials and Methods Two hundred patients with chronic irreversible pulpitis undergoing endodontic treatment for mandibular first molars in which the primary anaesthetic technique failed were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the control group intrapulpal injection was administered with backpressure. In the experimental group topical application of 20% benzocaine gel mixed with hyaluronidase was done over the exposed pulp following which intrapulpal injection was administered with backpressure. Pain assessment was done on a visual analogue scale. Results There was statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between the two groups. The mean value in the control group corresponded to the pain perception "strong”, whereas that of the experimental group corresponded to the pain perception "weak”. Conclusion Topical application of 20% benzocaine gel mixed with hyaluronidase to the exposed pulp reduces the pain encountered with the intrapulpal injection. PMID:26436058

  17. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  18. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  19. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  20. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  1. Correlation between Changes in Seismicity Rates and Well Injection Volumes in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Walsh, R.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a statistical approach to establish correlations between locations with seismicity increase in Oklahoma and nearby well injection volumes. Seismicity rates in the state have significantly increased since approximately 2008. Fluid injection into deep wells has been theorized to be the cause of this seismicity, but the increase occurred significantly after the start of injection activities in the region. Further, injection-induced earthquakes depend on the presence and orientation of basement faults and the stress state in the region. Because of these complexities, it has been difficult to directly correlate fluid injection with seismicity. Here we show that a statistical correlation between increase in seismicity and injection volumes can be established in Oklahoma. We first employ a change point method to locate the regions where a change in seismicity rates has occurred. We then use a logistic regression model to relate the injection volumes in a region with the presence or absence of seismicity change in the region. This model is further used to evaluate the relative contribution of cumulative injection volumes and monthly injection rates to seismicity. The model can be used to identify "seismically sensitive regions" where seismicity increase has been observed with little fluid injection, and "seismically stable regions" where seismicity changes have not been observed even with high fluid injection. This information can be combined with geological information in a region, and used to make decisions about acceptable volumes for injection and to identify lower-risk regions for injection.

  2. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  3. Synergistic enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination nickel in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chujie; Xu, Xili; Zhou, Neng; Lin, Yao

    2012-08-01

    A new method based on enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction trace amounts of nickel combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination was developed. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) were used enhancement reagent and chelating reagent, respectively. The addition of room temperature ionic liquids leads to 3.0 times improvement in the determination of nickel. The nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was used as the extractant. When the temperature of the system was higher than the cloud point of Triton X-100, Ni-DTC complex was extracted into Triton X-100 and separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Some parameters that influenced cloud point extraction and subsequent determination were evaluated in detail, such as the concentrations of RTILs, DDTC and Triton X-100; pH of sample solution, as well as interferences. Under optimized conditions, an enrichment factor of 72 could be obtained, and the detection limit (LOD) for Ni was 0.5ng mL(-1). Relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the standard solution containing 50ng mL(-1) Ni was 3.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of nickel in certified reference materials with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Parametric effect on the mixing of the combination of a hydrogen porthole with an air porthole in transverse gaseous injection flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lang-quan; Huang, Wei; Yan, Li; Li, Shi-bin

    2017-10-01

    The dual transverse injection system with a front hydrogen porthole and a rear air porthole arranged in tandem is proposed, and this is a realistic approach for mixing enhancement and penetration improvement of transverse injection in a scramjet combustor. The influence of this dual transverse injection system on mixing characteristics has been evaluated numerically based on grid independency analysis and code validation. The numerical approach employed in the current study has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature, and the predicted wall static pressure distributions show reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the cases with different jet-to-crossflow pressure ratios. The obtained results predicted by the three-dimensional Reynolds-average Navier - Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the two equation k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model show that the air pothole has an great impact on penetration depth and mixing efficiency, and the effect of air jet on flow field varies with different values of the aspect ratio. The air porthole with larger aspect ratio can increase the fuel penetration depth. However, when the aspect ratio is relatively small, the fuel penetration depth decreases, and even smaller than that of the single injection system. At the same time, the air pothole has a highly remarkable improvement on mixing efficiency, especially in the near field. The smaller the aspect ratio of the air porthole is, the higher the mixing efficiency in the near field is. This is due to its larger circulation in the near field. The dual injection system owns more losses of stagnation pressure than the single injection system.

  5. Botulinum toxin type a injections to salivary glands: combination with single event multilevel chemoneurolysis in 2 children with severe spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heakyung; Lee, Yung; Weiner, Daniel; Kaye, Robin; Cahill, Anne Marie; Yudkoff, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We describe 2 children with severe spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP) who have significant drooling and frequent aspiration pneumonia. They underwent simultaneous botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections to salivary glands for drooling and prevention of aspiration pneumonia along with single-event multilevel chemoneurolysis (SEMLC) with BTX-A and 5% phenol for severe diffuse spasticity. There was significant improvement in drooling, frequency of aspiration pneumonia, and spasticity without adverse effect. BTX-A injections into the salivary glands, in addition to SEMLC, for these 2 children with medically complicated severe spastic quadriplegic CP, were safe and highly successful procedures, which improved their health-related quality of life.

  6. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  7. Vaginal dose point reporting in cervical cancer patients treated with combined 2D/3D external beam radiotherapy and 2D/3D brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Henrike; Pötter, Richard; Berger, Daniel; Dankulchai, Pittaya; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sora, Mircea-Constantin; Pötter-Lang, Sarah; Kirisits, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, vaginal dose points have been defined at the vaginal source level, thus not providing dose information for the entire vagina. Since reliable vaginal dose volume/surface histograms are unavailable, a strategy for comprehensive vaginal dose reporting for combined EBRT and BT was established and investigated. An anatomical vaginal reference point was defined at the level of the Posterior-Inferior Border of Symphysis (PIBS), plus two points ±2 cm (mid/introitus vagina). For BT extra points were selected for the upper vagina at 12/3/6/9 o'clock, at the vaginal surface and 5 mm depth. A vaginal reference length (VRL) was defined from ring centre to PIBS. Fifty-nine patients treated for cervical cancer were included in this retrospective feasibility study. The method was applicable to all patients. Total EQD2 doses at PIBS and ±2 cm were 36.7 Gy (3.1-68.2), 49.6 Gy (32.1-89.6) and 4.3 Gy (1.0-46.6). At the vaginal surface at ring level doses were respectively 266.1 Gy (67.6-814.5)/225.9 Gy (61.5-610.5) at 3/9 o'clock, and 85.1 Gy (55.4-140.3)/72.0 Gy (49.1-108.9) at 12/6 o'clock. Mean VRL on MRI was 5.6 cm (2.0-9.4). With this novel system, a comprehensive reporting of vaginal doses is feasible. The present study has demonstrated large dose variations between patients observed in all parts of the vagina, resulting from different contributions from EBRT and BT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining structure-from-motion derived point clouds from satellites and unmanned aircraft systems images with ground-truth data to create high-resolution digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaseanu, M.; Thatcher, C.; Danielson, J.; Gesch, D. B.; Poppenga, S.; Kottermair, M.; Jalandoni, A.; Carlson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal topographic and bathymetric (topobathymetric) data with high spatial resolution (1-meter or better) and high vertical accuracy are needed to assess the vulnerability of Pacific Islands to climate change impacts, including sea level rise. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports, low-lying atolls in the Pacific Ocean are extremely vulnerable to king tide events, storm surge, tsunamis, and sea-level rise. The lack of coastal topobathymetric data has been identified as a critical data gap for climate vulnerability and adaptation efforts in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). For Majuro Atoll, home to the largest city of RMI, the only elevation dataset currently available is the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data which has a 30-meter spatial resolution and 16-meter vertical accuracy (expressed as linear error at 90%). To generate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in the RMI, elevation information and photographic imagery have been collected from field surveys using GNSS/total station and unmanned aerial vehicles for Structure-from-Motion (SfM) point cloud generation. Digital Globe WorldView II imagery was processed to create SfM point clouds to fill in gaps in the point cloud derived from the higher resolution UAS photos. The combined point cloud data is filtered and classified to bare-earth and georeferenced using the GNSS data acquired on roads and along survey transects perpendicular to the coast. A total station was used to collect elevation data under tree canopies where heavy vegetation cover blocked the view of GNSS satellites. A subset of the GPS / total station data was set aside for error assessment of the resulting DEM.

  9. Evaluation of a High Concentrated Contrast Media Injection Protocol in Combination with Low Tube Current for Dose Reduction in Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: A Randomized, Two-center Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yibo; Hua, Yanqing; Wang, Mingpeng; Mao, Dingbiao; Jin, Xiu; Li, Cheng; Shi, Kailei; Xu, Jianrong

    2017-08-08

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate the radiation dose reduction potential and image quality (IQ) of a high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) injection protocol in combination with a low tube current (mAs) in coronary computed tomography angiography. Eighty-one consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years; 34 females; body mass index: 18-31) were included and randomized-assigned into two groups. All computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in two groups with the same tube voltage (100 kV), flow rate of contrast medium (5.0 mL/s), and iodine dose (22.8 g). An automatic mAs and low concentration contrast medium (300 mgI/mL) were used in group A, whereas effective mAs was reduced by a factor 0.6 along with HCCM (400 mgI/mL) in group B. Radiation dose was assessed (CT dose index [CTDIvol] and dose length product), and vessel-based objective IQ for various regions of interest (enhancement, noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio), subjective IQ, noise, and motion artifacts were analyzed overall and vessel-based with a 5-point Likert scale. The CT attenuation of coronary arteries and image noise in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (ranges: 507.5-548.1 Hounsfield units vs 407.5-444.5 Hounsfield units; and 20.3 ± 8.6 vs 17.7 ± 8.0) (P ≤ 0.0166). There was no significant difference between the two groups in signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and subjective IQ of coronary arteries (29.4-31.7, 30.0-37.0, and medium score of 5 in group A vs 29.4-32.4, 27.7-36.3, and medium score of 5 in group B, respectively, P ≥ 0.1859). Both mean CTDIvol and dose length product in group B were 58% of those of group A. HCCM combined with low tube current allows dose reduction in coronary computed tomography angiography and does not compromise IQ. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New perspectives on substorm injections

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.

  11. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  12. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  13. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...